NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oda, Ichiro
We propose a topological model of induced gravity (pregeometry) where both Newton’s coupling constant and the cosmological constant appear as integration constants in solving field equations. The matter sector of a scalar field is also considered, and by solving field equations it is shown that various types of cosmological solutions in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe can be obtained. A detailed analysis is given of the meaning of the BRST transformations, which make the induced gravity be a topological field theory, by means of the canonical quantization analysis, and the physical reason why such BRST transformations are needed in the present formalism is clarified. Finally, we propose a dynamical mechanism for fixing the Lagrange multiplier fields by following the Higgs mechanism. The present study clearly indicates that the induced gravity can be constructed at the classical level without recourse to quantum fluctuations of matter and suggests an interesting relationship between the induced gravity and the topological quantum-field theory (TQFT).
Cosmology of a holographic induced gravity model with curvature effects
Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Errahmani, Ahmed; Ouali, Taoufiq
2011-10-15
We present a holographic model of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati scenario with a Gauss-Bonnet term in the bulk. We concentrate on the solution that generalizes the normal Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati branch. It is well known that this branch cannot describe the late-time acceleration of the universe even with the inclusion of a Gauss-Bonnet term. Here, we show that this branch in the presence of a Gauss-Bonnet curvature effect and a holographic dark energy with the Hubble scale as the infrared cutoff can describe the late-time acceleration of the universe. It is worthwhile to stress that such an energy density component cannot do the same job on the normal Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati branch (without Gauss-Bonnet modifications) nor in a standard four-dimensional relativistic model. The acceleration on the brane is also presented as being induced through an effective dark energy which corresponds to a balance between the holographic one and geometrical effects encoded through the Hubble parameter.
Extended Holography: Double-Trace Deformation and Brane-Induced Gravity Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barvinsky, A. O.
2017-03-01
We put forward a conjecture that for a special class of models - models of the double-trace deformation and brane-induced gravity types - the principle of holographic dualitiy can be extended beyond conformal invariance and anti-de Sitter (AdS) isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on the boundary.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boy, Jean-Paul; Longuevergne, Laurent; Boudin, Frédéric; Jacob, Thomas; Lyard, Florent; Llubes, Muriel; Florsch, Nicolas; Esnoult, Marie-France
2009-12-01
We investigate the contribution of atmospheric and its induced non-tidal oceanic loading effects on surface time-varying gravity and tilt measurements for several stations in Western Europe. The ocean response to pressure forcing can be modelled accordingly to the inverted barometer, i.e. assuming that air pressure variations are fully compensated by static sea height changes, or using ocean general circulation models. We validate two runs of the HUGO-m barotropic ocean model by comparing predicted sea surface height variations with hundred tide-gauge measurements along the European coasts. We then show that global surface pressure field, as well as a barotropic high-resolution ocean model forced by air pressure and winds allow in most cases a significant reduction of the variance of gravity residuals and, to a smaller extends tilt residuals. We finally show that precise gravity measurements with superconducting gravimeters allow the observation of large storm surges, occurring in the North Sea, even for inland stations. However, we also confirm that the continental hydrology contribution cannot be neglected. Thanks to their specific sensitivity feature, only tiltmeters closest to the coast can clearly detect the loading due to these storm surges.
A Model Study of Zonal Forcing in the Equatorial Stratosphere by Convectively Induced Gravity Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alexander, M. J.; Holton, James R.
1997-01-01
A two-dimensional cloud-resolving model is used to examine the possible role of gravity waves generated by a simulated tropical squall line in forcing the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of the zonal winds in the equatorial stratosphere. A simulation with constant background stratospheric winds is compared to simulations with background winds characteristic of the westerly and easterly QBO phases, respectively. In all three cases a broad spectrum of both eastward and westward propagating gravity waves is excited. In the constant background wind case the vertical momentum flux is nearly constant with height in the stratosphere, after correction for waves leaving the model domain. In the easterly and westerly shear cases, however, westward and eastward propagating waves, respectively, are strongly damped as they approach their critical levels, owing to the strongly scale-dependent vertical diffusion in the model. The profiles of zonal forcing induced by this wave damping are similar to profiles given by critical level absorption, but displaced slightly downward. The magnitude of the zonal forcing is of order 5 m/s/day. It is estimated that if 2% of the area of the Tropics were occupied by storms of similar magnitude, mesoscale gravity waves could provide nearly 1/4 of the zonal forcing required for the QBO.
Modeling of jet-induced geyser formation in a reduced gravity environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wendl, M. C.; Hochstein, J. I.; Sasmal, G. P.
1991-01-01
Flow patterns predicted by a computational model of jet-induced geyser formation in a reduced gravity environment are presented and comparison is made to patterns predicted by experimentally based correlations. The configuration studied is an idealization of a forthcoming flight experiment to examine cryogenic propellant management issues. A transitional version of the ECLIPSE code used as a computational tool for the analyses is described. It is shown that computationally predicted flow patterns are in qualitative agreement with the correlation-based predictions, and some details of the predicted flow fields are given.
Induced gravity II: grand unification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Einhorn, Martin B.; Jones, D. R. Timothy
2016-05-01
As an illustration of a renormalizable, asymptotically-free model of induced gravity, we consider an SO(10) gauge theory interacting with a real scalar multiplet in the adjoint representation. We show that dimensional transmutation can occur, spontaneously breaking SO(10) to SU(5)⊗U(1), while inducing the Planck mass and a positive cosmological constant, all proportional to the same scale v. All mass ratios are functions of the values of coupling constants at that scale. Below this scale (at which the Big Bang may occur), the model takes the usual form of Einstein-Hilbert gravity in de Sitter space plus calculable corrections. We show that there exist regions of parameter space in which the breaking results in a local minimum of the effective action giving a positive dilaton (mass)2 from two-loop corrections associated with the conformal anomaly. Furthermore, unlike the singlet case we considered previously, some minima lie within the basin of attraction of the ultraviolet fixed point. Moreover, the asymptotic behavior of the coupling constants also lie within the range of convergence of the Euclidean path integral, so there is hope that there will be candidates for sensible vacua. Although open questions remain concerning unitarity of all such renormalizable models of gravity, it is not obvious that, in curved backgrounds such as those considered here, unitarity is violated. In any case, any violation that may remain will be suppressed by inverse powers of the reduced Planck mass.
Phenomenological Model of Multiphase Cosmological Scenario in Theory of Induced Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaripov, F. Sh.
2017-03-01
Equations that describe the theory have solutions that can both match with the solutions of the standard theory of gravity as well as can differ from it. This is due to the fact that the fundamental constants of the theory, such as gravitational and cosmological, can evolve over time and also depend on the coordinates. Thus, in a rather general case the theory describes the two systems (stages): Einstein and evolving. This process is similar to the phenomenon of phase transition, where different phases (Einstein gravity system, but with different constants) transit into each other. This article is a continuation of the author research with application to the cosmological model.
CMB and BAO constraints for an induced gravity dark energy model with a quartic potential
Umiltà, C.; Ballardini, M.
2015-08-01
We study the predictions for structure formation in an induced gravity dark energy model with a quartic potential. By developing a dedicated Einstein-Boltzmann code, we study self-consistently the dynamics of homogeneous cosmology and of linear perturbations without using any parametrization. By evolving linear perturbations with initial conditions in the radiation era, we accurately recover the quasi-static analytic approximation in the matter dominated era. We use PLANCK 2013 data and a compilation of baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) data to constrain the coupling γ to the Ricci curvature and the other cosmological parameters. By connecting the gravitational constant in the Einstein equation to the one measured in a Cavendish-like experiment, we find γ < 0.0012 at 95% CL with PLANCK 2013 and BAO data. This is the tightest cosmological constraint on γ and on the corresponding derived post-Newtonian parameters. Because of a degeneracy between γ and the Hubble constant H{sub 0}, we show how larger values for γ are allowed, but not preferred at a significant statistical level, when local measurements of H{sub 0} are combined in the analysis with PLANCK 2013 data.
Feeling Gravity's Pull: Gravity Modeling. The Gravity Field of Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, Frank; Smith, David; Rowlands, David; Zuber, Maria; Neumann, G.; Chinn, Douglas; Pavlis, D.
2000-01-01
atmosphere of the Earth. Supercomputers can calculate the effect of gravity for specific locations in space following a mathematical process known as spherical harmonics, which quantifies the gravity field of a planetary body. The process is based on Laplace's fundamental differential equation of gravity. The accuracy of a spherical harmonic solution is rated by its degree and order. Minute variations in gravity are measured against the geoid, a surface of constant gravity acceleration at mean sea level. The geoid reference gravity model strength includes the central body gravitational attraction (9.8 m/sq s) and a geopotential variation in latitude partially caused by the rotation of the Earth. The rotational effect modifies the shape of the geoid to be more like an ellipsoid, rather than a perfect, circle. Variations of gravity strength from the ellipsoidal reference model are measured in units called milli-Galileos (mGals). One mGal equals 10(exp -5) m/sq s. Research projects have also measured the gravity fields of other planetary bodies, as noted in the user profile that follows. From this information, we may make inferences about our own planet's internal structure and evolution. Moreover, mapping the gravity fields of other planets can help scientists plot the most fuel-efficient course for spacecraft expeditions to those planets.
Nicole Lautze
2015-12-15
Gravity model for the state of Hawaii. Data is from the following source: Flinders, A.F., Ito, G., Garcia, M.O., Sinton, J.M., Kauahikaua, J.P., and Taylor, B., 2013, Intrusive dike complexes, cumulate cores, and the extrusive growth of Hawaiian volcanoes: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 40, p. 3367–3373, doi:10.1002/grl.50633.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lefèvre, Maxence; Spiga, Aymeric; Lebonnois, Sébastien
2017-01-01
The impact of the cloud convective layer of the atmosphere of Venus on the global circulation remains unclear. The recent observations of gravity waves at the top of the cloud by the Venus Express mission provided some answers. These waves are not resolved at the scale of global circulation models (GCM); therefore, we developed an unprecedented 3-D turbulence-resolving large-eddy simulations (LES) Venusian model using the Weather Research and Forecast terrestrial model. The forcing consists of three different heating rates: two radiative ones for solar and infrared and one associated with the adiabatic cooling/warming of the global circulation. The rates are extracted from the Laboratoire de Météorlogie Dynamique Venus GCM using two different cloud models. Thus, we are able to characterize the convection and associated gravity waves in function of latitude and local time. To assess the impact of the global circulation on the convective layer, we used rates from a 1-D radiative-convective model. The resolved layer, taking place between 1.0 × 105 and 3.8 × 104 Pa (48-53 km), is organized as polygonal closed cells of about 10 km wide with vertical wind of several meters per second. The convection emits gravity waves both above and below the convective layer leading to temperature perturbations of several tenths of kelvin with vertical wavelength between 1 and 3 km and horizontal wavelength from 1 to 10 km. The thickness of the convective layer and the amplitudes of waves are consistent with observations, though slightly underestimated. The global dynamics heating greatly modify the convective layer.
Induced gauge theories and W gravity
Schoutens, K. . Inst. for Theoretical Physics); Sevrin, A. ); van Nieuwenhuizen, P. . Theory Div. State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY . Inst. for Theoretical Physics)
1991-11-01
We review some aspects of induced gauge theories in two dimensions. We focus on W{sub 3} gravity, paying particular attention to the treatment of the non-linearities inherent to W gravity. We show that the induced action {Gamma}{sub ind}(h,b) for chiral W{sub 3} in the c {yields} {plus minus}infinity limit is obtained from the induced action of a gauged Sl(3,R) Wess-Zumino-Witten model by imposing constraints on some of the affine currents. Subsequently we investigate the effective action, which is obtained by integrating the induced action over the gauge fields. We show perturbatively that certain subleading terms which appear in the induced action for finite c (and which are related to nonlocal terms in the Ward identifies) get canceled by similar terms due to loop corrections, and we propose an all-order result for the effective action.
Induced gauge theories and W gravity
Schoutens, K.; Sevrin, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P. |
1991-11-01
We review some aspects of induced gauge theories in two dimensions. We focus on W{sub 3} gravity, paying particular attention to the treatment of the non-linearities inherent to W gravity. We show that the induced action {Gamma}{sub ind}[h,b] for chiral W{sub 3} in the c {yields} {plus_minus}infinity limit is obtained from the induced action of a gauged Sl(3,R) Wess-Zumino-Witten model by imposing constraints on some of the affine currents. Subsequently we investigate the effective action, which is obtained by integrating the induced action over the gauge fields. We show perturbatively that certain subleading terms which appear in the induced action for finite c (and which are related to nonlocal terms in the Ward identifies) get canceled by similar terms due to loop corrections, and we propose an all-order result for the effective action.
A model of gravity-induced distribution of material in plasma polymerized aerosols and films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zyn, V. I.
2008-01-01
A mathematical model of the volumetric part of plasma polymerization influenced by gravity is presented. Plasma-activated adhesion of monomer molecules to a surface of a germinal particle is assumed as a basic mechanism of particulate growth. The continuity equation for the flow of matter through the discharge has been formulated and solved in two extreme asymptotic approximations --for small and major duration of the process. Several non-equilibrium distribution functions of the polymer were obtained, for instance, an amount of the particles as a function of their size or time of fall. Within the adopted model this function demonstrates a sharp downward increase inside a discharge. In addition it contains such parameters as the free fall acceleration or reaction rate coefficients, variations of which enable control of the discharge and properties of the disperse medium.
Distinguishing modified gravity models
Brax, Philippe
2015-10-01
Modified gravity models with screening in local environments appear in three different guises: chameleon, K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms. We propose to look for differences between these classes of models by considering cosmological observations at low redshift. In particular, we analyse the redshift dependence of the fine structure constant and the proton to electron mass ratio in each of these scenarios. When the absorption lines belong to unscreened regions of space such as dwarf galaxies, a time variation would be present for chameleons. For both K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms, the cosmological time variation of the scalar field is not suppressed in both unscreened and screened environments, therefore enhancing the variation of constants and their detection prospect. We also consider the time variation of the redshift of distant objects using their spectrocopic velocities. We find that models of the K-mouflage and Vainshtein types have very different spectroscopic velocities as a function of redshift and that their differences with the Λ-CDM template should be within reach of the future ELT-HIRES observations.
Terrestrial gravity data analysis for interim gravity model improvement
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1987-01-01
This is the first status report for the Interim Gravity Model research effort that was started on June 30, 1986. The basic theme of this study is to develop appropriate models and adjustment procedures for estimating potential coefficients from terrestrial gravity data. The plan is to use the latest gravity data sets to produce coefficient estimates as well as to provide normal equations to NASA for use in the TOPEX/POSEIDON gravity field modeling program.
Model selection for modified gravity.
Kitching, T D; Simpson, F; Heavens, A F; Taylor, A N
2011-12-28
In this article, we review model selection predictions for modified gravity scenarios as an explanation for the observed acceleration of the expansion history of the Universe. We present analytical procedures for calculating expected Bayesian evidence values in two cases: (i) that modified gravity is a simple parametrized extension of general relativity (GR; two nested models), such that a Bayes' factor can be calculated, and (ii) that we have a class of non-nested models where a rank-ordering of evidence values is required. We show that, in the case of a minimal modified gravity parametrization, we can expect large area photometric and spectroscopic surveys, using three-dimensional cosmic shear and baryonic acoustic oscillations, to 'decisively' distinguish modified gravity models over GR (or vice versa), with odds of ≫1:100. It is apparent that the potential discovery space for modified gravity models is large, even in a simple extension to gravity models, where Newton's constant G is allowed to vary as a function of time and length scale. On the time and length scales where dark energy dominates, it is only through large-scale cosmological experiments that we can hope to understand the nature of gravity.
Quantum-gravity effects on a Higgs-Yukawa model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eichhorn, Astrid; Held, Aaron; Pawlowski, Jan M.
2016-11-01
A phenomenologically viable theory of quantum gravity must accommodate all observed matter degrees of freedom and their properties. Here, we explore whether a toy model of the Higgs-Yukawa sector of the Standard Model is compatible with asymptotically safe quantum gravity. We discuss the phenomenological implications of our result in the context of the Standard Model. We analyze the quantum scaling dimension of the system and find an irrelevant Yukawa coupling at a joint gravity-matter fixed point. Further, we explore the impact of gravity-induced couplings between scalars and fermions, which are nonvanishing in asymptotically safe gravity.
Perturbations of nested branes with induced gravity
Sbisà, Fulvio; Koyama, Kazuya E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk
2014-06-01
We study the behaviour of weak gravitational fields in models where a 4D brane is embedded inside a 5D brane equipped with induced gravity, which in turn is embedded in a 6D spacetime. We consider a specific regularization of the branes internal structures where the 5D brane can be considered thin with respect to the 4D one. We find exact solutions corresponding to pure tension source configurations on the thick 4D brane, and study perturbations at first order around these background solutions. To perform the perturbative analysis, we adopt a bulk-based approach and we express the equations in terms of gauge invariant and master variables using a 4D scalar-vector-tensor decomposition. We then propose an ansatz on the behaviour of the perturbation fields when the thickness of the 4D brane goes to zero, which corresponds to configurations where gravity remains finite everywhere in the thin limit of the 4D brane. We study the equations of motion using this ansatz, and show that they give rise to a consistent set of differential equations in the thin limit, from which the details of the internal structure of the 4D brane disappear. We conclude that the thin limit of the ''ribbon'' 4D brane inside the (already thin) 5D brane is well defined (at least when considering first order perturbations around pure tension configurations), and that the gravitational field on the 4D brane remains finite in the thin limit. We comment on the crucial role of the induced gravity term on the 5D brane.
Starobinsky model in rainbow gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatrabhuti, Auttakit; Yingcharoenrat, Vicharit; Channuie, Phongpichit
2016-02-01
In this paper, we study the Starobinsky model of inflation in the context of gravity's rainbow theory. We propose that gravity rainbow functions can be written in the power-law form of the Hubble parameter. We present a detailed derivation of the spectral index of curvature perturbation and the tensor-to-scalar ratio and compare the predictions of our models with Planck 2015 data. We discover that in order to be consistent with Planck data up to 2 σ C.L., the viable values of Nk e -folds would satisfy 42 ≲Nk≲87 and the rainbow parameter λ is nicely constrained to be λ ≲6.0 .
Gravity-Induced Gene Expression in Plants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sederoff, Heike; Heber, Steffen; Howard, Brian; Myburg-Nichols, Henrietta; Hammond, Rebecca; Salinas-Mondragon, Raul; Brown, Christopher S.
Plants sense changes in their orientation towards the vector of gravity and respond with directional growth. Several metabolites in the signal transduction cascade have been identified. However, very little is known about the interaction between these sensing and signal transduction events and even less is known about their role in the differential growth response. Gravity induced changes in transcript abundance have been identified in Arabidopsis whole seedlings and root apices (Moseyko et al. 2002; Kimbrough et al. 2004). Gravity induced transcript abundance changes can be observed within less than 1 min after stimulation (Salinas-Mondragon et al. 2005). Gene expression however requires not only transcription but also translation of the mRNA. Translation can only occur when mRNA is associated with ribosomes, even though not all mRNA associated with ribosomes is actively translated. To approximate translational capacity we quantified whole genome transcript abundances in corn stem pulvini during the first hour after gravity stimulation in total and poly-ribosomal fractions. As in Arabidopsis root apices, transcript abundances of several clusters of genes responded to gravity stimulation. The vast majority of these transcripts were also found to associate with polyribosomes in the same temporal and quantitative pattern. These genes are transcriptionally regulated by gravity stimulation, but do not exhibit translational regulation. However, a small group of genes showed increased transcriptional regulation after gravity stimulation, but no association with polysomes. These transcripts likely are translationally repressed. The mechanism of translational repression for these transcripts is unknown. Based on the hypothesis that the genes essential for gravitropic responses should be expressed in most or all species, we compared the temporal gravity induced expression pattern of all orthologs identified between maize and Arabidopsis. A small group of genes showed high
Gravity-induced stresses in finite slopes
Savage, W.Z.
1994-01-01
An exact solution for gravity-induced stresses in finite elastic slopes is presented. This solution, which is applied for gravity-induced stresses in 15, 30, 45 and 90?? finite slopes, has application in pit-slope design, compares favorably with published finite element results for this problem and satisfies the conditions that shear and normal stresses vanish on the ground surface. The solution predicts that horizontal stresses are compressive along the top of the slopes (zero in the case of the 90?? slope) and tensile away from the bottom of the slopes, effects which are caused by downward movement and near-surface horizontal extension in front of the slope in response to gravity loading caused by the additional material associated with the finite slope. ?? 1994.
Escherichia coli growth under modeled reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, Paul W.; Meyer, Michelle L.; Leff, Laura G.
