Testing gravity-induced collapse models with torsion pendulums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helou, Bassam; Wipf, Christopher; Chen, Yanbei
2016-03-01
Wavefunction collapse models have been proposed to resolve the measurement problem in QM. Some, , such as Diosi-Penrose model, are motivated by gravity. We first present the theory of such models, highlighting new results, such as fixing the only free paramater in the model. We then propose torsion pendulums as a promising optomechanical platform to test such models.
Cosmological constraints on induced gravity dark energy models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballardini, M.; Finelli, F.; Umiltà, C.; Paoletti, D.
2016-05-01
We study induced gravity dark energy models coupled with a simple monomial potential propto σn and a positive exponent n. These simple potentials lead to viable dark energy models with a weak dependence on the exponent, which characterizes the accelerated expansion in the asymptotic attractor, when ordinary matter becomes negligible. We use recent cosmological data to constrain the coupling γ to the Ricci curvature, under the assumptions that the scalar field starts at rest deep in the radiation era and that the gravitational constant in the Einstein equations is compatible with the one measured in a Cavendish-like experiment. By using Planck 2015 data only, we obtain the 95 % CL bound γ < 0.0017 for n=4, which is further tightened to γ < 0.00075 by adding Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) data. This latter bound improves by ~ 30 % the limit obtained with the Planck 2013 data and the same compilation of BAO data. We discuss the dependence of the γ and ˙ GN/GN (z=0) on n.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fichtl, G. H.; Holland, R. L.
1978-01-01
A stochastic model of spacecraft motion was developed based on the assumption that the net torque vector due to crew activity and rocket thruster firings is a statistically stationary Gaussian vector process. The process had zero ensemble mean value, and the components of the torque vector were mutually stochastically independent. The linearized rigid-body equations of motion were used to derive the autospectral density functions of the components of the spacecraft rotation vector. The cross-spectral density functions of the components of the rotation vector vanish for all frequencies so that the components of rotation were mutually stochastically independent. The autospectral and cross-spectral density functions of the induced gravity environment imparted to scientific apparatus rigidly attached to the spacecraft were calculated from the rotation rate spectral density functions via linearized inertial frame to body-fixed principal axis frame transformation formulae. The induced gravity process was a Gaussian one with zero mean value. Transformation formulae were used to rotate the principal axis body-fixed frame to which the rotation rate and induced gravity vector were referred to a body-fixed frame in which the components of the induced gravity vector were stochastically independent. Rice's theory of exceedances was used to calculate expected exceedance rates of the components of the rotation and induced gravity vector processes.
Cosmology of a holographic induced gravity model with curvature effects
Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Errahmani, Ahmed; Ouali, Taoufiq
2011-10-15
We present a holographic model of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati scenario with a Gauss-Bonnet term in the bulk. We concentrate on the solution that generalizes the normal Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati branch. It is well known that this branch cannot describe the late-time acceleration of the universe even with the inclusion of a Gauss-Bonnet term. Here, we show that this branch in the presence of a Gauss-Bonnet curvature effect and a holographic dark energy with the Hubble scale as the infrared cutoff can describe the late-time acceleration of the universe. It is worthwhile to stress that such an energy density component cannot do the same job on the normal Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati branch (without Gauss-Bonnet modifications) nor in a standard four-dimensional relativistic model. The acceleration on the brane is also presented as being induced through an effective dark energy which corresponds to a balance between the holographic one and geometrical effects encoded through the Hubble parameter.
Modeling of jet-induced geyser formation in a reduced gravity environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wendl, M. C.; Hochstein, J. I.; Sasmal, G. P.
1991-01-01
Flow patterns predicted by a computational model of jet-induced geyser formation in a reduced gravity environment are presented and comparison is made to patterns predicted by experimentally based correlations. The configuration studied is an idealization of a forthcoming flight experiment to examine cryogenic propellant management issues. A transitional version of the ECLIPSE code used as a computational tool for the analyses is described. It is shown that computationally predicted flow patterns are in qualitative agreement with the correlation-based predictions, and some details of the predicted flow fields are given.
Induced gravity from curvature density preserving diffeomorphisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oda, Ichiro
2016-08-01
We construct not only an induced gravity model with restricted diffeomorphisms, that is, transverse diffeomorphisms that preserve the curvature density, but also with full diffeomorphisms. By solving the equations of motion, it turns out that these models produce Einstein's equations with a certain Newton constant in addition to the constraint for the curvature density. In the limit of the infinite Newton constant, the models give rise to induced gravity. Moreover, we discuss cosmological solutions on the basis of the gravitational models at hand.
Induced gravity II: grand unification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Einhorn, Martin B.; Jones, D. R. Timothy
2016-05-01
As an illustration of a renormalizable, asymptotically-free model of induced gravity, we consider an SO(10) gauge theory interacting with a real scalar multiplet in the adjoint representation. We show that dimensional transmutation can occur, spontaneously breaking SO(10) to SU(5)⊗U(1), while inducing the Planck mass and a positive cosmological constant, all proportional to the same scale v. All mass ratios are functions of the values of coupling constants at that scale. Below this scale (at which the Big Bang may occur), the model takes the usual form of Einstein-Hilbert gravity in de Sitter space plus calculable corrections. We show that there exist regions of parameter space in which the breaking results in a local minimum of the effective action giving a positive dilaton (mass)2 from two-loop corrections associated with the conformal anomaly. Furthermore, unlike the singlet case we considered previously, some minima lie within the basin of attraction of the ultraviolet fixed point. Moreover, the asymptotic behavior of the coupling constants also lie within the range of convergence of the Euclidean path integral, so there is hope that there will be candidates for sensible vacua. Although open questions remain concerning unitarity of all such renormalizable models of gravity, it is not obvious that, in curved backgrounds such as those considered here, unitarity is violated. In any case, any violation that may remain will be suppressed by inverse powers of the reduced Planck mass.
PV-induced forcing of gravity waves in a shallow water model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ward, Marshall
2008-10-01
The influence of a geostrophically balanced or potential vorticity (PV) background flow on gravity wave propagation is examined using a rotating shallow water model. The system is analyzed in the context of a perturbative expansion that focuses on the dynamics of the resonances within the nonlinear terms of the system. The nonlinearity is reconstructed as a wave-wave interaction forcing on an otherwise undisturbed linear wavefield. The principal conclusion is that while the PV flow is generally undisturbed by the gravity wavefield, the gravity wavefield is forced by the geostrophic flow over moderate timescales. We numerically test these results for the interaction between a single geostrophic mode and a gravity wave, followed by propagation of a single gravity mode through a turbulent PV background. We find that the gravity mode energy is scattered into other modes of similar wavelength but different directions of propagation. The rate of dispersion is in agreement with resonant triad theory, where the rate depends primarily on the initial gravity wavenumber and background PV strength. These results are expected to have relevance to the propagation of coherent internal tides in the open ocean.
Vacuum solutions of a gravity model with vector-induced spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking
Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.
2005-08-15
We study the vacuum solutions of a gravity model where Lorentz symmetry is spontaneously broken once a vector field acquires a vacuum expectation value. Results are presented for the purely radial Lorentz symmetry breaking (LSB), radial/temporal LSB and axial/temporal LSB. The purely radial LSB result corresponds to new black hole solutions. When possible, parametrized post-Newtonian parameters are computed and observational boundaries used to constrain the Lorentz symmetry breaking scale.
Nicole Lautze
2015-12-15
Gravity model for the state of Hawaii. Data is from the following source: Flinders, A.F., Ito, G., Garcia, M.O., Sinton, J.M., Kauahikaua, J.P., and Taylor, B., 2013, Intrusive dike complexes, cumulate cores, and the extrusive growth of Hawaiian volcanoes: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 40, p. 3367–3373, doi:10.1002/grl.50633.
Feeling Gravity's Pull: Gravity Modeling. The Gravity Field of Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, Frank; Smith, David; Rowlands, David; Zuber, Maria; Neumann, G.; Chinn, Douglas; Pavlis, D.
2000-01-01
atmosphere of the Earth. Supercomputers can calculate the effect of gravity for specific locations in space following a mathematical process known as spherical harmonics, which quantifies the gravity field of a planetary body. The process is based on Laplace's fundamental differential equation of gravity. The accuracy of a spherical harmonic solution is rated by its degree and order. Minute variations in gravity are measured against the geoid, a surface of constant gravity acceleration at mean sea level. The geoid reference gravity model strength includes the central body gravitational attraction (9.8 m/sq s) and a geopotential variation in latitude partially caused by the rotation of the Earth. The rotational effect modifies the shape of the geoid to be more like an ellipsoid, rather than a perfect, circle. Variations of gravity strength from the ellipsoidal reference model are measured in units called milli-Galileos (mGals). One mGal equals 10(exp -5) m/sq s. Research projects have also measured the gravity fields of other planetary bodies, as noted in the user profile that follows. From this information, we may make inferences about our own planet's internal structure and evolution. Moreover, mapping the gravity fields of other planets can help scientists plot the most fuel-efficient course for spacecraft expeditions to those planets.
Model selection for modified gravity.
Kitching, T D; Simpson, F; Heavens, A F; Taylor, A N
2011-12-28
In this article, we review model selection predictions for modified gravity scenarios as an explanation for the observed acceleration of the expansion history of the Universe. We present analytical procedures for calculating expected Bayesian evidence values in two cases: (i) that modified gravity is a simple parametrized extension of general relativity (GR; two nested models), such that a Bayes' factor can be calculated, and (ii) that we have a class of non-nested models where a rank-ordering of evidence values is required. We show that, in the case of a minimal modified gravity parametrization, we can expect large area photometric and spectroscopic surveys, using three-dimensional cosmic shear and baryonic acoustic oscillations, to 'decisively' distinguish modified gravity models over GR (or vice versa), with odds of ≫1:100. It is apparent that the potential discovery space for modified gravity models is large, even in a simple extension to gravity models, where Newton's constant G is allowed to vary as a function of time and length scale. On the time and length scales where dark energy dominates, it is only through large-scale cosmological experiments that we can hope to understand the nature of gravity. PMID:22084296
Perturbations of nested branes with induced gravity
Sbisà, Fulvio; Koyama, Kazuya E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk
2014-06-01
We study the behaviour of weak gravitational fields in models where a 4D brane is embedded inside a 5D brane equipped with induced gravity, which in turn is embedded in a 6D spacetime. We consider a specific regularization of the branes internal structures where the 5D brane can be considered thin with respect to the 4D one. We find exact solutions corresponding to pure tension source configurations on the thick 4D brane, and study perturbations at first order around these background solutions. To perform the perturbative analysis, we adopt a bulk-based approach and we express the equations in terms of gauge invariant and master variables using a 4D scalar-vector-tensor decomposition. We then propose an ansatz on the behaviour of the perturbation fields when the thickness of the 4D brane goes to zero, which corresponds to configurations where gravity remains finite everywhere in the thin limit of the 4D brane. We study the equations of motion using this ansatz, and show that they give rise to a consistent set of differential equations in the thin limit, from which the details of the internal structure of the 4D brane disappear. We conclude that the thin limit of the ''ribbon'' 4D brane inside the (already thin) 5D brane is well defined (at least when considering first order perturbations around pure tension configurations), and that the gravitational field on the 4D brane remains finite in the thin limit. We comment on the crucial role of the induced gravity term on the 5D brane.
Starobinsky model in rainbow gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatrabhuti, Auttakit; Yingcharoenrat, Vicharit; Channuie, Phongpichit
2016-02-01
In this paper, we study the Starobinsky model of inflation in the context of gravity's rainbow theory. We propose that gravity rainbow functions can be written in the power-law form of the Hubble parameter. We present a detailed derivation of the spectral index of curvature perturbation and the tensor-to-scalar ratio and compare the predictions of our models with Planck 2015 data. We discover that in order to be consistent with Planck data up to 2 σ C.L., the viable values of Nk e -folds would satisfy 42 ≲Nk≲87 and the rainbow parameter λ is nicely constrained to be λ ≲6.0 .
Gravity-Induced Gene Expression in Plants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sederoff, Heike; Heber, Steffen; Howard, Brian; Myburg-Nichols, Henrietta; Hammond, Rebecca; Salinas-Mondragon, Raul; Brown, Christopher S.
Plants sense changes in their orientation towards the vector of gravity and respond with directional growth. Several metabolites in the signal transduction cascade have been identified. However, very little is known about the interaction between these sensing and signal transduction events and even less is known about their role in the differential growth response. Gravity induced changes in transcript abundance have been identified in Arabidopsis whole seedlings and root apices (Moseyko et al. 2002; Kimbrough et al. 2004). Gravity induced transcript abundance changes can be observed within less than 1 min after stimulation (Salinas-Mondragon et al. 2005). Gene expression however requires not only transcription but also translation of the mRNA. Translation can only occur when mRNA is associated with ribosomes, even though not all mRNA associated with ribosomes is actively translated. To approximate translational capacity we quantified whole genome transcript abundances in corn stem pulvini during the first hour after gravity stimulation in total and poly-ribosomal fractions. As in Arabidopsis root apices, transcript abundances of several clusters of genes responded to gravity stimulation. The vast majority of these transcripts were also found to associate with polyribosomes in the same temporal and quantitative pattern. These genes are transcriptionally regulated by gravity stimulation, but do not exhibit translational regulation. However, a small group of genes showed increased transcriptional regulation after gravity stimulation, but no association with polysomes. These transcripts likely are translationally repressed. The mechanism of translational repression for these transcripts is unknown. Based on the hypothesis that the genes essential for gravitropic responses should be expressed in most or all species, we compared the temporal gravity induced expression pattern of all orthologs identified between maize and Arabidopsis. A small group of genes showed high
Holographic chiral induced W-gravities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poojary, Rohan R.; Suryanarayana, Nemani V.
2015-10-01
We study boundary conditions for 3-dimensional higher spin gravity that admit asymptotic symmetry algebras expected of 2-dimensional induced higher spin theories in the light-cone gauge. For the higher spin theory based on sl(3,{R})oplus sl(3,{R}) algebra, our boundary conditions give rise to one copy of classical W 3 and a copy of sl(3,{R}) or su(1 , 2) Kac-Moody as the asymptotic symmetry algebra. We propose that the higher spin theories with these boundary conditions describe appropriate chiral induced W-gravity theories on the boundary. We also consider boundary conditions of spin-3 higher spin gravity that admit a u(1) ⊕ u(1) current algebra.
Gravity-induced stresses in finite slopes
Savage, W.Z.
1994-01-01
An exact solution for gravity-induced stresses in finite elastic slopes is presented. This solution, which is applied for gravity-induced stresses in 15, 30, 45 and 90?? finite slopes, has application in pit-slope design, compares favorably with published finite element results for this problem and satisfies the conditions that shear and normal stresses vanish on the ground surface. The solution predicts that horizontal stresses are compressive along the top of the slopes (zero in the case of the 90?? slope) and tensile away from the bottom of the slopes, effects which are caused by downward movement and near-surface horizontal extension in front of the slope in response to gravity loading caused by the additional material associated with the finite slope. ?? 1994.
2D induced gravity from the canonically gauged WZNW system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blagojević, M.; Popović, D. S.; Sazdović, B.
1999-02-01
Starting from the Kac-Moody structure of the WZNW model for SL(2,R) and using the general canonical formalism, we formulate a gauge theory invariant under local SL(2,R)×SL(2,R) and diffeomorphisms. This theory represents a gauge extension of the WZNW system, defined by a difference of two simple WZNW actions. By performing a partial gauge fixing and integrating out some dynamical variables, we prove that the resulting effective theory coincides with the induced gravity in 2D. The geometric properties of the induced gravity are obtained out of the gauge properties of the WZNW system with the help of the Dirac brackets formalism.
Escherichia coli growth under modeled reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, Paul W.; Meyer, Michelle L.; Leff, Laura G.
2004-01-01
Bacteria exhibit varying responses to modeled reduced gravity that can be simulated by clino-rotation. When Escherichia coli was subjected to different rotation speeds during clino-rotation, significant differences between modeled reduced gravity and normal gravity controls were observed only at higher speeds (30-50 rpm). There was no apparent affect of removing samples on the results obtained. When E. coli was grown in minimal medium (at 40 rpm), cell size was not affected by modeled reduced gravity and there were few differences in cell numbers. However, in higher nutrient conditions (i.e., dilute nutrient broth), total cell numbers were higher and cells were smaller under reduced gravity compared to normal gravity controls. Overall, the responses to modeled reduced gravity varied with nutrient conditions; larger surface to volume ratios may help compensate for the zone of nutrient depletion around the cells under modeled reduced gravity.
Modeling of zero gravity venting
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merte, H., Jr.
1984-01-01
The venting of cylindrical containers partially filled with initially saturated liquids was conducted under zero gravity conditions and compared with an analytical model which determined the effect of interfacial mass transfer on the ullage pressure response during venting. A model is proposed to improve the estimation of the interfacial mass transfer. Duhammel's superposition integral is incorporated in this analysis to approximate the transient temperature response of the interface, treating the liquid as a semiinfinite solid with conduction heat transfer. This approach to estimating interfacial mass transfer gives improved response when compared to previous models. The model still predicts a pressure decrease greater than those in the experiments reported.
AdS Chern-Simons gravity induces conformal gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aros, Rodrigo; Díaz, Danilo E.
2014-04-01
The leitmotif of this paper is the question of whether four- and higher even-dimensional conformal gravities do have a Chern-Simons pedigree. We show that Weyl gravity can be obtained as the dimensional reduction of a five-dimensional Chern-Simons action for a suitable (gauge-fixed, tractorlike) five-dimensional anti-de Sitter connection. The gauge-fixing and dimensional reduction program readily admits a generalization to higher dimensions for the case of certain conformal gravities obtained by contractions of the Weyl tensor.
Consistent anomalies of the induced W gravities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abud, Mario; Ader, Jean-Pierre; Cappiello, Luigi
1996-02-01
The BRST anomaly which may be present in the induced Wn gravity quantized on the light-cone is evaluated in the geometrical framework of Zucchini. The cocycles linked by the cohomology of the BRST operator to the anomaly are straightforwardly calculated thanks to the analogy between this formulation and the Yang-Mills theory. We give also a conformally covariant formulation of these quantities including the anomaly, which is valid on arbitrary Riemann surfaces. The example of the W3 theory is discussed and a comparison with other candidates for the anomaly available in the literature is presented.
Brane induced gravity: Ghosts and naturalness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eglseer, Ludwig; Niedermann, Florian; Schneider, Robert
2015-10-01
Linear stability of brane induced gravity in two codimensions on a static pure tension background is investigated. The brane is regularized as a ring of finite circumference in extra space. By explicitly calculating the vacuum persistence amplitude of the corresponding quantum theory, we show that the parameter space is divided into two regions—one corresponding to a stable Minkowski vacuum on the brane and one being plagued by ghost instabilities. This analytical result affirms a recent nonlinear, but mainly numerical analysis. The main result is that the ghost is absent for a sufficiently large brane tension, in perfect agreement with a value expected from a natural effective field theory point of view. Unfortunately, the linearly stable parameter regime is either ruled out phenomenologically or becomes unstable for nontrivial cosmologies. We argue that supercritical brane backgrounds constitute the remaining window of opportunity. In the special case of a tensionless brane, we find that the ghost exists for all phenomenologically relevant values of the induced gravity scale. Regarding this case, there are contradicting results in the literature, and we are able to fully resolve this controversy by explicitly uncovering the errors made in the "no-ghost" analysis. Finally, a Hamiltonian analysis generalizes the ghost result to more than two codimensions.
Gravity-induced stresses in stratified rock masses
Amadei, B.; Swolfs, H.S.; Savage, W.Z.
1988-01-01
This paper presents closed-form solutions for the stress field induced by gravity in anisotropic and stratified rock masses. These rocks are assumed to be laterally restrained. The rock mass consists of finite mechanical units, each unit being modeled as a homogeneous, transversely isotropic or isotropic linearly elastic material. The following results are found. The nature of the gravity induced stress field in a stratified rock mass depends on the elastic properties of each rock unit and how these properties vary with depth. It is thermodynamically admissible for the induced horizontal stress component in a given stratified rock mass to exceed the vertical stress component in certain units and to be smaller in other units; this is not possible for the classical unstratified isotropic solution. Examples are presented to explore the nature of the gravity induced stress field in stratified rock masses. It is found that a decrease in rock mass anisotropy and a stiffening of rock masses with depth can generate stress distributions comparable to empirical hyperbolic distributions previously proposed in the literature. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.
Cosmological implications of modified gravity induced by quantum metric fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xing; Harko, Tiberiu; Liang, Shi-Dong
2016-08-01
We investigate the cosmological implications of modified gravities induced by the quantum fluctuations of the gravitational metric. If the metric can be decomposed as the sum of the classical and of a fluctuating part, of quantum origin, then the corresponding Einstein quantum gravity generates at the classical level modified gravity models with a non-minimal coupling between geometry and matter. As a first step in our study, after assuming that the expectation value of the quantum correction can be generally expressed in terms of an arbitrary second order tensor constructed from the metric and from the thermodynamic quantities characterizing the matter content of the Universe, we derive the (classical) gravitational field equations in their general form. We analyze in detail the cosmological models obtained by assuming that the quantum correction tensor is given by the coupling of a scalar field and of a scalar function to the metric tensor, and by a term proportional to the matter energy-momentum tensor. For each considered model we obtain the gravitational field equations, and the generalized Friedmann equations for the case of a flat homogeneous and isotropic geometry. In some of these models the divergence of the matter energy-momentum tensor is non-zero, indicating a process of matter creation, which corresponds to an irreversible energy flow from the gravitational field to the matter fluid, and which is direct consequence of the non-minimal curvature-matter coupling. The cosmological evolution equations of these modified gravity models induced by the quantum fluctuations of the metric are investigated in detail by using both analytical and numerical methods, and it is shown that a large variety of cosmological models can be constructed, which, depending on the numerical values of the model parameters, can exhibit both accelerating and decelerating behaviors.
Gravity-wave induced CO2 clouds on Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yiǧit, Erdal; Medvedev, Alexander S.; Hartogh, Paul
2016-07-01
We present the first general circulation model simulations that quantify and reproduce patches of extremely cold air required for CO2 condensation and cloud formation in the Martian mesosphere. They are created by subgrid-scale gravity waves (GWs) accounted for in the model with the whole atmosphere GW parameterization of Yiǧit et al. (2008)}. Distributions of GW-induced temperature fluctuations and occurrences of supersaturation conditions are in a good agreement with observations of high-altitude CO2 ice clouds. Our study confirms the key role of GWs in facilitating CO2 cloud formation, discusses their tidal modulation, and predicts clouds at altitudes higher than have been observed to date. Reference: Yiǧit, E., A. D. Aylward, and A. S. Medvedev (2008), Parameterization of the effects of vertically propagating gravity waves for thermosphere general circulation models: Sensitivity study, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D19106, doi:10.1029/2008JD010135.
Cosmological models of modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bloomfield, Jolyon Keith
The recent discovery of dark energy has prompted an investigation of ways in which the accelerated expansion of the universe can be realized. In this dissertation, we present two separate projects related to dark energy. The first project analyzes a class of braneworld models in which multiple branes float in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter bulk, while the second investigates a class of dark energy models from an effective field theory perspective. Investigations of models including extra dimensions have led to modifications of gravity involving a number of interesting features. In particular, the Randall-Sundrum model is well-known for achieving an amelioration of the hierarchy problem. However, the basic model relies on Minkowski branes and is subject to solar system constraints in the absence of a radion stabilization mechanism. We present a method by which a four-dimensional low-energy description can be obtained for braneworld scenarios, allowing for a number of generalizations to the original models. This method is applied to orbifolded and uncompactified N-brane models, deriving an effective four-dimensional action. The parameter space of this theory is constrained using observational evidence, and it is found that the generalizations do not weaken solar system constraints on the original model. Furthermore, we find that general N-brane systems are qualitatively similar to the two-brane case, and do not naturally lead to a viable dark energy model. We next investigate dark energy models using effective field theory techniques. We describe dark energy through a quintessence field, employing a derivative expansion. To the accuracy of the model, we find transformations to write the description in a form involving no higher-order derivatives in the equations of motion. We use a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson construction to motivate the theory, and find the regime of validity and scaling of the operators using this. The regime of validity is restricted to a
Schwarzschild solution in brane induced gravity
Gabadadze, Gregory; Iglesias, Alberto
2005-10-15
The metric of a Schwarzschild solution in brane induced gravity in five dimensions is studied. We find a nonperturbative solution for which an exact expression on the brane is obtained. We also find a linearized solution in the bulk and argue that a nonsingular exact solution in the entire space should exist. The exact solution on the brane is highly nontrivial as it interpolates between different distance scales. This part of the metric is enough to deduce an important property--the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner canonical formalism (ADM) mass of the solution is suppressed compared to the bare mass of a static source. This screening of the mass is due to nonlinear interactions which give rise to a nonzero curvature outside the source. The curvature extends away from the source to a certain macroscopic distance that coincides with the would-be strong interaction scale. The very same curvature shields the source from strong coupling effects. The four-dimensional law of gravity, including the correct tensorial structure, is recovered at observable distances. We find that the solution has no van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov discontinuity and show that the gravitational field on the brane is always weak, in spite of the fact that the solution is nonperturbative.
Ginsparg, P.
1991-01-01
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.
Ginsparg, P.
1991-12-31
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.
Gravity- and strain-induced electric fields outside metal surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossi, F.; Opat, G. I.
1992-05-01
The gravity-induced electric field outside a metal object supported against gravity is predominantly due to its differential compression which arises in supporting its own weight. This Dessler-Michel-Rorschach-Trammell (DMRT) field, as it has come to be known, is expected to be proportional to the strain derivative of the work function of the surface. We report the results of an experiment designed to produce this effect with mechanically applied strain rather than with gravity. In essence, we have measured the strain-induced contact-potential variation between a metal surface of known strain gradient and an unstrained capacitive probe. We describe useful solutions to the problems faced in such an experiment, which were not adequately addressed by earlier workers. A knowledge of the DMRT field is of considerable importance to experiments designed to compare the gravitational acceleration of charged particles and antiparticles inside a metallic shield. Past experiments with electrons yielded results contrary to the then-expected DMRT field. We review and partially extend the theoretical background by drawing on later results based on the jellium model of metal surfaces. Our results for Cu and Au surfaces are consistent with jellium-based calculations which imply a DMRT field that is about an order of magnitude smaller and of opposite sign to the early estimates.
On the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolkas, Dimitrios; Fotopoulos, Georgia; Braun, Alexander
2016-03-01
In gravity field modeling, fused models that utilize satellite, airborne and terrestrial gravity observations are often employed to deal with erroneous terrestrially derived gravity datasets. These terrestrial datasets may suffer from long-wavelength systematic errors and inhomogeneous data coverage, which are not prevalent in airborne and satellite datasets. Airborne gravity acquisition plays an essential role in gravity field modeling, providing valuable information of the Earth's gravity field at medium and short wavelengths. Thus, assessing the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models is important for identifying problematic regions. Six study regions that represent different gravity field variability and terrestrial data point-density characteristics are investigated to quantify the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models. The numerical assessments of these representative regions resulted in predictions of airborne gravity impact for individual states and provinces in the USA and Canada, respectively. Prediction results indicate that, depending on the terrestrial data point-density and gravity field variability, the expected impact of airborne gravity can reach up to 3mGal (in terms of standard deviation) in Canada and Alaska (over areas of 1° × 1°). However, in the mainland US region, small changes are expected (0.2-0.4 mGal over areas of 1° × 1°) due to the availability of high spatial resolution terrestrial data. These results can serve as a guideline for setting airborne gravity data acquisition priorities and for improving future planning of airborne gravity surveys.
On the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolkas, Dimitrios; Fotopoulos, Georgia; Braun, Alexander
2016-06-01
In gravity field modeling, fused models that utilize satellite, airborne and terrestrial gravity observations are often employed to deal with erroneous terrestrially derived gravity datasets. These terrestrial datasets may suffer from long-wavelength systematic errors and inhomogeneous data coverage, which are not prevalent in airborne and satellite datasets. Airborne gravity acquisition plays an essential role in gravity field modeling, providing valuable information of the Earth's gravity field at medium and short wavelengths. Thus, assessing the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models is important for identifying problematic regions. Six study regions that represent different gravity field variability and terrestrial data point-density characteristics are investigated to quantify the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models. The numerical assessments of these representative regions resulted in predictions of airborne gravity impact for individual states and provinces in the USA and Canada, respectively. Prediction results indicate that, depending on the terrestrial data point-density and gravity field variability, the expected impact of airborne gravity can reach up to 3mGal (in terms of standard deviation) in Canada and Alaska (over areas of 1° × 1°). However, in the mainland US region, small changes are expected (0.2-0.4 mGal over areas of 1° × 1°) due to the availability of high spatial resolution terrestrial data. These results can serve as a guideline for setting airborne gravity data acquisition priorities and for improving future planning of airborne gravity surveys.
Gravity and geoid model for South America
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blitzkow, Denizar; Oliveira Cancoro de Matos, Ana Cristina; do Nascimento Guimarães, Gabriel; Pacino, María Cristina; Andrés Lauría, Eduardo; Nunes, Marcelo; Castro Junior, Carlos Alberto Correia e.; Flores, Fredy; Orihuela Guevara, Nuris; Alvarez, Ruber; Napoleon Hernandez, José
2016-04-01
In the last 20 years, South America Gravity Studies (SAGS) project has undertaken an ongoing effort in establishing the fundamental gravity network (FGN); terrestrial, river and airborne relative gravity densifications; absolute gravity surveys and geoid (quasi-geoid) model computation for South America. The old FGN is being replaced progressively by new absolute measurements in different countries. In recent years, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela organizations participated with relative gravity surveys. Taking advantage of the large amount of data available, GEOID2015 model was developed for 15°N and 57°S latitude and 30 ° W and 95°W longitude based on EIGEN-6C4 until degree and order 200 as a reference field. The ocean area was completed with mean free air gravity anomalies derived from DTU10 model. The short wavelength component was estimated using FFT. The global gravity field models EIGEN-6C4, DIR_R5 were used for comparison with the new model. The new geoid model has been evaluated against 1,319 GPS/BM, in which 592 are located in Brazil and the reminder in other countries. The preliminary RMS difference between GPS/BM and GEOID2015 throughout South America and in Brazil is 46 cm and 17 cm, respectively. New activities are carrying out with the support of the IGC (Geographic and Cartographic Institute) under the coordination of EPUSP/LTG and CENEGEO (Centro de Estudos de Geodesia). The new project aims to establish new gravity points with the A-10 absolute gravimeter in South America. Recent such surveys occurred in São Paulo state, Argentina and Venezuela.
Brane induced gravity, its ghost and the cosmological constant problem
Hassan, S.F.; Strauss, Mikael von; Hofmann, Stefan E-mail: stefan.hofmann@physik.lmu.de
2011-01-01
''Brane Induced Gravity'' is regarded as a promising framework for addressing the cosmological constant problem, but it also suffers from a ghost instability for parameter values that make it phenomenologically viable. We carry out a detailed analysis of codimension > 2 models employing gauge invariant variables in a flat background approximation. It is argued that using instead a curved background sourced by the brane would not resolve the ghost issue, unless a very specific condition is satisfied (if satisfiable at all). As for other properties of the model, from an explicit analysis of the 4-dimensional graviton propagator we extract a mass, a decay width and a momentum dependent modification of the gravitational coupling for the spin 2 mode. In the flat space approximation, the mass of the problematic spin 0 ghost is instrumental in filtering out a brane cosmological constant. The mass replaces a background curvature that would have had the same function. The optical theorem is used to demonstrate the suppression of graviton leakage into the uncompactified bulk. Then, we derive the 4-dimensional effective action for gravity and show that general covariance is spontaneously broken by the bulk-brane setup. This provides a natural realization of the gravitational Higgs mechanism. We also show that the addition of extrinsic curvature dependent terms has no bearing on linearized brane gravity.
Conservation laws for colliding branes with induced gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pellen, Mathieu
2015-05-01
We derive conservation laws for collisions of self-gravitating n-branes (or n-dimensional shells) in an ( n+2) dimensional spacetime including induced gravity on the brane. Previous work has shown how geometrical identities in general relativity enforce conservation of energy-momentum at collisions. The inclusion of induced gravity terms introduces a gravitational self-energy on the brane which permits energy-momentum conservation of matter fields on the brane to be broken, so long as the total energy-momentum, including induced gravity terms, is conserved. We give simple examples with two branes (one ingoing and one outgoing) and three branes.
Gravity Modeling for Variable Fidelity Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madden, Michael M.
2006-01-01
Aerospace simulations can model worlds, such as the Earth, with differing levels of fidelity. The simulation may represent the world as a plane, a sphere, an ellipsoid, or a high-order closed surface. The world may or may not rotate. The user may select lower fidelity models based on computational limits, a need for simplified analysis, or comparison to other data. However, the user will also wish to retain a close semblance of behavior to the real world. The effects of gravity on objects are an important component of modeling real-world behavior. Engineers generally equate the term gravity with the observed free-fall acceleration. However, free-fall acceleration is not equal to all observers. To observers on the sur-face of a rotating world, free-fall acceleration is the sum of gravitational attraction and the centrifugal acceleration due to the world's rotation. On the other hand, free-fall acceleration equals gravitational attraction to an observer in inertial space. Surface-observed simulations (e.g. aircraft), which use non-rotating world models, may choose to model observed free fall acceleration as the gravity term; such a model actually combines gravitational at-traction with centrifugal acceleration due to the Earth s rotation. However, this modeling choice invites confusion as one evolves the simulation to higher fidelity world models or adds inertial observers. Care must be taken to model gravity in concert with the world model to avoid denigrating the fidelity of modeling observed free fall. The paper will go into greater depth on gravity modeling and the physical disparities and synergies that arise when coupling specific gravity models with world models.
Network congestion analysis of gravity generated models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maniadakis, Dimitris; Varoutas, Dimitris
2014-07-01
The network topology has lately proved to be critical to the appearance of traffic congestion, with scale-free networks being the less affected at high volumes of traffic. Here, the congestion dynamics are investigated for a class of networks that has experienced a resurgence of interest, the networks based on the gravity model. In addition, supplementary to the standard paradigm of uniform traffic volumes between randomly interacting node pairs, more realistic gravity traffic patterns are used to simulate the flows in the network. Results indicate that depending on the traffic pattern, the networks have different tolerance to congestion. Experiment simulation shows that the topologies created on the basis of the gravity model suffer less from congestion than the random, the scale-free or the Jackson-Rogers ones under both random and gravity traffic patterns. The congestion level is found to be approximately correlated with the network clustering coefficient in the case of random traffic, whereas in the case of gravity traffic such a correlation is not a trivial one. Other basic network properties such as the average shortest path and the diameter are seen to correlate fairly well with the congestion level. Further investigation on the adjustment of the gravity model parameters indicates particular sensitivity to network congestion. This work may have practical implications for designing traffic networks with both reasonable budget and good performance.
Circulation-based Modeling of Gravity Currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meiburg, E. H.; Borden, Z.
2013-05-01
Atmospheric and oceanic flows driven by predominantly horizontal density differences, such as sea breezes, thunderstorm outflows, powder snow avalanches, and turbidity currents, are frequently modeled as gravity currents. Efforts to develop simplified models of such currents date back to von Karman (1940), who considered a two-dimensional gravity current in an inviscid, irrotational and infinitely deep ambient. Benjamin (1968) presented an alternative model, focusing on the inviscid, irrotational flow past a gravity current in a finite-depth channel. More recently, Shin et al. (2004) proposed a model for gravity currents generated by partial-depth lock releases, considering a control volume that encompasses both fronts. All of the above models, in addition to the conservation of mass and horizontal momentum, invoke Bernoulli's law along some specific streamline in the flow field, in order to obtain a closed system of equations that can be solved for the front velocity as function of the current height. More recent computational investigations based on the Navier-Stokes equations, on the other hand, reproduce the dynamics of gravity currents based on the conservation of mass and momentum alone. We propose that it should therefore be possible to formulate a fundamental gravity current model without invoking Bernoulli's law. The talk will show that the front velocity of gravity currents can indeed be predicted as a function of their height from mass and momentum considerations alone, by considering the evolution of interfacial vorticity. This approach does not require information on the pressure field and therefore avoids the need for an energy closure argument such as those invoked by the earlier models. Predictions by the new theory are shown to be in close agreement with direct numerical simulation results. References Von Karman, T. 1940 The engineer grapples with nonlinear problems, Bull. Am. Math Soc. 46, 615-683. Benjamin, T.B. 1968 Gravity currents and related
Observed and Modeled Stratospheric Gravity Waves above Hurricane Humberto
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuester, M.; Alexander, J.; Ray, E.
2004-05-01
A three-dimensional model can be a very powerful tool to the study of various properties of hurricanes including areas of deep convection as possible sources of internal gravity waves. Data collected by aircraft, although extremely useful, does not give a full picture of the dynamics of the system because only a few slices through the storm can be sampled within the limitations of the campaign. A validated model can help to fill in the gaps where the sampled data cannot. In this study, a three-dimensional MM5 model is used to study the characteristics of Hurricane Humberto, a category 2 hurricane observed in September 2001 during the the fourth field campaign in the Convection and Moisture Experiment series (CAMEX4). Of particular interest to this study are internal gravity waves induced by the convective activity within the rain bands of the hurricane. Further understanding of the sources for these waves and their effects on the large-scale circulation is an ongoing topic of research. Vertical velocity perturbations and potential temperature contours are used to pinpoint vertically propagating gravity waves in the stratosphere. Possible correlations between areas of deep convection as gravity wave sources within the storm and observed vertically propagating gravity waves are presented. Comparison of model results to data collected during the CAMEX4 on board the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft with the ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP) and Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) will also be presented.
Global gravity field models and their use for geophysical modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pail, R.
2015-12-01
During the last decade, the successful operation of the dedicated satellite missions GOCE and GRACE have revolutionized our picture of the Earth's gravity field. They delivered static global gravity field maps with high and homogeneous accuracy for spatial length-scales down to 70-80 km. The current satellite-only models of the fifth generation including GOCE data have reached accuracies of about 2 cm in geoid height and less than 0.7 mGal in gravity anomalies at 100 km spatial half-wavelength. However, the spatial resolution of gravity models derived from satellite data is limited. Since precise knowledge of the Earth's gravity field structure with very high resolution is essential in solid Earth applications such as lithospheric modelling, geological interpretation and exploration geophysics, satellite-only models are complemented by combined gravity field models, which contain very high-resolution gravity field information obtained by terrestrial gravity measurements over continents, and satellite altimetry over the oceans. To further increase the spatial resolution beyond 10-20 km, measured terrestrial and satellite data can also be augmented by high-resolution gravity field signals synthesized from topographic models. In this contribution an overview of the construction of satellite-only and combined global gravity field models is given. The specific characteristics of the individual input data and the resulting models will be assessed, and their impact for geophysical modelling will be discussed. On the basis of selected case studies, commission and omission errors and thus the contribution and impact of satellite gravity data on gravity field applications will be quantified, and the benefit of current satellite gravity data shall be investigated and demonstrated. Future gravity field missions beyond GRACE Follow-On will provide global gravity field information with further increased accuracy, spatial and temporal resolution. In an international initiative
Conformal Loop quantization of gravity coupled to the standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pullin, Jorge; Gambini, Rodolfo
2016-03-01
We consider a local conformal invariant coupling of the standard model to gravity free of any dimensional parameter. The theory is formulated in order to have a quantized version that admits a spin network description at the kinematical level like that of loop quantum gravity. The Gauss constraint, the diffeomorphism constraint and the conformal constraint are automatically satisfied and the standard inner product of the spin-network basis still holds. The resulting theory has resemblances with the Bars-Steinhardt-Turok local conformal theory, except it admits a canonical quantization in terms of loops. By considering a gauge fixed version of the theory we show that the Standard model coupled to gravity is recovered and the Higgs boson acquires mass. This in turn induces via the standard mechanism masses for massive bosons, baryons and leptons.
Einstein spaces modeling nonminimal modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elizalde, Emilio; Vacaru, Sergiu I.
2015-06-01
Off-diagonal vacuum and nonvacuum configurations in the Einstein gravity can mimic physical effects of modified gravitational theories of f( R, T, R μν T μν ) type. To prove this statement, exact and approximate solutions are constructed in the paper, which encode certain models of covariant Hořava-type gravity with dynamical Lorentz symmetry breaking. The corresponding FLRW cosmological dynamics with possible nonholonomic deformations and the reconstruction procedure of certain actions closely related with the standard ΛCDM universe are studied. Off-diagonal generalizations of de Sitter universes are constructed which are generated through nonlinear gravitational polarization of fundamental physical constants and which model interactions with nonconstant exotic fluids and effective matter. The problem of possible matter instability for such off-diagonal deformations in (modified) gravity theories is briefly discussed.
Observational bounds on modified gravity models
De Felice, Antonio; Mukherjee, Pia; Wang Yun
2008-01-15
Modified gravity provides a possible explanation for the currently observed cosmic acceleration. In this paper, we study general classes of modified gravity models. The Einstein-Hilbert action is modified by using general functions of the Ricci and the Gauss-Bonnet scalars, both in the metric and in the Palatini formalisms. We do not use an explicit form for the functions, but a general form with a valid Taylor expansion up to second order about redshift zero in the Riemann-scalars. The coefficients of this expansion are then reconstructed via the cosmic expansion history measured using current cosmological observations. These are the quantities of interest for theoretical considerations relating to ghosts and instabilities. We find that current data provide interesting constraints on the coefficients. The next-generation dark energy surveys should shrink the allowed parameter space for modified gravity models quite dramatically.
Matter induced bimetric actions for gravity
Manrique, Elisa; Reuter, Martin; Saueressig, Frank
2011-02-15
Research Highlights: > Gravitational effective action in the bimetric truncation. > RG flow in the large N limit of matter coupled to gravity. > Asymptotically safe theory found in the large N expansion. - Abstract: The gravitational effective average action is studied in a bimetric truncation with a nontrivial background field dependence, and its renormalization group flow due to a scalar multiplet coupled to gravity is derived. Neglecting the metric contributions to the corresponding beta functions, the analysis of its fixed points reveals that, even on the new enlarged theory space which includes bimetric action functionals, the theory is asymptotically safe in the large N expansion.
Induced gravity I: real scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Einhorn, Martin B.; Jones, D. R. Timothy
2016-01-01
We show that classically scale invariant gravity coupled to a single scalar field can undergo dimensional transmutation and generate an effective Einstein-Hilbert action for gravity, coupled to a massive dilaton. The same theory has an ultraviolet fixed point for coupling constant ratios such that all couplings are asymptotically free. However the catchment basin of this fixed point does not include regions of coupling constant parameter space compatible with locally stable dimensional transmutation. In a companion paper, we will explore whether this more desirable outcome does obtain in more complicated theories with non-Abelian gauge interactions.
Supersymmetric structure of the induced W gravities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ader, Jean-Pierre; Biet, Franck; Noirot, Yves
1999-03-01
We derive the supersymmetric structure present in W-gravities which has been already observed in various contexts as Yang-Mills theory, topological field theories, bosonic string and chiral 0264-9381/16/3/029/img2-gravity. This derivation which is made in the geometrical framework of Zucchini, necessitates the introduction of an appropriate new basis of variables which replace the canonical fields and their derivatives. This construction is used, in the 0264-9381/16/3/029/img3-case, to deduce from the Chern-Simons action the Wess-Zumino-Polyakov action.
Gravity model studies of Newberry Volcano, Oregon
Gettings, M.E.; Griscom, A.
1988-09-10
Newberry, Volcano, a large Quaternary volcano located about 60 km east of the axis of the High Cascades volcanoes in central Oregon, has a coincident positive residual gravity anomaly of about 12 mGals. Model calculations of the gravity anomaly field suggest that the volcano is underlain by an intrusive complex of mafic composition of about 20-km diameter and 2-km thickness, at depths above 4 km below sea level. However, uplifted basement in a northwest trending ridge may form part of the underlying excess mass, thus reducing the volume of the subvolcanic intrusive. A ring dike of mafic composition is inferred to intrude to near-surface levels along the caldera ring fractures, and low-density fill of the caldera floor probably has a thickness of 0.7--0.9 km. The gravity anomaly attributable to the volcano is reduced to the east across a north-northwest trending gravity anomaly gradient through Newberry caldera and suggests that normal, perhaps extensional, faulting has occurred subsequent to caldera formation and may have controlled the location of some late-stage basaltic and rhyolitic eruptions. Significant amounts of felsic intrusive material may exist above the mafic intrusive zone but cannot be resolved by the gravity data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chouza, Fernando; Reitebuch, Oliver; Jähn, Michael; Rahm, Stephan; Weinzierl, Bernadett
2016-04-01
This study presents the analysis of island induced gravity waves observed by an airborne Doppler wind lidar (DWL) during SALTRACE. First, the instrumental corrections required for the retrieval of high spatial resolution vertical wind measurements from an airborne DWL are presented and the measurement accuracy estimated by means of two different methods. The estimated systematic error is below -0.05 m s-1 for the selected case of study, while the random error lies between 0.1 and 0.16 m s-1 depending on the estimation method. Then, the presented method is applied to two measurement flights during which the presence of island induced gravity waves was detected. The first case corresponds to a research flight conducted on 17 June 2013 in the Cabo Verde islands region, while the second case corresponds to a measurement flight on 26 June 2013 in the Barbados region. The presence of trapped lee waves predicted by the calculated Scorer parameter profiles was confirmed by the lidar and in situ observations. The DWL measurements are used in combination with in situ wind and particle number density measurements, large-eddy simulations (LES), and wavelet analysis to determine the main characteristics of the observed island induced trapped waves.
Modeling quantum gravity effects in inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinec, Emil J.; Moore, Wynton E.
2014-07-01
Cosmological models in 1+1 dimensions are an ideal setting for investigating the quantum structure of inflationary dynamics — gravity is renormalizable, while there is room for spatial structure not present in the minisuperspace approximation. We use this fortuitous convergence to investigate the mechanism of slow-roll eternal inflation. A variant of 1+1 Liouville gravity coupled to matter is shown to model precisely the scalar sector of cosmological perturbations in 3+1 dimensions. A particular example of quintessence in 1+1d is argued on the one hand to exhibit slow-roll eternal inflation according to standard criteria; on the other hand, a field redefinition relates the model to pure de Sitter gravity coupled to a free scalar matter field with no potential. This and other examples show that the standard logic leading to slow-roll eternal inflation is not invariant under field redefinitions, thus raising concerns regarding its validity. Aspects of the quantization of Liouville gravity as a model of quantum de Sitter space are also discussed.
Non-static cosmological model in gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, B.; Sahoo, P. K.; Tarai, Sankarsan
2015-09-01
In this paper, we have studied the Einstein-Rosen space time in gravity by considering the second model of Harko et al. (Phys. Rev. D 84:024020, 2011), , where ; and ; . The matter field is considered in the form of perfect fluid. It is observed that, the perfect fluid represent the Zel'dovich universe in both the forms.
The Gravity Model for High School Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tribble, Paul; Mitchell, William A.
1977-01-01
The authors suggest ways in which the gravity model can be used in high school geography classes. Based on Newton's Law of Molecular Gravitation, the law states that gravitation is in direct ratio to mass and inverse ratio to distance. One activity for students involves determination of zones of influence of cities of various sizes. (Author/AV)
Study of the Earth's short-scale gravity field using the ERTM2160 gravity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirt, Christian; Kuhn, Michael; Claessens, Sten; Pail, Roland; Seitz, Kurt; Gruber, Thomas
2014-12-01
This paper describes the computation and analysis of the Earth's short-scale gravity field through high-resolution gravity forward modelling using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) global topography model. We use the established residual terrain modelling technique along with advanced computational resources and massive parallelisation to convert the high-pass filtered SRTM topography - complemented with bathymetric information in coastal zones - to implied short-scale gravity effects. The result is the ERTM2160 model (Earth Residual Terrain Modelled-gravity field with the spatial scales equivalent to spherical-harmonic coefficients up to degree 2160 removed). ERTM2160, used successfully for the construction of the GGMplus gravity maps, approximates the short-scale (i.e., ~10 km down to ~250 m) gravity field in terms of gravity disturbances, quasi/geoid heights and vertical deflections at ~3 billion gridded points within ±60° latitude. ERTM2160 reaches maximum values for the quasi/geoid height of ~30 cm, gravity disturbance in excess of 100 mGal, and vertical deflections of ~30″ over the Himalaya mountains. Analysis of the ERTM2160 field as a function of terrain roughness shows in good approximation a linear relationship between terrain roughness and gravity effects, with values of ~1.7 cm (quasi/geoid heights), ~11 mGal (gravity disturbances) and 1.5″ (vertical deflections) signal strength per 100 m standard deviation of the terrain. These statistics can be used to assess the magnitude of omitted gravity signals over various types of terrain when using degree-2160 gravity models such as EGM2008. Applications for ERTM2160 are outlined including its use in gravity smoothing procedures, augmentation of EGM2008, fill-in for future ultra-high resolution gravity models in spherical harmonics, or calculation of localised or global power spectra of Earth's short-scale gravity field. ERTM2160 is freely available via
Coseismic Gravity and Displacement Signatures Induced by the 2013 Okhotsk Mw8.3 Earthquake.
Zhang, Guoqing; Shen, Wenbin; Xu, Changyi; Zhu, Yiqing
2016-01-01
In this study, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) RL05 data from January 2003 to October 2014 were used to extract the coseismic gravity changes induced by the 24 May 2013 Okhotsk Mw8.3 deep-focus earthquake using the difference and least square fitting methods. The gravity changes obtained from GRACE data agreed well with those from dislocation theory in both magnitude and spatial pattern. Positive and negative gravity changes appeared on both sides of the epicenter. The positive signature appeared on the western side, and the peak value was approximately 0.4 microgal (1 microgal = 10(-8) m/s²), whereas on the eastern side, the gravity signature was negative, and the peak value was approximately -1.1 microgal. It demonstrates that deep-focus earthquakes Mw ≤ 8.5 are detectable by GRACE observations. Moreover, the coseismic displacements of 20 Global Positioning System (GPS) stations on the Earth's surface were simulated using an elastic dislocation theory in a spherical earth model, and the results are consistent with the GPS results, especially the near-field results. We also estimated the gravity contributions from the coseismic vertical displacements and density changes, analyzed the proportion of these two gravity change factors (based on an elastic dislocation theory in a spherical earth model) in this deep-focus earthquake. The gravity effect from vertical displacement is four times larger than that caused by density redistribution. PMID:27598158
Modeling Candle Flame Behavior In Variable Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alsairafi, A.; Tien, J. S.; Lee, S. T.; Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.
2003-01-01
The burning of a candle, as typical non-propagating diffusion flame, has been used by a number of researchers to study the effects of electric fields on flame, spontaneous flame oscillation and flickering phenomena, and flame extinction. In normal gravity, the heat released from combustion creates buoyant convection that draws oxygen into the flame. The strength of the buoyant flow depends on the gravitational level and it is expected that the flame shape, size and candle burning rate will vary with gravity. Experimentally, there exist studies of candle burning in enhanced gravity (i.e. higher than normal earth gravity, g(sub e)), and in microgravity in drop towers and space-based facilities. There are, however, no reported experimental data on candle burning in partial gravity (g < g(sub e)). In a previous numerical model of the candle flame, buoyant forces were neglected. The treatment of momentum equation was simplified using a potential flow approximation. Although the predicted flame characteristics agreed well with the experimental results, the model cannot be extended to cases with buoyant flows. In addition, because of the use of potential flow, no-slip boundary condition is not satisfied on the wick surface. So there is some uncertainty on the accuracy of the predicted flow field. In the present modeling effort, the full Navier-Stokes momentum equations with body force term is included. This enables us to study the effect of gravity on candle flames (with zero gravity as the limiting case). In addition, we consider radiation effects in more detail by solving the radiation transfer equation. In the previous study, flame radiation is treated as a simple loss term in the energy equation. Emphasis of the present model is on the gas-phase processes. Therefore, the detailed heat and mass transfer phenomena inside the porous wick are not treated. Instead, it is assumed that a thin layer of liquid fuel coated the entire wick surface during the burning process
Effective cosmological equations of induced f(R) gravity
Apostolopoulos, Pantelis S.; Tetradis, Nikolaos; Brouzakis, Nikolaos E-mail: nbruzak@ifae.es
2010-08-01
We expand the study of generalized brane cosmologies by allowing for an f( R-tilde ) gravity term on the brane, with R-tilde the curvature scalar derived from the induced metric. We also include arbitrary matter components on the brane and in the five-dimensional bulk. At low energies, the effect of the bulk on the brane evolution can be described through a mirage component, termed generalized dark radiation, in the effective four-dimensional field equations. Using the covariant formalism, we derive the exact form of these equations. We also derive an effective conservation equation involving the brane matter and the generalized dark radiation. At low energies the coupled brane-bulk system has a purely four-dimensional description. The applications of the formalism include generalizations of the Starobinsky model and the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati cosmology.
Gravity model improvement investigation. [improved gravity model for determination of ocean geoid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siry, J. W.; Kahn, W. D.; Bryan, J. W.; Vonbun, F. F.
1973-01-01
This investigation was undertaken to improve the gravity model and hence the ocean geoid. A specific objective is the determination of the gravity field and geoid with a space resolution of approximately 5 deg and a height resolution of the order of five meters. The concept of the investigation is to utilize both GEOS-C altimeter and satellite-to-satellite tracking data to achieve the gravity model improvement. It is also planned to determine the geoid in selected regions with a space resolution of about a degree and a height resolution of the order of a meter or two. The short term objectives include the study of the gravity field in the GEOS-C calibration area outlined by Goddard, Bermuda, Antigua, and Cape Kennedy, and also in the eastern Pacific area which is viewed by ATS-F.
Degravitation features in the cascading gravity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moyassari, Parvin; Minamitsuji, Masato
2013-07-01
We obtain the effective gravitational equations on the codimension-2 and codimension-1 branes in the cascading gravity model. We then apply our formulation to the cosmological case and obtain the effective Friedmann equations on the codimension-2 brane, which are generically given in terms of integro-differential equations. Adopting an approximation for which the thickness of the codimension-2 brane is much smaller than the Hubble horizon, we study the Minkowski and de Sitter codimension-2 brane solutions. Studying the cosmological solutions shows that the cascading model exhibits the features necessary for degravitation of the cosmological constant. We also show that only the branch which does not have the smooth limit to the self-accelerating branch in the five-dimensional model in the absence of the bulk gravity can satisfy the null energy condition as the criterion of the stability. Note that our solutions are obtained in a different setup from that of the original cascading gravity model in the sense that the codimension-1 brane contains matter fields other than the pure tension.
Gravity-induced PIN transcytosis for polarization of auxin fluxes in gravity-sensing root cells
Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Ding, Zhaojun; Jones, Angharad R.; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo T.; Friml, Jiří
2010-01-01
Auxin is an essential plant-specific regulator of patterning processes that also controls directional growth of roots and shoots. In response to gravity stimulation, the PIN3 auxin transporter polarizes to the bottom side of gravity-sensing root cells, presumably redirecting the auxin flux toward the lower side of the root and triggering gravitropic bending. By combining live-cell imaging techniques with pharmacological and genetic approaches, we demonstrate that PIN3 polarization does not require secretion of de novo synthesized proteins or protein degradation, but instead involves rapid, transient stimulation of PIN endocytosis, presumably via a clathrin-dependent pathway. Moreover, gravity-induced PIN3 polarization requires the activity of the guanine nucleotide exchange factors for ARF GTPases (ARF-GEF) GNOM-dependent polar-targeting pathways and might involve endosome-based PIN3 translocation from one cell side to another. Our data suggest that gravity perception acts at several instances of PIN3 trafficking, ultimately leading to the polarization of PIN3, which presumably aligns auxin fluxes with gravity vector and mediates downstream root gravitropic response. PMID:21135243
Viscous pilgrim f(T) gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jawad, Abdul; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Rani, Shamaila
2016-07-01
The present paper reports a study on the cosmological consequences of pilgrim dark energy model in the framework of generalized teleparallel gravity. We consider a reconstruction scheme for f(T) models with power law scale factor taking Hubble horizon and Nojiri-Odintsov length as infrared cutoffs. We consider a time dependent viscous model through effective pressure in order to incorporate the effect of viscosity in the models. We study accelerated expansion of the universe through effective equation of state parameter, which represents cosmological constant and phantom behavior consistent with the observational data. To check the stability of the models we use squared speed of sound parameter, which shows that the model is stable for higher values of scale factor parameter. Analysis of the plane containing effective equation of state parameter with its evolutionary parameter indicates freezing region of the accelerated expansion and viability of the model has been tested through observational data.
Modeling of enhanced gravity concentrators - present status
A.K. Majumder; J.P. Barnwal
2006-01-15
The majority of the newly developed enhanced gravity concentrators (EGCs) have tremendous potentials for various applications. Therefore, the performance evaluation of these concentrators treating various minerals, coals, heavy metal recovery from tailing dams, etc., have become an active research topic. Several attempts have also been made to develop appropriate mathematical models of individual concentrators. Despite all these efforts, these concentrators have yet to find the widespread applications they deserve. The present status of modeling these EGCs with a brief description of the operating principles and the present applications are, therefore, reviewed in this article. Research needs in this direction are also highlighted.
SO(2, 3) noncommutative gravity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimitrijević, M.; Radovanović, V.
2014-12-01
In this paper the noncommutative gravity is treated as a gauge theory of the non-commutative SO(2, 3)★ group, while the noncommutativity is canonical. The Seiberg-Witten (SW) map is used to express noncommutative fields in terms of the corresponding commutative fields. The commutative limit of the model is the Einstein-Hilbert action plus the cosmological term and the topological Gauss-Bonnet term. We calculate the second order correction to this model and obtain terms that are zeroth, first, ... and fourth power of the curvature tensor. Finally, we discuss physical consequences of those correction terms in the limit of big cosmological constant.
A new approach to modified gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakrabarti, Sayan K.; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Sen, Anjan A.
2011-11-01
We investigate f ( R)-gravity models performing the ADM-slicing of standard General Relativity. We extract the static, spherically-symmetric vacuum solutions in the general case, which correspond to either Schwarzschild de-Sitter or Schwarzschild anti-de-Sitter ones. Additionally, we study the cosmological evolution of a homogeneous and isotropic universe, which is governed by an algebraic and not a differential equation. We show that the universe admits solutions corresponding to acceleration at late cosmological epochs, without the need of fine-tuning the model-parameters or the initial conditions.
Compensation of Gravity-Induced Errors on a Hexapod-Type Parallel Kinematic Machine Tool
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibaraki, Soichi; Okuda, Toshihiro; Kakino, Yoshiaki; Nakagawa, Masao; Matsushita, Tetsuya; Ando, Tomoharu
This paper presents a methodology to compensate contouring errors introduced by the gravity on a Hexapod-type parallel kinematic machine tool with the Stewart platform. Unlike conventional serial kinematic feed drives, the gravity imposes a critical effect on the positioning accuracy of a parallel kinematic feed drive, and its effect significantly varies depending on the position and the orientation of the spindle. We first present a kinematic model to predict the elastic deformation of struts caused by the gravity. The positioning error at the tool tip is given as the superposition of the deformation of each strut. It is experimentally verified for a commercial parallel kinematic machine tool that the machine's contouring error is significantly reduced by compensating gravity-induced errors on a reference trajectory.
Higher-order brane gravity models
Dabrowski, Mariusz P.; Balcerzak, Adam
2010-06-23
We discuss a very general theory of gravity, of which Lagrangian is an arbitrary function of the curvature invariants, on the brane. In general, the formulation of the junction conditions (except for Euler characteristics such as Gauss-Bonnet term) leads to the powers of the delta function and requires regularization. We suggest the way to avoid such a problem by imposing the metric and its first derivative to be regular at the brane, the second derivative to have a kink, the third derivative of the metric to have a step function discontinuity, and no sooner as the fourth derivative of the metric to give the delta function contribution to the field equations. Alternatively, we discuss the reduction of the fourth-order gravity to the second order theory by introducing extra scalar and tensor fields: the scalaron and the tensoron. In order to obtain junction conditions we apply two methods: the application of the Gauss-Codazzi formalism and the application of the generalized Gibbons-Hawking boundary terms which are appended to the appropriate actions. In the most general case we derive junction conditions without assuming the continuity of the scalaron and the tensoron on the brane. The derived junction conditions can serve studying the cosmological implications of the higher-order brane gravity models.
A framework for modelling kinematic measurements in gravity field applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwarz, K. P.; Wei, M.
1989-01-01
To assess the resolution of the local gravity field from kinematic measurements, a state model for motion in the gravity field of the earth is formulated. The resulting set of equations can accommodate gravity gradients, specific force, acceleration, velocity and position as input data and can take into account approximation errors as well as sensor errors.
Coincidence problem in f( T) gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudra, Prabir
2015-06-01
It is well known fact that almost all the recent models of universe are plagued by the cosmic coincidence problem. In this assignment we try to probe the role played by torsion in the current scenario of coincidence and devise a set-up for its realization. In order to model the scenario, the energy arising from the torsion component is considered analogous to dark energy. An interaction between dark energy and dark matter is considered, which is by far the best possible tool to realize the coincidence. A set-up is designed and a constraint equation is obtained which screens the models of f( T) gravity that can successfully accommodate the stationary scenario in its framework, from those which cannot. Due to the absence of a universally accepted interaction term introduced by a fundamental theory, the study is conducted over three different forms of chosen interaction terms. As an illustration two widely known models of f( T) gravity are taken into consideration and used in the designed setup. The study reveals that the realization of the coincidence scenario as well as the role played by torsion in the current universe is a model dependent phenomenon. It is found that the first model showed a considerable departure from the stationary scenario. On the contrary the other four models are perfectly consistent with our setup and generated a satisfactory stationary scenario, thus showing their cosmological viability and their superiority over their counterparts. For the third model (exponential model) it was seen that the cosmological coincidence is realized only in the phantom regime. For the fourth (logarithmic model) and the fifth models, we see that the stationary scenario is attained for negative interaction values. This shows that the direction of flow must be from dark energy to dark matter unlike the previous models. Under such circumstances the universe will return from the present energy dominated phase to a matter dominated phase.
Generalized model for a Moho inversion from gravity and vertical gravity-gradient data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Zhourun; Tenzer, Robert; Sneeuw, Nico; Liu, Lintao; Wild-Pfeiffer, Franziska
2016-07-01
Seismic data are primarily used in studies of the Earth's lithospheric structure including the Moho geometry. In regions where seismic data are sparse or completely absent, gravimetric or combined gravimetric-seismic methods could be applied to determine the Moho depth. In this study we derive and present generalized expressions for solving the Vening Meinesz-Moritz's (VMM) inverse problem of isostasy for a Moho depth determination from gravity and vertical gravity-gradient data. By solving the (non-linear) Fredholm's integral equation of the first kind, the linearized observation equations, which functionally relate the (given) gravity/gravity-gradient data to the (unknown) Moho depth, are derived in the spectral domain. The VMM gravimetric results are validated by using available seismic and gravimetric Moho models. Our results show that the VMM Moho solutions obtained by solving the VMM problem for gravity and gravity-gradient data are almost the same. This finding indicates that in global applications, using the global gravity/gravity-gradient data coverage, the spherical harmonic expressions for the gravimetric forward and inverse modeling yield (theoretically) the same results. Globally, these gravimetric solutions have also a relatively good agreement with the CRUST1.0 and GEMMA GOCE models in terms of their RMS Moho differences (4.7 km and 4.1 km respectively).
Higgs-induced spectroscopic shifts near strong gravity sources
Onofrio, Roberto
2010-09-15
We explore the consequences of the mass generation due to the Higgs field in strong gravity astrophysical environments. The vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field is predicted to depend on the curvature of spacetime, potentially giving rise to peculiar spectroscopic shifts, named hereafter 'Higgs shifts'. Higgs shifts could be searched through dedicated multiwavelength and multispecies surveys with high spatial and spectral resolution near strong gravity sources such as Sagittarius A* or broad searches for signals due to primordial black holes. The possible absence of Higgs shifts in these surveys should provide limits to the coupling between the Higgs particle and the curvature of spacetime, a topic of interest for a recently proposed Higgs-driven inflationary model. We discuss some conceptual issues regarding the coexistence between the Higgs mechanism and gravity, especially for their different handling of fundamental and composite particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruglov, S. I.
2015-05-01
The new model of modified F(R)-gravity theory with the function F(R) = R + (a/γ) arcsin(γR) is suggested and investigated. Constant curvature solutions corresponding to the extremum of the effective potential are obtained. We consider both the Jordan and Einstein frames, and the potential and the mass of the scalar degree of freedom are found. It was shown that the de Sitter space-time is unstable but the flat space-time is stable. We calculate the slow-roll parameters ɛ, η, and the e-fold number of the model. Critical points of autonomous equations for the de Sitter phase and the matter dominated epoch are obtained and learned.
Model-independent tests of cosmic gravity.
Linder, Eric V
2011-12-28
Gravitation governs the expansion and fate of the universe, and the growth of large-scale structure within it, but has not been tested in detail on these cosmic scales. The observed acceleration of the expansion may provide signs of gravitational laws beyond general relativity (GR). Since the form of any such extension is not clear, from either theory or data, we adopt a model-independent approach to parametrizing deviations to the Einstein framework. We explore the phase space dynamics of two key post-GR functions and derive a classification scheme, and an absolute criterion on accuracy necessary for distinguishing classes of gravity models. Future surveys will be able to constrain the post-GR functions' amplitudes and forms to the required precision, and hence reveal new aspects of gravitation. PMID:22084288
Evaluation of recent Earth's global gravity field models with terrestrial gravity data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karpik, Alexander P.; Kanushin, Vadim F.; Ganagina, Irina G.; Goldobin, Denis N.; Kosarev, Nikolay S.; Kosareva, Alexandra M.
2016-03-01
In the context of the rapid development of environmental research technologies and techniques to solve scientific and practical problems in different fields of knowledge including geosciences, the study of Earth's gravity field models is still important today. The results of gravity anomaly modelling calculated by the current geopotential models data were compared with the independent terrestrial gravity data for the two territories located in West Siberia and Kazakhstan. Statistical characteristics of comparison results for the models under study were obtained. The results of investigations show that about 70% of the differences between the gravity anomaly values calculated by recent global geopotential models and those observed at the points in flat areas are within ±10 mGal, in mountainous areas are within ±20 mGal.
Shallow-water models for gravity currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montgomery, Patrick James
Gravity currents, produced by the instantaneous release of a finite volume of dense fluid beneath a layer of lighter fluid and overlying a spatially-varying rigid bottom boundary, are modelled as discontinuous solutions to the systems of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws arising from a shallow-water model. Equations of motion for two stably-stratified fluids of constant density are derived for the incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations for small aspect ratio flow in an Eulerian fluid, and the equations are nondimensionalized using a gravity current scaling so that they may be stated as a first order system of partial differential equations. The model equations neglect the effects of turbulence, entrainment, density stratification, and viscosity, but include the Coriolis force, variable topography, and bottom friction. Special cases are stated for one-layer three-dimensional axisymmetric flow, and in the two-dimensional case for flow with a free surface, rigid lid, thin upper or lower layer, or small density differences. These equations are then stated as a nonlinear system of conservation laws. The model equations are classified as hyperbolic, with defined regions of hyperbolicity stated where possible. When in conservation form, discontinuous solutions are considered, and the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions derived for solutions which are trivial on one side of the shock. The initial release problem is shown to be well-posed by the method of localization. By approximating a gravity current front as a vertical discontinuity, the initial release problem is solved numerically by use of a relaxation method designed for systems of hyperbolic conservation laws and adapted to include boundary conditions and forcing terms. The usefulness of this method is demonstrated by several diagrams which show the effects of bottom slope and friction in the two-dimensional case, and of bottom slope and rotation in the three-dimensional one. Since the relaxation method is
Validation of GOCE global gravity field models using terrestrial gravity data in Norway
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Šprlák, M.; Gerlach, C.; Pettersen, B.
2012-01-01
The GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) satellite gravity gradiometry mission maps the Earth's gravity field. Harmonic analysis of GOCE observations provides a global gravity field model (GGFM). Three theoretical strategies, namely the direct, the space-wise and the time-wise approach, have been proposed for GOCE harmonic analysis. Based on these three methods, several GGFMs have been provided to the user community by ESA. Thereby different releases are derived from different periods of GOCE observations and some of the models are based on combinations with other sources of gravity field information. Due to the multitude of GOCE GGFMs, validation against independent data is a crucial task for the quality description of the different models. In this study, GOCE GGFMs from three releases are validated with respect to terrestrial free-air gravity anomalies in Norway. The spectral enhancement method is applied to avoid spectral inconsistency between the terrestrial and the GOCE free-air gravity anomalies. The results indicate that the time-wise approach is a reliable harmonic analysis procedure in all three releases of GOCE models. The space-wise approach, available in two releases, provides similar results as the time-wise approach. The direct approach seems to be highly affected by a-priori information.
Modified gravity, the Cascading DGP model and its critical tension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sbisà, Fulvio
2014-12-01
We investigate the presence of instabilities in the Cascading DGP model. We start by discussing the problem of the cosmological late time acceleration, and we introduce the modified gravity approach. We then focus on brane induced gravity models and in particular on the Cascading DGP model. We consider configurations of the latter model where the source term is given simply by vacuum energy (pure tension), and we study perturbations at first order around these configurations. We perform a four-dimensional scalar-vector-tensor decomposition of the perturbations, and show that, regarding the scalar sector, the dynamics in a suitable limit can be described by a master equation. This master equation contains an energy scale (critical tension) which is related in a lion-trivial way to the parameters of the model. We give a geometrical interpretation of why this scale emerges, and explain its relevance for the presence of ghost instabilities in the theory. We comment on the difference between our result, and the one present in the literature, and stress its importance regarding the phenomenological viability of the model. We finally provide a numerical check which confirms the validity of our analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vincent, S.; Marsh, J. G.
1973-01-01
A global detailed gravimetric geoid has been computed by combining the Goddard Space Flight Center GEM-4 gravity model derived from satellite and surface gravity data and surface 1 deg-by-1 deg mean free air gravity anomaly data. The accuracy of the geoid is + or - 2 meters on continents, 5 to 7 meters in areas where surface gravity data are sparse, and 10 to 15 meters in areas where no surface gravity data are available. Comparisons have been made with the astrogeodetic data provided by Rice (United States), Bomford (Europe), and Mather (Australia). Comparisons have also been carried out with geoid heights derived from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.
Modeling human perception of orientation in altered gravity.
Clark, Torin K; Newman, Michael C; Oman, Charles M; Merfeld, Daniel M; Young, Laurence R
2015-01-01
Altered gravity environments, such as those experienced by astronauts, impact spatial orientation perception, and can lead to spatial disorientation and sensorimotor impairment. To more fully understand and quantify the impact of altered gravity on orientation perception, several mathematical models have been proposed. The utricular shear, tangent, and the idiotropic vector models aim to predict static perception of tilt in hyper-gravity. Predictions from these prior models are compared to the available data, but are found to systematically err from the perceptions experimentally observed. Alternatively, we propose a modified utricular shear model for static tilt perception in hyper-gravity. Previous dynamic models of vestibular function and orientation perception are limited to 1 G. Specifically, they fail to predict the characteristic overestimation of roll tilt observed in hyper-gravity environments. To address this, we have proposed a modification to a previous observer-type canal-otolith interaction model based upon the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS) treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. Here we evaluate our modified utricular shear and modified observer models in four altered gravity motion paradigms: (a) static roll tilt in hyper-gravity, (b) static pitch tilt in hyper-gravity, (c) static roll tilt in hypo-gravity, and (d) static pitch tilt in hypo-gravity. The modified models match available data in each of the conditions considered. Our static modified utricular shear model and dynamic modified observer model may be used to help quantitatively predict astronaut perception of orientation in altered gravity environments. PMID:25999822
Modeling human perception of orientation in altered gravity
Clark, Torin K.; Newman, Michael C.; Oman, Charles M.; Merfeld, Daniel M.; Young, Laurence R.
2015-01-01
Altered gravity environments, such as those experienced by astronauts, impact spatial orientation perception, and can lead to spatial disorientation and sensorimotor impairment. To more fully understand and quantify the impact of altered gravity on orientation perception, several mathematical models have been proposed. The utricular shear, tangent, and the idiotropic vector models aim to predict static perception of tilt in hyper-gravity. Predictions from these prior models are compared to the available data, but are found to systematically err from the perceptions experimentally observed. Alternatively, we propose a modified utricular shear model for static tilt perception in hyper-gravity. Previous dynamic models of vestibular function and orientation perception are limited to 1 G. Specifically, they fail to predict the characteristic overestimation of roll tilt observed in hyper-gravity environments. To address this, we have proposed a modification to a previous observer-type canal-otolith interaction model based upon the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS) treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. Here we evaluate our modified utricular shear and modified observer models in four altered gravity motion paradigms: (a) static roll tilt in hyper-gravity, (b) static pitch tilt in hyper-gravity, (c) static roll tilt in hypo-gravity, and (d) static pitch tilt in hypo-gravity. The modified models match available data in each of the conditions considered. Our static modified utricular shear model and dynamic modified observer model may be used to help quantitatively predict astronaut perception of orientation in altered gravity environments. PMID:25999822
GOCE gravity field models following the time-wise approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brockmann, Jan Martin; Höck, Eduard; Loth, Ina; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Pail, Roland; Schuh, Wolf-Dieter; Zehentner, Norbert
2015-04-01
Since the launch of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Gravity field and Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite in 2009 and its end in 2013, a sequence of official GOCE gravity field models was released. One of the series of models follows the so called time-wise approach (EGM_TIM). They are purely based on GOCE observations such that they are independent of any other gravity field information available and describe the Earth's gravity field as seen by GOCE. Recently, the fifth release, EGM_TIM_RL05, was computed and made available to users. The models of the time-wise series were computed within the ESA funded High-level Processing Facility (HPF) and are part of the official ESA GOCE products. Calibrated gravity gradients in the gradiometer reference frame and the satellites position as derived by GPS measurements entered the solutions as observations. Together with the spherical harmonic coefficients, a realistic the full covariance matrix is provided reflecting the model quality. This contribution summarizes the gravity field models derived with the time-wise approach. The method is summarized and the progress along the five releases is highlighted. Special focus is put on the final release 5, the gravity field model which includes all data collected during the entire GOCE mission. This model, parametrized as 78,957 spherical harmonic coefficients (spatial resolution of 71 km), was determined from 4*109,799,264 gravity gradient measurements and 108,754,709 three dimensional positions within a joint least squares adjustment procedure. As this gravity field models only depend on GOCE observations, the gain of GOCE compared to other missions and other gravity field products can be clearly demonstrated. With release 5 of the time-wise model, a pure GOCE based model with a mean global accuracy of 2.4 cm at a spatial resolution of 100 km for the geoid is available (0.7 mGal for gravity anomalies).
Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements in Low Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
VanderWal, R. L.
1997-01-01
A low-gravity environment offers advantages to investigations concerned with soot growth or flame radiation by eliminating of buoyancy-induced convection. Basic to each type of study is knowledge of spatially resolved soot volume fraction, (f(sub v). Laser-induced incandescence (LII) has emerged as a diagnostic for soot volume fraction determination because it possesses high temporal and spatial resolution, geometric versatility and high sensitivity. Implementation and system characterization of LII in a drop tower that provides 2.2 sec of low-gravity (micro)g) at the NASA Lewis Research Center are described here. Validation of LII for soot volume fraction determination in (micro)g is performed by comparison between soot volume fraction measurements obtained by light extinction [20] and LII in low-gravity for a 50/50 mixture (by volume) of 0 acetylene/nitrogen issuing into quiescent air. Quantitative soot volume fraction measurements within other laminar flames of ethane and propane and a turbulent diffusion flame in (micro)g via LII are also demonstrated. An analysis of LII images of a turbulent acetylene diffusion flame in 1-g and (micro)g is presented.
A multiresolution model for small-body gravity estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Brandon A.; Beylkin, Gregory; Born, George H.; Provence, Robert S.
2011-11-01
A new model, dubbed the MRQSphere, provides a multiresolution representation of the gravity field designed for its estimation. The multiresolution representation uses an approximation via Gaussians of the solution of the Laplace's equation in the exterior of a sphere. Also, instead of the spherical harmonics, variations in the angular variables are modeled by a set of functions constructed using quadratures for the sphere invariant under the icosahedral group. When combined, these tools specify the spatial resolution of the gravity field as a function of altitude and required accuracy. We define this model, and apply it to representing and estimating the gravity field of the asteroid 433 Eros. We verified that a MRQSphere model derived directly from the true spherical harmonics gravity model satisfies the user defined precision. We also use the MRQSphere model to estimate the gravity field of Eros for a simulated satellite mission, yielding a solution with accuracy only limited by measurement errors and their spatial distribution.
Gravity-induced stresses near a vertical cliff
Savage, W.Z.
1993-01-01
The exact solution for gravity-induced stresses beneath a vertical cliff presented here has application to the design of cut slopes in rock, compares favorably with published photoelastic and finite-element results for this problem, and satisfies the condition that shear and normal stresses vanish on the ground surface, except at the bottom corner where stress concentrations exist. The solution predicts that horizontal stresses are tensile away from the bottom of the cliff-effects caused by movement below the cliff in response to the gravity loading of the cliff. Also, it is shown that along the top of the cliff normal stresses reduce to those predicted for laterally constrained flat-lying topography. ?? 1993.
Using precision gravity data in geothermal reservoir engineering modeling studies
Atkinson, Paul G.; Pederseen, Jens R.
1988-01-01
Precision gravity measurements taken at various times over a geothermal field can be used to derive information about influx into the reservoir. Output from a reservoir simulation program can be used to compute surface gravity fields and time histories. Comparison of such computer results with field-measured gravity data can add confidence to simulation models, and provide insight into reservoir processes. Such a comparison is made for the Bulalo field in the Philippines.
On a spectral method for forward gravity field modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Root, B. C.; Novák, P.; Dirkx, D.; Kaban, M.; van der Wal, W.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.
2016-07-01
This article reviews a spectral forward gravity field modelling method that was initially designed for topographic/isostatic mass reduction of gravity data. The method transforms 3D spherical density models into gravitational potential fields using a spherical harmonic representation. The binomial series approximation in the approach, which is crucial for its computational efficiency, is examined and an error analysis is performed. It is shown that, this method cannot be used for density layers in crustal and upper mantle regions, because it results in large errors in the modelled potential field. Here, a correction is proposed to mitigate this erroneous behaviour. The improved method is benchmarked with a tesseroid gravity field modelling method and is shown to be accurate within ±4 mGal for a layer representing the Moho density interface, which is below other errors in gravity field studies. After the proposed adjustment the method can be used for the global gravity modelling of the complete Earth's density structure.
Altered Gravity Induces Oxidative Stress in Drosophila Melanogaster
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Hosamani, Ravikumar
2015-01-01
Altered gravity environments can induce increased oxidative stress in biological systems. Microarray data from our previous spaceflight experiment (FIT experiment on STS-121) indicated significant changes in the expression of oxidative stress genes in adult fruit flies after spaceflight. Currently, our lab is focused on elucidating the role of hypergravity-induced oxidative stress and its impact on the nervous system in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochemical, molecular, and genetic approaches were combined to study this effect on the ground. Adult flies (2-3 days old) exposed to acute hypergravity (3g, for 1 hour and 2 hours) showed significantly elevated levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in fly brains compared to control samples. This data was supported by significant changes in mRNA expression of specific oxidative stress and antioxidant defense related genes. As anticipated, a stress-resistant mutant line, Indy302, was less vulnerable to hypergravity-induced oxidative stress compared to wild-type flies. Survival curves were generated to study the combined effect of hypergravity and pro-oxidant treatment. Interestingly, many of the oxidative stress changes that were measured in flies showed sex specific differences. Collectively, our data demonstrate that altered gravity significantly induces oxidative stress in Drosophila, and that one of the organs where this effect is evident is the brain.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rios, J.
1982-01-01
The settling behavior of the liquid and gaseous phases of a fluid in a propellant and in a zero-g environment, when such settling is induced through the use of a dynamic device, in this particular case, a helical screw was studied. Particular emphasis was given to: (1) the description of a fluid mechanics model which seems applicable to the system under consideration, (2) a First Law of Thermodynamics analysis of the system, and (3) a discussion of applicable scaling rules.
The combined satellite gravity field model GOCO05s
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayer-Guerr, Torsten
2015-04-01
The main objective of the GOCO ("Gravity Observation Combination") project is to compute high-accuracy and high-resolution static global gravity field models based on data of the dedicated satellite gravity missions CHAMP, GRACE, and GOCE, SLR data and kinematic orbits from different Low Earth Orbiters. For the computation of the new model GOCO05s more than 800,000,000 observations from 15 satellites are used to estimate about 122,000 gravity field parameters. GOCO05s consists not only of a static field up to degree and order 200, but the temporal variations of the gravity field are modeled as well. These are represented as regularized trend and annual signal. The main focus in the GOCO combination process is on the proper handling of the stochastic behavior of the data. Therefore, the resulting accuracy information in terms of a full variance covariance matrix is quite realistic and also published with the solution.
Gravity gradient grids at GOCE satellite altitude for lithospheric modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouman, Johannes; Ebbing, Jörg; Sebera, Josef; Fuchs, Martin; Lieb, Verena; Holzrichter, Nils; Novak, Pavel; Haagmans, Roger
2015-04-01
We explore how GOCE gravity gradient data can improve modeling of the Earth's lithosphere and thereby contribute to a better understanding of the Earth's dynamic processes. We study the use of gravity gradient grids to provide improved information about the lithosphere and upper mantle in the well-surveyed North-East Atlantic Margin. In particular, we present the computation of gravity gradient grids at GOCE satellite altitude combining GOCE with GRACE gravity information. It is shown that regional solutions based on a tesseroid approach may contain more signal content than global gravity field models do. The patchwork of regional grids is presented as well as the subsequent error reduction through iterative downward and upward continuation using the Poisson integral equation. The promises and pitfalls are discussed of using grids at nominal altitude of 255 km and a lower altitude of 225 km for lithospheric modeling.
A dynamic model of Venus's gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiefer, W. S.; Richards, M. A.; Hager, B. H.; Bills, B. G.
1984-01-01
Unlike Earth, long wavelength gravity anomalies and topography correlate well on Venus. Venus's admittance curve from spherical harmonic degree 2 to 18 is inconsistent with either Airy or Pratt isostasy, but is consistent with dynamic support from mantle convection. A model using whole mantle flow and a high viscosity near surface layer overlying a constant viscosity mantle reproduces this admittance curve. On Earth, the effective viscosity deduced from geoid modeling increases by a factor of 300 from the asthenosphere to the lower mantle. These viscosity estimates may be biased by the neglect of lateral variations in mantle viscosity associated with hot plumes and cold subducted slabs. The different effective viscosity profiles for Earth and Venus may reflect their convective styles, with tectonism and mantle heat transport dominated by hot plumes on Venus and by subducted slabs on Earth. Convection at degree 2 appears much stronger on Earth than on Venus. A degree 2 convective structure may be unstable on Venus, but may have been stabilized on Earth by the insulating effects of the Pangean supercontinental assemblage.
A dynamic model of Venus's gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiefer, W. S.; Richards, M. A.; Hager, B. H.; Bills, B. G.
1986-01-01
Unlike Earth, long wavelength gravity anomalies and topography correlate well on Venus. Venus's admittance curve from spherical harmonic degree 2 to 18 is inconsistent with either Airy or Pratt isostasy, but is consistent with dynamic support from mantle convection. A model using whole mantle flow and a high viscosity near surface layer overlying a constant viscosity mantle reproduces this admittance curve. On Earth, the effective viscosity deduced from geoid modeling increases by a factor of 300 from the asthenosphere to the lower mantle. These viscosity estimates may be biased by the neglect of lateral variations in mantle viscosity associated with hot plumes and cold subducted slabs. The different effective viscosity profiles for Earth and Venus may reflect their convective styles, with tectonism and mantle heat transport dominated by hot plumes on Venus and by subducted slabs on Earth. Convection at degree 2 appears much stronger on Earth than on Venus. A degree 2 convective structure may be unstable on Venus, but may have been stabilized on Earth by the insulating effects of the Pangean supercontinental assemblage.
Lensing-induced morphology changes in CMB temperature maps in modified gravity theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munshi, D.; Hu, B.; Matsubara, T.; Coles, P.; Heavens, A.
2016-04-01
Lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) changes the morphology of pattern of temperature fluctuations, so topological descriptors such as Minkowski Functionals can probe the gravity model responsible for the lensing. We show how the recently introduced two-to-two and three-to-one kurt-spectra (and their associated correlation functions), which depend on the power spectrum of the lensing potential, can be used to probe modified gravity theories such as f(R) theories of gravity and quintessence models. We also investigate models based on effective field theory, which include the constant-Ω model, and low-energy Hořava theories. Estimates of the cumulative signal-to-noise for detection of lensing-induced morphology changes, reaches Script O(103) for the future planned CMB polarization mission COrE+. Assuming foreground removal is possible to lmax=3000, we show that many modified gravity theories can be rejected with a high level of significance, making this technique comparable in power to galaxy weak lensing or redshift surveys. These topological estimators are also useful in distinguishing lensing from other scattering secondaries at the level of the four-point function or trispectrum. Examples include the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect which shares, with lensing, a lack of spectral distortion. We also discuss the complication of foreground contamination from unsubtracted point sources.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsoulis, Dimitrios; Patlakis, Konstantinos
2014-08-01
The availability of digital elevation databases representing the topographic and bathymetric relief with global homogeneous coverage and increasing resolution permits the computation of crust-related Earth gravity models, the so-called topographic/isostatic Earth gravity models (henceforth T/I models). Although expressing the spherical harmonic content of the topographic masses, the interpretation purpose of T/I models has not been given the attention it deserves, apart from the fact that they express some degree of compensation to the observed spectrum of the topographic heights, depending on the kind of the applied compensation mechanism. The present contribution attempts to improve the interpretation aspects of T/I Earth gravity models. To this end, a rigorous spectral assessment is performed to a standard Airy/Heiskanen T/I model against different CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP), Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), Gravity field and steadystate Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite-only, and combined gravity models. Different correlation bandwidths emerge for these four groups of satellite-based gravity models. The band-limited forward computation of the models using these bandwidths reproduces nicely the main features of the applied T/I model.
Gravity field models derived from Swarm GPS data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teixeira da Encarnação, João; Arnold, Daniel; Bezděk, Aleš; Dahle, Christoph; Doornbos, Eelco; van den IJssel, Jose; Jäggi, Adrian; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Sebera, Josef; Visser, Pieter; Zehentner, Norbert
2016-07-01
It is of great interest to numerous geophysical studies that the time series of global gravity field models derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data remains uninterrupted after the end of this mission. With this in mind, some institutes have been spending efforts to estimate gravity field models from alternative sources of gravimetric data. This study focuses on the gravity field solutions estimated from Swarm global positioning system (GPS) data, produced by the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern, the Astronomical Institute (ASU, Czech Academy of Sciences) and Institute of Geodesy (IfG, Graz University of Technology). The three sets of solutions are based on different approaches, namely the celestial mechanics approach, the acceleration approach and the short-arc approach, respectively. We derive the maximum spatial resolution of the time-varying gravity signal in the Swarm gravity field models to be degree 12, in comparison with the more accurate models obtained from K-band ranging data of GRACE. We demonstrate that the combination of the GPS-driven models produced with the three different approaches improves the accuracy in all analysed monthly solutions, with respect to any of them. In other words, the combined gravity field model consistently benefits from the individual strengths of each separate solution. The improved accuracy of the combined model is expected to bring benefits to the geophysical studies during the period when no dedicated gravimetric mission is operational.
Gravity and Flexure Modelling of Subducting Plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunter, J. A.; Watts, A. B.; SO 215 Shipboard Scientific Party
2012-04-01
The long-term strength of the lithosphere is determined by its flexural rigidity, which is commonly expressed through the effective elastic thickness, Te. Flexure studies have revealed a dependence of Te on thermal age. In the oceans, loads formed on young (70 Ma) seafloor. In the continents, loads on young (1000 Ma) lithosphere. Recent studies have questioned the relationship of Te with age, especially at subduction zones, where oceanic and continental lithosphere are flexed downwards by up to ~6 km over horizontal distances of up to ~350 km. We have therefore used free-air gravity anomaly and topography profile data, combined with forward and inverse modelling techniques, to re-assess Te in these settings. Preliminary inverse modelling results from the Tonga-Kermadec Trench - Outer Rise system, where the Pacific plate is subducting beneath the Indo-Australian plate, show large spatial variations in Te that are unrelated to age. In contrast to the southern end of the system, where Te is determined by the depth to the 600° C and 900° C isotherms, the northern end of the system shows a reduction in strength. Results also suggest a reduction in Te trenchward of the outer rise that is coincident with a region of pervasive extensional faulting visible in swath bathymetry data. In a continental setting, the Ganges foreland basin has formed by flexure of the Indo-Australian plate in front of the migrating loads of the Himalaya. Preliminary forward modelling results, using the Himalaya as a known surface topographic load, suggest that Te is high - consistent with the great age of Indian cratonic lithosphere. However, results from inverse modelling that solves for unknown loads (vertical shear force and bending moment) show significant scatter and display trade-offs between Te and these driving loads.
New Gravity Wave Treatments for GISS Climate Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Ruedy, Reto; Aleinov, Igor; Nazarenko, Larissa; Tausnev, Nikolai L.; Sun, Shan; Kelley, Maxwell; Cheng, Ye
2011-01-01
Previous versions of GISS climate models have either used formulations of Rayleigh drag to represent unresolved gravity wave interactions with the model-resolved flow or have included a rather complicated treatment of unresolved gravity waves that, while being climate interactive, involved the specification of a relatively large number of parameters that were not well constrained by observations and also was computationally very expensive. Here, the authors introduce a relatively simple and computationally efficient specification of unresolved orographic and nonorographic gravity waves and their interaction with the resolved flow. Comparisons of the GISS model winds and temperatures with no gravity wave parameterization; with only orographic gravity wave parameterization; and with both orographic and nonorographic gravity wave parameterizations are shown to illustrate how the zonal mean winds and temperatures converge toward observations. The authors also show that the specifications of orographic and nonorographic gravity waves must be different in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Then results are presented where the nonorographic gravity wave sources are specified to represent sources from convection in the intertropical convergence zone and spontaneous emission from jet imbalances. Finally, a strategy to include these effects in a climate-dependent manner is suggested.
New Gravity Wave Treatments for GISS Climate Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Ruedy, Reto; Aleinov, Igor; Nazarenko, Larissa; Tausnev, Nikolai L.; Sun, Shan; Kelley, Maxwell; Cheng, Ye
2010-01-01
Previous versions of GISS climate models have either used formulations of Rayleigh drag to represent unresolved gravity wave interactions with the model resolved flow or have included a rather complicated treatment of unresolved gravity waves that, while being climate interactive, involved the specification of a relatively large number of parameters that were not well constrained by observations and also was computationally very expensive. Here, we introduce a relatively simple and computationally efficient specification of unresolved orographic and non-orographic gravity waves and their interaction with the resolved flow. We show comparisons of the GISS model winds and temperatures with no gravity wave parametrization; with only orographic gravity wave parameterization; and with both orographic and non-orographic gravity wave parameterizations to illustrate how the zonal mean winds and temperatures converge toward observations. We also show that the specifications of orographic and nonorographic gravity waves must be different in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. We then show results where the non-orographic gravity wave sources are specified to represent sources from convection in the Intertropical Convergence Zone and spontaneous emission from jet imbalances. Finally, we suggest a strategy to include these effects in a climate dependent manner.
Multi-scale gravity field modeling in space and time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shuo; Panet, Isabelle; Ramillien, Guillaume; Guilloux, Frédéric
2016-04-01
The Earth constantly deforms as it undergoes dynamic phenomena, such as earthquakes, post-glacial rebound and water displacement in its fluid envelopes. These processes have different spatial and temporal scales and are accompanied by mass displacements, which create temporal variations of the gravity field. Since 2002, the GRACE satellite missions provide an unprecedented view of the gravity field spatial and temporal variations. Gravity models built from these satellite data are essential to study the Earth's dynamic processes (Tapley et al., 2004). Up to present, time variations of the gravity field are often modelled using spatial spherical harmonics functions averaged over a fixed period, as 10 days or 1 month. This approach is well suited for modeling global phenomena. To better estimate gravity related to local and/or transient processes, such as earthquakes or floods, and adapt the temporal resolution of the model to its spatial resolution, we propose to model the gravity field using localized functions in space and time. For that, we build a model of the gravity field in space and time with a four-dimensional wavelet basis, well localized in space and time. First we design the 4D basis, then, we study the inverse problem to model the gravity field from the potential differences between the twin GRACE satellites, and its regularization using prior knowledge on the water cycle. Our demonstration of surface water mass signals decomposition in time and space is based on the use of synthetic along-track gravitational potential data. We test the developed approach on one year of 4D gravity modeling and compare the reconstructed water heights to those of the input hydrological model. Perspectives of this work is to apply the approach on real GRACE data, addressing the challenge of a realistic noise, to better describe and understand physical processus with high temporal resolution/low spatial resolution or the contrary.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poisson, Eric; Will, Clifford M.
2014-05-01
Preface; 1. Foundations of Newtonian gravity; 2. Structure of self-gravitating bodies; 3. Newtonian orbital dynamics; 4. Minkowski spacetime; 5. Curved spacetime; 6. Post-Minkowskian theory: formulation; 7. Post-Minkowskian theory: implementation; 8. Post-Newtonian theory: fundamentals; 9. Post-Newtonian theory: system of isolated bodies; 10. Post-Newtonian celestial mechanics, astrometry and navigation; 11. Gravitational waves; 12. Radiative losses and radiation reaction; 13. Alternative theories of gravity; References; Index.
Eruptive Source Parameters from Near-Source Gravity Waves Induced by Large Vulcanian eruptions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barfucci, Giulia; Ripepe, Maurizio; De Angelis, Silvio; Lacanna, Giorgio; Marchetti, Emanuele
2016-04-01
The sudden ejection of hot material from volcanic vent perturbs the atmosphere generating a broad spectrum of pressure oscillations from acoustic infrasound (<10 Hz) to gravity waves (<0.03 Hz). However observations of gravity waves excited by volcanic eruptions are still rare, mostly limited to large sub-plinian eruptions and frequently at large distance from the source (>100 km). Atmospheric Gravity waves are induced by perturbations of the hydrostatic equilibrium of the atmosphere and propagate within a medium with internal density stratification. They are initiated by mechanisms that cause the atmosphere to be displaced as for the injection of volcanic ash plume during an eruption. We use gravity waves to infer eruptive source parameters, such as mass eruption rate (MER) and duration of the eruption, which may be used as inputs in the volcanic ash transport and dispersion models. We present the analysis of near-field observations (<7 km) of atmospheric gravity waves, with frequencies of 0.97 and 1.15 mHz, recorded by a pressure sensors network during two explosions in July and December 2008 at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. We show that gravity waves at Soufrière Hills Volcano originate above the volcanic dome and propagate with an apparent horizontal velocities of 8-10 m/s. Assuming a single mass injection point source model, we constrain the source location at ~3.5 km a.s.l., above the vent, duration of the gas thrust < 140 s and MERs of 2.6 and 5.4 x10E7 kg/s, for the two eruptive events. Source duration and MER derived by modeling Gravity Waves are fully compatible with others independent estimates from field observations. Our work strongly supports the use of gravity waves to model eruption source parameters and can have a strong impact on our ability to monitor volcanic eruption at a large distance and may have future application in assessing the relative magnitude of volcanic explosions.
Model-independent constraints on possible modifications of Newtonian gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Talmadge, C.; Berthias, J.-P.; Hellings, R. W.; Standish, E. M.
1988-01-01
New model-independent constraints on possible modifications of Newtonian gravity over solar-system distance scales are presented, and their implications discussed. The constraints arise from the analysis of various planetary astrometric data sets. The results of the model-independent analysis are then applied to set limits on a variation in the l/r-squared behavior of gravity, on possible Yukawa-type interactions with ranges of the order of planetary distance scales, and on a deviation from Newtonian gravity of the type discussed by Milgrom (1983).
Accurate method of modeling cluster scaling relations in modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Jian-hua; Li, Baojiu
2016-06-01
We propose a new method to model cluster scaling relations in modified gravity. Using a suite of nonradiative hydrodynamical simulations, we show that the scaling relations of accumulated gas quantities, such as the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (Compton-y parameter) and the x-ray Compton-y parameter, can be accurately predicted using the known results in the Λ CDM model with a precision of ˜3 % . This method provides a reliable way to analyze the gas physics in modified gravity using the less demanding and much more efficient pure cold dark matter simulations. Our results therefore have important theoretical and practical implications in constraining gravity using cluster surveys.
Gravity Modelling of the Santa Marta Impact Structure, Northeastern Brazil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasconcelos, M. A. R.; Crósta, A. P.; Leite, E. P.
2014-09-01
The gravity signature of the Santa Marta impact structure shows an asymmetry of the structure with more elevated strata in the western rim compared to the eastern rim. Our model also shows the center roughly marked by an uplift.
The combined gravity field model GOCO05c
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fecher, Thomas; Pail, Roland; Gruber, Thomas; GOCO Project Team
2016-04-01
Knowledge of the static gravity field is of importance for various scientific disciplines, such as geodesy, geophysics and oceanography. While for geophysics the gravity field provides insight into the Earth's interior, the geoid serves as an important reference surface for oceanographic applications. Moreover this reference surface is a key parameter on the way to a globally unified height system. In order to exploit the full potential of gravity measurements and to achieve the best gravity field solution, all kinds of complementary gravity field information have to be combined. By combining GRACE and GOCE information, a state of the art satellite-only gravity field is available, which is highly accurate at the very long to medium wavelengths (80-100 km). By adding information from terrestrial/airborne gravimetry and satellite altimetry, which both are measurement techniques providing short wavelength gravity information beyond the resolution of GOCE, the full gravity field spectrum can be obtained. This paper focuses on the presentation of the combined gravity field model GOCO05c, a global gravity field model up to degree and order 720 based on full normal equation systems (more than 500,000 parameters). During the calculation of GOCO05c we put emphasis on the question how the complementary data types can be combined in a global gravity field model in the way that all data types keep their specific strengths and are not degraded by the combination with other information in certain wavelengths. Realistic stochastic modelling and a tailored weighting scheme among all available data results in different regional relative weighting of satellite and terrestrial data in the combined solution, mainly depending on the quality of the available terrestrial gravity information. From this procedure, as complementary product realistic error estimates are available in terms of a full-covariance matrix, which can be mapped in a spatial error grid reflecting regionally specific
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mulugeta, L.; Werner, C. R.; Pennline, J. A.
2015-01-01
During exploration class missions, such as to asteroids and Mars, astronauts will be exposed to reduced gravity for extended periods. Data has shown that astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1% to 2% a month in microgravity, particularly in lower extremities such as the proximal femur. Exercise countermeasures have not completely eliminated bone loss from long duration spaceflight missions, which leaves astronauts susceptible to early onset osteoporosis and greater risk of fracture. Introduction of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and other large exercise devices on the International Space Station (ISS), coupled with improved nutrition, has further minimized bone loss. However, unlike the ISS, exploration vehicles will have very limited volume and power available to accommodate such capabilities. Therefore, novel concepts like artificial gravity systems are being explored as a means to provide sufficient load stimulus to the musculoskeletal system to mitigate bone changes that may lead to early onset osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture. Currently, there is minimal data available to drive further research and development efforts to appropriately explore such options. Computational modeling can be leveraged to gain insight on the level of osteoprotection that may be achieved using artificial gravity produced by a spinning spacecraft or centrifuge. With this in mind, NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has developed a bone remodeling model that has been validated for predicting volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) changes of trabecular and cortical bone both for gravitational unloading condition and the equivalent of 1g daily load stimulus. Using this model, it is possible to simulate vBMD changes in trabecular and cortical bone under different gravity conditions. In this presentation, we will discuss our preliminary findings regarding if and how artificial gravity may be used to mitigate spaceflight induced bone loss.
Analysis of a jet stream induced gravity wave associated with an observed ice cloud over Greenland
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buss, S.; Hertzog, A.; Hostettler, C.; Bui, T. P.; Lüthi, T.; Wernli, H.
2003-11-01
A polar stratospheric ice cloud (PSC type II) was observed by airborne lidar above Greenland on 14 January 2000. Is was the unique observation of an ice cloud over Greenland during the SOLVE/THESEO 2000 campaign. Mesoscale simulations with the hydrostatic HRM model are presented which, in contrast to global analyses, are capable to produce a vertically propagating gravity wave that induces the low temperatures at the level of the PSC afforded for the ice formation. The simulated minimum temperature is ~8 K below the driving analyses and ~3 K below the frost point, exactly coinciding with the location of the observed ice cloud. Despite the high elevations of the Greenland orography the simulated gravity wave is not a mountain wave. Analyses of the horizontal wind divergence, of the background wind profiles, of backward gravity wave ray-tracing trajectories, of HRM experiments with reduced Greenland topography and of several instability diagnostics near the tropopause level provide consistent evidence that the wave is emitted by the geostrophic adjustment of a jet instability associated with an intense, rapidly evolving, anticyclonically curved jet stream. In order to evaluate the potential frequency of such non-orographic polar stratospheric cloud events, an approximate jet instability diagnostic is performed for the winter 1999/2000. It indicates that ice-PSCs are only occasionally generated by gravity waves emanating from an unstable jet.
Anisotropic stress and stability in modified gravity models
Saltas, Ippocratis D.; Kunz, Martin
2011-03-15
The existence of anisotropic stress of a purely geometrical origin seems to be a characteristic of higher order gravity models, and has been suggested as a probe to test these models observationally, for example, in weak lensing experiments. In this paper, we seek to find a class of higher order gravity models of f(R,G) type that would give us a zero anisotropic stress and study the consequences for the viability of the actual model. For the special case of a de Sitter background, we identify a subclass of models with the desired property. We also find a direct link between anisotropic stress and the stability of the model as well as the presence of extra degrees of freedom, which seems to be a general feature of higher order gravity models. Particularly, setting the anisotropic stress equal to zero for a de Sitter background leads to a singularity that makes it impossible to reach the de Sitter evolution.
Intraspecific differences in bacterial responses to modelled reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, P. W.; Leff, L. G.
2005-01-01
AIMS: Bacteria are important residents of water systems, including those of space stations which feature specific environmental conditions, such as lowered effects of gravity. The purpose of this study was to compare responses with modelled reduced gravity of space station, water system bacterial isolates with other isolates of the same species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacterial isolates, Stenotrophomonas paucimobilis and Acinetobacter radioresistens, originally recovered from the water supply aboard the International Space Station (ISS) were grown in nutrient broth under modelled reduced gravity. Their growth was compared with type strains S. paucimobilis ATCC 10829 and A. radioresistens ATCC 49000. Acinetobacter radioresistens ATCC 49000 and the two ISS isolates showed similar growth profiles under modelled reduced gravity compared with normal gravity, whereas S. paucimobilis ATCC 10829 was negatively affected by modelled reduced gravity. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that microgravity might have selected for bacteria that were able to thrive under this unusual condition. These responses, coupled with impacts of other features (such as radiation resistance and ability to persist under very oligotrophic conditions), may contribute to the success of these water system bacteria. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Water quality is a significant factor in many environments including the ISS. Efforts to remove microbial contaminants are likely to be complicated by the features of these bacteria which allow them to persist under the extreme conditions of the systems.
Classifying linearly shielded modified gravity models in effective field theory.
Lombriser, Lucas; Taylor, Andy
2015-01-23
We study the model space generated by the time-dependent operator coefficients in the effective field theory of the cosmological background evolution and perturbations of modified gravity and dark energy models. We identify three classes of modified gravity models that reduce to Newtonian gravity on the small scales of linear theory. These general classes contain enough freedom to simultaneously admit a matching of the concordance model background expansion history. In particular, there exists a large model space that mimics the concordance model on all linear quasistatic subhorizon scales as well as in the background evolution. Such models also exist when restricting the theory space to operators introduced in Horndeski scalar-tensor gravity. We emphasize that whereas the partially shielded scenarios might be of interest to study in connection with tensions between large and small scale data, with conventional cosmological probes, the ability to distinguish the fully shielded scenarios from the concordance model on near-horizon scales will remain limited by cosmic variance. Novel tests of the large-scale structure remedying this deficiency and accounting for the full covariant nature of the alternative gravitational theories, however, might yield further insights on gravity in this regime. PMID:25658988
Joint analysis of the seismic data and velocity gravity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belyakov, A. S.; Lavrov, V. S.; Muchamedov, V. A.; Nikolaev, A. V.
2016-03-01
We performed joint analysis of the seismic noises recorded at the Japanese Ogasawara station located on Titijima Island in the Philippine Sea using the STS-2 seismograph at the OSW station in the winter period of January 1-15, 2015, over the background of a velocity gravity model. The graphs prove the existence of a cause-and-effect relation between the seismic noise and gravity and allow us to consider it as a desired signal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Tao; Wang, Yan Ming
2016-07-01
One of the challenges for geoid determination is the combination of heterogeneous gravity data. Because of the distinctive spectral content of different data sets, spectral combination is a suitable candidate for its solution. The key to have a successful combination is to determine the proper spectral weights, or the error degree variances of each data set. In this paper, the error degree variances of terrestrial and airborne gravity data at low degrees are estimated by the aid of a satellite gravity model using harmonic analysis. For higher degrees, the error covariances are estimated from local gravity data first, and then used to compute the error degree variances. The white and colored noise models are also used to estimate the error degree variances of local gravity data for comparisons. Based on the error degree variances, the spectral weights of satellite gravity models, terrestrial and airborne gravity data are determined and applied for geoid computation in Texas area. The computed gravimetric geoid models are tested against an independent, highly accurate geoid profile of the Geoid Slope Validation Survey 2011 (GSVS11). The geoid computed by combining satellite gravity model GOCO03S and terrestrial (land and DTU13 altimetric) gravity data agrees with GSVS11 to ±1.1 cm in terms of standard deviation along a line of 325 km. After incorporating the airborne gravity data collected at 11 km altitude, the standard deviation is reduced to ±0.8 cm. Numerical tests demonstrate the feasibility of spectral combination in geoid computation and the contribution of airborne gravity in an area of high quality terrestrial gravity data. Using the GSVS11 data and the spectral combination, the degree of correctness of the error spectra and the quality of satellite gravity models can also be revealed.
Spherical collapse and cluster counts in modified gravity models
Martino, Matthew C.; Stabenau, Hans F.; Sheth, Ravi K.
2009-04-15
Modifications to the gravitational potential affect the nonlinear gravitational evolution of large scale structures in the Universe. To illustrate some generic features of such changes, we study the evolution of spherically symmetric perturbations when the modification is of Yukawa type; this is nontrivial, because we should not and do not assume that Birkhoff's theorem applies. We then show how to estimate the abundance of virialized objects in such models. Comparison with numerical simulations shows reasonable agreement: When normalized to have the same fluctuations at early times, weaker large scale gravity produces fewer massive halos. However, the opposite can be true for models that are normalized to have the same linear theory power spectrum today, so the abundance of rich clusters potentially places interesting constraints on such models. Our analysis also indicates that the formation histories and abundances of sufficiently low mass objects are unchanged from standard gravity. This explains why simulations have found that the nonlinear power spectrum at large k is unaffected by such modifications to the gravitational potential. In addition, the most massive objects in models with normalized cosmic microwave background and weaker gravity are expected to be similar to the high-redshift progenitors of the most massive objects in models with stronger gravity. Thus, the difference between the cluster and field galaxy populations is expected to be larger in models with stronger large scale gravity.
Gravity model improvement using GEOS-3 (GEM 9 and 10)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, F. J.; Klosko, S. M.; Laubscher, R. E.; Wagner, C. A.
1977-01-01
The use of collocation permitted GEM 9 to be a larger field than previous derived satellite models, GEM 9 having harmonics complete to 20 x 20 with selected higher degree terms. The satellite data set has approximately 840,000 observations, of which 200,000 are laser ranges taken on 9 satellites equipped with retroreflectors. GEM 10 is complete to 22 x 22 with selected higher degree terms out to degree and order 30 amounting to a total of 592 coefficients. Comparisons with surface gravity and altimeter data indicate a substantial improvement in GEM 9 over previous satellite solutions; GEM 9 is in even closer agreement with surface data than the previously published GEM 6 solution which contained surface gravity. In particular the free air gravity anomalies calculated from GEM 9 and a surface gravity solution are in excellent agreement for the high degree terms.
European tidal gravity: An improvement agreement between observations and models
Baker, T.F.; Edge, R.J.; Jeffries, G. )
1989-10-01
Tidal gravity observations were made at 5 sites in Europe using improved LaCoste and Romberg ET gravimeters. Special attention was paid to improving the accuracy of determining both the amplitude and phase in tidal gravity measurements. The measuring screws of the gravimeters were calibrated on the well established short range vertical gravity calibration lines at Hannover, FRG. For M{sub 2} and O{sub 1}, it is shown that there is a very significant improvement in the agreement between observations and models compared to previous European tidal gravity measurements. For O{sub 1}, the ocean tide loading and attraction is very small in Europe and these observations verify that the Dehant-Wahr anelastic body tide gravimetric factor is accurate to within 0.2%. There is no dependence upon lateral changes of Earth structure, at least within the accuracy of these measurements.
The DESIRE Airborne gravity project in the Dead Sea Basin and 3D numerical gravity modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, S.; Goetze, H.; Meyer, U.; Group, D.
2008-12-01
This geo-scientific research focuses on the geological setting of the Dead Sea Transform (DST) and the Dead Sea Basin (DSB) and its resulting pull-apart basins. Since the late 1970s, crustal scale geophysical experiments have been carried out in this region. However, the nature of the crust underlying the eastern and western shoulders of the DSB and underneath the DST itself is still a hotly debated topic among researchers. To address one of the central questions of plate tectonics - How do large transform systems work and what are their typical features? - An international geoscientific Dead Sea Integrated Research project (DESIRE) is being conducted by colleagues from Germany, Israel, Palestine, and Jordan. In order to provide a high resolution gravity database that support 3D numerical modeling and hence a more comprehensive understanding of the nature and segmentation of the DST, an airborne gravity survey as a part of the DESIRE project has been carried out from February to March 2007. The airborne gravity survey covered the DST from Elat/Aqaba in the South to the northern rim of the Dead Sea. The low speed and terrain-following helicopter gravity flights were performed to acquire the highest possible data quality. In total, 32 north-south profiles and 16 west-east profiles crossing the DST have been measured. Most of the profiles concentrated in areas that lacked terrestrial gravity data coverage, e. g. over the shoulders of the DSB. The airborne gravity data are merged with existing conventional (terrestrial) data sets to provide a seamless gravity map of the area of interest. Using that combined gravity dataset and DESIRE wide angle refractions seismic interpretation we modified density structures in the DSB. As results we estimated that (1) the Moho depth varies from 26 km in the Israel side to 34 km in the Jordan side. (2) The maximum thickness of the Dead Sea sediment Basin is about 15 km. (3) The salt rock with an average thickness of about 5 km is
Terrestrial Microgravity Model and Threshold Gravity Simulation using Magnetic Levitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramachandran, N.
2005-01-01
What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for such a gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successfully simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars. The paper will discuss experiments md modeling work to date in support of this project.
Gravity field models derived from Swarm GPS data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Teixeira da Encarnação, João; Arnold, Daniel; Bezděk, Aleš; Dahle, Christoph; Doornbos, Eelco; van den IJssel, Jose; Jäggi, Adrian; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Sebera, Josef; Visser, Pieter; Zehentner, Norbert
2016-04-01
The GPS instruments on-board the three Earth's Magnetic Field and Environment Explorer (Swarm) satellites provide the opportunity to measure the gravity field model at basin-wide spatial scales. In spite of being a geo-magnetic satellite mission, Swarm's GPS receiver collects highly accurate hl-SST data (van den IJssel et al., 2015), which has been exploited to produce gravity field models at a number of institutes, namely at the Astronomical Institute (ASU) of the Czech Academy of Sciences (Bezděk et al., 2014), the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB, Jäggi et al., 2015) and the Institute of Geodesy (IfG) of the Graz University of Technology (Zehentner et al., 2015). With the help of GRACE gravity field models, which are derived from much more accurate ll-SST data, we investigate the best combination strategy for producing a superior model on the basis of the solutions produced by the three institutes, similarly to the approach taken by the European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management project (http://egsiem.eu). We demonstrate that the Swarm-derived gravity field models are able to resolve monthly solutions with 1666km spatial resolutions (roughly up to degree 12). We illustrate how these monthly solutions correlate with GRACE-derived monthly solutions, for the period of 2014 - 2015, as well as indicate which geographical areas are measured more or less accurately.
Terrestrial Microgravity Model and Threshold Gravity Simulation sing Magnetic Levitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramachandran, N.
2005-01-01
What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for such a gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successiblly simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Qile; Guo, Jing; Hu, Zhigang; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan; Cai, Hua; Liu, Xianglin
2011-05-01
The GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) monthly gravity models have been independently produced and published by several research institutions, such as Center for Space Research (CSR), GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and Delft Institute of Earth Observation and Space Systems (DEOS). According to their processing standards, above institutions use the traditional variational approach except that the DEOS exploits the acceleration approach. The background force models employed are rather similar. The produced gravity field models generally agree with one another in the spatial pattern. However, there are some discrepancies in the gravity signal amplitude between solutions produced by different institutions. In particular, 10%-30% signal amplitude differences in some river basins can be observed. In this paper, we implemented a variant of the traditional variational approach and computed two sets of monthly gravity field solutions using the data from January 2005 to December 2006. The input data are K-band range-rates (KBRR) and kinematic orbits of GRACE satellites. The main difference in the production of our two types of models is how to deal with nuisance parameters. This type of parameters is necessary to absorb low-frequency errors in the data, which are mainly the aliasing and instrument errors. One way is to remove the nuisance parameters before estimating the geopotential coefficients, called NPARB approach in the paper. The other way is to estimate the nuisance parameters and geopotential coefficients simultaneously, called NPESS approach. These two types of solutions mainly differ in geopotential coefficients from degree 2 to 5. This can be explained by the fact that the nuisance parameters and the gravity field coefficients are highly correlated, particularly at low degrees. We compare these solutions with the official and published ones by means of spectral analysis. It is
An improved model for the Earth's gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tapley, B. D.; Shum, C. K.; Yuan, D. N.; Ries, J. C.; Schutz, B. E.
1989-01-01
An improved model for the Earth's gravity field, TEG-1, was determined using data sets from fourteen satellites, spanning the inclination ranges from 15 to 115 deg, and global surface gravity anomaly data. The satellite measurements include laser ranging data, Doppler range-rate data, and satellite-to-ocean radar altimeter data measurements, which include the direct height measurement and the differenced measurements at ground track crossings (crossover measurements). Also determined was another gravity field model, TEG-1S, which included all the data sets in TEG-1 with the exception of direct altimeter data. The effort has included an intense scrutiny of the gravity field solution methodology. The estimated parameters included geopotential coefficients complete to degree and order 50 with selected higher order coefficients, ocean and solid Earth tide parameters, Doppler tracking station coordinates and the quasi-stationary sea surface topography. Extensive error analysis and calibration of the formal covariance matrix indicate that the gravity field model is a significant improvement over previous models and can be used for general applications in geodesy.
ELIASSI,MEHDI; GLASS JR.,ROBERT J.
2000-03-08
The authors consider the ability of the numerical solution of Richards equation to model gravity-driven fingers. Although gravity-driven fingers can be easily simulated using a partial downwind averaging method, they find the fingers are purely artificial, generated by the combined effects of truncation error induced oscillations and capillary hysteresis. Since Richards equation can only yield a monotonic solution for standard constitutive relations and constant flux boundary conditions, it is not the valid governing equation to model gravity-driven fingers, and therefore is also suspect for unsaturated flow in initially dry, highly nonlinear, and hysteretic media where these fingers occur. However, analysis of truncation error at the wetting front for the partial downwind method suggests the required mathematical behavior of a more comprehensive and physically based modeling approach for this region of parameter space.
Interior Models and Gravity Field of Jupiter's Moon Amalthea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinwurm, G.; Weber, R.
2003-12-01
Before its final plunge into Jupiter in September 2003, GALILEO made a last visit to Jupiters moon Amalthea. This final flyby of the spacecrafts successful mission occurred on November 5, 2002. In order to analyse the spacecraft data with respect to Amaltheas gravity field, interior models of the moon had to be provided. The method used for this approach is based on the numerical integration of infinitesimal volume elements, which are calculated by the scale factors of a three-axial ellipsoid (elliptic coordinates). To derive the gravity field coefficients of the body, the second method of Neumann was applied. Based on the spacecraft trajectory data provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, GALILEOs velocity perturbations at closest approach could be calculated. We have derived the harmonic coefficients of Amaltheas gravity field up to degree and order six, for both homogeneous and reasonable heterogeneous cases. Based on these numbers we calculated the impact on the trajectory of GALILEO and compared it to existing Doppler data. Although no two-way Doppler-data was available during the flyby and the harmonic coefficients of the gravity field are buried in the one-way Doppler-noise, the calculated gravity field models of Amalthea can be a basis for further exploration of the Jupiter system. Furthermore, the model approach can be used for any planetary body.
Fierz-Pauli equation for massive gravitons from Induced Matter theory of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bellini, Mauricio
2011-01-01
Starting with a 5D physical vacuum described by a 5D Ricci-flat background metric, we study the emergence of gravitational waves (GW) from the Induce Matter (IM) theory of gravity. We obtain the equation of motion for GW on a 4D curved spacetime which has the form of a Fierz-Pauli one. In our model the mass of gravitons mg is induced by a static foliation on the noncompact space-like extra dimension and the source-term is originated in the interaction of the GW with the induced connections of the background 5D metric. Here, relies the main difference of this formalism with the original Fierz-Pauli one.
Gravity-induced cellular and molecular processes in plants studied under altered gravity conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vagt, Nicole; Braun, Markus
With the ability to sense gravity plants possess a powerful tool to adapt to a great variety of environmental conditions and to respond to environmental changes in a most beneficial way. Gravity is the only constant factor that provides organisms with reliable information for their orientation since billions of years. Any deviation of the genetically determined set-point angle of the plants organs from the vector of gravity is sensed by specialized cells, the statocytes of roots and shoots in higher plants. Dense particles, so-called statoliths, sediment in the direction of gravity and activate membrane-bound gravireceptors. A physiological signalling-cascade is initiated that eventually results in the gravitropic curvature response, namely, the readjust-ment of the growth direction. Experiments under microgravity conditions have significantly contributed to our understanding of plant gravity-sensing and gravitropic reorientation. For a gravity-sensing lower plant cell type, the rhizoid of the green alga Chara, and for statocytes of higher plant roots, it was shown that the interactions between statoliths and the actomyosin system consisting of the actin cytoskeleton and motor proteins (myosins) are the basis for highly efficient gravity-sensing processes. In Chara rhizoids, the actomyosin represents a guid-ing system that directs sedimenting statoliths to a specific graviperception site. Parabolic flight experiments aboard the airbus A300 Zero-G have provided evidence that lower and higher plant cells use principally the same statolith-mediated gravireceptor-activation mechanism. Graviper-ception is not dependent on mechanical pressure mediated through the weight of the sedimented statoliths, but on direct interactions between the statoliths's surface and yet unknown gravire-ceptor molecules. In contrast to Chara rhizoids, in the gravity-sensing cells of higher plants, the actin cytoskeleton is not essentially involved in the early phases of gravity sensing. Dis
Raindrop Oscillations: Evaluation of a Potential Flow Model with Gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beard, Kennethi V.
1984-05-01
Potential flow oscillations about an equilibrium raindrop distortion were modeled for ellipsoidal variations driven by changes in surface and gravitational potential energy with linear dissipation of kinetic energy. The model was found to be quantitatively similar to the Navier-Stokes results of G. B. Foote for axisymmetric oscillations without gravity. Computed frequencies and average axis ratios for vertical and horizontal oscillations with gravity were compared to wind tunnel observations of oscillating water drops and raindrop camera data. Simple formulas with good accuracy were developed for the time variation and time average axis ratios as a function of oscillation amplitude.
Christian, Joshua M.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei
2010-04-01
Understanding the effects of gravity and wind loads on concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors is critical for performance calculations and developing more accurate alignment procedures and techniques. This paper presents a rigorous finite-element model of a parabolic trough collector that is used to determine the impact of gravity loads on bending and displacements of the mirror facets and support structure. The geometry of the LUZ LS-2 parabolic trough collector was modeled using SolidWorks, and gravity-induced loading and displacements were simulated in SolidWorks Simulation. The model of the trough collector was evaluated in two positions: the 90{sup o} position (mirrors facing upward) and the 0{sup o} position (mirrors facing horizontally). The slope errors of the mirror facet reflective surfaces were found by evaluating simulated angular displacements of node-connected segments along the mirror surface. The ideal (undeformed) shape of the mirror was compared to the shape of the deformed mirror after gravity loading. Also, slope errors were obtained by comparing the deformed shapes between the 90{sup o} and 0{sup o} positions. The slope errors resulting from comparison between the deformed vs. undeformed shape were as high as {approx}2 mrad, depending on the location of the mirror facet on the collector. The slope errors resulting from a change in orientation of the trough from the 90{sup o} position to the 0{sup o} position with gravity loading were as high as {approx}3 mrad, depending on the location of the facet.
Rhea gravity field and interior modeling from Cassini data analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tortora, Paolo; Zannoni, Marco; Hemingway, Doug; Nimmo, Francis; Jacobson, Robert A.; Iess, Luciano; Parisi, Marzia
2016-01-01
During its tour of the Saturn system, Cassini performed two close flybys of Rhea dedicated to gravity investigations, the first in November 2005 and the second in March 2013. This paper presents an estimation of Rhea's fully unconstrained quadrupole gravity field obtained from a joint multi-arc analysis of the two Cassini flybys. Our best estimates of the main gravity quadrupole unnormalized coefficients are J2 × 106 = 946.0 ± 13.9, C22 × 106 = 242.1 ± 4.0 (uncertainties are 1-σ). Their resulting ratio is J2/C22 = 3.91 ± 0.10, statistically not compatible (at a 5-σ level) with the theoretical value of 10/3, predicted for a hydrostatic satellite in slow, synchronous rotation around a planet. Therefore, it is not possible to infer the moment of inertia factor directly using the Radau-Darwin approximation. The observed excess J2 (gravity oblateness) was investigated using a combined analysis of gravity and topography, under different plausible geophysical assumptions. The observed gravity is consistent with that generated by the observed shape for an undifferentiated (uniform density) body. However, because the surface is more likely to be water ice, a two-layer model may be a better approximation. In this case, and assuming a mantle density of 920 kg/m3, some 1-3 km of excess core oblateness is consistent with the observed gravity. A wide range of moments of inertia is allowed, but models with low moments of inertia (i.e., more differentiation) require greater magnitudes of excess core topography to satisfy the observations.
Constraints on gravity wave induced diffusion in the middle atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strobel, Darrell F.
1988-01-01
A review of the important constraints on gravity wave induced diffusion of chemical tracers, heat and momentum is given. Ground-based microwave spectroscopy measurements of H2O and CO and rocket-based mass spectrometer measurements of Ar constrain the eddy diffusion coefficient for constituent transport (K sub zz) to be (1-3) x 10 to the 5th sq cm/sec in the upper mesosphere. Atomic oxygen data also limits K sub zz to a comparable value in the mesopause. From the energy balance of the upper mesosphere the eddy diffusion coefficient for heat transport (D sub H) is, at most, 6 x 10 to the 5th sq cm/sec at the mesopause and decreasing substantially with decreasing altitude. The available evidence for mean wind deceleration and the corresponding eddy diffusion coefficient for momentum stresses (D sub M) suggests that it is at least 1 x 10 to the 6th sq cm/sec in the upper mesosphere. Consequently the eddy Prandtl number for macroscopic scale lengths is greater than 3.
Quantum-gravity induced Lorentz violation and dynamical mass generation
Mavromatos, Nick E.
2011-01-15
In the eprint by Jean Alexandre [arXiv:1009.5834], a minimal extension of (3+1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics has been proposed, which includes Lorentz violation (LV) in the form of higher-(spatial)-derivative isotropic terms in the gauge sector, suppressed by a mass scale M. The model can lead to dynamical mass generation for charged fermions. In this article, I elaborate further on this idea and I attempt to connect it to specific quantum-gravity models, inspired from string/brane theory. Specifically, in the first part of the article, I comment briefly on the gauge dependence of the dynamical mass generation in the approximations of J. Alexandre [arXiv:1009.5834.], and I propose a possible avenue for obtaining the true gauge-parameter-independent value of the mass by means of pinch technique argumentations. In the second part of the work, I embed the LV QED model into multibrane world scenarios with a view to provide a geometrical way of enhancing the dynamical mass to phenomenologically realistic values by means of bulk warp metric factors, in an (inverse) Randall-Sundrum hierarchy. Finally, in the third part of this paper, I demonstrate that such Lorentz-violating QED models may represent parts of a low-energy effective action (of Finsler-Born-Infeld type) of open strings propagating in quantum D0-particle stochastic space-time foam backgrounds, which are viewed as consistent quantum-gravity configurations. To capture correctly the quantum-fluctuating nature of the foam background, I replace the D0-recoil-velocity parts of this action by appropriate gradient operators in three-space, keeping the photon field part intact. This is consistent with the summation over world-sheet genera in the first-quantized string approach. I identify a class of quantum orderings which leads to the LV QED action of J. Alexandre, arXiv:1009.5834. In this way I argue, following the logic in that work, that the D-foam can lead to dynamically generated masses for charged
Approaches to Validation of Models for Low Gravity Fluid Behavior
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chato, David J.; Marchetta, Jeffery; Hochstein, John I.; Kassemi, Mohammad
2005-01-01
This paper details the author experiences with the validation of computer models to predict low gravity fluid behavior. It reviews the literature of low gravity fluid behavior as a starting point for developing a baseline set of test cases. It examines authors attempts to validate their models against these cases and the issues they encountered. The main issues seem to be that: Most of the data is described by empirical correlation rather than fundamental relation; Detailed measurements of the flow field have not been made; Free surface shapes are observed but through thick plastic cylinders, and therefore subject to a great deal of optical distortion; and Heat transfer process time constants are on the order of minutes to days but the zero-gravity time available has been only seconds.
Measured and modelled absolute gravity changes in Greenland
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nielsen, J. Emil; Forsberg, Rene; Strykowski, Gabriel
2014-01-01
In glaciated areas, the Earth is responding to the ongoing changes of the ice sheets, a response known as glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). GIA can be investigated through observations of gravity change. For the ongoing assessment of the ice sheets mass balance, where satellite data are used, the study of GIA is important since it acts as an error source. GIA consists of three signals as seen by a gravimeter on the surface of the Earth. These signals are investigated in this study. The ICE-5G ice history and recently developed ice models of present day changes are used to model the gravity change in Greenland. The result is compared with the initial measurements of absolute gravity (AG) change at selected Greenland Network (GNET) sites.
An improved gravity model for Mars: Goddard Mars Model 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.; Fricke, S. K.; Lemoine, F. G.
1993-01-01
Doppler tracking data of three orbiting spacecraft have been reanalyzed to develop a new gravitational field model for the planet Mars, Goddard Mars Model 1 (GMM-1). This model employs nearly all available data, consisting of approximately 1100 days of S band tracking data collected by NASA's Deep Space Network from the Mariner 9 and Viking 1 and Viking 2 spacecraft, in seven different orbits, between 1971 and 1979. GMM-1 is complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 50, which corresponds to a half-wavelength spatial resolution of 200-300 km where the data permit. GMM-1 represents satellite orbits with considerably better accuracy than previous Mars gravity models and shows greater resolution of identifiable geological structures. The notable improvement in GMM-1 over previous models is a consequence of several factors: improved computational capabilities, the use of otpimum weighting and least squares collocation solution techniques which stabilized the behavior of the solution at high degree and order, and the use of longer satellite arcs than employed in previous solutions that were made possible by improved force and measurement models. The inclusion of X band tracking data from the 379-km altitude, nnear-polar orbiting Mars Observer spacecraft should provide a significant improvement over GMM-1, particularly at high latitudes where current data poorly resolve the gravitational signature of the planet.
A gravity model for the Coso geothermal area, California
Feighner, M.A.; Goldstein, N.E.