2004-01-01
Bacteria exhibit varying responses to modeled reduced gravity that can be simulated by clino-rotation. When Escherichia coli was subjected to different rotation speeds during clino-rotation, significant differences between modeled reduced gravity and normal gravity controls were observed only at higher speeds (30-50 rpm). There was no apparent affect of removing samples on the results obtained. When E. coli was grown in minimal medium (at 40 rpm), cell size was not affected by modeled reduced gravity and there were few differences in cell numbers. However, in higher nutrient conditions (i.e., dilute nutrient broth), total cell numbers were higher and cells were smaller under reduced gravity compared to normal gravity controls. Overall, the responses to modeled reduced gravity varied with nutrient conditions; larger surface to volume ratios may help compensate for the zone of nutrient depletion around the cells under modeled reduced gravity.
Gravity-Induced Vacuum Dominance
Lima, William C. C.; Vanzella, Daniel A. T.
2010-04-23
It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, subdominant contributions. This view seemed to be endorsed by the seminal results obtained over the last decades in the context of renormalization of quantum fields in curved spacetimes. Here, however, we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background spacetime, to become dominant over any classical energy-density component. By estimating the time scale for the vacuum energy density to become dominant, and therefore for backreaction on the background spacetime to become important, we argue that this (infrared) vacuum dominance may bear unexpected astrophysical and cosmological implications.
Gravity-induced vacuum dominance.
Lima, William C C; Vanzella, Daniel A T
2010-04-23
It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, subdominant contributions. This view seemed to be endorsed by the seminal results obtained over the last decades in the context of renormalization of quantum fields in curved spacetimes. Here, however, we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background spacetime, to become dominant over any classical energy-density component. By estimating the time scale for the vacuum energy density to become dominant, and therefore for backreaction on the background spacetime to become important, we argue that this (infrared) vacuum dominance may bear unexpected astrophysical and cosmological implications.
Modeling of zero gravity venting
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merte, H., Jr.
1984-01-01
The venting of cylindrical containers partially filled with initially saturated liquids was conducted under zero gravity conditions and compared with an analytical model which determined the effect of interfacial mass transfer on the ullage pressure response during venting. A model is proposed to improve the estimation of the interfacial mass transfer. Duhammel's superposition integral is incorporated in this analysis to approximate the transient temperature response of the interface, treating the liquid as a semiinfinite solid with conduction heat transfer. This approach to estimating interfacial mass transfer gives improved response when compared to previous models. The model still predicts a pressure decrease greater than those in the experiments reported.
Curvature and gravity actions for matrix models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blaschke, Daniel N.; Steinacker, Harold
2010-08-01
We show how gravitational actions, in particular the Einstein-Hilbert action, can be obtained from additional terms in Yang-Mills matrix models. This is consistent with recent results on induced gravitational actions in these matrix models, realizing spacetime as four-dimensional brane solutions. It opens up the possibility for a controlled non-perturbative description of gravity through simple matrix models, with interesting perspectives for the problem of vacuum energy. The relation with UV/IR mixing and non-commutative gauge theory is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvatici, Teresa; Di Roberto, Alessio; Di Traglia, Federico; Bisson, Marina; Morelli, Stefano; Fidolini, Francesco; Bertagnini, Antonella; Pompilio, Massimo; Hungr, Oldrich; Casagli, Nicola
2016-11-01
Gravity-induced pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) can be produced by the collapse of volcanic crater rims or due to the gravitational instability of materials deposited in proximal areas during explosive activity. These types of PDCs, which are also known as "glowing avalanches", have been directly observed, and their deposits have been widely identified on the flanks of several volcanoes that are fed by mafic to intermediate magmas. In this research, the suitability of landslide numerical models for simulating gravity-induced PDCs to provide hazard assessments was tested. This work also presents the results of a back-analysis of three events that occurred in 1906, 1930 and 1944 at the Stromboli volcano by applying a depth-averaged 3D numerical code named DAN-3D. The model assumes a frictional internal rheology and a variable basal rheology (i.e., frictional, Voellmy and plastic). The numerical modelling was able to reproduce the gravity-induced PDCs' extension and deposit thicknesses to an order of magnitude of that reported in the literature. The best results when compared with field data were obtained using a Voellmy model with a frictional coefficient of f = 0.19 and a turbulence parameter ξ = 1000 m s- 1. The results highlight the suitability of this numerical code, which is generally used for landslides, to reproduce the destructive potential of these events in volcanic environments and to obtain information on hazards connected with explosive-related, mass-wasting phenomena in Stromboli Island and at volcanic systems characterized by similar phenomena.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Occhipinti, G.; Bablet, A.; Makela, J. J.
2015-12-01
The detection of the tsunami related internal gravity waves (IGWtsuna) by airglow camera has been recently validated by observation (Makela et al., 2011) and modeling (Occhipinti et al., 2011) in the case of the Tohoku event (11 March 2011, Mw 9.0). The airglow is measuring the photon emission at 630 nm, indirectly linked to the plasma density of O2+ (Link & Cogger, 1988) and it is commonly used to detect transient event in the ionosphere (Kelley et al., 2002, Makela et al., 2009, Miller et al., 2009). The modeling of the IGWtsuna clearly reproduced the pattern of the airglow measurement observed over Hawaii and the comparison between the observation and the modeling allows to recognize the wave form and allow to explain the IGWtsuna arriving before the tsunami wavefront at the sea level (Occhipinti et al., 2011). Approaching the Hawaiian archipelagos the tsunami propagation is slowed down (reduction of the sea depth), instead, the IGWtsuna, propagating in the atmosphere/ionosphere, conserves its speed. In this work, we present the modeling of the new airglow observation following the Queen Charlotte event (27 October 2012, Mw 7.8) that has been recently detected, proving that the technique can be generalized for smaller events. Additionally, the effect of the wind on the IGWtsuna, already evocated in the past, is included in the modeling to better reproduce the airglow observations. All ref. here @ www.ipgp.fr/~ninto
Simulation of Jet-Induced Geysers in Reduced Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marchetta, Jeffrey G.; Benedetti, Robert H.
2010-02-01
Control of cryogenic propellant tank pressure during tank refueling and expulsion in low gravity is an important technical challenge to overcome for future long duration missions in space. One method proposed to control tank pressurization involves the use of jet-induced geysers. Two-dimensional computational models have been developed and used with limited success in previous efforts to predict geyser heights in microgravity. A three-dimensional flow simulation is used to model jet-induced geysers in reduced gravity. Geyser flows are commonly characterized by the presence of turbulent jets, transient flow, deforming free surfaces, and surface tension effects. As is the case for many turbulent flow applications, accuracy in simulating complex turbulent flows is critically dependent on the selection of a suitable turbulence model. The sensitivity of the simulation geyser predictions to a suite of popular turbulence models is assessed. Simulation results are compared to available experiment results. By expanding upon the work already completed, the model is used to simulate a broad range of cases within the experiment test matrix. Simulation results suggest the two dimensional simulation using the k- ɛ turbulence model provides the most accurate results for jet-induced geysers in reduced gravity when compared to available experiment data.
AdS Chern-Simons gravity induces conformal gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aros, Rodrigo; Díaz, Danilo E.
2014-04-01
The leitmotif of this paper is the question of whether four- and higher even-dimensional conformal gravities do have a Chern-Simons pedigree. We show that Weyl gravity can be obtained as the dimensional reduction of a five-dimensional Chern-Simons action for a suitable (gauge-fixed, tractorlike) five-dimensional anti-de Sitter connection. The gauge-fixing and dimensional reduction program readily admits a generalization to higher dimensions for the case of certain conformal gravities obtained by contractions of the Weyl tensor.
Consistent anomalies of the induced W gravities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abud, Mario; Ader, Jean-Pierre; Cappiello, Luigi
1996-02-01
The BRST anomaly which may be present in the induced Wn gravity quantized on the light-cone is evaluated in the geometrical framework of Zucchini. The cocycles linked by the cohomology of the BRST operator to the anomaly are straightforwardly calculated thanks to the analogy between this formulation and the Yang-Mills theory. We give also a conformally covariant formulation of these quantities including the anomaly, which is valid on arbitrary Riemann surfaces. The example of the W3 theory is discussed and a comparison with other candidates for the anomaly available in the literature is presented.
High-resolution gravity model of Venus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reasenberg, R. D.; Goldberg, Z. M.
1992-01-01
The anomalous gravity field of Venus shows high correlation with surface features revealed by radar. We extract gravity models from the Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter by means of a two-step process. In the first step, we solve the nonlinear spacecraft state estimation problem using a Kalman filter-smoother. The Kalman filter has been evaluated through simulations. This evaluation and some unusual features of the filter are discussed. In the second step, we perform a geophysical inversion using a linear Bayesian estimator. To allow an unbiased comparison between gravity and topography, we use a simulation technique to smooth and distort the radar topographic data so as to yield maps having the same characteristics as our gravity maps. The maps presented cover 2/3 of the surface of Venus and display the strong topography-gravity correlation previously reported. The topography-gravity scatter plots show two distinct trends.
Cosmological models of modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bloomfield, Jolyon Keith
The recent discovery of dark energy has prompted an investigation of ways in which the accelerated expansion of the universe can be realized. In this dissertation, we present two separate projects related to dark energy. The first project analyzes a class of braneworld models in which multiple branes float in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter bulk, while the second investigates a class of dark energy models from an effective field theory perspective. Investigations of models including extra dimensions have led to modifications of gravity involving a number of interesting features. In particular, the Randall-Sundrum model is well-known for achieving an amelioration of the hierarchy problem. However, the basic model relies on Minkowski branes and is subject to solar system constraints in the absence of a radion stabilization mechanism. We present a method by which a four-dimensional low-energy description can be obtained for braneworld scenarios, allowing for a number of generalizations to the original models. This method is applied to orbifolded and uncompactified N-brane models, deriving an effective four-dimensional action. The parameter space of this theory is constrained using observational evidence, and it is found that the generalizations do not weaken solar system constraints on the original model. Furthermore, we find that general N-brane systems are qualitatively similar to the two-brane case, and do not naturally lead to a viable dark energy model. We next investigate dark energy models using effective field theory techniques. We describe dark energy through a quintessence field, employing a derivative expansion. To the accuracy of the model, we find transformations to write the description in a form involving no higher-order derivatives in the equations of motion. We use a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson construction to motivate the theory, and find the regime of validity and scaling of the operators using this. The regime of validity is restricted to a
Brane induced gravity: Ghosts and naturalness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eglseer, Ludwig; Niedermann, Florian; Schneider, Robert
2015-10-01
Linear stability of brane induced gravity in two codimensions on a static pure tension background is investigated. The brane is regularized as a ring of finite circumference in extra space. By explicitly calculating the vacuum persistence amplitude of the corresponding quantum theory, we show that the parameter space is divided into two regions—one corresponding to a stable Minkowski vacuum on the brane and one being plagued by ghost instabilities. This analytical result affirms a recent nonlinear, but mainly numerical analysis. The main result is that the ghost is absent for a sufficiently large brane tension, in perfect agreement with a value expected from a natural effective field theory point of view. Unfortunately, the linearly stable parameter regime is either ruled out phenomenologically or becomes unstable for nontrivial cosmologies. We argue that supercritical brane backgrounds constitute the remaining window of opportunity. In the special case of a tensionless brane, we find that the ghost exists for all phenomenologically relevant values of the induced gravity scale. Regarding this case, there are contradicting results in the literature, and we are able to fully resolve this controversy by explicitly uncovering the errors made in the "no-ghost" analysis. Finally, a Hamiltonian analysis generalizes the ghost result to more than two codimensions.
Cosmological implications of modified gravity induced by quantum metric fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xing; Harko, Tiberiu; Liang, Shi-Dong
2016-08-01
We investigate the cosmological implications of modified gravities induced by the quantum fluctuations of the gravitational metric. If the metric can be decomposed as the sum of the classical and of a fluctuating part, of quantum origin, then the corresponding Einstein quantum gravity generates at the classical level modified gravity models with a non-minimal coupling between geometry and matter. As a first step in our study, after assuming that the expectation value of the quantum correction can be generally expressed in terms of an arbitrary second order tensor constructed from the metric and from the thermodynamic quantities characterizing the matter content of the Universe, we derive the (classical) gravitational field equations in their general form. We analyze in detail the cosmological models obtained by assuming that the quantum correction tensor is given by the coupling of a scalar field and of a scalar function to the metric tensor, and by a term proportional to the matter energy-momentum tensor. For each considered model we obtain the gravitational field equations, and the generalized Friedmann equations for the case of a flat homogeneous and isotropic geometry. In some of these models the divergence of the matter energy-momentum tensor is non-zero, indicating a process of matter creation, which corresponds to an irreversible energy flow from the gravitational field to the matter fluid, and which is direct consequence of the non-minimal curvature-matter coupling. The cosmological evolution equations of these modified gravity models induced by the quantum fluctuations of the metric are investigated in detail by using both analytical and numerical methods, and it is shown that a large variety of cosmological models can be constructed, which, depending on the numerical values of the model parameters, can exhibit both accelerating and decelerating behaviors.
Gravity-induced stresses in stratified rock masses
Amadei, B.; Swolfs, H.S.; Savage, W.Z.
1988-01-01
This paper presents closed-form solutions for the stress field induced by gravity in anisotropic and stratified rock masses. These rocks are assumed to be laterally restrained. The rock mass consists of finite mechanical units, each unit being modeled as a homogeneous, transversely isotropic or isotropic linearly elastic material. The following results are found. The nature of the gravity induced stress field in a stratified rock mass depends on the elastic properties of each rock unit and how these properties vary with depth. It is thermodynamically admissible for the induced horizontal stress component in a given stratified rock mass to exceed the vertical stress component in certain units and to be smaller in other units; this is not possible for the classical unstratified isotropic solution. Examples are presented to explore the nature of the gravity induced stress field in stratified rock masses. It is found that a decrease in rock mass anisotropy and a stiffening of rock masses with depth can generate stress distributions comparable to empirical hyperbolic distributions previously proposed in the literature. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.
Induced matter brane gravity and Einstein static universe
Heydarzade, Y.; Darabi, F. E-mail: f.darabi@azaruniv.edu
2015-04-01
We investigate stability of the Einstein static universe against the scalar, vector and tensor perturbations in the context of induced matter brane gravity. It is shown that in the framework of this model, the Einstein static universe has a positive spatial curvature. In contrast to the classical general relativity, it is found that a stable Einstein static universe against the scalar perturbations does exist provided that the variation of time dependent geometrical equation of state parameter is proportional to the minus of the variation of the scale factor, δ ω{sub g}(t) = −Cδ a(t). We obtain neutral stability against the vector perturbations, and the stability against the tensor perturbations is guaranteed due to the positivity of the spatial curvature of the Einstein static universe in induced matter brane gravity.
Gravity-wave induced CO2 clouds on Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yiǧit, Erdal; Medvedev, Alexander S.; Hartogh, Paul
2016-07-01
We present the first general circulation model simulations that quantify and reproduce patches of extremely cold air required for CO2 condensation and cloud formation in the Martian mesosphere. They are created by subgrid-scale gravity waves (GWs) accounted for in the model with the whole atmosphere GW parameterization of Yiǧit et al. (2008)}. Distributions of GW-induced temperature fluctuations and occurrences of supersaturation conditions are in a good agreement with observations of high-altitude CO2 ice clouds. Our study confirms the key role of GWs in facilitating CO2 cloud formation, discusses their tidal modulation, and predicts clouds at altitudes higher than have been observed to date. Reference: Yiǧit, E., A. D. Aylward, and A. S. Medvedev (2008), Parameterization of the effects of vertically propagating gravity waves for thermosphere general circulation models: Sensitivity study, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D19106, doi:10.1029/2008JD010135.
Goldstone models of modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brax, Philippe; Valageas, Patrick
2017-02-01
We investigate scalar-tensor theories where matter couples to the scalar field via a kinetically dependent conformal coupling. These models can be seen as the low-energy description of invariant field theories under a global Abelian symmetry. The scalar field is then identified with the Goldstone mode of the broken symmetry. It turns out that the properties of these models are very similar to the ones of ultralocal theories where the scalar-field value is directly determined by the local matter density. This leads to a complete screening of the fifth force in the Solar System and between compact objects, through the ultralocal screening mechanism. On the other hand, the fifth force can have large effects in extended structures with large-scale density gradients, such as galactic halos. Interestingly, it can either amplify or damp Newtonian gravity, depending on the model parameters. We also study the background cosmology and the linear cosmological perturbations. The background cosmology is hardly different from its Λ -CDM counterpart while cosmological perturbations crucially depend on whether the coupling function is convex or concave. For concave functions, growth is hindered by the repulsiveness of the fifth force while it is enhanced in the convex case. In both cases, the departures from the Λ -CDM cosmology increase on smaller scales and peak for galactic structures. For concave functions, the formation of structure is largely altered below some characteristic mass, as smaller structures are delayed and would form later through fragmentation, as in some warm dark matter scenarios. For convex models, small structures form more easily than in the Λ -CDM scenario. This could lead to an over-abundance of small clumps. We use a thermodynamic analysis and show that although convex models have a phase transition between homogeneous and inhomogeneous phases, on cosmological scales the system does not enter the inhomogeneous phase. On the other hand, for galactic
Ginsparg, P.
1991-01-01
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.
Ginsparg, P.
1991-12-31
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date.
On the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolkas, Dimitrios; Fotopoulos, Georgia; Braun, Alexander
2016-06-01
In gravity field modeling, fused models that utilize satellite, airborne and terrestrial gravity observations are often employed to deal with erroneous terrestrially derived gravity datasets. These terrestrial datasets may suffer from long-wavelength systematic errors and inhomogeneous data coverage, which are not prevalent in airborne and satellite datasets. Airborne gravity acquisition plays an essential role in gravity field modeling, providing valuable information of the Earth's gravity field at medium and short wavelengths. Thus, assessing the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models is important for identifying problematic regions. Six study regions that represent different gravity field variability and terrestrial data point-density characteristics are investigated to quantify the impact of airborne gravity data to fused gravity field models. The numerical assessments of these representative regions resulted in predictions of airborne gravity impact for individual states and provinces in the USA and Canada, respectively. Prediction results indicate that, depending on the terrestrial data point-density and gravity field variability, the expected impact of airborne gravity can reach up to 3mGal (in terms of standard deviation) in Canada and Alaska (over areas of 1° × 1°). However, in the mainland US region, small changes are expected (0.2-0.4 mGal over areas of 1° × 1°) due to the availability of high spatial resolution terrestrial data. These results can serve as a guideline for setting airborne gravity data acquisition priorities and for improving future planning of airborne gravity surveys.
Astrophysical constraints on extended gravity models
Lambiase, Gaetano; Stabile, Antonio; Sakellariadou, Mairi; Stabile, Arturo E-mail: mairi.sakellariadou@kcl.ac.uk E-mail: arturo.stabile@gmail.com
2015-07-01
We investigate the propagation of gravitational waves in the context of fourth order gravity nonminimally coupled to a massive scalar field. Using the damping of the orbital period of coalescing stellar binary systems, we impose constraints on the free parameters of extended gravity models. In particular, we find that the variation of the orbital period is a function of three mass scales which depend on the free parameters of the model under consideration; we can constrain these mass scales from current observational data.
Gravity and geoid model for South America
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blitzkow, Denizar; Oliveira Cancoro de Matos, Ana Cristina; do Nascimento Guimarães, Gabriel; Pacino, María Cristina; Andrés Lauría, Eduardo; Nunes, Marcelo; Castro Junior, Carlos Alberto Correia e.; Flores, Fredy; Orihuela Guevara, Nuris; Alvarez, Ruber; Napoleon Hernandez, José
2016-04-01
In the last 20 years, South America Gravity Studies (SAGS) project has undertaken an ongoing effort in establishing the fundamental gravity network (FGN); terrestrial, river and airborne relative gravity densifications; absolute gravity surveys and geoid (quasi-geoid) model computation for South America. The old FGN is being replaced progressively by new absolute measurements in different countries. In recent years, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela organizations participated with relative gravity surveys. Taking advantage of the large amount of data available, GEOID2015 model was developed for 15°N and 57°S latitude and 30 ° W and 95°W longitude based on EIGEN-6C4 until degree and order 200 as a reference field. The ocean area was completed with mean free air gravity anomalies derived from DTU10 model. The short wavelength component was estimated using FFT. The global gravity field models EIGEN-6C4, DIR_R5 were used for comparison with the new model. The new geoid model has been evaluated against 1,319 GPS/BM, in which 592 are located in Brazil and the reminder in other countries. The preliminary RMS difference between GPS/BM and GEOID2015 throughout South America and in Brazil is 46 cm and 17 cm, respectively. New activities are carrying out with the support of the IGC (Geographic and Cartographic Institute) under the coordination of EPUSP/LTG and CENEGEO (Centro de Estudos de Geodesia). The new project aims to establish new gravity points with the A-10 absolute gravimeter in South America. Recent such surveys occurred in São Paulo state, Argentina and Venezuela.
Modeling void abundance in modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voivodic, Rodrigo; Lima, Marcos; Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F.
2017-01-01
We use a spherical model and an extended excursion set formalism with drifting diffusive barriers to predict the abundance of cosmic voids in the context of general relativity as well as f (R ) and symmetron models of modified gravity. We detect spherical voids from a suite of N-body simulations of these gravity theories and compare the measured void abundance to theory predictions. We find that our model correctly describes the abundance of both dark matter and galaxy voids, providing a better fit than previous proposals in the literature based on static barriers. We use the simulation abundance results to fit for the abundance model free parameters as a function of modified gravity parameters, and show that counts of dark matter voids can provide interesting constraints on modified gravity. For galaxy voids, more closely related to optical observations, we find that constraining modified gravity from void abundance alone may be significantly more challenging. In the context of current and upcoming galaxy surveys, the combination of void and halo statistics including their abundances, profiles and correlations should be effective in distinguishing modified gravity models that display different screening mechanisms.
Gravity Modeling for Variable Fidelity Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madden, Michael M.
2006-01-01
Aerospace simulations can model worlds, such as the Earth, with differing levels of fidelity. The simulation may represent the world as a plane, a sphere, an ellipsoid, or a high-order closed surface. The world may or may not rotate. The user may select lower fidelity models based on computational limits, a need for simplified analysis, or comparison to other data. However, the user will also wish to retain a close semblance of behavior to the real world. The effects of gravity on objects are an important component of modeling real-world behavior. Engineers generally equate the term gravity with the observed free-fall acceleration. However, free-fall acceleration is not equal to all observers. To observers on the sur-face of a rotating world, free-fall acceleration is the sum of gravitational attraction and the centrifugal acceleration due to the world's rotation. On the other hand, free-fall acceleration equals gravitational attraction to an observer in inertial space. Surface-observed simulations (e.g. aircraft), which use non-rotating world models, may choose to model observed free fall acceleration as the gravity term; such a model actually combines gravitational at-traction with centrifugal acceleration due to the Earth s rotation. However, this modeling choice invites confusion as one evolves the simulation to higher fidelity world models or adds inertial observers. Care must be taken to model gravity in concert with the world model to avoid denigrating the fidelity of modeling observed free fall. The paper will go into greater depth on gravity modeling and the physical disparities and synergies that arise when coupling specific gravity models with world models.
Circulation-based Modeling of Gravity Currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meiburg, E. H.; Borden, Z.
2013-05-01
Atmospheric and oceanic flows driven by predominantly horizontal density differences, such as sea breezes, thunderstorm outflows, powder snow avalanches, and turbidity currents, are frequently modeled as gravity currents. Efforts to develop simplified models of such currents date back to von Karman (1940), who considered a two-dimensional gravity current in an inviscid, irrotational and infinitely deep ambient. Benjamin (1968) presented an alternative model, focusing on the inviscid, irrotational flow past a gravity current in a finite-depth channel. More recently, Shin et al. (2004) proposed a model for gravity currents generated by partial-depth lock releases, considering a control volume that encompasses both fronts. All of the above models, in addition to the conservation of mass and horizontal momentum, invoke Bernoulli's law along some specific streamline in the flow field, in order to obtain a closed system of equations that can be solved for the front velocity as function of the current height. More recent computational investigations based on the Navier-Stokes equations, on the other hand, reproduce the dynamics of gravity currents based on the conservation of mass and momentum alone. We propose that it should therefore be possible to formulate a fundamental gravity current model without invoking Bernoulli's law. The talk will show that the front velocity of gravity currents can indeed be predicted as a function of their height from mass and momentum considerations alone, by considering the evolution of interfacial vorticity. This approach does not require information on the pressure field and therefore avoids the need for an energy closure argument such as those invoked by the earlier models. Predictions by the new theory are shown to be in close agreement with direct numerical simulation results. References Von Karman, T. 1940 The engineer grapples with nonlinear problems, Bull. Am. Math Soc. 46, 615-683. Benjamin, T.B. 1968 Gravity currents and related
Observed and Modeled Stratospheric Gravity Waves above Hurricane Humberto
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuester, M.; Alexander, J.; Ray, E.
2004-05-01
A three-dimensional model can be a very powerful tool to the study of various properties of hurricanes including areas of deep convection as possible sources of internal gravity waves. Data collected by aircraft, although extremely useful, does not give a full picture of the dynamics of the system because only a few slices through the storm can be sampled within the limitations of the campaign. A validated model can help to fill in the gaps where the sampled data cannot. In this study, a three-dimensional MM5 model is used to study the characteristics of Hurricane Humberto, a category 2 hurricane observed in September 2001 during the the fourth field campaign in the Convection and Moisture Experiment series (CAMEX4). Of particular interest to this study are internal gravity waves induced by the convective activity within the rain bands of the hurricane. Further understanding of the sources for these waves and their effects on the large-scale circulation is an ongoing topic of research. Vertical velocity perturbations and potential temperature contours are used to pinpoint vertically propagating gravity waves in the stratosphere. Possible correlations between areas of deep convection as gravity wave sources within the storm and observed vertically propagating gravity waves are presented. Comparison of model results to data collected during the CAMEX4 on board the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft with the ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP) and Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) will also be presented.
Conformal Loop quantization of gravity coupled to the standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pullin, Jorge; Gambini, Rodolfo
2016-03-01
We consider a local conformal invariant coupling of the standard model to gravity free of any dimensional parameter. The theory is formulated in order to have a quantized version that admits a spin network description at the kinematical level like that of loop quantum gravity. The Gauss constraint, the diffeomorphism constraint and the conformal constraint are automatically satisfied and the standard inner product of the spin-network basis still holds. The resulting theory has resemblances with the Bars-Steinhardt-Turok local conformal theory, except it admits a canonical quantization in terms of loops. By considering a gauge fixed version of the theory we show that the Standard model coupled to gravity is recovered and the Higgs boson acquires mass. This in turn induces via the standard mechanism masses for massive bosons, baryons and leptons.
An Atlas of Earth Gravity Model 2008
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melvin, P. J.
2009-12-01
The Earth Gravity Model 2008 (Pavlis, et al.) is a 2190th order and degree spherical harmonic model. Software developed by the author in the 1980s and currently used for orbit determination is employed to evaluate and map 10 different fields on the ellipsoid: the undulation of the geoid, radial (free air) gravity anomaly, East-West and North-South deflections of the vertical and radial-radial, radial-longitude, radial-latitude, longitude-longitude, longitude-latitude and latitude-latitude gravity gradient components. Although of less detail than other surface level data sets (e.g., Sandwell: global gravity for Google earth), these evaluations have the advantage of being global and in stunning (10 arc minute) detail, and could be used to provide insights in studies of, say, isostasy, plate tectonics, or orogeny especially with lineations highlighted by the derivative fields. A variety of projections are used: plate carre, transverse Mercator, spherical and animated spherical. The gray scale of the images is optimized by use of histograms. Undulation of the Geoid Radial Gravity Anomaly
Gravity model studies of Newberry Volcano, Oregon
Gettings, M.E.; Griscom, A.
1988-01-01
Newberry Volcano, a large Quaternary volcano located about 60 km east of the axis of the High Cascades volcanoes in central Oregon, has a coincident positive residual gravity anomaly of about 12 mGals. Model calculations of the gravity anomaly field suggest that the volcano is underlain by an intrusive complex of mafic composition of about 20-km diameter and 2-km thickness, at depths above 4 km below sea level. However, uplifted basement in a northwest trending ridge may form part of the underlying excess mass, thus reducing the volume of the subvolcanic intrusive. A ring dike of mafic composition is inferred to intrude to near-surface levels along the caldera ring fractures, and low-density fill of the caldera floor probably has a thickness of 0.7-0.9 km. The gravity anomaly attributable to the volcano is reduced to the east across a north-northwest trending gravity anomaly gradient through Newberry caldera and suggests that normal, perhaps extensional, faulting has occurred subsequent to caldera formation and may have controlled the location of some late-stage basaltic and rhyolitic eruptions. Significant amounts of felsic intrusive material may exist above the mafic intrusive zone but cannot be resolved by the gravity data. -Authors
Gravity model studies of Newberry Volcano, Oregon
Gettings, M.E.; Griscom, A.
1988-09-10
Newberry, Volcano, a large Quaternary volcano located about 60 km east of the axis of the High Cascades volcanoes in central Oregon, has a coincident positive residual gravity anomaly of about 12 mGals. Model calculations of the gravity anomaly field suggest that the volcano is underlain by an intrusive complex of mafic composition of about 20-km diameter and 2-km thickness, at depths above 4 km below sea level. However, uplifted basement in a northwest trending ridge may form part of the underlying excess mass, thus reducing the volume of the subvolcanic intrusive. A ring dike of mafic composition is inferred to intrude to near-surface levels along the caldera ring fractures, and low-density fill of the caldera floor probably has a thickness of 0.7--0.9 km. The gravity anomaly attributable to the volcano is reduced to the east across a north-northwest trending gravity anomaly gradient through Newberry caldera and suggests that normal, perhaps extensional, faulting has occurred subsequent to caldera formation and may have controlled the location of some late-stage basaltic and rhyolitic eruptions. Significant amounts of felsic intrusive material may exist above the mafic intrusive zone but cannot be resolved by the gravity data.
The spherically symmetric Standard Model with gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balasin, H.; Böhmer, C. G.; Grumiller, D.
2005-08-01
Spherical reduction of generic four-dimensional theories is revisited. Three different notions of "spherical symmetry" are defined. The following sectors are investigated: Einstein-Cartan theory, spinors, (non-)abelian gauge fields and scalar fields. In each sector a different formalism seems to be most convenient: the Cartan formulation of gravity works best in the purely gravitational sector, the Einstein formulation is convenient for the Yang-Mills sector and for reducing scalar fields, and the Newman-Penrose formalism seems to be the most transparent one in the fermionic sector. Combining them the spherically reduced Standard Model of particle physics together with the usually omitted gravity part can be presented as a two-dimensional (dilaton gravity) theory.
The Gravity Model for High School Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tribble, Paul; Mitchell, William A.
1977-01-01
The authors suggest ways in which the gravity model can be used in high school geography classes. Based on Newton's Law of Molecular Gravitation, the law states that gravitation is in direct ratio to mass and inverse ratio to distance. One activity for students involves determination of zones of influence of cities of various sizes. (Author/AV)
Supersymmetric structure of the induced W gravities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ader, Jean-Pierre; Biet, Franck; Noirot, Yves
1999-03-01
We derive the supersymmetric structure present in W-gravities which has been already observed in various contexts as Yang-Mills theory, topological field theories, bosonic string and chiral 0264-9381/16/3/029/img2-gravity. This derivation which is made in the geometrical framework of Zucchini, necessitates the introduction of an appropriate new basis of variables which replace the canonical fields and their derivatives. This construction is used, in the 0264-9381/16/3/029/img3-case, to deduce from the Chern-Simons action the Wess-Zumino-Polyakov action.
Modeling Candle Flame Behavior In Variable Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alsairafi, A.; Tien, J. S.; Lee, S. T.; Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.
2003-01-01
The burning of a candle, as typical non-propagating diffusion flame, has been used by a number of researchers to study the effects of electric fields on flame, spontaneous flame oscillation and flickering phenomena, and flame extinction. In normal gravity, the heat released from combustion creates buoyant convection that draws oxygen into the flame. The strength of the buoyant flow depends on the gravitational level and it is expected that the flame shape, size and candle burning rate will vary with gravity. Experimentally, there exist studies of candle burning in enhanced gravity (i.e. higher than normal earth gravity, g(sub e)), and in microgravity in drop towers and space-based facilities. There are, however, no reported experimental data on candle burning in partial gravity (g < g(sub e)). In a previous numerical model of the candle flame, buoyant forces were neglected. The treatment of momentum equation was simplified using a potential flow approximation. Although the predicted flame characteristics agreed well with the experimental results, the model cannot be extended to cases with buoyant flows. In addition, because of the use of potential flow, no-slip boundary condition is not satisfied on the wick surface. So there is some uncertainty on the accuracy of the predicted flow field. In the present modeling effort, the full Navier-Stokes momentum equations with body force term is included. This enables us to study the effect of gravity on candle flames (with zero gravity as the limiting case). In addition, we consider radiation effects in more detail by solving the radiation transfer equation. In the previous study, flame radiation is treated as a simple loss term in the energy equation. Emphasis of the present model is on the gas-phase processes. Therefore, the detailed heat and mass transfer phenomena inside the porous wick are not treated. Instead, it is assumed that a thin layer of liquid fuel coated the entire wick surface during the burning process
Gravity Induced Formation of Concentration Gradients in Supersaturated Binary Solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Izmailov, Alexander F.; Myerson, Allan S.
1996-01-01
Experimental and theoretical studies of the formation of solute concentration gradient in supersaturated binary solutions in a gravitational field were carried out. The formation of solute concentration gradient was associated with the gravity induced redistribution of subcritical solute clusters. The birth-death process of the new solute-rich phase domains (subcritical solute clusters) was described in terms of the time-dependent Ginzburg Landau model developed for metastable state relaxation in binary (solute + solvent) non-critical solutions in the presence of a gravitational field. A new mathematical Ansatz was developed for solution of the model equations. This Ansatz has allowed to approach for the first time the following important problems: (1) Microstructure of solute distribution inside of the subcritical solute clusters. The analytical results obtained demonstrate that solute inside of the subcritical solute clusters is heterogeneously distributed with a spatially periodic structure. (2) Macrostructure of the solute subcritical clusters distribution in a gravitational field. The subcritical solute clusters are found to be distributed heterogeneously in a gravitational field. This heterogeneity, which is due to the heterogeneous birth-death process of the subcritical solute clusters in a gravitational field, initiates a noticeable solute concentration gradient in vertical columns of supersaturated binary solutions. An analysis and comparison of theoretical results and experimental data related to the solute concentration gradient formation in a gravitational field are presented. It is also demonstrated that the critical radius of solute clusters (radius of nucleation) and induction time are gravity-dependent.
Self-Gravity Modeling for LISA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merkowitz, Stephen
2004-01-01
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission, a space based gravitational wave detector, uses laser metrology to measure distance fluctuations between proof masses aboard three spacecraft. The total acceleration disturbance to each proof mass is required to be below 3 x 10(exp 15) m/sq square root of Hz. Self-gravity noise due to spacecraft distortion and spacecraft motion is expected to be a significant contributor to the acceleration noise budget. To minimize these effects, the gravitational field at each proof mass must be kept as small, flat, and constant as possible. It is estimated that the static field must be kept below 5 x 10(exp -10) m/sq s with a gradient below 3 x 10(exp -8)/sq s in order to meet the required noise levels. Most likely it will not be possible to directly verify by measurements that the LISA spacecraft meets these requirements; they must be verified by models. The LISA Integrated Modeling team developed a new self-gravity tool that calculates the gravitational forces and moments on the proof masses to aid in the design and verification of the LISA spacecraft. We present here an overview of&e tool and the latest self-gravity results calculated using the current baseline design of LISA. We also present results of a self-gravity analysis of the ST-7 DRS package that will fly on the LISA Pathfinder mission.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chouza, Fernando; Reitebuch, Oliver; Jähn, Michael; Rahm, Stephan; Weinzierl, Bernadett
2016-04-01
This study presents the analysis of island induced gravity waves observed by an airborne Doppler wind lidar (DWL) during SALTRACE. First, the instrumental corrections required for the retrieval of high spatial resolution vertical wind measurements from an airborne DWL are presented and the measurement accuracy estimated by means of two different methods. The estimated systematic error is below -0.05 m s-1 for the selected case of study, while the random error lies between 0.1 and 0.16 m s-1 depending on the estimation method. Then, the presented method is applied to two measurement flights during which the presence of island induced gravity waves was detected. The first case corresponds to a research flight conducted on 17 June 2013 in the Cabo Verde islands region, while the second case corresponds to a measurement flight on 26 June 2013 in the Barbados region. The presence of trapped lee waves predicted by the calculated Scorer parameter profiles was confirmed by the lidar and in situ observations. The DWL measurements are used in combination with in situ wind and particle number density measurements, large-eddy simulations (LES), and wavelet analysis to determine the main characteristics of the observed island induced trapped waves.
Coseismic Gravity and Displacement Signatures Induced by the 2013 Okhotsk Mw8.3 Earthquake
Zhang, Guoqing; Shen, Wenbin; Xu, Changyi; Zhu, Yiqing
2016-01-01
In this study, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) RL05 data from January 2003 to October 2014 were used to extract the coseismic gravity changes induced by the 24 May 2013 Okhotsk Mw8.3 deep-focus earthquake using the difference and least square fitting methods. The gravity changes obtained from GRACE data agreed well with those from dislocation theory in both magnitude and spatial pattern. Positive and negative gravity changes appeared on both sides of the epicenter. The positive signature appeared on the western side, and the peak value was approximately 0.4 microgal (1 microgal = 10−8 m/s2), whereas on the eastern side, the gravity signature was negative, and the peak value was approximately −1.1 microgal. It demonstrates that deep-focus earthquakes Mw ≤ 8.5 are detectable by GRACE observations. Moreover, the coseismic displacements of 20 Global Positioning System (GPS) stations on the Earth’s surface were simulated using an elastic dislocation theory in a spherical earth model, and the results are consistent with the GPS results, especially the near-field results. We also estimated the gravity contributions from the coseismic vertical displacements and density changes, analyzed the proportion of these two gravity change factors (based on an elastic dislocation theory in a spherical earth model) in this deep-focus earthquake. The gravity effect from vertical displacement is four times larger than that caused by density redistribution. PMID:27598158
Measured and modelled absolute gravity in Greenland
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nielsen, E.; Forsberg, R.; Strykowski, G.
2012-12-01
Present day changes in the ice volume in glaciated areas like Greenland will change the load on the Earth and to this change the lithosphere will respond elastically. The Earth also responds to changes in the ice volume over a millennial time scale. This response is due to the viscous properties of the mantle and is known as Glaical Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Both signals are present in GPS and absolute gravity (AG) measurements and they will give an uncertainty in mass balance estimates calculated from these data types. It is possible to separate the two signals if both gravity and Global Positioning System (GPS) time series are available. DTU Space acquired an A10 absolute gravimeter in 2008. One purpose of this instrument is to establish AG time series in Greenland and the first measurements were conducted in 2009. Since then are 18 different Greenland GPS Network (GNET) stations visited and six of these are visited more then once. The gravity signal consists of three signals; the elastic signal, the viscous signal and the direct attraction from the ice masses. All of these signals can be modelled using various techniques. The viscous signal is modelled by solving the Sea Level Equation with an appropriate ice history and Earth model. The free code SELEN is used for this. The elastic signal is modelled as a convolution of the elastic Greens function for gravity and a model of present day ice mass changes. The direct attraction is the same as the Newtonian attraction and is calculated as this. Here we will present the preliminary results of the AG measurements in Greenland. We will also present modelled estimates of the direct attraction, the elastic and the viscous signals.
Gravity model improvement investigation. [improved gravity model for determination of ocean geoid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siry, J. W.; Kahn, W. D.; Bryan, J. W.; Vonbun, F. F.
1973-01-01
This investigation was undertaken to improve the gravity model and hence the ocean geoid. A specific objective is the determination of the gravity field and geoid with a space resolution of approximately 5 deg and a height resolution of the order of five meters. The concept of the investigation is to utilize both GEOS-C altimeter and satellite-to-satellite tracking data to achieve the gravity model improvement. It is also planned to determine the geoid in selected regions with a space resolution of about a degree and a height resolution of the order of a meter or two. The short term objectives include the study of the gravity field in the GEOS-C calibration area outlined by Goddard, Bermuda, Antigua, and Cape Kennedy, and also in the eastern Pacific area which is viewed by ATS-F.
Effective cosmological equations of induced f(R) gravity
Apostolopoulos, Pantelis S.; Tetradis, Nikolaos; Brouzakis, Nikolaos E-mail: nbruzak@ifae.es
2010-08-01
We expand the study of generalized brane cosmologies by allowing for an f( R-tilde ) gravity term on the brane, with R-tilde the curvature scalar derived from the induced metric. We also include arbitrary matter components on the brane and in the five-dimensional bulk. At low energies, the effect of the bulk on the brane evolution can be described through a mirage component, termed generalized dark radiation, in the effective four-dimensional field equations. Using the covariant formalism, we derive the exact form of these equations. We also derive an effective conservation equation involving the brane matter and the generalized dark radiation. At low energies the coupled brane-bulk system has a purely four-dimensional description. The applications of the formalism include generalizations of the Starobinsky model and the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati cosmology.
The inverse gravimetric problem in gravity modelling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanso, F.; Tscherning, C. C.