1990-08-01
Two- and three-dimensional gravity modeling was done using gridded Bouguer gravity data covering a 45 {times} 45 km region over the Coso geothermal area in an effort to identify features related to the heat source and to seek possible evidence for an underlying magma chamber. Isostatic and terrain corrected Bouguer gravity data for about 1300 gravity stations were obtained from the US Geological Survey. After the data were checked, the gravity values were gridded at 1 km centers for the area of interest centered on the Coso volcanic field. Most of the gravity variations can be explained by two lithologic units: (1) low density wedges of Quarternary alluvium with interbedded thin basalts (2.4 g/cm{sup 3}) filling the Rose Valley and Coso Basin/Indian Wells Valley, and (2) low density cover of Tertiary volcanic rocks and intercalated Coso Formation (2.49 g/cm{sup 3}). A 3-D iterative approach was used to find the thicknesses of both units. The gravity anomaly remaining after effects from Units 1 and 2 are removed is a broad north-south-trending low whose major peak lies 5 km north of Sugarloaf Mountain, the largest of the less than 0.3 m.y. old rhyolite domes in the Coso Range. Most of this residual anomaly can be accounted for by a deep, low-density (2.47 g/cm{sup 3}) prismatic body extending from 8 to about 30 km below the surface. While some of this anomaly might be associated with fractured Sierran granitic rocks, its close correlation to a low-velocity zone with comparable geometry suggests that the residual anomaly is probably caused a large zone of partial melt underlying the rhyolite domes of the Coso Range. 12 refs., 9 figs.
Superalloy microstructural variations induced by gravity level during directional solidification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, M. H.; Curreri, P. A.; Parr, R. A.; Alter, W. S.
1985-01-01
The Ni-base superalloy MAR-M246 (Hf) was directionally solidified during low gravity maneuvers aboard a NASA KC-135 aircraft. Gravity force variations during this process yielded a concomitant variation in microstructure and microsegregation. Secondary dendrite arm spacings are noted to be larger in the low-g portion; this, in turn, decreases the extent of interdendritic segregation. The amount of Hf in both the carbides and interdendritic eutectic increases as the gravity force diminishes. Fewer carbides are present in the low-g regions.
High-resolution global and local lunar gravity field models using GRAIL mission data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Loomis, B.; Chinn, D. S.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.
2014-12-01
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft were designed to map the structure of the Moon through high-precision global gravity mapping. The mission consisted of two spacecraft with Ka-band inter-satellite tracking complemented by tracking from Earth. The mission had two phases: (1) a primary mapping mission from March 1 until May 29, 2012 at an average altitude of 50 km; (2) an extended mission from August 30 until December 14, 2012, with an average altitude of 23 km before November 18, and between 11-20 km through December 14. Both the primary and the extended mission data have been processed into global models of the lunar gravity field at NASA/GSFC using the GEODYN software. Here we present our latest global model, an expansion in spherical harmonics of degree and order 1080. We discuss this new solution in terms of its power spectrum, its free-air and Bouguer anomalies, its associated error spectrum, and its correlations with topography-induced gravity. In addition to global models we also estimated local gravity adjustments in areas of particular interest such as Mare Orientale and the south pole area. We express gravity in terms of anomalies, and estimate them with respect to a global background model. We apply neighbor-smoothing in our estimation procedure. We present a local solution over the south pole area in a resolution of 1/6 by 1/6 of a degree, equivalent to degree and order 1080, and we compare this local solution to our global model.
BF Models in Dual Formulations of Linearized Gravity
Bizdadea, Constantin; Cioroianu, Eugen M.; Danehkar, Ashbiz; Iordache, Marius; Saliu, Solange O.; Sararu, Silviu C.
2009-05-22
The case of couplings in D = 5 between a simple, maximal BF model and the dual formulation of linearized gravity is considered. All the possible interactions are exhausted by means of computing the 'free' local BRST cohomology in ghost number zero.
Humans use internal models to estimate gravity and linear acceleration.
Merfeld, D M; Zupan, L; Peterka, R J
1999-04-15
Because sensory systems often provide ambiguous information, neural processes must exist to resolve these ambiguities. It is likely that similar neural processes are used by different sensory systems. For example, many tasks require neural processing to distinguish linear acceleration from gravity, but Einstein's equivalence principle states that all linear accelerometers must measure both linear acceleration and gravity. Here we investigate whether the brain uses internal models, defined as neural systems that mimic physical principles, to help estimate linear acceleration and gravity. Internal models may be used in motor contro, sensorimotor integration and sensory processing, but direct experimental evidence for such models is limited. To determine how humans process ambiguous gravity and linear acceleration cues, subjects were tilted after being rotated at a constant velocity about an Earth-vertical axis. We show that the eye movements evoked by this post-rotational tilt include a response component that compensates for the estimated linear acceleration even when no actual linear acceleration occurs. These measured responses are consistent with our internal model predictions that the nervous system can develop a non-zero estimate of linear acceleration even when no true linear acceleration is present. PMID:10217143
Astrophysical constraints on unparticle-inspired models of gravity
Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.; Santos, P.
2009-07-15
We use stellar dynamics arguments to constrain the relevant parameters of unparticle-inspired models of gravity. We show that resulting bounds do constrain the parameters of the theory of unparticles, as far as its energy scale satisfies the condition {lambda}{sub U}{>=}1 TeV and d{sub U} is close to unity.
Structure formation in a nonlocally modified gravity model
Park, Sohyun; Dodelson, Scott
2013-01-01
We study a nonlocally modified gravity model proposed by Deser and Woodard which gives an explanation for current cosmic acceleration. By deriving and solving the equations governing the evolution of the structure in the Universe, we show that this model predicts a pattern of growth that differs from standard general relativity (+dark energy) at the 10-30% level. These differences will be easily probed by the next generation of galaxy surveys, so the model should be tested shortly.
Further stable neutron star models from f(R) gravity
Astashenok, Artyom V.; Capozziello, Salvatore; Odintsov, Sergei D. E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it
2013-12-01
Neutron star models in perturbative f(R) gravity are considered with realistic equations of state. In particular, we consider the FPS, SLy and other equations of state and a case of piecewise equation of state for stars with quark cores. The mass-radius relations for f(R) = R+R(e{sup −R/R{sub 0}}−1) model and for R{sup 2} models with logarithmic and cubic corrections are obtained. In the case of R{sup 2} gravity with cubic corrections, we obtain that at high central densities (ρ > 10ρ{sub ns}, where ρ{sub ns} = 2.7 × 10{sup 14} g/cm{sup 3} is the nuclear saturation density), stable star configurations exist. The minimal radius of such stars is close to 9 km with maximal mass ∼ 1.9M{sub ⊙} (SLy equation). A similar situation takes place for AP4 and BSK20 EoS. Such an effect can give rise to more compact stars than in General Relativity. If observationally identified, such objects could constitute a formidable signature for modified gravity at astrophysical level. Another interesting result can be achieved in modified gravity with only a cubic correction. For some EoS, the upper limit of neutron star mass increases and therefore these EoS can describe realistic star configurations (although, in General Relativity, these EoS are excluded by observational constraints)
Modeling halo mass functions in chameleon f(R) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lombriser, Lucas; Li, Baojiu; Koyama, Kazuya; Zhao, Gong-Bo
2013-06-01
On cosmological scales, observations of the cluster abundance currently place the strongest constraints on f(R) gravity. These constraints lie in the large-field limit, where the modifications of general relativity can correctly be modeled by setting the Compton wavelength of the scalar field to its background value. These bounds are, however, at the verge of penetrating into a regime where the modifications become nonlinearly suppressed due to the chameleon mechanism and cannot be described by this linearized approximation. For future constraints based on observations subjected to cluster abundance, it is therefore essential to consistently model the chameleon effect. We analyze descriptions of the halo mass function in chameleon f(R) gravity using a mass- and environment-dependent spherical collapse model in combination with excursion set theory and phenomenological fits to N-body simulations in the ΛCDM and f(R) gravity scenarios. Our halo mass functions consistently incorporate the chameleon suppression and cosmological parameter dependencies, improving upon previous formalisms and providing an important extension to N-body simulations for the application in consistent tests of gravity with observables sensitive to the abundance of clusters.
High-resolution gravity field modeling using GRAIL mission data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemoine, F. G.; Goossens, S. J.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Loomis, B.; Chinn, D. S.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.
2015-12-01
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft were designed to map the structure of the Moon through high-precision global gravity mapping. The mission consisted of two spacecraft with Ka-band inter-satellite tracking complemented by tracking from Earth. The mission had two phases: a primary mapping mission from March 1 until May 29, 2012 at an average altitude of 50 km, and an extended mission from August 30 until December 14, 2012, with an average altitude of 23 km before November 18, and 20 and 11 km after. High-resolution gravity field models using both these data sets have been estimated, with the current resolution being degree and order 1080 in spherical harmonics. Here, we focus on aspects of the analysis of the GRAIL data: we investigate eclipse modeling, the influence of empirical accelerations on the results, and we discuss the inversion of large-scale systems. In addition to global models we also estimated local gravity adjustments in areas of particular interest such as Mare Orientale, the south pole area, and the farside. We investigate the use of Ka-band Range Rate (KBRR) data versus numerical derivatives of KBRR data, and show that the latter have the capability to locally improve correlations with topography.
Modeling the ionospheric impact of tsunami-driven gravity waves with SAMI3: Conjugate effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huba, J. D.; Drob, D. P.; Wu, T.-W.; Makela, J. J.
2015-07-01
The Naval Research Laboratory first-principles ionosphere model SAMI3 is used to study the ionospheric effects associated with tsunami-driven gravity waves. Specifically, the Tohoku-Oki tsunami of 11 March 2011 is modeled. It is shown that gravity wave-induced variations in the neutral wind lead to plasma velocity variations both perpendicular and parallel to the geomagnetic field. Moreover, the electric field induced by the neutral wind perturbations can map to the conjugate hemisphere. Thus, electron density variations can be generated in both hemispheres which impact the total electron content (TEC) and 6300 Šairglow emission. It is found that the TEC exhibits variations of ≲ ±0.1 total electron content unit (1 TECU = 1016 el m-2) and the 6300 Šairglow emission variation is up to ˜±2.5% relative to the unperturbed background airglow.
Finsler black holes induced by noncommutative anholonomic distributions in Einstein gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vacaru, Sergiu I.
2010-05-01
We study Finsler black holes induced from Einstein gravity as possible effects of quantum spacetime noncommutativity. Such Finsler models are defined by nonholonomic frames not on tangent bundles but on (pseudo)Riemannian manifolds being compatible with standard theories of physics. We focus on noncommutative deformations of Schwarzschild metrics into locally anisotropic stationary ones with spherical/rotoid symmetry. The conditions are derived when black hole configurations can be extracted from two classes of exact solutions depending on noncommutative parameters. The first class of metrics is defined by nonholonomic deformations of the gravitational vacuum by noncommutative geometry. The second class of such solutions is induced by noncommutative matter fields and/or effective polarizations of cosmological constants.
Artificial gravity training reduces bed rest-induced cardiovascular deconditioning.
Stenger, Michael B; Evans, Joyce M; Knapp, Charles F; Lee, Stuart M C; Phillips, Tiffany R; Perez, Sondra A; Moore, Alan D; Paloski, William H; Platts, Steven H
2012-02-01
We studied 15 men (8 treatment, 7 control) before and after 21 days of 6º head-down tilt to determine whether daily, 1-h exposures to 1.0 G(z) (at the heart) artificial gravity (AG) would prevent bed rest-induced cardiovascular deconditioning. Testing included echocardiographic analysis of cardiac function, plasma volume (PV), aerobic power (VO(2)pk) and cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to 80º head-up tilt (HUT). Data collected during HUT were ECG, stroke volume (SV), blood pressure (BP) and blood for catecholamines and vasoactive hormones. Heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), total peripheral resistance, and spectral power of BP and HR were calculated. Bed rest decreased PV, supine and HUT SV, and indices of cardiac function in both groups. Although PV was decreased in control and AG after bed rest, AG attenuated the decrease in orthostatic tolerance [pre- to post-bed rest change; control: -11.8 ± 2.0, AG: -6.0 ± 2.8 min (p = 0.012)] and VO(2)pk [pre- to post-bed rest change; control: -0.39 ± 0.11, AG: -0.17 ± 0.06 L/min (p = 0.041)]. AG prevented increases in pre-tilt levels of plasma renin activity [pre- to post-bed rest change; control: 1.53 ± 0.23, AG: -0.07 ± 0.34 ng/mL/h (p = 0.001)] and angiotensin II [pre- to post-bed rest change; control: 3.00 ± 1.04, AG: -0.63 ± 0.81 pg/mL (p = 0.009)] and increased HUT aldosterone [post-bed rest; control: 107 ± 30 pg/mL, AG: 229 ± 68 pg/mL (p = 0.045)] and norepinephrine [post-bed rest; control: 453 ± 107, AG: 732 ± 131 pg/mL (p = 0.003)]. We conclude that AG can mitigate some aspects of bed rest-induced cardiovascular deconditioning, including orthostatic intolerance and aerobic power. Mechanisms of improvement were not cardiac-mediated, but likely through improved sympathetic responsiveness to orthostatic stress. PMID:21626041
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, John D.; Blandino, Joseph R.; McEvoy, Kiley C.
2004-01-01
The development of gossamer space structures such as solar sails and sunshields presents many challenges due to their large size and extreme flexibility. The post-deployment structural geometry exhibited during ground testing may significantly depart from the in-space configuration due to the presence of gravity-induced deformations (gravity sag) of lightly preloaded membranes. This paper describes a study carried out to characterize gravity sag in two subscale gossamer structures: a single quadrant from a 2 m, 4 quadrant square solar sail and a 1.7 m membrane layer from a multi-layer sunshield The behavior of the test articles was studied over a range of preloads and in several orientations with respect to gravity. An experimental study was carried out to measure the global surface profiles using photogrammetry, and nonlinear finite element analysis was used to predict the behavior of the test articles. Comparison of measured and predicted surface profiles shows that the finite dement analysis qualitatively predicts deformed shapes comparable to those observed in the laboratory. Quantitatively, finite element analysis predictions for peak gravity-induced deformations in both test articles were within 10% of measured values. Results from this study provide increased insight into gravity sag behavior in gossamer structures, and demonstrates the potential to analytically predict gravity-induced deformations to within reasonable accuracy.
Rapid 3-D forward modeling of gravity and gravity gradient tensor fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longwei, C.; Dai, S.; Zhang, Q.
2014-12-01
Three-dimensional inversion are the key process in gravity exploration. In the commonly used scheme of inversion, the subsurface of the earth is usually divided into many small prism blocks (or grids) with variable density values. A key task in gravity inversion is to calculate the composite fields (gravity and gravity gradient tensor) generated by all these grids, this is known as forward modeling. In general forward modeling is memory-demanding and time-consuming. One scheme to rapidly calculate the fields is to implement it in Fourier domain and use fast Fourier transform algorithm. The advantage of the Fourier domain method is, obviously, much faster. However, the intrinsic edge effect of the Fourier domain method degrades the precision of the calculated fields. We have developed an innovative scheme to directly calculate the fields in spatial domain. There are two key points in this scheme. One key point is spatial discretization. Spatial convolution formula is discretized using an approach similar to normal difference method. A key idea during discretization is to use the analytical formula of a cubic prism, and this makes the resultant discrete formula have clear physical meaning: it embodies the superposition principle of the fields and is the exact formula to calculate the fields generated by all grids. The discretization only requires the grids have the same dimension in horizontal directions, and grids in different layers may have different dimension in vertical direction, and this offers more flexibility for inversion. Another key point is discrete convolution calculation. We invoke a high efficient two-dimensional discrete convolution algorithm, and it guarantees both time-saving and memory-saving. Its memory cost has the same order as the number of grids. Numerical test result shows that for a model with a dimension of 1000x1000x201 grids, it takes about 300s to calculate the fields on 1000x1000 field points in a personal computer with 3.4-GHz CPU
Gravity wave-induced mean flows and turbulence at the tropopause
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McHugh, J. P.; Sharman, R.
2012-12-01
Unsteady gravity waves interacting with the tropopause are investigated using linear and nonlinear numerical simulations. The tropopause is modeled as the interface between two layers of constant Brunt-Väisälä frequency. The simulations are 2D with uniform horizontal flow, the background rotation is ignored, and the waves are generated by flow over an idealized isolated obstacle shape at the surface. The nonlinear simulations show a horizontal wave-induced mean flow at the tropopause similar to previous results treating horizontally periodic internal waves. The mean flow created by the impinging gravity waves is increased over the background wind below the tropopause and decreased above the tropopause. This effect is not present in the linear simulations. The nonlinear effect is felt more strongly for cases with higher mountain heights and larger values of the stability in the upper layer. The final steady mountain wave flow appears to permanently retain this mean flow change. The deceleration region above the tropopause results in a patch of slow-moving fluid near the interface which induces local regions of reduced Richardson number and may help explain some observational results of higher turbulence regions near the tropopause over mountainous regions.
Cosmology of generalized modified gravity models
Carroll, Sean M.; Duvvuri, Vikram; De Felice, Antonio; Easson, Damien A.; Trodden, Mark; Turner, Michael S.
2005-03-15
We consider general curvature-invariant modifications of the Einstein-Hilbert action that become important only in regions of extremely low space-time curvature. We investigate the far future evolution of the Universe in such models, examining the possibilities for cosmic acceleration and other ultimate destinies. The models generically possess de Sitter space as an unstable solution and exhibit an interesting set of attractor solutions which, in some cases, provide alternatives to dark energy models.
Halo model and halo properties in Galileon gravity cosmologies
Barreira, Alexandre; Li, Baojiu; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Lombriser, Lucas; Pascoli, Silvia E-mail: baojiu.li@durham.ac.uk E-mail: llo@roe.ac.uk E-mail: silvia.pascoli@durham.ac.uk
2014-04-01
We investigate the performance of semi-analytical modelling of large-scale structure in Galileon gravity cosmologies using results from N-body simulations. We focus on the Cubic and Quartic Galileon models that provide a reasonable fit to CMB, SNIa and BAO data. We demonstrate that the Sheth-Tormen mass function and linear halo bias can be calibrated to provide a very good fit to our simulation results. We also find that the halo concentration-mass relation is well fitted by a power law. The nonlinear matter power spectrum computed in the halo model approach is found to be inaccurate in the mildly nonlinear regime, but captures reasonably well the effects of the Vainshtein screening mechanism on small scales. In the Cubic model, the screening mechanism hides essentially all of the effects of the fifth force inside haloes. In the case of the Quartic model, the screening mechanism leaves behind residual modifications to gravity, which make the effective gravitational strength time-varying and smaller than the standard value. Compared to normal gravity, this causes a deficiency of massive haloes and leads to a weaker matter clustering on small scales. For both models, we show that there are realistic halo occupation distributions of Luminous Red Galaxies that can match both the observed large-scale clustering amplitude and the number density of these galaxies.
Trace anomaly inflation in brane-induced gravity
Corradini, Olindo; Iglesias, Alberto E-mail: iglesias@physics.ucdavis.edu
2008-05-15
In this paper we find that Starobinsky's inflationary solution is also valid in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) model where a 3-brane is embedded in five-dimensional Minkowski bulk. We show that such a solution is typically not supported by the self-accelerated branch of the model, giving therefore a natural selection of the conventional branch of solutions. In the absence of brane-induced Einstein-Hilbert term the SA branch is always selected out. We then study the linearized modes around all such de Sitter brane solutions finding perturbative stability for a range of parameters of the brane QFT.
Shear-free anisotropic cosmological models in {f (R)} gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abebe, Amare; Momeni, Davood; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2016-04-01
We study a class of shear-free, homogeneous but anisotropic cosmological models with imperfect matter sources in the context of f( R) gravity. We show that the anisotropic stresses are related to the electric part of the Weyl tensor in such a way that they balance each other. We also show that within the class of orthogonal f( R) models, small perturbations of shear are damped, and that the electric part of the Weyl tensor and the anisotropic stress tensor decay with the expansion as well as the heat flux of the curvature fluid. Specializing in locally rotationally symmetric spacetimes in orthonormal frames, we examine the late-time behaviour of the de Sitter universe in f( R) gravity. For the Starobinsky model of f( R), we study the evolutionary behavior of the Universe by numerically integrating the Friedmann equation, where the initial conditions for the expansion, acceleration and jerk parameters are taken from observational data.
Tornadolike gravity-driven vortex model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deissler, R. G.; Boldman, D. R.
1974-01-01
The buoyancy-induced vorticity concentration produced as the fluid in a vortex accelerates vertically was studied. The boiloff from liquid nitrogen, to which a small amount of initial vorticity was added, provided a source of cool, heavy gas in which a concentration of vorticity took place. Condensation streamers made the flow visible. It is shown that the presence of a surface boundary layer is not necessary for the effective concentration of vorticity. A simple theoretical analysis of the phenomenon was also made. A radial contraction of the flow with vertical position and a characteristic hook shape in the top view of the streamlines were observed in both theory and experiment. The vorticity concentration observed may be similar to that which occurs in tornadoes.
Modeling of zero gravity venting: Studies of two-phase heat transfer under reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merte, H., Jr.
1986-01-01
The objective is to predict the pressure response of a saturated liquid-vapor system when undergoing a venting or depressurization process in zero gravity at low vent rates. An experimental investigation of the venting of cylindrical containers partially filled with initially saturated liquids was previously conducted under zero-gravity conditions and compared with an analytical model which incorporated the effect of interfacial mass transfer on the ullage pressure response during venting. A new model is presented to improve the estimation of the interfacial mass transfer. Duhammel's superposition integral is incorporated to approximate the transient temperature response of the interface, treating the liquid as a semi-infinite solid with conduction heat transfer. Account is also taken of the condensation taking place within the bulk of a saturated vapor as isentropic expansion takes place. Computational results are presented for the venting of R-11 from a given vessel and initial state for five different venting rates over a period of three seconds, and compared to prior NASA experiments. An improvement in the prediction of the final pressure takes place, but is still considerably below the measurements.
Gravity dual for a model of perception
Nakayama, Yu
2011-01-15
One of the salient features of human perception is its invariance under dilatation in addition to the Euclidean group, but its non-invariance under special conformal transformation. We investigate a holographic approach to the information processing in image discrimination with this feature. We claim that a strongly coupled analogue of the statistical model proposed by Bialek and Zee can be holographically realized in scale invariant but non-conformal Euclidean geometries. We identify the Bayesian probability distribution of our generalized Bialek-Zee model with the GKPW partition function of the dual gravitational system. We provide a concrete example of the geometric configuration based on a vector condensation model coupled with the Euclidean Einstein-Hilbert action. From the proposed geometry, we study sample correlation functions to compute the Bayesian probability distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, J. F.; Xue, X. H.; Hoffmann, L.; Dou, X. K.; Li, H. M.; Chen, T. D.
2015-09-01
Atmospheric gravity waves (GWs) significantly influence global circulation. Deep convection, particularly that associated with typhoons, is believed to be an important source of gravity waves. Stratospheric gravity waves induced by Typhoon Mindulle (2004) were detected by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Semicircular GWs with horizontal wavelengths of 100-400 km were found over Taiwan through an inspection of AIRS radiances at 4.3 μm. Characteristics of the stratospheric gravity waves generated by Typhoon Mindulle were investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The initial and boundary data were determined by the high-resolution European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalysis data. The WRF simulation reproduces the main features of Typhoon Mindulle and the significant GWs. The simulated GWs with horizontal wavelengths of 100-400 km match the AIRS observations: they propagate upward and eastward, and the westward components are mostly filtered in the stratosphere. By comparing the measured waves with a WRF simulation in the absent of orography (WRF-FLAT), we find that the orographic gravity waves (OGWs) generated by the flow of Typhoon Mindulle over the Central Mountain Range (CMR) in Taiwan account for approximately 50% of the total wave momentum flux in the troposphere. The dominant orientation of the OGW wave fronts is parallel to the CMR rideline. When entering into the stratosphere, OGW propagation is determined by the position of the typhoon center relative to the CMR.
Transcendental Political Systems and the Gravity Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lock, Connor
2012-01-01
This summer I have been working on an Army Deep Futures Model project named Themis. Themis is a JPL based modeling framework that anticipates possible future states for the world within the next 25 years. The goal of this framework is to determine the likelihood that the US Army will need to intervene on behalf of the US strategic interests. Key elements that are modeled within this tool include the world structure and major decisions that are made by key actors. Each actor makes decisions based on their goals and within the constraints of the structure of the system in which they are located. In my research I have focused primarily on the effects of structures upon the decision-making processes of the actors within them. This research is a natural extension of my major program at Georgetown University, where I am studying the International Political Economy and the structures that make it up. My basic goal for this summer project was to be a helpful asset to the Themis modeling team, with any research done or processes learned constituting a bonus.
Rapid simulation rescaling from standard to modified gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mead, A. J.; Peacock, J. A.; Lombriser, L.; Li, B.
2015-10-01
We develop and test an algorithm to rescale a simulated dark-matter particle distribution or halo catalogue from a standard gravity model to that of a modified gravity model. This method is based on that of Angulo & White but with some additional ingredients to account for (i) scale-dependent growth of linear density perturbations and (ii) screening mechanisms that are generic features of viable modified gravity models. We attempt to keep the method as general as possible, so that it may plausibly be applied to a wide range of modified theories, although tests against simulations are restricted to a subclass of f (R) models at this stage. We show that rescaling allows the power spectrum of matter to be reproduced at the ˜3 per cent level in both real and redshift space up to k = 0.1h Mpc-1 if we change the box size and alter the particle displacement field; this limit can be extended to k = 1h Mpc-1 if we additionally alter halo internal structure. We simultaneously develop an algorithm that can be applied directly to a halo catalogue, in which case the halo mass function and clustering can be reproduced at the ˜5 per cent level. Finally, we investigate the clustering of halo particle distributions, generated from rescaled halo catalogues, and find that a similar accuracy can be reached.
Satellite laser ranging and gravity field modeling accuracy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosborough, George W.
1990-01-01
Gravitational field mismodeling procedures errors in the estimated orbital motion of near Earth satellites. This effect is studied using a linear perturbation approach following the analysis of Kaula. The perturbations in the orbital position as defined by either orbital elements or Cartesian components are determined. From these perturbations it is possible to ascertain the expected signal due to gravitational mismodeling that would be present in station-to-satellite laser ranging measurements. This expected signal has been estimated for the case of the Lageos satellite and using the predicted uncertainties of the GEM-T1 and GEM-T2 gravity field models. The results indicate that observable signal still exists in the laser range residuals given the current accuracy of the range measurements and the accuracy of the gravity field models.
Swarm magnetic and GOCE gravity gradient grids for lithospheric modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouman, Johannes; Haagmans, Roger; Olsen, Nils; Ebbing, Jörg; Baykiev, Eldar; Novak, Pavel; Kotsiaros, Stavros; Sebera, Josef; Brönner, Marco; Fuchs, Martin; Holzrichter, Nils
2016-07-01
We explore how Swarm magnetic gradient and GOCE gravity gradient data can improve modelling of the Earth's lithosphere and thereby contribute to a better understanding of Earth's dynamic processes. We study the use of gradient grids to provide improved information about the lithosphere and upper mantle in the well-surveyed North-East Atlantic Margin. In particular, we present the computation of magnetic and gravity gradient grids at satellite altitude (roughly 450 km and 250 km above the Earth for Swarm and GOCE respectively). It is shown that regional solutions based on a tesseroid approach may contain more signal content than global models do. The patchwork of regional grids is presented as well as the subsequent error reduction through iterative downward and upward continuation using the Poisson integral equation. The promises and pitfalls are discussed of using grids at mean satellite altitude.
Black hole spectroscopy from loop quantum gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrau, Aurelien; Cao, Xiangyu; Noui, Karim; Perez, Alejandro
2015-12-01
Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compute the integrated emission spectra of black holes in the framework of loop quantum gravity (LQG). The black hole emission rates are governed by the entropy whose value, in recent holographic loop quantum gravity models, was shown to agree at leading order with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Quantum corrections depend on the Barbero-Immirzi parameter γ . Starting with black holes of initial horizon area A ˜102 in Planck units, we present the spectra for different values of γ . Each spectrum clearly decomposes into two distinct parts: a continuous background which corresponds to the semiclassical stages of the evaporation and a series of discrete peaks which constitutes a signature of the deep quantum structure of the black hole. We show that γ has an effect on both parts that we analyze in detail. Finally, we estimate the number of black holes and the instrumental resolution required to experimentally distinguish between the considered models.
Crustal structure beneath the southern Appalachians: nonuniqueness of gravity modeling
Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Grow, John A.; Klitgord, Kim D.
1983-01-01
Gravity models computed for a profile across the long-wavelength paired negative-positive Bouguer anomalies of the southern Appalachian Mountains show that the large negative anomaly can be explained by a crustal root zone, whereas the steep gradient and positive anomaly east of the root may be explained equally well by three different geometries: a suture zone, a mantle upwarp, or a shallow body. Seismic data support the existence of a mountain root but are inadequate to resolve differences among the three possible geometries for the positive anomaly. The presence of outcropping mafic and ultramafic rocks in the southern Appalachians and the inferred tectonic history of the Appalachian orogen are most consistent with the suture-zone model. Crust similar to continental crust probably exists beneath the Coastal Plain and inner continental shelf where the gravity anomalies return to near-zero values.
Testing model independent modified gravity with future large scale surveys
Thomas, Daniel B.; Contaldi, Carlo R. E-mail: c.contaldi@ic.ac.uk
2011-12-01
Model-independent parametrisations of modified gravity have attracted a lot of attention over the past few years and numerous combinations of experiments and observables have been suggested to constrain the parameters used in these models. Galaxy clusters have been mentioned, but not looked at as extensively in the literature as some other probes. Here we look at adding galaxy clusters into the mix of observables and examine how they could improve the constraints on the modified gravity parameters. In particular, we forecast the constraints from combining Planck satellite Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) measurements and Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) cluster catalogue with a DES-like Weak Lensing (WL) survey. We find that cluster counts significantly improve the constraints over those derived using CMB and WL. We then look at surveys further into the future, to see how much better it may be feasible to make the constraints.
Gravity monitoring of CO2 movement during sequestration: Model studies
Gasperikova, E.; Hoversten, G.M.
2008-07-15
We examine the relative merits of gravity measurements as a monitoring tool for geological CO{sub 2} sequestration in three different modeling scenarios. The first is a combined CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the second is sequestration in a brine formation, and the third is for a coalbed methane formation. EOR/sequestration petroleum reservoirs have relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}), whereas brine formations usually have much thicker injection intervals and only two components (brine and CO{sub 2}). Coal formations undergoing methane extraction tend to be thin (3-10 m), but shallow compared to either EOR or brine formations. The injection of CO{sub 2} into the oil reservoir produced a bulk density decrease in the reservoir. The spatial pattern of the change in the vertical component of gravity (G{sub z}) is directly correlated with the net change in reservoir density. Furthermore, time-lapse changes in the borehole G{sub z} clearly identified the vertical section of the reservoir where fluid saturations are changing. The CO{sub 2}-brine front, on the order of 1 km within a 20 m thick brine formation at 1900 m depth, with 30% CO{sub 2} and 70% brine saturations, respectively, produced a -10 Gal surface gravity anomaly. Such anomaly would be detectable in the field. The amount of CO{sub 2} in a coalbed methane test scenario did not produce a large enough surface gravity response; however, we would expect that for an industrial size injection, the surface gravity response would be measurable. Gravity inversions in all three scenarios illustrated that the general position of density changes caused by CO{sub 2} can be recovered, but not the absolute value of the change. Analysis of the spatial resolution and detectability limits shows that gravity measurements could, under certain circumstances, be used as a lower-cost alternative to seismic
Quantum mechanical model in gravity theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Losyakov, V. V.
2016-05-01
We consider a model of a real massive scalar field defined as homogeneous on a d-dimensional sphere such that the sphere radius, time scale, and scalar field are related by the equations of the general theory of relativity. We quantize this system with three degrees of freedom, define the observables, and find dynamical mean values of observables in the regime where the scalar field mass is much less than the Planck mass.
An alternative computation of a gravity field model from GOCE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Weiyong
2012-08-01
GOCE is the first satellite with a gravitational gradiometer (SGG). This allows to determine a gravity field model with high spatial resolution and high accuracy. Four of the six independent components of the gravitational gradient tensors (GGT) are measured with high accuracy in the so-called measurement band (MB) from 5 to 100 mHz by the GOCE gradiometer. Based on more than 1 year of GOCE measurements, two gravity field models have been derived. Here, we introduce a strategy for spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) from GOCE measurements, with a bandpass filter applied to the SGG data, combined with orbit analysis based on the integral equation approach, and additional constraints (or stabilization) in the polar areas where no observation is available due to the orbit geometry. In addition, we combined the GOCE SGG part with a set of GRACE normal equations. This improves the accuracy of the gravity field in the long-wavelength parts, due to the complementarity of GOCE and GRACE. Comparison with other models and with external data shows that our results are rather close to the GPS-levelling data in well-selected test regions, with an uncertainty of 4-7 cm, for truncation at degree 200.
Analog model for quantum gravity effects: phonons in random fluids.
Krein, G; Menezes, G; Svaiter, N F
2010-09-24
We describe an analog model for quantum gravity effects in condensed matter physics. The situation discussed is that of phonons propagating in a fluid with a random velocity wave equation. We consider that there are random fluctuations in the reciprocal of the bulk modulus of the system and study free phonons in the presence of Gaussian colored noise with zero mean. We show that, in this model, after performing the random averages over the noise function a free conventional scalar quantum field theory describing free phonons becomes a self-interacting model. PMID:21230759
Testing Quantum Gravity Induced Nonlocality via Optomechanical Quantum Oscillators.
Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M T; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello
2016-04-22
Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterized by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such nonlocal effective field theories lead to a modified Schrödinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of optomechanical quantum oscillators is characterized by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the nonlocality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology. PMID:27152787
Testing Quantum Gravity Induced Nonlocality via Optomechanical Quantum Oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello
2016-04-01
Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterized by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such nonlocal effective field theories lead to a modified Schrödinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of optomechanical quantum oscillators is characterized by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the nonlocality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology.
Quantum Gravity and Lorentz Invariance Violation in the Standard Model
Alfaro, Jorge
2005-06-10
The most important problem of fundamental physics is the quantization of the gravitational field. A main difficulty is the lack of available experimental tests that discriminate among the theories proposed to quantize gravity. Recently, Lorentz invariance violation by quantum gravity (QG) has been the source of growing interest. However, the predictions depend on an ad hoc hypothesis and too many arbitrary parameters. Here we show that the standard model itself contains tiny Lorentz invariance violation terms coming from QG. All terms depend on one arbitrary parameter {alpha} that sets the scale of QG effects. This parameter can be estimated using data from the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray spectrum to be vertical bar {alpha} vertical bar <{approx}10{sup -22}-10{sup -23}.
Optical clocks and their contribution to gravity modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naeimi, Mohammad; Mohamadhosseini, Babak; Hatami, Mohsen
2016-04-01
Optical clocks, as one of the latest achievements in atomic and molecular physics, have applications more than timing, due to their accuracy and stability. In general relativity, gravitational potential differences in space and time, cause frequency difference in optical clocks. Hence, ultra precise optical clocks can be used as a tool to observe potential differences and consequently as a new gravimetry technique. In this contribution, we investigate the latest optical clocks based on atomic transition in Al+ and derive a simple equation for frequency change related to geo-potential differences. Moreover, we consider the capability of optical clocks for gravity modeling in combination with other gravity observations. Finally, the possibility to detect potential changes in geo-dynamically active zones, such as East-Asia and the requirements for such studies are discussed.
Cluster abundance in f(R) gravity models
Ferraro, Simone; Hu, Wayne; Schmidt, Fabian
2011-03-15
As one of the most powerful probes of cosmological structure formation, the abundance of massive galaxy clusters is a sensitive probe of modifications to gravity on cosmological scales. In this paper, we present results from N-body simulations of a general class of f(R) models, which self-consistently solve the nonlinear field equation for the enhanced forces. Within this class we vary the amplitude of the field, which controls the range of the enhanced gravitational forces, both at the present epoch and as a function of redshift. Most models in the literature can be mapped onto the parameter space of this class. Focusing on the abundance of massive dark matter halos, we compare the simulation results to a simple spherical collapse model. Current constraints lie in the large-field regime, where the chameleon mechanism is not important. In this regime, the spherical collapse model works equally well for a wide range of models and can serve as a model-independent tool for placing constraints on f(R) gravity from cluster abundance. Using these results, we show how constraints from the observed local abundance of X-ray clusters on a specific f(R) model can be mapped onto other members of this general class of models.
A further study of gravity wave induced drag and diffusion in the mesosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holton, J. R.; Zhu, X.
1984-01-01
Lindzen's (1967) parameterization for the drag and eddy diffusion produced by breaking internal gravity waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere is applied to a modified version of the beta-plane channel model of Holton (1982) in which an isotropic source spectrum of waves is specified similar to that given in 1982 by Matsuno (1982). The transmission for each wave component is influenced by Newtonian cooling and by eddy diffusion induced by the breaking of other wave components. In general the waves with smallest Doppler-shifted phase speeds break first and produce sufficient eddy diffusion to significantly raise the breaking heights for the higher speed components. Thus, the wave drag and diffusion is spread through a deep layer and the resulting mean wind profiles for both summer and winter solstice conditions are more realistic than those computed previously by Holton.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Trob, D.; Porter, H. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Special Session: SA03 The mesosphere/lower thermosphere region: Structure, dynamics, composition, and emission. Ground based and satellite observations in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) reveal large seasonal variations in the horizontal wind fields of the diurnal and semidiurnal tides. To provide an understanding of the observations, we discuss results obtained with our Numerical Spectral Model (NMS) that incorporates the gravity wave Doppler Spread Parameterization (DSP) of Hines. Our model reproduces many of the salient features observed, and we discuss numerical experiments that delineate the important processes involved. Gravity wave momentum deposition and the seasonal variations in the tidal excitation contribute primarily to produce the large equinoctial amplitude maxima in the diurnal tide. Gravity wave induced variations in eddy viscosity, not accounted for in the model, have been shown by Akmaev to be important too. For the semidiurnal tide, with amplitude maximum observed during winter solstice, these processes also contribute, but filtering by the mean zonal circulation is more important. A deficiency of our model is that it cannot reproduce the observed seasonal variations in the phase of the semidiurnal tide, and numerical experiments are being carried out to diagnose the cause and to alleviate this problem. The dynamical components of the upper mesosphere are tightly coupled through non-linear processes and wave filtering, and this may constrain the model and require it to reproduce in detail the observed phenomenology.
Nonlinear structure formation in the cubic Galileon gravity model
Barreira, Alexandre; Li, Baojiu; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Pascoli, Silvia E-mail: baojiu.li@durham.ac.uk E-mail: c.m.baugh@durham.ac.uk
2013-10-01
We model the linear and nonlinear growth of large scale structure in the Cubic Galileon gravity model, by running a suite of N-body cosmological simulations using the ECOSMOG code. Our simulations include the Vainshtein screening effect, which reconciles the Cubic Galileon model with local tests of gravity. In the linear regime, the amplitude of the matter power spectrum increases by ∼ 20% with respect to the standard ΛCDM model today. The modified expansion rate accounts for ∼ 15% of this enhancement, while the fifth force is responsible for only ∼ 5%. This is because the effective unscreened gravitational strength deviates from standard gravity only at late times, even though it can be twice as large today. In the nonlinear regime (k∼>0.1h Mpc{sup −1}), the fifth force leads to only a modest increase (∼<8%) in the clustering power on all scales due to the very efficient operation of the Vainshtein mechanism. Such a strong effect is typically not seen in other models with the same screening mechanism. The screening also results in the fifth force increasing the number density of halos by less than 10%, on all mass scales. Our results show that the screening does not ruin the validity of linear theory on large scales which anticipates very strong constraints from galaxy clustering data. We also show that, whilst the model gives an excellent match to CMB data on small angular scales (l∼>50), the predicted integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect is in tension with Planck/WMAP results.
Improved Gravimetric Geoid Model for Japan From Terrestrial Data and Altimetric Gravity Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuroishi, Y.
2003-12-01
An improved gravimetric geoid model for Japan is developed by combining an altimetric gravity model, KMS02 with terrestrial gravity data. Additional terrestrial gravity data were newly obtained in some data gaps for previous geoid models: ship data in the western part of Seto Inland Sea and land gravity data in south and east Hokkaido, where the latest gravimetric geoid model for Japan, JGEOID2000 shows relatively large errors at short wavelengths. In addition, medium wavelength signals of gravity from KMS02 are retrieved and combined by filtering based on wavelets. The combination significantly reduces systematic errors of JGEOID2000 gravity/geoid models derived from ship data, at medium wavelengths around Hokkaido Island. Moreover, recently-released global geopotential models from the GRACE mission, EIGEN-GRACE01S by GFZ and GGM01 by CSR are used as a foundation for 1D-FFT computation of Stokes integral in a remove-restore manner. Those models themselves show improved performance over the Japanese islands in terms of geoid heights when compared with GPS/leveling geoid heights throughout the islands. When we change the maximum degree of the spherical harmonics used and merge them with higher degree harmonics of EGM96 (up to degree and order 360), those geopotential models seem to work best at degree 90. Resulting geoid models are compared and evaluated with GPS/leveling geoid heights.
Anisotropic cosmological models in f(G) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farasat Shamir, M.
2016-04-01
The main objective of this manuscript is to study the anisotropic universe in f(G) Gravity. For this purpose, locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I spacetime is considered. A viable f(G) model is used to explore the exact solutions of modified field equations. In particular, two families involving power law and exponential type solutions have been discussed. Some important cosmological parameters are calculated for the obtained solutions. Moreover, energy density and pressure of the universe is analyzed for the model under consideration.
Abelian cosmic string in the Starobinsky model of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morais Graça, J. P.
2016-03-01
In this paper, I analyze numerically the behaviour of the solutions corresponding to an Abelian string in the framework of the Starobinsky model. The role played by the quadratic term in the Lagrangian density f(R)=R+η {R}2 of this model is emphasized and the results are compared with the corresponding ones obtained in the framework of Einstein’s theory of gravity. I have found that the angular deficit generated by the string is lowered as the η parameter increases, allowing a well-behaved spacetime for a large range of values of the symmetry-breaking scale.
Reconstruction of modified gravity with perfect fluid cosmological models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, C. P.; Singh, Vijay
2014-04-01
In this paper we present the cosmological viability of reconstruction of an alternative gravitational theory, namely, the modified gravity, where is the Ricci scalar curvature and the trace of stress energy momentum tensor. A functional form of is chosen for the reconstruction in perfect fluid flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model. The gravitational field equations contain two fluid sources, one is perfect fluid and other is due to modified gravity which is to be considered as an exotic fluid. This allows us for derivation and analysis of a set of new cosmological solutions for gravity by considering these two fluids as a non-interacting. Two known forms of scale factor (de Sitter and power-law) are considered for the explicit and successful reconstruction. The equation of state parameter (EoS) of exotic matter and the effective EoS parameter have been discussed. In de Sitter solution we find that the fluid behaves as phantom dark energy when the usual matter (perfect fluid) shows the behavior between decelerated phase to accelerated phase. In the absence of usual matter it behaves as a cosmological constant. In case of power -law cosmology two different cases are discussed and analyzed the behavior of different phases of the universe accordingly through the equation of state and density parameters.
Affine group formulation of the Standard Model coupled to gravity
Chou, Ching-Yi; Ita, Eyo; Soo, Chopin
2014-04-15
In this work we apply the affine group formalism for four dimensional gravity of Lorentzian signature, which is based on Klauder’s affine algebraic program, to the formulation of the Hamiltonian constraint of the interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity with non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ, as an affine Lie algebra. We use the hermitian action of fermions coupled to gravitation and Yang–Mills theory to find the density weight one fermionic super-Hamiltonian constraint. This term, combined with the Yang–Mills and Higgs energy densities, are composed with York’s integrated time functional. The result, when combined with the imaginary part of the Chern–Simons functional Q, forms the affine commutation relation with the volume element V(x). Affine algebraic quantization of gravitation and matter on equal footing implies a fundamental uncertainty relation which is predicated upon a non-vanishing cosmological constant. -- Highlights: •Wheeler–DeWitt equation (WDW) quantized as affine algebra, realizing Klauder’s program. •WDW formulated for interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity, as affine algebra. •WDW features Hermitian generators in spite of fermionic content: Standard Model addressed. •Constructed a family of physical states for the full, coupled theory via affine coherent states. •Fundamental uncertainty relation, predicated on non-vanishing cosmological constant.
The model of lithospheric thickness beneath China from gravity data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, H.; Ravat, D.
2015-12-01
We compare estimates of lithospheric thickness from several studies in China and examine whether the available gravity field anomalies can constrain these estimates. Ma (1987) suggested based on integrated geophysics that the lithospheric thickness varies from ~130 km in Qinling Dabie orogenic belt to ~60 km in Beijing, and ~50 km in Bohai bay. Lebedev and Nolet (2003) determined the lithospheric thickness in Bohai bay to be ~140 km from S wave tomography. Sodoudi et al.'s (2006) estimate of the lithospheric thickness is 72 km in Qinling Dabie orogenic belt and ~60 km in north China block. Since physical character differences exist between lithosphere and asthenosphere, it is possible to determine the thickness of lithospheric though gravity data. In this study, we use the crustal thickness obtained from teleseismic receiver functions (Li et al., 2014) to model the Moho gravity field variation and then remove this variation from the observed gravity field. Based on the residual field, the lithospheric thickness is obtained by the Parker inversion. Results show that the lithospheric thickness beneath China varies from ~80 km in the north of XinJiang to ~140 km in Tibet, and it changes to ~100 km in Eastern China. The residual field used for inversion is smooth which results in a smooth lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). The LAB is generally in agreement with the previous seismic inversion result along profiles in eastern China (e.g. Li et al., 2011) and suggests that our method could be used to estimate the regional lithospheric variation in other areas in China, and somewhere else.
Flagellates as model system for gravity detection of single cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebert, Michael; Richter, Peter; Daiker, Viktor; Schuster, Martin; Tebart, Jenny; Strauch, Sebastian M.; Donat-Peter, H.
Euglena gracilis is a unicellular, photosynthetic organism which uses light and gravity as en-vironmental hints to reach and stay in horizons of the water column which are optimal for growth and reproduction. The orientation in respect to light (so called positive and nega-tive phototaxis, i.e. movement toward or away of a light source) was well known and fairly good understood. In contrast, knowledge about the movement away from the centre of gravity (negative gravitaxis) was rather scarce. Over a century it was unclear whether orientation in respect to the gravity vector is based on a physical or a physiological mechanism. Recent results clearly favour the latter. Knock-down mutants (RNAi) were characterized which define certain key components of the gravitactic signal transduction chain. These key components include a TRP-like channel, a gravitaxis-specific calmodulin and a protein kinase A. The molecular characterization of these components is currently performed and will be presented. Euglena is not only a model system for the close understanding of gravity detection in single cells, but can also be used as photosynthetic component, i.e. oxygen source and carbon dioxide as well as nitrogenic components sink in Closed Environmental Systems (CES). Due CES are systems of choice in times of scarce flight opportunities. They allow a massive sample sharing and combine possibilities to do microgravity research for biologists but also for engineers, physicists and material scientists. Recent attempts include Aquacells and Omegahab. In the near future miniaturized systems (Chinese ShenZhou) as well as advanced CES will be flown or tested, respectively. Current attempts and plans will be presented.
Constraining f (T ,T ) gravity models using type Ia supernovae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sáez-Gómez, Diego; Carvalho, C. Sofia; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Tereno, Ismael
2016-07-01
We present an analysis of an f (T ,T ) extension of the Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity, where T denotes the torsion and T denotes the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. This extension includes nonminimal couplings between torsion and matter. In particular, we construct two specific models that recover the usual continuity equation, namely, f (T ,T )=T +g (T ) and f (T ,T )=T ×g (T ). We then constrain the parameters of each model by fitting the predicted distance modulus to that measured from type Ia supernovae and find that both models can reproduce the late-time cosmic acceleration. We also observe that one of the models satisfies well the observational constraints and yields a goodness-of-fit similar to the Λ CDM model, thus demonstrating that f (T ,T ) gravity theory encompasses viable models that can be an alternative to Λ CDM .
A finite difference model for free surface gravity drainage
Couri, F.R.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.
1993-09-01
The unconfined gravity flow of liquid with a free surface into a well is a classical well test problem which has not been well understood by either hydrologists or petroleum engineers. Paradigms have led many authors to treat an incompressible flow as compressible flow to justify the delayed yield behavior of a time-drawdown test. A finite-difference model has been developed to simulate the free surface gravity flow of an unconfined single phase, infinitely large reservoir into a well. The model was verified with experimental results in sandbox models in the literature and with classical methods applied to observation wells in the Groundwater literature. The simulator response was also compared with analytical Theis (1935) and Ramey et al. (1989) approaches for wellbore pressure at late producing times. The seepage face in the sandface and the delayed yield behavior were reproduced by the model considering a small liquid compressibility and incompressible porous medium. The potential buildup (recovery) simulated by the model evidenced a different- phenomenon from the drawdown, contrary to statements found in the Groundwater literature. Graphs of buildup potential vs time, buildup seepage face length vs time, and free surface head and sand bottom head radial profiles evidenced that the liquid refills the desaturating cone as a flat moving surface. The late time pseudo radial behavior was only approached after exaggerated long times.
Decay of sandstone monuments in Petra (Jordan): Gravity-induced stress as a stabilizing factor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Řihošek, Jaroslav; Bruthans, Jiří; Mašín, David; Filippi, Michal; Schweigstillova, Jana
2016-04-01
As demonstrated by physical experiments and numerical modeling the gravity-induced stress (stress in further text) in sandstone massive reduces weathering and erosion rate (Bruthans et al. 2014). This finding is in contrast to common view that stress threatens stability of man-made monuments carved to sandstone. Certain low- levels of gravity-induced stress can in fact stabilize and protect these forms against weathering and disintegration. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the effect of the stress on weathering of sandstone monuments at the Petra World Heritage Site in Jordan via field observations, salt weathering experiments, and physical and numerical modeling. Previous studies on weathering of Petra monuments have neglected the impact of stress, but the ubiquitous presence of stress-controlled landforms in Petra suggests that it has a substantial effect on weathering and erosion processes on man-made monuments and natural surfaces. Laboratory salt weathering experiments with cubes of Umm Ishrin sandstone from Petra demonstrated the inverse relationship between stress magnitude and decay rate. Physical modeling with Strelec locked sand from the Czech Republic was used to simulate weathering and decay of Petra monuments. Sharp forms subjected to water erosion decayed to rounded shapes strikingly similar to tombs in Petra subjected to more than 2000 years of weathering and erosion. The physical modeling results enabled visualization of the recession of monument surfaces in high spatial and temporal resolution and indicate that the recession rate of Petra monuments is far from constant both in space and time. Numerical modeling of stress fields confirms the physical modeling results. This novel approach to investigate weathering clearly demonstrates that increased stress decreases the decay rate of Petra monuments. To properly delineate the endangered zones of monuments, the potential damage caused by weathering agents should be combined with stress
High-degree Gravity Models from GRAIL Primary Mission Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, Frank G.; Goossens, Sander J.; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Loomis, Bryant D.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Caprette, Douglas S.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.
2013-01-01
We have analyzed Ka?band range rate (KBRR) and Deep Space Network (DSN) data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) primary mission (1 March to 29 May 2012) to derive gravity models of the Moon to degree 420, 540, and 660 in spherical harmonics. For these models, GRGM420A, GRGM540A, and GRGM660PRIM, a Kaula constraint was applied only beyond degree 330. Variance?component estimation (VCE) was used to adjust the a priori weights and obtain a calibrated error covariance. The global root?mean?square error in the gravity anomalies computed from the error covariance to 320×320 is 0.77 mGal, compared to 29.0 mGal with the pre?GRAIL model derived with the SELENE mission data, SGM150J, only to 140×140. The global correlations with the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter?derived topography are larger than 0.985 between l = 120 and 330. The free?air gravity anomalies, especially over the lunar farside, display a dramatic increase in detail compared to the pre?GRAIL models (SGM150J and LP150Q) and, through degree 320, are free of the orbit?track?related artifacts present in the earlier models. For GRAIL, we obtain an a posteriori fit to the S?band DSN data of 0.13 mm/s. The a posteriori fits to the KBRR data range from 0.08 to 1.5 micrometers/s for GRGM420A and from 0.03 to 0.06 micrometers/s for GRGM660PRIM. Using the GRAIL data, we obtain solutions for the degree 2 Love numbers, k20=0.024615+/-0.0000914, k21=0.023915+/-0.0000132, and k22=0.024852+/-0.0000167, and a preliminary solution for the k30 Love number of k30=0.00734+/-0.0015, where the Love number error sigmas are those obtained with VCE.
High‒degree gravity models from GRAIL primary mission data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemoine, Frank G.; Goossens, Sander; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Loomis, Bryant D.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Caprette, Douglas S.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.
2013-08-01
have analyzed Ka‒band range rate (KBRR) and Deep Space Network (DSN) data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) primary mission (1 March to 29 May 2012) to derive gravity models of the Moon to degree 420, 540, and 660 in spherical harmonics. For these models, GRGM420A, GRGM540A, and GRGM660PRIM, a Kaula constraint was applied only beyond degree 330. Variance‒component estimation (VCE) was used to adjust the a priori weights and obtain a calibrated error covariance. The global root‒mean‒square error in the gravity anomalies computed from the error covariance to 320×320 is 0.77 mGal, compared to 29.0 mGal with the pre‒GRAIL model derived with the SELENE mission data, SGM150J, only to 140×140. The global correlations with the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter‒derived topography are larger than 0.985 between ℓ=120 and 330. The free‒air gravity anomalies, especially over the lunar farside, display a dramatic increase in detail compared to the pre‒GRAIL models (SGM150J and LP150Q) and, through degree 320, are free of the orbit‒track‒related artifacts present in the earlier models. For GRAIL, we obtain an a posteriori fit to the S‒band DSN data of 0.13 mm/s. The a posteriori fits to the KBRR data range from 0.08 to 1.5 μm/s for GRGM420A and from 0.03 to 0.06 μm/s for GRGM660PRIM. Using the GRAIL data, we obtain solutions for the degree 2 Love numbers, k20=0.024615±0.0000914, k21=0.023915±0.0000132, and k22=0.024852±0.0000167, and a preliminary solution for the k30 Love number of k30=0.00734±0.0015, where the Love number error sigmas are those obtained with VCE.
Stable and unstable cosmological models in bimetric massive gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koennig, Frank; Akrami, Yashar; Amendola, Luca; Motta, Mariele; Solomon, Adam R.
2014-12-01
Nonlinear, ghost-free massive gravity has two tensor fields; when both are dynamical, the mass of the graviton can lead to cosmic acceleration that agrees with background data, even in the absence of a cosmological constant. Here the question of the stability of linear perturbations in this bimetric theory is examined. Instabilities are presented for several classes of models, and simple criteria for the cosmological stability of massive bigravity are derived. In this way, we identify a particular self-accelerating bigravity model, infinite-branch bigravity (IBB), which exhibits both viable background evolution and stable linear perturbations. We discuss the modified gravity parameters for IBB, which do not reduce to the standard Λ CDM result at early times, and compute the combined likelihood from measured growth data and type Ia supernovae. IBB predicts a present matter density Ωm 0=0.18 and an equation of state w (z )=-0.79 +0.21 z /(1 +z ) . The growth rate of structure is well approximated at late times by f (z )≈Ωm0.47[1 +0.21 z /(1 +z )] . The implications of the linear instability for other bigravity models are discussed: the instability does not necessarily rule these models out, but rather presents interesting questions about how to extract observables from them when linear perturbation theory does not hold.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buss, S.; Hertzog, A.; Hostettler, C.; Bui, T. B.; Lüthi, D.; Wernli, H.
2004-08-01
A polar stratospheric ice cloud (PSC type II) was observed by airborne lidar above Greenland on 14 January 2000. It was the unique observation of an ice cloud over Greenland during the SOLVE/THESEO 2000 campaign. Mesoscale simulations with the hydrostatic HRM model are presented which, in contrast to global analyses, are capable to produce a vertically propagating gravity wave that induces the low temperatures at the level of the PSC afforded for the ice formation. The simulated minimum temperature is ~8 K below the driving analyses and ~4.5 K below the frost point, exactly coinciding with the location of the observed ice cloud. Despite the high elevations of the Greenland orography the simulated gravity wave is not a mountain wave. Analyses of the horizontal wind divergence, of the background wind profiles, of backward gravity wave ray-tracing trajectories, of HRM experiments with reduced Greenland topography and of several diagnostics near the tropopause level provide evidence that the wave is emitted from an intense, rapidly evolving, anticyclonically curved jet stream. The precise physical process responsible for the wave emission could not be identified definitely, but geostrophic adjustment and shear instability are likely candidates.
In order to evaluate the potential frequency of such non-orographic polar stratospheric cloud events, the non-linear balance equation diagnostic is performed for the winter 1999/2000. It indicates that ice-PSCs are only occasionally generated by gravity waves emanating from spontaneous adjustment.
Computing model independent perturbations in dark energy and modified gravity
Battye, Richard A.; Pearson, Jonathan A. E-mail: jonathan.pearson@durham.ac.uk
2014-03-01
We present a methodology for computing model independent perturbations in dark energy and modified gravity. This is done from the Lagrangian for perturbations, by showing how field content, symmetries, and physical principles are often sufficient ingredients for closing the set of perturbed fluid equations. The fluid equations close once ''equations of state for perturbations'' are identified: these are linear combinations of fluid and metric perturbations which construct gauge invariant entropy and anisotropic stress perturbations for broad classes of theories. Our main results are the proof of the equation of state for perturbations presented in a previous paper, and the development of the required calculational tools.
Quantum singularities in a model of f( R) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gurtug, O.; Tahamtan, T.
2012-07-01
The formation of a naked singularity in a model of f( R) gravity having as source a linear electromagnetic field is considered in view of quantum mechanics. Quantum test fields obeying the Klein-Gordon, Dirac and Maxwell equations are used to probe the classical timelike naked singularity developed at r=0. We prove that the spatial derivative operator of the fields fails to be essentially self-adjoint. As a result, the classical timelike naked singularity remains quantum mechanically singular when it is probed with quantum fields having different spin structures.
Modeling of the Earth's gravity field using the New Global Earth Model (NEWGEM)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Yeong E.; Braswell, W. Danny
1989-01-01
Traditionally, the global gravity field was described by representations based on the spherical harmonics (SH) expansion of the geopotential. The SH expansion coefficients were determined by fitting the Earth's gravity data as measured by many different methods including the use of artificial satellites. As gravity data have accumulated with increasingly better accuracies, more of the higher order SH expansion coefficients were determined. The SH representation is useful for describing the gravity field exterior to the Earth but is theoretically invalid on the Earth's surface and in the Earth's interior. A new global Earth model (NEWGEM) (KIM, 1987 and 1988a) was recently proposed to provide a unified description of the Earth's gravity field inside, on, and outside the Earth's surface using the Earth's mass density profile as deduced from seismic studies, elevation and bathymetric information, and local and global gravity data. Using NEWGEM, it is possible to determine the constraints on the mass distribution of the Earth imposed by gravity, topography, and seismic data. NEWGEM is useful in investigating a variety of geophysical phenomena. It is currently being utilized to develop a geophysical interpretation of Kaula's rule. The zeroth order NEWGEM is being used to numerically integrate spherical harmonic expansion coefficients and simultaneously determine the contribution of each layer in the model to a given coefficient. The numerically determined SH expansion coefficients are also being used to test the validity of SH expansions at the surface of the Earth by comparing the resulting SH expansion gravity model with exact calculations of the gravity at the Earth's surface.
Establishing a Near Term Lunar Farside Gravity Model via Inexpensive Add-on Navigation Payload
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Folta, David; Mesarch, Michael; Miller, Ronald; Bell, David; Jedrey, Tom; Butman, Stanley; Asmar, Sami
2007-01-01
The Space Communications and Navigation, Constellation Integration Project (SCIP) is tasked with defining, developing, deploying and operating an evolving multi-decade communications and navigation (C/N) infrastructure including services and subsystems that will support both robotic and human exploration activities at the Moon. This paper discusses an early far side gravitational mapping service and related telecom subsystem that uses an existing spacecraft (WIND) and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to collect data that would address several needs of the SCIP. An important aspect of such an endeavor is to vastly improve the current lunar gravity model while demonstrating the navigation and stationkeeping of a relay spacecraft. We describe a gravity data acquisition activity and the trajectory design of the relay orbit in an Earth-Moon L2 co-linear libration orbit. Several phases of the transfer from an Earth-Sun to the Earth-Moon region are discussed along with transfers within the Earth-Moon system. We describe a proposed, but not integrated, add-on to LRO scheduled to be launched in October of 2008. LRO provided a real host spacecraft against which we designed the science payload and mission activities. From a strategic standpoint, LRO was a very exciting first flight opportunity for gravity science data collection. Gravity Science data collection requires the use of one or more low altitude lunar polar orbiters. Variations in the lunar gravity field will cause measurable variations in the orbit of a low altitude lunar orbiter. The primary means to capture these induced motions is to monitor the Doppler shift of a radio signal to or from the low altitude spacecraft, given that the signal is referenced to a stable frequency reference. For the lunar far side, a secondary orbiting radio signal platform is required. We provide an in-depth look at link margins, trajectory design, and hardware implications. Our approach posed minimum risk to a host mission while
String's Current Induced by the Dilatonic Coupling of Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guimarães, Maria E. X.
The nature of an ordinary cosmic string1 in the framework of a scalar-tensor extension of gravity is investigated. It is shown that in this case, the dilaton field can act as a timelike or a spacelike current traveling along the string, and localized into it2. Apart from the fact that the current can not be formed after the string forming phase transition but exactly at the same time, since the dilaton is not an ordinary scalar field but a component of the gravitational interaction configuration would resemble very much the usual superconducting strings first proposed by Witten3. This means that a network of strings here produced would suffer from the vorton excess problem4, leading to an actual cosmological catastrophe from which one can derive strong constraints on the relevant theories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Shingo; Miyahara, Saburo
2009-04-01
The interaction of gravity waves (GWs) and the migrating diurnal tide are studied in a GW-resolving general circulation model (GCM) by calculating the tidal components of zonal wind accelerations and equivalent Rayleigh friction due to tidal induced GW dissipation. Two 15-day periods for perpetual equinoctial and solstice simulations are analyzed, which are performed with the Japanese Atmospheric General circulation model for Upper Atmosphere Research (JAGUAR) high-resolution GCM. The model can directly simulate GWs with horizontal wavelengths greater than about 190 km, and, thus reproduce the general features of the mean winds and temperatures from the surface to the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). The amplitudes of the migrating diurnal tide are successfully simulated during both seasons, and the tidal winds affect the altitudes of GW dissipation in the low-latitude MLT. The tidal component of GW forcing has maximal values of about 15 m s-1 d-1 near the maximal vertical shears of the tidal winds and generally works to shorten the vertical wavelength of the migrating diurnal tide. The phase relationship between the tidal winds and the tidal induced GW forcing is not exactly 90° out of phase, causing amplification/suppression of the tide. The GW forcing amplifies the migrating diurnal tide during the equinox, while during the solstice, it suppresses the tidal winds in the upper mesosphere of both hemispheres. This difference in behavior can be attributed to a seasonal variation of the mean zonal winds, because combination of the mean and tidal winds affects the altitudes of GW dissipation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Zhikui; Chen, Chao; Tao, Chunhui
2016-04-01
Since 2007, there are four China Da yang cruises (CDCs), which have been carried out to investigate polymetallic sulfides in the southwest Indian ridge (SWIR) and have acquired both gravity data and bathymetry data on the corresponding survey lines(Tao et al., 2014). Sandwell et al. (2014) published a new global marine gravity model including the free air gravity data and its first order vertical gradient (Vzz). Gravity data and its gradient can be used to extract unknown density structure information(e.g. crust thickness) under surface of the earth, but they contain all the mass effect under the observation point. Therefore, how to get accurate gravity and its gradient effect of the existing density structure (e.g. terrain) has been a key issue. Using the bathymetry data or ETOPO1 (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/global/global.html) model at a full resolution to calculate the terrain effect could spend too much computation time. We expect to develop an effective method that takes less time but can still yield the desired accuracy. In this study, a constant-density polyhedral model is used to calculate the gravity field and its vertical gradient, which is based on the work of Tsoulis (2012). According to gravity field attenuation with distance and variance of bathymetry, we present an adaptive mesh refinement and coarsening strategies to merge both global topography data and multi-beam bathymetry data. The local coarsening or size of mesh depends on user-defined accuracy and terrain variation (Davis et al., 2011). To depict terrain better, triangular surface element and rectangular surface element are used in fine and coarse mesh respectively. This strategy can also be applied to spherical coordinate in large region and global scale. Finally, we applied this method to calculate Bouguer gravity anomaly (BGA), mantle Bouguer anomaly(MBA) and their vertical gradient in SWIR. Further, we compared the result with previous results in the literature. Both synthetic model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McFadden, J. J.; Poovaiah, B. W.