1989-01-01
One of the main purposes of geodesy is to determine the gravity field of the Earth in the space outside its physical surface. This purpose can be pursued without any particular knowledge of the internal density even if the exact shape of the physical surface of the Earth is not known, though this seems to entangle the two domains, as it was in the old Stoke's theory before the appearance of Molodensky's approach. Nevertheless, even when large, dense and homogeneous data sets are available, it was always recognized that subtracting from the gravity field the effect of the outer layer of the masses (topographic effect) yields a much smoother field. This is obviously more important when a sparse data set is bad so that any smoothing of the gravity field helps in interpolating between the data without raising the modeling error, this approach is generally followed because it has become very cheap in terms of computing time since the appearance of spectral techniques. The mathematical description of the Inverse Gravimetric Problem (IGP) is dominated mainly by two principles, which in loose terms can be formulated as follows: the knowledge of the external gravity field determines mainly the lateral variations of the density; and the deeper the density anomaly giving rise to a gravity anomaly, the more improperly posed is the problem of recovering the former from the latter. The statistical relation between rho and n (and its inverse) is also investigated in its general form, proving that degree cross-covariances have to be introduced to describe the behavior of rho. The problem of the simultaneous estimate of a spherical anomalous potential and of the external, topographic masses is addressed criticizing the choice of the mixed collection approach.
Degeneracies in parametrized modified gravity models
Hojjati, Alireza
2013-01-01
We study degeneracies between parameters in some of the widely used parametrized modified gravity models. We investigate how different observables from a future photometric weak lensing survey such as LSST, correlate the effects of these parameters and to what extent the degeneracies are broken. We also study the impact of other degenerate effects, namely massive neutrinos and some of the weak lensing systematics, on the correlations.
Systematic simulations of modified gravity: chameleon models
Brax, Philippe; Li, Baojiu; Winther, Hans A.; Zhao, Gong-Bo E-mail: a.c.davis@damtp.cam.ac.uk E-mail: h.a.winther@astro.uio.no
2013-04-01
In this work we systematically study the linear and nonlinear structure formation in chameleon theories of modified gravity, using a generic parameterisation which describes a large class of models using only 4 parameters. For this we have modified the N-body simulation code ecosmog to perform a total of 65 simulations for different models and parameter values, including the default ΛCDM. These simulations enable us to explore a significant portion of the parameter space. We have studied the effects of modified gravity on the matter power spectrum and mass function, and found a rich and interesting phenomenology where the difference with the ΛCDM paradigm cannot be reproduced by a linear analysis even on scales as large as k ∼ 0.05 hMpc{sup −1}, since the latter incorrectly assumes that the modification of gravity depends only on the background matter density. Our results show that the chameleon screening mechanism is significantly more efficient than other mechanisms such as the dilaton and symmetron, especially in high-density regions and at early times, and can serve as a guidance to determine the parts of the chameleon parameter space which are cosmologically interesting and thus merit further studies in the future.
SO(2, 3) noncommutative gravity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimitrijević, M.; Radovanović, V.
2014-12-01
In this paper the noncommutative gravity is treated as a gauge theory of the non-commutative SO(2, 3)★ group, while the noncommutativity is canonical. The Seiberg-Witten (SW) map is used to express noncommutative fields in terms of the corresponding commutative fields. The commutative limit of the model is the Einstein-Hilbert action plus the cosmological term and the topological Gauss-Bonnet term. We calculate the second order correction to this model and obtain terms that are zeroth, first, ... and fourth power of the curvature tensor. Finally, we discuss physical consequences of those correction terms in the limit of big cosmological constant.
Global gravity field modeling based on GOCE and complementary gravity data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fecher, Thomas; Pail, Roland; Gruber, Thomas
2015-03-01
A combined high-resolution global gravity field model up to degree/order (d/o) 720, including error estimates in terms of a full variance-covariance matrix, is determined from GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) and complementary gravity field data. GOCE observations, highly accurate in the low to medium wavelength part (∼d/o 40-220), are supplemented by GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) with high accuracy in the low wavelength part (∼d/o 2-150), and altimetric and terrestrial gravity field observations to enhance the spectral resolution of the combined gravity field model. The theory of combining different data sets by least-squares techniques, applying optimum weighting strategies, is illustrated. Full normal equation systems are used to enable stochastic modeling of all individual observations. High performance computing techniques are applied in order to handle normal equations of enormous size (about 2 TB). The quality of the resulting gravity field solution is analyzed by comparisons with independent gravity field models and GPS/leveling observations, and also in the frame of the computation of a mean dynamic topography. The validation shows that the new combined model TUM2013C achieves the quality level of established high-resolution models. Compared to EGM2008, the improvements due to the inclusion of GOCE are clearly visible.
Realistic inflation models and primordial gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rehman, Mansoor Ur
We investigate both supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric realistic models of inflation. In non-supersymmetric models, inflation is successfully realized by employing both Coleman Weinberg and Higgs potentials in GUTs such as SU(5) and SO(10). The quantum smearing of tree level predictions is discussed in the Higgs inflation. These quantum corrections can arise from the inflaton couplings to other particles such as GUT scalars. As a result of including these corrections, a reduction in the tensor-to-scalar ratio r, a canonical measure of gravity waves produced during inflation, is observed. In a simple phi4 chaotic model, we reconsider a non-minimal (xi > 0) gravitationalcoupling of inflaton φ arising from the interaction xi R phi2, where R is the Ricci scalar. In estimating bounds on various inflationaryparameters we also include quantum corrections. We emphasize that while working with high precision observations such as the current Planck satellite experiment we cannot ignore these radiative and gravitational corrections in analyzing the predictions of various inflationary models. In supersymmetric hybrid inflation with minimal Kahler potential, the soft SUSY breaking terms are shown to play an important role in realizing inflation consistent with the latest WMAP data. The SUSY hybrid models which we consider here predict exceedingly small values of r. However, to obtain observable gravity waves the non-minimal Kahler potential turns out to be a necessary ingredient. A realistic model of flipped SU(5) model, which benefits from the absence of topological defects, is considered in the standard SUSY hybrid inflation. We also present a discussion of shifted hybrid inflation in a realistic model of SUSY SU(5) GUT.
Generalized model for a Moho inversion from gravity and vertical gravity-gradient data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Zhourun; Tenzer, Robert; Sneeuw, Nico; Liu, Lintao; Wild-Pfeiffer, Franziska
2016-10-01
Seismic data are primarily used in studies of the Earth's lithospheric structure including the Moho geometry. In regions, where seismic data are sparse or completely absent, gravimetric or combined gravimetric-seismic methods could be applied to determine the Moho depth. In this study, we derive and present generalized expressions for solving the Vening Meinesz-Moritz's (VMM) inverse problem of isostasy for a Moho depth determination from gravity and vertical gravity-gradient data. By solving the (non-linear) Fredholm's integral equation of the first kind, the linearized observation equations, which functionally relate the (given) gravity/gravity-gradient data to the (unknown) Moho depth, are derived in the spectral domain. The VMM gravimetric results are validated by using available seismic and gravimetric Moho models. Our results show that the VMM Moho solutions obtained by solving the VMM problem for gravity and gravity-gradient data are almost the same. This finding indicates that in global applications, using the global gravity/gravity-gradient data coverage, the spherical harmonic expressions for the gravimetric forward and inverse modelling yield (theoretically) the same results. Globally, these gravimetric solutions have also a relatively good agreement with the CRUST1.0 and GEMMA GOCE models in terms of their rms Moho differences (4.7 km and 4.1 km, respectively).
Spin foam models for quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perez, Alejandro
The definition of a quantum theory of gravity is explored following Feynman's path-integral approach. The aim is to construct a well defined version of the Wheeler-Misner- Hawking ``sum over four geometries'' formulation of quantum general relativity (GR). This is done by means of exploiting the similarities between the formulation of GR in terms of tetrad-connection variables (Palatini formulation) and a simpler theory called BF theory. One can go from BF theory to GR by imposing certain constraints on the BF-theory configurations. BF theory contains only global degrees of freedom (topological theory) and it can be exactly quantized á la Feynman introducing a discretization of the manifold. Using the path integral for BF theory we define a path integration for GR imposing the BF-to-GR constraints on the BF measure. The infinite degrees of freedom of gravity are restored in the process, and the restriction to a single discretization introduces a cut- off in the summed-over configurations. In order to capture all the degrees of freedom a sum over discretization is implemented. Both the implementation of the BF-to-GR constraints and the sum over discretizations are obtained by means of the introduction of an auxiliary field theory (AFT). 4-geometries in the path integral for GR are given by the Feynman diagrams of the AFT which is in this sense dual to GR. Feynman diagrams correspond to 2-complexes labeled by unitary irreducible representations of the internal gauge group (corresponding to tetrad rotation in the connection to GR). A model for 4-dimensional Euclidean quantum gravity (QG) is defined which corresponds to a different normalization of the Barrett-Crane model. The model is perturbatively finite; divergences appearing in the Barrett-Crane model are cured by the new normalization. We extend our techniques to the Lorentzian sector, where we define two models for four-dimensional QG. The first one contains only time-like representations and is shown to be
Regional gravity field modelling from GOCE observables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pitoňák, Martin; Šprlák, Michal; Novák, Pavel; Tenzer, Robert
2017-01-01
In this article we discuss a regional recovery of gravity disturbances at the mean geocentric sphere approximating the Earth over the area of Central Europe from satellite gravitational gradients. For this purpose, we derive integral formulas which allow converting the gravity disturbances onto the disturbing gravitational gradients in the local north-oriented frame (LNOF). The derived formulas are free of singularities in case of r ≠ R . We then investigate three numerical approaches for solving their inverses. In the initial approach, the integral formulas are firstly modified for solving individually the near- and distant-zone contributions. While the effect of the near-zone gravitational gradients is solved as an inverse problem, the effect of the distant-zone gravitational gradients is computed by numerical integration from the global gravitational model (GGM) TIM-r4. In the second approach, we further elaborate the first scenario by reducing measured gravitational gradients for gravitational effects of topographic masses. In the third approach, we apply additional modification by reducing gravitational gradients for the reference GGM. In all approaches we determine the gravity disturbances from each of the four accurately measured gravitational gradients separately as well as from their combination. Our regional gravitational field solutions are based on the GOCE EGG_TRF_2 gravitational gradients collected within the period from November 1 2009 until January 11 2010. Obtained results are compared with EGM2008, DIR-r1, TIM-r1 and SPW-r1. The best fit, in terms of RMS (2.9 mGal), is achieved for EGM2008 while using the third approach which combine all four well-measured gravitational gradients. This is explained by the fact that a-priori information about the Earth's gravitational field up to the degree and order 180 was used.
Evaluating spread of invaders from gravity scores--a way of using gravity models in ecology.
Järemo, Johannes
2009-11-01
This study is a theoretical excursion into gravity models and their usability in evaluating importance of spatial structure and population development for the spread of colonizing organisms. A so called "gravity score" for sites is deduced, and such a score could be used for predicting risk of colonization once one site in an area has been subject to introduction of a new species. The analysis further suggests that factors deciding spread between sites differs from those that govern expected population sizes. Gravity models of the kind presented here includes both population dynamics and spatial structure and could be a complement to other models describing organism spread.
Evaluation of recent Earth's global gravity field models with terrestrial gravity data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karpik, Alexander P.; Kanushin, Vadim F.; Ganagina, Irina G.; Goldobin, Denis N.; Kosarev, Nikolay S.; Kosareva, Alexandra M.
2016-03-01
In the context of the rapid development of environmental research technologies and techniques to solve scientific and practical problems in different fields of knowledge including geosciences, the study of Earth's gravity field models is still important today. The results of gravity anomaly modelling calculated by the current geopotential models data were compared with the independent terrestrial gravity data for the two territories located in West Siberia and Kazakhstan. Statistical characteristics of comparison results for the models under study were obtained. The results of investigations show that about 70% of the differences between the gravity anomaly values calculated by recent global geopotential models and those observed at the points in flat areas are within ±10 mGal, in mountainous areas are within ±20 mGal.
Anisotropic singularities in modified gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figueiró, Michele Ferraz; Saa, Alberto
2009-09-01
We show that the common singularities present in generic modified gravity models governed by actions of the type S=∫d4x-gf(R,ϕ,X), with X=-(1)/(2)gab∂aϕ∂bϕ, are essentially the same anisotropic instabilities associated to the hypersurface F(ϕ)=0 in the case of a nonminimal coupling of the type F(ϕ)R, enlightening the physical origin of such singularities that typically arise in rather complex and cumbersome inhomogeneous perturbation analyses. We show, moreover, that such anisotropic instabilities typically give rise to dynamically unavoidable singularities, precluding completely the possibility of having physically viable models for which the hypersurface (∂f)/(∂R)=0 is attained. Some examples are explicitly discussed.
Model-independent tests of cosmic gravity.
Linder, Eric V
2011-12-28
Gravitation governs the expansion and fate of the universe, and the growth of large-scale structure within it, but has not been tested in detail on these cosmic scales. The observed acceleration of the expansion may provide signs of gravitational laws beyond general relativity (GR). Since the form of any such extension is not clear, from either theory or data, we adopt a model-independent approach to parametrizing deviations to the Einstein framework. We explore the phase space dynamics of two key post-GR functions and derive a classification scheme, and an absolute criterion on accuracy necessary for distinguishing classes of gravity models. Future surveys will be able to constrain the post-GR functions' amplitudes and forms to the required precision, and hence reveal new aspects of gravitation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruglov, S. I.
2015-05-01
The new model of modified F(R)-gravity theory with the function F(R) = R + (a/γ) arcsin(γR) is suggested and investigated. Constant curvature solutions corresponding to the extremum of the effective potential are obtained. We consider both the Jordan and Einstein frames, and the potential and the mass of the scalar degree of freedom are found. It was shown that the de Sitter space-time is unstable but the flat space-time is stable. We calculate the slow-roll parameters ɛ, η, and the e-fold number of the model. Critical points of autonomous equations for the de Sitter phase and the matter dominated epoch are obtained and learned.
Gravity, Lorentz violation, and the standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostelecký, V. Alan
2004-05-01
The role of the gravitational sector in the Lorentz- and CPT-violating standard-model extension (SME) is studied. A framework is developed for addressing this topic in the context of Riemann-Cartan spacetimes, which include as limiting cases the usual Riemann and Minkowski geometries. The methodology is first illustrated in the context of the QED extension in a Riemann-Cartan background. The full SME in this background is then considered, and the leading-order terms in the SME action involving operators of mass dimension three and four are constructed. The incorporation of arbitrary Lorentz and CPT violation into general relativity and other theories of gravity based on Riemann-Cartan geometries is discussed. The dominant terms in the effective low-energy action for the gravitational sector are provided, thereby completing the formulation of the leading-order terms in the SME with gravity. Explicit Lorentz symmetry breaking is found to be incompatible with generic Riemann-Cartan geometries, but spontaneous Lorentz breaking evades this difficulty.
Quantum gravity and Standard-Model-like fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eichhorn, Astrid; Lippoldt, Stefan
2017-04-01
We discover that chiral symmetry does not act as an infrared attractor of the renormalization group flow under the impact of quantum gravity fluctuations. Thus, observationally viable quantum gravity models must respect chiral symmetry. In our truncation, asymptotically safe gravity does, as a chiral fixed point exists. A second non-chiral fixed point with massive fermions provides a template for models with dark matter. This fixed point disappears for more than 10 fermions, suggesting that an asymptotically safe ultraviolet completion for the standard model plus gravity enforces chiral symmetry.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vincent, S.; Marsh, J. G.
1973-01-01
A global detailed gravimetric geoid has been computed by combining the Goddard Space Flight Center GEM-4 gravity model derived from satellite and surface gravity data and surface 1 deg-by-1 deg mean free air gravity anomaly data. The accuracy of the geoid is + or - 2 meters on continents, 5 to 7 meters in areas where surface gravity data are sparse, and 10 to 15 meters in areas where no surface gravity data are available. Comparisons have been made with the astrogeodetic data provided by Rice (United States), Bomford (Europe), and Mather (Australia). Comparisons have also been carried out with geoid heights derived from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.
Higgs-induced spectroscopic shifts near strong gravity sources
Onofrio, Roberto
2010-09-15
We explore the consequences of the mass generation due to the Higgs field in strong gravity astrophysical environments. The vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field is predicted to depend on the curvature of spacetime, potentially giving rise to peculiar spectroscopic shifts, named hereafter 'Higgs shifts'. Higgs shifts could be searched through dedicated multiwavelength and multispecies surveys with high spatial and spectral resolution near strong gravity sources such as Sagittarius A* or broad searches for signals due to primordial black holes. The possible absence of Higgs shifts in these surveys should provide limits to the coupling between the Higgs particle and the curvature of spacetime, a topic of interest for a recently proposed Higgs-driven inflationary model. We discuss some conceptual issues regarding the coexistence between the Higgs mechanism and gravity, especially for their different handling of fundamental and composite particles.
Modeling human perception of orientation in altered gravity
Clark, Torin K.; Newman, Michael C.; Oman, Charles M.; Merfeld, Daniel M.; Young, Laurence R.
2015-01-01
Altered gravity environments, such as those experienced by astronauts, impact spatial orientation perception, and can lead to spatial disorientation and sensorimotor impairment. To more fully understand and quantify the impact of altered gravity on orientation perception, several mathematical models have been proposed. The utricular shear, tangent, and the idiotropic vector models aim to predict static perception of tilt in hyper-gravity. Predictions from these prior models are compared to the available data, but are found to systematically err from the perceptions experimentally observed. Alternatively, we propose a modified utricular shear model for static tilt perception in hyper-gravity. Previous dynamic models of vestibular function and orientation perception are limited to 1 G. Specifically, they fail to predict the characteristic overestimation of roll tilt observed in hyper-gravity environments. To address this, we have proposed a modification to a previous observer-type canal-otolith interaction model based upon the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS) treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. Here we evaluate our modified utricular shear and modified observer models in four altered gravity motion paradigms: (a) static roll tilt in hyper-gravity, (b) static pitch tilt in hyper-gravity, (c) static roll tilt in hypo-gravity, and (d) static pitch tilt in hypo-gravity. The modified models match available data in each of the conditions considered. Our static modified utricular shear model and dynamic modified observer model may be used to help quantitatively predict astronaut perception of orientation in altered gravity environments. PMID:25999822
Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements in Low Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
VanderWal, R. L.
1997-01-01
A low-gravity environment offers advantages to investigations concerned with soot growth or flame radiation by eliminating of buoyancy-induced convection. Basic to each type of study is knowledge of spatially resolved soot volume fraction, (f(sub v). Laser-induced incandescence (LII) has emerged as a diagnostic for soot volume fraction determination because it possesses high temporal and spatial resolution, geometric versatility and high sensitivity. Implementation and system characterization of LII in a drop tower that provides 2.2 sec of low-gravity (micro)g) at the NASA Lewis Research Center are described here. Validation of LII for soot volume fraction determination in (micro)g is performed by comparison between soot volume fraction measurements obtained by light extinction [20] and LII in low-gravity for a 50/50 mixture (by volume) of 0 acetylene/nitrogen issuing into quiescent air. Quantitative soot volume fraction measurements within other laminar flames of ethane and propane and a turbulent diffusion flame in (micro)g via LII are also demonstrated. An analysis of LII images of a turbulent acetylene diffusion flame in 1-g and (micro)g is presented.
Gravity-induced stresses near a vertical cliff
Savage, W.Z.
1993-01-01
The exact solution for gravity-induced stresses beneath a vertical cliff presented here has application to the design of cut slopes in rock, compares favorably with published photoelastic and finite-element results for this problem, and satisfies the condition that shear and normal stresses vanish on the ground surface, except at the bottom corner where stress concentrations exist. The solution predicts that horizontal stresses are tensile away from the bottom of the cliff-effects caused by movement below the cliff in response to the gravity loading of the cliff. Also, it is shown that along the top of the cliff normal stresses reduce to those predicted for laterally constrained flat-lying topography. ?? 1993.
High-resolution regional gravity field modelling in a mountainous area from terrestrial gravity data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bucha, Blažej; Janák, Juraj; Papčo, Juraj; Bezděk, Aleš
2016-11-01
We develop a high-resolution regional gravity field model by a combination of spherical harmonics, band-limited spherical radial basis functions (SRBFs) and the residual terrain model (RTM) technique. As the main input data set, we employ a dense terrestrial gravity database (3-6 stations km-2), which enables gravity field modelling up to very short spatial scales. The approach is based on the remove-compute-restore methodology in which all the parts of the signal that can be modelled are removed prior to the least-squares adjustment in order to smooth the input gravity data. To this end, we utilize degree-2159 spherical harmonic models and the RTM technique using topographic models at 2 arcsec resolution. The residual short-scale gravity signal is modelled via the band-limited Shannon SRBF expanded up to degree 21 600, which corresponds to a spatial resolution of 30 arcsec. The combined model is validated against GNSS/levelling-based height anomalies, independent surface gravity data, deflections of the vertical and terrestrial vertical gravity gradients achieving an accuracy of 2.7 cm, 0.53 mGal, 0.39 arcsec and 279 E in terms of the RMS error, respectively. A key aspect of the combined approach, especially in mountainous areas, is the quality of the RTM. We therefore compare the performance of two RTM techniques within the innermost zone, the tesseroids and the polyhedron. It is shown that the polyhedron-based approach should be preferred in rugged terrain if a high-quality RTM is required. In addition, we deal with the RTM computations at points located below the reference surface of the residual terrain which is known to be a rather delicate issue.
Altered Gravity Induces Oxidative Stress in Drosophila Melanogaster
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Hosamani, Ravikumar
2015-01-01
Altered gravity environments can induce increased oxidative stress in biological systems. Microarray data from our previous spaceflight experiment (FIT experiment on STS-121) indicated significant changes in the expression of oxidative stress genes in adult fruit flies after spaceflight. Currently, our lab is focused on elucidating the role of hypergravity-induced oxidative stress and its impact on the nervous system in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochemical, molecular, and genetic approaches were combined to study this effect on the ground. Adult flies (2-3 days old) exposed to acute hypergravity (3g, for 1 hour and 2 hours) showed significantly elevated levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in fly brains compared to control samples. This data was supported by significant changes in mRNA expression of specific oxidative stress and antioxidant defense related genes. As anticipated, a stress-resistant mutant line, Indy302, was less vulnerable to hypergravity-induced oxidative stress compared to wild-type flies. Survival curves were generated to study the combined effect of hypergravity and pro-oxidant treatment. Interestingly, many of the oxidative stress changes that were measured in flies showed sex specific differences. Collectively, our data demonstrate that altered gravity significantly induces oxidative stress in Drosophila, and that one of the organs where this effect is evident is the brain.
Toward an Internal Gravity Wave Spectrum in Global Ocean Models
2015-05-14
14 MAY 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Toward an Internal Gravity Wave Spectrum in Global...resolution global ocean models forced by atmospheric fields and tides are beginning to display realistic internal gravity wave spectra, especially as
A dynamic model of Venus's gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiefer, W. S.; Richards, M. A.; Hager, B. H.; Bills, B. G.
1984-01-01
Unlike Earth, long wavelength gravity anomalies and topography correlate well on Venus. Venus's admittance curve from spherical harmonic degree 2 to 18 is inconsistent with either Airy or Pratt isostasy, but is consistent with dynamic support from mantle convection. A model using whole mantle flow and a high viscosity near surface layer overlying a constant viscosity mantle reproduces this admittance curve. On Earth, the effective viscosity deduced from geoid modeling increases by a factor of 300 from the asthenosphere to the lower mantle. These viscosity estimates may be biased by the neglect of lateral variations in mantle viscosity associated with hot plumes and cold subducted slabs. The different effective viscosity profiles for Earth and Venus may reflect their convective styles, with tectonism and mantle heat transport dominated by hot plumes on Venus and by subducted slabs on Earth. Convection at degree 2 appears much stronger on Earth than on Venus. A degree 2 convective structure may be unstable on Venus, but may have been stabilized on Earth by the insulating effects of the Pangean supercontinental assemblage.
Adaptative gravity modelling from GOCE gradient data over the Himalaya
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayn, M.; Holschneider, M.; Panet, I.
2013-12-01
GOCE data deliver information about the static gravity anomalies with a spatial resolution of about 90km. The derived gravity models are used to investigate the Earth's interior structure. Most models for the GOCE data are limited by the facts 1. that they have a uniform resolution and 2. that this resolution is defined with respect to a sphere. One can improve the stability and decrease the numerical costs by adapting the resolution to the local scales of variability of the modelled field. Furthermore, respecting the ellipsoidal shape of the Earth and even its topography allows to increase the resolution of the models. We thus propose a new adaptative modelling approach. In this approach, the modelled gravity potential is represented as a superposition of potentials of poles, located closely below the Earth's surface. The distribution of the poles below the surface determines the local scale of the model. It is adapted to prior knowledge on the local roughness of the gravity field. The prior knowledge is built by estimating characteristic local scales from the wavelet transform of a prior gravity model, EGM2008. After positioning the poles by means of an iterative approach, we build a gravity model by maximising the Bayesian posterior distribution of the model. This Bayesian approach also allows estimating the model's uncertainty. We apply this modelling approach on an area over the Himalaya and show our preliminary results. The model will be used to study the dynamic processes in this active area.
Internal model of gravity influences configural body processing.
Barra, Julien; Senot, Patrice; Auclair, Laurent
2017-01-01
Human bodies are processed by a configural processing mechanism. Evidence supporting this claim is the body inversion effect, in which inversion impairs recognition of bodies more than other objects. Biomechanical configuration, as well as both visual and embodied expertise, has been demonstrated to play an important role in this effect. Nevertheless, the important factor of body inversion effect may also be linked to gravity orientation since gravity is one of the most fundamental constraints of our biology, behavior, and perception on Earth. The visual presentation of an inverted body in a typical body inversion paradigm turns the observed body upside down but also inverts the implicit direction of visual gravity in the scene. The orientation of visual gravity is then in conflict with the direction of actual gravity and may influence configural processing. To test this hypothesis, we dissociated the orientations of the body and of visual gravity by manipulating body posture. In a pretest we showed that it was possible to turn an avatar upside down (inversion relative to retinal coordinates) without inverting the orientation of visual gravity when the avatar stands on his/her hands. We compared the inversion effect in typical conditions (with gravity conflict when the avatar is upside down) to the inversion effect in conditions with no conflict between visual and physical gravity. The results of our experiment revealed that the inversion effect, as measured by both error rate and reaction time, was strongly reduced when there was no gravity conflict. Our results suggest that when an observed body is upside down (inversion relative to participants' retinal coordinates) but the orientation of visual gravity is not, configural processing of bodies might still be possible. In this paper, we discuss the implications of an internal model of gravity in the configural processing of observed bodies.
Gravity field models derived from Swarm GPS data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teixeira da Encarnação, João; Arnold, Daniel; Bezděk, Aleš; Dahle, Christoph; Doornbos, Eelco; van den IJssel, Jose; Jäggi, Adrian; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Sebera, Josef; Visser, Pieter; Zehentner, Norbert
2016-07-01
It is of great interest to numerous geophysical studies that the time series of global gravity field models derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data remains uninterrupted after the end of this mission. With this in mind, some institutes have been spending efforts to estimate gravity field models from alternative sources of gravimetric data. This study focuses on the gravity field solutions estimated from Swarm global positioning system (GPS) data, produced by the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern, the Astronomical Institute (ASU, Czech Academy of Sciences) and Institute of Geodesy (IfG, Graz University of Technology). The three sets of solutions are based on different approaches, namely the celestial mechanics approach, the acceleration approach and the short-arc approach, respectively. We derive the maximum spatial resolution of the time-varying gravity signal in the Swarm gravity field models to be degree 12, in comparison with the more accurate models obtained from K-band ranging data of GRACE. We demonstrate that the combination of the GPS-driven models produced with the three different approaches improves the accuracy in all analysed monthly solutions, with respect to any of them. In other words, the combined gravity field model consistently benefits from the individual strengths of each separate solution. The improved accuracy of the combined model is expected to bring benefits to the geophysical studies during the period when no dedicated gravimetric mission is operational.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rios, J.
1982-01-01
The settling behavior of the liquid and gaseous phases of a fluid in a propellant and in a zero-g environment, when such settling is induced through the use of a dynamic device, in this particular case, a helical screw was studied. Particular emphasis was given to: (1) the description of a fluid mechanics model which seems applicable to the system under consideration, (2) a First Law of Thermodynamics analysis of the system, and (3) a discussion of applicable scaling rules.
Gravity and Flexure Modelling of Subducting Plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunter, J. A.; Watts, A. B.; SO 215 Shipboard Scientific Party
2012-04-01
The long-term strength of the lithosphere is determined by its flexural rigidity, which is commonly expressed through the effective elastic thickness, Te. Flexure studies have revealed a dependence of Te on thermal age. In the oceans, loads formed on young (70 Ma) seafloor. In the continents, loads on young (1000 Ma) lithosphere. Recent studies have questioned the relationship of Te with age, especially at subduction zones, where oceanic and continental lithosphere are flexed downwards by up to ~6 km over horizontal distances of up to ~350 km. We have therefore used free-air gravity anomaly and topography profile data, combined with forward and inverse modelling techniques, to re-assess Te in these settings. Preliminary inverse modelling results from the Tonga-Kermadec Trench - Outer Rise system, where the Pacific plate is subducting beneath the Indo-Australian plate, show large spatial variations in Te that are unrelated to age. In contrast to the southern end of the system, where Te is determined by the depth to the 600° C and 900° C isotherms, the northern end of the system shows a reduction in strength. Results also suggest a reduction in Te trenchward of the outer rise that is coincident with a region of pervasive extensional faulting visible in swath bathymetry data. In a continental setting, the Ganges foreland basin has formed by flexure of the Indo-Australian plate in front of the migrating loads of the Himalaya. Preliminary forward modelling results, using the Himalaya as a known surface topographic load, suggest that Te is high - consistent with the great age of Indian cratonic lithosphere. However, results from inverse modelling that solves for unknown loads (vertical shear force and bending moment) show significant scatter and display trade-offs between Te and these driving loads.
New Gravity Wave Treatments for GISS Climate Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Ruedy, Reto; Aleinov, Igor; Nazarenko, Larissa; Tausnev, Nikolai L.; Sun, Shan; Kelley, Maxwell; Cheng, Ye
2010-01-01
Previous versions of GISS climate models have either used formulations of Rayleigh drag to represent unresolved gravity wave interactions with the model resolved flow or have included a rather complicated treatment of unresolved gravity waves that, while being climate interactive, involved the specification of a relatively large number of parameters that were not well constrained by observations and also was computationally very expensive. Here, we introduce a relatively simple and computationally efficient specification of unresolved orographic and non-orographic gravity waves and their interaction with the resolved flow. We show comparisons of the GISS model winds and temperatures with no gravity wave parametrization; with only orographic gravity wave parameterization; and with both orographic and non-orographic gravity wave parameterizations to illustrate how the zonal mean winds and temperatures converge toward observations. We also show that the specifications of orographic and nonorographic gravity waves must be different in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. We then show results where the non-orographic gravity wave sources are specified to represent sources from convection in the Intertropical Convergence Zone and spontaneous emission from jet imbalances. Finally, we suggest a strategy to include these effects in a climate dependent manner.
New Gravity Wave Treatments for GISS Climate Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Ruedy, Reto; Aleinov, Igor; Nazarenko, Larissa; Tausnev, Nikolai L.; Sun, Shan; Kelley, Maxwell; Cheng, Ye
2011-01-01
Previous versions of GISS climate models have either used formulations of Rayleigh drag to represent unresolved gravity wave interactions with the model-resolved flow or have included a rather complicated treatment of unresolved gravity waves that, while being climate interactive, involved the specification of a relatively large number of parameters that were not well constrained by observations and also was computationally very expensive. Here, the authors introduce a relatively simple and computationally efficient specification of unresolved orographic and nonorographic gravity waves and their interaction with the resolved flow. Comparisons of the GISS model winds and temperatures with no gravity wave parameterization; with only orographic gravity wave parameterization; and with both orographic and nonorographic gravity wave parameterizations are shown to illustrate how the zonal mean winds and temperatures converge toward observations. The authors also show that the specifications of orographic and nonorographic gravity waves must be different in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Then results are presented where the nonorographic gravity wave sources are specified to represent sources from convection in the intertropical convergence zone and spontaneous emission from jet imbalances. Finally, a strategy to include these effects in a climate-dependent manner is suggested.
Multi-scale gravity field modeling in space and time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shuo; Panet, Isabelle; Ramillien, Guillaume; Guilloux, Frédéric
2016-04-01
The Earth constantly deforms as it undergoes dynamic phenomena, such as earthquakes, post-glacial rebound and water displacement in its fluid envelopes. These processes have different spatial and temporal scales and are accompanied by mass displacements, which create temporal variations of the gravity field. Since 2002, the GRACE satellite missions provide an unprecedented view of the gravity field spatial and temporal variations. Gravity models built from these satellite data are essential to study the Earth's dynamic processes (Tapley et al., 2004). Up to present, time variations of the gravity field are often modelled using spatial spherical harmonics functions averaged over a fixed period, as 10 days or 1 month. This approach is well suited for modeling global phenomena. To better estimate gravity related to local and/or transient processes, such as earthquakes or floods, and adapt the temporal resolution of the model to its spatial resolution, we propose to model the gravity field using localized functions in space and time. For that, we build a model of the gravity field in space and time with a four-dimensional wavelet basis, well localized in space and time. First we design the 4D basis, then, we study the inverse problem to model the gravity field from the potential differences between the twin GRACE satellites, and its regularization using prior knowledge on the water cycle. Our demonstration of surface water mass signals decomposition in time and space is based on the use of synthetic along-track gravitational potential data. We test the developed approach on one year of 4D gravity modeling and compare the reconstructed water heights to those of the input hydrological model. Perspectives of this work is to apply the approach on real GRACE data, addressing the challenge of a realistic noise, to better describe and understand physical processus with high temporal resolution/low spatial resolution or the contrary.
Cosmological data analysis of f(R) gravity models
Gironés, Z.; Marchetti, A.; Mena, O.; Peña-Garay, C.; Rius, N. E-mail: alida.marchetti@unimi.it E-mail: carlos.penya@ific.uv.es
2010-11-01
A class of well-behaved modified gravity models with long enough matter domination epoch and a late-time accelerated expansion is confronted with SNIa, CMB, SDSS, BAO and H(z) galaxy ages data, as well as current measurements of the linear growth of structure. We show that the combination of geometrical probes and growth data exploited here allows to rule out f(R) gravity models, in particular, the logarithmic of curvature model. We also apply solar system tests to the models in agreement with the cosmological data. We find that the exponential of the inverse of the curvature model satisfies all the observational tests considered and we derive the allowed range of parameters. Current data still allows for small deviations of Einstein gravity. Future, high precision growth data, in combination with expansion history data, will be able to distinguish tiny modifications of standard gravity from the ΛCDM model.
Looking for sedimentary basins using global gravity and crustal models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colpani, Stefano; Strykowski, Gabriel
2014-05-01
Publically available and newly released global crustal model, CRUST 1.0 (Laske et al., 2013) in combination with satellite based global gravity models GOCO3s (Mayer-Gürr T. et al., 2012) yield a possibility of combining global source models with global gravity models. The depths to the top and to the base of the geological units obtained from the global crust model are used to fix the source geometry. This information is subsequently used to forward compute the global gravity signature of these units in different heights above the sources and for unit mass density. The average global mass density for the geological unit acts like a scaling factor and the relation to the gravity signal becomes linear. The computations are done both for Tz (gravity disturbances) and for some chosen gravity gradient components Tzz, Tzx and Tzy, where x,y and z refer to a local east-north-up Cartesian reference frame. The above setup allows constructing a model of the regional (gravity) field both for Tz and for the above gradient components Tzz, Tzx and Tzy and to improve it on regional scale. In principle, the method allows to keep track of the relation between the regional (gravity) signal and the source model. Subsequently, a generalized Nettleton's method can be used to fine-tune density values for the sediments from any above type of gravity data and a combination of it. Finally, for the well-surveyed areas, the results can be compared with the independent information about the basin geometry. This experience can be used for quantifying the information about the sedimentary basin in areas where the information is limited.
Application of gravity model on the Korean urban bus network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Inho; Jung, Woo-Sung
2016-11-01
Mobility models have been studied to describe the underlying mechanism of human mobility. The mobility patterns in various transportation systems were understood with the gravity model by estimating the traffic as a simple function of population and distance. Compared to most studies on large-scale systems, we focused on the validity and characteristics of gravity model for intraurban mobility. Several variations of gravity model are applied on the urban bus systems of five medium-sized cities in Korea. The gravity model successfully estimates the intraurban traffic without universal exponents for cities. From the change of exponents by predictor types, we figure out the effect by a non-trivial relation between traffic and population in the urban areas.
FFT and Wavelet analysis for the study of gravity wave activity over a modeled hurricane environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuester, M. A.; Alexander, J.; Ray, E.
2005-12-01
Understanding of gravity waves and their sources are important for driving global circulations in climate and weather forecasting models. Temperature fluctuations associated with gravity waves near the tropopause also affect cirrus cloud formation, which is important to the study of radiative forcing in the atmosphere. Deep convection is believed to be a major source for these waves and hurricanes may be particularly long-lived and intense sources. Simulations of Hurricane Humberto have been studied using the Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU-NCAR) fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5). Humberto is simulated at both tropical storm and hurricane stages. Information about gravity waves and their sources can be inferred from horizontal wind and temperature variances in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Both Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Wavelet analyses are employed to investigate wave properties and behavior in the lower stratosphere. FFT analysis gives an overall view of storm affects while Wavelet analysis gives a local picture of gravity wave activity. It is found that a hurricane can be a significant source of deep heating which actively triggers gravity waves from the hot tower region of the storm eye wall. Convectively generated gravity waves are observed in the lower stratosphere of this model with horizontal scales of 10-250 km, vertical scales around 5 km and with intrinsic periods of approximately 20 minutes. Some specific characteristics of gravity waves found above the storm will be presented along with further discussion from the wave activity observed with the model. Deep convection over the oceans is thought to play a key role in atmospheric forcing via the creation of vertically propagating gravity waves and hurricane induced gravity waves may play a role in stratospheric forcing during the hurricane season.
Model-independent constraints on possible modifications of Newtonian gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Talmadge, C.; Berthias, J.-P.; Hellings, R. W.; Standish, E. M.
1988-01-01
New model-independent constraints on possible modifications of Newtonian gravity over solar-system distance scales are presented, and their implications discussed. The constraints arise from the analysis of various planetary astrometric data sets. The results of the model-independent analysis are then applied to set limits on a variation in the l/r-squared behavior of gravity, on possible Yukawa-type interactions with ranges of the order of planetary distance scales, and on a deviation from Newtonian gravity of the type discussed by Milgrom (1983).
Patterns of gravity induced aggregate migration during casting of fluid concretes
Spangenberg, J.; Roussel, N.; Hattel, J.H.; Sarmiento, E.V.; Zirgulis, G.; Geiker, M.R.
2012-12-15
In this paper, aggregate migration patterns during fluid concrete castings are studied through experiments, dimensionless approach and numerical modeling. The experimental results obtained on two beams show that gravity induced migration is primarily affecting the coarsest aggregates resulting in a decrease of coarse aggregates volume fraction with the horizontal distance from the pouring point and in a puzzling vertical multi-layer structure. The origin of this multi layer structure is discussed and analyzed with the help of numerical simulations of free surface flow. Our results suggest that it finds its origin in the non Newtonian nature of fresh concrete and that increasing casting rate shall decrease the magnitude of gravity induced particle migration.
Acoustic Gravity Wave Chemistry Model for the RAYTRACE Code.
2014-09-26
AU)-AI56 850 ACOlUSTIC GRAVITY WAVE CHEMISTRY MODEL FOR THE IAYTRACE I/~ CODE(U) MISSION RESEARCH CORP SANTA BARBIARA CA T E OLD Of MAN 84 MC-N-SlS...DNA-TN-S4-127 ONAOOI-BO-C-0022 UNLSSIFIlED F/O 20/14 NL 1-0 2-8 1111 po 312.2 1--I 11111* i •. AD-A 156 850 DNA-TR-84-127 ACOUSTIC GRAVITY WAVE...Hicih Frequency Radio Propaoation Acoustic Gravity Waves 20. ABSTRACT (Continue en reveree mide if tteceeemr and Identify by block number) This
Intraspecific differences in bacterial responses to modelled reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, P. W.; Leff, L. G.
2005-01-01
AIMS: Bacteria are important residents of water systems, including those of space stations which feature specific environmental conditions, such as lowered effects of gravity. The purpose of this study was to compare responses with modelled reduced gravity of space station, water system bacterial isolates with other isolates of the same species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacterial isolates, Stenotrophomonas paucimobilis and Acinetobacter radioresistens, originally recovered from the water supply aboard the International Space Station (ISS) were grown in nutrient broth under modelled reduced gravity. Their growth was compared with type strains S. paucimobilis ATCC 10829 and A. radioresistens ATCC 49000. Acinetobacter radioresistens ATCC 49000 and the two ISS isolates showed similar growth profiles under modelled reduced gravity compared with normal gravity, whereas S. paucimobilis ATCC 10829 was negatively affected by modelled reduced gravity. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that microgravity might have selected for bacteria that were able to thrive under this unusual condition. These responses, coupled with impacts of other features (such as radiation resistance and ability to persist under very oligotrophic conditions), may contribute to the success of these water system bacteria. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Water quality is a significant factor in many environments including the ISS. Efforts to remove microbial contaminants are likely to be complicated by the features of these bacteria which allow them to persist under the extreme conditions of the systems.