1988-01-01
The effect of light and calcium depletion on in vivo protein phosphorylation was tested using dark-grown roots of Merit corn. Light caused rapid and specific promotion of phosphorylation of three polypeptides. Pretreatment of roots with ethylene glycol bis N,N,N',N' tetraacetic acid and A23187 prevented light-induced changes in protein phosphorylation. We postulate that these changes in protein phosphorylation are involved in the light-induced gravity response.
Vacuum structure for scalar cosmological perturbations in modified gravity models
Felice, Antonio De; Suyama, Teruaki E-mail: teruaki.suyama@uclouvain.be
2009-06-01
We have found for the general class of Modified Gravity Models f(R, G) a new instability which can arise in vacuum for the scalar modes of the cosmological perturbations if the background is not de Sitter. In particular, the short-wavelength modes, if stable, in general have a group velocity which depends linearly in k, the wave number. Therefore these modes will be in general superluminal. We have also discussed the condition for which in general these scalar modes will be ghost-like. There is a subclass of these models, defined out of properties of the function f(R, G) and to which the f(R) and f(G) models belong, which however do not have this feature.
New analytic solutions for modeling vertical gravity gradient anomalies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Seung-Sep; Wessel, Paul
2016-05-01
Modern processing of satellite altimetry for use in marine gravimetry involves computing the along-track slopes of observed sea-surface heights, projecting them into east-west and north-south deflection of the vertical grids, and using Laplace's equation to algebraically obtain a grid of the vertical gravity gradient (VGG). The VGG grid is then integrated via overlapping, flat Earth Fourier transforms to yield a free-air anomaly grid. Because of this integration and associated edge effects, the VGG grid retains more short-wavelength information (e.g., fracture zone and seamount signatures) that is of particular importance for plate tectonic investigations. While modeling of gravity anomalies over arbitrary bodies has long been a standard undertaking, similar modeling of VGG anomalies over oceanic features is not commonplace yet. Here we derive analytic solutions for VGG anomalies over simple bodies and arbitrary 2-D and 3-D sources. We demonstrate their usability in determining mass excess and deficiency across the Mendocino fracture zone (a 2-D feature) and find the best bulk density estimate for Jasper seamount (a 3-D feature). The methodologies used herein are implemented in the Generic Mapping Tools, available from gmt.soest.hawaii.edu.
Spectral action models of gravity on packed swiss cheese cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ball, Adam; Marcolli, Matilde
2016-06-01
We present a model of (modified) gravity on spacetimes with fractal structure based on packing of spheres, which are (Euclidean) variants of the packed swiss cheese cosmology models. As the action functional for gravity we consider the spectral action of noncommutative geometry, and we compute its expansion on a space obtained as an Apollonian packing of three-dimensional spheres inside a four-dimensional ball. Using information from the zeta function of the Dirac operator of the spectral triple, we compute the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the spectral action. They consist of a zeta regularization of the divergent sum of the leading terms of the spectral actions of the individual spheres in the packing. This accounts for the contribution of points 1 and 3 in the dimension spectrum (as in the case of a 3-sphere). There is an additional term coming from the residue at the additional point in the real dimension spectrum that corresponds to the packing constant, as well as a series of fluctuations coming from log-periodic oscillations, created by the points of the dimension spectrum that are off the real line. These terms detect the fractality of the residue set of the sphere packing. We show that the presence of fractality influences the shape of the slow-roll potential for inflation, obtained from the spectral action. We also discuss the effect of truncating the fractal structure at a certain scale related to the energy scale in the spectral action.
New Technology for Density Model Construction Using Gravity Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martyshko, P. S.
2010-12-01
The construction process of density sections using gravity data leads to solution of linear inverse problem, which is the classical example of ill-posed problem as its solution is not unique and unstable. It is possible to choose the specific variant of density distribution if additional information is presented. In this article we discuss one approach for constructing three-dimensional density sections using gravity data. Here we suggest the algorithm of finding density distribution in the area of investigations using prior information about geological structures in the region, for example, obtained with seismic methods. This problem appears during constructing earth-crust and mantle models, and, also oil and gas exploration. As the practical investigation involve non-plate layers, new method for searching density distributions inside curve-edged layers was developed. Calculate two-dimension density distribution in these layers if there are no other density anomalies outside given layers. Technology of gravity field sources separation was completely described in [1,2]. Initial data for investigations are located usually on a non-regular grid. As far as all following procedures are developed for data arrays located on regular grids we have to calculate data onto a regular grid (with a uniform nodes spacing). For separating sources of gravity field in depths we based on upward and downward continuation by means Poisson’s formula. The problem of definition of density values in the layer leads to integral equation of the first kind Δg(x,y,0)=Bσ(x,y,), where B - is integral operator, density σ(x,y) is seeking function. Consider double integral in equation above as a sum of integrals over elementary rectangles Δx by Δy, i.e. we imagine layer separated into bars Δx Δy (H2(x,y)-H1(x,y)), each having constant density, and use discrete integral formula (for example, trapeziums formula). Then calculation of the integral comes to the multiplication of vector of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, T. L.
1986-01-01
Numerical modeling has been performed of the fluid dynamics in a prototypical physical vapor transport crystal growing situation. Cases with and without gravity have been computed. Dependence of the flows upon the dimensionless parameters aspect ratio and Peclet, Rayleigh, and Schmidt numbers is demonstrated to a greater extent than in previous works. Most notably, it is shown that the effects of thermally-induced buoyant convection upon the mass flux on the growth interface crucially depend upon the temperature boundary conditions on the sidewall (e.g., whether adiabatic or of a fixed profile, and in the latter case the results depend upon the shape of the profile assumed).
Singular boundary method for global gravity field modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cunderlik, Robert
2014-05-01
The singular boundary method (SBM) and method of fundamental solutions (MFS) are meshless boundary collocation techniques that use the fundamental solution of a governing partial differential equation (e.g. the Laplace equation) as their basis functions. They have been developed to avoid singular numerical integration as well as mesh generation in the traditional boundary element method (BEM). SBM have been proposed to overcome a main drawback of MFS - its controversial fictitious boundary outside the domain. The key idea of SBM is to introduce a concept of the origin intensity factors that isolate singularities of the fundamental solution and its derivatives using some appropriate regularization techniques. Consequently, the source points can be placed directly on the real boundary and coincide with the collocation nodes. In this study we deal with SBM applied for high-resolution global gravity field modelling. The first numerical experiment presents a numerical solution to the fixed gravimetric boundary value problem. The achieved results are compared with the numerical solutions obtained by MFS or the direct BEM indicating efficiency of all methods. In the second numerical experiments, SBM is used to derive the geopotential and its first derivatives from the Tzz components of the gravity disturbing tensor observed by the GOCE satellite mission. A determination of the origin intensity factors allows to evaluate the disturbing potential and gravity disturbances directly on the Earth's surface where the source points are located. To achieve high-resolution numerical solutions, the large-scale parallel computations are performed on the cluster with 1TB of the distributed memory and an iterative elimination of far zones' contributions is applied.
Cosmic acceleration in a model of fourth order gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Shreya; Jayswal, Nilesh; Singh, Tejinder P.
2015-10-01
We investigate a fourth order model of gravity, having a free length parameter, and no cosmological constant or dark energy. We consider cosmological evolution of a flat Friedmann universe in this model for the case that the length parameter is of the order of the present Hubble radius. By making a suitable choice for the present value of the Hubble parameter, and the value of the third derivative of the scale factor (the jerk), we find that the model can explain cosmic acceleration to the same degree of accuracy as the standard concordance model. If the free length parameter is assumed to be time dependent, and of the order of the Hubble parameter of the corresponding epoch, the model can still explain cosmic acceleration, and provides a possible resolution of the cosmic coincidence problem. We work out the effective equation of state, and its time evolution, in our model. The fourth order correction terms are proportional to the metric, and hence mimic the cosmological constant. We also compare redshift drift in our model, with that in the standard model. The equation of state and the redshift drift serve to discriminate our model from the standard model.
The hidden flat like universe. Starobinsky-like inflation induced by f (T) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Hanafy, W.; Nashed, G. G. L.
2015-06-01
We study a single-fluid component in a flat like universe (FLU) governed by f( T) gravity theories, where T is the teleparallel torsion scalar. The FLU model, regardless of the value of the spatial curvature k, identifies a special class of f( T) gravity theories. Remarkably, FLU f( T) gravity does not reduce to teleparallel gravity theory. In large Hubble spacetime the theory is consistent with the inflationary universe scenario and respects the conservation principle. The equation of state evolves similarly in all models . We study the case when the torsion tensor consists of a scalar field, which enables to derive a quintessence potential from the obtained f( T) gravity theory. The potential produces Starobinsky-like model naturally without using a conformal transformation, with higher orders continuously interpolate between Starobinsky and quadratic inflation models. The slow-roll analysis shows double solutions, so that for a single value of the scalar tilt (spectral index) the theory can predict double tensor-to-scalar ratios r of E-mode and B-mode polarizations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexander, M. Joan; Stephan, Claudia
2015-04-01
In climate models, gravity waves remain too poorly resolved to be directly modelled. Instead, simplified parameterizations are used to include gravity wave effects on model winds. A few climate models link some of the parameterized waves to convective sources, providing a mechanism for feedback between changes in convection and gravity wave-driven changes in circulation in the tropics and above high-latitude storms. These convective wave parameterizations are based on limited case studies with cloud-resolving models, but they are poorly constrained by observational validation, and tuning parameters have large uncertainties. Our new work distills results from complex, full-physics cloud-resolving model studies to essential variables for gravity wave generation. We use the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model to study relationships between precipitation, latent heating/cooling and other cloud properties to the spectrum of gravity wave momentum flux above midlatitude storm systems. Results show the gravity wave spectrum is surprisingly insensitive to the representation of microphysics in WRF. This is good news for use of these models for gravity wave parameterization development since microphysical properties are a key uncertainty. We further use the full-physics cloud-resolving model as a tool to directly link observed precipitation variability to gravity wave generation. We show that waves in an idealized model forced with radar-observed precipitation can quantitatively reproduce instantaneous satellite-observed features of the gravity wave field above storms, which is a powerful validation of our understanding of waves generated by convection. The idealized model directly links observations of surface precipitation to observed waves in the stratosphere, and the simplicity of the model permits deep/large-area domains for studies of wave-mean flow interactions. This unique validated model tool permits quantitative studies of gravity wave driving of regional
Entropy Corrected Holographic Dark Energy f(T) Gravity Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Rani, Shamaila
2014-01-01
This paper is devoted to study the power-law entropy corrected holographic dark energy (ECHDE) model in the framework of f(T) gravity. We assume infrared (IR) cutoff in terms of Granda-Oliveros (GO) length and discuss the constructed f(T) model in interacting as well as in non-interacting scenarios. We explore some cosmological parameters like equation of state (EoS), deceleration, statefinder parameters as well as ωT-ωT‧ analysis. The EoS and deceleration parameters indicate phantom behavior of the accelerated expansion of the universe. It is mentioned here that statefinder trajectories represent consistent results with ΛCDM limit, while evolution trajectory of ωT-ωT‧ phase plane does not approach to ΛCDM limit for both interacting and non-interacting cases.
Spin foam models for quantum gravity from lattice path integrals
Bonzom, Valentin
2009-09-15
Spin foam models for quantum gravity are derived from lattice path integrals. The setting involves variables from both lattice BF theory and Regge calculus. The action consists in a Regge action, which depends on areas, dihedral angles and includes the Immirzi parameter. In addition, a measure is inserted to ensure a consistent gluing of simplices, so that the amplitude is dominated by configurations that satisfy the parallel transport relations. We explicitly compute the path integral as a sum over spin foams for a generic measure. The Freidel-Krasnov and Engle-Pereira-Rovelli models correspond to a special choice of gluing. In this case, the equations of motion describe genuine geometries, where the constraints of area-angle Regge calculus are satisfied. Furthermore, the Immirzi parameter drops out of the on-shell action, and stationarity with respect to area variations requires spacetime geometry to be flat.
Thermodynamic behavior of particular f(R,T)-gravity models
Sharif, M. Zubair, M.
2013-08-15
We investigate the thermodynamics at the apparent horizon of the FRW universe in f(R, T) theory in the nonequilibrium description. The laws of thermodynamics are discussed for two particular models of the f(R, T) theory. The first law of thermodynamics is expressed in the form of the Clausius relation T{sub h} dS-circumflex{sub h} = {delta} Q , where {delta}Q is the energy flux across the horizon and dS-circumflex is the entropy production term. Furthermore, the conditions for the generalized second law of thermodynamics to be preserved are established with the constraints of positive temperature and attractive gravity. We illustrate our results for some concrete models in this theory.
Performance of FFT methods in local gravity field modelling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forsberg, Rene; Solheim, Dag
1989-01-01
Fast Fourier transform (FFT) methods provide a fast and efficient means of processing large amounts of gravity or geoid data in local gravity field modelling. The FFT methods, however, has a number of theoretical and practical limitations, especially the use of flat-earth approximation, and the requirements for gridded data. In spite of this the method often yields excellent results in practice when compared to other more rigorous (and computationally expensive) methods, such as least-squares collocation. The good performance of the FFT methods illustrate that the theoretical approximations are offset by the capability of taking into account more data in larger areas, especially important for geoid predictions. For best results good data gridding algorithms are essential. In practice truncated collocation approaches may be used. For large areas at high latitudes the gridding must be done using suitable map projections such as UTM, to avoid trivial errors caused by the meridian convergence. The FFT methods are compared to ground truth data in New Mexico (xi, eta from delta g), Scandinavia (N from delta g, the geoid fits to 15 cm over 2000 km), and areas of the Atlantic (delta g from satellite altimetry using Wiener filtering). In all cases the FFT methods yields results comparable or superior to other methods.
Depth sensitivity of satellite gravity gradients inferred from a density model of North America
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szwillus, Wolfgang; Ebbing, Jörg
2015-04-01
In addition to seismological and electromagnetic data, for lithospheric scale modeling the vertical gravity acceleration or the geoid are used in most cases. For such investigations, the gravity field is divided into lithospheric and sub-lithospheric parts. Often spherical harmonics degrees 2-9 are identified as the sub-lithospheric gravity field. However, the lithosphere contains significant density anomalies that cause a strong gravity effect at these degrees. Thus the filtered gravity field is contaminated by a considerable crustal effect. An alternative approach is to strip the total field of the contribution of lithospheric sources by forward calculation, making use of gravity gradient data as available from the GOCE satellite mission. Gravity gradients have a depth sensitivity that is different from conventional gravity. We have determined and compared the relative proportion of signal coming from different depths for all gravity and gravity gradient components. These proportions can be interpreted as an estimate of depth sensitivity. Our first results show that the density contrast at the crust-mantle boundary causes the strongest signal in both the gravity field and the gravity gradients. Gravity gradients have an increased sensitivity to inner-crustal density anomalies, whereas the normal, vertical gravity field better reflects sub-lithospheric anomalies. Furthermore, the non-vertical gradient components do not have the same depth sensitivity as the vertical gradient components. These characteristics can be used (a) to improve the quality of crustal density models and (b) to better separate the lithospheric and sub-lithospheric parts of the gravity field. We demonstrate this approach for the North American continent. The starting model is based mainly on the seismological model of the North American Crust NaCr 14. Additionally, we include travel time tomography for the velocity distribution in the upper mantle. This approach gives a sub
Detection of gravity-induced polarity of cytoplasmic streaming in Chara
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Staves, M. P.; Wayne, R.; Leopold, A. C.
1995-01-01
Gravity induces a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming in vertically-oriented internodal cells of characean algae. The motive force that powers cytoplasmic streaming is generated at the ectoplasmic/endoplasmic interface. The velocity of streaming, which is about 100 micrometers/s at this interface, decreases with distance from the interface on either side of the cell to 0 micrometers/s near the middle. Therefore, when discussing streaming velocity it is necessary to specify the tangential plane through the cell in which streaming is being measured. This is easily done with a moderate resolution light microscope (which has a lateral resolution of 0.6 micrometers and a depth of field of 1.4 micrometers), but is obscured when using any low resolution technique, such as low magnification light microscopy or laser Doppler spectroscopy. In addition, the effect of gravity on the polarity of cytoplasmic streaming declines with increasing physiological age of isolated cells. Using a classical mechanical analysis, we show that the effect of gravity on the polarity of cytoplasmic streaming cannot result from the effect of gravity acting directly on individual cytoplasmic particles. We suggest that gravity may best be perceived by the entire cell at the plasma membrane-extracellular matrix junction.
Ultralocal models of modified gravity without kinetic term
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brax, Philippe; Rizzo, Luca Alberto; Valageas, Patrick
2016-08-01
We present a class of modified-gravity theories which we call ultralocal models. We add a scalar field, with negligible kinetic terms, to the Einstein-Hilbert action. We also introduce a conformal coupling to matter. This gives rise to a new screening mechanism which is not entirely due to the nonlinearity of the scalar-field potential or the coupling function but to the absence of the kinetic term. As a result this removes any fifth force between isolated objects in vacuum. It turns out that these models are similar to chameleon-type theories with a large mass when considered outside the Compton wavelength but differ on shorter scales. The predictions of these models only depend on a single free function, as the potential and the coupling function are degenerate, with an amplitude given by a parameter α ≲10-6 , whose magnitude springs from requiring a small modification of Newton's potential astrophysically and cosmologically. This singles out a redshift zα˜α-1 /3≳100 where the fifth force is the greatest. The cosmological background follows the Λ cold dark matter (Λ CDM ) history within a 10-6 accuracy, while cosmological perturbations are significantly enhanced (or damped) on small scales, k ≳2 h Mpc-1 at z =0 . The spherical collapse and the halo mass function are modified in the same manner. We find that the modifications of gravity are greater for galactic or subgalactic structures. We also present a thermodynamic analysis of the nonlinear and inhomogeneous fifth-force regime where we find that the Universe is not made more inhomogeneous before zα when the fifth force dominates, and does not lead to the existence of clumped matter on extra small scales inside halos for large masses while this possibility exists for masses M ≲1 011M⊙ where the phenomenology of ultralocal models would be most different from Λ CDM .
Flow induced charging of liquids in reduced gravity
Pettit, D.R.
1996-02-01
Microgravity experiments on free fluid surfaces of large length scale could be subject to experimental artifact from flow induced charging. Under conditions favorable for flow induced charging, flowing liquids develop a static electrical charge which manifests itself as a force whose magnitude approaches that of surface tension force. Favorable conditions are: a non-conducting liquid, a small diameter non-conducting flow passage, a large flow volume, and a small separation distance between the fluid and another object. We present a method for calculating the magnitude of flow induced charging and scaling arguments so that potential problems can be determined and dealt with at the experimental design phase. A dimensionless ratio of charge force to surface tension force we call the Hula Number should be less than 0.5 to prevent artifact or unwanted fluid motion.
Dynamics and phenomenology of higher order gravity cosmological models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moldenhauer, Jacob Andrew
2010-10-01
I present here some new results about a systematic approach to higher-order gravity (HOG) cosmological models. The HOG models are derived from curvature invariants that are more general than the Einstein-Hilbert action. Some of the models exhibit late-time cosmic acceleration without the need for dark energy and fit some current observations. The open question is that there are an infinite number of invariants that one could select, and many of the published papers have stressed the need to find a systematic approach that will allow one to study methodically the various possibilities. We explore a new connection that we made between theorems from the theory of invariants in general relativity and these cosmological models. In summary, the theorems demonstrate that curvature invariants are not all independent from each other and that for a given Ricci Segre type and Petrov type (symmetry classification) of the space-time, there exists a complete minimal set of independent invariants (a basis) in terms of which all the other invariants can be expressed. As an immediate consequence of the proposed approach, the number of invariants to consider is dramatically reduced from infinity to four invariants in the worst case and to only two invariants in the cases of interest, including all Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metrics. We derive models that pass stability and physical acceptability conditions. We derive dynamical equations and phase portrait analyses that show the promise of the systematic approach. We consider observational constraints from magnitude-redshift Supernovae Type Ia data, distance to the last scattering surface of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation, and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations. We put observational constraints on general HOG models. We constrain different forms of the Gauss-Bonnet, f(G), modified gravity models with these observations. We show some of these models pass solar system tests. We seek to find models that pass physical and
Error analysis of crustal thickness modelling using satellite gravity data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van der Meijde, Mark; Pail, Roland; Julia, Jordi
2015-04-01
In the last few years many studies have applied GOCE data for solid Earth applications. These studies varied in depth from basins through crustal thickness and down to deep mantle composition. The main differences between the crustal studies was on the used methodologies and, to some extent, GOCE data and models. Especially the different methodologies have been shown to result in large variations in crustal thickness even when using the same data as source. It is, however, difficult to estimate what is a significant difference between such models since the inherent uncertainty of GOCE data for solid Earth applications is never calculated. With this study we will provide uncertainty boundaries for crustal modelling based on the GOCE TIM5 covariance matrix. Based on the TIM5 covariance matrix, different noise realizations have been calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation and added to the TIM5 model coefficients. Then each model has been processed in a similar way to retrieve crustal thickness. The resulting differences in crustal thickness are representative for the inherent uncertainty of GOCE data for crustal thickness modelling. The amplitude and spatial distribution of uncertainties will be compared to differences between various gravity derived crustal thickness models.
IGMAS+ A New 3D Gravity, FTG and Magnetic Modeling Software
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goetze, H.; Schmidt, S.; Fichler, C.; Alvers, M. R.
2007-12-01
Modern geophysical interpretation requires an interdisciplinary approach, particularly when considering the available amount of 'state of the art' information contained in comprehensive data bases. A combination of different geophysical surveys employing seismics, gravity and geoelectrics, together with geological and petrological studies, can provide new insights into the structures and tectonic evolution of the lithosphere and natural deposits. Interdisciplinary interpretation is essential for any numerical modelling of these structures and the processes acting on them. Three-dimensional (3D) interactive modeling with the IGMAS+ software provides means for integrated processing and interpretation of geoid, gravity and magnetic fields and their gradients (full tensor), yielding improved geological interpretation. IGMAS+ is an acronym standing for "Interactive Geophysical Modelling Application System". It bases on the existing software IGMAS (http://www.gravity.uni-kiel.de/igmas), a tool developed during the past twenty years for potential field modelling. The new IGMAS+, however, will comprise the advantages of the "old" IGMAS (e.g. flexible geometry concept and a fast and stable algorithm) with automated interpretation tools and a modern graphical GUI based on leading edge insights from psychological computer graphics research and thus provide optimal man machine communication. IGMAS+ fully three-dimensional models are constructed using triangulated polyhedra and/or triangulated grids, to which constant density and/or induced and remanent susceptibility are assigned. Interactive modifications of model parameters (geometry, density, susceptibility, magnetization), access to the numerical modeling process, and direct visualization of both calculated and measured fields of gravity and magnetics, enable the interpreter to design the model as realistically as possible. IGMAS+ allows easy integration of constraining data into interactive modeling processes
IGMAS+ a new 3D Gravity, FTG and Magnetic Modeling Software
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Schmidt, Sabine; Fichler, Christine; Planka, Christian
2010-05-01
Modern geophysical interpretation requires an interdisciplinary approach, particularly when considering the available amount of 'state of the art' information contained in comprehensive data bases. A combination of different geophysical surveys employing seismics, gravity and geoelectrics, together with geological and petrological studies, can provide new insights into the structures and tectonic evolution of the lithosphere and natural deposits. Interdisciplinary interpretation is essential for any numerical modelling of these structures and the processes acting on them Three-dimensional (3D) interactive modeling with the IGMAS+ software provides means for integrated processing and interpretation of geoid, gravity and magnetic fields and their gradients (full tensor), yielding improved geological interpretation. IGMAS+ is an acronym standing for "Interactive Geophysical Modelling Application System". It bases on the existing software IGMAS (http://www.gravity.uni-kiel.de/igmas), a tool developed during the past twenty years for potential field modelling. The new IGMAS+, however, will comprise the advantages of the "old" IGMAS (e.g. flexible geometry concept and a fast and stable algorithm) with automated interpretation tools and a modern graphical GUI based on leading edge insights from psychological computer graphics research and thus provide optimal man machine communication. IGMAS+ fully three-dimensional models are constructed using triangulated polyhedra and/or triangulated grids, to which constant density and/or induced and remanent susceptibility are assigned. Interactive modifications of model parameters (geometry, density, susceptibility, magnetization), access to the numerical modeling process, and direct visualization of both calculated and measured fields of gravity and magnetics, enable the interpreter to design the model as realistically as possible. IGMAS+ allows easy integration of constraining data into interactive modeling processes
Computation with spin foam models of quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khavkine, Igor
The focus of this thesis is the study of spin foam models of quantum gravity on a computer. These models include the standard Barrett-Crane (BC) spin foam model, as well as the new Engle-Pereira-Rovelli (EPR) and Freidel-Krasnov (FK) models. New numerical algorithms are developed and implemented, based on the existing Christensen-Egan (CE) algorithm, to allow computations with the BC model in the presence of a cosmological constant (implemented through q-deformation) and to allow computations with the recently proposed EPR and FK models. For the first time, we show that the inclusion of a positive cosmological constant, a long standing open problem for spin foams, curiously changes the behavior of the BC model, rendering the expectation values of its observables discontinuous in the limit of zero cosmological constant. Also, unlike previous work, this investigation was carried out on large triangulations, which are Gloser to large semiclassical space-times. Efficient numerical algorithms are described and implemented, for the first time, allowing the evaluation of the EPR and FK spin foam vertex amplitudes. An initial application of these algorithms is the study of the effective single vertex large spin asymptotics of the new models. Their asymptotic behavior is found to be qualitatively similar to that of the BC model. The leading asymptotic behavior does not exhibit the oscillatory character expected by analogy with the Ponzano-Regge model. Two important tests of the spin foam semiclassical limit are wave packet propagation and evaluation of the graviton propagator matrix elements. These tests are generalized to encompass the three major spin foam models. The wave packet propagation test is carried out in greater generality than previously. The results indicate that conjectures about good semiclassical behavior of the new spin foam models may have been premature.
Influence of World and Gravity Model Selection on Surface Interacting Vehicle Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madden, Michael M.
2007-01-01
A vehicle simulation is surface-interacting if the state of the vehicle (position, velocity, and acceleration) relative to the surface is important. Surface-interacting simulations perform ascent, entry, descent, landing, surface travel, or atmospheric flight. Modeling of gravity is an influential environmental factor for surface-interacting simulations. Gravity is the free-fall acceleration observed from a world-fixed frame that rotates with the world. Thus, gravity is the sum of gravitation and the centrifugal acceleration due to the world s rotation. In surface-interacting simulations, the fidelity of gravity at heights above the surface is more significant than gravity fidelity at locations in inertial space. A surface-interacting simulation cannot treat the gravity model separately from the world model, which simulates the motion and shape of the world. The world model's simulation of the world's rotation, or lack thereof, produces the centrifugal acceleration component of gravity. The world model s reproduction of the world's shape will produce different positions relative to the world center for a given height above the surface. These differences produce variations in the gravitation component of gravity. This paper examines the actual performance of world and gravity/gravitation pairs in a simulation using the Earth.
Gravity-induced asymmetric distribution of a plant growth hormone
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.; Momonoki, Y.
1984-01-01
Dolk (1936) demonstrated that gravistimulation induced an asymmetric distribution of auxin in a horizontally-placed shoot. An attempt is made to determine where and how that asymmetry arises, and to demonstrate that the endogenous auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, becomes asymmetrically distributed in the cortical cells of the Zea mays mesocotyl during 3 min of geostimulation. Further, indole-3-acetic acid derived by hydrolysis of an applied transport form of the hormone, indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol, becomes asymmetrically distributed within 15 min of geostimulus time. From these and prior data is developed a working theory that the gravitational stimulus induces a selective leakage, or secretion, of the hormone from the vascular tissue to the cortical cells of the mesocotyl.
Vector field models of modified gravity and the dark sector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zuntz, J.; Zlosnik, T. G.; Bourliot, F.; Ferreira, P. G.; Starkman, G. D.
2010-05-01
We present a comprehensive investigation of cosmological constraints on the class of vector field formulations of modified gravity called generalized Einstein-aether models. Using linear perturbation theory we generate cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure spectra for general parameters of the theory, and then constrain them in various ways. We investigate two parameter regimes: a dark matter candidate where the vector field sources structure formation, and a dark energy candidate where it causes late-time acceleration. We find that the dark matter candidate does not fit the data, and identify five physical problems that can restrict this and other theories of dark matter. The dark energy candidate does fit the data, and we constrain its fundamental parameters; most notably we find that the theory’s kinetic index parameter nae can differ significantly from its ΛCDM value.
Vector field models of modified gravity and the dark sector
Zuntz, J.; Ferreira, P. G.; Zlosnik, T. G; Bourliot, F.; Starkman, G. D.
2010-05-15
We present a comprehensive investigation of cosmological constraints on the class of vector field formulations of modified gravity called generalized Einstein-aether models. Using linear perturbation theory we generate cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure spectra for general parameters of the theory, and then constrain them in various ways. We investigate two parameter regimes: a dark matter candidate where the vector field sources structure formation, and a dark energy candidate where it causes late-time acceleration. We find that the dark matter candidate does not fit the data, and identify five physical problems that can restrict this and other theories of dark matter. The dark energy candidate does fit the data, and we constrain its fundamental parameters; most notably we find that the theory's kinetic index parameter n{sub ae} can differ significantly from its {Lambda}CDM value.
Modeling aggregation of dust monomers in low gravity environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doyon, Julien; Rioux, Claude
The modeling of aggregation phenomena in microgravity is of paramount relevance to the understanding of the formation of planets. Relevant experiments have been carried out at a ground based laboratory and on aircraft providing low gravity during parabolic flight.1 Other possible environments are rockets, shuttles and the international space station. Numerical simulation of aggregation can provide us a tool to understand the formal and the-oretical background of the phenomena. The comparison between low gravity experiment and modeling prediction may confirm a theory. Also, experiments that are hard to perform can be simulated on computers allowing a vast choice of physical properties. Simulations to date have been constrained to ensembles of 100 to 1000 monomers.2 We have been able to extend such numbers to 10 000 monomers and the final goal is about 100 000 monomers, where gravitational effects become relevant yielding spheroidal systems of particles (planetesimals and planetoids). Simulations made are assumed to be diffusion processes where colliding particles will stick together with a certain probability. Future work shall include other interactions like electrostatic or magnetic forces. Recent results are to be shown at the meeting. I acknowledge the support from the ELIPS program (jointly between Canadian and European space agencies). The guidance of Prof. Slobodrian is warmly thanked. References. 1. R.J. Slobodrian, C. Rioux and J.-C. Leclerc, Microgravity Research and Aplications in Phys-ical Sciences and Biotechnology, Proceedings of the First International Symposium, Sorrento, Italy (2000) ESA SP-454, p.779-786. and Refs. therein. 2. P. Deladurantaye, C Rioux and R.J Slobodrian, Chaos, Solitons Fractals , (1997), pp. 1693-1708. Carl Robert and Eric Litvak, Software " Fractal", private communication.
On the model structure of the gravity field of Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zharkov, V. N.; Gudkova, T. V.
2016-07-01
A discussion is presented about the constraints used in constructing a model for the internal structure of Mars. The most important fact is that the Martian chemical model proposed by Wänke and Dreibus (WD) has stood the test of time. This means that the chondritic ratio Fe/Si = 1.71 can be used as a constraint in constructing an interior structure model of the planet. Consideration is given to the constructing of the reference surface of Mars. It is concluded that the effectively hydrostatic-equilibrium model of Mars is well suited for this purpose. The areoid heights and gravity anomalies in the model of Mars are calculated. The results are shown in the figures (maps) and comments made. The results are compared with the similar data for the Earth. Mars deviates much more strongly from the hydrostatic equilibrium than the Earth. It is suggested that the average thickness of the Martian elastic lithosphere should exceed that of the Earth's continental lithosphere.
Modeling sensory conflict and motion sickness in artificial gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elias, Paul Z.; Jarchow, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.
2008-01-01
It is necessary to characterize the vestibular response associated with head movements for various centrifuge rotation rates if one is to explore short-radius centrifugation as a viable form of artificial gravity for future spaceflights. An existing motion sickness model was modified to design an adaptation protocol to facilitate head movements at a centrifuge speed of 30 rpm. Modification involved addition of a quantitative sensory conflict model to serve as the input to the motion sickness model. Sensory conflict in this context was based on the dynamics of head movements during centrifugation as well as a previously developed transfer function relating angular accelerations to semicircular canal firing rates. Additionally, an adaptation parameter based on comparison between model predictions and previous experimental results was added. A 3-day incremental adaptation protocol was conducted in which 16 subjects successfully made 30 yaw head movements during rotation at 30 rpm on day 3. Motion sickness results showed good agreement with model predictions and demonstrated the feasibility of adaptation to increasingly high rotation rates.
Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco
2005-08-01
Internal model is a neural mechanism that mimics the dynamics of an object for sensory motor or cognitive functions. Recent research focuses on the issue of whether multiple internal models are learned and switched to cope with a variety of conditions, or single general models are adapted by tuning the parameters. Here we addressed this issue by investigating how the manual interception of a moving target changes with changes of the visual environment. In our paradigm, a virtual target moves vertically downward on a screen with different laws of motion. Subjects are asked to punch a hidden ball that arrives in synchrony with the visual target. By using several different protocols, we systematically found that subjects do not develop a new internal model appropriate for constant speed targets, but they use the default gravity model and reduce the central processing time. The results imply that adaptation to zero-gravity targets involves a compression of temporal processing through the cortical and subcortical regions interconnected with the vestibular cortex, which has previously been shown to be the site of storage of the internal model of gravity. PMID:15817649
A 10 km-resolution synthetic Venus gravity field model based on topography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Fei; Yan, Jianguo; Xu, Luyuan; Jin, Shuanggen; Rodriguez, J. Alexis P.; Dohm, James H.
2015-02-01
A high resolution gravity field model is extremely important in the exploration of Venus. In this paper, we present a 3-dimensional Venus gravity field VGM2014 constructed by using the latest gravity and topography models, residual terrain model (RTM) and the Airy-Heiskanen isostatic compensation model. The VGM2014 is the first 10 km scale Venus gravity field model; the final results are representations of the 3-dimensional surface gravity accelerations and gravity disturbances for Venus. We found that the optimal global compensation depth of Venus is about 60 km, and the crustal density is potentially less than the commonly accepted value of 2700-2900 kg m-3. This model will be potentially beneficial for the precise orbit determination and landing navigation of spacecraft around Venus, and may be utilized as a priori model for Venus gravity field simulation and inversion studies. The VGM2014 does not incorporate direct gravity information beyond degree 70 and it is not recommended for small-scale geophysical interpretation.
Evaluating catchment-scale hydrological modeling by means of terrestrial gravity observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasan, Shaakeel; Troch, Peter A.; Bogaart, Patrick W.; Kroner, Corinna
2008-08-01
In a previous study (Hasan et al., 2006) we applied time series analysis and distributed hydrological modeling techniques to investigate the effect of hydrological processes on observed terrestrial gravity residuals. In this study we apply terrestrial gravity observations (measured in one location) to constrain simple hydrological models in a catchment around the gravimeter. A superconducting gravimeter observes with high frequency (1 Hz) the temporal variations in the gravity field with high accuracy (sub nm s-2 for hourly variation) near Moxa, Germany since 1999. Hourly gravity residuals are derived by filtering and reducing for Earth tides, polar motion, barometric pressure variations, and instrumental drift. These gravity residuals show significant response to hydrological processes (precipitation, evaporation, surface and subsurface flow) in the catchment surrounding the observatory. We can thus consider the observed gravity change as an integrator of catchment-scale hydrological response (similar in nature as discharge measurements), and therefore use it to constrain catchment-scale hydrologic models. We test a set of simple water balance models against measured discharge, and employ observed gravity residuals to evaluate model parameters. Results indicate that a lumped water balance model for unsaturated storage and fluxes, coupled with a semidistributed hydraulic groundwater model for saturated storage and fluxes, successfully reproduces both gravity and discharge dynamics.
Semmens, D.
1987-12-01
3-D gravity modeling was done in the area of the Ennis hot spring in an attempt to determine controlling structure of the Ennis hot spring. The modeling was done in a two-step process where: 1) The topography was modeled by modeling the valley fill from the highest elevation in the modeling area to some elevation below the lowest station elevation using Talwani and Ewing's (1960) method of modeling with vertically-stacked, horizontal, n-sided polygons. Once the gravity contributions of the valley fill included in this ''topographic model'' are calculated, they were removed from the original gravity data; 2) The remaining valley fill was modeled using blocks where the 3-D algorithm for modeling with blocks results from integrating the gravity formula in the X and Z directions and approximating the integration in the Y-direction using a quadrature formula. Finally, an inverse 3-D gravity modeling program was written to automatically adjust the bedrock topography output from this two-step modeling process. The gravity data calculated from the adjusted bedrock topography, output from the inverse modeling program, should match the observed gravity data within the error of the survey. 43 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Imbriale, W. A.; Moore, M.; Rochblatt, D. J.; Veruttipong, W.
1995-01-01
At the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) Goldstone Complex, a 34-meter- diameter beam-waveguide antenna, DSS-13, was constructed in 1988-1990 and has become an integral part of an advanced systems program and a test bed for technologies being developed to introduce Ka-band (32 GHz) frequencies into the DSN. A method for compensating the gravity- induced structural deformations in this large antenna is presented.
Towards viable cosmological models of disformal theories of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakstein, Jeremy
2015-01-01
The late-time cosmological dynamics of disformal gravity are investigated using dynamical systems methods. It is shown that in the general case there are no stable attractors that screen fifth forces locally and simultaneously describe a dark energy dominated universe. Viable scenarios have late-time properties that are independent of the disformal parameters and are identical to the equivalent conformal quintessence model. Our analysis reveals that configurations where the Jordan frame metric becomes singular are only reached in the infinite future, thus explaining the natural pathology resistance observed numerically by several previous works. The viability of models where this can happen is discussed in terms of both the cosmological dynamics and local phenomena. We identify a special parameter tuning such that there is a new fixed point that can match the presently observed dark energy density and equation of state. This model is unviable when the scalar couples to the visible sector but may provide a good candidate model for theories where only dark matter is disformally coupled.
Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity models with bouncing behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Escofet, Anna; Elizalde, Emilio
2016-06-01
The following issue is addressed: How the addition of a Gauss-Bonnet term (generically coming from most fundamental theories, as string and M theories), to a viable model, can change the specific properties, and even the physical nature, of the corresponding cosmological solutions? Specifically, brand new original dark energy models are obtained in this way with quite interesting properties, which exhibit, in a unified fashion, the three distinguished possible cosmological phases corresponding to phantom matter, quintessence and ordinary matter, respectively. A model, in which the equation of state (EoS) parameter, w, is a function of time, is seen to lead either to a singularity of the Big Rip kind or to a bouncing solution which evolves into a de Sitter universe with w = ‑1. Moreover, new Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity models with bouncing behavior in the early stages of the universe evolution are obtained and tested for the validity and stability of the corresponding solutions. They allow for a remarkably natural, unified description of a bouncing behavior at early times and accelerated expansion at present.
Autoparallel vs. Geodesic Trajectories in a Model of Torsion Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acedo, Luis
2015-11-01
We consider a parametrized torsion gravity model for Riemann-Cartan geometry around a rotating axisymmetric massive body. In this model, the source of torsion is given by a circulating vector potential following the celestial parallels around the rotating object. Ours is a variant of the Mao, Tegmark, Guth and Cabi (MTGC model) in which the total angular momentum is proposed as a source of torsion. We study the motion of bodies around the rotating object in terms of autoparallel trajectories and determine the leading perturbations of the orbital elements by using standard celestial mechanics techniques. We find that this torsion model implies new gravitational physical consequences in the Solar system and, in particular, secular variations of the semi-major axis of the planetary orbits. Perturbations on the longitude of the ascending node and the perihelion of the planets are already under discussion in the astronomical community, and if confirmed as truly non-zero effects at a statistically significant level, we might be at the dawn of an era of torsion phenomenology in the Solar system.
Gravity modeling: the Jacobian function and its approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strykowski, G.; Lauritsen, N. L. B.
2012-04-01
In mathematics, the elements of a Jacobian matrix are the first-order partial derivatives of a scalar function or a vector function with respect to another vector. In inversion theory of geophysics the elements of a Jacobian matrix are a measure of the change of the output signal caused by a local perturbation of a parameter of a given (Earth) model. The elements of a Jacobian matrix can be determined from the general Jacobian function. In gravity modeling this function consists of the "geometrical part" (related to the relative location in 3D of a field point with respect to the source element) and the "source-strength part" (related to the change of mass density of the source element). The explicit (functional) expressions for the Jacobian function can be quite complicated and depend both on the coordinates used (Cartesian, spherical, ellipsoidal) and on the mathematical parametrization of the source (e.g. the homogenous rectangular prism). In practice, and irrespective of the exact expression for the Jacobian function, its value on a computer will always be rounded to a finite number of digits. In fact, in using the exact formulas such finite representation may cause numerical instabilities. If the Jacobian function is smooth enough, it is an advantage to approximate it by a simpler function, e.g. a piecewise-polynomial, which numerically is more robust than the exact formulas and which is more suitable for the subsequent integration. In our contribution we include a whole family of the Jacobian functions which are associated with all the partial derivatives of the gravitational potential of order 0 to 2, i.e. including all the elements of the gravity gradient tensor. The quality of the support points for the subsequent polynomial approximation of the Jacobian function is ensured by using the exact prism formulas in quadruple precision. We will show some first results. Also, we will discuss how such approximated Jacobian functions can be used for large scale
Reconciling induced-gravity inflation in supergravity with the Planck 2013 & BICEP2 results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pallis, C.
2014-10-01
We generalize the embedding of induced-gravity inflation beyond the no-scale Supergravity presented in ref. [1] employing two gauge singlet chiral superfields, a superpotential uniquely determined by applying a continuous R and a discrete Bbb Zn symmetries, and a logarithmic Kähler potential including all the allowed terms up to fourth order in powers of the various fields. We show that, increasing slightly the prefactor (-3) encountered in the adopted Kähler potential, an efficient enhancement of the resulting tensor-to-scalar ratio can be achieved rendering the predictions of the model consistent with the recent BICEP2 results, even with subplanckian excursions of the original inflaton field. The remaining inflationary observables can become compatible with the data by mildly tuning the coefficient involved in the fourth order term of the Kähler potential which mixes the inflaton with the accompanying non-inflaton field. The inflaton mass is predicted to be close to 1014 GeV.
Reconciling induced-gravity inflation in supergravity with the Planck 2013 & BICEP2 results
Pallis, C.
2014-10-23
We generalize the embedding of induced-gravity inflation beyond the no-scale Supergravity presented in ref. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1475-7516/2014/08/057 employing two gauge singlet chiral superfields, a superpotential uniquely determined by applying a continuous R and a discrete ℤ{sub n} symmetries, and a logarithmic Kähler potential including all the allowed terms up to fourth order in powers of the various fields. We show that, increasing slightly the prefactor (−3) encountered in the adopted Kähler potential, an efficient enhancement of the resulting tensor-to-scalar ratio can be achieved rendering the predictions of the model consistent with the recent BICEP2 results, even with subplanckian excursions of the original inflaton field. The remaining inflationary observables can become compatible with the data by mildly tuning the coefficient involved in the fourth order term of the Kähler potential which mixes the inflaton with the accompanying non-inflaton field. The inflaton mass is predicted to be close to 10{sup 14} GeV.
Reconciling induced-gravity inflation in supergravity with the Planck 2013 and BICEP2 results
Pallis, C.
2014-10-01
We generalize the embedding of induced-gravity inflation beyond the no-scale Supergravity presented in ref. [1] employing two gauge singlet chiral superfields, a superpotential uniquely determined by applying a continuous R and a discrete Z{sub n} symmetries, and a logarithmic Kähler potential including all the allowed terms up to fourth order in powers of the various fields. We show that, increasing slightly the prefactor (-3) encountered in the adopted Kähler potential, an efficient enhancement of the resulting tensor-to-scalar ratio can be achieved rendering the predictions of the model consistent with the recent BICEP2 results, even with subplanckian excursions of the original inflaton field. The remaining inflationary observables can become compatible with the data by mildly tuning the coefficient involved in the fourth order term of the Kähler potential which mixes the inflaton with the accompanying non-inflaton field. The inflaton mass is predicted to be close to 10{sup 14} GeV.
Loop Heat Pipe Temperature Oscillation Induced by Gravity Assist and Reservoir Heating
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ku, Jentung; Garrison, Matthew; Patel, Deepak; Robinson, Franklin; Ottenstein, Laura
2015-01-01
The Laser Thermal Control System (LCTS) for the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) to be installed on NASA's Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-2) consists of a constant conductance heat pipe and a loop heat pipe (LHP) with an associated radiator. During the recent thermal vacuum testing of the LTCS where the LHP condenser/radiator was placed in a vertical position above the evaporator and reservoir, it was found that the LHP reservoir control heater power requirement was much higher than the analytical model had predicted. Even with the control heater turned on continuously at its full power, the reservoir could not be maintained at its desired set point temperature. An investigation of the LHP behaviors found that the root cause of the problem was fluid flow and reservoir temperature oscillations, which led to persistent alternate forward and reversed flow along the liquid line and an imbalance between the vapor mass flow rate in the vapor line and liquid mass flow rate in the liquid line. The flow and temperature oscillations were caused by an interaction between gravity and reservoir heating, and were exacerbated by the large thermal mass of the instrument simulator which modulated the net heat load to the evaporator, and the vertical radiator/condenser which induced a variable gravitational pressure head. Furthermore, causes and effects of the contributing factors to flow and temperature oscillations intermingled.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehghani, Ali
2016-04-01
In the year 2010 extensive geophysical researches were carried out in the area of Hecataeus Rise using the German research vessel Maria S. Merian. Beside the bathymetry, refraction and reflection seismic data, marine gravity and marine magnetic data were acquired during this cruise. The result of the research along one Wide-Angle reflection/refraction seismic line of this cruise is published 2015 by K. Welford et al.. Based on interpretation of reflection seismic and bathymetry data across the Hecataeus Rise, S. Reiche published 2015 the crustal structure and bathymetric features along some seismic profiles of this cruise. The focus of this work is to use the available sediments and crustal structures inferred by seismic information together with real marine gravity and marine magnetic data in order to produce gravity and magnetic 2-D models along all seismic profiles. While Welford et al. used the altimetry gravity data and magnetic data from EMAG3 database for their modelling, the real gravity and magnetic data measured exactly along the seismic profiles will be used in this work. The advantage of the real marine gravity and real marine magnetic data used for the modelling is that they have higher accuracy in the values as well as in the positions. Furthermore, Welford et al. calculated the gravity and Magnetic models along some seismic profiles, while in this work the result of gravity and magnetic modelling along all seismic profiles of this cruise will be presented. The marine gravity and marine magnetic data along all seismic profiles were recorded continuously. The accuracy of marine gravity data is about ± 1 mGal, while the accuracy of Marine magnetic data is in the range of ± 3 nT. The results of 2-D gravity and magnetic modelling will be presented and discussed in this work.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruntz, R. J.; Paxton, L. J.; Miller, E. S.; Bust, G. S.; Mayr, H. G.
2015-12-01
The Transfer Function Model (TFM) has been used in numerous studies to simulate gravity waves. In the TFM, the time dependence is formulated in terms of frequencies, and the horizontal wave pattern on the globe is formulated in terms of vector spherical harmonics. For a wide range of frequencies, the equations of mass, energy and momentum conservation are solved to compile a transfer function. The transfer function can then be easily combined with a time-dependent source whose spatial extent is also expressed in spherical harmonics, to produce a global atmospheric response, including gravity waves. This approach has significant benefits in that the solution is grid-independent (without any inherent limits on resolution), and the solutions do not suffer from singularities at the poles. We will show results from our simulations that couple the output of the TFM to an ionospheric model, to predict traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) driven by the simulated gravity waves.
Farside lunar gravity from a mass point model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ananda, M.
1975-01-01
A mass point representation of the lunar gravity field was determined from the long-period orbital variations of the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites and Lunar Orbiter V. A radial acceleration contour map, evaluated at 100 km altitude from the lunar surface, shows that the nearside is in close agreement with the result derived from the line of sight method by Muller and Sjogren. The farside map shows the highland regions as broad positive gravity anomaly areas and the basins such as Korolev, Hertzsprung, Moscoviense, Mendeleev, and Tsiolkovsky as localized, negative gravity anomaly regions. The farside map has a first-order agreement with the result derived from the harmonic field method by Ferrari. The mass points analysis indicates that the nearside is almost all negative gravity anomaly regions except for the known positive mass anomaly basins (mascons) and the farside is almost all positive gravity anomaly regions except for some localized negative areas near the basins.
A refined gravity model from Lageos /GEM-L2/
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, F. J.; Klosko, S. M.; Patel, G. B.
1982-01-01
Lageos satellite laser ranging (SLR) data taken over a 2.5 yr period were employed to develop the Goddard Earth Model GEM-L2, a refined gravity field model. Additional data was gathered with 30 other satellites, resulting in spherical harmonics through degree and order 20, based on over 600,000 measurements. The Lageos data was accurate down to 10 cm, after which the GEM 9 data were used to make adjustments past order 7. The resolution of long wavelength activity, through degree and order 4, was made possible by the Lageos data. The GEM-L2 model features a 20 x 20 geopotential, tracking station coordinates (20), 5-day polar motion and A1-UT1 values, and a GM value of 398,600.607 cu km/sq sec. The accuracy of station positioning has been raised to within 6 cm total position globally and within 1.8 cm in baselines. It is concluded that SLR is useful for measuring tectonic plate motions and inter-plate deformations.
Ray Tracing Modeling of Gravity Wave Propagation and Dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vadas, Sharon; Crowley, Geoff
In this paper, we describe a ray trace model which calculates the wavevector, location and phase of a gravity wave (GW) as it propagates in the lower atmosphere and thermosphere. If used for a discreet transient source (such as a deep convective plume), we describe how this model can calculate the body forcing and the heat/cooling that are created when the GWs within a wave packet dissipate in the thermosphere from kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusivity. Although the body force calculation requires only the divergence of the momentum flux, the heat/cooling calculation requires the reconstructed GW field (e.g., density, velocity perturbations), which in turn requires the GW dissipative polarization relations. We describe these relations. We then describe the results of a recent study involving GWs identified from TIDDBIT HF Doppler sounder data taken at Wallops Island, VI, USA. Using this ray trace model, we determine if the unusual neutral wind profile measured by a rocket experiment at high altitudes (~290-370 km) could have been caused by the propagation and dissipation of several waves observed by TIDDBIT at lower altitudes.
Gravity-induced swirl of nanoparticles in microfluidics.
Zhao, Chao; Oztekin, Alparslan; Cheng, Xuanhong
2013-04-01
Parallel flows of two fluids in microfluidic devices are used for miniaturized chemistry, physics, biology and bioengineering studies, and the streams are often considered to remain parallel. However, as the two fluids do not always have the same density, interface reorientation induced by density stratification is unavoidable. In this paper, flow characteristics of an aqueous polystyrene nanofluid and a sucrose-densified aqueous solution flowing parallel in microchannels are examined. Nanoparticles 100 nm in diameter are used in the study. The motion of the nanoparticles is simulated using the Lagrangian description and directly observed by a confocal microscope. Matched results are obtained from computational and empirical analysis. Although solution density homogenizes rapidly resulting from a fast diffusion of sucrose in water, the nanofluid is observed to rotate for an extended period. Angular displacement of the nanofluid depends on the ratio of gravitational force to viscous force, Re/Fr (2), where Re is the Reynolds number and Fr is the Froude number. In the developing region at the steady state, the angular displacement is related to y/D h, the ratio between distance from the inlet and the hydraulic diameter of the microfluidic channel. The development of nanofluid flow feature also depends on h/w, the ratio of microfluidic channel's height to width. The quantitative description of the angular displacement of nanofluid will aid rational designs of microfluidic devices utilizing multistream, multiphase flows. PMID:24563612
Gravity-induced swirl of nanoparticles in microfluidics
Zhao, Chao; Oztekin, Alparslan
2013-01-01
Parallel flows of two fluids in microfluidic devices are used for miniaturized chemistry, physics, biology and bioengineering studies, and the streams are often considered to remain parallel. However, as the two fluids do not always have the same density, interface reorientation induced by density stratification is unavoidable. In this paper, flow characteristics of an aqueous polystyrene nanofluid and a sucrose-densified aqueous solution flowing parallel in microchannels are examined. Nanoparticles 100 nm in diameter are used in the study. The motion of the nanoparticles is simulated using the Lagrangian description and directly observed by a confocal microscope. Matched results are obtained from computational and empirical analysis. Although solution density homogenizes rapidly resulting from a fast diffusion of sucrose in water, the nanofluid is observed to rotate for an extended period. Angular displacement of the nanofluid depends on the ratio of gravitational force to viscous force, Re/Fr2, where Re is the Reynolds number and Fr is the Froude number. In the developing region at the steady state, the angular displacement is related to y/Dh, the ratio between distance from the inlet and the hydraulic diameter of the microfluidic channel. The development of nanofluid flow feature also depends on h/w, the ratio of microfluidic channel’s height to width. The quantitative description of the angular displacement of nanofluid will aid rational designs of microfluidic devices utilizing multistream, multiphase flows. PMID:24563612
Phelps, Geoffrey A.; Jewel, E.B.; Langenheim, V.E.; Jachens, R.C.
2000-01-01
Gravity measurements were made along 5 profiles across parts of the Coyote Spring Valley and vicinity in order to aid in modeling the depth and shapes of the underlying basins and to locate faults concealed beneath the basin fill. Measurements were taken at 200 m (660 ft) spacing along the profiles. Models based on these and existing regional data reveal two north-south-trending basins beneath Coyote Spring Valley that reach maximum depths of greater than 1 km (0.6 mi). A small valley, located just east of Coyote Spring Valley and containing Dead Man Wash, includes a small basin about 500 m (1600 ft) deep that appears to be the southern continuation of the northern basin beneath Coyote Spring Valley. The profile gravity data are further used to identify the locations of possible faults concealed beneath the basin fill.
A Comparison Between Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes in Observations and Climate Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geller, Marvin A.; Alexadner, M. Joan; Love, Peter T.; Bacmeister, Julio; Ern, Manfred; Hertzog, Albert; Manzini, Elisa; Preusse, Peter; Sato, Kaoru; Scaife, Adam A.; Zhou, Tiehan
2013-01-01
For the first time, a formal comparison is made between gravity wave momentum fluxes in models and those derived from observations. Although gravity waves occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, the focus of this paper is on scales that are being parameterized in present climate models, sub-1000-km scales. Only observational methods that permit derivation of gravity wave momentum fluxes over large geographical areas are discussed, and these are from satellite temperature measurements, constant-density long-duration balloons, and high-vertical-resolution radiosonde data. The models discussed include two high-resolution models in which gravity waves are explicitly modeled, Kanto and the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 (CAM5), and three climate models containing gravity wave parameterizations,MAECHAM5, Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model 3 (HadGEM3), and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) model. Measurements generally show similar flux magnitudes as in models, except that the fluxes derived from satellite measurements fall off more rapidly with height. This is likely due to limitations on the observable range of wavelengths, although other factors may contribute. When one accounts for this more rapid fall off, the geographical distribution of the fluxes from observations and models compare reasonably well, except for certain features that depend on the specification of the nonorographic gravity wave source functions in the climate models. For instance, both the observed fluxes and those in the high-resolution models are very small at summer high latitudes, but this is not the case for some of the climate models. This comparison between gravity wave fluxes from climate models, high-resolution models, and fluxes derived from observations indicates that such efforts offer a promising path toward improving specifications of gravity wave sources in climate models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, S. A.; Fritts, D. C.; Vanzandt, T. E.
1986-01-01
The results of a comparison of mesospheric wind fluctuation spectra computed from radial wind velocity estimates made by the Poker Flat mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar are compared with a gravity-wave model developed by VanZandt (1982, 1985). The principal conclusion of this comparison is that gravity waves can account for 80% of the mesospheric power spectral density.
The 4th Release of GOCE Gravity Field Models - Overview and Performance Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gruber, Thomas; Rummel, Reiner
2013-04-01
New GOCE gravity field models based on about 2 years of completely reprocessed gradiometer data have been recently released to the user community. They were obtained based on different processing strategies and reflect the state-of-the-art of GOCE gravity field models. With the improved gravity gradients resulting from a number of updates implemented in the level 1B processor and with the additional data set the performance of the resulting GOCE based models could be significantly improved as compared to the previous solutions. The paper provides an overview of the available GOCE models and presents the results of their validation by different means.
Modeling the QBO and SAO Driven by Gravity Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.
1999-01-01
Hines' Doppler spread parameterization (DSP) for small scale gravity waves (GW) is applied in a global scale numerical spectral model (NSM) to describe the semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations (SAO and QBO) as well as the long term interannual variations that are driven by wave mean flow interactions. This model has been successful in simulating the salient features observed near the equator at altitudes above 20 km, including the QBO extension into the upper mesosphere inferred from UARS measurements. The model has now been extended to describe also the mean zonal and meridional circulations of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that affect the equatorial QBO and its global scale extension. This is accomplished in part through tuning of the GW parameterization, and preliminary results lead to the following conclusions: (1) To reproduce the upwelling at equatorial latitudes associated with the Brewer/Dobson circulation that in part is modulated in the model by the vertical component of the Coriolis force, the eddy diffusivity in the lower stratosphere had to be enhanced and the related GW spectrum modified to bring it in closer agreement with the form recommended for the DSP. (2) To compensate for the required increase in the diffusivity, the observed QBO requires a larger GW source that is closer to the middle of the range recommended for the DSP. (3) Through global scale momentum redistribution, the above developments are conducive to extending the QBO and SAO oscillations to higher latitudes. Multi-year interannual oscillations are generated through wave filtering by the solar driven annual oscillation in the zonal circulation. (4) In a 3D version of the model, wave momentum is absorbed and dissipated by tides and planetary waves. Thus, a somewhat larger GW source is required to generate realistic amplitudes for the QBO and SAO.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yiǧit, Erdal; England, Scott L.; Liu, Guiping; Medvedev, Alexander S.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Kuroda, Takeshi; Jakosky, Bruce M.
2015-11-01
First high-altitude observations of gravity wave (GW)-induced CO2 density perturbations in the Martian thermosphere retrieved from NASA's Neutral Gas Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) instrument on board the Mars Atmosphere Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) satellite are presented and interpreted using the extended GW parameterization of Yiğit et al. (2008) and the Mars Climate Database as an input. Observed relative density perturbations between 180 and 220 km of 20-40% demonstrate appreciable local time, latitude, and altitude variations. Modeling for the spatiotemporal conditions of the MAVEN observations suggests that GWs can directly propagate from the lower atmosphere to the thermosphere, produce appreciable dynamical effects, and likely contribute to the observed fluctuations. Modeled effects are somewhat smaller than the observed, but their highly variable nature is in qualitative agreement with observations. Possible reasons for discrepancies between modeling and measurements are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brissaud, Quentin; Garcia, Raphael; Martin, Roland; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Sladen, Anthony
2016-04-01
Acoustic and gravity waves propagating in planetary atmospheres have been studied intensively as markers of specific phenomena (tectonic events, explosions) or as contributors to atmosphere dynamics. To get a better understanding of the physics behind these dynamic processes, both acoustic and gravity waves propagation should be modeled in an attenuating and windy 3D atmosphere from the ground all the way to the upper thermosphere. Thus, in order to provide an efficient numerical tool at the regional or global scale we introduce a high-order finite- difference time domain (FDTD) approach that relies on the linearized compressible Navier-Stokes equations with non constant physical parameters (density, viscosities and speed of sound) and background velocities (wind). We present applications of these simulations to the propagation of gravity waves generated by tsunamis for realistic cases for which atmospheric models are extracted from empirical models including 3D variations of atmospheric parameters, and tsunami forcing at the ocean surface is extracted from finite-fault dislocation simulations. We describe the specific difficulties induced by the size of the simulation, the boundary conditions and the spherical geometry and compare the simulation outputs to data gathered by gravimetric satellites crossing gravity waves generated by tsunamis.
Temporal gravity field modeling based on least square collocation with short-arc approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
ran, jiangjun; Zhong, Min; Xu, Houze; Liu, Chengshu; Tangdamrongsub, Natthachet
2014-05-01
After the launch of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) in 2002, several research centers have attempted to produce the finest gravity model based on different approaches. In this study, we present an alternative approach to derive the Earth's gravity field, and two main objectives are discussed. Firstly, we seek the optimal method to estimate the accelerometer parameters, and secondly, we intend to recover the monthly gravity model based on least square collocation method. The method has been paid less attention compared to the least square adjustment method because of the massive computational resource's requirement. The positions of twin satellites are treated as pseudo-observations and unknown parameters at the same time. The variance covariance matrices of the pseudo-observations and the unknown parameters are valuable information to improve the accuracy of the estimated gravity solutions. Our analyses showed that introducing a drift parameter as an additional accelerometer parameter, compared to using only a bias parameter, leads to a significant improvement of our estimated monthly gravity field. The gravity errors outside the continents are significantly reduced based on the selected set of the accelerometer parameters. We introduced the improved gravity model namely the second version of Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IGG-CAS 02). The accuracy of IGG-CAS 02 model is comparable to the gravity solutions computed from the Geoforschungszentrum (GFZ), the Center for Space Research (CSR) and the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). In term of the equivalent water height, the correlation coefficients over the study regions (the Yangtze River valley, the Sahara desert, and the Amazon) among four gravity models are greater than 0.80.
Modeling and estimation of a low degree geopotential model from terrestrial gravity data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pavlis, Nikolaos K.
1988-01-01
The development of appropriate modeling and adjustment procedures for the estimation of harmonic coefficients of the geopotential, from surface gravity data was studied, in order to provide an optimum way of utilizing the terrestrial gravity information in combination solutions currently developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, for use in the TOPEX/POSEIDON mission. The mathematical modeling was based on the fundamental boundary condition of the linearized Molodensky boundary value problem. Atmospheric and ellipsoidal corrections were applied to the surface anomalies. Terrestrial gravity solutions were found to be in good agreement with the satellite ones over areas which are well surveyed (gravimetrically), such as North America or Australia. However, systematic differences between the terrestrial only models and GEMT1, over extended regions in Africa, the Soviet Union, and China were found. In Africa, gravity anomaly differences on the order of 20 mgals and undulation differences on the order of 15 meters, over regions extending 2000 km in diameter, occur. Comparisons of the GEMT1 implied undulations with 32 well distributed Doppler derived undulations gave an RMS difference of 2.6 m, while corresponding comparison with undulations implied by the terrestrial solution gave RMS difference on the order of 15 m, which implies that the terrestrial data in that region are substantially in error.
Cytoplasmic pH dynamics in maize pulvinal cells induced by gravity vector changes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johannes, E.; Collings, D. A.; Rink, J. C.; Allen, N. S.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)
2001-01-01
In maize (Zea mays) and other grasses, changes in orientation of stems are perceived by pulvinal tissue, which responds to the stimulus by differential growth resulting in upward bending of the stem. The amyloplast-containing bundle sheath cells are the sites of gravity perception, although the initial steps of gravity perception and transmission remain unclear. In columella cells of Arabidopsis roots, we previously found that cytoplasmic pH (pH(c)) is a mediator in early gravitropic signaling (A.C. Scott, N.S. Allen [1999] Plant Physiol 121: 1291-1298). The question arises whether pH(c) has a more general role in signaling gravity vector changes. Using confocal ratiometric imaging and the fluorescent pH indicator carboxy seminaphtorhodafluor acetoxymethyl ester acetate, we measured pH(c) in the cells composing the maize pulvinus. When stem slices were gravistimulated and imaged on a horizontally mounted confocal microscope, pH(c) changes were only apparent within the bundle sheath cells, and not in the parenchyma cells. After turning, cytoplasmic acidification was observed at the sides of the cells, whereas the cytoplasm at the base of the cells where plastids slowly accumulated became more basic. These changes were most apparent in cells exhibiting net amyloplast sedimentation. Parenchyma cells and isolated bundle sheath cells did not show any gravity-induced pH(c) changes although all cell types responded to external stimuli in the predicted way: Propionic acid and auxin treatments induced acidification, whereas raising the external pH caused alkalinization. The results suggest that pH(c) has an important role in the early signaling pathways of maize stem gravitropism.
Cytoplasmic pH Dynamics in Maize Pulvinal Cells Induced by Gravity Vector Changes1[w
Johannes, Eva; Collings, David A.; Rink, Jochen C.; Allen, Nina Strömgren
2001-01-01
In maize (Zea mays) and other grasses, changes in orientation of stems are perceived by pulvinal tissue, which responds to the stimulus by differential growth resulting in upward bending of the stem. The amyloplast-containing bundle sheath cells are the sites of gravity perception, although the initial steps of gravity perception and transmission remain unclear. In columella cells of Arabidopsis roots, we previously found that cytoplasmic pH (pHc) is a mediator in early gravitropic signaling (A.C. Scott, N.S. Allen [1999] Plant Physiol 121: 1291–1298). The question arises whether pHc has a more general role in signaling gravity vector changes. Using confocal ratiometric imaging and the fluorescent pH indicator carboxy seminaphtorhodafluor acetoxymethyl ester acetate, we measured pHc in the cells composing the maize pulvinus. When stem slices were gravistimulated and imaged on a horizontally mounted confocal microscope, pHc changes were only apparent within the bundle sheath cells, and not in the parenchyma cells. After turning, cytoplasmic acidification was observed at the sides of the cells, whereas the cytoplasm at the base of the cells where plastids slowly accumulated became more basic. These changes were most apparent in cells exhibiting net amyloplast sedimentation. Parenchyma cells and isolated bundle sheath cells did not show any gravity-induced pHc changes although all cell types responded to external stimuli in the predicted way: Propionic acid and auxin treatments induced acidification, whereas raising the external pH caused alkalinization. The results suggest that pHc has an important role in the early signaling pathways of maize stem gravitropism. PMID:11553740
Three-dimensional gravity modeling of the geologic structure of Long Valley caldera
Carle, S.F.
1988-11-10
A 48-mGal gravity low coincides with Long Valley caldera and is mainly attributed to low-density caldera fill. Gravity measurements by Unocal Geothermal have been integrated with U.S. Geological Survey data, vastly improving gravity station coverage throughout the caldera. A strong regional gravity trend is mainly attributed to isostasy. A ''best fitting'' (based on regional control of basement densities) Airy-Heiskanen isostatic model was used for the regional correction. A three-dimensional, multiple-unit gravity modeling program with iterative capabilities was developed to model the residual gravity. The density structure of Long Valley caldera and vicinity was modeled with 22 discrete density units, most of which were based on geologic units. Information from drill hole lithologies, surface geology, and structural geology interpretations constrain the model. Some important points revealed by the three-dimensional gravity modeling are that (1) the volume of ejected magma associated with the Bishop Tuff eruption is greater than previously thought, (2) the caldera structure is strongly influenced by precaldera topography and the extensions of major, active faults, (3) the main west ring fracture is coincident with the Inyo Domes--Mono Craters fracture system, (4) a relatively low-density region probably underlies the caldera, and (5) a silicic magma chamber may underlie Devils Postpile. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988
In-depth Analysis and Evaluation of GSFC GRAIL Gravity Field Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.
2012-12-01
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft were launched on September 10, 2011, and conducted their primary mapping mission from March 1 until May 29, 2012. Primary mission data have been processed at NASA/GSFC using the GEODYN software, resulting in high-resolution (degree and order 420 in spherical harmonics) gravity field models of high accuracy. Here, we present an in-depth analysis of the GRAIL gravity field determination at GSFC. We especially focus on the Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data, and on the use of GRAIL gravity models on tracking data of other spacecraft. We also investigate to what extent the addition of other tracking data (especially Lunar Prospector data) can help to further enhance the lunar gravity field models. Since the orbit of the GRAIL spacecraft was not constant during the primary mission and sensibly elliptical at the beginning and end of the science phase (20 by 80 kilometers, in altitude above lunar surface), there are areas on the Moon where the spacecraft altitude was relatively low compared to the global average. This results in remaining signal in especially the KBRR data that is not necessarily captured by the global models expressed in spherical harmonics. We explore the performance of the GRAIL gravity field models over certain regions with low-altitude KBRR data, and we also investigate analysis methods to estimate local adjustments to the gravity field models.
Deep magmatic structures of Hawaiian volcanoes, imaged by three-dimensional gravity models
Kauahikaua, J.; Hildenbrand, T.; Webring, M.
2000-01-01
A simplified three-dimensional model for the island of Hawai'i, based on 3300 gravity measurements, provides new insights on magma pathways within the basaltic volcanoes. Gravity anomalies define dense cumulates and intrusions beneath the summits and known rift zones of every volcano. Linear gravity anomalies project southeast from Kohala and Mauna Kea summits and south from Huala??lai and Mauna Loa; these presumably express dense cores of previously unrecognized rift zones lacking surface expression. The gravity-modeled dense cores probably define tholeiitic shield-stage structures of the older volcanoes that are now veneered by late alkalic lavas. The three-dimensional gravity method is valuable for characterizing the magmatic systems of basaltic oceanic volcanoes and for defining structures related to landslide and seismic hazards.
Chronology protection in Galileon models and massive gravity
Burrage, Clare; Rham, Claudia de; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Tolley, Andrew J. E-mail: claudia.deRham@case.edu E-mail: andrew.j.tolley@case.edu
2012-07-01
Galileon models are a class of effective field theories that have recently received much attention. They arise in the decoupling limit of theories of massive gravity, and in some cases they have been treated in their own right as scalar field theories with a specific nonlinearly realized global symmetry (Galilean transformation). It is well known that in the presence of a source, these Galileon theories admit superluminal propagating solutions, implying that as quantum field theories they must admit a different notion of causality than standard local Lorentz invariant theories. We show that in these theories it is easy to construct closed timelike curves (CTCs) within the naive regime of validity of the effective field theory. However, on closer inspection we see that the CTCs could never arise since the Galileon inevitably becomes infinitely strongly coupled at the onset of the formation of a CTC. This implies an infinite amount of backreaction, first on the background for the Galileon field, signaling the break down of the effective field theory, and subsequently on the spacetime geometry, forbidding the formation of the CTC. Furthermore the background solution required to create CTCs becomes unstable with an arbitrarily fast decay time. Thus Galileon theories satisfy a direct analogue of Hawking's chronology protection conjecture.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Camp, M.; Viron, O.; Avouac, J. P.
2016-05-01
We estimate the signature of the climate-induced mass transfers in repeated absolute gravity measurements based on satellite gravimetric measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. We show results at the globe scale and compare them with repeated absolute gravity (AG) time behavior in three zones where AG surveys have been published: Northwestern Europe, Canada, and Tibet. For 10 yearly campaigns, the uncertainties affecting the determination of a linear gravity rate of change range 3-4 nm/s2/a in most cases, in the absence of instrumental artifacts. The results are consistent with what is observed for long-term repeated campaigns. We also discuss the possible artifact that can result from using short AG survey to determine the tectonic effects in a zone of high hydrological variability. We call into question the tectonic interpretation of several gravity changes reported from stations in Tibet, in particular the variation observed prior to the 2015 Gorkha earthquake.
Thermo-hydro-dynamic characteristics of a zero-gravity, spherical model of the troposphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivatsangam, S.
1976-01-01
A model that exploits the radial inertia forces of a rotating fluid contained in a spherical annulus is described. The model would be flown in a satellite and experiments would be performed in very low or zero gravity. In such a model it would not be necessary to artificially simulate a radial gravity field. Thus small amounts of electrical energy would be sufficient to perform experiments. Since the only forces involved are thermo-hydro-dynamic ones, electromagnetic equations need not be considered.
The moving boundary approach to modeling gravity-driven stable and unstable flow in soils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brindt, Naaran; Wallach, Rony
2016-04-01
Many field and laboratory studies in the last 40 years have found that water flow in homogeneous soil profiles may occur in preferential flow pathways rather than in a laterally uniform wetting front, as expected from classical soil physics theory and expressed by the Richards equation. The water-content distribution within such gravity-driven fingers was found to be nonmonotonic due to water accumulation behind a sharp wetting front (denoted as saturation overshoot). The unstable flow was first related to soil coarseness. However, its appearance in water-repellent soils led the authors to hypothesize that gravity-driven unstable flow formation is triggered by a non-zero contact angle between water and soil particles. Despite its widespread occurrence, a macroscopic-type model describing the nonmonotonic water distribution and sharp wetting front is still lacking. The moving boundary approach, which divides the flow domain into two well-defined subdomains with a sharp change in fluid saturation between them, is suggested to replace the classical approach of solving the Richards equation for the entire flow domain. The upper subdomain consists of water and air, whose relationship varies with space and time following the imposed boundary condition at the soil surface as calculated by the Richards equation. The lower subdomain also consists of water and air, but their relationship remains constant following the predetermined initial condition. The moving boundary between the two subdomains is the sharp wetting front, whose location is part of the solution. As such, the problem is inherently nonlinear. The wetting front's movement is controlled by the dynamic water-entry pressure of the soil, which depends on soil wettability and the front's propagation rate. A lower soil wettability, which hinders the spontaneous invasion of dry pores and increases the water-entry pressure, induces a sharp wetting front and water accumulation behind it. The wetting front starts to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barantseva, Olga; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans
2016-04-01
We study the link between deep geodynamic processes and their surface expression in the North Atlantic region which has an anomalous, complex structure compared to other oceans. We calculate a model of residual mantle gravity between the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone and Svalbard. The calculations are based on GOCE satellite data the regional crustal model EUNAseis (Artemieva and Thybo, 2013) ; for the crustal and topography effects, and the global totpgraphy and bathymetry model ETOPO1 from NOAA (Amante and Eakis, 2009). Results are complemented by sensitivity analysis of the various parameters' effects on the models. Our results identify strong heterogeneity in the upper mantle residual gravity, expressed as a sharp contrasts at the continent-ocean transition, positive mantle gravity below the continental blocks and negative - below oceanic blocks; the MOR has low-gravity anomaly. By introducing regional geochemical data and analysis of the tectonical history, we identify a strong correlation between residual mantle gravity anomalies and geochemical anomalies in ɛNd and Mg#. This analysis identifies three zones of North Atlantic mantle based on the correlation between upper mantle gravity and ocean floor age. In the area around Iceland, the residual mantle gravity is systematically lower than predicted from the half-space cooling model, and we estimate the thermal anomaly that could cause this shift.
GOCE gravity gradient data for lithospheric modeling and geophysical exploration research
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouman, Johannes; Ebbing, Jörg; Meekes, Sjef; Lieb, Verena; Fuchs, Martin; Schmidt, Michael; Fattah, Rader Abdul; Gradmann, Sofie; Haagmans, Roger
2013-04-01
GOCE gravity gradient data can improve modeling of the Earth's lithosphere and upper mantle, contributing to a better understanding of the Earth's dynamic processes. We present a method to compute user-friendly GOCE gravity gradient grids at mean satellite altitude, which are easier to use than the original GOCE gradients that are given in a rotating instrument frame. In addition, the GOCE gradients are combined with terrestrial gravity data to obtain high resolution grids of gravity field information close to the Earth's surface. We also present a case study for the North-East Atlantic margin, where we analyze the use of satellite gravity gradients by comparison with a well-constrained 3D density model that provides a detailed picture from the upper mantle to the top basement (base of sediments). We demonstrate how gravity gradients can increase confidence in the modeled structures by calculating the sensitvity of model geometry and applied densities at different observation heights; e.g. satellite height and near surface. Finally, this sensitivity analysis is used as input to study the Rub' al Khali desert in Saudi Arabia. In terms of modeling and data availability this is a frontier area. Here gravity gradient data help especially to set up the regional crustal structure, which in turn allows to refine sedimentary thickness estimates and the regional heat-flow pattern. This can have implications for hydrocarbon exploration in the region.
Effective dark energy models and dark energy models with bounce in frames of F( T) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astashenok, Artyom V.
2014-05-01
Various cosmological models in frames of F( T) gravity are considered. The general scheme of constructing effective dark energy models with various evolution is presented. It is showed that these models in principle are compatible with ΛCDM model. The dynamics of universe governed by F( T) gravity can mimics ΛCDM evolution in past but declines from it in a future. We also construct some dark energy models with the "real" (non-effective) equation-of-state parameter w such that w≤-1. It is showed that in F( T) gravity the Universe filled phantom field not necessarily ends its existence in singularity. There are two possible mechanisms permitting the final singularity. Firstly due to the nonlinear dependence between energy density and H 2 ( H is the Hubble parameter) the universe can expands not so fast as in the general relativity and in fact Little Rip regime take place instead Big Rip. We also considered the models with possible bounce in future. In these models the universe expansion can mimics the dynamics with future singularity but due to bounce in future universe begin contracts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imamura, Takeshi; Watanabe, Ayuka; Maejima, Yasumitsu
2016-03-01
Generation of gravity waves by convection was studied using a nonlinear two-dimensional model. A boundary-layer convection forced by a horizontally-uniform heating and a plume forced by a localized heating representing a local dust storm were tested. The results suggest that vigorous convection occurs due to the low density of the martian atmosphere and that short-period waves having frequencies near the buoyancy frequency can be preferentially generated. The propagation of those gravity waves to thermospheric heights was studied using a linearized one-dimensional model. Because of the fast vertical propagation the waves attain large amplitudes in the lower thermosphere, being consistent with Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey's accelerometer measurements and MAVEN's neutral and ion measurements. The heating and cooling caused by the waves are expected to be significant in the energy budget of the thermosphere, and the vertical mixing induced by those gravity waves should influence the homopause height. Since the thermospheric densities of light, minor species increase with the lowering of the homopause, a lower homopause may have enhanced the escape of such species to space for early Mars, where slower, weaker gravity waves should dominate.
Gravity Variations Induced by Changing Snowpack Observed at Conrad Observatory (Austria)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ressl, Hans; Dorninger, Manfred; Meurers, Bruno
2016-04-01
Hydrological processes are usually associated with mass transport. This induces gravity variations observed by superconducting gravimeter (SG) masking the pure geodynamical signal. The present study focusses specifically on gravity variations due to snow accumulation and melting. Measurements of the gravity signal are taken from the SG GWR C025 located at the Conrad Observatory (Austria) in an underground laboratory at about 1000m altitude. In snow rich winters a snowpack of one meter in depth or even more can be observed at this location. Snow height is measured at three different locations to get an idea of its variability. At one place additionally the weight of the snow pack is determined which allows to calculate the snow water equivalent. Gravitational signals are rather different for the accumulation and ablation phase, not only due to the different time scales of these processes but also due to the complex way path of melting water entering the ground beneath of the SG. Two methods, rainfall admittance function and Bouguer reduction, are used to account for the effect of the snow pack. Both have their strengths and weaknesses. They work better for short-term mass transports than for long lasting ones because in the latter case interference with signals of other environmental processes gets more prominent. A few case studies including both accumulation and ablation of snow on different time scales will be discussed.
Tectonic and gravity-induced deformation along the active Talas-Fergana Fault, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tibaldi, A.; Corazzato, C.; Rust, D.; Bonali, F. L.; Pasquarè Mariotto, F. A.; Korzhenkov, A. M.; Oppizzi, P.; Bonzanigo, L.
2015-08-01
This paper shows, by field palaeoseismological data, the Holocene activity of the central segment of the intracontinental Talas-Fergana Fault (TFF), and the relevance of possible future seismic shaking on slope stability around a large water reservoir. The fault, striking NW-SE, is marked by a continuous series of scarps, deflected streams and water divides, and prehistoric earthquakes that offset substrate and Holocene deposits. Fault movements are characterised by right-lateral strike-slip kinematics with a subordinate component of uplift of the NE block. Structural, geological and geomorphological field data indicate that shallow and deep landslides are aligned along the TFF, and some of them are active. Where the TFF runs close to the reservoir, the fault trace is obscured by a series of landslides, affecting rock and soil materials and ranging in size from small slope instabilities to deep-seated gravity-induced slope deformations (DGSDs). The largest of these, which does not show clear evidence of present-day activity, involves a volume of about 1 km3 and is associated with smaller but active landslides in its lower part, with volumes in the order of 2.5 × 104 m3 to 1 × 106 m3. Based on the spatial and temporal relations between landslides and faults, we argue that at least some of these slope failures may have a coseismic character. Stability analyses by means of limit equilibrium methods (LEMs), and stress-strain analysis by finite difference numerical modelling (FDM), were carried out to evaluate different hazard scenarios linked to these slope instabilities. The results indicate concern for the different threats posed, ranging from the possible disruption of the M-41 highway, the main transportation route in central Asia, to the possible collapse of huge rock masses into the reservoir, possibly generating a tsunami.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shrivastava, S. K.; Hablani, H. B.
1979-01-01
This paper presents an analysis of solar radiation pressure induced coupled librations of gravity stabilized cylindrical spacecraft with a special reference to geostationary communication satellites. The Lagrangian approach is used to obtain the corresponding equations of motion. The solar induced torques are assumed to be free of librational angles and are represented by their Fourier expansion. The response and periodic solutions are obtained through linear and nonlinear analyses, using the method of harmonic balance in the latter case. The stability conditions are obtained using Routh-Hurwitz criteria. To establish the ranges of validity the analytic response is compared with the numerical solution. Finally, values of the system parameters are suggested to make the satellite behave as desired. Among these is a possible approach to subdue the solar induced roll resonance. It is felt that the approximate analysis presented here should significantly reduce the computational efforts involved in the design and stability analysis of the systems.
Thermo-electric transport in gauge/gravity models with momentum dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amoretti, Andrea; Braggio, Alessandro; Maggiore, Nicola; Magnoli, Nicodemo; Musso, Daniele
2014-09-01
We present a systematic definition and analysis of the thermo-electric linear response in gauge/gravity systems focusing especially on models with massive gravity in the bulk and therefore momentum dissipation in the dual field theory. A precise treatment of finite counter-terms proves to be essential to yield a consistent physical picture whose hydrodynamic and beyond-hydrodynamics behaviors noticeably match with field theoretical expectations. The model furnishes a possible gauge/gravity description of the crossover from the quantum-critical to the disorder-dominated Fermi-liquid behaviors, as expected in graphene.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vacaru, Sergiu I.
2015-04-01
We reinvestigate how generic off-diagonal cosmological solutions depending, in general, on all spacetime coordinates can be constructed in massive and -modified gravity using the anholonomic frame deformation method. New classes of locally anisotropic and (in-) homogeneous cosmological metrics are constructed with open and closed spatial geometries. By resorting to such solutions, we show that they describe the late time acceleration due to effective cosmological terms induced by nonlinear off-diagonal interactions, possible modifications of the gravitational action and graviton mass. The cosmological metrics and related Stückelberg fields are constructed in explicit form up to nonholonomic frame transforms of the Friedmann-Lamaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) coordinates. The solutions include matter, graviton mass, and other effective sources modeling nonlinear gravitational and matter field interactions with polarization of physical constants and deformations of metrics, which may explain dark energy and dark matter effects. However, we argue that it is not always necessary to modify gravity if we consider the effective generalized Einstein equations with nontrivial vacuum and/or non-minimal coupling with matter. Indeed, we state certain conditions when such configurations mimic interesting solutions in general relativity and modifications, for instance, when we can extract the general Painlevé-Gullstrand and FLRW metrics. In a more general context, we elaborate on a reconstruction procedure for off-diagonal cosmological solutions which describe cyclic and ekpyrotic universes. Finally, open issues and further perspectives are discussed.
Cytoplasmic streaming affects gravity-induced amyloplast sedimentation in maize coleoptiles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sack, F. D.; Leopold, A. C.
1985-01-01
Living maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptile cells were observed using a horizontal microscope to determine the interaction between cytoplasmic streaming and gravity-induced amyloplast sedimentation. Sedimentation is heavily influenced by streaming which may (1) hasten or slow the velocity of amyloplast movement and (2) displace the plastid laterally or even upwards before or after sedimentation. Amyloplasts may move through transvacuolar strands or through the peripheral cytoplasm which may be divided into fine cytoplasmic strands of much smaller diameter than the plastids. The results indicate that streaming may contribute to the dynamics of graviperception by influencing amyloplast movement.
Gravity-induced rock mass damage related to large en masse rockslides: Evidence from Vajont
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paronuzzi, Paolo; Bolla, Alberto
2015-04-01
The Vajont landslide is a well-known, reservoir-induced slope failure that occurred on 9 October 1963 and was characterized by an 'en masse' sliding motion that triggered various large waves, determining catastrophic consequences for the nearby territory and adjacent villages. During the Vajont dam construction, and especially after the disaster, some researchers identified widespread field evidence of heavy rock mass damage involving the presumed prehistoric rockslide and/or the 1963 failed mass. This paper describes evidence of heavy gravitational damage, including (i) folding, (ii) fracturing, (iii) faulting, and (iv) intact rock disintegration. The gravity-induced rock mass damage (GRMD) characterizes the remnants of the basal shear zone, still resting on the large detachment surface, and the 1963 failed rock mass. The comprehensive geological study of the 1963 Vajont landslide, based on the recently performed geomechanical survey (2006-present) and on the critical analysis of the past photographic documentation (1959-1964), allows us to recognize that most GRMD evidence is related to the prehistoric multistage Mt. Toc rockslide. The 1963 catastrophic en masse remobilization induced an increase to the prehistoric damage, reworking preexisting structures and creating additional gravity-driven features (folds, fractures, faults, and rock fragmentation). The gravity-induced damage was formed during the slope instability phases that preceded the collapse (static or quasi-static GRMD) and also as a consequence of the sliding motion and of the devastating impact between the failed blocks (dynamic GRMD). Gravitational damage originated various types of small drag folds such as flexures, concentric folds, chevron, and kink-box folds, all having a radius of 1-5 m. Large buckle folds (radius of 10-50 m) are related to the dynamic damage and were formed during the en masse motion as a consequence of deceleration and impact processes that involved the sliding mass. Prior
New Interpretations of the Rayn Anticlines in the Arabian Basin Inferred from Gravity Modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
AlMogren, S. M.; Mukhopadhyay, M.
2014-12-01
The Ryan Anticlines comprise of a regularly-spaced set of super-giant anticlines oriented NNW, developed due to E-W compression in the Arabian Basin. Most prominent of these being: the Ghawar Anticline, followed by the Summan, Khurais Anticlines and Qatar Arch. Gravity anomaly is largely characteristic for both Ryan Anticlines and its smaller size version the Jinadriah Anticline in the Riyadh Salt Basin. It displays a bipolar gravity field - a zone of gravity high running along the fold axis that is flanked by asymmetric gravity lows. Available structural models commonly infer structural uplift for the median gravity high but ignore the flanking lows. Here we interpret the bipolar gravity anomaly due primarily to such anticline structures, while, the flanking gravity lows are due to greater sediment thickness largely compacted and deformed over the basement depressions. Further complexities are created due to the salt layer and its migration at the lower horizons of sediment strata. Such diagnostic gravity anomaly pattern is taken here as an evidence for basement tectonics due to prevailing crustal dynamics in the Arabian Basin. Density inversion provides details on the subsurface density variation due to the folding and structural configuration for the sediment layers, including the salt layer, affected by basement deformation. This interpretation is largely supported by gravity forward and inversion models given in the present study what is partly constrained by the available seismic, MT and deep resistivity lines and surface geologic mapping. Most of the oil-gas fields in this part of the Arabian Basin are further known for salt diapirism. In this study the gravity interpretation help in identification of salt diapirism directly overlying the basement is firstly given here for Jinadriah Anticline; that is next extended to a regional geologic cross-section traversing the Ryan Anticlines to infer probable subsurface continuation of salt diapirs directly overlying
Recent results on modelling the spatial and temporal structure of the Earth's gravity field.
Moore, P; Zhang, Q; Alothman, A
2006-04-15
The Earth's gravity field plays a central role in sea-level change. In the simplest application a precise gravity field will enable oceanographers to capitalize fully on the altimetric datasets collected over the past decade or more by providing a geoid from which absolute sea-level topography can be recovered. However, the concept of a static gravity field is now redundant as we can observe temporal variability in the geoid due to mass redistribution in or on the total Earth system. Temporal variability, associated with interactions between the land, oceans and atmosphere, can be investigated through mass redistributions with, for example, flow of water from the land being balanced by an increase in ocean mass. Furthermore, as ocean transport is an important contributor to the mass redistribution the time varying gravity field can also be used to validate Global Ocean Circulation models. This paper will review the recent history of static and temporal gravity field recovery, from the 1980s to the present day. In particular, mention will be made of the role of satellite laser ranging and other space tracking techniques, satellite altimetry and in situ gravity which formed the basis of gravity field determination until the last few years. With the launch of Challenging Microsatellite Payload and Gravity and Circulation Experiment (GRACE) our knowledge of the spatial distribution of the Earth's gravity field is taking a leap forward. Furthermore, GRACE is now providing insight into temporal variability through 'monthly' gravity field solutions. Prior to this data we relied on satellite tracking, Global Positioning System and geophysical models to give us insight into the temporal variability. We will consider results from these methodologies and compare them to preliminary results from the GRACE mission. PMID:16537153
Martian sub-crustal stress from gravity and topographic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tenzer, Robert; Eshagh, Mehdi; Jin, Shuanggen
2015-09-01
The latest Martian gravity and topographic models derived from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter and the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft tracking data are used to compute the sub-crustal stress field on Mars. For this purpose, we apply the method for a simultaneous determination of the horizontal sub-crustal stress component and the crustal thickness based on solving the Navier-Stokes problem and incorporating the Vening Meinesz-Moritz inverse problem of isostasy. Results reveal that most of the Martian sub-crustal stress is concentrated in the Tharsis region, with the most prominent signatures attributed to a formation of Tharsis major volcanoes followed by crustal loading. The stress distribution across the Valles Marineris rift valleys indicates extensional tectonism. This finding agrees with more recent theories of a tectonic origin of Valles Marineris caused, for instance, by a crustal loading of the Tharsis bulge that resulted in a regional trusting and folding. Aside from these features, the Martian stress field is relatively smooth with only a slightly enhanced pattern of major impact basins. The signatures of active global tectonics and polar ice load are absent. Whereas the signature of the hemispheric dichotomy is also missing, the long-wavelength spectrum of the stress field comprises the signature of additional dichotomy attributed to the isostatically uncompensated crustal load of Tharsis volcanic accumulations. These results suggest a different origin of the Earth's and Martian sub-crustal stress. Whereas the former is mainly related to active global tectonics, the latter is generated by a crustal loading and regional tectonism associated with a volcanic evolution on Mars. The additional sub-crustal stress around major impact basins is likely explained by a crustal extrusion after impact followed by a Moho uplift.
Impact of geophysical model error for recovering temporal gravity field model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Hao; Luo, Zhicai; Wu, Yihao; Li, Qiong; Xu, Chuang
2016-07-01
The impact of geophysical model error on recovered temporal gravity field models with both real and simulated GRACE observations is assessed in this paper. With real GRACE observations, we build four temporal gravity field models, i.e., HUST08a, HUST11a, HUST04 and HUST05. HUST08a and HUST11a are derived from different ocean tide models (EOT08a and EOT11a), while HUST04 and HUST05 are derived from different non-tidal models (AOD RL04 and AOD RL05). The statistical result shows that the discrepancies of the annual mass variability amplitudes in six river basins between HUST08a and HUST11a models, HUST04 and HUST05 models are all smaller than 1 cm, which demonstrates that geophysical model error slightly affects the current GRACE solutions. The impact of geophysical model error for future missions with more accurate satellite ranging is also assessed by simulation. The simulation results indicate that for current mission with range rate accuracy of 2.5 × 10- 7 m/s, observation error is the main reason for stripe error. However, when the range rate accuracy improves to 5.0 × 10- 8 m/s in the future mission, geophysical model error will be the main source for stripe error, which will limit the accuracy and spatial resolution of temporal gravity model. Therefore, observation error should be the primary error source taken into account at current range rate accuracy level, while more attention should be paid to improving the accuracy of background geophysical models for the future mission.
Gravity fluctuations induced by magma convection at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i
Carbone, Daniele; Poland, Michael P.
2012-01-01
Convection in magma chambers is thought to play a key role in the activity of persistently active volcanoes, but has only been inferred indirectly from geochemical observations or simulated numerically. Continuous microgravity measurements, which track changes in subsurface mass distribution over time, provide a potential method for characterizing convection in magma reservoirs. We recorded gravity oscillations with a period of ~150 s at two continuous gravity stations at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i. The oscillations are not related to inertial accelerations caused by seismic activity, but instead indicate variations in subsurface mass. Source modeling suggests that the oscillations are caused by density inversions in a magma reservoir located ~1 km beneath the east margin of Halema‘uma‘u Crater in Kīlauea Caldera—a location of known magma storage.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, Hans G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Huang, F. T.
2010-01-01
As Lindzen (1981) had shown, small-scale gravity waves (GW) produce the observed reversals of the zonal-mean circulation and temperature variations in the upper mesosphere. The waves also play a major role in modulating and amplifying the diurnal tides (DT) (e.g., Waltersheid, 1981; Fritts and Vincent, 1987; Fritts, 1995a). We summarize here the modeling studies with the mechanistic numerical spectral model (NSM) with Doppler spread parameterization for GW (Hines, 1997a, b), which describes in the middle atmosphere: (a) migrating and non-migrating DT, (b) planetary waves (PW), and (c) global-scale inertio gravity waves. Numerical experiments are discussed that illuminate the influence of GW filtering and nonlinear interactions between DT, PW, and zonal mean variations. Keywords: Theoretical modeling, Middle atmosphere dynamics, Gravity wave interactions, Migrating and non-migrating tides, Planetary waves, Global-scale inertio gravity waves.
Multi-Scale Modeling of Liquid Phase Sintering Affected by Gravity: Preliminary Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olevsky, Eugene; German, Randall M.
2012-01-01
A multi-scale simulation concept taking into account impact of gravity on liquid phase sintering is described. The gravity influence can be included at both the micro- and macro-scales. At the micro-scale, the diffusion mass-transport is directionally modified in the framework of kinetic Monte-Carlo simulations to include the impact of gravity. The micro-scale simulations can provide the values of the constitutive parameters for macroscopic sintering simulations. At the macro-scale, we are attempting to embed a continuum model of sintering into a finite-element framework that includes the gravity forces and substrate friction. If successful, the finite elements analysis will enable predictions relevant to space-based processing, including size and shape and property predictions. Model experiments are underway to support the models via extraction of viscosity moduli versus composition, particle size, heating rate, temperature and time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazama, T.; Okubo, S.
2007-12-01
Gravity observation is one of the effective methods to detect magma movements in volcanic eruptions [e.g., Furuya et al., J. Geoph. Res., 2003]. Groundwater-derived disturbances have to be corrected from gravity variations for highly accurate monitoring of volcanic activities. They have been corrected with empirical methods, such as tank models and regression curves [e.g., Imanishi et al., J. Geodyn., 2006]. These methods, however, are not based on hydrological background, and are very likely to eliminate volcanic signals excessively. The correction method of groundwater disturbance has to be developed with hydrological and quantitative approach. We thus estimate the gravity disturbance arising from groundwater as follows. (1) Groundwater distributions are simulated on a hydrological model, utilizing groundwater flow equations. (2) Groundwater-derived gravity value is estimated for each instant of time, by integrating groundwater distributions spatially. (3) The groundwater-derived gravity, as the correction value, is subtracted from observed gravity data. In this study, we simulated groundwater flow and groundwater-derived gravity value on the east part of the Asama volcano, central Japan. A simple hydrological model was supposed, consisting of homogeneous soil, lying on a flat impermeable basement. Hydraulic conductivity, which defines groundwater velocity, was set as 2.0×10-6[m/s], which is consistent with typical volcanic soils. We also observed time variations of watertable height, soil moisture and gravity simultaneously during the summer of 2006 at Asama volcano, and compared the observations with the theoretical values. Both simulated groundwater distributions and gravity changes agree fairly well with observed values. On variations of water level and moisture content, rapid increase at the time of rainfalls and exponential decrease after rainfalls were illustrated. Theoretical gravity changes explained 90% of the observed gravity increase (+20μgals) for
Geodetic Application of ROCSAT-3/COSMIC: Climate-Induced Time-Variable Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chao, Benjamin F.; Cox, C.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The ROCSAT-3/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate) mission consists of a constellation of 6 low-earth orbiting satellites. In conducting the atmospheric limb sounding using the GPS radio occultation technique (which is the main objective of the mission), the satellite orbits are precisely determined at any given moment by GPS "high-low" satellite-to-satellite tracking. These precise orbit determination (POD) data contain useful information about the Earth's gravitational field and its time variations, for both geophysical and climate-related research. Our previous simulations showed that the use of these orbit data can yield an order of magnitude improvement over the state-of-the-art global gravity model EGM96 out to degree and order 20 (spatial resolution of 1000 km), depending on the mission design and orbit adjustment scenario. In this paper, the temporal variation signals of low-degree harmonics are the subject matter. These signals can be obtained from POD at the 800 km operational altitude (where the non-gravitational forces is weaker and can be better modeled and removed) during the lifetime of the mission. The time-varying gravity is becoming an important data source for studying climate-related global changes, especially in anticipating the use of the time-variable gravity data from the GRACE mission which was recently launched into orbit. Although not as precise as what GRACE promises to achieve, with much denser spatial and temporal coverages provided by 6 satellites and hence greatly reduced aliasing errors COSMIC represents independent and complementary observations for the new time-variable gravity research. We will present simulation results based on the present mission scenario.
Isostatic gravity map of the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California
Ponce, D.A.; Blakely, R.J.; Morin, R.L.; Mankinen, E.A.
2002-03-12
Gravity investigations of the Death Valley ground-water model area are part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (Interagency agreement DE-AI08-96NV11967) to help characterize the geology and hydrology of southwestern Nevada and parts of California. The Death Valley ground-water model is located between lat 35 degrees 00' and 38 degrees 15' N., and long 115 degrees and 118 degrees W. An isostatic gravity map of the Death Valley ground-water model was prepared from over 40,000 gravity stations, most of which are publicly available on a CD-ROM of gravity data of Nevada (Ponce, 1997). The map also includes gravity data recently collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (Mankinen and others, 1998; Morin and Blakely, 1999). A subset of these gravity data in the Nevada Test Site and vicinity were described in detail by Harris and others (1989) who included information on gravity meters used, dates of collection, sources, descriptions of base stations, plots of data, and digital and paper lists of principal facts. For display purposes only, gravity data within Yucca Flat were thinned by a factor of 10. The digital gravity data set was gridded at an interval of 400 m using a computer program (Webring, 1981) based on a minimum curvature algorithm by Briggs (1974). The resulting grid was then interpolated to a 200-m grid to minimize pixel size, and then it was color contoured.
Creed, R.; Edwards, A.
1997-08-01
Gravity gradiometry forward models have been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory (INEEL) that can characterize gravity gradient changes with the development of a cone of depression or injection mound in water table aquifers. Difference measurements at long time intervals reduce delayed drainage effects and eliminate the need for determining an initial density structure. Qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis of the gradient signal to determine changes in groundwater distribution with injection or pumping may be possible, particularly if the time varying nature of the signal is of interest. Gravity gradiometer instruments (such as the Gravity Gradient Survey System) have progressed to the point where the complete second order gravity gradient tensor can be measured with an instrument noise level of less than 1 Eotvos (0.1 microgals/meter). Modeling indicates direct gravity measurements for the injection mound perched aquifier case could produce similar signal to noise ratios. However gravity gradients provide 5 independent measurements and due to the common mode nature of the instruments are less susceptible to other effects (tide, latitude, elevation, etc.). The gradients also provide a sharper image of the edge of the anomaly. The systematic identification and removal of specific retention, rainfall and subsidence or uplift effects may be required to make gradiometry difference imaging practical for field use.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ŝprlák, M.; Gerlach, C.; Omang, O. C. D.; Pettersen, B. R.
2011-07-01
Global gravity models composed of a set of spherical harmonic coefficients represent one of the most important products of the GOCE satellite gradiometry mission. These are of particular interest in many geoscientific disciplines dealing with the Earth's gravity field. At present, four satellite-only global gravity models based on GOCE observations have been made available to the scientific community. Three of them have been determined by independent strategies using pure GOCE satellite-to-satellite tracking and satellite gravity gradiometry observations. The fourth model has been computed from a combination of GRACE and GOCE observations. In this contribution, GOCE derived global gravity models are compared with EGM2008, the OCTAS geoid and terrestrial gravity anomalies. We restrict our numerical study to the territory bounding the continental part of Norway. Spherical harmonic expansions have been truncated at maximum degree and order 200 corresponding to a spatial resolution of 100km. Higher frequencies contained in the OCTAS geoid and in the terrestrial gravity anomalies have been removed by explicitly applying a low-pass filter on the data sets, or by removing the signal content of EGM2008 above degree 200.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Chinn, D. S.; Chan, J. C.; Patel, G. B.; Klosko, S. M.
1993-01-01
A new method has been developed to provide a direct test of the error calibrations of gravity models based on actual satellite observations. The basic approach projects the error estimates of the gravity model parameters onto satellite observations, and the results of these projections are then compared with data residual computed from the orbital fits. To allow specific testing of the gravity error calibrations, subset solutions are computed based on the data set and data weighting of the gravity model. The approach is demonstrated using GEM-T3 to show that the gravity error estimates are well calibrated and that reliable predictions of orbit accuracies can be achieved for independent orbits.
Gravity Research on Plants: Use of Single-Cell Experimental Models
Chebli, Youssef; Geitmann, Anja
2011-01-01
Future space missions and implementation of permanent bases on Moon and Mars will greatly depend on the availability of ambient air and sustainable food supply. Therefore, understanding the effects of altered gravity conditions on plant metabolism and growth is vital for space missions and extra-terrestrial human existence. In this mini-review we summarize how plant cells are thought to perceive changes in magnitude and orientation of the gravity vector. The particular advantages of several single-celled model systems for gravity research are explored and an overview over recent advancements and potential use of these systems is provided. PMID:22639598
f(T) Gravity from Holographic Ricci Dark Energy Model with New Boundary Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Peng; Huang, Yong-Chang; Yuan, Fang-Fang
2013-11-01
Commonly used boundary conditions in reconstructing f(T) gravity from holographic Ricci dark energy (RDE) model are found to cause some problem, we therefore propose new boundary conditions in this paper. By reconstructing f(T) gravity from the RDE with these new boundary conditions, we show that the new ones are better than the present commonly used ones since they can give the physically expected information, which is lost when the commonly used ones are taken in the reconstruction, of the resulting f(T) theory. Thus, the new boundary conditions proposed here are more suitable for the reconstruction of f(T) gravity.
Increased efficiency of rf-induced evaporative cooling by utilizing gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klinner, Julian; Wolke, Matthias; Hemmerich, Andreas
2010-04-01
We report on an efficient rf-induced forced evaporative cooling of an ensemble of Rb87 atoms in state |F=2,mF=2> magnetically trapped in a quadrupole-Ioffe configuration trap. The cigar-shaped trap is oriented with its weak confining axis along the direction of gravity leading to, first, a significant separation of the trapping positions for low-field-seeking atoms with different mF value and, second, a reduced resonance volume for rf-induced evaporation confined to a small region around the lower tip of the cigar-shaped ensemble. This results in an enhancement of the evaporation efficiency α≡dlnT/(dlnN) due to either reduced or completely vanishing scattering events between cooled and evaporated atoms. We present data illustrating this effect.
Increased efficiency of rf-induced evaporative cooling by utilizing gravity
Klinner, Julian; Wolke, Matthias; Hemmerich, Andreas
2010-04-15
We report on an efficient rf-induced forced evaporative cooling of an ensemble of {sup 87}Rb atoms in state |F=2,m{sub F}=2> magnetically trapped in a quadrupole-Ioffe configuration trap. The cigar-shaped trap is oriented with its weak confining axis along the direction of gravity leading to, first, a significant separation of the trapping positions for low-field-seeking atoms with different m{sub F} value and, second, a reduced resonance volume for rf-induced evaporation confined to a small region around the lower tip of the cigar-shaped ensemble. This results in an enhancement of the evaporation efficiency {alpha}{identical_to}dlnT/(dlnN) due to either reduced or completely vanishing scattering events between cooled and evaporated atoms. We present data illustrating this effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shih, Hsuan-Chang; Hwang, Cheinway; Barriot, Jean-Pierre; Mouyen, Maxime; Corréia, Pascal; Lequeux, Didier; Sichoix, Lydie
2015-08-01
For the first time, we carry out an airborne gravity survey and we collect new land gravity data over the islands of Tahiti and Moorea in French Polynesia located in the South Pacific Ocean. The new land gravity data are registered with GPS-derived coordinates, network-adjusted and outlier-edited, resulting in a mean standard error of 17 μGal. A crossover analysis of the airborne gravity data indicates a mean gravity accuracy of 1.7 mGal. New marine gravity around the two islands is derived from Geosat/GM, ERS-1/GM, Jason-1/GM, and Cryosat-2 altimeter data. A new 1-s digital topography model is constructed and is used to compute the topographic gravitational effects. To use EGM08 over Tahiti and Moorea, the optimal degree of spherical harmonic expansion is 1500. The fusion of the gravity datasets is made by the band-limited least-squares collocation, which best integrates datasets of different accuracies and spatial resolutions. The new high-resolution gravity and geoid grids are constructed on a 9-s grid. Assessments of the grids by measurements of ground gravity and geometric geoidal height result in RMS differences of 0.9 mGal and 0.4 cm, respectively. The geoid model allows 1-cm orthometric height determination by GPS and Lidar and yields a consistent height datum for Tahiti and Moorea. The new Bouguer anomalies show gravity highs and lows in the centers and land-sea zones of the two islands, allowing further studies of the density structure and volcanism in the region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamindu Deepagoda, T. K. K.; Jones, Scott B.; Tuller, Markus; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Kawamoto, Ken; Komatsu, Toshiko; Moldrup, Per
2014-08-01
Growing plants to facilitate life in outer space, for example on the International Space Station (ISS) or at planned deep-space human outposts on the Moon or Mars, has received much attention with regard to NASA’s advanced life support system research. With the objective of in situ resource utilization to conserve energy and to limit transport costs, native materials mined on Moon or Mars are of primary interest for plant growth media in a future outpost, while terrestrial porous substrates with optimal growth media characteristics will be useful for onboard plant growth during space missions. Due to limited experimental opportunities and prohibitive costs, liquid and gas behavior in porous substrates under reduced gravity conditions has been less studied and hence remains poorly understood. Based on ground-based measurements, this study examined water retention, oxygen diffusivity and air permeability characteristics of six plant growth substrates for potential applications in space, including two terrestrial analogs for lunar and Martian soils and four particulate substrates widely used in reduced gravity experiments. To simulate reduced gravity water characteristics, the predictions for ground-based measurements (1 - g) were scaled to two reduced gravity conditions, Martian gravity (0.38 - g) and lunar gravity (0.16 - g), following the observations in previous reduced gravity studies. We described the observed gas diffusivity with a recently developed model combined with a new approach that estimates the gas percolation threshold based on the pore size distribution. The model successfully captured measured data for all investigated media and demonstrated the implications of the poorly-understood shift in gas percolation threshold with improved gas percolation in reduced gravity. Finally, using a substrate-structure parameter related to the gaseous phase, we adequately described the air permeability under reduced gravity conditions.
Constraints of energy conditions and DK instability criterion on f(R, Lm) gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Ya-Bo; Zhao, Yue-Yue; Jin, Yong-Yi; Lin, Liang-Liang; Lu, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Xue
2014-06-01
Some properties of f(R, Lm) gravity are studied in this paper. Concretely, the energy conditions and the Dolgov-Kawasaki (DK) instability criterion in f(R, Lm) gravity are obtained, which are quite general and can degenerate to the ones in General Relativity (GR) and pure f(R) gravity with non-coupling and non-minimal coupling as well as in [J. Wang and K. Liao, Class. Quantum Grav. 29, 215016 (2012)] as special cases. Furthermore, in order to get some insight on the meaning of the energy conditions and the DK instability criterion, we apply them to the concrete type of f(R, Lm) gravity models and the corresponding constraints on the models are given.
Progress in the development of the GMM-2 gravity field model for Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.
1994-01-01
Last year we published the GMM-1 (Goddard Mars Model-1) gravity model for Mars. We have completely re-analyzed the Viking and Mariner 9 tracking data in the development of the new field, designated GMM-2. The model is complete to degree and order 70. Various aspects of the model are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, P.; Wang, H.; van der Wal, W.
2006-12-01
Modern geodetic measurements from GPS, satellite altimetry, tide-gauges, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and space-borne gravimetry (such as GRACE) have been used to monitor global change. Since these measurements contain contributions from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and other tectonic processes, they must be modeled and removed in order to observe current climate change. In the past, most GIA models assumed that the earth is laterally homogeneous and the rheology is linear. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of lateral heterogeneity and Power-Law rheology on GIA induced land uplift rate, horizontal velocities, relative sealevels, J-dot and the secular gravity rate of change in the southern part of Hudson Bay, which is detected by the GRACE mission. Here, GIA is modeled with a spherical, self-gravitating, compressible viscoelastic, laterally heterogeneous earth using the Finite-Element Method. The effect of gravitationally self-consistent sea levels in realistic oceans is also included. Lateral variations in mantle viscosities and lithospheric thickness are inferred from the seismic tomography model S20A using well known scaling relationships. Power-Law rheologies in the whole mantle or in combination with linear rheologies in the upper or lower mantle are also investigated. Both ICE-5G and ICE-4G deglaciation models are used to investigate their effect on the pattern of rebound. Preliminary results show that both lateral heterogeneity and power-law rheology have strong effects on the direction and magnitude of horizontal velocities. The effects of lateral heterogeneity and power-law rheology are also large enough to be detected in land uplift rate, relative sealevels, J-dot and gravity rate of change. Their implication on observing the effects of global warming will also be discussed.
Multisensory integration and internal models for sensing gravity effects in primates.
Lacquaniti, Francesco; Bosco, Gianfranco; Gravano, Silvio; Indovina, Iole; La Scaleia, Barbara; Maffei, Vincenzo; Zago, Myrka
2014-01-01
Gravity is crucial for spatial perception, postural equilibrium, and movement generation. The vestibular apparatus is the main sensory system involved in monitoring gravity. Hair cells in the vestibular maculae respond to gravitoinertial forces, but they cannot distinguish between linear accelerations and changes of head orientation relative to gravity. The brain deals with this sensory ambiguity (which can cause some lethal airplane accidents) by combining several cues with the otolith signals: angular velocity signals provided by the semicircular canals, proprioceptive signals from muscles and tendons, visceral signals related to gravity, and visual signals. In particular, vision provides both static and dynamic signals about body orientation relative to the vertical, but it poorly discriminates arbitrary accelerations of moving objects. However, we are able to visually detect the specific acceleration of gravity since early infancy. This ability depends on the fact that gravity effects are stored in brain regions which integrate visual, vestibular, and neck proprioceptive signals and combine this information with an internal model of gravity effects. PMID:25061610
Multisensory Integration and Internal Models for Sensing Gravity Effects in Primates
Lacquaniti, Francesco; La Scaleia, Barbara; Maffei, Vincenzo
2014-01-01
Gravity is crucial for spatial perception, postural equilibrium, and movement generation. The vestibular apparatus is the main sensory system involved in monitoring gravity. Hair cells in the vestibular maculae respond to gravitoinertial forces, but they cannot distinguish between linear accelerations and changes of head orientation relative to gravity. The brain deals with this sensory ambiguity (which can cause some lethal airplane accidents) by combining several cues with the otolith signals: angular velocity signals provided by the semicircular canals, proprioceptive signals from muscles and tendons, visceral signals related to gravity, and visual signals. In particular, vision provides both static and dynamic signals about body orientation relative to the vertical, but it poorly discriminates arbitrary accelerations of moving objects. However, we are able to visually detect the specific acceleration of gravity since early infancy. This ability depends on the fact that gravity effects are stored in brain regions which integrate visual, vestibular, and neck proprioceptive signals and combine this information with an internal model of gravity effects. PMID:25061610
Earth gravity model improvement - An alternative method for Doppler-tracked satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lansard, E.; Biancale, R.
A new method of earth gravity model improvement based on an analytical formulation of Doppler residuals is presented here in prospect of future geodetic and altimetric missions (DORIS< TOPEX/POSEIDON, ERS1). After an intermediate step of orbit improvement, disturbing forces due to gravity field mismodeling are recovered above tracking statins at satellite altitude. Some significant simulation results for Seasat and DORIS are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reasenberg, Robert D.
1993-01-01
The anomalous gravity field of Venus shows high correlation with surface features revealed by radar. We extract gravity models from the Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) by means of a two-step process. In the first step, we solve the nonlinear spacecraft state estimation problem using a Kalman filter-smoother. The Kalman filter was evaluated through simulations. This evaluation and some unusual features of the filter are discussed. In the second step, we perform a geophysical inversion using a linear Bayesian estimator. To allow an unbiased comparison between gravity and topography, we use a simulation technique to smooth and distort the radar topographic data so as to yield maps having the same characteristics as our gravity maps. The maps presented cover 2/3 of the surface of Venus and display the strong topography-gravity correlation previously reported. The topography-gravity scatter plots show two distinct trends.
Spin Foam Models for Quantum Gravity and semi-classical limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dupuis, Maité
2011-04-01
The spinfoam framework is a proposal for a regularized path integral for quantum gravity. Spinfoams define quantum space-time structures describing the evolution in time of the spin network states for quantum geometry derived from Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG). The construction of this covariant approach is based on the formulation of General Relativity as a topological theory plus the so-called simplicity constraints which introduce local degrees of freedom. The simplicity constraints are essential in turning the non-physical topological theory into 4d gravity. In this PhD manuscript, an original way to impose the simplicity constraints in 4d Euclidean gravity using harmonic oscillators is proposed and new coherent states, solutions of the constraints, are given. Moreover, a consistent spinfoam model for quantum gravity has to be connected to LQG and must have the right semi-classical limit. An explicit map between the spin network states of LQG and the boundary states of spinfoam models is given connecting the canonical and the covariant approaches. Finally, new techniques to compute semiclassical asymptotic expressions for the transition amplitudes of 3d quantum gravity and to extract semi-classical information from a spinfoam model are introduced. Explicit computations based on approximation methods and on the use of recurrence relations on spinfoam amplitudes have been performed. The results are relevant to derive quantum corrections to the dynamics of the gravitational field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ripetskyj, R. T.; Kit, N. A.
Isolated leafy shoots of the moss Pottia intermedia positioned horizontally on the agar surface in vertically oriented petri dishes regenerate unbranching negatively gravitropic protonemata on upper side of the regenerant. Gravity determines the site of regeneration not the process itself. White light of low intensity unsufficient to induce positive phototropism of dark-grown protonemata can, however, provoke their branching and gametophore bud formation (Ripetskyj et al., 1998; 1999). The presented experiments have been carried out with red light in Biological Research in Canisters/Light Emitting Diode (BRIC/LED) hardware developed at Kennedy Space Center, USA. Seven-day-old dark-grown negatively gravitropic secondary P. intermedia protonemata were positioned differently with respect to gravity vector and to the source of red light of low, 1 or 2 μ mol\\cdot m-2\\cdot s-1, intensities. The light induced intensive branching of the protonemata and gametophore bud formation initiation site of both processes as well as the direction of growth of branches and buds being depent on the position of protonemata with respect to gravity and light vectors. Vertically positioned, i.e. ungravistimulated, dark grown protonemata illuminated from one side with red light of 2 μ mol\\cdot m-2\\cdot s-1 intensity produced 96,9 ± 2,2% of side branches and buds growing directly towards the light source from the lit protonema side. Horizontally disposed protonemata irradiated from below with red light of the same intensity regenerate 31,7 ± 3,9% of branches and buds on the upper, i.e. shaded protonemata side, the upward growth of which should undoubtedly be determined by gravity. In vertically disposed protonemata illuminated with red light of 1 μ mol\\cdot m-2\\cdot s-1 intensity from aside 31,9 ± 5,5% of side branches and buds arised on shaded protonema side and grew away from the light. Illumination of the protonemata in horizontal position from below increased the number of
Three-dimensional gravity modeling and focusing inversion using rectangular meshes.
Commer, M.
2011-03-01
Rectangular grid cells are commonly used for the geophysical modeling of gravity anomalies, owing to their flexibility in constructing complex models. The straightforward handling of cubic cells in gravity inversion algorithms allows for a flexible imposition of model regularization constraints, which are generally essential in the inversion of static potential field data. The first part of this paper provides a review of commonly used expressions for calculating the gravity of a right polygonal prism, both for gravity and gradiometry, where the formulas of Plouff and Forsberg are adapted. The formulas can be cast into general forms practical for implementation. In the second part, a weighting scheme for resolution enhancement at depth is presented. Modelling the earth using highly digitized meshes, depth weighting schemes are typically applied to the model objective functional, subject to minimizing the data misfit. The scheme proposed here involves a non-linear conjugate gradient inversion scheme with a weighting function applied to the non-linear conjugate gradient scheme's gradient vector of the objective functional. The low depth resolution due to the quick decay of the gravity kernel functions is counteracted by suppressing the search directions in the parameter space that would lead to near-surface concentrations of gravity anomalies. Further, a density parameter transformation function enabling the imposition of lower and upper bounding constraints is employed. Using synthetic data from models of varying complexity and a field data set, it is demonstrated that, given an adequate depth weighting function, the gravity inversion in the transform space can recover geologically meaningful models requiring a minimum of prior information and user interaction.
Wavelet modelling of the gravity field by domain decomposition methods: an example over Japan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panet, Isabelle; Kuroishi, Yuki; Holschneider, Matthias
2011-01-01
With the advent of satellite gravity, large gravity data sets of unprecedented quality at low and medium resolution become available. For local, high resolution field modelling, they need to be combined with the surface gravity data. Such models are then used for various applications, from the study of the Earth interior to the determination of oceanic currents. Here we show how to realize such a combination in a flexible way using spherical wavelets and applying a domain decomposition approach. This iterative method, based on the Schwarz algorithms, allows to split a large problem into smaller ones, and avoids the calculation of the entire normal system, which may be huge if high resolution is sought over wide areas. A subdomain is defined as the harmonic space spanned by a subset of the wavelet family. Based on the localization properties of the wavelets in space and frequency, we define hierarchical subdomains of wavelets at different scales. On each scale, blocks of subdomains are defined by using a tailored spatial splitting of the area. The data weighting and regularization are iteratively adjusted for the subdomains, which allows to handle heterogeneity in the data quality or the gravity variations. Different levels of approximations of the subdomains normals are also introduced, corresponding to building local averages of the data at different resolution levels. We first provide the theoretical background on domain decomposition methods. Then, we validate the method with synthetic data, considering two kinds of noise: white noise and coloured noise. We then apply the method to data over Japan, where we combine a satellite-based geopotential model, EIGEN-GL04S, and a local gravity model from a combination of land and marine gravity data and an altimetry-derived marine gravity model. A hybrid spherical harmonics/wavelet model of the geoid is obtained at about 15 km resolution and a corrector grid for the surface model is derived.
Geological model for oil gravity variations in Oriente Basin, Ecuador
Dashwood, M.F.; Abbotts, I.L.
1988-01-01
The Oriente basin is one of the major productive Subandean basins. Most of the fields produce 29/sup 0/-33/sup 0/ API paraffinic oils, but oils have been discovered with gravities ranging from 10/sup 0/to 35/sup 0/ API. All the oils have been recovered from multiple middle to Late Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs (Hollin and Napo Formations). Wells display a variety of oil gravities by reservoir. The origin of the Oriente oils is problematical and controversial, but structural, geochemical, and well evidence suggest a vast oil kitchen west of the present Andean foothills that was mature for oil generation by at least early Tertiary. Oil analyses indicate a single family of oils is present. Oil gravity variations can be explained systematically in terms of the various alteration processes suffered by the oil in each reservoir. Intermittent early Andean uplift (latest Cretaceous to Mid-Eocene) resulted in biodegradation and water-washing of oils, particularly in the uppermost Napo reservoirs. The main Andean orogeny (Pliocene) uplifted the Hollin reservoir to outcrop in the west, and tilted the basin down to the south. This movement resulted in water washing or flushing of the Hollin aquifer and a phase of northward remigration of oil. Late Andean structures postdated primary oil migration. Almost all structures displaying growth during the Late Cretaceous to early Eocene have been oil bearing, but some, particularly those located on the present-day basin flanks, were later severely biodegraded or breached.
Zhao, Gong-Bo
2014-04-01
Based on a suite of N-body simulations of the Hu-Sawicki model of f(R) gravity with different sets of model and cosmological parameters, we develop a new fitting formula with a numeric code, MGHalofit, to calculate the nonlinear matter power spectrum P(k) for the Hu-Sawicki model. We compare the MGHalofit predictions at various redshifts (z ≤ 1) to the f(R) simulations and find that the relative error of the MGHalofit fitting formula of P(k) is no larger than 6% at k ≤ 1 h Mpc{sup –1} and 12% at k in (1, 10] h Mpc{sup –1}, respectively. Based on a sensitivity study of an ongoing and a future spectroscopic survey, we estimate the detectability of a signal of modified gravity described by the Hu-Sawicki model using the power spectrum up to quasi-nonlinear scales.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Schmidt, Sabine
2014-05-01
Modern geophysical interpretation requires an interdisciplinary approach, particularly when considering the available amount of 'state of the art' information. A combination of different geophysical surveys employing seismic, gravity and EM, together with geological and petrological studies, can provide new insights into the structures and tectonic evolution of the lithosphere, natural deposits and underground cavities. Interdisciplinary interpretation is essential for any numerical modelling of these structures and the processes acting on them Interactive gravity and magnetic modeling can play an important role in the depth imaging workflow of complex projects. The integration of the workflow and the tools is important to meet the needs of today's more interactive and interpretative depth imaging workflows. For the integration of gravity and magnetic models the software IGMAS+ can play an important role in this workflow. For simplicity the focus is on gravity modeling, but all methods can be applied to the modeling of magnetic data as well. Currently there are three common ways to define a 3D gravity model. Grid based models: Grids define the different geological units. The densities of the geological units are constant. Additional grids can be introduced to subdivide the geological units, making it possible to represent density depth relations. Polyhedral models: The interfaces between different geological units are defined by polyhedral, typically triangles. Voxel models: Each voxel in a regular cube has a density assigned. Spherical Earth modeling: Geophysical investigations may cover huge areas of several thousand square kilometers. The depression of the earth's surface due to the curvature of the Earth is 3 km at a distance of 200 km and 20 km at a distance of 500 km. Interactive inversion: Inversion is typically done in batch where constraints are defined beforehand and then after a few minutes or hours a model fitting the data and constraints is generated
Determination of the threshold of gravity for inducing kinetosis in fish: a drop-tower experiment.
Anken, R H; Hilbig, R
2004-01-01
It has been repeatedly shown earlier that some fish of a given batch reveal motion sickness (a kinetosis) at the transition from 1 g to microgravity. In the course of parabolic aircraft flight experiments, it has been demonstrated that kinetosis susceptibility is correlated with asymmetric inner ear otoliths (i.e., differently weighed statoliths on the right and the left side of the head) or with genetically predispositioned malformed cells within the sensory epithelia of the inner ear. Hitherto, the threshold of gravity perception for inducing kinetotic behaviour as well as the relative importance of asymmetric otoliths versus malformed epithelia for kinetosis susceptibility has yet not been determined. The following experiment using the ZARM drop-tower facility in Bremen, Germany, is proposed to be carried out in order to answer the aforementioned questions. Larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) will be kept in a camcorder-equipped centrifuge during the microgravity phases of the drops and thus receive various gravity environments ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 g. Videographed controls will be housed outside of the centrifuge receiving 0 g. Based on the videorecordings, animals will be grouped into kinetotically and normally swimming samples. Subsequently, otoliths will be dissected and their size and asymmetry will be measured. Further investigations will focus on the numerical quantification of inner ear supporting and sensory cells as well as on the quantification of inner ear carbonic anhydrase reactivity. A correlation between (1) the results to be obtained concerning the g-loads inducing kinetosis and (2) the corresponding otolith asymmetry/morphology of sensory epithelia/carbonic anhydrase reactivity will further contribute to the understanding of the origin of kinetosis susceptibility. Besides an outline of the proposed principal experiments, the present study reports on a first series of drop-tower tests which were undertaken to elucidate the
BAGC.m: Three dimensional gravity modeling software with an application in Southern Death Valley, CA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eslick, Brian Eugene
Basin Anomaly Gravity Calculator (BAGC.m) is a 3D interactive gravity modeling package designed to create, edit, and calculate the gravitational attraction of basin models entirely within the MATLAB(TM) environment. Gravity anomalies are calculated using the Rectangular Prism Method (Bott, 1960; Kane, 1962; and Plouff, 1966) which subdivides earth models into regularly spaced rectangular prisms. This approach requires large 3D matrices to store most realistic earth models. The process of model editing is simplified by storing basins as 2D gridded files which define the depth to the boundary between basement rock and sedimentary fill for each model cell. In order to minimize computation time, BAGC.m calculates and stores the gravitational attraction of each cell so that when the model is edited only those cells that change need to be recalculated. The performance of BAGC.m was tested by comparing the gravity anomaly produced by a modeled sphere of radius 4.5 km at a depth of 4.5 km with its analytical solution. The tests indicate that BAGC.m reproduces the analytical solution with an error of 0.6% for a sample spacing of 60 m which corresponds to 7.07x10-6% of the volume of the sphere. BAGC.m was used to calculate the gravitational attraction of a regional basin depth model of Death Valley developed by Blakely and Ponce (2001). Results were compared to a new high precision gravity data set and indicate that the structures within the Southern Death Valley Fault Zone (SDVFZ) are more complex than predicted by the regional basin depth model. However, the program did calculate the contributions of the basin fill to the regional gravity field based on that depth model.
Combination of various observation techniques for regional modeling of the gravity field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lieb, Verena; Schmidt, Michael; Dettmering, Denise; Börger, Klaus
2016-05-01
Modeling a very broad spectrum of the Earth's gravity field needs observations from various measurement techniques with different spectral sensitivities. Typically, high-resolution regional gravity data are combined with low-resolution global observations. To exploit the gravitational information as optimally as possible, we set up a regional modeling approach using radial spherical basis functions, emphasizing the strengths of various data sets by the flexible combination of high- and middle-resolution terrestrial, airborne, shipborne, and altimetry measurements. The basis functions are defined and located in the region of interest in such a manner, which the highest measure of information of the input data is captured. Any functional of the Earth's gravity field can be derived, as, e.g., quasi-geoid heights or gravity anomalies. Here we present results of a study area in Northern Germany. A comprehensive cross validation to external observation data delivers standard deviations less than 5 cm. Differences to an existing regional quasi-geoid model count on average ±6 cm and proof the plausibility of our solution. The comparison with existing global models reaches higher standard deviations for the more sensitive gravity anomalies as for quasi-geoid heights, showing the additional value of our solution in the high frequency domain. Covering a broad frequency spectrum, our regional models can be used as basis for various applications, such as refinement of global models, national geoid determination, and detection of mass anomalies in the Earth's interior.
Holographic f(T)-gravity model with power-law entropy correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karami, K.; Asadzadeh, S.; Abdolmaleki, A.; Safari, Z.
2013-10-01
Using the correspondence between the f(T)-gravity model and the holographic dark energy model with the power-law entropy correction, we reconstruct the holographic f(T)-gravity model with the power-law entropy correction. We fit the model parameters by using the latest observational data including type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, cosmic microwave background, and Hubble parameter data. We also check the viability of our model using a cosmographic analysis approach. Using the best-fit values of the model, we obtain the evolutionary behavior of the effective torsion equation-of-state parameter of the power-law entropy-corrected holographic f(T)-gravity model, as well as the deceleration parameter of the Universe. We also investigate different energy conditions in our model. Furthermore, we examine the validity of the generalized second law of gravitational thermodynamics. Finally, we point out the growth rate of the matter density perturbation in our model. We conclude that in the power-law entropy-corrected holographic f(T)-gravity model, the Universe begins a matter-dominated phase and approaches a de Sitter regime at late times, as expected. It also can justify the transition from the quintessence state to the phantom regime in the near past, as indicated by recent observations. Moreover, this model is consistent with current data, it passes the cosmographic test, and it fits the data of the growth factor as well as the ΛCDM model.