Anisotropic stress and stability in modified gravity models
Saltas, Ippocratis D.; Kunz, Martin
2011-03-15
The existence of anisotropic stress of a purely geometrical origin seems to be a characteristic of higher order gravity models, and has been suggested as a probe to test these models observationally, for example, in weak lensing experiments. In this paper, we seek to find a class of higher order gravity models of f(R,G) type that would give us a zero anisotropic stress and study the consequences for the viability of the actual model. For the special case of a de Sitter background, we identify a subclass of models with the desired property. We also find a direct link between anisotropic stress and the stability of the model as well as the presence of extra degrees of freedom, which seems to be a general feature of higher order gravity models. Particularly, setting the anisotropic stress equal to zero for a de Sitter background leads to a singularity that makes it impossible to reach the de Sitter evolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Puchwein, Ewald; Baldi, Marco; Springel, Volker
2013-11-01
We present a new massively parallel code for N-body and cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of modified gravity models. The code employs a multigrid-accelerated Newton-Gauss-Seidel relaxation solver on an adaptive mesh to efficiently solve for perturbations in the scalar degree of freedom of the modified gravity model. As this new algorithm is implemented as a module for the P-GADGET3 code, it can at the same time follow the baryonic physics included in P-GADGET3, such as hydrodynamics, radiative cooling and star formation. We demonstrate that the code works reliably by applying it to simple test problems that can be solved analytically, as well as by comparing cosmological simulations to results from the literature. Using the new code, we perform the first non-radiative and radiative cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of an f (R)-gravity model. We also discuss the impact of active galactic nucleus feedback on the matter power spectrum, as well as degeneracies between the influence of baryonic processes and modifications of gravity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mulugeta, L.; Werner, C. R.; Pennline, J. A.
2015-01-01
During exploration class missions, such as to asteroids and Mars, astronauts will be exposed to reduced gravity for extended periods. Data has shown that astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1% to 2% a month in microgravity, particularly in lower extremities such as the proximal femur. Exercise countermeasures have not completely eliminated bone loss from long duration spaceflight missions, which leaves astronauts susceptible to early onset osteoporosis and greater risk of fracture. Introduction of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and other large exercise devices on the International Space Station (ISS), coupled with improved nutrition, has further minimized bone loss. However, unlike the ISS, exploration vehicles will have very limited volume and power available to accommodate such capabilities. Therefore, novel concepts like artificial gravity systems are being explored as a means to provide sufficient load stimulus to the musculoskeletal system to mitigate bone changes that may lead to early onset osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture. Currently, there is minimal data available to drive further research and development efforts to appropriately explore such options. Computational modeling can be leveraged to gain insight on the level of osteoprotection that may be achieved using artificial gravity produced by a spinning spacecraft or centrifuge. With this in mind, NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) has developed a bone remodeling model that has been validated for predicting volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) changes of trabecular and cortical bone both for gravitational unloading condition and the equivalent of 1g daily load stimulus. Using this model, it is possible to simulate vBMD changes in trabecular and cortical bone under different gravity conditions. In this presentation, we will discuss our preliminary findings regarding if and how artificial gravity may be used to mitigate spaceflight induced bone loss.
Gravity model development for TOPEX/POSEIDON: Joint gravity models 1 and 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nerem, R. S.; Lerch, F. J.; Marshall, J. A.; Pavlis, E. C.; Putney, B. H.; Tapley, B. D.; Eanes, R. J.; Ries, J. C.; Schutz, B. E.; Shum, C. K.
1994-01-01
The TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) prelaunch Joint Gravity Model-1 (JGM-1) and the postlaunch JGM-2 Earth gravitational models have been developed to support precision orbit determination for T/P. Each of these models is complete to degree 70 in spherical harmonics and was computed from a combination of satellite tracking data, satellite altimetry, and surface gravimetry. While improved orbit determination accuracies for T/P have driven the improvements in the models, the models are general in application and also provide an improved geoid for oceanographic computations. The postlaunch model, JGM-2, which includes T/P satellite laser ranging (SLR) and Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) tracking data, introduces radial orbit errors for T/P that are only 2 cm RMS with the commission errors of the marine geoid for terms to degree 70 being +/- 25 cm. Errors in modeling the nonconservative forces acting on T/P increase the total radial errors to only 3-4 cm root mean square (RMS), a result much better than premission goals. While the orbit accuracy goal for T/P has been far surpassed geoid errors still prevent the absolute determination of the ocean dynamic topography for wavelengths shorter than about 2500 km. Only a dedicated gravitational field satellite mission will likely provide the necessary improvement in the geoid.
Joint analysis of the seismic data and velocity gravity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belyakov, A. S.; Lavrov, V. S.; Muchamedov, V. A.; Nikolaev, A. V.
2016-03-01
We performed joint analysis of the seismic noises recorded at the Japanese Ogasawara station located on Titijima Island in the Philippine Sea using the STS-2 seismograph at the OSW station in the winter period of January 1-15, 2015, over the background of a velocity gravity model. The graphs prove the existence of a cause-and-effect relation between the seismic noise and gravity and allow us to consider it as a desired signal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Tao; Wang, Yan Ming
2016-12-01
One of the challenges for geoid determination is the combination of heterogeneous gravity data. Because of the distinctive spectral content of different data sets, spectral combination is a suitable candidate for its solution. The key to have a successful combination is to determine the proper spectral weights, or the error degree variances of each data set. In this paper, the error degree variances of terrestrial and airborne gravity data at low degrees are estimated by the aid of a satellite gravity model using harmonic analysis. For higher degrees, the error covariances are estimated from local gravity data first, and then used to compute the error degree variances. The white and colored noise models are also used to estimate the error degree variances of local gravity data for comparisons. Based on the error degree variances, the spectral weights of satellite gravity models, terrestrial and airborne gravity data are determined and applied for geoid computation in Texas area. The computed gravimetric geoid models are tested against an independent, highly accurate geoid profile of the Geoid Slope Validation Survey 2011 (GSVS11). The geoid computed by combining satellite gravity model GOCO03S and terrestrial (land and DTU13 altimetric) gravity data agrees with GSVS11 to ±1.1 cm in terms of standard deviation along a line of 325 km. After incorporating the airborne gravity data collected at 11 km altitude, the standard deviation is reduced to ±0.8 cm. Numerical tests demonstrate the feasibility of spectral combination in geoid computation and the contribution of airborne gravity in an area of high quality terrestrial gravity data. Using the GSVS11 data and the spectral combination, the degree of correctness of the error spectra and the quality of satellite gravity models can also be revealed.
Dark-energy cosmological models in f( G) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shamir, M. F.
2016-10-01
We discuss dark-energy cosmological models in f( G) gravity. For this purpose, a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I cosmological model is considered. First, exact solutions with a well-known form of the f( G) model are explored. One general solution is discussed using a power-law f( G) gravity model and physical quantities are calculated. In particular, Kasner's universe is recovered and the corresponding f( G) gravity models are reported. Second, the energy conditions for the model under consideration are discussed using graphical analysis. It is concluded that solutions with f( G) = G 5/6 support expansion of universe while those with f( G) = G 1/2 do not favor the current expansion.
Fourier transform methods in local gravity modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harrison, J. C.; Dickinson, M.
1989-01-01
New algorithms were derived for computing terrain corrections, all components of the attraction of the topography at the topographic surface and the gradients of these attractions. These algoriithms utilize fast Fourier transforms, but, in contrast to methods currently in use, all divergences of the integrals are removed during the analysis. Sequential methods employing a smooth intermediate reference surface were developed to avoid the very large transforms necessary when making computations at high resolution over a wide area. A new method for the numerical solution of Molodensky's problem was developed to mitigate the convergence difficulties that occur at short wavelengths with methods based on a Taylor series expansion. A trial field on a level surface is continued analytically to the topographic surface, and compared with that predicted from gravity observations. The difference is used to compute a correction to the trial field and the process iterated. Special techniques are employed to speed convergence and prevent oscillations. Three different spectral methods for fitting a point-mass set to a gravity field given on a regular grid at constant elevation are described. Two of the methods differ in the way that the spectrum of the point-mass set, which extends to infinite wave number, is matched to that of the gravity field which is band-limited. The third method is essentially a space-domain technique in which Fourier methods are used to solve a set of simultaneous equations.
Gravity wave-induced variability of the middle thermosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Bruinsma, Sean L.; Doornbos, Eelco; Zhang, Xiaoli
2016-07-01
Contemporary theory, modeling, and first-principles simulations indicate that dissipation of gravity waves (GW) plays an important role in modifying the mean circulation, thermal structure, and composition of the thermosphere. GW can propagate into the thermosphere from various sources in the lower atmosphere, deposit energy, and momentum into the thermosphere, and thereby modify its mean circulation, thermal structure and composition. However, measurements that verify or constrain predictions of GW propagation well into the thermosphere, especially on a global basis, are extremely limited. In this paper total mass densities and cross-track winds between 230 and 280 km derived from accelerometer measurements on the Gravity Field and Ocean Circulation Earth Explorer (GOCE) satellite between November 2009 and October 2013 are used to reveal the global morphology of horizontal structures between 128 km and 640 km, which are assumed to mainly reflect the presence of GW. The zonal-mean RMS variability at these scales is quantified in terms of seasonal-latitudinal dependences and dawn-dusk differences, which are interpreted in terms of current theoretical and modeling results. Little evidence is found for any longitude variability that can be attributed to specific source regions, except at high latitudes where polar/auroral sources and magnetic control dominate and near the Andes and the Antarctic Peninsula during local winter.
Incorporating gravity into trace dynamics: the induced gravitational action
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adler, Stephen L.
2013-10-01
We study the incorporation of gravity into the trace dynamics framework for classical matrix-valued fields, from which we have proposed that quantum field theory is the emergent thermodynamics, with state vector reduction arising from fluctuation corrections to this thermodynamics. We show that the metric must be incorporated as a classical, not a matrix-valued, field, with the source for gravity the exactly covariantly conserved trace stress-energy tensor of the matter fields. We then study corrections to the classical gravitational action induced by the dynamics of the matrix-valued matter fields, by examining the average over the trace dynamics canonical ensemble of the matter field action, in the presence of a general background metric. Using constraints from global Weyl scaling and three-space general coordinate transformations, we show that to zeroth order in derivatives of the metric, the induced gravitational action in the preferred rest frame of the trace dynamics canonical ensemble must have the form \\begin{equation} \\fl\\Delta S=\\int d^4x (^{(4)}g)^{1/2}(g_{00})^{-2} A (g_{0i}g_{0j}g^{ij}/g_{00},D^ig_{ij}D^j/g_{00},g_{0i}D^i/g_{00} ) , \\end{equation} with Di defined through the co-factor expansion of (4)g by (4)g/(3)g = g00 + g0iDi, and with A(x, y, z) a general function of its three arguments. This action has ‘chameleon-like’ properties: for the Robertson-Walker cosmological metric, it exactly reduces to a cosmological constant, but for the Schwarzschild metric it diverges as (1 - 2M/r)-2 near the Schwarzschild radius, indicating that it may substantially affect the horizon structure.
The XY model coupled to two-dimensional quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baillie, C. F.; Johnston, D. A.
1992-09-01
We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of the XY model on both fixed and dynamical phi-cubed graphs (i.e. without and with coupling to two-dimensional quantum gravity). We compare the numerical results with the theoretical expectation that the phase transition remains of KT type when the XY model is coupled to gravity. We also examine whether the universality we discovered in our earlier work on various Potts models with the same value of the central charge, c, carries over to the XY model, which has c=1.
Gravity model improvement using GEOS-3 (GEM 9 and 10)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, F. J.; Klosko, S. M.; Laubscher, R. E.; Wagner, C. A.
1977-01-01
The use of collocation permitted GEM 9 to be a larger field than previous derived satellite models, GEM 9 having harmonics complete to 20 x 20 with selected higher degree terms. The satellite data set has approximately 840,000 observations, of which 200,000 are laser ranges taken on 9 satellites equipped with retroreflectors. GEM 10 is complete to 22 x 22 with selected higher degree terms out to degree and order 30 amounting to a total of 592 coefficients. Comparisons with surface gravity and altimeter data indicate a substantial improvement in GEM 9 over previous satellite solutions; GEM 9 is in even closer agreement with surface data than the previously published GEM 6 solution which contained surface gravity. In particular the free air gravity anomalies calculated from GEM 9 and a surface gravity solution are in excellent agreement for the high degree terms.
A new spin foam model for 4D gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freidel, Laurent; Krasnov, Kirill
2008-06-01
Starting from Plebanski formulation of gravity as a constrained BF theory we propose a new spin foam model for 4D Riemannian quantum gravity that generalizes the well-known Barrett Crane model and resolves the inherent to it ultra-locality problem. The BF formulation of 4D gravity possesses two sectors: gravitational and topological ones. The model presented here is shown to give a quantization of the gravitational sector, and is dual to the recently proposed spin foam model of Engle et al which, we show, corresponds to the topological sector. Our methods allow us to introduce the Immirzi parameter into the framework of spin foam quantization. We generalize some of our considerations to the Lorentzian setting and obtain a new spin foam model in that context as well.
Terrestrial Microgravity Model and Threshold Gravity Simulation using Magnetic Levitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramachandran, N.
2005-01-01
What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for such a gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successfully simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars. The paper will discuss experiments md modeling work to date in support of this project.
Gravity field models derived from Swarm GPS data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Teixeira da Encarnação, João; Arnold, Daniel; Bezděk, Aleš; Dahle, Christoph; Doornbos, Eelco; van den IJssel, Jose; Jäggi, Adrian; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Sebera, Josef; Visser, Pieter; Zehentner, Norbert
2016-04-01
The GPS instruments on-board the three Earth's Magnetic Field and Environment Explorer (Swarm) satellites provide the opportunity to measure the gravity field model at basin-wide spatial scales. In spite of being a geo-magnetic satellite mission, Swarm's GPS receiver collects highly accurate hl-SST data (van den IJssel et al., 2015), which has been exploited to produce gravity field models at a number of institutes, namely at the Astronomical Institute (ASU) of the Czech Academy of Sciences (Bezděk et al., 2014), the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB, Jäggi et al., 2015) and the Institute of Geodesy (IfG) of the Graz University of Technology (Zehentner et al., 2015). With the help of GRACE gravity field models, which are derived from much more accurate ll-SST data, we investigate the best combination strategy for producing a superior model on the basis of the solutions produced by the three institutes, similarly to the approach taken by the European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management project (http://egsiem.eu). We demonstrate that the Swarm-derived gravity field models are able to resolve monthly solutions with 1666km spatial resolutions (roughly up to degree 12). We illustrate how these monthly solutions correlate with GRACE-derived monthly solutions, for the period of 2014 - 2015, as well as indicate which geographical areas are measured more or less accurately.
Gravity Modeling for Precise Terrestrial Inertial Navigation
1977-06-01
frame. 40 " ~’ , .z ,. " , These fundamental gr;:- itational quantities are related by G(r) = dV(.)/ dr (28) We may derive (26) by formally applying (28...puting T(yr) from measured data. Since we ultimately want the gravity disturbance vector function, SR(y_, we can use 6R(r) = dT/ dr (40) For spherical...34 The XII General Assembly of the International Union in Geodesy and Geophysics, Helsinki, July-August 1960. 21. Levine, S. A. and A. Geib . "Geodetic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Qile; Guo, Jing; Hu, Zhigang; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan; Cai, Hua; Liu, Xianglin
2011-05-01
The GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) monthly gravity models have been independently produced and published by several research institutions, such as Center for Space Research (CSR), GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and Delft Institute of Earth Observation and Space Systems (DEOS). According to their processing standards, above institutions use the traditional variational approach except that the DEOS exploits the acceleration approach. The background force models employed are rather similar. The produced gravity field models generally agree with one another in the spatial pattern. However, there are some discrepancies in the gravity signal amplitude between solutions produced by different institutions. In particular, 10%-30% signal amplitude differences in some river basins can be observed. In this paper, we implemented a variant of the traditional variational approach and computed two sets of monthly gravity field solutions using the data from January 2005 to December 2006. The input data are K-band range-rates (KBRR) and kinematic orbits of GRACE satellites. The main difference in the production of our two types of models is how to deal with nuisance parameters. This type of parameters is necessary to absorb low-frequency errors in the data, which are mainly the aliasing and instrument errors. One way is to remove the nuisance parameters before estimating the geopotential coefficients, called NPARB approach in the paper. The other way is to estimate the nuisance parameters and geopotential coefficients simultaneously, called NPESS approach. These two types of solutions mainly differ in geopotential coefficients from degree 2 to 5. This can be explained by the fact that the nuisance parameters and the gravity field coefficients are highly correlated, particularly at low degrees. We compare these solutions with the official and published ones by means of spectral analysis. It is
Terrestrial Microgravity Model and Threshold Gravity Simulation sing Magnetic Levitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramachandran, N.
2005-01-01
What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for such a gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successiblly simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars.
Simulation of combined rapid gravity filtration and backwash models.
Han, S J; Fitzpatrick, C S B; Wetherill, A
2009-01-01
Combined rapid gravity filtration and backwash models are applied to simulate filtration and backwash cycles. The simulated results from the backwash model suggest that air flow rate can be optimised to maximise particle removal efficiency in the backwash for a particular system. The simulation of combined rapid gravity filtration and backwash models suggests that efficient backwash operation is essential for maintaining the life time of a filter. However, the filter is not advised to be completely cleaned up in the backwash and the particles retained on filter grains after the backwash can be beneficial for subsequent filtration runs.
Simulation on combined rapid gravity filtration and backwash models.
Han, S J; Fitzpatrick, C S B; Wetherill, A
2009-01-01
Combined rapid gravity filtration and backwash models have been applied to simulate filtration and backwash cycles. The simulated results from the backwash model suggest that an optimum air flow rate exists to maximise particle removal efficiency in the backwash operation for a certain backwash system. The simulation of combined rapid gravity filtration and backwash models suggests that the filter should not be completely cleaned up in the backwash and a certain amount of particles retained on filter grains after backwash can be beneficial for subsequent filtration runs. This is consistent with the experimental results in the literature.
Particle creation phenomenology, Dirac sea and the induced Weyl and Einstein-dilaton gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berezin, V. A.; Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.
2017-01-01
We constructed the conformally invariant model for scalar particle creation induced by strong gravitational fields. Starting from the "usual" hydrodynamical description of the particle motion written in the Eulerian coordinates we substituted the particle number conservation law (which enters the formalism) by "the particle creation law", proportional to the square of the Weyl tensor (following the famous result by Ya.B. Zel'dovich and A.A. Starobinsky). Then, demanding the conformal invariance of the whole dynamical system, we have got both the (Weyl)-conformal gravity and the Einstein-Hilbert gravity action integral with dilaton field. Thus, we obtained something like the induced gravity suggested first by A.D. Sakharov. It is shown that the resulting system is self-consistent. We considered also the vacuum equations. It is shown that, beside the "empty vacuum", there may exist the "dynamical vacuum", which is nothing more but the Dirac sea. The latter is described by the unexpectedly elegant equation which includes both the Bach and Einstein tensors and the cosmological terms.
An improved model for the Earth's gravity field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tapley, B. D.; Shum, C. K.; Yuan, D. N.; Ries, J. C.; Schutz, B. E.
1989-01-01
An improved model for the Earth's gravity field, TEG-1, was determined using data sets from fourteen satellites, spanning the inclination ranges from 15 to 115 deg, and global surface gravity anomaly data. The satellite measurements include laser ranging data, Doppler range-rate data, and satellite-to-ocean radar altimeter data measurements, which include the direct height measurement and the differenced measurements at ground track crossings (crossover measurements). Also determined was another gravity field model, TEG-1S, which included all the data sets in TEG-1 with the exception of direct altimeter data. The effort has included an intense scrutiny of the gravity field solution methodology. The estimated parameters included geopotential coefficients complete to degree and order 50 with selected higher order coefficients, ocean and solid Earth tide parameters, Doppler tracking station coordinates and the quasi-stationary sea surface topography. Extensive error analysis and calibration of the formal covariance matrix indicate that the gravity field model is a significant improvement over previous models and can be used for general applications in geodesy.