Benini, Marco Dappiaggi, Claudio; Murro, Simone
2014-08-01
We discuss the quantization of linearized gravity on globally hyperbolic, asymptotically flat, vacuum spacetimes, and the construction of distinguished states which are both of Hadamard form and invariant under the action of all bulk isometries. The procedure, we follow, consists of looking for a realization of the observables of the theory as a sub-algebra of an auxiliary, non-dynamical algebra constructed on future null infinity ℱ⁺. The applicability of this scheme is tantamount to proving that a solution of the equations of motion for linearized gravity can be extended smoothly to ℱ⁺. This has been claimed to be possible provided that a suitable gauge fixing condition, first written by Geroch and Xanthopoulos [“Asymptotic simplicity is stable,” J. Math. Phys. 19, 714 (1978)], is imposed. We review its definition critically, showing that there exists a previously unnoticed obstruction in its implementation leading us to introducing the concept of radiative observables. These constitute an algebra for which a Hadamard state induced from null infinity and invariant under the action of all spacetime isometries exists and it is explicitly constructed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carter-McAuslan, Angela; Lelievre, Peter; Farquharson, Colin
2013-04-01
Gravity methods have long been used in mineral exploration. However, gravity methods have difficulty resolving small details. Seismic methods provide high resolving potential for use in mineral exploration. However, complicated hard-rock geology can make seismic data processing and interpretation difficult. By jointly inverting seismic tomography data with gravity data these difficulty may be overcome. We investigated the viability of deterministic minimum-structure style joint inversion of seismic traveltime and gravity data for the delineation of magmatic massive sulphide type geological targets. These tests also assessed the potential of employing borehole gravity. A number of synthetic Earth models were created. These models were built on triangular unstructured meshes, allowing for efficient generation of complicated, realistic geological structures. 2D models were based on conceptualized models of the magmatic massive sulphide body similar to the Eastern Deeps of the Voisey's Bay, Labrador, Canada. Single property and joint inversions were performed with seismic traveltimes and both ground-based and borehole gravity. There is a known relationship between seismic velocity and density for both silicate rocks and sulphide minerals for the models constructed; this lithological relationship was used to design an appropriate coupling strategy in the joint inversions. Joint inversions were able to successfully locate a buried high contrast target with a variety of survey designs. 2D inversions results provided guidance to 3D inversion. Experimentation with noise levels, mesh design, and various inversion parameters has led to a better understanding of how to practically apply joint inversion of traveltimes and gravity data to this and similar exploration problems.
A new gravity model of the crust and upper mantle of Asia based on seismic data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baranov, A. A.; Tikhotsky, S. A.
2009-04-01
Density structure of the crust and upper mantle provides us the information about tectonic processes and evolution of the lithosphere. One of the important problems of the gravity modelling is to distinguish the crustal gravity effect and gravity effect of the upper mantle. By removing the crustal gravity effect from the observed gravity anomalies we can obtain the residual anomalies that reflect the upper mantle inhomogeneities. A digital 3D density model of the Central and Southern Asia crust is constructed based on seismic reflection, refraction and receiver functions data as well as geological data. Corresponding gravity effect is calculated. At the first step we construct a new digital model of the Asia crust, which is based on local maps showing three main crustal layers and available seismic determinations. The crustal thickness reaches 70 km beneath the Tibet and only 5 to 6 km at the oceanized parts in the central and southern portions of the Red Sea median trough. By constraining crustal thickness and structure with seismic data and density values from the velocity distribution by means of the Nafe-Drake and Birch relationships, we computed density models for the crust and upper mantle. The complex model consists of four layers: upper, middle and lower crust and sediments and specified on a 1°x1° grid within (-10-55°N, 20 W-155° E.). The intensity of the gravity field and its regional pattern correlate closely with the topographic features of the region. Intense negative anomalies characterize central Asia (area of the plates collision), and positive anomalies are observed in Southeast Asia.
Modelling temporal gravity changes through the south of the Taiwan Orogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mouyen, Maxime; Masson, Frédéric; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Hwang, Cheinway; Cheng, Ching-Chung
2010-05-01
The Taiwan mountain belt results from the collision between Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates. Taiwan island experiences high tectonic deformation due to fast convergence between the two plates. It has been and is still widely studied and is often considered as a natural laboratory for orogeny studies. Since 2006, the French-Taiwanese scientific project AGTO (Absolute Gravity in the Taiwanese Orogen) measures the gravity change along a transect through the south of the island. It includes 10 absolute and 45 relative gravity measurements sites. The aim of this project is to validate the use of temporal gravity data for tectonic purposes. In particular, this method should be interesting to monitor deep mass transfers involved in the Taiwanese orogeny. Deep tectonic processes occuring in Taiwan are indeed still discussed, as shown by the existence of several tectonic hypotheses, and gravity can bring useful contribution to this discussion. The value of g in a particular place physically depends on the density distribution around this place. Change of this density distribution will result in a change of g, to which we try to give a tectonic meaning. However it is worth noting that other factors, like hydrology, might also be responsible for temporal g variations. Gravity modelling should therefore provide significant help in interpreting measurements. First, it can be used to estimate non-tectonic factors like hydrology, erosion or landslides, which both are supposed to modify g value through time. Albeit interesting, these effects must be properly removed from our measures before attempting any tectonic interpretation. Second, modelling is a valuable step in this study as it can help to propose deep mass transfers hypothesis constrained by gravity data and in accordance with Taiwan tectonic context. In this work, we present results of both types, computed for the south of the Taiwan orogen. Water effects on gravity have been estimated using rainfall data and global
Validation of ocean tide models around Antarctica using onshore GPS and gravity data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, M. A.; Penna, N. T.; Clarke, P. J.; Thomas, I.
2005-12-01
Ocean tide modeling errors, along with subsequent ocean tide loading (OTL) displacement modeling errors, alias into altimetry and time variable gravity (e.g., GRACE) time series. Present ocean tide models around Antarctica are shown to disagree by up to several decimeters per constituent, especially in the large ice shelf regions, and are presently only sparsely tested against independent data. In terms of modeled OTL displacements, the inter-model disagreements are of the order of a few millimeters or less per constituent and hence high quality geodetic measurements are able to rank relative model accuracy. To achieve this for the circum-Antarctic seas, GPS data from fifteen sites have been used to derive three-dimensional displacement estimates at eight diurnal and semidiurnal tidal frequencies. These are then compared with OTL displacement estimates derived from global and regional ocean tide models. Modeled tidal gravity variations are also compared with gravity measurements at the South Pole. In East Antarctica, where the tides are well-defined, sub-millimeter differences are demonstrated in each coordinate component with the lunar N2 and Q1 constituents in closest agreement. In West Antarctica, where sites are nearer the largest ice shelves, agreement with the older models (CSR3 and TPXO.2) and NAO.99b is poor for all constituents. Overall the GPS and gravity data agree best with newer tide models, such as TPXO.6.2, but further data are required to validate the models at the most remote locations.
Gravity Inversion with Geological Modeling Constraint and Its Application in the Okinawa Trough
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, S.
2014-12-01
The satellite altimetry gravity data is used to recover the 3D distribution of oceanic lithosphere density in the Okinawa Trough and its neighbor region. It's difficult to use only gravity data to invert complex geological structure and density distribution by 3D gravity Inversion method. In order to improve the vertical resolution of the density inversion result, 3D geological modeling method is used to build structural model for the inversion, prior constraint conditions can be applied to solve the non-unique problem. In the Okinawa Trough, it is proved by earthquake data that the Philippine plate dives beneath the Okinawa Trough, which result in the upwelling of mantel material and decrease of the crust thickness. The Benioff zone clearly shows the plate's subduction parameter, such as direction, dip, transformation. Therefore, a structural subduction model is created by geological modeling method and works as the initial model and as constraint condition in gravity inversion. The 3D gravity inversion result and seismology CMT data are both used to explain the oceanic lithosphere structure in the Okinawa Trough. The inversion result illustrates high density anomaly under the Okinawa Trough. Affected by small scale mantle convections, the continental lithosphere is separated, which result in the spreading of back-arc basin and the formation of the Okinawa Trough.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasr-Azadani, Mohamad; Meiburg, Eckart
2015-11-01
We develop a vorticity-based approach for modeling quasisteady gravity currents propagating into arbitrary density and velocity stratification. The model enforces the conservation of mass, horizontal and vertical momentum, and in contrast to previous approaches it does not rely on empirical, energy-based closure assumptions. Instead, the effective energy loss of the flow can be calculated a posteriori. The present model results in the formulation of a second order, nonlinear ODE that can be solved in a straightforward fashion to determine the gravity current velocity, along with the downstream ambient velocity and density profiles. Comparisons between model predictions and DNS simulations show excellent agreement. They furthermore indicate that for high Reynolds numbers the gravity current height adjusts itself so as to maximize the loss of energy.
Tests of local Lorentz invariance violation of gravity in the standard model extension with pulsars.
Shao, Lijing
2014-03-21
The standard model extension is an effective field theory introducing all possible Lorentz-violating (LV) operators to the standard model and general relativity (GR). In the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension, nine coefficients describe dominant observable deviations from GR. We systematically implemented 27 tests from 13 pulsar systems to tightly constrain eight linear combinations of these coefficients with extensive Monte Carlo simulations. It constitutes the first detailed and systematic test of the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension with the state-of-the-art pulsar observations. No deviation from GR was detected. The limits of LV coefficients are expressed in the canonical Sun-centered celestial-equatorial frame for the convenience of further studies. They are all improved by significant factors of tens to hundreds with existing ones. As a consequence, Einstein's equivalence principle is verified substantially further by pulsar experiments in terms of local Lorentz invariance in gravity. PMID:24702346
The role of topography in geodetic gravity field modelling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forsberg, R.; Sideris, M. G.
1989-01-01
Masses associated with the topography, bathymetry, and its isostatic compensation are a dominant source of gravity field variations, especially at shorter wavelengths. On global scales the topographic/isostatic effects are also significant, except for the lowest harmonics. In practice, though, global effects need not be taken into account as such effects are included in the coefficients of the geopotential reference fields. On local scales, the short-wavelength gravity variations due to the topography may, in rugged terrain, be an order of magnitude larger than other effects. In such cases, explicit or implicit terrain reduction procedures are mandatory in order to obtain good prediction results. Such effects may be computed by space-domain integration or by fast Fourier transformation (FFT) methods. Numerical examples are given for areas of the Canadian Rockies. In principle, good knowledge of the topographic densities is required to produce the smoothest residual field. Densities may be determined from sample measurements or by gravimetric means, but both are somewhat troublesome methods in practice. The use of a standard density, e.g., 2.67 g/cu cm, may often yield satisfactory results and may be put within a consistent theoretical framework. The independence of density assumptions is the key point of the classical Molodensky approach to the geodetic boundary value problem. The Molodensky solutions take into account that land gravity field observations are done on a non-level surface. Molodensky's problem may be solved by integral expansions or more effective FFT methods, but the solution should not be intermixed with the use of terrain reductions. The methods are actually complimentary and may both be required in order to obtain the smoothest possible signal, least prone to aliasing and other effects coming from sparse data coverage, typical of rugged topography.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Staves, M. P.; Wayne, R.; Leopold, A. C.
1997-01-01
Gravity induces a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming in vertical internodal cells of Chara such that the downwardly directed stream moves faster than the upwardly directed stream. In order to determine whether the statolith theory (in which intracellular sedimenting particles are responsible for gravity sensing) or the gravitational pressure theory (in which the entire protoplast acts as the gravity sensor) best explain the gravity response in Chara internodal cells, we controlled the physical properties of the external medium, including density and osmolarity, with impermeant solutes and examined the effect on the polarity of cytoplasmic streaming. As the density of the external medium is increased, the polarity of cytoplasmic streaming decreases and finally disappears when the density of the external medium is equal to that of the cell (1015 kg/m3). A further increase in the density of the external medium causes a reversal of the gravity response. These results are consistent with the gravitational pressure theory of gravity sensing since the buoyancy of the protoplast is dependent on the difference between the density of the protoplast and the external medium, and are inconsistent with the statolith theory since the buoyancy of intracellular particles are unaffected by changes in the external medium.
The amphibian egg as a model system for analyzing gravity effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malacinski, G. M.; Neff, A. W.
1989-01-01
Amphibian eggs provide several advantageous features as a model system for analyzing the effects of gravity on single cells. Those features include large size, readily tracked intracellular inclusions, and ease of experimental manipulation. Employing novel gravity orientation as a tool, a substantial data base is being developed. That information is being used to construct a three-dimensional model of the frog (Xenopus laevis) egg. Internal cytoplasmic organization (rather than surface features) are being emphasized. Several cytoplasmic compartments (domains) have been elucidated, and their behavior in inverted eggs monitored. They have been incorporated into the model, and serve as a point of departure for further inquiry and speculation.
Experimental modeling of role of gravity and lateral shortening in Zagros mountain belt
Koyi, H.
1988-11-01
Dynamically scaled analogs of the geologic structures of the Zagros mountain belt are used to argue that different parts of the Zagros Mountains of Iran record different combinations of the effects of a gravity-driven overturn and a southwest-northeast lateral shortening superimposed on the Zagros overturn. Partially scaled material models have been used to simulate the Zagros geodynamics, which involve layer-parallel compression of a 6 to 7 km-thick Phanerozoic carbonate cover containing a pattern of preshortening diapirs. The folds in the Zagros form rapidly (1.5 mm/yr in a 20 to 30 km-wide zone), reactivate some of the preshortening diapirs, and generate new synshortening listric diapirs. A third set of postshortening diapirs rises from the Hormuz decollement behind the fold-thrust front. Model buckle folds superimposed on diapirs or pillows tend to avoid and curve around preshortening diapirs, which flatten in the synclines. Model profiles show that lateral shortening induces residual salt at depth to flow toward and rise through the anticlinal cores as synshortening or postshortening diapirs. The author suggests that any salt pillows in currently diapir-free zones of the Zagros fold-thrust belt may surface as diapirs through the anticlines in the future. 13 figures, 4 tables.
Moho topography, ranges and folds of Tibet by analysis of global gravity models and GOCE data.
Shin, Young Hong; Shum, C K; Braitenberg, Carla; Lee, Sang Mook; Na, Sung-Ho; Choi, Kwang Sun; Hsu, Houtse; Park, Young-Sue; Lim, Mutaek
2015-01-01
The determination of the crustal structure is essential in geophysics, as it gives insight into the geohistory, tectonic environment, geohazard mitigation, etc. Here we present the latest advance on three-dimensional modeling representing the Tibetan Mohorovičić discontinuity (topography and ranges) and its deformation (fold), revealed by analyzing gravity data from GOCE mission. Our study shows noticeable advances in estimated Tibetan Moho model which is superior to the results using the earlier gravity models prior to GOCE. The higher quality gravity field of GOCE is reflected in the Moho solution: we find that the Moho is deeper than 65 km, which is twice the normal continental crust beneath most of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, while the deepest Moho, up to 82 km, is located in western Tibet. The amplitude of the Moho fold is estimated to be ranging from -9 km to 9 km with a standard deviation of ~2 km. The improved GOCE gravity derived Moho signals reveal a clear directionality of the Moho ranges and Moho fold structure, orthogonal to deformation rates observed by GPS. This geophysical feature, clearly more evident than the ones estimated using earlier gravity models, reveals that it is the result of the large compressional tectonic process. PMID:26114224
Moho topography, ranges and folds of Tibet by analysis of global gravity models and GOCE data
Shin, Young Hong; Shum, C.K.; Braitenberg, Carla; Lee, Sang Mook; Na, Sung -Ho; Choi, Kwang Sun; Hsu, Houtse; Park, Young-Sue; Lim, Mutaek
2015-01-01
The determination of the crustal structure is essential in geophysics, as it gives insight into the geohistory, tectonic environment, geohazard mitigation, etc. Here we present the latest advance on three-dimensional modeling representing the Tibetan Mohorovičić discontinuity (topography and ranges) and its deformation (fold), revealed by analyzing gravity data from GOCE mission. Our study shows noticeable advances in estimated Tibetan Moho model which is superior to the results using the earlier gravity models prior to GOCE. The higher quality gravity field of GOCE is reflected in the Moho solution: we find that the Moho is deeper than 65 km, which is twice the normal continental crust beneath most of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, while the deepest Moho, up to 82 km, is located in western Tibet. The amplitude of the Moho fold is estimated to be ranging from −9 km to 9 km with a standard deviation of ~2 km. The improved GOCE gravity derived Moho signals reveal a clear directionality of the Moho ranges and Moho fold structure, orthogonal to deformation rates observed by GPS. This geophysical feature, clearly more evident than the ones estimated using earlier gravity models, reveals that it is the result of the large compressional tectonic process. PMID:26114224
Shang, Peng; Zhou, Xianlong; Ashforth, Elizabeth; Zhuo, Ying; Chen, Difei; Ren, Biao; Liu, Zhiheng; Zhang, Lixin
2011-01-01
Background Diamagnetic levitation is a technique that uses a strong, spatially varying magnetic field to simulate an altered gravity environment, as in space. In this study, using Streptomyces avermitilis as the test organism, we investigate whether changes in magnetic field and altered gravity induce changes in morphology and secondary metabolism. We find that a strong magnetic field (12T) inhibit the morphological development of S. avermitilis in solid culture, and increase the production of secondary metabolites. Methodology/Principal Findings S. avermitilis on solid medium was levitated at 0 g*, 1 g* and 2 g* in an altered gravity environment simulated by diamagnetic levitation and under a strong magnetic field, denoted by the asterix. The morphology was obtained by electromicroscopy. The production of the secondary metabolite, avermectin, was determined by OD245 nm. The results showed that diamagnetic levitation could induce a physiological response in S. avermitilis. The difference between 1 g* and the control group grown without the strong magnetic field (1 g), showed that the magnetic field was a more dominant factor influencing changes in morphology and secondary metabolite production, than altered gravity. Conclusion/Significance We have discovered that magnetic field, rather than altered gravity, is the dominant factor in altered gravity simulated by diamagnetic levitation, therefore care should to be taken in the interpretation of results when using diamagnetic levitation as a technique to simulate altered gravity. Hence, these results are significant, and timely to researchers considering the use of diamagnetic levitation to explore effects of weightlessness on living organisms and on physical phenomena. PMID:22039402
Estimating Origin-Destination Matrix of Bogor City Using Gravity Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ekowicaksono, I.; Bukhari, F.; Aman, A.
2016-01-01
Origin-Destination (O-D) Matrix describes people movement in a certain area. An O-D matrix is necessary for planning a good public transportation system. However, the exact values of O-D matrix are difficult to measure. There are several ways to estimate O-D matrix such as gravity model, gravity opportunity model, etc. In this study, gravity model was used to estimate the O-D matrix in Bogor city. The following assumptions were used to estimate the O-D matrix: (i) forces between two different zones are related to some existing parameters such as population, social-economic condition, etc. (ii) the people movements are influenced by accessibility from origin to destination, and the accessibility affected by distance, time, and/or cost.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wziontek, Hartmut; Wilmes, Herbert; Güntner, Andreas; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin
2010-05-01
Water mass changes are a major source of variations in residual gravimetric time series obtained from the combination of observations with superconducting and absolute gravimeters. Changes in the local water storage are the main influence, but global variations contribute to the signal significantly. For three European gravity stations, Bad Homburg, Wettzell and Medicina, different global hydrology models are compared. The influence of topographic effects is discussed and due to the long-term stability of the combined gravity time series, inter-annual signals in model data and gravimetric observations are compared. Two sources of influence are discriminated, i.e., the effect of a local zone with an extent of a few kilometers around the gravimetric station and the global contribution beyond 50km. Considering their coarse resolution and uncertainties, local effects calculated from global hydrological models are compared with the in-situ gravity observations and, for the station Wettzell, with local hydrological monitoring data.
Further Investigations of Gravity Modeling on Surface-Interacting Vehicle Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madden, Michael M.
2009-01-01
A vehicle simulation is "surface-interacting" if the state of the vehicle (position, velocity, and acceleration) relative to the surface is important. Surface-interacting simulations perform ascent, entry, descent, landing, surface travel, or atmospheric flight. The dynamics of surface-interacting simulations are influenced by the modeling of gravity. Gravity is the sum of gravitation and the centrifugal acceleration due to the world s rotation. Both components are functions of position relative to the world s center and that position for a given set of geodetic coordinates (latitude, longitude, and altitude) depends on the world model (world shape and dynamics). Thus, gravity fidelity depends on the fidelities of the gravitation model and the world model and on the interaction of the gravitation and world model. A surface-interacting simulation cannot treat the gravitation separately from the world model. This paper examines the actual performance of different pairs of world and gravitation models (or direct gravity models) on the travel of a subsonic civil transport in level flight under various starting conditions.
Gravity Modeling Effects on Surface-Interacting Vehicles in Supersonic Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madden, Michael M.
2010-01-01
A vehicle simulation is "surface-interacting" if the state of the vehicle (position, velocity, and acceleration) relative to the surface is important. Surface-interacting simulations per-form ascent, entry, descent, landing, surface travel, or atmospheric flight. The dynamics of surface-interacting simulations are influenced by the modeling of gravity. Gravity is the sum of gravitation and the centrifugal acceleration due to the world s rotation. Both components are functions of position relative to the world s center and that position for a given set of geodetic coordinates (latitude, longitude, and altitude) depends on the world model (world shape and dynamics). Thus, gravity fidelity depends on the fidelities of the gravitation model and the world model and on the interaction of these two models. A surface-interacting simulation cannot treat gravitation separately from the world model. This paper examines the actual performance of different pairs of world and gravitation models (or direct gravity models) on the travel of a supersonic aircraft in level flight under various start-ing conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bain, R. L.; Stermole, F. J.; Golden, J. O.
1972-01-01
Two theoretical models were developed to predict the thermal response of the phase change material to a given hot plate temperature. A two-dimensional pure conduction model was developed to predict the melting of the phase change material when heat transfer was a function of conduction. A combined conduction-convection model, also two-dimensional, was developed to predict the phase change phenomena when heat transfer was a function of conduction and gravity-induced free convection. Both models were solved using explicit finite difference approximations on a digital computer. The experimental equipment consisted of a rectangular cell utilizing a heat chamber, an expansion chamber, and a test chamber; a sixteen channel multipoint recorder, and a fluid flow system. The recorder monitered hot and cold plate temperatures and interior node temperatures at two second intervals. A comparison of theoretical temperature profiles and experimental temperature profiles is presented for six runs at various angles of inclination of the test cell with respect to the horizontal direction. A detailed discussion of results is presented.
Power-law and intermediate inflationary models in f( T)-gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rezazadeh, K.; Abdolmaleki, A.; Karami, K.
2016-01-01
We study inflation in the framework of f( T)-gravity in the presence of a canonical scalar field. After reviewing the basic equations governing the background cosmology in f( T)-gravity, we turn to study the cosmological perturbations and obtain the evolutionary equations for the scalar and tensor perturbations. Solving those equations, we find the power spectra for the scalar and tensor perturbations. Then, we consider a power-law f( T) function and investigate the inflationary models with the power-law and intermediate scale factors. We see that in contrast with the standard inflationary scenario based on the Einstein gravity, the power-law and intermediate inflationary models in f( T)-gravity can be compatible with the observational results of Planck 2015 at 68% CL. We find that in our f( T) setting, the potentials responsible for the both power-law and intermediate inflationary models have the power-law form V( ϕ) ∝ ϕ m but the power m is different for them. Therefore, we can refine some of power-law inflationary potentials in the framework of f( T)-gravity while they are disfavored by the observational data in the standard inflationary scenario. Interestingly enough, is that the self-interacting quartic potential V( ϕ) ∝ ϕ 4 which has special reheating properties, can be consistent with the Planck 2015 data in our f( T) scenario while it is ruled out in the standard inflationary scenario.
Gravity and Magnetotelluric Modeling of the Santo Domingo Basin, Northern New Mexico
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamudio, K. D.; Keithline, N.; Blum, C.; Cunningham, E.; Fromont, A.; Jorgensen, M.; Lee, R.; McBride, K.; Saez Berrios, P.; Harper, C.; Pellerin, L.; McPhee, D.; Ferguson, J. F.
2015-12-01
The Santo Domingo Basin, one of a series of basins within the Rio Grande Rift, is located between Santa Fe and Albuquerque, NM, and has been the focus of research by the Summer of Geophysical Experience (SAGE) program since 2000. Gravity, magnetotelluric (MT), and seismic data have been collected throughout the region, although we are concentrating on gravity and MT data collected during SAGE 2014 and 2015. The study area is located in the center of the Santo Domingo basin, an extensional, Miocene age, rift basin, in an area that was minimally involved in the preceding local Laramide orogenic activity. Rift sediments (~3.5 km thick) are underlain by Eocene age sediments that were shed from adjacent uplifts. Up to 3 km of Mesozoic and Paleozoic sediments are preserved above the Precambrian basement. Geologic outcrop, borehole and seismic reflection data, and known density values were used in the construction of a ~100 km-long, generalized geologic cross section from which a gravity response was calculated. The modeled gravity response makes fairly definitive predictions about the geometry of the basin as well as the stratigraphy and faulting within and bounding the basin. MT data was collected at ten stations within the basin. The MT sounding curves exhibit one-dimensional behavior at short periods (<10 s), not surprisingly considering the relatively flat local structure in the area. Layered-earth MT models, without geologic constraints, show a conductive (<10 ohm-m) layer at ~1.5 km above a more resistive layer (>1000 ohm-m) at ~ 3.5-4 km. Conductivities of the major stratigraphic units have been determined from well logs and previous MT modeling. Forward and inverse MT models constrained by the gravity-modeled geologic cross section are used to develop a conductivity model consistent with the geology, and are a step towards a better unified treatment of MT, seismic and gravity data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radugina, Elena A.; Almeida, Eduardo; Grigoryan, Eleonora
Gravity alterations are widely recognized to influence living systems. They may cause temporary or permanent effects on physiology and development at different levels, from gene expression to morphogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are often unclear, and adequate model systems to study them are required. To address this problem we developed a new experimental model of how gravity affects morphogenesis during tail regeneration in the newt Pleurodeles waltl. The effects of increased gravity on newt tail morphogenesis were first documented in two joint Russian-US NASA spaceflight experiments in the Russian Foton-M2 (2005) and Foton-M3 (2007) missions. In these experiments the shape of newt tail regenerate was found to depend on the gravity level, being dorso-ventrally symmetrical in microgravity and in neutrally-buoyant aquarium controls, versus hook-like and bent downward in 1g controls. These 1g controls were conducted in spaceflight habitats using a water-saturated PVA sponge mat. These results were reproducible in multiple spaceflight, and ground laboratory studies, both in the US at NASA ARC and in Russia at IDB RAS, and were characterized in detail using morphometry and histology approaches. The role of hypergravity in shaping morphogenesis was confirmed at NASA ARC with an experiment in the ISS Testbed 8-foot diameter centrifuge operating at 2g. Animals that experienced two-week centrifugation (the period of time used in the Foton flights) developed the same hook-like regenerates as 1g controls, and morphometric analysis revealed no significant difference between 1g and 2g groups, however both were significantly different from aquarium controls. We hypothesize that exposure to 1g or 2g during tail morphogenesis constitutes excessive loading for newts that are adapted to microgravity-like conditions in their aquatic habitat. Because Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) are stress-induced molecules that respond to a broad variety of
Shaken, but not stirred—Potts model coupled to quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambjørn, J. A.; Anagnostopoulos, K. N.; Loll, R.; Pushkina, I.
2009-01-01
We investigate the critical behaviour of both matter and geometry of the three-state Potts model coupled to two-dimensional Lorentzian quantum gravity in the framework of causal dynamical triangulations. Contrary to what general arguments on the effects of disorder suggest, we find strong numerical evidence that the critical exponents of the matter are not changed under the influence of quantum fluctuations in the geometry, compared to their values on fixed, regular lattices. This lends further support to previous findings that quantum gravity models based on causal dynamical triangulations are in many ways better behaved than their Euclidean counterparts.
Modeling of Thermal Performance of Multiphase Nuclear Fuel Cell Under Variable Gravity Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ding, Z.; Anghaie, S.
1996-01-01
A unique numerical method has been developed to model the dynamic processes of bulk evaporation and condensation processes, associated with internal heat generation and natural convection under different gravity levels. The internal energy formulation, for the bulk liquid-vapor phase change problems in an encapsulated container, was employed. The equations, governing the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for both phases involved in phase change, were solved. The thermal performance of a multiphase uranium tetra-fluoride fuel element under zero gravity, micro-gravity and normal gravity conditions has been investigated. The modeling yielded results including the evolution of the bulk liquid-vapor phase change process, the evolution of the liquid-vapor interface, the formation and development of the liquid film covering the side wall surface, the temperature distribution and the convection flow field in the fuel element. The strong dependence of the thermal performance of such multiphase nuclear fuel cell on the gravity condition has been revealed. Under all three gravity conditions, 0-g, 10(exp -3)-g, and 1-g, the liquid film is formed and covers the entire side wall. The liquid film covering the side wall is more isothermalized at the wall surface, which can prevent the side wall from being over-heated. As the gravity increases, the liquid film is thinner, the temperature gradient is larger across the liquid film and smaller across the vapor phase. This investigation provides valuable information about the thermal performance of multi-phase nuclear fuel element for the potential space and ground applications.
Gravity modeling of the Muertos Trough and tectonic implications (north-eastern Caribbean)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Granja Bruña, J. L.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; ten Brink, U. S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, A.; Llanes Estrada, P.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Córdoba-Barba, D.; Catalán Morollón, M.
2010-12-01
The Muertos Trough in the northeast Caribbean has been interpreted as a subduction zone from seismicity, leading to infer a possible reversal subduction polarity. However, the distribution of the seismicity is very diffuse and makes definition of the plate geometry difficult. In addition, the compressive deformational features observed in the upper crust and sandbox kinematic modeling do not necessarily suggest a subduction process. We tested the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate’s interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc using gravity modeling. Gravity models simulating a subduction process yield a regional mass deficit beneath the island arc independently of the geometry and depth of the subducted slab used in the models. This mass deficit results from sinking of the less dense Caribbean slab beneath the lithospheric mantle replacing denser mantle materials and suggests that there is not a subducted Caribbean plateau beneath the island arc. The geologically more realistic gravity model which would explain the N-S shortening observed in the upper crust requires an overthrusted Caribbean slab extending at least 60 km northward from the deformation front, a progressive increase in the thrusting angle from 8° to 30° reaching a maximum depth of 22 km beneath the insular slope. This new tectonic model for the Muertos Margin, defined as a retroarc thrusting, will help to assess the seismic and tsunami hazard in the region. The use of gravity modeling has provided targets for future wide-angle seismic surveys in the Muertos Margin.
Gravity modeling of the Muertos Trough and tectonic implications (north-eastern Caribbean)
Granja, Bruna J. L.; Munoz-Martin, A.; ten Brink, U.S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Llanes, Estrada P.; Martin-Davila, J.; Cordoba-Barba, D.; Catalan, Morollon M.
2010-01-01
The Muertos Trough in the northeast Caribbean has been interpreted as a subduction zone from seismicity, leading to infer a possible reversal subduction polarity. However, the distribution of the seismicity is very diffuse and makes definition of the plate geometry difficult. In addition, the compressive deformational features observed in the upper crust and sandbox kinematic modeling do not necessarily suggest a subduction process. We tested the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate's interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc using gravity modeling. Gravity models simulating a subduction process yield a regional mass deficit beneath the island arc independently of the geometry and depth of the subducted slab used in the models. This mass deficit results from sinking of the less dense Caribbean slab beneath the lithospheric mantle replacing denser mantle materials and suggests that there is not a subducted Caribbean plateau beneath the island arc. The geologically more realistic gravity model which would explain the N-S shortening observed in the upper crust requires an overthrusted Caribbean slab extending at least 60 km northward from the deformation front, a progressive increase in the thrusting angle from 8?? to 30?? reaching a maximum depth of 22 km beneath the insular slope. This new tectonic model for the Muertos Margin, defined as a retroarc thrusting, will help to assess the seismic and tsunami hazard in the region. The use of gravity modeling has provided targets for future wide-angle seismic surveys in the Muertos Margin. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Martian atmospheric gravity waves simulated by a high-resolution general circulation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuroda, Takeshi; Yiǧit, Erdal; Medvedev, Alexander S.; Hartogh, Paul
2016-07-01
Gravity waves (GWs) significantly affect temperature and wind fields in the Martian middle and upper atmosphere. They are also one of the observational targets of the MAVEN mission. We report on the first simulations with a high-resolution general circulation model (GCM) and present a global distributions of small-scale GWs in the Martian atmosphere. The simulated GW-induced temperature variances are in a good agreement with available radio occultation data in the lower atmosphere between 10 and 30 km. For the northern winter solstice, the model reveals a latitudinal asymmetry with stronger wave generation in the winter hemisphere and two distinctive sources of GWs: mountainous regions and the meandering winter polar jet. Orographic GWs are filtered upon propagating upward, and the mesosphere is primarily dominated by harmonics with faster horizontal phase velocities. Wave fluxes are directed mainly against the local wind. GW dissipation in the upper mesosphere generates a body force per unit mass of tens of m s^{-1} per Martian solar day (sol^{-1}), which tends to close the simulated jets. The results represent a realistic surrogate for missing observations, which can be used for constraining GW parameterizations and validating GCMs.
modern global models of the earth's gravity field: analysis of their accuracy and resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganagina, Irina; Karpik, Alexander; Kanushin, Vadim; Goldobin, Denis; Kosareva, Alexandra; Kosarev, Nikolay; Mazurova, Elena
2015-04-01
Introduction: Accurate knowledge of the fine structure of the Earth's gravity field extends opportunities in geodynamic problem-solving and high-precision navigation. In the course of our investigations have been analyzed the resolution and accuracy of 33 modern global models of the Earth's gravity field and among them 23 combined models and 10 satellite models obtained by the results of GOCE, GRACE, and CHAMP satellite gravity mission. The Earth's geopotential model data in terms of normalized spherical harmonic coefficients were taken from the web-site of the International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM) in Potsdam. Theory: Accuracy and resolution estimation of global Earth's gravity field models is based on the analysis of degree variances of geopotential coefficients and their errors. During investigations for analyzing models were obtained dependences of approximation errors for gravity anomalies on the spherical harmonic expansion of the geopotential, relative errors of geopotential's spherical harmonic coefficients, degree variances for geopotential coefficients, and error variances of potential coefficients obtained from gravity anomalies. Delphi 7-based software developed by authors was used for the analysis of global Earth's gravity field models. Experience: The results of investigations show that spherical harmonic coefficients of all matched. Diagrams of degree variances for spherical harmonic coefficients and their errors bring us to the conclusion that the degree variances of most models equal to their error variances for a degree less than that declared by developers. The accuracy of normalized spherical harmonic coefficients of geopotential models is estimated as 10-9. This value characterizes both inherent errors of models, and the difference of coefficients in various models, as well as a scale poor predicted instability of the geopotential, and resolution. Furthermore, we compared the gravity anomalies computed by models with those
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Liang Cheng; Tsai, Jui pin; Chen, Yu Wen; Way Hwang, Chein; Chung Cheng, Ching; Chiang, Chung Jung
2014-05-01
For sustainable management, accurate estimation of recharge can provide critical information. The accuracy of estimation is highly related to uncertainty of specific yield (Sy). Because Sy value is traditionally obtained by a multi-well pumping test, the available Sy values are usually limited due to high installation cost. Therefore, this information insufficiency of Sy may cause high uncertainty for recharge estimation. Because gravity is a function of a material mass and the inverse square of the distance, gravity measurement can assist to obtain the mass variation of a shallow groundwater system. Thus, the groundwater level observation data and gravity measurements are used for the calibration of Sy for a groundwater model. The calibration procedure includes four steps. First, gravity variations of three groundwater-monitoring wells, Si-jhou, Tu-ku and Ke-cuo, are observed in May, August and November 2012. To obtain the gravity caused by groundwater variation, this study filters the noises from other sources, such as ocean tide and land subsidence, in the collected data The refined data, which are data without noises, are named gravity residual. Second, this study develops a groundwater model using MODFLOW 2005 to simulate the water mass variation of the groundwater system. Third, we use Newton gravity integral to simulate the gravity variation caused by the simulated water mass variation during each of the observation periods. Fourth, comparing the ratio of the gravity variation between the two data sets, which are observed gravity residuals and simulated gravities. The values of Sy is continuously modified until the gravity variation ratios of the two data sets are the same. The Sy value of Si-jhou is 0.216, which is obtained by the multi-well pumping test. This Sy value is assigned to the simulation model. The simulation results show that the simulated gravity can well fit the observed gravity residual without parameter calibration. This result indicates
3D Geological Model of Nihe ore deposit Constrained by Gravity and Magnetic Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Guang; Yan, Jiayong; Lv, Qingtan; Zhao, Jinhua
2016-04-01
We present a case study on using integrated geologic model in mineral exploration at depth. Nihe ore deposit in Anhui Province, is deep hidden ore deposit which was discovered in recent years, this finding is the major driving force of deep mineral exploration work in Luzong. Building 3D elaborate geological model has the important significance for prospecting to deep or surround in this area, and can help us better understand the metallogenic law and ore-controlling regularity. A 3D geological model, extending a depth from +200m to -1500m in Nihe ore deposit, has been compiled from surface geological map, cross-section, borehole logs and amounts of geological inference. And then the 3D geological models have been given physical property parameter for calculating the potential field. Modelling the potential response is proposed as means of evaluating the viability of the 3D geological models, and the evidence of making small changes to the uncertain parts of the original 3D geological models. It is expected that the final models not only reproduce supplied prior geological knowledge, but also explain the observed geophysical data. The workflow used to develop the 3D geologic model in this study includes the three major steps, as follows: (1) Determine the basic information of Model: Defining the 3D limits of the model area, the basic geological and structural unit, and the tectonic contact relations and the sedimentary sequences between these units. (2) 3D model construction: Firstly, a series of 2D geological cross sections over the model area are built by using all kinds of prior information, including surface geology, borehole data, seismic sections, and local geologists' knowledge and intuition. Lastly, we put these sections into a 3D environment according to their profile locations to build a 3D model by using geostatistics method. (3) 3D gravity and magnetic modeling: we calculate the potential field responses of the 3D model, and compare the predicted and
Modeling of micro thrusters for gravity probe B
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, Kenneth M.
1996-01-01
The concept of testing Einstein's general theory of relativity by means of orbiting gyroscopes was first proposed in 1959, which lead to the development of the Gravity Probe B experiment. Einstein's theory concerns the predictions of the relativistic precession of a gyroscope in orbit around earth. According to his theory, there will be two precessions due to the warping of space-time by the earth's gravitational field: the geodetic precession in the plane of the orbit, and the frame-dragging effect, in the direction of earth rotation. For a polar orbit, these components are orthogonal. In order to simplify the measurement of the precessions, Gravity Probe B (GP-B) will be placed in a circular polar orbit at 650 km, for which the predicted precessions will be 6.6 arcsec/year (geodetic) and 42 milli-arcsec/year (frame-dragging). As the gyroscope precesses, the orientation of its spin-axis will be measured with respect to the line-of-sight to Rigel, a star whose proper motion is known to be within the required accuracy. The line-of-sight to Rigel will be established using a telescope, and the orientation of the gyroscope spin axis will be measured using very sensitive SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers. The four gyroscopes will be coated with niobium. Below 2K, the niobium becomes superconducting and a dipole field will be generated which is precisely aligned with the gyroscope spin-axis. The change in orientation of these fields, as well as the spin-axis, is sensed by the SQUID magnetometers. In order to attain the superconducting temperatures for the gyroscopes and the SQUID's, the experiment package will be housed in a dewar filled with liquid helium. The helium flow through a GP-B micro thruster and into a vacuum is investigated using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method.
Rapid propagation of Tsunami-induced gravity waves across the atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buhler, Oliver; Wei, Chen; Tabak, Esteban
2014-05-01
We present theoretical and numerical results on large-scale gravity waves that are forced by Tsunamis at the sea surface and subsequently travel rapidly across the atmosphere until they are detectable by remote sensing in the ionosphere an hour or so after their launch. The theoretical possibility of this phenomenon has been known for some time, but only in recent years has detailed data become available that confirms this effect. This has potential impact for remote sensing applied to Tsunami detection as well as to other near-ground processes. Solving this detailed wave problem requires technology somewhat beyond the standard ray-tracing familiar from wave drag parametrizations, as there is no usable scale separation in the vertical. Our method combines Laplace transforms in time with Fourier transforms in the horizontal, which allows us to satisfy the vertical radiation condition correctly, takes into account back-reflection at the tropopause as well as the influence of wind shear, and provides detailed information about the structure of the first arriving waves at 100 km altitude or so. One unexpected outcome is that there is a clearly observable forerunner wave that arrives at the ionosphere in a manner of minutes, which is an acoustic-gravity wave, so its dynamics goes beyond anelastic models and requires the fully compressible Euler equations instead. These results will be illustrated in a number of idealized examples.
Classifying and avoiding singularities in the alternative gravity dark energy models
Capozziello, S.; De Laurentis, M.; Nojiri, S.; Odintsov, S. D.
2009-06-15
The future finite-time singularities emerging in alternative gravity dark energy models are classified and studied in Jordan and Einstein frames. It is shown that such singularity may occur even in flat spacetime for the specific choice of the effective potential. The conditions for the avoidance of finite-time singularities are presented and discussed. The problem is reduced to the study of a scalar field evolving on an effective potential by using the conformal transformations. Some viable modified gravity models are analyzed in detail and the way to cure singularity is considered by introducing the higher order curvature corrections. These results may be relevant for the resolution of the conjectured problem in the relativistic star formation in such modified gravity where finite-time singularity is also manifested.
Estimations of model parameters for gravity wave spectra observed by MST radar
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scheffler, A. O.; Liu, C. H.; Franke, S. J.
1989-01-01
The general theory of MST radar observations of gravity wave spectra is developed. This effort extends the previous results to include anisotropy and Doppler effects for the spectra, as well as the consequences for the multibeam configuration. The relationships between the observed one- or two-dimensional spectra for the line-of-sight velocity in the gravity wave spectra are derived. Expressions for cross spectra, as well as covariances between velocities observed on different beams, are computed. Using these results, studies are carried out to show how model parameters for gravity wave spectra can be estimated from the observed quantities. Model parameters include the variance, power law indices, anisotropy parameters, Doppler parameters, mean scale sizes, etc. Cases with different numbers of beams are investigated.
The Ising Model on a Quenched Ensemble of c=-5 Gravity Graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anagnostopoulos, K. N.; Bialas, P.; Thorleifsson, G.
1999-02-01
We study with Monte Carlo methods an ensemble of c=-5 gravity graphs, generated by coupling a conformal field theory with central charge c=-5 to two-dimensional quantum gravity. We measure the fractal properties of the ensemble, such as the string susceptibility exponent γ s and the intrinsic fractal dimension d H. We find γ s=-1.5(1) and d H=3.36(4), in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions. In addition, we study the critical behavior of an Ising model on a quenched ensemble of the c=-5 graphs and show that it agrees, within numerical accuracy, with theoretical predictions for the critical behavior of an Ising model coupled dynamically to two-dimensional quantum gravity, with a total central charge of the matter sector c=-5.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chau, J. F.; Or, D.; Jones, S.; Sukop, M.
2004-05-01
Liquid distribution in unsaturated porous media under different gravitational forces and resulting gaseous diffusion coefficients were investigated to enhance understanding of plant growth conditions in microgravity. Different fluid behavior in plant growth media under microgravity conditions as compared to earth presents a challenge to plant growth in long duration space exploration missions. Our primary objective was to provide qualitative description and quantitative measures of the role of reduced gravity on hydraulic and gaseous transport properties in simulated porous media. We implemented a multi-phase lattice Boltzmann code for equilibrium distribution of liquid in an idealized two-dimensional porous medium under microgravity and "normal" gravity conditions. The information was then used to provide boundary conditions for simulation of gaseous diffusion through the equilibrium domains (considering diffusion through liquid phase negligibly small). The models were tested by comparison with several analytical solutions to the diffusion equation, with excellent results. The relative diffusion coefficient for both series of simulations (with and without gravity) as functions of air-filled porosity was in good agreement with established models of Millington-Quirk. Liquid distribution under earth's gravity featured increased water content at the lower part of the medium relative to the distribution in reduced gravity, which resulted in decreased gas diffusion through a vertically oriented column of a porous medium. Simulation results for larger domains under various orientations will be presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scherer, Günther; Pietrzyk, Peter
formation. When mutants and wt only grown in the 1G centrifuge were compared the mutant leaves and cotyledons were smaller than in wt and hypocotyls were longer, but when the plants in µG for 12d were compared this difference was not found. Hence, gravity had an influence on leaf expansion and hypocotyl length in the mutant. The samples grown for 12d in 1G were kept in µG after 12d on due to a technical failure of the 1G centrifuge. They were retrieved about a year later. They had grown to full senescence and were preserved in a beautiful state as "straw". The observations on the root patterns by the astronaut photos at day 12 could be confirmed but plants had grown on and newer roots made coils just as the plants grown µG. Leaf sizes were different for wt and mutant. The most striking observation was that the mutants had developed small flower stems with a few flower buds but many flowers were incomplete, without the proper sepal or petal number or without gynaecium. The wild type plants had not developed any clear flower stem but only several malformed cell clumps shortly above the rosette. In ground laboratory experiments the mutants flower earlier which might explain why they developed flowers to some extent whereas the wt not at all. Microgravity might be a "stress" for flower formation. Taken together, several gravity-induced (or microgravity-induced) changes in differentiation occurred.
ESA's satellite-only gravity field model via the direct approach based on all GOCE data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bruinsma, Sean L.; Förste, Christoph; Abrikosov, Oleg; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Marty, Jean-Charles; Mulet, Sandrine; Rio, Marie-Helene; Bonvalot, Sylvain
2014-11-01
Gravity field and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) gravity gradient data of the entire science mission and data from LAGEOS 1/2 and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) were combined in the construction of a satellite-only gravity field model to maximum degree 300. When compared to Earth Gravitational Model 2008, it is more accurate at low to medium resolution, thanks to GOCE and GRACE data. When compared to earlier releases of European Space Agency GOCE models, it is more accurate at high degrees owing to the larger amount of data ingested, which was moreover taken at lower altitude. The impact of orbiting at lower altitude in the last year of the mission is large: a model based on data of the last 14 months is significantly more accurate than the release 4 model constructed with the first 28 months. The (calibrated) cumulated geoid error estimate at 100 km resolution is 1.7 cm. The optimal resolution of the GOCE model for oceanographic application is between 100 and 125 km.
Moho depth model from GOCE gravity gradient data for the Central Asian Orogenic Belt
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guy, Alexandra; Holzrichter, Nils; Ebbing, Jörg
2016-04-01
GOCE gravity gradient data are used together with published seismic data to determine the Moho geometry and the isostatic state of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The CAOB is an accretionary orogen formed during the Palaeozoic at the periphery of the Siberian cratonic nucleus by the successive amalgamation of different types of crust (cratonic, oceanic, passive margin, magmatic arc, back-arc, ophiolites, accretionary wedge) followed by an oroclinal bending during Permian-Triassic times. This large area was and is still of great interest for geoscientific studies mainly because of its potential in mineral and fossil resources and also for its outstanding, but still misunderstood, geodynamic evolution. However, the geophysical investigations remain scarce due to the remoteness of the area. A systematic analysis of the crustal thickness has been omitted yet, although the geometry of the crust-mantle boundary (Moho boundary) provides crucial information on the evolution of the lithosphere and on the coupling between upper mantle and the crust - particularly interesting for oroclinal bending processes. In this study, the gravity gradient data of GOCE are used to investigate the topography of the Moho for Mongolia and its surroundings. In addition, we used inversion of gravity data and calculation of the isostatic Moho from topographic data to the World Gravity Map (WGM) 2012 satellite-terrestrial model of the Earth's gravity anomalies and these results are compared together with those obtained for the GOCE gravity data. The results of the gravity inversion are constrained by the few xenolith studies and the seismic data available: the receiver function seismic method for north and central Mongolia, deep seismic sounding and seismic reflection profiles in northern China; and tomography in southern Siberia. Then, the effects of isostatic compensation are evaluated by the comparison between the results of the gravity inversion and the isostatic Moho. Finally, a 3D
Gravity-induced changes in intracellular potentials in elongating cortical cells of mung bean roots
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.
1990-01-01
Gravity-induced changes in intracellular potentials in primary roots of 2-day-old mung bean (Vigna mungo L. cv. black matpe) seedlings were investigated using glass microelectrodes held by 3-dimensional hydraulic micro-drives. The electrodes were inserted into outer cortical cells within the elongation zone. Intracellular potentials, angle of root orientation with respect to gravity, and position within the root of the impaled cortical cell were measured simultaneously. Gravistimulation caused intracellular potential changes in cortical cells of the elongation zone. When the roots were oriented vertically, the intracellular potentials of the outer cortical cells (2 mm behind the root apex) were approximately - 115 mV. When the roots were placed horizontally cortical cells on the upper side hyperpolarized to - 154 mV within 30 s while cortical cells on the lower side depolarized to about - 62 mV. This electrical asymmetry did not occur in cells of the maturation zone. Because attempts to insert the electrode into cells of the root cap were unsuccessful, these cells were not measured. The hyperpolarization of cortical cells on the upper side was greatly reduced upon application of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), an inhibitor of respiratory energy coupling. When stimulated roots were returned to the vertical, the degree of hyperpolarization of cortical cells on the previous upper side decreased within 30 s and approached that of cortical cells in non-stimulated roots. This cycle of hyperpolarization/loss of hyperpolarization was repeatable at least ten times by alternately turning the root from the vertical to the horizontal and back again. The very short (<30 s) lag period of these electrical changes indicates that they may result from stimulus-perception and transduction within the elongation zone rather than from transmission of a signal from the root cap.
Gravity-induced changes in intracellular potentials in elongating cortical cells of mung bean roots.
Ishikawa, H; Evans, M L
1990-06-01
Gravity-induced changes in intracellular potentials in primary roots of 2-day-old mung bean (Vigna mungo L. cv. black matpe) seedlings were investigated using glass microelectrodes held by 3-dimensional hydraulic micro-drives. The electrodes were inserted into outer cortical cells within the elongation zone. Intracellular potentials, angle of root orientation with respect to gravity, and position within the root of the impaled cortical cell were measured simultaneously. Gravistimulation caused intracellular potential changes in cortical cells of the elongation zone. When the roots were oriented vertically, the intracellular potentials of the outer cortical cells (2 mm behind the root apex) were approximately - 115 mV. When the roots were placed horizontally cortical cells on the upper side hyperpolarized to - 154 mV within 30 s while cortical cells on the lower side depolarized to about - 62 mV. This electrical asymmetry did not occur in cells of the maturation zone. Because attempts to insert the electrode into cells of the root cap were unsuccessful, these cells were not measured. The hyperpolarization of cortical cells on the upper side was greatly reduced upon application of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), an inhibitor of respiratory energy coupling. When stimulated roots were returned to the vertical, the degree of hyperpolarization of cortical cells on the previous upper side decreased within 30 s and approached that of cortical cells in non-stimulated roots. This cycle of hyperpolarization/loss of hyperpolarization was repeatable at least ten times by alternately turning the root from the vertical to the horizontal and back again. The very short (<30 s) lag period of these electrical changes indicates that they may result from stimulus-perception and transduction within the elongation zone rather than from transmission of a signal from the root cap. PMID:11537168
Surface Gravity Data Contribution to the Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands Geoid Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, X.; Gerhards, C.; Holmes, S. A.; Saleh, J.; Shaw, B.
2015-12-01
The Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) project provides updated local gravity field information for the XGEOID15 models. In particular, its airborne gravity data in the area of Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands (PRVI) made substantial improvements (~60%) on the precision of the geoid models at the local GNSS/Leveling bench marks in the target area. Fortunately, PRVI is free of the huge systematic error in the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88). Thus, the airborne contribution was evaluated more realistically. In addition, the airborne data picked up more detailed gravity field information in the medium wavelength band (spherical harmonic degree 200 to 600) that are largely beyond the resolution of the current satellite missions, especially along the nearby ocean trench areas. Under this circumstance (significant airborne contributions in the medium band), local surface gravity data need to be examined more carefully than before during merging with the satellite and airborne information for local geoid improvement, especially considering the well-known systematic problems in the NGS historical gravity holdings (Saleh et al 2013 JoG). Initial tests showed that it is very important to maintain high consistency between the surface data sets and the airborne enhanced reference model. In addition, a new aggregation method (Gerhards 2014, Inverse Problems) will also be tested to optimally combine the local surface data with the reference model. The data cleaning and combining procedures in the target area will be summarized here as reference for future applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herceg, Matija; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans
2014-05-01
We present a regional model for the density structure of the North American upper mantle. The residual mantle gravity anomalies are based on gravity data derived from the GOCE geopotential models with crustal correction to the gravity field being calculated from a regional crustal model. We analyze how uncertainties and errors in the crustal model propagate from crustal densities to mantle residual gravity anomalies and the density model of the upper mantle. Uncertainties in the residual upper (lithospheric) mantle gravity anomalies result from several sources: (i) uncertainties in the velocity-density conversion and (ii) uncertainties in knowledge of the crustal structure (thickness and average Vp velocities of individual crustal layers, including the sedimentary cover). In this study, we address both sources of possible uncertainties by applying different conversions from velocity to density and by introducing variations into the crustal structure which corresponds to the uncertainty of its resolution by high-quality and low-quality seismic models. We examine the propagation of these uncertainties into determinations of lithospheric mantle density. Given a relatively small range of expected density variations in the lithospheric mantle, knowledge on the uncertainties associated with incomplete knowledge of density structure of the crust is of utmost importance for further progress in such studies. The new regional density model for the North American upper mantle complements an on-going study of the regional upper mantle velocity and density structure by other methods. Our new regional density model is compared to regional and world-wide petrological data on upper mantle densities constrained by mantle-derived xenoliths.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coco, A.; Gottsmann, J.; Whitaker, F.; Rust, A.; Currenti, G.; Jasim, A.; Bunney, S.
2016-04-01
Ground deformation and gravity changes in restless calderas during periods of unrest can signal an impending eruption and thus must be correctly interpreted for hazard evaluation. It is critical to differentiate variation of geophysical observables related to volume and pressure changes induced by magma migration from shallow hydrothermal activity associated with hot fluids of magmatic origin rising from depth. In this paper we present a numerical model to evaluate the thermo-poroelastic response of the hydrothermal system in a caldera setting by simulating pore pressure and thermal expansion associated with deep injection of hot fluids (water and carbon dioxide). Hydrothermal fluid circulation is simulated using TOUGH2, a multicomponent multiphase simulator of fluid flows in porous media. Changes in pore pressure and temperature are then evaluated and fed into a thermo-poroelastic model (one-way coupling), which is based on a finite-difference numerical method designed for axi-symmetric problems in unbounded domains.
Informed by constraints available for the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy), a series of simulations assess the influence of fluid injection rates and mechanical properties on the hydrothermal system, uplift and gravity. Heterogeneities in hydrological and mechanical properties associated with the presence of ring faults are a key determinant of the fluid flow pattern and consequently the geophysical observables. Peaks (in absolute value) of uplift and gravity change profiles computed at the ground surface are located close to injection points (namely at the centre of the model and fault areas). Temporal evolution of the ground deformation indicates that the contribution of thermal effects to the total uplift is almost negligible with respect to the pore pressure contribution during the first years of the unrest, but increases in time and becomes dominant after a long period of the simulation. After a transient increase over the first years of
Cryogenic Pressure Control Modeling for Ellipsoidal Space Tanks in Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hedayat, Ali; Lopez, Alfredo; Grayson, Gary D.; Chandler, Frank O.; Hastings, Leon J.
2008-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to simulate pressure control of an ellipsoidal-shaped liquid hydrogen tank under external heating in low gravity. Pressure control is provided by an axial jet thermodynamic vent system (TVS) centered within the vessel that injects cooler liquid into the tank, mixing the contents and reducing tank pressure. The two-phase cryogenic tank model considers liquid hydrogen in its own vapor with liquid density varying with temperature only and a fully compressible ullage. The axisymmetric model is developed using a custom version of the commercially available FLOW-3D software and simulates low gravity extrapolations of engineering checkout tests performed at Marshall Space Flight Center in 1999 in support of the Solar Thermal Upper Stage Technology Demonstrator (STUSTD) program. Model results illustrate that stable low gravity liquid-gas interfaces are maintained during all phases of the pressure control cycle. Steady and relatively smooth ullage pressurization rates are predicted. This work advances current low gravity CFD modeling capabilities for cryogenic pressure control and aids the development of a low cost CFD-based design process for space hardware.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galanti, Eli; Kaspi, Yohai
2014-11-01
In approximately two years Juno and Cassini will both perform close flybys of Jupiter and Saturn respectively, obtaining a high precision gravity spectrum for these planets. This data can be used to estimate the depth of the observed flows on these planets. Here we use a hierarchy of dynamical models in order to relate the three dimensional flow to perturbations of the density field, and therefore to the gravity field. The models are set up to allow either zonal flow only, or a full horizontal flow in both zonal and meridional directions based on the observed cloud-level winds. In addition, dynamical perturbations resulting from the non-spherical shape of the planets are accounted for. In order to invert the gravity field to be measured by Juno and Cassini into the 3D circulation, an adjoint inverse model is constructed for the dynamical model, thus allowing backward integration of the dynamical model. This tool can be used for examination of various scenarios, including cases in which the depth of the winds depends on latitudinal position.We show that given the expected sensitivities of Juno and Cassini, it is possible to use the gravity measurements to derive the depth of the winds, both on Jupiter and Saturn. This holds for a large range of zonal wind possible penetration depths, from ~100km to ~10000km, and for winds depth that vary with latitude. This method proves to be useful also when incorporating the full horizontal flow, and thus taking into account gravity perturbations that vary with longitude. We show that our adjoint based inversion method allows not only to estimate the depth of the circulation, but allows via iterations with the spacecraft trajectory estimation model to improve the inferred gravity field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, L.; Chen, C.; Du, J.; Wang, Q.
2011-12-01
The Earth's free oscillations always happen after strong earthquakes. Observations and studies on the Earth's free oscillations will provide an important reference for understanding the Earth's internal structure and anisotropic characters. As the Earth's spherical oscillations always induce the Earth surface's vertical displacement which can be observed by gravimeter consecutively, the correlation signal of the Earth's free oscillations will be obtained. The earthquake (Mw=9.0) happened in the 130km (38.322°N, 142.369°E) of the Pacific sea area which located at the east of Sendai City at GMT time 05:46:23, on March 11th, 2011, has been the biggest earthquake in Japan so far, which has caused the Pacific Ocean not only tsunami disaster but also induced the Earth's free oscillations worldwide. After strong earthquakes, the Earth oscillates with spheroidal and toroidal modes. The former cause gravity changes which can be detected with sensitive instruments. For this purpose, we used continuous gravity measurements with LaCoste&Romberg Earth Tide spring gravimeter (gPhone) to make continuous gravity measurement in China University of Geosciences, Wuhan. The Microg-LaCoste gPhone is a portable Earth tide gravimeter equipped with a 0.1 μGal resolution feedback. The core sensor is the patented LaCoste & Romberg (LR) zero-length spring suspension system. We analyzed on the co-seismic corresponding signals of the observed gravity data after the earthquake (Mw=9.0) happened in the east of Honshu, Japan on 3.11. Then we provided the observed Earth's free oscillations results recorded by #94 gPhone which aroused by this strong earthquake. Spectral analysis of detided and depressured records showed significant peaks in normal modes within frequency range. These peaks are above noise level and they are in good accordance with seismic theories. Here, we show some examples of normal modes registration after great earthquakes, such as: We estimated 43 Earth's free oscillation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukuda, Yoichi; Nogi, Yoshifumi; Matsuzaki, Kazuya
2016-03-01
By combining a Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) Earth Gravity Model (EGM) and in situ gravity data obtained from the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) surveys, we estimated the regional gravity field in the area of Syowa Station, a Japanese research station located in Lützow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica. In situ data sets that were used consisted of land gravity data collected since 1967, shipborne data collected since 1985 and airborne gravity data collected in 2006. The GOCE direct (DIR) solution release 5 (R5) model was used as the long-wavelength reference of the gravity field. Using these data sets, we calculated gravity anomalies and geoid heights at 1-by-1‧ grid by means of least-squares collocation. The resulting geoid height at Syowa Station was compared with a local height based on GPS, spirit leveling and tide gauge data. The result suggests that the sea surface height at Syowa Station is -1.57 m, which is consistent with a dynamic ocean topography model. During this investigation, we also evaluated GOCE EGMs and other recent EGMs by comparing them with the airborne gravity data. The results indicate that the GOCE DIR R5 produced the smallest RMS (Root Mean Square) differences and that the newer models performed nearly as well. These comparisons demonstrate the importance of using reliable in situ data when evaluating satellite-only EGMs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krauss, S.; Klinger, B.; Baur, O.; Mayr-Guerr, T.
2015-10-01
We present an updated version of the lunar gravity field model GrazLGM300a,b [1,2] based on intersatellite Ka-band ranging (KBR) observations collected by the GRAIL mission. We propose to exploit the ranging measurements by an integral equation approach using short orbital arcs [4].Compared to the predecessor model we increase the spectral resolution to degree and order 450 and refined the parameterization. Validation shows that the applied technique is well suited to recover the lunar gravity field.
Neutron stars in a perturbative f(R) gravity model with strong magnetic fields
Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Güngör, Can; Keleş, Vildan; Ryu, C.Y.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J. E-mail: cemsinan@msgsu.edu.tr E-mail: kelesvi@itu.edu.tr E-mail: kajino@nao.ac.jp
2013-10-01
In Kaluza-Klein electromagnetism it is natural to associate modified gravity with strong electromagnetic fields. Hence, in this paper we investigate the combined effects of a strong magnetic field and perturbative f(R) gravity on the structure of neutron stars. The effect of an interior strong magnetic field of about 10{sup 17−18} G on the equation of state is derived in the context of a quantum hadrodynamics (QHD) equation of state (EoS) including effects of the magnetic pressure and energy along with occupied Landau levels. Adopting a random orientation of interior field domains, we solve the modified spherically symmetric hydrostatic equilibrium equations derived for a gravity model with f(R) = R+αR{sup 2}. Effects of both the finite magnetic field and the modified gravity are detailed for various values of the magnetic field and the perturbation parameter α along with a discussion of their physical implications. We show that there exists a parameter space of the modified gravity and the magnetic field strength, in which even a soft equation of state can accommodate a large ( > 2 M{sub s}un) maximum neutron star mass.
Risk analysis of gravity dam instability using credibility theory Monte Carlo simulation model.
Xin, Cao; Chongshi, Gu
2016-01-01
Risk analysis of gravity dam stability involves complicated uncertainty in many design parameters and measured data. Stability failure risk ratio described jointly by probability and possibility has deficiency in characterization of influence of fuzzy factors and representation of the likelihood of risk occurrence in practical engineering. In this article, credibility theory is applied into stability failure risk analysis of gravity dam. Stability of gravity dam is viewed as a hybrid event considering both fuzziness and randomness of failure criterion, design parameters and measured data. Credibility distribution function is conducted as a novel way to represent uncertainty of influence factors of gravity dam stability. And combining with Monte Carlo simulation, corresponding calculation method and procedure are proposed. Based on a dam section, a detailed application of the modeling approach on risk calculation of both dam foundation and double sliding surfaces is provided. The results show that, the present method is feasible to be applied on analysis of stability failure risk for gravity dams. The risk assessment obtained can reflect influence of both sorts of uncertainty, and is suitable as an index value. PMID:27386264
Non-minimal coupling in Higgs–Yukawa model with asymptotically safe gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oda, Kin-ya; Yamada, Masatoshi
2016-06-01
We study the fixed-point structure of the Higgs–Yukawa model, with its scalar being non-minimally coupled to the asymptotically safe gravity, using the functional renormalization group. We have obtained the renormalization group equations for the cosmological and Newton constants, the scalar mass squared and quartic coupling constant, and the Yukawa and non-minimal coupling constants, taking into account all the scalar, fermion, and graviton loops. We find that switching on the fermionic quantum fluctuations makes the non-minimal coupling constant irrelevant around the Gaussian-matter fixed point with asymptotically safe gravity.
Bellucci, Stefano; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Faraoni, Valerio
2009-05-15
Alternative theories of gravity predict the presence of massive scalar, vector, and tensor gravitational wave modes in addition to the standard massless spin 2 graviton of general relativity. The deflection and frequency shift effects on light from distant sources propagating through a stochastic background of gravitational waves, containing such modes, differ from their counterparts in general relativity. Such effects are considered as a possible signature for alternative gravity in attempts to detect deviations from Einstein's gravity by astrophysical means.
Gravitational waves during inflation from a 5D large-scale repulsive gravity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reyes, Luz M.; Moreno, Claudia; Madriz Aguilar, José Edgar; Bellini, Mauricio
2012-10-01
We investigate, in the transverse traceless (TT) gauge, the generation of the relic background of gravitational waves, generated during the early inflationary stage, on the framework of a large-scale repulsive gravity model. We calculate the spectrum of the tensor metric fluctuations of an effective 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric on cosmological scales. This metric is obtained after implementing a planar coordinate transformation on a 5D Ricci-flat metric solution, in the context of a non-compact Kaluza-Klein theory of gravity. We found that the spectrum is nearly scale invariant under certain conditions. One interesting aspect of this model is that it is possible to derive the dynamical field equations for the tensor metric fluctuations, valid not just at cosmological scales, but also at astrophysical scales, from the same theoretical model. The astrophysical and cosmological scales are determined by the gravity-antigravity radius, which is a natural length scale of the model, that indicates when gravity becomes repulsive in nature.
Analysis and simulations of a troposphere-stratosphere gravity wave model. I
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wurtele, M. G.; Sharman, R. D.; Keller, T. L.
1987-01-01
An analytical model is presented that accommodates nonhydrostatic shearing stratified flow over an obstacle, and that can be modified to include a superposed stratosphere with constant wind and higher stability. A simulation code is used in parallel with the analytic calculations to demonstrate a methodology for determining the wavelength and magnitude of gravity wave energy reflected, and that transmitted, by the tropopause.
Logit Estimation of a Gravity Model of the College Enrollment Decision.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leppel, Karen
1993-01-01
A study investigated the factors influencing students' decisions about attending a college to which they had been admitted. Logit analysis confirmed gravity model predictions that geographic distance and student ability would most influence the enrollment decision and found other variables, although affecting earlier stages of decision making, did…
Existence of global weak solution for a reduced gravity two and a half layer model
Guo, Zhenhua Li, Zilai Yao, Lei
2013-12-15
We investigate the existence of global weak solution to a reduced gravity two and a half layer model in one-dimensional bounded spatial domain or periodic domain. Also, we show that any possible vacuum state has to vanish within finite time, then the weak solution becomes a unique strong one.
Satellite Elevation Magnetic and Gravity Models of Major South American Plate Tectonic Features
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.; Lidiak, E. G.; Keller, G. R. (Principal Investigator); Longacre, M. B.
1984-01-01
Some MAGSAT scalar and vector magnetic anomaly data together with regional gravity anomaly data are being used to investigate the regional tectonic features of the South American Plate. An initial step in this analysis is three dimensional modeling of magnetic and gravity anomalies of major structures such as the Andean subduction zone and the Amazon River Aulacogen at satellite elevations over an appropriate range of physical properties using Gaus-Legendre quadrature integration method. In addition, one degree average free-air gravity anomalies of South America and adjacent marine areas are projected to satellite elevations assuming a spherical Earth and available MAGSAT data are processed to obtain compatible data sets for correlation. Correlation of these data sets is enhanced by reduction of the MAGSAT data to radial polarization because of the profound effect of the variation of the magnetic inclination over South America.
The direct effects of gravity on the control and output matrices of controlled structure models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rey, Daniel A.; Alexander, Harold L.; Crawley, Edward F.
1992-01-01
The effects of gravity on the dynamic performance of structural control actuators and sensors are dual forms of an additive perturbation that can attenuate or amplify the device response (input or output). The modal modeling of these perturbations is derived for the general case of arbitrarily oriented devices and arbitrarily oriented planes of deformation. A nondimensional sensitivity analysis to identify the circumstances under which the effects of gravity are important is presented. Results show that gravity effects become important when the product of the ratio of the normalized modal slope and the modal displacement is comparable to the ratio of the gravitational acceleration and the product of the beam length and the squared eigenfrequency for a given mode.
Simulations of gravity-induced trapping of a deformable drop in a three-dimensional constriction.
Ratcliffe, Thomas; Zinchenko, Alexander Z; Davis, Robert H
2012-10-01
An efficient algorithm is developed to determine the three-dimensional shape of a deformable drop trapped under gravity in a constriction, employing an artificial evolution to a steady state. During the simulation, the drop surface is advanced using a rationally-devised normal "velocity", based on local deviation from the Young-Laplace equation and the adjacent solid shape, to approach the trapped drop shape. The artificial "time-dependent" evolution of the drop to the static, trapped shape requires that the free portions of the drop interface eventually satisfy the Young-Laplace equation, and the drop-solid contact portions of the drop interface conform to the solid surface. The significant advantage of this solution method is that a simple, numerically-efficient "velocity" is used to construct the evolution to the steady state; the coated areas where the drop is in near contact with solid boundaries of the constriction do not have to be specified a priori, but are found in the course of the solution. Alternative methods (e.g., boundary integral) based on realistic time-marching would be much more costly for determining the trapped state. Trapping conditions and drop shapes are studied for gravity-induced settling of a deformable drop into a three-dimensional constriction. For conditions near critical, where the trapped-drop steady state ceases to exist, severe surface-mesh distortions are treated by a combination of 'passive mesh stabilization', mesh relaxation and topological mesh transformations through node reconnections. For Bond numbers above a critical value, the drop is deformable enough to pass through the hole of the constriction, with no trapping. Critical Bond numbers are determined by linearly fitting minima of the root-mean-squared (rms) surface velocities versus corresponding Bond numbers greater than critical, and then extrapolating the Bond number to where the minimum rms velocity is zero (i.e., the drop becomes trapped). For ring and hyperbolic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olszak, Tomasz; Barlik, Marcin
2014-05-01
World Gravity Model WGM2012 is the first release of high resolution description inter alia Bouguer and free-air gravity anomaly. It has been created by the Bureau Gravimétrique International (BGI) on base of EGM2008 geopotential model and high resolution topographic model. The poster provides an assessment of the WGM2012 gravity data sources for use in the reduction of geodetic observations. For reductions of geodetic observations onto geoid and ellipsoid (eg. astronomical coordinates, deflections of the vertical, astronomical azimuth and linear measurements) it is necessary a knowledge of the gravity field parameters. Also, in the leveling network it is necessary to collect such information to calculate the normal (or orthometric) correction. The study compared terrestrial data from the Polish National Geological Institute including anomalies and data from the WGM2012 model in the context of using model gravity data to issues related to geodesic reductions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karami, Kayoomars; Abdolmaleki, Asrin
2013-07-01
In the present work, we reconstruct different f(T)-gravity models corresponding to the original and entropy-corrected versions of the holographic and new agegraphic dark energy models. We also obtain the equation of state parameters of the corresponding f(T)-gravity models. We conclude that the original holographic and new agegraphic f(T)-gravity models behave like the phantom or quintessence model, whereas in the entropy-corrected models, the equation of state parameter can justify the transition from the quintessence state to the phantom regime as indicated by the recent observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vajda, Peter; Zahorec Pavol, Pavol; Papčo, Juraj; Kubová, Anna
2015-06-01
We review here the gravitational effects on the temporal (time-lapse) gravity changes induced by the surface deformation (vertical displacements). We focus on two terms, one induced by the displacement of the benchmark (gravity station) in the ambient gravity field, and the other imposed by the attraction of the masses within the topographic deformation rind. The first term, coined often the Free Air Effect (FAE), is the product of the vertical gradient of gravity (VGG) and the vertical displacement of the benchmark. We examine the use of the vertical gradient of normal gravity, typically called the theoretical or normal Free Air Gradient (normal FAG), as a replacement for the true VGG in the FAE, as well as the contribution of the topography to the VGG. We compute a topographic correction to the normal FAG, to offer a better approximation of the VGG, and evaluate its size and shape (spatial behavior) for a volcanic study area selected as the Central Volcanic Complex (CVC) on Tenerife, where this correction reaches 77% of the normal FAG and varies rapidly with terrain. The second term, imposed by the attraction of the vertically displaced topo-masses, referred to here as the Topographic Deformation Effect (TDE) must be computed by numerical evaluation of the Newton volumetric integral. As the effect wanes off quickly with distance, a high resolution DEM is required for its evaluation. In practice this effect is often approximated by the planar or spherical Bouguer deformation effect (BDE). By a synthetic simulation at the CVC of Tenerife we show the difference between the rigorously evaluated TDE and its approximation by the planar BDE. The complete effect, coined here the Deformation Induced Topographic Effect (DITE) is the sum of FAE and TDE. Next we compare by means of synthetic simulations the DITE with two approximations of DITE typically used in practice: one amounting only to the first term in which the VGG is approximated by normal FAG, the other adopting a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riad, H.; Messager, G.; Nivihre, B.
2010-12-01
Large scale gravity gliding are usually observed in deltas and passive margins. They imply the rigid translation of a body down a slope, with coeval upslope extension and downslope contraction. Displacement vectors are parallel to a buried detachment plane gently dipping basinward (1-5°). Field examples suggest that gravity gliding could be found in continental domains but contrary to oceanic environments, upslope sedimentation and pore fluid overpressure do not play a major role. These lacks must be compensated. This study investigates mechanisms generating gravity gliding in a continental domains through the use of a two-dimensional (2D) finite-element model and a 2D analytical failure analysis. We focus on the role of tectonic uplifts and the subsequent fluvial incision and sedimentation at the toes of the slopes. The geometries of the numerical models are based on a field example in the Andean foothills of Argentina. Gravity gliding occurs along the long limb of an asymmetric crustal-scale anticline, above a 1000 m depth salt layers. The numerical models simulate the deformations and estimate quantitatively the circumstances under which failure at the head and toe of the frictional-plastic sedimentary cover initiates. Analytical solutions give simplified approximation of the numerical results taking into account many configurations with various values of the incision, sedimentation, internal friction angle and thickness of the décollement layer. The principal effect of the incision and sedimentation is to reduce and strengthen the downslope resistance to the contractional failure. Consequently, the magnitude of the critical slope for which the gravity gliding initiates, is reduced by the incision and is increased by the sedimentation. Results show that large-scale gravity gliding can be found in continental domains as a consequence of tectonic uplifts and where overburden thickness is lower than 2000 m. Incision facilitates and localizes the gliding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vorontsov, Artem; Andreeva, Elena; Nesterov, Ivan; Padokhin, Artem; Kurbatov, Grigory
2016-04-01
The acoustic-gravity waves (AGW) in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere can be generated by a variety of the phenomena in the near-Earth environment and atmosphere as well as by some perturbations of the Earth's ground or ocean surface. For instance, the role of the AGW sources can be played by the earthquakes, explosions, thermal heating, seisches, tsunami waves. We present the examples of AGWs excited by the tsunami waves traveling in the ocean, by seisches, and by ionospheric heating by the high-power radio wave. In the last case, the gravity waves are caused by the pulsed modulation of the heating wave. The AGW propagation in the upper atmosphere induces the variations and irregularities in the electron density distribution of the ionosphere, whose structure can be efficiently reconstructed by the method of the ionospheric radio tomography (RT) based on the data from the global navigational satellite systems (GNSS). The input data for RT diagnostics are composed of the 150/400 MHz radio signals from the low-orbiting (LO) satellites and 1.2-1.5 GHz radio signals from the high-orbiting (HO) satellites with their orbits at ~1000 and ~20000 km above the ground, respectively. These data enable ionospheric imaging on different spatiotemporal scales with different spatiotemporal resolution and coverage, which is suitable, inter alia, for tracking the waves and wave-like features in the ionosphere. In particular, we demonstrate the maps of the ionospheric responses to the tornado at Moore (Oklahoma, USA) of May 20, 2013, which are reconstructed from the HO data. We present the examples of LORT images containing the waves and wavelike disturbances associated with various sources (e.g., auroral precipitation and high-power heating of the ionosphere). We also discuss the results of modeling the AGW generation by the surface and volumetric sources. The millihertz AGW from these sources initiate the ionospheric perturbation with a typical scale of a few hundred km at the
Hydrodynamic effects in the symmetron and f(R)-gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hammami, Amir; Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F.; Winther, Hans A.
2015-06-01
In this paper, we present the first results from implementing two scalar-tensor modified gravity theories, the symmetron and the Hu-Sawicki f(R)-gravity model, into a hydrodynamic N-body code with dark matter particles and a baryonic ideal gas. The study is a continuation of previous work where the symmetron and f(R) have been successfully implemented in the RAMSES code, but for dark matter only. By running simulations, we show that the deviation from Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) in these models for the gas density profiles are significantly lower than the dark matter equivalents. When it comes to the matter power spectrum, we find that hydrodynamic simulations agree very well with dark matter only simulations as long as we consider scales larger than k ˜ 0.5 h Mpc-1. In general the effects of modified gravity on the baryonic gas is found to not always mirror the effects it has on the dark matter, but when it does, it does it to a lesser extent. The largest signature is found when considering temperature profiles. We find that the gas temperatures in the modified gravity model studied here show deviations, when compared to ΛCDM, that can be a factor of a few larger than the deviations found in density profiles and power spectra.
GRGM900C: A degree 900 lunar gravity model from GRAIL primary and extended mission data
Lemoine, Frank G; Goossens, Sander; Sabaka, Terence J; Nicholas, Joseph B; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D; Loomis, Bryant D; Chinn, Douglas S; Neumann, Gregory A; Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T
2014-01-01
We have derived a gravity field solution in spherical harmonics to degree and order 900, GRGM900C, from the tracking data of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Primary (1 March to 29 May 2012) and Extended Missions (30 August to 14 December 2012). A power law constraint of 3.6 ×10−4/ℓ2 was applied only for degree ℓ greater than 600. The model produces global correlations of gravity, and gravity predicted from lunar topography of ≥ 0.98 through degree 638. The model's degree strength varies from a minimum of 575–675 over the central nearside and farside to 900 over the polar regions. The model fits the Extended Mission Ka-Band Range Rate data through 17 November 2012 at 0.13 μm/s RMS, whereas the last month of Ka-Band Range-Rate data obtained from altitudes of 2–10 km fit at 0.98 μm/s RMS, indicating that there is still signal inherent in the tracking data beyond degree 900. PMID:26074638
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jourde, K.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.
2015-08-01
This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like a medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity measurements are linked to density by a 3-D integration encompassing the whole studied domain. We establish the mathematical expressions of these integration formulas - called acquisition kernels - and derive the resolving kernels that are spatial filters relating the true unknown density structure to the density distribution actually recovered from the available data. The resolving kernel approach allows one to quantitatively describe the improvement of the resolution of the density models achieved by merging gravity data and muon radiographies. The method developed in this paper may be used to optimally design the geometry of the field measurements to be performed in order to obtain a given spatial resolution pattern of the density model to be constructed. The resolving kernels derived in the joined muon-gravimetry case indicate that gravity data are almost useless for constraining the density structure in regions sampled by more than two muon tomography acquisitions. Interestingly, the resolution in deeper regions not sampled by muon tomography is significantly improved by joining the two techniques. The method is illustrated with examples for the La Soufrière volcano of Guadeloupe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jourde, K.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.
2015-04-01
This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity measurements are linked to density by a 3-D integration encompassing the whole studied domain. We establish the mathematical expressions of these integration formulas - called acquisition kernels - and derive the resolving kernels that are spatial filters relating the true unknown density structure to the density distribution actually recovered from the available data. The resolving kernels approach allows to quantitatively describe the improvement of the resolution of the density models achieved by merging gravity data and muon radiographies. The method developed in this paper may be used to optimally design the geometry of the field measurements to perform in order to obtain a given spatial resolution pattern of the density model to construct. The resolving kernels derived in the joined muon/gravimetry case indicate that gravity data are almost useless to constrain the density structure in regions sampled by more than two muon tomography acquisitions. Interestingly the resolution in deeper regions not sampled by muon tomography is significantly improved by joining the two techniques. The method is illustrated with examples for La Soufrière of Guadeloupe volcano.
GRGM900C: A Degree 900 Lunar Gravity Model from GRAIL Primary and Extended Mission Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, Frank G.; Goossens, Sander; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Bryant, D. Loomis; Chinn, Douglas S.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.
2014-01-01
We have derived a gravity field solution in spherical harmonics to degree and order 900, GRGM900C, from the tracking data of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Primary (1 March to 29 May 2012) and Extended Missions (30 August to 14 December 2012). A power law constraint of 3.6 × 10(exp -4)/l(exp 2) was applied only for degree l greater than 600. The model produces global correlations of gravity, and gravity predicted from lunar topography of greater than or equal to 0.98 through degree 638. The model's degree strength varies from a minimum of 575-675 over the central nearside and farside to 900 over the polar regions. The model fits the Extended Mission Ka-Band Range Rate data through 17 November 2012 at 0.13 micrometers/s RMS, whereas the last month of Ka-Band Range-Rate data obtained from altitudes of 2-10 km fit at 0.98 micrometers/s RMS, indicating that there is still signal inherent in the tracking data beyond degree 900.
An improved gravity model for Mars: Goddard Mars Model-1 (GMM-1)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.; Fricke, S. K.; Lemoine, F. G.
1993-01-01
Doppler tracking data of three orbiting spacecraft have been reanalyzed to develop a new gravitational field model for the planet Mars, GMM-1 (Goddard Mars Model-1). This model employs nearly all available data, consisting of approximately 1100 days of S-bank tracking data collected by NASA's Deep Space Network from the Mariner 9, and Viking 1 and Viking 2 spacecraft, in seven different orbits, between 1971 and 1979. GMM-1 is complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 50, which corresponds to a half-wavelength spatial resolution of 200-300 km where the data permit. GMM-1 represents satellite orbits with considerably better accuracy than previous Mars gravity models and shows greater resolution of identifiable geological structures. The notable improvement in GMM-1 over previous models is a consequence of several factors: improved computational capabilities, the use of optimum weighting and least-squares collocation solution techniques which stabilized the behavior of the solution at high degree and order, and the use of longer satellite arcs than employed in previous solutions that were made possible by improved force and measurement models. The inclusion of X-band tracking data from the 379-km altitude, near-polar orbiting Mars Observer spacecraft should provide a significant improvement over GMM-1, particularly at high latitudes where current data poorly resolves the gravitational signature of the planet.
Induced-gravity inflation in no-scale supergravity and beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pallis, C.
2014-08-01
Supersymmetric versions of induced-gravity inflation are formulated within Supergravity (SUGRA) employing two gauge singlet chiral superfields. The proposed superpotential is uniquely determined by applying a continuous R and a discrete Bbb Zn symmetry. We select two types of logarithmic Kähler potentials, one associated with a no-scale-type SU(2,1)/SU(2)× U(1)R×Bbb Zn Kähler manifold and one more generic. In both cases, imposing a lower bound on the parameter cScript R involved in the coupling between the inflaton and the Ricci scalar curvature — e.g. cScript Rgtrsim 76, 105, 310 for n=2,3 and 6 respectively —, inflation can be attained even for subplanckian values of the inflaton while the corresponding effective theory respects the perturbative unitarity. In the case of no-scale SUGRA we show that, for every n, the inflationary observables remain unchanged and in agreement with the current data while the inflaton mass is predicted to be 3·1013 GeV. Beyond no-scale SUGRA the inflationary observables depend mildly on n and crucially on the coefficient involved in the fourth order term of the Kähler potential which mixes the inflaton with the accompanying non-inflaton field.
Rehabilitation Exercises to Induce Balanced Scapular Muscle Activity in an Anti-gravity Posture.
Ishigaki, Tomonobu; Yamanaka, Masanori; Hirokawa, Motoki; Tai, Keita; Ezawa, Yuya; Samukawa, Mina; Tohyama, Harukazu; Sugawara, Makoto
2014-12-01
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the intramuscular balance ratios of the upper trapezius muscle (UT) and the lower trapezius muscle (LT), and the intermuscular balance ratios of the UT and the serratus anterior muscle (SA) among prone extension (ProExt), prone horizontal abduction with external rotation (ProHAbd), forward flexion in the side-lying position (SideFlex), side-lying external rotation (SideEr), shoulder flexion with glenohumeral horizontal abduction load (FlexBand), and shoulder flexion with glenohumeral horizontal adduction load (FlexBall) in the standing posture. [Methods] The electromyographic (EMG) activities of the UT, LT and SA were measured during the tasks. The percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) was calculated for each muscle, and the UT/LT ratios and the UT/SA ratios were compared among the tasks. [Results] The UT/LT ratio with the FlexBand was not significantly different from those of the four exercises in the side-lying and prone postures. The UT/SA ratio with the FlexBall demonstrated appropriate balanced activity. [Conclusion] In an anti-gravity posture, we recommend the FlexBand and the FlexBall for inducing balanced UT/LT and UT/SA ratios, respectively. PMID:25540485
Induced-gravity inflation in no-scale supergravity and beyond
Pallis, C.
2014-08-01
Supersymmetric versions of induced-gravity inflation are formulated within Supergravity (SUGRA) employing two gauge singlet chiral superfields. The proposed superpotential is uniquely determined by applying a continuous R and a discrete Z{sub n} symmetry. We select two types of logarithmic Kähler potentials, one associated with a no-scale-type SU(2,1)/SU(2)× U(1){sub R}×Z{sub n} Kähler manifold and one more generic. In both cases, imposing a lower bound on the parameter c{sub R} involved in the coupling between the inflaton and the Ricci scalar curvature — e.g. c{sub R}∼> 76, 105, 310 for n=2,3 and 6 respectively —, inflation can be attained even for subplanckian values of the inflaton while the corresponding effective theory respects the perturbative unitarity. In the case of no-scale SUGRA we show that, for every n, the inflationary observables remain unchanged and in agreement with the current data while the inflaton mass is predicted to be 3·10{sup 13} GeV. Beyond no-scale SUGRA the inflationary observables depend mildly on n and crucially on the coefficient involved in the fourth order term of the Kähler potential which mixes the inflaton with the accompanying non-inflaton field.
High-fidelity gravity modeling applied to spacecraft trajectories and lunar interior analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chappaz, Loic P. R.
As the complexity and boldness of emerging mission proposals increase, and with the rapid evolution of the available computational capabilities, high-accuracy and high-resolution gravity models and the tools to exploit such models are increasingly attractive within the context of spaceflight mechanics, mission design and analysis, and planetary science in general. First, in trajectory design applications, a gravity representation for the bodies of interest is, in general, assumed and exploited to determine the motion of a spacecraft in any given system. The focus is the exploration of trajectories in the vicinity of a system comprised of two small irregular bodies. Within this context, the primary bodies are initially modeled as massive ellipsoids and tools to construct third-body trajectories are developed. However, these dynamical models are idealized representations of the actual dynamical regime and do not account for any perturbing effects. Thus, a robust strategy to maintain a spacecraft near reference third-body trajectories is constructed. Further, it is important to assess the perturbing effect that dominates the dynamics of the spacecraft in such a region as a function of the baseline orbit. Alternatively, the motion of the spacecraft around a given body may be known to extreme precision enabling the derivation of a very high-accuracy gravity field for that body. Such knowledge can subsequently be exploited to gain insight into specific properties of the body. The success of the NASA's GRAIL mission ensures that the highest resolution and most accurate gravity data for the Moon is now available. In the GRAIL investigation, the focus is on the specific task of detecting the presence and extent of subsurface features, such as empty lava tubes beneath the mare surface. In addition to their importance for understanding the emplacement of the mare flood basalts, open lava tubes are of interest as possible habitation sites safe from cosmic radiation and
Three-Dimensional Gravity and Magnetic Modelling Along the Peruvian Margin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehghani, A.; Sabetian, R.
2015-12-01
The gravity and magnetic models are constructed for three areas along the Peruvian margin between 7.25°S and 16.75°S and are based on the all available wide-angle seismic velocity models. The gravity and magnetic models image nearly the whole margin which has been only partly resolved with geophysical methods up to now. The continental margin is characterized by positive free-air anomalies of varying amplitudes, indicating that the margin has been shaped by the subduction of different features on the Nazca Plate. In the Yaquina Area (7.25°S to 11°S) gravity anomalies caused by the Trujillo Trough and the Mendaña Fracture Zone are successfully modelled with remarkable undulations in the layer geometry of the oceanic crust. Along the continental margin, especially in the Lima Area (10.50°S to 14.40°S), strong undulations of the lower continental crust influence the upper sedimentary layers and support the development of basins along the Peruvian margin. The theory stating that the Peruvian margin is uplifted by the subducting Nazca Ridge is supported by gravity modelling. Consequently the buoyant Nazca Ridge is, at least partly, responsible for the extended region of flat subduction. The thickened and slightly asymmetrical crust of the Nazca Ridge is envisaged in gravity modelling. In the Nazca Ridge Area (14.25°S to 16.75°S) no accretionary prism is modelled. We conclude that the ridge is eroding the continental margin; furthermore the subduction of eroded sediments is probable. Gravity modelling suggests that the Nazca Ridge has fractured the continental margin. North of the ridge, in the Lima Area, a rather uniform accretionary complex is observed. This indicates that, after the margin was eroded by the southwards moving Nazca Ridge, the prism rapidly reached its stable size. In the Yaquina Area an accretionary prism is modelled in the whole research area but local variations of its location and structure indicate the former erosive influence on the
The IfE Global Gravity Field Model Recovered from GOCE Orbit and Gradiometer Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Hu; Muiller, Jurgen; Brieden, Phillip
2015-03-01
An independent global gravity field model is computed from the GOCE orbit and gradiometer data using our own IfE software. We analysed the same data period that were considered for the first released GOCE models. The Acceleration Approach is applied to process the orbit data. The gravity gradients are processed in the framework of the remove-restore technique by which the low-frequency noise of the original gradients are removed. For the combined solution, the normal equations are summed by the Variance Component Estimation Approach. The result in terms of accumulated geoid height error calculated from the coefficient difference w.r.t. EGM2008 is about 11 cm at D/O 200, which corresponds to the accuracy level of the first released TIM and DIR solutions. This indicates that our IfE model has a comparable performance as the other official GOCE models.
Anisotropic Bianchi-III cosmological model in f (R, T) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sahoo, P. K.; Sahu, S. K.; Nath, A.
2016-01-01
An anisotropic Bianchi type-III universe is investigated in the presence of a perfect fluid within the framework of f(R,T) gravity, where R is the Ricci scalar and T is the trace of the source of matter. Here we have considered the first two cases of the f(R,T) model, i.e. f(R,T)=R+2f(T) and f(R,T)=f1(R)+f2(T). We have shown that the field equations of f(R,T) gravity are solvable for any arbitrary function of a scale factor. To get a physically realistic model of the universe, we have assumed a simple power-law form of a scale factor. The exact solutions of the field equations are obtained, which represent an expanding model of the universe which starts expanding with a big bang at t = 0 . The physical behaviours of the model are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uva, B.; Strollo, F.; Ricci, F.; Masini, M. A.
Cultured astrocytes, neurons and testicular cells (myoid, germ, Sertoli, Leydig cells) as well as rat testes and testes'slices, were subjected to modeled microgravity using a three dimensional Random Positioning Machine (10-6G) for 5min, 30min, 1h, 24h and 32h. Parallel cell cultures and tissues were submitted to hypergravity using an hyperfuge (2.5G) for the same period of time. At the end of the rotations the cultures and tissues were fixed, the tissue was sectioned (5 micron). All the specimens were processed for immunohistochemical identification of microtubules, mitochondria, 3 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, caspase 7, heat shock proteins and identification of DNA fragmentation. At 5min at modeled microgravity and hypergravity, the histology of the cells in culture and the tissues was altered, microtubules and mitochondria were disorganized. Numerous cells underwent apoptosis. Immunostaining for enzymes involved in ion transmembrane transport, as Na+/K+ATPase and cotransporter proteins, and in steroidogenesis diminished or was abolished. At 1h in modeled microgravity or hypergravity, HSPs were expressed and ion transport enzymes as well as steroidogenic enzymes were again immunostainable. These data show that microgravity and hypergravity cause only transient alterations, and tissues and cells in cultures are able to adapt to different gravity conditions.
A new 3D Moho depth model for Iran based on the terrestrial gravity data and EGM2008 model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiamehr, R.; Gómez-Ortiz, D.
2009-04-01
Knowledge of the variation of crustal thickness is essential in many applications, such as forward dynamic modelling, numerical heat flow calculations and seismologic applications. Dehghani in 1984 estimated the first Moho depth model over the Iranian plateau using the simple profiling method and Bouguer gravity data. However, these data are high deficiencies and lack of coverage in most part of the region. To provide a basis for an accurate analysis of the region's lithospheric stresses, we develop an up to date three dimensional crustal thickness model of the Iranian Plateau using Parker-Oldenburg iterative method. This method is based on a relationship between the Fourier transform of the gravity anomaly and the sum of the Fourier transform of the interface topography. The new model is based on the new and most complete gravity database of Iran which is produced by Kiamehr for computation of the high resolution geoid model for Iran. Total number of 26125 gravity data were collected from different sources and used for generation an outlier-free 2x2 minutes gravity database for Iran. At the mean time, the Earth Gravitational Model (EGM2008) up to degree 2160 has been developed and published by National Geospatial Intelligence Agency. EGM2008 incorporates improved 5x5 minutes gravity anomalies and has benefited from the latest GRACE based satellite solutions. The major benefit of the EGM2008 is its ability to provide precise and uniform gravity data with global data coverage. Two different Moho depth models have been computed based on the terrestrial and EGM2008 datasets. The minimum and maximum Moho depths for land and EGM2008 models are 10.85-53.86 and 15.41-51.43 km, respectively. In general, we found a good agreement between the Moho geometry obtained using both land and EGM2008 datasets with the RMS of 2.7 km. Also, we had a comparison between these gravimetric Moho models versus global seismic crustal models CRUST 2.0. The differences between EGM2008 and land
Elastic model for the gravity and elevation changes before the 2001 eruption of Etna volcano
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carbone, Daniele; Currenti, Gilda; Del Negro, Ciro
2007-03-01
For 5 months before the 2001 Mt. Etna eruption, a progressive gravity decrease was measured along a profile of stations on the southern slope of the volcano. Between January and July 2001, the amplitude of the change reached 80 μGal, while the wavelength of the anomaly was of the order of 15 km. Elevation changes observed through GPS measurements during a period encompassing the 5-month gravity decrease, remained within 4 6 cm over the entire volcano and within 2 4 cm in the zone covered by the microgravity profile. We review both gravity and elevation changes by a model assuming the formation of new cracks, uniformly distributed in a rectangular prism. The inversion problem was formulated following a global optimization approach based on the use of Genetic Algorithms. Although it is possible to explain the observed gravity changes by means of the proposed analytical formulation, the results show that calculated elevation changes are significantly higher than those observed. Two alternative hypotheses are proposed to account for this apparent discrepancy: (1) that the assumptions behind the analytical formulation, used to invert the data, are fallacious at Etna, and thus, numerical models should be utilized; (2) that a second process, enabling a considerable mass decrease to occur without deformation, acted together with the formation of new cracks in the source volume.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakravarthi, V.; Sundararajan, N.
2004-07-01
A method to model 3-D sedimentary basins with density contrast varying with depth is presented along with a code GRAV3DMOD. The measured gravity fields, reduced to a horizontal plane, are assumed to be available at grid nodes of a rectangular/square mesh. Juxtaposed 3-D rectangular/square blocks with their geometrical epicenters on top coincide with grid nodes of a mesh to approximate a sedimentary basin. The algorithm based on Newton's forward difference formula automatically calculates the initial depth estimates of a sedimentary basin assuming that 2-D infinite horizontal slabs among which, the density contrast varies with depth could generate the measured gravity fields. Forward modeling is realized through an available code GR3DPRM, which computes the theoretical gravity field of a 3-D block. The lower boundary of a sedimentary basin is formulated by estimating the depth values of the 3-D blocks within predetermined limits. The algorithm is efficient in the sense that it automatically generates the grid files of the interpreted results that can be viewed in the form of respective contour maps. Measured gravity fields pertaining to the Chintalpudi sub-basin, India and the Los Angeles basin, California, USA in which the density contrast varies with depth are interpreted to show the applicability of the method.
Interpretation of gravity data using 2-D continuous wavelet transformation and 3-D inverse modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roshandel Kahoo, Amin; Nejati Kalateh, Ali; Salajegheh, Farshad
2015-10-01
Recently the continuous wavelet transform has been proposed for interpretation of potential field anomalies. In this paper, we introduced a 2D wavelet based method that uses a new mother wavelet for determination of the location and the depth to the top and base of gravity anomaly. The new wavelet is the first horizontal derivatives of gravity anomaly of a buried cube with unit dimensions. The effectiveness of the proposed method is compared with Li and Oldenburg inversion algorithm and is demonstrated with synthetics and real gravity data. The real gravity data is taken over the Mobrun massive sulfide ore body in Noranda, Quebec, Canada. The obtained results of the 2D wavelet based algorithm and Li and Oldenburg inversion on the Mobrun ore body had desired similarities to the drill-hole depth information. In all of the inversion algorithms the model non-uniqueness is the challenging problem. Proposed method is based on a simple theory and there is no model non-uniqueness on it.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alothman, Abdulaziz; Elsaka, Basem
2015-03-01
The free air gravity anomalies over Saudi Arabia (KSA) has been estimated from the final releases of GOCE-based global geopotential models (GGMs) compared with the terrestrial gravity anomalies of 3554 sites. Two GGMs; EGM08 and Eigen-6C3 have been applied. The free-air anomalies from GOCE-based, ΔgGGM, have been calculated over the 3554 stations in the medium and short spectrum of gravity wavelength of d/o 100, …, 250 (with 10 step). The short spectrum has been compensated once from d/o 101, …, 251 to 2190 and 1949 using EGM08 and Eigen-6C3 (i.e. ΔgGGM), respectively. The very short component was determined using residual terrain modelling approach. Our findings show firstly that the EGM08 is more reliable than Eigen-6C3. Second, the GOCE-based GGMs provide similar results within the spectral wavelength band from d/o 100 to d/o 180. Beyond d/o 180 till d/o 250, we found that GOCE-based TIM model releases provide substantial improvements within the spectral band from d/o 220 to d/o 250 with respect to the DIR releases. Third, the TIM_r5 model provides the least standard deviations (st. dev.) in terms of gravity anomalies.
Multi-component interactions of gravity waves in global atmospheric models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Y.-J.
2009-04-01
The parameterization of the effects of gravity waves in a global atmospheric model has progressed significantly over the past two decades ever since its need was recognized and its effects were represented in the models. The source of gravity-wave drag considered spans from orography and convective systems to jet streams and frontal systems. The vertical domain of the modeled atmosphere for which drag is applied moved up from the troposphere to include the middle/upper atmosphere. The balance between the drag in the lower and middle atmospheres became important in view of the momentum budget in the models that include the middle atmosphere. The parameterization problem then advances to treat the interactions with other physical processes. The interactions among the various drag processes, such as gravity-wave drag due to orography and convective processes, form drag, friction drag, low-level drag due to blocking, mountain drag due to resolved orography, started being considered important. The interactions are expanded to other physical processes such as the radiation and atmospheric boundary layer processes. The interactions between gravity-wave drag and radiation / boundary layer mixing indeed play an important role in properly representing the drag processes in atmospheric models. These processes strongly interact with one another and should be evaluated collectively as well as individually in atmospheric models. The problem extends further to the interaction between the atmospheric forecast model and the data assimilation model. Because an atmospheric forecast model and a data assimilation model are strongly coupled in a forecast system, independent improvements in one model or the other do not automatically improve forecasts. For example, improved middle-atmospheric physics due to improved gravity-wave drag can degrade forecast skill, if the data assimilation cannot take advantage of the improved physics and rejects more observation data that would have been
Kantowski-Sachs bulk viscous string cosmological model in f(R,T) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reddy, D. R. K.; Anitha, S.; Umadevi, S.
2014-05-01
A spatially homogenous and anisotropic Kantowski-Sachs space-time is considered in the presence of bulk viscous fluid containing one-dimensional cosmic strings in the framework of the f ( R, T) gravity proposed by Harko et al. (Phys. Rev. D 84, 024020, (2011)). Some physically plausible conditions have been used to obtain a determinate solution of the field equations. A cosmological model, in this theory, is presented and some physical and kinematical properties of the model are also studied.
Viability of an arctan model of f (R ) gravity for late-time cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, Koushik; Panda, Sukanta; Patel, Avani
2016-07-01
f (R ) modification of Einstein's gravity is an interesting possibility to explain the late-time acceleration of the Universe. In this work we explore the cosmological viability of one such f (R ) modification proposed by Kruglov [Phys. Rev. D 89, 064004 (2014)]. We show that the model violates fifth-force constraints. The model is also plagued with the issue of a curvature singularity in a spherically collapsing object, where the effective scalar field reaches the point of diverging scalar curvature.
An Abelian Model of Gravity and Canonical Quantization by Means of Path Integrals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bracken, Paul
An Abelian model of gravity is introduced and its constraint structure is obtained. The main task is to show that the model with constraints can be canonically quantized by means of the canonical path integral formalism using the Faddeev-Popov approach. It is shown how the path integral can be simplified by carrying out the integrals over those variables for which the integrals can be computed.
Global marine gravity models from altimetry: a method to quantify the error
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lequentrec-Lalancette, Marie-Françoise; Rouxel, Didier; Sarzeaud, Olivier
2013-04-01
Twenty years gravity models from satellite altimetry missions have widely contributed to the improvement of the knowledge over the oceans. Nevertheless, it has been shown that these models were limited in term of spatial resolution and precision at wavelengths lower than twenty kilometres ( for example, Rapp 1998, Rapp et Yi 1997, Featherstone 2002, Denker et Roland 2003, Small et Sandwell 1992, Maia, 2006, Lequentrec-Lalancette et al., 2005). More recently retracking techniques have improved altimetry and decreased limits to 15 km wavelength. Furthermore, they have moved the correct altimetric data closer to the coastal areas (Sandwell et Smith, 2009, Lillibridge et al., 2012). The aim of this study was to translate these error informations to a quantitative factor that can be included in geodetic or gravimetric computation. The model is divided into different spatial roughness areas that are then "calibrated" from differences between the model value and some marine validated data available. The roughness of the gravity global model has been computed by a method defined by Dreher (2000) from an improvement of the Fox and Hayes (1985) méthodology. The delimitation of the characteristic gravity provinces is done by thresholding of the roughness computed in the wavelengths lower than 50 km. This methodology has been validated with the EGM08 model in the North Atlantic ocean (Pavlis et al., 2008). In this case, the results can then be compared with the estimated errors of spherical harmonic model EGM08. The method has been generalized on the last version of the Sandwell and Smith (2009) gravity model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garmier, Romain; Barriot, Jean-Pierre; Konopliv, Alexander S.; Yeomans, Donald K.
2002-04-01
The gravity field for asteroid 433 Eros has been determined in terms of ellipsoidal harmonic functions by processing the Doppler tracking data of the NEAR spacecraft while it was in orbit about the asteroid. Using the same set of NEAR spacecraft Doppler tracking data, comparative descriptions of the Eros gravity field are provided for both the ellipsoidal and the traditional spherical harmonic models. It is shown that for elongated bodies, like the asteroid Eros, the ellipsoidal harmonics model permits a better representation of the gravity signature than does the spherical harmonics model. Eros has a nearly uniform density but there are negative gravity anomalies near the ends of Eros and positive gravity anomalies near the Psyche crater and the Himeros depression.
Gravity and thermal models for the twin peaks silicic volcanic center, Southwestern Utah
Carrier, D.L.; Chapman, D.S.
1981-11-10
Gravity, heat flow, and surface geology observations have been used as constraints for a thermal model of a late Tertiary silicic volcanic center at Twin Peaks, Utah. Silicic Volcanism began in the area with the extrusion of the Coyote Hills rhyolite 2.74 +- 0.1 m.y. ago, followed by the Cudahy Mine obsidian, felsite, and volcanoclastics, and finally by a complex sequence of domes and flows that lasted until 2.3 +- 0.1 m.y. ago. Basalt sequence span the time 2.5 to 0.9 m.y. Terrain-corrected Bouguer gravity anomalies at Twin Peaks are shaped by three features of varying characteristic dimensions: (1) a major north-northeast trending --30 mGal gravity trough roughly 40 km wide caused by a thick sequence of Cenozoic sediments in the Black Rock Desert Valley, (2) a local roughly circular -7 mGal gravity low, 26 km across, probably related to an intrusive body in the basement, and (3) a series of narrow positive anomalies up to + 10 mGal produced by the major Twin Peaks volcanic domes. The intrusive bodies have been modeled as three-dimensional vertical cylinders; the total volume of intrusive material is estimated to be about 500 km/sup 3/. Simple models, assuming conductive heat transfer and using geometrical constraints from the gravity results, predict that a negligible thermal anomaly should exist 1 m.y. after emplacement of the intrusion. This prediction is consistent with an average heat flow of 96 mW m/sup -2/ for the area, not significantly different from eastern Basin and Range values elsewhere. Magmatic longevity of this system 2.7 to 2.3 m.y. for silicic volcanism of 2.5 to 0.9 m.y. for basaltic volcanism, does not seem to prolong the cooling of the system substantially beyond that predicted by conductive cooling.
Gravity effects on sediment sorting: limitations of models developed on Earth for Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Kuhn, Brigitte; Gartmann, Andres
2015-04-01
Most studies on surface processes on planetary bodies assume that the use of empirical models developed for Earth is possible if the mathematical equations include all the relevant factors, such as gravity, viscosity and the density of water and sediment. However, most models for sediment transport on Earth are at least semi-empirical, using coefficients to link observed sediment movement to controlling factors such as flow velocity, slope and channel dimensions. However, using roughness and drag coefficients, as well as parameters describing incipient motion of particles, observed on Earth on another planet, violates, strictly speaking, the boundary conditions set for their application by fluid dynamics because the coefficienst describe a flow condition, not a particle property. Reduced gravity affects the flow around a settling partcile or over the bed of a watercourse, therefore data and models from Earth do not apply to another planet. Comparing observations from reduced gravity experiments and model results obtained on Earth confirm the significance of this error, e.g. by underestimating settling velocities of sandy particles by 10 to 50% for Mars when using models from Earth. In this study, the relevance of this error is examined by simulating the sorting of sediment deposited from water flowing on Mars. The results indicate that sorting on Mars is less pronounced than models calibrated on Earth suggest. This has implications for the selection of landing sites and, more importantly, the identification of strata potentially bearing traces of past life during rover missions on Mars.
Gravity effects on sediment sorting: limitations of models developed on Earth for Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuhn, N. J.; Kuhn, B.; Gartmann, A.
2015-10-01
Most studies on surface processes on planetary bodies assume that the use of empirical models developed for Earth is possible if the mathematical equations include all the relevant factors, such as gravity, viscosity and the density of water and sediment. However, most models for sediment transport on Earth are at least semi-empirical, using coefficients to link observed sediment movement to controlling factors such as flow velocity, slope and channel dimensions. However, using roughness and drag coefficients, as well as parameters describing incipient motion of particles, observed on Earth on another planet, violates, strictly speaking, the boundary conditions set for their application by fluid dynamics because the coefficienst describe a flow condition, not a particle property. Reduced gravity affects the flow around a settling partcile or over the bed of a watercourse, therefore data and models from Earth do not apply to another planet. Comparing observations from reduced gravity experiments and model results obtained on Earth confirm the significance of this error, e.g. by underestimating settling velocities of sandy particles by 10 to 50% for Mars when using models from Earth. In this study, the relevance of this error is examined by simulating the sorting of sediment deposited from water flowing on Mars. The results indicate that sorting on Mars is less pronounced than models calibrated on Earth suggest. This has implications for the selection of landing sites and,more importantly, the identification of strata potentially bearing traces of past life during rover missions on Mars. try, 2001
Development and analysis of a twelfth degree and order gravity model for Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Christensen, E. J.; Balmino, G.
1979-01-01
Satellite geodesy techniques previously applied to artificial earth satellites have been extended to obtain a high-resolution gravity field for Mars. Two-way Doppler data collected by 10 Deep Space Network (DSN) stations during Mariner 9 and Viking 1 and 2 missions have been processed to obtain a twelfth degree and order spherical harmonic model for the martian gravitational potential. The quality of this model was evaluated by examining the rms residuals within the fit and the ability of the model to predict the spacecraft state beyond the fit. Both indicators show that more data and higher degree and order harmonics will be required to further refine our knowledge of the martian gravity field. The model presented shows much promise, since it resolves local gravity features which correlate highly with the martian topography. An isostatic analysis based on this model, as well as an error analysis, shows rather complete compensation on a global (long wavelength) scale. Though further model refinements are necessary to be certain, local (short wavelength) features such as the shield volcanos in Tharsis appear to be uncompensated. These are interpreted to place some bounds on the internal structure of Mars.
A combined crustal depth model for Iran based on the gravity and seismological data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiamehr, Ramin
2010-05-01
The inversion of the Bouguer gravity data based on the Parker-Oldenburg method is the well-known method for estimation of the Moho depth model between geoscientist. The advantage of this method is that it gives a continuous surface model in the study area. However, in order to have a precise result in this method, we need to have a well distributed and dense gravity data which does not have large systematic errors. Estimation of the crust depth based on the seismological data is another independent method which is basically point-wised but more precise than the inversion approach. In order to reduce the effect of datum and systematic errors in inversion and taking advantage of the precise seismological model, we developed a combined crustal model for Iran based on the corrective surface idea. The four, five and seven parameters models were used in the least-squares sense to get the best combination. The combined model evaluated based on the independent seismological data. The results indicate clearly very good improvements versus the gravity inversion method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, R. J.; Tsao, Y. D.
1991-01-01
The role of gravity waves is discussed with respect to the vertical velocity of convection. Specific attention is given to wave-induced convection which contributes to the fractions of formation and the development of severe convective storms. Large-amplitude gravity waves and convective instability were investigated in storm clouds above Ardmore, Oklahoma. Rapid-scan satellite imagery and radar summaries provide evidence of water-vapor condensation related to convection which is introduced by gravity waves. Gravity wave periods of 35 minutes are found to initiate weak convection, which can be intensified by gravity waves with periods of 20 minutes. The convective motion reaches a maximum about one hour before funnel clouds develop. Other mechanisms which contribute to convective motion are considered, but gravity waves are the major contributor to the initiation, formation, and development of mesoscale storm clouds. Cloud modeling based on satellite imagery and sounding data showed that by overshooting cloud tops that penetrated the tropopause, storm clouds mature; that these clouds collapse about 9 minutes before the touchdown of tornadoes; and that cloud tops collapse at a high rate about 6 minutes before tornadoes lift off.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuroda, Takeshi; Medvedev, Alexander S.; Yiǧit, Erdal; Hartogh, Paul
2015-11-01
Global characteristics of the small-scale gravity wave (GW) field in the Martian atmosphere obtained from a high-resolution general circulation model (GCM) are presented for the first time. The simulated GW-induced temperature variances are in a good agreement with available radio occultation data in the lower atmosphere between 10 and 30 km. The model reveals a latitudinal asymmetry with stronger wave generation in the winter hemisphere and two distinctive sources of GWs: mountainous regions and the meandering winter polar jet. Orographic GWs are filtered, while propagating upward, and the mesosphere is primarily dominated by harmonics with faster horizontal phase velocities. Wave fluxes are directed mainly against the local wind. GW dissipation in the upper mesosphere generates body forces of tens of m s-1 per Martian solar day (sol-1), which tend to close the simulated jets. The results represent a realistic surrogate for missing observations, which can be used for constraining GW parameterizations and validating GCM simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersson, Magnus; Malehmir, Alireza
2015-04-01
Alnö igneous complex in central Sweden is among the few rare and largest alkaline and carbonatite ring-shaped intrusions in the world. Recent high-resolution reflection seismic profiles (Andersson et al., 2013) suggest a saucer-shaped magma chamber at about 3 km depth. Study of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) from a number of carbonatite dykes in the complex suggests a combination of laminar magma flow and sheet closure in the waning stage of magma transport for their emplacement (Andersson et al., 2015). Since 2010 and in conjunction with the above-mentioned studies, more than 400 gravity data points have been measured on land and partly on sea-ice. In addition, the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) provided about 100 data points. Petrophysical measurements including density and bulk magnetic susceptibility were carried out for more than 250 rock samples; magnetic remanence was measured on 39 of those samples. The measurements for example indicate that induced magnetisation is dominant in the complex and only a few rock samples show high remanent magnetisation (Q ≥ 1). SGU also provided airborne magnetic data (60 m flight altitude and 200 m flight line spacing) covering the complex on land and areas around it in the sea. These data show the complex as (i) a strong positive Bouguer anomaly, around 20 mGal, one of the strongest gravity gradients observed in Sweden, and (ii) a strong positive magnetic anomaly, around 2400 nT, additionally showing clear magnetic structures within the complex and adjacent to it in the sea. 3D inversion of the gravity and magnetic data was then performed using 100 m by 100 m meshes in the lateral direction and vertically varying meshes starting from 10 m at surface and increasing to 100 m in the depth interval 4250 - 8250 m. The inversion models cover an area of 17 km by 18 km. Regional fields were removed using a first-order polynomial surface for the gravity data and a constant (IGRF) for the magnetic data. Background
Featured gravity waves induced by a tropical cyclone evolving in the tropics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zeyu; Chen, Dan; Lu, Daren
Focusing on the typhoon effect on generating stratospheric GWs, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, a next-generation mesoscale numerical weather prediction system, is applied to simulate the typhoon Matsa in 2005 that emerges on July 30, then propagates in the northwestern Pacific until lands on continental China on August 6. An 8-day model run covering the major stages of Matsa reproduces all the key features of the typhoon including the track and the intensity, as well as the spiral clouds associating to the typhoon. Preliminary results reveal that pronounced stratospheric GWs are triggered by the typhoon as it attains its mature stage. The pattern of the waves suggests that the waves can be closely associated with the typhoon. Hereafter, the waves are referred to as TC-GWs. For example at 20-km height, spiral like wave fronts propagate radial away from a center that coincides well to the typhoon center. The waves hold the characteristic feature of gravity waves, as they preferentially propagate in the upstream of background winds, and exhibit quadrature phase relationship between the perturbation field of isentrope and vertical velocity. Moreover, simulation results show that the TC-GWs exhibit horizontal scale comparable to that of the typhoon's spiral cloud bands, i.e., several hundreds to 1000 km. Further investigation results disclose that the TC-GWs are different from the convective GWs as are conventionally understood as being generated by isolated tropical deep convective storm. The details of the results will be presented in this talk.
Spacecraft Thermal and Optical Modeling Impacts on Estimation of the GRAIL Lunar Gravity Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fahnestock, Eugene G.; Park, Ryan S.; Yuan, Dah-Ning; Konopliv, Alex S.
2012-01-01
We summarize work performed involving thermo-optical modeling of the two Gravity Recovery And Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft. We derived several reconciled spacecraft thermo-optical models having varying detail. We used the simplest in calculating SRP acceleration, and used the most detailed to calculate acceleration due to thermal re-radiation. For the latter, we used both the output of pre-launch finite-element-based thermal simulations and downlinked temperature sensor telemetry. The estimation process to recover the lunar gravity field utilizes both a nominal thermal re-radiation accleration history and an apriori error model derived from that plus an off-nominal history, which bounds parameter uncertainties as informed by sensitivity studies.
Cosmology of some holographic dark energy models in chameleonic Brans-Dicke gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Waheed, Saira
2013-11-01
We study some holographic dark energy models in chameleonic Brans-Dicke field gravity by taking interaction between the dark energy components in FRW universe. Firstly, we take the holographic dark energy model with Granda-Oliveros cut-off and discuss interacting as well as non-interacting cases. Secondly, we consider the holographic dark energy with both power-law as well as logarithmic corrections using Hubble scale as infrared cut-off in interacting case only. We describe the evolution of some cosmological parameters for these holographic dark energy models. It is concluded that the phantom crossing can be achieved more easily in the presence of chameleonic Brans-Dicke field as compared to simple Brans-Dicke as well as Einstein's gravity. Also, the deceleration parameter strongly confirms the accelerated expanding behavior of the universe.
A model for gravity-wave spectra observed by Doppler sounding systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanzandt, T. E.
1986-01-01
A model for Mesosphere - Stratosphere - Troposphere (MST) radar spectra is developed following the formalism presented by Pinkel (1981). Expressions for the one-dimensional spectra of radial velocity versus frequency and versus radial wave number are presented. Their dependence on the parameters of the gravity-wave spectrum and on the experimental parameters, radar zenith angle and averaging time are described and the conditions for critical tests of the gravity-wave hypothesis are discussed. The model spectra is compared with spectra observed in the Arctic summer mesosphere by the Poker Flat radar. This model applies to any monostatic Doppler sounding system, including MST radar, Doppler lidar and Doppler sonar in the atmosphere, and Doppler sonar in the ocean.
New models of gauge- and gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking
Poppitz, E.; Trivedi, S.P.
1997-05-01
We show that supersymmetry breaking in a class of theories with SU(N){times}SU(N{minus}2) gauge symmetry can be studied in a calculable {sigma} model. We use the {sigma} model to show that the supersymmetry-breaking vacuum in these theories leaves a large subgroup of flavor symmetries intact, and to calculate the masses of the low-lying states. By embedding the standard model gauge groups in the unbroken flavor symmetry group we construct a class of models in which supersymmetry breaking is communicated by both gravitational and gauge interactions. One distinguishing feature of these models is that the messenger fields, responsible for the gauge-mediated communication of supersymmetry breaking, are an integral part of the supersymmetry-breaking sector. We also show how, by lowering the scale that suppresses the nonrenormalizable operators, a class of purely gauge-mediated models with a combined supersymmetry-breaking-cum-messenger sector can be built. We briefly discuss the phenomenological features of the models we construct. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
New models of gauge and gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking
Poppitz, Erich; Trivedi, Sandip P.
1996-09-01
We show that supersymmetry breaking in a class of theories with SU(N) x SU(N-2) gauge symmetry can be studied in a calculable sigma model. We use the sigma model to show that the supersymmetry breaking vacuum in these theories leaves a large subgroup of flavor symmetries intact, and to calculate the masses of the low-lying states. By embedding the Standard Model gauge groups in the unbroken flavor symmetry group we construct a class of models in which supersymmetry breaking is communicated by both gravitational and gauge interactions. One distinguishing feature of these models is that the messenger fields, responsible for the gauge mediated communication of supersymmetry breaking, are an integral part of the supersymmetry breaking sector. We also show how, by lowering the scale that suppresses the nonrenormalizable operators, a class of purely gauge mediated models with a combined supersymmetry breaking-cum-messenger sector can be built. We briefly discuss the phenomenological features of the models we construct.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oriti, Daniele
2009-03-01
Preface; Part I. Fundamental Ideas and General Formalisms: 1. Unfinished revolution C. Rovelli; 2. The fundamental nature of space and time G. 't Hooft; 3. Does locality fail at intermediate length scales R. Sorkin; 4. Prolegomena to any future quantum gravity J. Stachel; 5. Spacetime symmetries in histories canonical gravity N. Savvidou; 6. Categorical geometry and the mathematical foundations of quantum gravity L. Crane; 7. Emergent relativity O. Dreyer; 8. Asymptotic safety R. Percacci; 9. New directions in background independent quantum gravity F. Markopoulou; Questions and answers; Part II: 10. Gauge/gravity duality G. Horowitz and J. Polchinski; 11. String theory, holography and quantum gravity T. Banks; 12. String field theory W. Taylor; Questions and answers; Part III: 13. Loop Quantum Gravity T. Thiemann; 14. Covariant loop quantum gravity? E. LIvine; 15. The spin foam representation of loop quantum gravity A. Perez; 16. 3-dimensional spin foam quantum gravity L. Freidel; 17. The group field theory approach to quantum gravity D. Oriti; Questions and answers; Part IV. Discrete Quantum Gravity: 18. Quantum gravity: the art of building spacetime J. Ambjørn, J. Jurkiewicz and R. Loll; 19. Quantum Regge calculations R. Williams; 20. Consistent discretizations as a road to quantum gravity R. Gambini and J. Pullin; 21. The causal set approach to quantum gravity J. Henson; Questions and answers; Part V. Effective Models and Quantum Gravity Phenomenology: 22. Quantum gravity phenomenology G. Amelino-Camelia; 23. Quantum gravity and precision tests C. Burgess; 24. Algebraic approach to quantum gravity II: non-commutative spacetime F. Girelli; 25. Doubly special relativity J. Kowalski-Glikman; 26. From quantum reference frames to deformed special relativity F. Girelli; 27. Lorentz invariance violation and its role in quantum gravity phenomenology J. Collins, A. Perez and D. Sudarsky; 28. Generic predictions of quantum theories of gravity L. Smolin; Questions and
The gravity signature of mantle uplift from impact modeling craters on the Moon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milbury, Colleen; Johnson, Brandon C.; Melosh, H. Jay; Collins, Gareth S.; Blair, David M.; Soderblom, Jason M.; Zuber, Maria T.
2014-11-01
NASA’s dual Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft have globally mapped the lunar gravity field at unprecedented resolution; this has enabled the study of lunar impact craters of all sizes and ages. Soderblom et al. [2014, LPSC abstract #1777] calculated the residual Bouguer anomalies for ~2700 craters 27-184 km in diameter (D). They found that the residual central Bouguer anomaly of craters smaller than 100 km is essentially zero, that there is a transition for 100-150 km, and that craters larger than 184 km have a positive residual Bouguer anomaly that increases with increasing crater size. We use the iSALE shock physics hydrocode to model crater formation, including the effects of porosity and dilatancy (shear bulking). We use strength parameters of gabbroic anorthosite for a 35-km-thick crust, and dunite for the mantle. Our dunite impactors range in size from 6-30 km, which produce craters 86-450 km in diameter. We calculate the Bouguer gravity anomaly due solely to mantle uplift. We eliminate the effects of pressure and temperature on density by setting the output densities from the simulations to 2550 kg/m^3 if they are below the cutoff value of 3000 kg/m^3, and 3220 kg/m^3 if they are above. We compare our modeling results to gravity data from GRAIL. We find that the crater size at which mantle uplift dominates the crater gravity occurs at a crater diameter that is close to the complex crater to peak-ring basin transition. This is in agreement with the observed trend reported by Soderblom et al. [2014, LPSC abstract #1777].
De Sá Teixeira, Nuno Alexandre
2014-12-01
Given its conspicuous nature, gravity has been acknowledged by several research lines as a prime factor in structuring the spatial perception of one's environment. One such line of enquiry has focused on errors in spatial localization aimed at the vanishing location of moving objects - it has been systematically reported that humans mislocalize spatial positions forward, in the direction of motion (representational momentum) and downward in the direction of gravity (representational gravity). Moreover, spatial localization errors were found to evolve dynamically with time in a pattern congruent with an anticipated trajectory (representational trajectory). The present study attempts to ascertain the degree to which vestibular information plays a role in these phenomena. Human observers performed a spatial localization task while tilted to varying degrees and referring to the vanishing locations of targets moving along several directions. A Fourier decomposition of the obtained spatial localization errors revealed that although spatial errors were increased "downward" mainly along the body's longitudinal axis (idiotropic dominance), the degree of misalignment between the latter and physical gravity modulated the time course of the localization responses. This pattern is surmised to reflect increased uncertainty about the internal model when faced with conflicting cues regarding the perceived "downward" direction. PMID:25448714
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Ouazzani, Jalil
1988-01-01
It has become clear from measurements of the acceleration environment in the Spacelab that the residual gravity levels on board a spacecraft in low Earth orbit can be significant and should be of concern to experimenters who wish to take advantage of the low gravity conditions on future Spacelab missions and on board the Space Station. The basic goals are to better understand the low gravity tolerance of three classes of materials science experiments: crystal growth from a melt, a vapor, and a solution. The results of the research will provide guidance toward the determination of the sensitivity of the low gravity environment, the design of the laboratory facilites, and the timelining of materials science experiments. To data, analyses of the effects of microgravity environment were, with a few exceptions, restricted to order of magnitude estimates. Preliminary results obtained from numerical models of the effects of residual steady and time dependent acceleration are reported on: heat, mass, and momentum transport during the growth of a dilute alloy by the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique, and the response of a simple fluid physics experiment involving buoyant convection in a square cavity.
Ising spin network states for loop quantum gravity: a toy model for phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feller, Alexandre; Livine, Etera R.
2016-03-01
Non-perturbative approaches to quantum gravity call for a deep understanding of the emergence of geometry and locality from the quantum state of the gravitational field. Without background geometry, the notion of distance should emerge entirely from the correlations between the gravity fluctuations. In the context of loop quantum gravity, quantum states of geometry are defined as spin networks. These are graphs decorated with spin and intertwiners, which represent quantized excitations of areas and volumes of the space geometry. Here, we develop the condensed-matter point of view on extracting the physical and geometrical information from spin network states: we introduce new Ising spin network states, both in 2d on a square lattice and in 3d on a hexagonal lattice, whose correlations map onto the usual Ising model in statistical physics. We construct these states from the basic holonomy operators of loop gravity and derive a set of local Hamiltonian constraints that entirely characterize our states. We discuss their phase diagram and show how the distance can be reconstructed from the correlations in the various phases. Finally, we propose generalizations of these Ising states, which open the perspective to study the coarse-graining and dynamics of spin network states using well-known condensed-matter techniques and results.
Global Propagation of Gravity Waves Generated with the Whole Atmosphere Transfer Function Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayr, H. G.; Talaat, E. R.; Wolven, B. C.
2012-12-01
Gravity waves are ubiquitous phenomena in the Earth's atmosphere, accounting for a significant fraction of its observed variability. These waves, with periods ranging from minutes to hours, are thought to be a major means for exchange of momentum and energy between atmospheric regions. The Transfer Function Model (TFM) describes acoustic gravity waves (AGW) that propagate across the globe in a dissipative static background atmosphere extending from the ground to 700 km. The model is limited to waves with periods << 12 hr where the Coriolis force is not important. Formulated in terms of zonal vector spherical harmonics and oscillation frequencies, the linearized equations of energy, mass, and momentum conservation are solved to generate the transfer function (TF) for a chosen height distribution of the excitation source. The model accounts for momentum exchange between atmospheric species (He, O, N2, O2, Ar), which affects significantly the wave amplitudes and phases of thermospheric temperature, densities, and wind fields. Covering a broad range of frequencies and spherical harmonic wave numbers (wavelengths), without limitations, the assembled TF captures the physics that controls the propagation of AGW, and the computational effort is considerable. For a chosen horizontal geometry and impulsive time dependence of the source, however, the global wave response is then obtained in short order. The model is computationally efficient and well suited to serve as an experimental and educational tool for simulating propagating wave patterns on the globe. The model is also semi-analytical and therefore well suited to explore the different wave modes that can be generated under varying dynamical conditions. The TFM has been applied to simulate the AGW, which are generated in the auroral region of the thermosphere by joule heating and momentum coupling due to solar wind induced electric fields [e.g., Mayr et al., Space Science Reviews, 1990]. The auroral source generates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gerrard, Andrew J.; Kane, Timothy J.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Thayer, Jeffrey P.
2004-01-01
We conducted gravity wave ray-tracing experiments within an atmospheric region centered near the ARCLITE lidar system at Sondrestrom, Greenland (67N, 310 deg E), in efforts to understand lidar observations of both upper stratospheric gravity wave activity and mesospheric clouds during August 1996 and the summer of 2001. The ray model was used to trace gravity waves through realistic three-dimensional daily-varying background atmospheres in the region, based on forecasts and analyses in the troposphere and stratosphere and climatologies higher up. Reverse ray tracing based on upper stratospheric lidar observations at Sondrestrom was also used to try to objectively identify wave source regions in the troposphere. A source spectrum specified by reverse ray tracing experiments in early August 1996 (when atmospheric flow patterns produced enhanced transmission of waves into the upper stratosphere) yielded model results throughout the remainder of August 1996 that agreed best with the lidar observations. The model also simulated increased vertical group propagation of waves between 40 km and 80 km due to intensifying mean easterlies, which allowed many of the gravity waves observed at 40 km over Sondrestrom to propagate quasi-vertically from 40-80 km and then interact with any mesospheric clouds at 80 km near Sondrestrom, supporting earlier experimentally-inferred correlations between upper stratospheric gravity wave activity and mesospheric cloud backscatter from Sondrestrom lidar observations. A pilot experiment of real-time runs with the model in 2001 using weather forecast data as a low-level background produced less agreement with lidar observations. We believe this is due to limitations in our specified tropospheric source spectrum, the use of climatological winds and temperatures in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, and missing lidar data from important time periods.
Numerical modeling of nonlinear acoustic-gravity wave propagation in the whole atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavrilov, Nikolai M.; Kshevetskii, Sergey P.