Changes in Gene Expression of E. coli under Conditions of Modeled Reduced Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vukanti, Raja; Mintz, Eric; Leff, Laura
2008-06-01
Relatively few studies have examined bacterial responses to the reduced gravity conditions that are experienced by bacteria grown in space. In this study, whole genome expression of Escherichia coli K12 under clinorotation (which models some of the conditions found under reduced gravity) was analyzed. We hypothesized that phenotypic differences at cellular and population levels under clinorotation (hereafter referred to as modeled reduced gravity) are directly coupled to changes in gene expression. Further, we hypothesized that these responses may be due to indirect effects of these environmental conditions on nutrient accessibility for bacteria. Overall, 430 genes were identified as significantly different between modeled reduced gravity conditions and controls. Up-regulated genes included those involved in the starvation response ( csiD, cspD, ygaF, gabDTP, ygiG, fliY, cysK) and redirecting metabolism under starvation ( ddpX, acs, actP, gdhA); responses to multiple stresses, such as acid stress ( asr, yhiW), osmotic stress ( yehZYW), oxidative stress ( katE, btuDE); biofilm formation ( lldR, lamB, yneA, fadB, ydeY); curli biosynthesis ( csgDEF), and lipid biosynthesis ( yfbEFG). Our results support the previously proposed hypothesis that under conditions of modeled reduced gravity, zones of nutrient depletion develop around bacteria eliciting responses similar to entrance into stationary phase which is generally characterized by expression of starvation inducible genes and genes associated with multiple stress responses.
Modelling Technique for Demonstrating Gravity Collapse Structures in Jointed Rock.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stimpson, B.
1979-01-01
Described is a base-friction modeling technique for studying the development of collapse structures in jointed rocks. A moving belt beneath weak material is designed to simulate gravity. A description is given of the model frame construction. (Author/SA)
Interior Models and Gravity Field of Jupiter's Moon Amalthea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinwurm, G.; Weber, R.
2003-12-01
Before its final plunge into Jupiter in September 2003, GALILEO made a last visit to Jupiters moon Amalthea. This final flyby of the spacecrafts successful mission occurred on November 5, 2002. In order to analyse the spacecraft data with respect to Amaltheas gravity field, interior models of the moon had to be provided. The method used for this approach is based on the numerical integration of infinitesimal volume elements, which are calculated by the scale factors of a three-axial ellipsoid (elliptic coordinates). To derive the gravity field coefficients of the body, the second method of Neumann was applied. Based on the spacecraft trajectory data provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, GALILEOs velocity perturbations at closest approach could be calculated. We have derived the harmonic coefficients of Amaltheas gravity field up to degree and order six, for both homogeneous and reasonable heterogeneous cases. Based on these numbers we calculated the impact on the trajectory of GALILEO and compared it to existing Doppler data. Although no two-way Doppler-data was available during the flyby and the harmonic coefficients of the gravity field are buried in the one-way Doppler-noise, the calculated gravity field models of Amalthea can be a basis for further exploration of the Jupiter system. Furthermore, the model approach can be used for any planetary body.
Rhea gravity field and interior modeling from Cassini data analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tortora, Paolo; Zannoni, Marco; Hemingway, Doug; Nimmo, Francis; Jacobson, Robert A.; Iess, Luciano; Parisi, Marzia
2016-01-01
During its tour of the Saturn system, Cassini performed two close flybys of Rhea dedicated to gravity investigations, the first in November 2005 and the second in March 2013. This paper presents an estimation of Rhea's fully unconstrained quadrupole gravity field obtained from a joint multi-arc analysis of the two Cassini flybys. Our best estimates of the main gravity quadrupole unnormalized coefficients are J2 × 106 = 946.0 ± 13.9, C22 × 106 = 242.1 ± 4.0 (uncertainties are 1-σ). Their resulting ratio is J2/C22 = 3.91 ± 0.10, statistically not compatible (at a 5-σ level) with the theoretical value of 10/3, predicted for a hydrostatic satellite in slow, synchronous rotation around a planet. Therefore, it is not possible to infer the moment of inertia factor directly using the Radau-Darwin approximation. The observed excess J2 (gravity oblateness) was investigated using a combined analysis of gravity and topography, under different plausible geophysical assumptions. The observed gravity is consistent with that generated by the observed shape for an undifferentiated (uniform density) body. However, because the surface is more likely to be water ice, a two-layer model may be a better approximation. In this case, and assuming a mantle density of 920 kg/m3, some 1-3 km of excess core oblateness is consistent with the observed gravity. A wide range of moments of inertia is allowed, but models with low moments of inertia (i.e., more differentiation) require greater magnitudes of excess core topography to satisfy the observations.
Gravity-induced cellular and molecular processes in plants studied under altered gravity conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vagt, Nicole; Braun, Markus
With the ability to sense gravity plants possess a powerful tool to adapt to a great variety of environmental conditions and to respond to environmental changes in a most beneficial way. Gravity is the only constant factor that provides organisms with reliable information for their orientation since billions of years. Any deviation of the genetically determined set-point angle of the plants organs from the vector of gravity is sensed by specialized cells, the statocytes of roots and shoots in higher plants. Dense particles, so-called statoliths, sediment in the direction of gravity and activate membrane-bound gravireceptors. A physiological signalling-cascade is initiated that eventually results in the gravitropic curvature response, namely, the readjust-ment of the growth direction. Experiments under microgravity conditions have significantly contributed to our understanding of plant gravity-sensing and gravitropic reorientation. For a gravity-sensing lower plant cell type, the rhizoid of the green alga Chara, and for statocytes of higher plant roots, it was shown that the interactions between statoliths and the actomyosin system consisting of the actin cytoskeleton and motor proteins (myosins) are the basis for highly efficient gravity-sensing processes. In Chara rhizoids, the actomyosin represents a guid-ing system that directs sedimenting statoliths to a specific graviperception site. Parabolic flight experiments aboard the airbus A300 Zero-G have provided evidence that lower and higher plant cells use principally the same statolith-mediated gravireceptor-activation mechanism. Graviper-ception is not dependent on mechanical pressure mediated through the weight of the sedimented statoliths, but on direct interactions between the statoliths's surface and yet unknown gravire-ceptor molecules. In contrast to Chara rhizoids, in the gravity-sensing cells of higher plants, the actin cytoskeleton is not essentially involved in the early phases of gravity sensing. Dis
Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin
2016-01-01
Groundwater-level measurements in monitoring wells or piezometers are the most common, and often the only, hydrologic measurements made at artificial recharge facilities. Measurements of gravity change over time provide an additional source of information about changes in groundwater storage, infiltration, and for model calibration. We demonstrate that for an artificial recharge facility with a deep groundwater table, gravity data are more sensitive to movement of water through the unsaturated zone than are groundwater levels. Groundwater levels have a delayed response to infiltration, change in a similar manner at many potential monitoring locations, and are heavily influenced by high-frequency noise induced by pumping; in contrast, gravity changes start immediately at the onset of infiltration and are sensitive to water in the unsaturated zone. Continuous gravity data can determine infiltration rate, and the estimate is only minimally affected by uncertainty in water-content change. Gravity data are also useful for constraining parameters in a coupled groundwater-unsaturated zone model (Modflow-NWT model with the Unsaturated Zone Flow (UZF) package).
Christian, Joshua M.; Ho, Clifford Kuofei
2010-04-01
Understanding the effects of gravity and wind loads on concentrating solar power (CSP) collectors is critical for performance calculations and developing more accurate alignment procedures and techniques. This paper presents a rigorous finite-element model of a parabolic trough collector that is used to determine the impact of gravity loads on bending and displacements of the mirror facets and support structure. The geometry of the LUZ LS-2 parabolic trough collector was modeled using SolidWorks, and gravity-induced loading and displacements were simulated in SolidWorks Simulation. The model of the trough collector was evaluated in two positions: the 90{sup o} position (mirrors facing upward) and the 0{sup o} position (mirrors facing horizontally). The slope errors of the mirror facet reflective surfaces were found by evaluating simulated angular displacements of node-connected segments along the mirror surface. The ideal (undeformed) shape of the mirror was compared to the shape of the deformed mirror after gravity loading. Also, slope errors were obtained by comparing the deformed shapes between the 90{sup o} and 0{sup o} positions. The slope errors resulting from comparison between the deformed vs. undeformed shape were as high as {approx}2 mrad, depending on the location of the mirror facet on the collector. The slope errors resulting from a change in orientation of the trough from the 90{sup o} position to the 0{sup o} position with gravity loading were as high as {approx}3 mrad, depending on the location of the facet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kennedy, Jeffrey; Ferré, Ty P. A.; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin
2016-09-01
Groundwater-level measurements in monitoring wells or piezometers are the most common, and often the only, hydrologic measurements made at artificial recharge facilities. Measurements of gravity change over time provide an additional source of information about changes in groundwater storage, infiltration, and for model calibration. We demonstrate that for an artificial recharge facility with a deep groundwater table, gravity data are more sensitive to movement of water through the unsaturated zone than are groundwater levels. Groundwater levels have a delayed response to infiltration, change in a similar manner at many potential monitoring locations, and are heavily influenced by high-frequency noise induced by pumping; in contrast, gravity changes start immediately at the onset of infiltration and are sensitive to water in the unsaturated zone. Continuous gravity data can determine infiltration rate, and the estimate is only minimally affected by uncertainty in water-content change. Gravity data are also useful for constraining parameters in a coupled groundwater-unsaturated zone model (Modflow-NWT model with the Unsaturated Zone Flow (UZF) package).
Approaches to Validation of Models for Low Gravity Fluid Behavior
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chato, David J.; Marchetta, Jeffery; Hochstein, John I.; Kassemi, Mohammad
2005-01-01
This paper details the author experiences with the validation of computer models to predict low gravity fluid behavior. It reviews the literature of low gravity fluid behavior as a starting point for developing a baseline set of test cases. It examines authors attempts to validate their models against these cases and the issues they encountered. The main issues seem to be that: Most of the data is described by empirical correlation rather than fundamental relation; Detailed measurements of the flow field have not been made; Free surface shapes are observed but through thick plastic cylinders, and therefore subject to a great deal of optical distortion; and Heat transfer process time constants are on the order of minutes to days but the zero-gravity time available has been only seconds.
ELIASSI,MEHDI; GLASS JR.,ROBERT J.
2000-03-08
The authors consider the ability of the numerical solution of Richards equation to model gravity-driven fingers. Although gravity-driven fingers can be easily simulated using a partial downwind averaging method, they find the fingers are purely artificial, generated by the combined effects of truncation error induced oscillations and capillary hysteresis. Since Richards equation can only yield a monotonic solution for standard constitutive relations and constant flux boundary conditions, it is not the valid governing equation to model gravity-driven fingers, and therefore is also suspect for unsaturated flow in initially dry, highly nonlinear, and hysteretic media where these fingers occur. However, analysis of truncation error at the wetting front for the partial downwind method suggests the required mathematical behavior of a more comprehensive and physically based modeling approach for this region of parameter space.
An improved gravity model for Mars: Goddard Mars Model 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.; Fricke, S. K.; Lemoine, F. G.
1993-01-01
Doppler tracking data of three orbiting spacecraft have been reanalyzed to develop a new gravitational field model for the planet Mars, Goddard Mars Model 1 (GMM-1). This model employs nearly all available data, consisting of approximately 1100 days of S band tracking data collected by NASA's Deep Space Network from the Mariner 9 and Viking 1 and Viking 2 spacecraft, in seven different orbits, between 1971 and 1979. GMM-1 is complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 50, which corresponds to a half-wavelength spatial resolution of 200-300 km where the data permit. GMM-1 represents satellite orbits with considerably better accuracy than previous Mars gravity models and shows greater resolution of identifiable geological structures. The notable improvement in GMM-1 over previous models is a consequence of several factors: improved computational capabilities, the use of otpimum weighting and least squares collocation solution techniques which stabilized the behavior of the solution at high degree and order, and the use of longer satellite arcs than employed in previous solutions that were made possible by improved force and measurement models. The inclusion of X band tracking data from the 379-km altitude, nnear-polar orbiting Mars Observer spacecraft should provide a significant improvement over GMM-1, particularly at high latitudes where current data poorly resolve the gravitational signature of the planet.
A gravity model for the Coso geothermal area, California
Feighner, M.A.; Goldstein, N.E.
1990-08-01
Two- and three-dimensional gravity modeling was done using gridded Bouguer gravity data covering a 45 {times} 45 km region over the Coso geothermal area in an effort to identify features related to the heat source and to seek possible evidence for an underlying magma chamber. Isostatic and terrain corrected Bouguer gravity data for about 1300 gravity stations were obtained from the US Geological Survey. After the data were checked, the gravity values were gridded at 1 km centers for the area of interest centered on the Coso volcanic field. Most of the gravity variations can be explained by two lithologic units: (1) low density wedges of Quarternary alluvium with interbedded thin basalts (2.4 g/cm{sup 3}) filling the Rose Valley and Coso Basin/Indian Wells Valley, and (2) low density cover of Tertiary volcanic rocks and intercalated Coso Formation (2.49 g/cm{sup 3}). A 3-D iterative approach was used to find the thicknesses of both units. The gravity anomaly remaining after effects from Units 1 and 2 are removed is a broad north-south-trending low whose major peak lies 5 km north of Sugarloaf Mountain, the largest of the less than 0.3 m.y. old rhyolite domes in the Coso Range. Most of this residual anomaly can be accounted for by a deep, low-density (2.47 g/cm{sup 3}) prismatic body extending from 8 to about 30 km below the surface. While some of this anomaly might be associated with fractured Sierran granitic rocks, its close correlation to a low-velocity zone with comparable geometry suggests that the residual anomaly is probably caused a large zone of partial melt underlying the rhyolite domes of the Coso Range. 12 refs., 9 figs.
Constraints on gravity wave induced diffusion in the middle atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strobel, Darrell F.
1988-01-01
A review of the important constraints on gravity wave induced diffusion of chemical tracers, heat and momentum is given. Ground-based microwave spectroscopy measurements of H2O and CO and rocket-based mass spectrometer measurements of Ar constrain the eddy diffusion coefficient for constituent transport (K sub zz) to be (1-3) x 10 to the 5th sq cm/sec in the upper mesosphere. Atomic oxygen data also limits K sub zz to a comparable value in the mesopause. From the energy balance of the upper mesosphere the eddy diffusion coefficient for heat transport (D sub H) is, at most, 6 x 10 to the 5th sq cm/sec at the mesopause and decreasing substantially with decreasing altitude. The available evidence for mean wind deceleration and the corresponding eddy diffusion coefficient for momentum stresses (D sub M) suggests that it is at least 1 x 10 to the 6th sq cm/sec in the upper mesosphere. Consequently the eddy Prandtl number for macroscopic scale lengths is greater than 3.
3-D GRACE gravity model for the 2011 Japan earthquake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sastry, Rambhatla G.; Sonker, Mahendra K.
2017-02-01
The GRACE mission has contributed to the seismic characterization of major earthquakes in offshore regions of the world. Here, we isolate satellite gravity signal (μGal range) for the Japan Earthquake of 2011 using a difference method. Contrary to the existing gravity models, we propose a unit vertical pyramid based five-layer 3-D thrust fault model, which extends to the hypocenter and honors the ocean water layer and sea floor upheaval also. Our model partly uses existing seismological information (hypocenter depth of 32 km, rupture length of 300 km and vertical slip of 4 m), provides a snapshot of episodic subduction of the Pacific Plate below the Atlantic Plate and its gravity response closely matches the observed gravity (RMS error of 3.4012×10-13μGal), fully accounting for co-seismic mass redistribution including sea surface deformation. Our inferred rupture length, rupture velocity, average seismic moment magnitude and momentum, respectively, are 300 km, 4.49 km/s, 1.152×1021-1.8816×1021 N m and 2.319×106 GNs, which fairly agree with the literature. Further, our model inferred momentum at the sea floor corresponds to an area pulse that led to Tsunami generation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rothacher, M.; Reigber, C.; Schmidt, R.; Foerste, C.; Koenig, R.; Flechtner, F.; Meyer, U.; Stubenvoll, R.; Barthelmes, F.; Neumayer, K. H.; Biancale, R.; Bruinsma, S.; Lemoine, J.
2005-12-01
High-resolution global mean gravity field models can be derived from the combination of satellite tracking and surface data. With the CHAMP and GRACE satellite missions, a new generation of such global gravity field models became available. Here the latest results of the processing of GRACE, CHAMP and SLR satellite tracking are presented and compared with outcomes of former analyses. The gravity field parameters obtained are the result of a substantial satellite data reprocessing, based on recently improved processing standards and models. On the other hand, surface gravity data derived from altimetry and gravimetry are globally available, providing a higher resolution than pure satellite data but lacking the high precision in the long-wavelength part. In an optimal approach the satellite-based data are combined with latest, partially newly processed surface gravity data sets to derive a global high-resolution gravity field model combining the high precision and homogeneity in the long- to medium-wavelength part from the satellite data with the short-wavelength resolution of the surface data. The obtained Earth gravity field model is an update of former EIGEN models of a resolution corresponding to a wavelength of 100 km and degree/order 360, respectively.
High-resolution gravity field modeling using GRAIL mission data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemoine, F. G.; Goossens, S. J.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Loomis, B.; Chinn, D. S.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.
2015-12-01
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft were designed to map the structure of the Moon through high-precision global gravity mapping. The mission consisted of two spacecraft with Ka-band inter-satellite tracking complemented by tracking from Earth. The mission had two phases: a primary mapping mission from March 1 until May 29, 2012 at an average altitude of 50 km, and an extended mission from August 30 until December 14, 2012, with an average altitude of 23 km before November 18, and 20 and 11 km after. High-resolution gravity field models using both these data sets have been estimated, with the current resolution being degree and order 1080 in spherical harmonics. Here, we focus on aspects of the analysis of the GRAIL data: we investigate eclipse modeling, the influence of empirical accelerations on the results, and we discuss the inversion of large-scale systems. In addition to global models we also estimated local gravity adjustments in areas of particular interest such as Mare Orientale, the south pole area, and the farside. We investigate the use of Ka-band Range Rate (KBRR) data versus numerical derivatives of KBRR data, and show that the latter have the capability to locally improve correlations with topography.
Chameleon halo modeling in f(R) gravity
Li Yin; Hu, Wayne
2011-10-15
We model the chameleon effect on cosmological statistics for the modified gravity f(R) model of cosmic acceleration. The chameleon effect, required to make the model compatible with local tests of gravity, reduces force enhancement as a function of the depth of the gravitational potential wells of collapsed structure and so is readily incorporated into a halo model by including parameters for the chameleon mass threshold and rapidity of transition. We show that the abundance of halos around the chameleon mass threshold is enhanced by both the merging from below and the lack of merging to larger masses. This property also controls the power spectrum in the nonlinear regime and we provide a description of the transition to the linear regime that is valid for a wide range of f(R) models.
High resolution gravity models combining terrestrial and satellite data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rapp, Richard H.; Pavlis, Nikolaos K.; Wang, Yan M.
1992-01-01
Spherical harmonic expansions to degree 360 have been developed that combine satellite potential coefficient information, terrestrial gravity data, satellite altimeter information as a direct tracking data type and topographic information. These models define improved representations of the Earth's gravitational potential beyond that available from just satellite or terrestrial data. The development of the degree 360 models, however, does not imply a uniform accuracy in the determination of the gravity field as numerous geographic areas are devoid of terrestrial data or the resolution of such data is limited to, for example, 100 km. This paper will consider theoretical and numerical questions related to the combination of the various data types. Various models of the combination process are discussed with a discussion of various correction terms for the different models. Various sources of gravity data will be described. The new OSU91 360 model will be discussed with comparisons made to previous 360 models and to other potential coefficient models that are complete to degree 50. Future directions in high degree potential coefficient models will be discussed.
New thermal and gravity models of the North American lithosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tesauro, M.; Kaban, M. K.; Cloetingh, S.; Mooney, W. D.
2011-12-01
We present a new thermal model for the North American lithosphere obtained from inversion of NA07 tomography model, following the method described in Cammarano et al. (2003). The advantage of using this seismic model is that it was calculated using an a priori crustal model, which minimizes trade-offs between the velocity structure in the crust and the upper mantle. We first estimate the mantle temperature distribution using a uniform composition and anelasticity model for the entire North American continent. The new results are in contrast with those obtained by previous studies based on interpretation of mantle xenoliths, predicting higher temperature and stronger thermal variability beneath the North American cratons. The reason of this disagreement might be related to the composition assumed and in particular to the iron depletion, characterizing the shallow mantle lithosphere of the cratons, which is neglected in this model. Furthermore, the comparison between the thermal model and the gravity mantle anomalies, which are obtained after removing the crustal effect from the observed gravity field, demonstrates that mantle density heterogeneity is controlled not only by temperature variations but also by compositional changes. We use the new thermal model to estimate the pure thermal component of the mantle gravity anomalies. In the next step we obtain the compositional component, subtracting the former field from the latter. The compositional gravity anomalies are used to estimate lateral and vertical compositional changes of the mantle lithosphere (e.g., percentage of iron depletion beneath the cratons), which are considered in the implementation of more robust thermal models.