According to present knowledge, acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) observed in the upper atmosphere may be generated near the Earth surface due to different sources and propagate upwards. Algorithms for two- and three-dimensional numerical simulation of vertical propagation and breaking of nonlinear AGWs from the Earth's surface to the upper atmosphere were developed recently. The algorithms of the solution of fluid dynamic equations use finite-difference analogues of basic conservation laws. This approach allows us to select physically correct generalized wave solutions of the nonlinear equations. Horizontally moving periodical horizontal sinusoidal structures of vertical velocity on the Earth’s surface serve as AGW sources in the model. Numerical simulation was made in a region of the Earth atmosphere with dimensions up to several thousand kilometers horizontally and 500 km vertically. Vertical profiles of the mean temperature, density, molecular viscosity and thermal conductivity are specified from standard models of the atmosphere. Calculations are made for different amplitudes, horizontal wavelengths and speeds of wave sources at the bottom boundary of the model. It is shown that after “switch on” tropospheric source atmospheric waves very quickly (for several minutes) may propagate to high altitudes (up to 100 km). When AGW amplitudes increase with height, waves may break down in the middle and upper atmosphere. Instability and dissipation of wave energy may lead to formations of wave accelerations of the mean winds and to creations of wave-induced jet flows in the middle and upper atmosphere. Nonlinear interactions may lead to instabilities of the initial wave and to the creation of smaller-scale structures. These smaller inhomogeneities may increase temperature and wind gradients and enhance the wave energy dissipation. Thus, the increase in AGW amplitudes in the upper atmosphere may occur at a much slower pace than the increase in amplitudes of
Gravity Models from CHAMP and other Satellite Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoime, Frank G.; Cox, C. M.; Chinn, D. S.; Zelensky, N. P.; Thompson, B. F.; Rowlands, D. D.; Luthdke, S. B.; Nerem, R. S.
2003-01-01
CHAMP spacecraft is the first of a series of new spacecraft missions that are revolutionizing our ability to model the Earth's geopotential. We report on the analysis of over 100 days of CHAMP data in 2001 and 2002, merged with tracking data of other satellites such as Jason, Topex, GFO, Starlette, Stella, Spot-2, as well as satellite altimetry. We find that the CHAMP-only component of these solutions is a significant improvement over pre-CHAMP satellite only models with respect to the high degree information expressed by the geopotential model coefficients. For example, the variance of the differences with altimeter-derived anomalies through degree 70 is 2.80 mGal(sup 2) for the CHAMP-only solution based on 87 days of data vs. 10.19 mGal(sup 2) for EGM96S. Nonetheless, in order to model properly the various resonances to which different satellites are sensitive, we must include other satellite data. We evaluate the performance of these new CHAMP derived solutions with EGM96 and the EIGEN series of solutions. We review carefully the performance of these models for altimetric satellites.
An Evaluation of Recent Gravity Models wrt. Altimeter Satellite Missions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, Frank G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Luthcke, S. B.; Beckley, B. D.; Chinn, D. S.; Rowlands, D. D.
2003-01-01
With the launch of CHAMP and GRACE, we have entered a new phase in the history of satellite geodesy. For the first time, geopotential models are now available based almost exclusively on satellite-satellite tracking either with GPS in the case of the CHAMP-based geopotential models, or co-orbital intersatellite ultra-precise ranging in the case of GRACE. Different groups have analyzed these data, and produced a series of geopotential models (e.g., EIGENlS, EIGEN2, GGM0lS, GGMOlC) that incorporate the new data. We will compare the performance of these "newer" geopotential models with the standard models now used for computations, (e.g., JGM-3, BGM-96, PGS7727, and GRIMS-C1) for TOPEX, JASON, Geosat-Follow-On (GFO), and Envisat using standard metrics such as SLR RMS of fit, altimeter crossovers, and orbit overlaps. Where covariances are available we can evaluate the predicted geographically correlated orbit error. These predicted results can be compared with the Earth-fixed differences between dynamic and reduced-dynamic orbits to test the predictive accuracy of the covariances, as well as to calibrate the error of the solutions.
High-resolution Local Gravity Model of the South Pole of the Moon from GRAIL Extended Mission Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goossens, Sander Johannes; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Rowlands, David D.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.
2014-01-01
We estimated a high-resolution local gravity field model over the south pole of the Moon using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory's extended mission. Our solution consists of adjustments with respect to a global model expressed in spherical harmonics. The adjustments are expressed as gridded gravity anomalies with a resolution of 1/6deg by 1/6deg (equivalent to that of a degree and order 1080 model in spherical harmonics), covering a cap over the south pole with a radius of 40deg. The gravity anomalies have been estimated from a short-arc analysis using only Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data over the area of interest. We apply a neighbor-smoothing constraint to our solution. Our local model removes striping present in the global model; it reduces the misfit to the KBRR data and improves correlations with topography to higher degrees than current global models.
Cyclic universe from Loop Quantum Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cianfrani, Francesco; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy; Rosati, Giacomo
2016-02-01
We discuss how a cyclic model for the flat universe can be constructively derived from Loop Quantum Gravity. This model has a lower bounce, at small values of the scale factor, which shares many similarities with that of Loop Quantum Cosmology. We find that Quantum Gravity corrections can be also relevant at energy densities much smaller than the Planckian one and that they can induce an upper bounce at large values of the scale factor.
Numerical Models of Human Circulatory System under Altered Gravity: Brain Circulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Chang Sung; Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan; David, Tim
2003-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is presented to model the blood flow through the human circulatory system under altered gravity conditions. Models required for CFD simulation relevant to major hemodynamic issues are introduced such as non-Newtonian flow models governed by red blood cells, a model for arterial wall motion due to fluid-wall interactions, a vascular bed model for outflow boundary conditions, and a model for auto-regulation mechanism. The three-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with these models are solved iteratively using the pseudocompressibility method and dual time stepping. Moving wall boundary conditions from the first-order fluid-wall interaction model are used to study the influence of arterial wall distensibility on flow patterns and wall shear stresses during the heart pulse. A vascular bed modeling utilizing the analogy with electric circuits is coupled with an auto-regulation algorithm for multiple outflow boundaries. For the treatment of complex geometry, a chimera overset grid technique is adopted to obtain connectivity between arterial branches. For code validation, computed results are compared with experimental data for steady and unsteady non-Newtonian flows. Good agreement is obtained for both cases. In sin-type Gravity Benchmark Problems, gravity source terms are added to the Navier-Stokes equations to study the effect of gravitational variation on the human circulatory system. This computational approach is then applied to localized blood flows through a realistic carotid bifurcation and two Circle of Willis models, one using an idealized geometry and the other model using an anatomical data set. A three- dimensional anatomical Circle of Willis configuration is reconstructed from human-specific magnetic resonance images using an image segmentation method. The blood flow through these Circle of Willis models is simulated to provide means for studying gravitational effects on the brain
Gravity model improvement using GEOS 3 /GEM 9 and 10/. [and Seasat altimetry data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, F. J.; Wagner, C. A.; Klosko, S. M.; Laubscher, R. E.
1979-01-01
Although errors in previous gravity models have produced large uncertainties in the orbital position of GEOS 3, significant improvement has been obtained with new geopotential solutions, Goddard Earth Model (GEM) 9 and 10. The GEM 9 and 10 solutions for the potential coefficients and station coordinates are presented along with a discussion of the new techniques employed. Also presented and discussed are solutions for three fundamental geodetic reference parameters, viz. the mean radius of the earth, the gravitational constant, and mean equatorial gravity. Evaluation of the gravity field is examined together with evaluation of GEM 9 and 10 for orbit determination accuracy. The major objectives of GEM 9 and 10 are achieved. GEOS 3 orbital accuracies from these models are about 1 m in their radial components for 5-day arc lengths. Both models yield significantly improved results over GEM solutions when compared to surface gravimetry, Skylab and GEOS 3 altimetry, and highly accurate BE-C (Beacon Explorer-C) laser ranges. The new values of the parameters discussed are given.
A three-dimensional gravity model of the geologic structure of Long Valley caldera
Carle, S.F.; Goldstein, N.E.
1987-03-01
Several attempts to define and interpret this anomaly have been made in the past using 2-D and 3-D models. None of the previous interpretations have yielded definitive results, but in fairness, the interpretation here has benefited from a larger gravity data base and more subsurface control than available to previous workers. All published 3-D models simplistically assumed constant density of fill. All 2-D models suffered from the inherent three-dimensionality of the complicated density structure of Long Valley caldera. In addition, previous interpreters have lacked access to geological data, such as well lithologies and density logs, seismic refraction interpretations, suface geology, and structural geology interpretations. The purpose of this study is to use all available gravity data and geological information to constrain a multi-unit, 3-D density model based on the geology of Long Valley caldera and its vicinity. Insights on the geologic structure of the caldera fill can help other geophysical interpretations in determining near-surface effects so that deeper structure may be resolved. With adequate control on the structure of the caldera fill, we are able to examine the gravity data for the presence of deeper density anomalies in the crust. 20 refs., 7 figs.
Using the Gravity Model to Estimate the Spatial Spread of Vector-Borne Diseases
Barrios, José Miguel; Verstraeten, Willem W.; Maes, Piet; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Farifteh, Jamshid; Coppin, Pol
2012-01-01
The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the physical habitat of pathogens’ vectors and/or hosts, and urban areas, thus humans. This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis, based on current knowledge on the transmission mechanism of these diseases. Two sources of information on vegetated systems were tested: the CORINE land cover map and MODIS NDVI. The size of vegetated areas near urban centers and a local indicator of occupation-related exposure were found significant predictors of disease risk. Both the land cover map and the space-borne dataset were suited yet not equivalent input sources to locate and measure vegetated areas of importance for disease spread. The overall results point at the compatibility of the gravity model concept and the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases. PMID:23202882
Using the gravity model to estimate the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases.
Barrios, José Miguel; Verstraeten, Willem W; Maes, Piet; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Farifteh, Jamshid; Coppin, Pol
2012-12-01
The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the physical habitat of pathogens’ vectors and/or hosts, and urban areas, thus humans. This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis, based on current knowledge on the transmission mechanism of these diseases. Two sources of information on vegetated systems were tested: the CORINE land cover map and MODIS NDVI. The size of vegetated areas near urban centers and a local indicator of occupation-related exposure were found significant predictors of disease risk. Both the land cover map and the space-borne dataset were suited yet not equivalent input sources to locate and measure vegetated areas of importance for disease spread. The overall results point at the compatibility of the gravity model concept and the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases. PMID:23202882
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prabir, Rudra
2016-07-01
In this assignment we will present a reconstruction scheme between f(R) gravity with ordinary and entropy corrected (m,n)-type holographic dark energy. The correspondence is established and expressions for the reconstructed f(R) models are determined. To study the evolution of the reconstructed models plots are generated. The stability of the calculated models are also investigated using the squared speed of sound in the background of the reconstructed gravities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mäkinen, Jaakko; Engfeldt, Andreas; Gitlein, Olga; Kaminskis, Janis; Klopping, Fred; Oja, Tõnis; Paršeliunas, Eimuntas; Ragnvald Pettersen, Bjørn; Strykowski, Gabriel; Wilmes, Herbert
2010-05-01
by the NKG-WGG. This was prompted by the launch of the GRACE gravity satellite, which made it important to collect a comprehensive set of ground-truth values of gravity change during the lifetime of the satellite pair. The initial participation by the gravimeter teams of Leibniz Universität Hannover, FGI and BKG has since expanded to include the University of Life Sciences (Ås, Norway) and Lantmäteriet (Gävle, Sweden). At present some 50 sites have repeated absolute measurements and most of them are co-located with continuous GPS. We give an overview of the sites, instrumentation, and campaigns of both relative and absolute gravity work. We then compare the observed gravity change with observed vertical motion and with gravity change predicted from geophysical models of the PGR.
The provenance of extreme flood induced submarine gravity flow deposits off Southwestern Taiwan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Y.; Su, C.
2012-12-01
Gaoping Submarine Canyon (GPSC) is the major pathway for sediments disperse from Gaoping River (GPR) into deep sea. In previous studies (Su et al., 2012), the cores collected from GPSC show the catastrophic events induced by typhoon may lead to extreme export of terrestrial sediment into GPSC and temporally quick buried in the upper reach or further caused gravity flows in the canyon. For understanding the provenance of the terrestrial sediments deposited in the GPSC during the extreme flooding period, core samples collected in cruise OR1-785, OR1-851 and OR1-923 were used for clay mineral analysis. Clay minerals are one of the most useful indicators to decipher the provenance and transport of sediments in marine environments. The composition and distribution of clay minerals in sediments are related to the climate and the nature of their parent rocks. Our result shows illite is the most abundant clay mineral in the GPSC (over 70%), chlorite and kaolinite are minor (around 20%), and nearly no smectite in core samples. According to the 550°C treatment X-ray diffraction patterns, the diffraction peaks at 7Å and 3.5Å partly preserved in OR1-785-GC5A, OR1-851-GCC and OR1-923-K11A core samples and implies the existence of Mg-chlorite which is widespread in green rocks in the Central Mountain Range. We suggested the extreme flooding event may fast transport the sediment from the Central Mountain Range through GPSC into deep sea environment.
Dark Energy Models and Cosmic Acceleration with Anisotropic Universe in f(T) Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Sehrish, Azeem
2014-04-01
This paper is devoted to studing the accelerated expansion of the universe in context of f(T) theory of gravity. For this purpose, we construct different f(T) models and investigate their cosmological behavior through equation of state parameter by using holographic, new agegraphic and their power-law entropy corrected dark energy models. We discuss the graphical behavior of this parameter versus redshift for particular values of constant parameters in Bianchi type I universe model. It is shown that the universe lies in different forms of dark energy, namely quintessence, phantom, and quintom corresponding to the chosen scale factors, which depend upon the constant parameters of the models.
China-Us Border Effect of Agricultural Trade Using Gravity Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Haixia; Gu, Haiying
Two border effect models capturing the characteristics of agricultural trade based on the Gravity Model are put forward to make a study on China-US border effects in the sector of agricultural trade. Different methods are used to check the robustness of the models. Applying the panel data covering 1987-2005, the empirical results show that the border effects of China-US exist with a great magnitude and tend to drop over time. They differ greatly from the direction of the international trade. Linear model in log-form can well explain the border effects of China-US agricultural trade.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bassiri, Sassan; Hajj, George A.
1993-01-01
Natural and man-made events like earthquakes and nuclear explosions launch atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) into the atmosphere. Since the particle density decreases exponentially with height, the gravity waves increase exponentially in amplitude as they propagate toward the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. As atmospheric gravity waves approach the ionospheric heights, the neutral particles carried by gravity waves collide with electrons and ions, setting these particles in motion. This motion of charged particles manifests itself by wave-like fluctuations and disturbances that are known as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID). The perturbation in the total electron content due to TID's is derived analytically from first principles. Using the tilted dipole magnetic field approximation and a Chapman layer distribution for the electron density, the variations of the total electron content versus the line-of-sight direction are numerically analyzed. The temporal variation associated with the total electron content measurements due to AGW's can be used as a means of detecting characteristics of the gravity waves. As an example, detection of tsunami generated earthquakes from their associated atmospheric gravity waves using the Global Positioning System is simulated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bassiri, Sassan; Hajj, George A.
Natural and man-made events like earthquakes and nuclear explosions launch atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) into the atmosphere. Since the particle density decreases exponentially with height, the gravity waves increase exponentially in amplitude as they propagate toward the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. As atmospheric gravity waves approach the ionospheric heights, the neutral particles carried by gravity waves collide with electrons and ions, setting these particles in motion. This motion of charged particles manifests itself by wave-like fluctuations and disturbances that are known as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID). The perturbation in the total electron content due to TID's is derived analytically from first principles. Using the tilted dipole magnetic field approximation and a Chapman layer distribution for the electron density, the variations of the total electron content versus the line-of-sight direction are numerically analyzed. The temporal variation associated with the total electron content measurements due to AGW's can be used as a means of detecting characteristics of the gravity waves. As an example, detection of tsunami generated earthquakes from their associated atmospheric gravity waves using the Global Positioning System is simulated.
Analytic models of anisotropic strange stars in f(T) gravity with off-diagonal tetrad
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zubair, M.; Abbas, G.
2016-01-01
This paper is devoted to study the analytic models of anisotropic compact stars in f(T) gravity (where T is torsion scalar), with non-diagonal tetrad. By taking the anisotropic source inside the spherically symmetric star, the equations of motions have been derived in the context of f(T) gravity. Krori and Barua metric which satisfies the physical requirement of a realistic star, has been applied to describe the compact objects like strange stars. We use the power law form of f(T) model to determine explicit relations of matter variables. Further, we have found the anisotropic behavior, energy conditions, stability and surface redshift of stars. Using the masses and radii of 4U1820-30, Her X-1, SAX J 1808-3658, we have determined the constants involved in metric components. Finally we discuss the graphical behavior of the analytic description of strange star candidates.
Gibbons-Hawking boundary terms and junction conditions for higher-order brane gravity models
Balcerzak, Adam; Dabrowski, Mariusz P. E-mail: mpdabfz@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl
2009-01-15
We derive the most general junction conditions for the fourth-order brane gravity constructed of arbitrary functions of curvature invariants. We reduce these fourth-order theories to second order theories at the expense of introducing new scalar and tensor fields - the scalaron and the tensoron. In order to obtain junction conditions we apply the method of generalized Gibbons-Hawking boundary terms which are appended to the appropriate actions. After assuming the continuity of the scalaron and the tensoron on the brane, we recover junction conditions for such general brane universe models previously obtained by different methods. The derived junction conditions can serve studying the cosmological implications of the higher-order brane gravity models.
Enhanced mixing in the equatorial thermocline induced by inertia-gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Natarov, Andrei; Richards, Kelvin
2016-04-01
Observations show turbulence activity is enhanced in and above the equatorial thermocline. This enhancement is brought about in part by the generation, propagation and dissipation of wind-driven inertia-gravity waves (IGWs). Numerical experiments show that in a zonally symmetric model of a tropical ocean forced by a transient wind stress both IGW activity and the energy dissipation have a pronounced maximum in the thermocline close to the equator regardless of the latitudinal distribution of the energy input into the ocean's mixed layer by the wind. We show that this equatorial enhancement is caused by a combination of three factors: a stronger superinertial component of the wind forcing close to the equator, wave action convergence at turning latitudes for various equatorially trapped waves, and nonlinear wave-wave interactions between equatorially trapped waves. Amplification of IGWs also occurs due to refraction at the top of the thermocline. We show that the latter mechanism can operate at any latitude, but is limited in its capacity to amplify the Froude number associated with propagating IGW packets and requires short (shorter than the local inertial period) energetic wind bursts to produce enhanced mixing.
HRMA calibration handbook: EKC gravity compensated XRCF models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tananbaum, H. D.; Jerius, D.; Hughes, J.
1994-01-01
This document, consisting of hardcopy printout of explanatory text, figures, and tables, represents one incarnation of the AXAF high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA) Calibration Handbook. However, as we have envisioned it, the handbook also consists of electronic versions of this hardcopy printout (in the form of postscript files), the individual scripts which produced the various figures and the associated input data, the model raytrace files, and all scripts, parameter files, and input data necessary to generate the raytraces. These data are all available electronically as either ASCII or FITS files. The handbook is intended to be a living document and will be updated as new information and/or fabrication data on the HRMA are obtained, or when the need for additional results are indicated. The SAO Mission Support Team (MST) is developing a high fidelity HRMA model, consisting of analytical and numerical calculations, computer software, and databases of fundamental physical constants, laboratory measurements, configuration data, finite element models, AXAF assembly data, and so on. This model serves as the basis for the simulations presented in the handbook. The 'core' of the model is the raytrace package OSAC, which we have substantially modified and now refer to as SAOsac. One major structural modification to the software has been to utilize the UNIX binary pipe data transport mechanism for passing rays between program modules. This change has made it possible to simulate rays which are distributed randomly over the entrance aperture of the telescope. It has also resulted in a highly efficient system for tracing large numbers of rays. In one application to date (the analysis of VETA-I ring focus data) we have employed 2 x 10(exp 7) rays, a substantial improvement over the limit of 1 x 10(exp 4) rays in the original OSAC module. A second major modification is the manner in which SAOsac incorporates low spatial frequency surface errors into the geometric raytrace
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zlotnicki, V.; Stammer, D.; Fukumori, I.
2003-01-01
Here we assess the new generation of gravity models, derived from GRACE data. The differences between a global geoid model (one from GRACE data and one the well-known EGM-96), minus a Mean Sea Surface derived from over a decade of altimetric data are compared to hydrographic data from the Levitus compilation and to the ECCO numerical ocean model, which assimilates altimetry and other data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwase, Satoshi
2005-07-01
To test the effectiveness of centrifuge-induced artificial gravity with ergometric exercise, 12 healthy young men (20.7±1.9yr) were exposed to simulated microgravity for 14 days of -6∘ head-down bedrest. Half the subjects were randomly selected and loaded 1.2 G artificial gravity with 60 W (four out of six subjects) or 40 W (two out of six subjects) of ergometric workload on days 1,2,3,5,7,9,11,12,13,14 (CM group). The rest of the subjects served as the control. Anti-G score, defined as the G-load×running time to the endpoint, was significantly elongated by the load of the centrifuge-ergometer. Plasma volume loss was suppressed ( -5.0±2.4 vs. -16.4±1.9%), and fluid volume shift was prevented by the countermeasure load. Elevated heart rate and muscle sympathetic nerve activity after bedrest were counteracted, and exaggerated response to head-up tilt was also suppressed. Centrifuge-induced artificial gravity with exercise is effective in preventing cardiovascular deconditioning due to microgravity exposure, however, an effective and appropriate regimen (magnitude of G-load and exercise workload) should be determined in future studies.
A gravity model for crustal dynamics (GEM-L2)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, F. J.; Klosko, S. M.; Patel, G. B.; Wagner, C. A.
1985-01-01
The Laser Geodynamics Satellite (Lageos) was the first NASA satellite which was placed into orbit exclusively for laser ranging applications. Lageos was designed to permit extremely accurate measurements of the earth's rotation and the movement of the tectonic plates. The Goddard earth model, GEM-L2, was derived mainly on the basis of the precise laser ranging data taken on many satellites. Douglas et al. (1984) have demonstrated the utility of GEM-L2 in detecting the broadest ocean circulations. As Lageos data constitute the most extensive set of satellite laser observations ever collected, the incorporation of 2-1/2 years of these data into the Goddard earth models (GEM) has substantially advanced the geodynamical objectives. The present paper discusses the products of the GEM-L2 solution.
Testing Modified Gravity Models using Gravitational Waves Observation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kahya, Emre
2016-07-01
Rotation curves of spiral galaxies and weak lensing as well as CMBR Power Spectrum point towards a need for different kind of matter in the universe that is not interacting electromagnetically. Alternatively one can explain rotation curves by modifying Newton's Laws which is called MOND. Relativistic versions of MOND work surprisingly good in producing structure and the community started taking these models seriously. We would like to offer a test which can test the validity of these class of models where one would get non-coincident arrival for gravitational waves and photons. We will explain why one should get a time lag between these two massless particles in the context of these so-called Dark Matter Emulators. And give an order of magnitude estimate for Shapiro delay for object which are very far away as well as more accurate ones for sources in Milky-way.
Gravity, CPT, and the standard-model extension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tasson, Jay D.
2015-08-01
Exotic atoms provide unique opportunities to search for new physics. The search for CPT and Lorentz violation in the context of the general field-theory based framework of the gravitational Standard-Model Extension (SME) is one such opportunity. This work summarizes the implications of Lorentz and CPT violation for gravitational experiments with antiatoms and atoms containing higher-generation matter as well as recent nongravitational proposals to test CPT and Lorentz symmetry with muons and muonic systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobslaw, Henryk; Forootan, Ehsan; Bergmann-Wolf, Inga; Neumayer, Karl-Hans; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Kusche, Jürgen; Flechtner, Frank
2015-04-01
Recently completed performance studies of future gravity mission concepts arrived at sometimes contradicting conclusions about the importance of non-tidal aliasing errors that remain in the finally retrieved gravity field time-series. In those studies, typically a fraction of the differences between two different models of atmosphere and ocean mass variability determined the magnitude of the aliasing errors. Since differences among arbitrary pairs of the numerical models available might lead to widely different aliasing errors and thus conclusions regarding limiting error contributors of a candidate mission, we present here for the first time a version of a realistically perturbed de-aliasing model that is consistent with the updated ESA Earth System Model for gravity mission simulation studies (Dobslaw et al., 2015). The error model is available over the whole 12-year period of the ESA ESM and consists of two parts: (i) a component containing signals from physical processes that are intentionally omitted from de-aliasing models, as for a example, variations in global eustatic sea-level; and (ii) a series of true errors that consist of in total five different components with realistically re-scaled variability at both small and large spatial scales for different frequency bands ranging from sub-daily to sub-monthly periods. Based on a multi-model ensemble of atmosphere and ocean mass variability available to us for the year 2006, we will demonstrate that our re-scaled true errors have plausible magnitudes and correlation characteristics in all frequency bands considered. The realism of the selected scaling coefficients for periods between 1 and 30 days is tested further by means of a variance component estimation based on the constrained daily GRACE solution series ITSG-GRACE2014. Initial full-scale simulation experiments are used to re-assess the relative importance of non-tidal de-aliasing errors for the GRACE-FO mission, which might be subsequently expanded to
Analog model for light propagation in semiclassical gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bessa, C. H. G.; De Lorenci, V. A.; Ford, L. H.
2014-07-01
We treat a model based upon nonlinear optics for the semiclassical gravitational effects of quantum fields upon light propagation. Our model uses a nonlinear material with a nonzero third order polarizability. Here a probe light pulse satisfies a wave equation containing the expectation value of the squared electric field. This expectation value depends upon the presence of lower frequency quanta, the background field, and modifies the effective index of refraction, and hence the speed of the probe pulse. If the mean squared electric field is positive, then the pulse is slowed, which is analogous to the gravitational effects of ordinary matter. Such matter satisfies the null energy condition and produces gravitational lensing and time delay. If the mean squared field is negative, then the pulse has a higher speed than in the absence of the background field. This is analogous to the gravitational effects of exotic matter, such as stress tensor expectation values with locally negative energy densities, which lead to repulsive gravitational effects, such as defocusing and time advance. We give some estimates of the magnitude of the effects in our model and find that they may be large enough to be observable. We also briefly discuss the possibility that the mean squared electric field could be produced by the Casimir vacuum near a reflecting boundary.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tryfonidis, Michail
It has been observed that during orbital spaceflight the absence of gravitation related sensory inputs causes incongruence between the expected and the actual sensory feedback resulting from voluntary movements. This incongruence results in a reinterpretation or neglect of gravity-induced sensory input signals. Over time, new internal models develop, gradually compensating for the loss of spatial reference. The study of adaptation of goal-directed movements is the main focus of this thesis. The hypothesis is that during the adaptive learning process the neural connections behave in ways that can be described by an adaptive control method. The investigation presented in this thesis includes two different sets of experiments. A series of dart throwing experiments took place onboard the space station Mir. Experiments also took place at the Biomechanics lab at MIT, where the subjects performed a series of continuous trajectory tracking movements while a planar robotic manipulandum exerted external torques on the subjects' moving arms. The experimental hypothesis for both experiments is that during the first few trials the subjects will perform poorly trying to follow a prescribed trajectory, or trying to hit a target. A theoretical framework is developed that is a modification of the sliding control method used in robotics. The new control framework is an attempt to explain the adaptive behavior of the subjects. Numerical simulations of the proposed framework are compared with experimental results and predictions from competitive models. The proposed control methodology extends the results of the sliding mode theory to human motor control. The resulting adaptive control model of the motor system is robust to external dynamics, even those of negative gain, uses only position and velocity feedback, and achieves bounded steady-state error without explicit knowledge of the system's nonlinearities. In addition, the experimental and modeling results demonstrate that
Instability of a two-step Rankine vortex in a reduced gravity QG model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perrot, Xavier; Carton, Xavier
2014-06-01
We investigate the stability of a steplike Rankine vortex in a one-active-layer, reduced gravity, quasi-geostrophic model. After calculating the linear stability with a normal mode analysis, the singular modes are determined as a function of the vortex shape to investigate short-time stability. Finally we determine the position of the critical layer and show its influence when it lies inside the vortex.
Classical solutions of a torsion gravity from a large N matrix model
Isono, Hiroshi; Tomino, Dan
2010-04-15
Large N matrices can describe covariant derivatives in curved space. Applying this interpretation to the Ishibashi, Kawai, Kitazawa, and Tsuchiya matrix model, the field equation of gravity is derived from the matrix equation of motion. We study classical solutions of this field equation with torsion degrees of freedom in empty spacetime. Time-dependent solutions with homogeneity and isotropy, and time-independent solutions with spherical symmetry are investigated under particular settings of torsions.
Modeling gravity and magnetic fields for crustal and upper mantle structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denoyer, J. M.
1985-01-01
Research was conducted to: (1) make a direct comparison between the gravity and magnetic fields near the ellipsoid and at the height expected for the Geopotential Research Mission (GRM) for the same geologic model, (2) obtain realistic estimates of the gradients that can be expected at the orbit height of the GRM, and (3) demonstrate the value of data that the GRM could provide for investigating upper mantle and deep crustal anomalies.
Gao Yajun
2008-08-15
A previously established Hauser-Ernst-type extended double-complex linear system is slightly modified and used to develop an inverse scattering method for the stationary axisymmetric general symplectic gravity model. The reduction procedures in this inverse scattering method are found to be fairly simple, which makes the inverse scattering method applied fine and effective. As an application, a concrete family of soliton double solutions for the considered theory is obtained.
An Improved Model of Cryogenic Propellant Stratification in a Rotating, Reduced Gravity Environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliveira, Justin; Kirk, Daniel R.; Schallhorn, Paul A.; Piquero, Jorge L.; Campbell, Mike; Chase, Sukhdeep
2007-01-01
This paper builds on a series of analytical literature models used to predict thermal stratification within rocket propellant tanks. The primary contribution to the literature is to add the effect of tank rotation and to demonstrate the influence of rotation on stratification times and temperatures. This work also looks levels of thermal stratification for generic propellant tanks (cylindrical shapes) over a parametric range of upper-stage coast times, heating levels, rotation rates, and gravity levels.
Towards a new generation of the Earth's gravity field models based on satellite gravimetry data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashemi Farahani, H.; Ditmar, P.
2011-12-01
We present preliminary results of a study focused on producing the Earth's static and time-varying gravity field models of a new generation from satellite gravimetry data. One of the primary sources of information is the K-Band Ranging (KBR) measurements acquired by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission and supplemented by kinematic orbits of the GRACE satellites. The kinematic orbits and the inter-satellite ranges are processed according to a variant of the acceleration approach, in which the functional models are respectively based on the average acceleration vectors and the average inter-satellite acceleration scalars derived with a three-point numerical double differentiation scheme. These data sets are reduced to the residual ones by evaluating and subtracting the contribution of background models. The residual data sets are subject to a newly defined geometrical correction to compensate for inadequacies in the background models and auxiliary information. Another novel element is an accurate estimation of the noise power spectral densities of the residual data sets, for which purpose a parameterization in terms of an Auto-Regressive Moving-Average (ARMA) process is used. This allows the dependency of noise on frequency to be taken into account, so that an optimal data combination is secured. In addition, an attempt is made to combine the aforementioned data sets with the measurements delivered by the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite mission: Satellite Gravity Gradiometry (SGG) data and kinematic orbit. The improvements resulting from the applied innovations are quantified in the spatial and spectral domains.
A gravity current model for the May 18, 1980 Mount St. Helens plume
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bursik, M. I.; Carey, S. N.; Sparks, R. S. J.
1992-01-01
Observations of the stratospheric plume from the May 18, 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption suggest that it spread in the crosswind direction as an intrusive gravity current, as it was transported downwind. Grain size analyses of the plinian tephra are consistent with this model, suggesting that to distances of many hundreds of kilometers, turbulent atmospheric diffusion played a secondary role in plume spreading and tephra dispersal.
Cosmology from induced matter model applied to 5D f( R, T) theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moraes, P. H. R. S.
2014-07-01
It is well known that the universe is undergoing a phase of accelerated expansion. Plenty of models have already been created with the purpose of describing what causes this non-expected cosmic feature. Among them, one could quote the extradimensional and the f( R, T) gravity models. In this work, in the scope of unifying Kaluza-Klein extradimensional model with f( R, T) gravity, cosmological solutions for density and pressure of the universe are obtained from the induced matter model application. Particular solutions for vacuum quantum energy and radiation are also shown.
Modelling the solution growth of TGS crystals in low gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nadarajah, Arunan; Rosenberger, Franz; Alexander, J. Iwan D.
1990-01-01
The experimental growth of triglycine sulfate (TGS) crystals from aqueous solution is modeled here in two dimensions using the PHOENICS finite volume code. Simulations are carried out for steady, impulsive, and periodic accelerations in order to determine tolerable acceleration levels. Scaling arguments are used to estimate the times required for thermal and solutal variations from the initial equilibrium state to be diffusively transported throughout the system, and to obtain order of magnitude information on the relative magnitudes of diffusive and convective transport. The computed concentration fields reflect the features of the concentration distributions found experimentally during experiments conducted aboard Spacelab 3 in 1985.
Unitary matrix models and 2D quantum gravity
Dalley, S. . Joseph Henry Labs.); Johnson, C.V.; Morris, T.R. . Dept. of Physics); Watterstam, A. )
1992-09-21
In this paper the KdV and modified KdV integrable hierarchies are shown to be different descriptions of the same 2D gravitational system - open-closed string theory. Non-perturbative solutions of the multicritical unitary matrix models map to non-singular solutions of the renormalization group equation for the string susceptibility, [P, Q] = Q. The authors also demonstrate that the large-N solutions of unitary matrix integrals in external fields, studied by Gross and Newman, equal the non-singular pure closed-string solutions of [[bar P], Q] = Q.
Modeling gravity-driven fingering in rough-walled fractures using modified percolation theory
Glass, R.J.
1992-12-31
Pore scale invasion percolation theory is modified for imbibition of.wetting fluids into fractures. The effects of gravity, local aperture field geometry, and local in-plane air/water interfacial curvatureare included in the calculation of aperture filling potential which controls wetted structure growth within the fracture. The inclusion of gravity yields fingers oriented in the direction of the gravitational gradient. These fingers widen and tend to meander and branch more as the gravitational gradient decreases. In-plane interfacial curvature also greatly affects the wetted structure in both horizontal and nonhorizontal fractures causing the formation of macroscopic wetting fronts. The modified percolation model is used to simulate imbibition into an analogue rough-walled fracture where both fingering and horizontal imbibition experiments were previously conducted. Comparison of numerical and experimental results showed reasonably good agreement. This process oriented physical and numerical modeling is-a necessary step toward including gravity-driven fingering in models of flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gleason, D. M.
An optimally estimated earth gravity model (EGM), consisting of a set of geopotential coefficients through a maximum degree and order of 360, has been created from a global set of 259,200 30 deg by 30 deg surface mean gravity anomalies. The model is optimal in the sense that its derivation follows the principles of least-squares collocation which results in the coefficients' error variance/covariance matrix having a minimal trace value. This paper presents: (1) an overview of the mathematical and geodetic principles behind the construction of the model, (2) a discussion on the practical concerns and problems associated with the implementation of these principles on a present-day high speed computer, (3) a brief description of the global 30 deg input mean anomaly file used, (4) an analysis of the statistical properties of the coefficients and their accuracies, and (5) a prognosis for the future.
Gravity and magnetic modeling of granitic bodies in Central Portugal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Machadinho, Ana; Figueiredo, Fernando; Pereira, Alcides
2015-04-01
A better understanding of the subsurface geometry of the granitic bodies in Central Portugal is the main goal of this work. The results are also relevant for the assessment of the geothermal potential of the same region. The study area is located in the Central Iberian Zone where the Beiras granite batholith outcrops. These variscan granitoids were emplaced into the "Complexo Xisto-Grauváquico" (CXG), a thick and monotonous megasequences of metapelites and metagreywackes. This metasedimentary sequence is affected by the Variscan deformation phases and a late Proterozoic to Cambrian age has been generally assumed for this rocks. The granitoids in the region are attributed to the magmatic activity associated to the post-collisional stages of the Variscan orogeny during the D3 stage. The granitic bodies in the study area are considered syn-D3 and late to post-D3. To achieve the goal of the research, magnetic and gravimetric surveys where performed in order to obtain the Bouguer and magnetic anomalies. All the standard corrections were applied to the gravimetric and magnetic data. Considering and integrating all the available geological data and physical proprieties (density and magnetic susceptibility) the mentioned potential fields were simultaneously modeled. In this way it was possible to characterize the subsurface geometry of the granitic bodies in the studied region. The modeling results show that the regional tectonic setting controls the geometry of the granitic bodies as well as the structure of the host CXG metasedimentary sequence. Through the modeling of the potential field the overall geometry, average and maximum depths of the granitic bodies in the study area was obtained. Some late to post-D3 plutons outcrop in spatial continuity and as they have similar ages, a common feeding zone is assumed as the most likely scenario. The sin-D3 pluton is more abrupt and vertical, suggesting the presence of a fault contact with the late-D3 pluton. According to the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brissaud, Q.; Garcia, R.; Martin, R.; Komatitsch, D.
2014-12-01
Low-frequency events such as tsunamis generate acoustic and gravity waves which quickly propagate in the atmosphere. Since the atmospheric density decreases exponentially as the altitude increases and from the conservation of the kinetic energy, those waves see their amplitude raise (to the order of 105 at 200km of altitude), allowing their detection in the upper atmosphere. Various tools have been developed through years to model this propagation, such as normal modes modeling or to a greater extent time-reversal techniques, but none offer a low-frequency multi-dimensional atmospheric wave modelling.A modeling tool is worthy interest since there are many different phenomena, from quakes to atmospheric explosions, able to propagate acoustic and gravity waves. In order to provide a fine modeling of the precise observations of these waves by GOCE satellite data, we developed a new numerical modeling tool.Starting from the SPECFEM program that already propagate waves in solid, porous or fluid media using a spectral element method, this work offers a tool with the ability to model acoustic and gravity waves propagation in a stratified attenuating atmosphere with a bottom forcing or an atmospheric source.Atmospheric attenuation is required in a proper modeling framework since it has a crucial impact on acoustic wave propagation. Indeed, it plays the role of a frequency filter that damps high-frequency signals. The bottom forcing feature has been implemented due to its ability to easily model the coupling with the Earth's or ocean's surface (that vibrates when a surface wave go through it) but also huge atmospheric events.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Roland; Brissaud, Quentin; Garcia, Raphael; Komatitsch, Dimitri
2015-04-01
During low-frequency events such as tsunamis, acoustic and gravity waves are generated and quickly propagate in the atmosphere. Due to the exponential decrease of the atmospheric density with the altitude, the conservation of the kinetic energy imposes that the amplitude of those waves increases (to the order of 105 at 200km of altitude), which allows their detection in the upper atmosphere. This propagation bas been modelled for years with different tools, such as normal modes modeling or to a greater extent time-reversal techniques, but a low-frequency multi-dimensional atmospheric wave modelling is still crucially needed. A modeling tool is worth of interest since there are many different sources, as earthquakes or atmospheric explosions, able to propagate acoustic and gravity waves. In order to provide a fine modeling of the precise observations of these waves by GOCE satellite data, we developed a new numerical modeling tool. By adding some developments to the SPECFEM package that already models wave propagation in solid, porous or fluid media using a spectral element method, we show here that acoustic and gravity waves propagation can now be modelled in a stratified attenuating atmosphere with a bottom forcing or an atmospheric source. The bottom forcing feature has been implemented to easily model the coupling with the Earth's or ocean's vibrating surfaces but also huge atmospheric events. Atmospheric attenuation is also introduced since it has a crucial impact on acoustic wave propagation. Indeed, it plays the role of a frequency filter that damps high-frequency signals.
Estimating gravity wave parameters from oblique high-frequency backscatter: Modeling and analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bristow, W. A.; Greenwald, R. A.
1995-01-01
A new technique for estimating electron density perturbation amplitudes of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs), using HF radar data, is presented. TIDs are observed in HF radar data as enhancements of the ground-scattered power which propagate through the radar's field of view. These TIDs are the ionospheric manifestation of atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves. TID electron density perturbation amplitudes were estimated by simulating the radar returns, using HF ray tracing through a model ionosphere perturbed by a model gravity wave. The simulation determined the return power in the ground-scattered portion of the signal as a function of range, and this was compared to HF radar data from the Goose Bay HF radar at a time when evidence of gravity waves was present in the data. By varying the amplitude of the electron density perturbation in the model it was possible to estimate the perturbation of the actual wave. It was found that the perturbations that are observed by the Goose Bay HF radar are of the order of 20% to 35%. It was also found that the number of observable power enhancements, and the relative amplitudes of these enhancements, depended on the vertical thickness of the gravity wave's source region. From the simulations and observations it was estimated that the source region for the case presented here was approximately 20 km thick. In addition, the energy in the wave packet was calculated and compared to an estimate of the available energy in the source region. It was found that the wave energy was about 0.2% of the estimated available source region energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Pengzhen; Wang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Li; Chong, Jinsong
2016-06-01
According to Bragg theory, capillary waves are the predominant scatterers of high-frequency band (such as Ka-band) microwave radiation from the surface of the ocean. Therefore, understanding the modulation mechanism of capillary waves is an important foundation for interpreting high-frequency microwave remote sensing images of the surface of the sea. In our experiments, we discovered that modulations of capillary waves are significantly larger than the values predicted by the classical theory. Further, analysis shows that the difference in restoring force results in an inflection point while the phase velocity changes from gravity waves region to capillary waves region, and this results in the capillary waves being able to resonate with gravity waves when the phase velocity of the gravity waves is equal to the group velocity of the capillary waves. Consequently, we propose a coupling modulation model in which the current modulates the capillary wave indirectly by modulating the resonant gravity waves, and the modulation of the former is approximated by that of the latter. This model very effectively explains the results discovered in our experiments. Further, based on Bragg scattering theory and this coupling modulation model, we simulate the modulation of normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of typical internal waves and show that the high-frequency bands are superior to the low-frequency bands because of their greater modulation of NRCS and better radiometric resolution. This result provides new support for choice of radar band for observation of wave-current modulation oceanic phenomena such as internal waves, fronts, and shears.
Estimating gravity wave parameters from oblique high-frequency backscatter: Modeling and analysis
Bristow, W.A.; Greenwald, R.A.
1995-03-01
A new technique for estimating electron density perturbation amplitudes of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs), using HF radar data, is presented. TIDs are observed in HF radar data as enhancements of the ground-scattered power which propagate through the radar`s field of view. These TIDs are the ionospheric manifestation of atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves. TID electron density perturbation amplitudes were estimated by simulating the radar returns, using HF ray tracing through a model ionosphere perturbed by a model gravity wave. The simulation determined the return power in the ground-scattered portion of the signal as a function of range, and this was compared to HF radar data from the Goose Bay HF radar at a time when evidence of gravity waves was present in the data. By varying the amplitude of the electron density perturbation in the model it was possible to estimate the perturbation of the actual wave. It was found that the perturbations that are observed by the Goose Bay HF radar are of the order of 20% to 35%. It was also found that the number of observable power enhancements, and the relative amplitudes of these enhancements, depended on the vertical thickness of the gravity wave`s source region. From the simulations and observations it was estimated that the source region for the case presented here was approximately 20 km thick. In addition, the energy in the wave packet was calculated and compared to an estimate of the available energy in the source region. It was found that the wave energy was about 0.2% of the estimated available source region energy. 20 refs., 12 figs.
A 70th Degree Lunar Gravity Model (GLGM-2) from Clementine and other tracking data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemonie, Frank G. R.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.
1997-01-01
A spherical harmonic model of the lunar gravity field complete to degree and order 70 has been developed from S band Doppler tracking data from the Clementine mission, as well as historical tracking data from Lunar Orbiters 1-5 and the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites. The model combines 361,000 Doppler observations from Clementine with 347,000 historical observations. The historical data consist of mostly 60-s Doppler with a noise of 0.25 to several mm/s. The Clementine data consist of mostly 10-s Doppler data, with a data noise of 0.25 mm/s for the observations from the Deep Space Network, and 2.5 mm/s for the data from a naval tracking station at Pomonkey, Maryland. Observations provided Clementine, provide the strongest satellite constraint on the Moon's low-degree field. In contrast the historical data, collected by spacecraft that had lower periapsis altitudes, provide distributed regions of high-resolution coverage within +/- 29 deg of the nearside lunar equator. To obtain the solution for a high-degree field in the absence of a uniform distribution of observations, we applied an a priori power law constraint of the form 15 x 10(exp -5)/sq l which had the effect of limiting the gravitational power and noise at short wavelengths. Coefficients through degree and order 18 are not significantly affected by the constraint, and so the model permits geophysical analysis of effects of the major basins at degrees 10-12. The GLGM-2 model confirms major features of the lunar gravity field shown in previous gravitational field models but also reveals significantly more detail, particularly at intermediate wavelengths (10(exp 3) km). Free-air gravity anomaly maps derived from the new model show the nearside and farside highlands to be gravitationally smooth, reflecting a state of isostatic compensation. Mascon basins (including Imbrium, Serenitatis, Crisium, Smythii, and Humorum) are denoted by gravity highs first recognized from Lunar Orbiter tracking. All of the major
Statefinder diagnosis for holographic dark energy models in modified f(R,T) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, C. P.; Kumar, Pankaj
2016-05-01
In this paper we consider the non-viscous and viscous holographic dark energy models in modified f(R,T) gravity in which the infra-red cutoff is set by the Hubble horizon. We find power-law and exponential form of scale factor for non-viscous and viscous models, respectively. It is shown that the Hubble horizon as an infra-red cut-off is suitable for both the models to explain the recent accelerated expansion. In non-viscous model, we find that there is no phase transition. However, viscous model explains the phase transition from decelerated phase to accelerated phase. The cosmological parameters like deceleration parameter and statefinder parameters are discussed to analyze the dynamics of evolution of the Universe for both the models. The trajectories for viscous model are plotted in r-s and r-q planes to discriminate our model with the existing dark energy models which show the quintessence like behavior.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganci, G.; Currenti, G.; Del Negro, C.
2006-12-01
Elastic finite element models are applied to investigate the effects of topography and medium heterogeneities on the surface deformation and the gravity field produced by volcanic pressure sources. Changes in the gravity field cannot be interpreted only in terms of gain of mass disregarding the deformations of the rocks surrounding the source. Contributions to gravity variations depend also on surface and subsurface mass redistribution driven by dilation of the volcanic source. Both ground deformation and gravity changes were firstly evaluated by solving a coupled axial symmetric problem to estimate the effects of topography and medium heterogeneities. Numerical results show significant discrepancies in the ground deformation and gravity field compared to those predicted by analytical solutions, which disregard topography, elastic heterogeneities and density subsurface structures. With this in mind, we reviewed the expected gravity changes accompanying the 1993- 1997 inflation phase on Mt Etna by setting up a fully 3D finite element model in which we used the real topography of Etna volcano to include the geometry and seismic tomography data to infer crustal heterogeneities. The inflation phase was clearly detected by different geodetic techniques (EDM, GPS, SAR and leveling data) that showed a uniform expansion of the overall volcano edifice. When the gravity data are integrated with ground deformation data and a coupled modeling is solved, a mass intrusion is expected at depth to justify both ground deformation and gravity observation. Our findings highlighted two main points. Firstly, geodetic and gravity data, which independently reflect the state of volcano, need to be jointly modeled in order to obtain a reliable estimate of the depth and density of the intrusion. Secondly, the application of finite element methods allows for a more accurate modeling procedure, which might provide sensible insight into volcanic source definition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirt, Christian; Rexer, Moritz; Scheinert, Mirko; Pail, Roland; Claessens, Sten; Holmes, Simon
2016-02-01
The current high-degree global geopotential models EGM2008 and EIGEN-6C4 resolve gravity field structures to ˜ 10 km spatial scales over most parts of the of Earth's surface. However, a notable exception is continental Antarctica, where the gravity information in these and other recent models is based on satellite gravimetry observations only, and thus limited to about ˜ 80-120 km spatial scales. Here, we present a new degree-2190 global gravity model (GGM) that for the first time improves the spatial resolution of the gravity field over the whole of continental Antarctica to ˜ 10 km spatial scales. The new model called SatGravRET2014 is a combination of recent Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite gravimetry with gravitational signals derived from the 2013 Bedmap2 topography/ice thickness/bedrock model with gravity forward modelling in ellipsoidal approximation. Bedmap2 is a significantly improved description of the topographic mass distribution over the Antarctic region based on a multitude of topographic surveys, and a well-suited source for modelling short-scale gravity signals as we show in our study. We describe the development of SatGravRET2014 which entirely relies on spherical harmonic modelling techniques. Details are provided on the least-squares combination procedures and on the conversion of topography to implied gravitational potential. The main outcome of our work is the SatGravRET2014 spherical harmonic series expansion to degree 2190, and derived high-resolution grids of 3D-synthesized gravity and quasigeoid effects over the whole of Antarctica. For validation, six data sets from the IAG Subcommission 2.4f "Gravity and Geoid in Antarctica" (AntGG) database were used comprising a total of 1,092,981 airborne gravimetric observations. All subsets consistently show that the Bedmap2-based short-scale gravity modelling improves the agreement over satellite
Preliminary gravity inversion model of basins east of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.
Geoffrey A. Phelps; Carter W. Roberts, and Barry C. Moring
2006-03-17
The Yucca Flat eastern extension study area, a 14 kilometer by 45 kilometer region contiguous to Yucca Flat on the west and Frenchman Flat on the south, is being studied to expand the boundary of the Yucca Flat hydrogeologic model. The isostatic residual gravity anomaly was inverted to create a model of the depth of the geologic basins within the study area. Such basins typically are floored by dense pre-Tertiary basement rocks and filled with less-dense Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks and Quaternary alluvium, a necessary condition for the use of gravity modeling to predict the depth to the pre-Tertiary basement rocks within the basins. Three models were created: a preferred model to represent the best estimate of depth to pre-Tertiary basement rocks in the study area, and two end-member models to demonstrate the possible range of solutions. The preferred model predicts shallow basins, generally less than 1,000m depth, throughout the study area, with only Emigrant Valley reaching a depth of 1,100m. Plutonium valley and West Fork Scarp Canyon have maximum depths of 800m and 1,000m, respectively. The end-member models indicate that the uncertainty in the preferred model is less than 200m for most of the study area.
Building 3D geological knowledge through regional scale gravity modelling for the Bowen Basin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danis, Cara; O'Neill, Craig; Lackie, Mark
2012-01-01
Regional scale gravity modelling is an effective and fast way to gain geological understanding of large scale structures like the Bowen Basin. Detailed deep 3D geological knowledge has become an important component of many types of exploration and resource modelling. Current interest in the Bowen Basin for geothermal exploration highlights the need for a complete basin scale model which is compatible with thermal modelling software. The structure of the Bowen Basin is characteristic of a typical asymmetrical extensional rift basin, with up to 5km of sediment overlying the basement. By combining gravity modelling, calibrated by boreholes and seismic reflection profiles, we produce geologically reasonable 3D surfaces and structures to create a model of the Bowen Basin. This model is the final part in the completion of the 3D Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin system geological model and provides both an important framework from which detailed thermal models can be derived and a platform from which to expand with new information.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, I. S.; Jee, G.; Kim, B. M.
2015-12-01
Mesoscale gravity waves are simulated by carrying out the specified chemistry whole atmosphere community climate model (SC-WACCM) at the horizontal resolution of about 25 km to understand the origin of gravity waves in the polar mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) and their propagation properties throughout the whole atmosphere. Modeled gravity waves are also compared with gravity-wave activities estimated from meteor radar observations made in Antarctica by Korea Polar Research Institute. For this comparison, SC-WACCM is initialized at a specific date and time using atmospheric state variables from the ground to the thermosphere obtained from various data sets such as operational analyses and empirical wind and temperature model results. Model initial conditions are corrected for mass and dynamical balance to reduce spurious waves due to initial shocks. At conference, preliminary results of the mesoscale SC-WACCM simulation and its comparison with observations will be presented.
Gravity effects of liquid plug transport in airway models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suresh, V.; Grotberg, James B.
2002-11-01
Surfactant replacement therapy (SRT), which is commonly used to treat pulmonary surfactant deficiency in infants, and liquid ventilation both involve the instillation of a liquid bolus into the trachea. When the bolus forms an air-blown plug, optimal delivery of the surfactant or perfluorocarbon to various regions of the lung can depend on uniform dispersion through bifurcating airways. In higher generation airways gravitational and surface tension effects can influence plug rupture and plug shape, which in turn affects the mass split ratio at successive bifurcations. These effects are studied using a simplified theoretical model involving the quasi-steady motion of a liquid plug through a liquid-lined rigid cylindrical tube. A matched asymptotic expansion is used in the limit of small capillary numbers to determine the thickness of the trailing liquid film, shape of the plug and the pressure drop across it. It is found that rupture occurs when the pressure drop across the plug exceeds a critical value that depends on the Bond and capillary numbers. It is also found that gravitational effects can lead to unequal mass split ratios at bifurcations. The theoretical predictions are compared with bench-top experiments.
High-resolution Gravity Field Models of the Moon Using GRAIL mission Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemoine, Frank G.; Goossens, Sander; Sabaka, Terrence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Loomis, Bryant D.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.
2015-04-01
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission was designed to map the structure of the lunar interior from crust to core and to advance the understanding of the Moon's thermal evolution by producing a high-quality, high-resolution map of the gravitational field of the Moon. GRAIL consisted of two spacecraft, with Ka-band tracking between the two satellites as the single science instrument, with the addition of Earth-based tracking using the Deep Space Network. The science mission was divided into two phases: a primary mission from March 1, 2012 to May 29, 2012, and an extended mission from August 30, 2012 to December 14, 2012. The altitude varied from 3 km to 94 km above the lunar surface during both mission phases. Both the primary and the extended mission data have been processed into global models of the lunar gravity field at NASA/GSFC using the GEODYN software up to 1080 x 1080 in spherical harmonics. In addition to the high-resolution global models, local models have also been developed. Due to varying spacecraft altitude and ground track spacing, the actual resolution of the global models varies geographically. Information beyond the current resolution is still present in the data, as indicated by relatively higher fits in the last part of the extended mission, where the satellites achieved their lowest altitude above lunar surface. Local models of the lunar gravitational field at high resolution were thus estimated to accommodate this signal. Here, we present the current status of GRAIL gravity modeling at NASA/GSFC, for both global and local models. We discuss the methods we used for the processing of the GRAIL data, and evaluate these solutions with respect to the derived power spectra, Bouguer anomalies, and fits with independent data (such as from the low-altitude phase of the Lunar Prospector mission). We also evaluate the prospects for extending the resolution of our current models
Spherical-earth gravity and magnetic anomaly modeling by Gauss-Legendre quadrature integration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Von Frese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.; Luca, A. J.
1981-01-01
Gauss-Legendre quadrature integration is used to calculate the anomalous potential of gravity and magnetic fields and their spatial derivatives on a spherical earth. The procedure involves representation of the anomalous source as a distribution of equivalent point gravity poles or point magnetic dipoles. The distribution of equivalent point sources is determined directly from the volume limits of the anomalous body. The variable limits of integration for an arbitrarily shaped body are obtained from interpolations performed on a set of body points which approximate the body's surface envelope. The versatility of the method is shown by its ability to treat physical property variations within the source volume as well as variable magnetic fields over the source and observation surface. Examples are provided which illustrate the capabilities of the technique, including a preliminary modeling of potential field signatures for the Mississippi embayment crustal structure at 450 km.
Spherical-earth Gravity and Magnetic Anomaly Modeling by Gauss-legendre Quadrature Integration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.; Luca, A. J. (Principal Investigator)
1981-01-01
The anomalous potential of gravity and magnetic fields and their spatial derivatives on a spherical Earth for an arbitrary body represented by an equivalent point source distribution of gravity poles or magnetic dipoles were calculated. The distribution of equivalent point sources was determined directly from the coordinate limits of the source volume. Variable integration limits for an arbitrarily shaped body are derived from interpolation of points which approximate the body's surface envelope. The versatility of the method is enhanced by the ability to treat physical property variations within the source volume and to consider variable magnetic fields over the source and observation surface. A number of examples verify and illustrate the capabilities of the technique, including preliminary modeling of potential field signatures for Mississippi embayment crustal structure at satellite elevations.
Gravi-sensing microorganisms as model systems for gravity sensing in eukaryotes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Streb, C.; Richter, P.; Lebert, M.; Häder, D.-P.
2001-08-01
Gravi-sensing in single cells and multicellular organisms is a very active field of investigation. Similarities between gravity sensing mechanisms in uni- and multicellular eukaryotes make single cells ideal model systems for the understanding of gravity responses on the cellular and molecular level with far fetching significance for other systems. This article gives a short overview about gravi-sensing in plants (Arabidopsis, Chara) as well as the ciliates Loxodes and Paramecium and concentrates on gravitaxis research in the single cellular flagellate, Euglena gracilis. Experiments revealed the involvement of cAMP, Ca2+ specific mechanosensitive channels and membrane potential in the signal transduction chain of gravitaxis. Future perspectives for the use of motile, photosynthetic and other unicellular microorganisms for space applications e.g. for oxygen supply in life support systems or research on the origin of life are discussed.
Regional and global gravity models from the analysis of GOCE level-1b data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schall, Judith; Eicker, Annette; Kusche, Jürgen
2013-04-01
ESA's GOCE satellite mission delivers accurate data of high resolution and nearly global coverage. The standard approach is to analyse these observations using the globally defined spherical harmonic functions. However, regional (radial) base functions provide the advantage to be more flexible in modelling data of differing density and variability, which clearly is the case for satellite gravity data. Particularly, a regionally adapted regularisation process enables optimal damping of both, regions featuring rough signal and rather smooth areas, at the same time. This is of special interest for GOCE because of its strength in observing the high frequency part of the gravity field. The present paper represents the final results of the project GLOREGOCE which is part of the German funded research programme REAL GOCE. The project mainly aims at providing regionally refined gravity field models by applying the short arc approach on GOCE orbit and (pure) gradiometer data. For easy investigation, regional solutions calculated on small patches all over the globe have been merged and transformed to a spherical harmonic expansion by means of quadrature methods. The power of the regional approach is demonstrated by comparison to spherical harmonic models, which are based on exactly the same processing strategy, standards and data time span. We show, that these global models are comparable in accuracy with respect to the official GOCE models published by ESA. Moreover, we will show that regional models perform even better compared to global models in the higher frequencies: In oceanic areas, the regionally adapted regularisation process leads to a noise reduction of about 10%. A more tailored choice of the regularisation areas tested for the South Sandwich Trench reveals improvements that are nearly twice as large.
Heat flow and gravity responses over salt bodies: A comparative model analysis
Corrigan, J.; Sweat, M.
1995-07-01
Two-dimensional numerical modeling of sea-floor heat flow and water-bottom gravity responses to systematic variations in simple subsurface salt body geometries provides insight on the relative usefulness of these two data types for extracting salt geometry information. For a given salt body geometry, diffusion of heat through overlying sediments results in a dramatic decrease in the amplitude of heat flow anomalies as the depth to the top of the salt body increases. For top-of-salt depths greater than about 1 km, the heat flow response is insensitive to the length of salt feeder stocks and to the thickness of salt tongues/sheets. This shallow depth-to-top-of-salt sensitivity range, in addition to a number of environmental factors that can adversely affect interpretation of heat flow anomalies in terms of heat refraction towards and through salt bodies, severely limits the usefulness of sea-floor heat flow data for constraining aspects of salt body geometry. For gravity data, the critical factor for addressing salt body geometry is the distribution of salt relative to the sediment-salt density crossover depth (above and below which salt is more and less dense, respectively, than the surrounding sediment). Except when ht relevant geometry information being sought (presence and/or length of feeder stock, thickness of salt tongue or sheet) is near the density crossover depth, the geometry-related information content of the gravity field is greater than that of the heat flow field. Based on these model results, measurement uncertainty considerations, and data limitations, the authors conclude that gravity data generally offer an order of magnitude greater resolution capability than sea-floor heat flow data for addressing salt body geometry issues of exploration interest.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erol, Serdar; Serkan Isık, Mustafa; Erol, Bihter
2016-04-01
The recent Earth gravity field satellite missions data lead significant improvement in Global Geopotential Models in terms of both accuracy and resolution. However the improvement in accuracy is not the same everywhere in the Earth and therefore quantifying the level of improvement locally is necessary using the independent data. The validations of the level-3 products from the gravity field satellite missions, independently from the estimation procedures of these products, are possible using various arbitrary data sets, as such the terrestrial gravity observations, astrogeodetic vertical deflections, GPS/leveling data, the stationary sea surface topography. Quantifying the quality of the gravity field functionals via recent products has significant importance for determination of the regional geoid modeling, base on the satellite and terrestrial data fusion with an optimal algorithm, beside the statistical reporting the improvement rates depending on spatial location. In the validations, the errors and the systematic differences between the data and varying spectral content of the compared signals should be considered in order to have comparable results. In this manner this study compares the performance of Wavelet decomposition and spectral enhancement techniques in validation of the GOCE/GRACE based Earth gravity field models using GPS/leveling and terrestrial gravity data in Turkey. The terrestrial validation data are filtered using Wavelet decomposition technique and the numerical results from varying levels of decomposition are compared with the results which are derived using the spectral enhancement approach with contribution of an ultra-high resolution Earth gravity field model. The tests include the GO-DIR-R5, GO-TIM-R5, GOCO05S, EIGEN-6C4 and EGM2008 global models. The conclusion discuss the superiority and drawbacks of both concepts as well as reporting the performance of tested gravity field models with an estimate of their contribution to modeling the
Numerical Modeling Studies of Thermospheric Metal Layers Driven by Gravity Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Z.; Chu, X.
2013-12-01
As the lower boundary of ionosphere and space weather regime, the mesosphere and thermosphere is a chemically and dynamically complex and important region. The roles of atmospheric gravity waves in transporting energy and momentum and causing atmospheric and ionospheric disturbances have been recognized by theoretical studies and observational evidence. The thermospheric neutral Fe layers discovered by the Chu lidar group at McMurdo (77.8S, 166.7E), Antarctica, exhibit well defined gravity wave signatures in the altitude range of 110~155 km. Those thermospheric Fe layers provide an excellent trace for measuring neutral temperature and winds in the thermosphere. Our theory argues that the observed Fe layers are a result of coupling of electrodynamical, neutral dynamical and chemical processes. The thermospheric Fe atoms are produced by neutralization of converged Fe+ layers driven by gravity wave wind shear. Although a qualitative understanding has been offered in a paper by Chu et al., the quantitative understanding of the neutral Fe layer formation and wave structures is unresolved. Meanwhile, the chemical process is highly coupled with the electrodynamic and thermodynamic processes in the E-F regions, which leads to more difficulties to understand the new observations. Such challenges stimulate our development of a numerical model. A time-dependent, 1-D, high-latitude Fe/Fe+ model has been developed to simulate the observed Fe profiles based on the first principles of physics and chemistry. The model solves ions' motion explicitly taking the full Fe chemistry and ambient ions chemistry in the E-F region into account. In this paper, we will demonstrate that gravity wave wind shear creates Fe+ layers of enhanced density that produce neutral Fe layers consistent with observations. Besides the wind-shear mechanism, electric field driving force is also important for transporting and converging Fe+ at high latitudes. Electric field can cause divergent or convergent ion
Chiral fermions in asymptotically safe quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meibohm, J.; Pawlowski, J. M.
2016-05-01
We study the consistency of dynamical fermionic matter with the asymptotic safety scenario of quantum gravity using the functional renormalisation group. Since this scenario suggests strongly coupled quantum gravity in the UV, one expects gravity-induced fermion self-interactions at energies of the Planck scale. These could lead to chiral symmetry breaking at very high energies and thus to large fermion masses in the IR. The present analysis which is based on the previous works (Christiansen et al., Phys Rev D 92:121501, 2015; Meibohm et al., Phys Rev D 93:084035, 2016), concludes that gravity-induced chiral symmetry breaking at the Planck scale is avoided for a general class of NJL-type models. We find strong evidence that this feature is independent of the number of fermion fields. This finding suggests that the phase diagram for these models is topologically stable under the influence of gravitational interactions.
Preliminary gravity inversion model of Frenchman Flat Basin, Nevada Test Site, Nevada
Phelps, G.A.; Graham, S.E.
2002-10-01
The depth of the basin beneath Frenchman Flat is estimated using a gravity inversion method. Gamma-gamma density logs from two wells in Frenchman Flat constrained the density profiles used to create the gravity inversion model. Three initial models were considered using data from one well, then a final model is proposed based on new information from the second well. The preferred model indicates that a northeast-trending oval-shaped basin underlies Frenchman Flat at least 2,100 m deep, with a maximum depth of 2,400 m at its northeast end. No major horst and graben structures are predicted. Sensitivity analysis of the model indicates that each parameter contributes the same magnitude change to the model, up to 30 meters change in depth for a 1% change in density, but some parameters affect a broader area of the basin. The horizontal resolution of the model was determined by examining the spacing between data stations, and was set to 500 square meters.
Plant Growth Biophysics: the Basis for Growth Asymmetry Induced by