A high resolution gravity model for Venus - GVM-1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nerem, R. S.; Bills, B. G.; Mcnamee, J. B.
1993-01-01
A spherical harmonic model of the gravitational field of Venus complete to degree and order 50 has been developed using the S-band Doppler tracking data of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) collected between 1979 and 1982. The short wavelengths of this model could only be resolved near the PVO periapse location (about 14 deg N latitude), therefore a priori constraints were applied to the model to bias poorly observed coefficients towards zero. The resulting model has a half-wavelength resolution of 400 km near the PVO periapse location, but the resolution degrades to greater than 1000 km near the poles. This gravity model correlates well with a degree 50 spherical harmonic expansion of the Venus topography derived from a combination of Magellan and PVO data. New tracking data from Magellan's gravity mission should provide some improvement to this model, although a complete model of the Venusian gravity field will depend on tracking of Magellan after the circularization of its orbit using aerobraking.
Halo model and halo properties in Galileon gravity cosmologies
Barreira, Alexandre; Li, Baojiu; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Lombriser, Lucas; Pascoli, Silvia E-mail: baojiu.li@durham.ac.uk E-mail: llo@roe.ac.uk E-mail: silvia.pascoli@durham.ac.uk
2014-04-01
We investigate the performance of semi-analytical modelling of large-scale structure in Galileon gravity cosmologies using results from N-body simulations. We focus on the Cubic and Quartic Galileon models that provide a reasonable fit to CMB, SNIa and BAO data. We demonstrate that the Sheth-Tormen mass function and linear halo bias can be calibrated to provide a very good fit to our simulation results. We also find that the halo concentration-mass relation is well fitted by a power law. The nonlinear matter power spectrum computed in the halo model approach is found to be inaccurate in the mildly nonlinear regime, but captures reasonably well the effects of the Vainshtein screening mechanism on small scales. In the Cubic model, the screening mechanism hides essentially all of the effects of the fifth force inside haloes. In the case of the Quartic model, the screening mechanism leaves behind residual modifications to gravity, which make the effective gravitational strength time-varying and smaller than the standard value. Compared to normal gravity, this causes a deficiency of massive haloes and leads to a weaker matter clustering on small scales. For both models, we show that there are realistic halo occupation distributions of Luminous Red Galaxies that can match both the observed large-scale clustering amplitude and the number density of these galaxies.
Precise Determination of the Zero-Gravity Surface Figure of a Mirror without Gravity-Sag Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bloemhof, Eric E.; Lam, Jonathan C.; Feria, V. Alfonso; Chang, Zensheu
2007-01-01
The zero-gravity surface figure of optics used in spaceborne astronomical instruments must be known to high accuracy, but earthbound metrology is typically corrupted by gravity sag. Generally, inference of the zero-gravity surface figure from a measurement made under normal gravity requires finite-element analysis (FEA), and for accurate results the mount forces must be well characterized. We describe how to infer the zero-gravity surface figure very precisely using the alternative classical technique of averaging pairs of measurements made with the direction of gravity reversed. We show that mount forces as well as gravity must be reversed between the two measurements and discuss how the St. Venant principle determines when a reversed mount force may be considered to be applied at the same place in the two orientations. Our approach requires no finite-element modeling and no detailed knowledge of mount forces other than the fact that they reverse and are applied at the same point in each orientation. If mount schemes are suitably chosen, zero-gravity optical surfaces may be inferred much more simply and more accurately than with FEA.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, John D.; Blandino, Joseph R.; McEvoy, Kiley C.
2004-01-01
The development of gossamer space structures such as solar sails and sunshields presents many challenges due to their large size and extreme flexibility. The post-deployment structural geometry exhibited during ground testing may significantly depart from the in-space configuration due to the presence of gravity-induced deformations (gravity sag) of lightly preloaded membranes. This paper describes a study carried out to characterize gravity sag in two subscale gossamer structures: a single quadrant from a 2 m, 4 quadrant square solar sail and a 1.7 m membrane layer from a multi-layer sunshield The behavior of the test articles was studied over a range of preloads and in several orientations with respect to gravity. An experimental study was carried out to measure the global surface profiles using photogrammetry, and nonlinear finite element analysis was used to predict the behavior of the test articles. Comparison of measured and predicted surface profiles shows that the finite dement analysis qualitatively predicts deformed shapes comparable to those observed in the laboratory. Quantitatively, finite element analysis predictions for peak gravity-induced deformations in both test articles were within 10% of measured values. Results from this study provide increased insight into gravity sag behavior in gossamer structures, and demonstrates the potential to analytically predict gravity-induced deformations to within reasonable accuracy.
Shear-free anisotropic cosmological models in {f (R)} gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abebe, Amare; Momeni, Davood; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2016-04-01
We study a class of shear-free, homogeneous but anisotropic cosmological models with imperfect matter sources in the context of f( R) gravity. We show that the anisotropic stresses are related to the electric part of the Weyl tensor in such a way that they balance each other. We also show that within the class of orthogonal f( R) models, small perturbations of shear are damped, and that the electric part of the Weyl tensor and the anisotropic stress tensor decay with the expansion as well as the heat flux of the curvature fluid. Specializing in locally rotationally symmetric spacetimes in orthonormal frames, we examine the late-time behaviour of the de Sitter universe in f( R) gravity. For the Starobinsky model of f( R), we study the evolutionary behavior of the Universe by numerically integrating the Friedmann equation, where the initial conditions for the expansion, acceleration and jerk parameters are taken from observational data.
Modeling of zero gravity venting: Studies of two-phase heat transfer under reduced gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merte, H., Jr.
1986-01-01
The objective is to predict the pressure response of a saturated liquid-vapor system when undergoing a venting or depressurization process in zero gravity at low vent rates. An experimental investigation of the venting of cylindrical containers partially filled with initially saturated liquids was previously conducted under zero-gravity conditions and compared with an analytical model which incorporated the effect of interfacial mass transfer on the ullage pressure response during venting. A new model is presented to improve the estimation of the interfacial mass transfer. Duhammel's superposition integral is incorporated to approximate the transient temperature response of the interface, treating the liquid as a semi-infinite solid with conduction heat transfer. Account is also taken of the condensation taking place within the bulk of a saturated vapor as isentropic expansion takes place. Computational results are presented for the venting of R-11 from a given vessel and initial state for five different venting rates over a period of three seconds, and compared to prior NASA experiments. An improvement in the prediction of the final pressure takes place, but is still considerably below the measurements.
ORBSIM- ESTIMATING GEOPHYSICAL MODEL PARAMETERS FROM PLANETARY GRAVITY DATA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sjogren, W. L.
1994-01-01
The ORBSIM program was developed for the accurate extraction of geophysical model parameters from Doppler radio tracking data acquired from orbiting planetary spacecraft. The model of the proposed planetary structure is used in a numerical integration of the spacecraft along simulated trajectories around the primary body. Using line of sight (LOS) Doppler residuals, ORBSIM applies fast and efficient modelling and optimization procedures which avoid the traditional complex dynamic reduction of data. ORBSIM produces quantitative geophysical results such as size, depth, and mass. ORBSIM has been used extensively to investigate topographic features on the Moon, Mars, and Venus. The program has proven particulary suitable for modelling gravitational anomalies and mascons. The basic observable for spacecraft-based gravity data is the Doppler frequency shift of a transponded radio signal. The time derivative of this signal carries information regarding the gravity field acting on the spacecraft in the LOS direction (the LOS direction being the path between the spacecraft and the receiving station, either Earth or another satellite). There are many dynamic factors taken into account: earth rotation, solar radiation, acceleration from planetary bodies, tracking station time and location adjustments, etc. The actual trajectories of the spacecraft are simulated using least squares fitted to conic motion. The theoretical Doppler readings from the simulated orbits are compared to actual Doppler observations and another least squares adjustment is made. ORBSIM has three modes of operation: trajectory simulation, optimization, and gravity modelling. In all cases, an initial gravity model of curved and/or flat disks, harmonics, and/or a force table are required input. ORBSIM is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX 11/780 computer operating under VMS. This program was released in 1985.
Gravity dual for a model of perception
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakayama, Yu
2011-01-01
One of the salient features of human perception is its invariance under dilatation in addition to the Euclidean group, but its non-invariance under special conformal transformation. We investigate a holographic approach to the information processing in image discrimination with this feature. We claim that a strongly coupled analogue of the statistical model proposed by Bialek and Zee can be holographically realized in scale invariant but non-conformal Euclidean geometries. We identify the Bayesian probability distribution of our generalized Bialek-Zee model with the GKPW partition function of the dual gravitational system. We provide a concrete example of the geometric configuration based on a vector condensation model coupled with the Euclidean Einstein-Hilbert action. From the proposed geometry, we study sample correlation functions to compute the Bayesian probability distribution.
The GRAVITY metrology system: modeling a metrology in optical fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blind, N.; Huber, Heinrich; Eisenhauer, F.; Weber, J.; Gillessen, S.; Lippa, M.; Burtscher, L.; Hans, O.; Haug, M.; Haussmann, F.; Huber, S.; Janssen, A.; Kellner, S.; Kok, Y.; Ott, T.; Pfuhl, O.; Sturm, E.; Wieprecht, E.; Amorim, A.; Brandner, W.; Perrin, G.; Perraut, K.; Straubmeier, C.
2014-07-01
GRAVITY is the second generation VLT Interferometer (VLTI) instrument for high-precision narrow-angle astrometry and phase-referenced interferometric imaging. The laser metrology system of GRAVITY is at the heart of its astrometric mode, which must measure the distance of 2 stars with a precision of 10 micro-arcseconds. This means the metrology has to measure the optical path difference between the two beam combiners of GRAVITY to a level of 5 nm. The metrology design presents some non-common paths that have consequently to be stable at a level of 1 nm. Otherwise they would impact the performance of GRAVITY. The various tests we made in the past on the prototype give us hints on the components responsible for this error, and on their respective contribution to the total error. It is however difficult to assess their exact origin from only OPD measurements, and therefore, to propose a solution to this problem. In this paper, we present the results of a semi-empirical modeling of the fibered metrology system, relying on theoretical basis, as well as on characterisations of key components. The modeling of the metrology system regarding various effects, e.g., temperature, waveguide heating or mechanical stress, will help us to understand how the metrology behave. The goals of this modeling are to 1) model the test set-ups and reproduce the measurements (as a validation of the modeling), 2) determine the origin of the non-common path errors, and 3) propose modifications to the current metrology design to reach the required 1nm stability.
Transcendental Political Systems and the Gravity Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lock, Connor
2012-01-01
This summer I have been working on an Army Deep Futures Model project named Themis. Themis is a JPL based modeling framework that anticipates possible future states for the world within the next 25 years. The goal of this framework is to determine the likelihood that the US Army will need to intervene on behalf of the US strategic interests. Key elements that are modeled within this tool include the world structure and major decisions that are made by key actors. Each actor makes decisions based on their goals and within the constraints of the structure of the system in which they are located. In my research I have focused primarily on the effects of structures upon the decision-making processes of the actors within them. This research is a natural extension of my major program at Georgetown University, where I am studying the International Political Economy and the structures that make it up. My basic goal for this summer project was to be a helpful asset to the Themis modeling team, with any research done or processes learned constituting a bonus.
Conformal loop quantum gravity coupled to the standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campiglia, Miguel; Gambini, Rodolfo; Pullin, Jorge
2017-01-01
We argue that a conformally invariant extension of general relativity coupled to the standard model is the fundamental theory that needs to be quantized. We show that it can be treated by loop quantum gravity techniques. Through a gauge fixing and a modified Higgs mechanism particles acquire mass and one recovers general relativity coupled to the standard model. The theory suggests new views with respect to the definition of the Hamiltonian constraint in loop quantum gravity, the semi-classical limit and the issue of finite renormalization in quantum field theory in quantum space-time. It also gives hints about the elimination of ambiguities that arise in quantum field theory in quantum space-time in the calculation of back-reaction.
Cylindrically symmetric cosmological model of the universe in modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, B.; Vadrevu, Samhita
2017-02-01
In this paper, we have constructed the cosmological models of the universe in a cylindrically symmetric space time in two classes of f(R,T) gravity (Harko et al. in Phys. Rev. D 84:024020, 2011). We have discussed two cases: one in the linear form and the other in the quadratic form of R. The matter is considered to be in the form of perfect fluid. It is observed that in the first case, the pressure and energy density remain the same, which reduces to a Zeldovich fluid. In the second case we have studied the quadratic function of f(R,T) gravity in the form f(R)=λ(R+R2) and f(T)=λ T. In the second case the pressure is in the negative domain and the energy density is in the positive domain, which confirms that the equation of state parameter is negative. The physical properties of the constructed models are studied.
Satellite laser ranging and gravity field modeling accuracy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosborough, George W.
1990-01-01
Gravitational field mismodeling procedures errors in the estimated orbital motion of near Earth satellites. This effect is studied using a linear perturbation approach following the analysis of Kaula. The perturbations in the orbital position as defined by either orbital elements or Cartesian components are determined. From these perturbations it is possible to ascertain the expected signal due to gravitational mismodeling that would be present in station-to-satellite laser ranging measurements. This expected signal has been estimated for the case of the Lageos satellite and using the predicted uncertainties of the GEM-T1 and GEM-T2 gravity field models. The results indicate that observable signal still exists in the laser range residuals given the current accuracy of the range measurements and the accuracy of the gravity field models.
Gravity monitoring of CO2 movement during sequestration: Model studies
Gasperikova, E.; Hoversten, G.M.
2008-07-15
We examine the relative merits of gravity measurements as a monitoring tool for geological CO{sub 2} sequestration in three different modeling scenarios. The first is a combined CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the second is sequestration in a brine formation, and the third is for a coalbed methane formation. EOR/sequestration petroleum reservoirs have relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}), whereas brine formations usually have much thicker injection intervals and only two components (brine and CO{sub 2}). Coal formations undergoing methane extraction tend to be thin (3-10 m), but shallow compared to either EOR or brine formations. The injection of CO{sub 2} into the oil reservoir produced a bulk density decrease in the reservoir. The spatial pattern of the change in the vertical component of gravity (G{sub z}) is directly correlated with the net change in reservoir density. Furthermore, time-lapse changes in the borehole G{sub z} clearly identified the vertical section of the reservoir where fluid saturations are changing. The CO{sub 2}-brine front, on the order of 1 km within a 20 m thick brine formation at 1900 m depth, with 30% CO{sub 2} and 70% brine saturations, respectively, produced a -10 Gal surface gravity anomaly. Such anomaly would be detectable in the field. The amount of CO{sub 2} in a coalbed methane test scenario did not produce a large enough surface gravity response; however, we would expect that for an industrial size injection, the surface gravity response would be measurable. Gravity inversions in all three scenarios illustrated that the general position of density changes caused by CO{sub 2} can be recovered, but not the absolute value of the change. Analysis of the spatial resolution and detectability limits shows that gravity measurements could, under certain circumstances, be used as a lower-cost alternative to seismic
Tropopause to Mesopause Gravity Waves in August: Measurement and Modeling
2006-01-01
Journal of Atmospheric and Solar - Terrestrial Physics 68 (2006) 1730–1751 Tropopause to mesopause gravity waves in August: Measurement and modeling...descending orbit nodes were treated separately to avoid mixing of different ARTICLE IN PRESS P. Preusse et al. / Journal of Atmospheric and Solar - Terrestrial Physics 68...ranges from 2 to 14 dB at 25 km altitude and increases to 8–24 dB at 60 km altitude. P. Preusse et al. /
Multiple Potts models coupled to two-dimensional quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baillie, C. F.; Johnston, D. A.
1992-07-01
We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of multiple q=2, 3, 4 state Potts models on dynamical phi-cubed graphs of spherical topology in order to investigate the c>1 region of two-dimensional quantum gravity. Contrary to naive expectation we find no obvious signs of pathological behaviour for c>1. We discuss the results in the light of suggestions that have been made for a modified DDK ansatz for c>1.
Standard model vacuum decay with gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajantie, Arttu; Stopyra, Stephen
2017-01-01
We present a calculation of the decay rate of the electroweak vacuum, fully including all gravitational effects and a possible nonminimal Higgs-curvature coupling ξ , and using the three-loop Standard Model effective potential. Without a nonminimal coupling, we find that the effect of the gravitational backreaction is small and less significant than previous calculations suggested. The gravitational effects are smallest, and almost completely suppressed, near the conformal value ξ =1 /6 of the nonminimal coupling. Moving ξ away from this value in either direction universally suppresses the decay rate.
Neutron star models in frames of f (R) gravity
Astashenok, Artyom V.
2009-01-01
Neutron star models in perturbative f (R) gravity are considered with realistic equations of state. In particular, we consider the FPS and SLy equations of state. The mass-radius relations for f(R)=R+βR(e{sup -R/R₀}₋1) model and for R² models with cubic corrections are obtained. In the case of R2 gravity with cubic corrections, we obtain that at high central densities (ρ > 10 ρ{sub ns} = 2.7 × 10¹⁴ g/cm³ is the nuclear saturation density), stable star configurations exist. The minimal radius of such stars is close to 9 km with maximal mass ~ 1.9M{sub ⊙}(SLy equation) or to 8.5 km with mass ~ 1.7M{sub ⊙} (FPS equation). This effect can give rise to more compact stars than in GR. If observationally identified, such objects could constitute a formidable signature for modified gravity at astrophysical level.
1981-11-01
mathematical models have been proposed and used to model the * - behavior of the LaCoste & Romberg gravity meter (Morelli et al, 1974; Torge and...the difference in value in milligal between two consecutive gravity motor observations as it observable [McConnell and Gantar, 1974; Whalen, 1974; Torge ...relationships for linear gravity meter drift fUotila, 19741. Ono model even postulates a * relationship involving the square of stations’ gravity values [ Torge
Unified model of loop quantum gravity and matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gambini, Rodolfo; Olson, S. Jay; Pullin, Jorge
2006-04-01
We reconsider the unified model of gravitation and Yang Mills interactions proposed by Chakraborty and Peldán, in the light of recent formal developments in loop quantum gravity. In particular, we show that one can promote the Hamiltonian constraint of the unified model to a well defined anomaly-free quantum operator using the techniques introduced by Thiemann, at least for the Euclidean theory. The Lorentzian version of the model can be consistently constructed, but at the moment appears to yield a correct weak field theory only under restrictive assumptions, and its quantization appears problematic.
Analog model for quantum gravity effects: phonons in random fluids.
Krein, G; Menezes, G; Svaiter, N F
2010-09-24
We describe an analog model for quantum gravity effects in condensed matter physics. The situation discussed is that of phonons propagating in a fluid with a random velocity wave equation. We consider that there are random fluctuations in the reciprocal of the bulk modulus of the system and study free phonons in the presence of Gaussian colored noise with zero mean. We show that, in this model, after performing the random averages over the noise function a free conventional scalar quantum field theory describing free phonons becomes a self-interacting model.
Using the IRC model to quantize gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stubbs, Aran
2017-01-01
In the IRC model, gravitons are low-energy tachyons trapped between and within sub-atomic particles by the Lorentz contraction. They perceive the tardyons trapping them as having length LV L0*V/c, which is > the graviton's wavelength λ. Their frequency ν is minimal when V -> ∞ , so νV =v∞ *(1 +c2/2V2+c4/6V4 + ...). Within a quark or lepton, the proto-matter's orbit is always tangent to the orbit of the graviton, while external gravitons are only tangent for 10-21 of the proto-matter's orbit. With a 3-dimensional orbit, this gives the proto-matter a diameter 8*10-26 m. From the frequency locking assumed by the theory, this gives the gravitons a base frequency 1.2*1033/sec. From the calculated diameter of the electron, 853 fm, the gravitons there have a V 1013c and energy of 38.6 KeV. This gives a rest energy of -4*1017 i eV.
Equivalence principle implications of modified gravity models
Hui, Lam; Nicolis, Alberto; Stubbs, Christopher W.
2009-11-15
Theories that attempt to explain the observed cosmic acceleration by modifying general relativity all introduce a new scalar degree of freedom that is active on large scales, but is screened on small scales to match experiments. We demonstrate that if such screening occurs via the chameleon mechanism, such as in f(R) theory, it is possible to have order unity violation of the equivalence principle, despite the absence of explicit violation in the microscopic action. Namely, extended objects such as galaxies or constituents thereof do not all fall at the same rate. The chameleon mechanism can screen the scalar charge for large objects but not for small ones (large/small is defined by the depth of the gravitational potential and is controlled by the scalar coupling). This leads to order one fluctuations in the ratio of the inertial mass to gravitational mass. We provide derivations in both Einstein and Jordan frames. In Jordan frame, it is no longer true that all objects move on geodesics; only unscreened ones, such as test particles, do. In contrast, if the scalar screening occurs via strong coupling, such as in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld model, equivalence principle violation occurs at a much reduced level. We propose several observational tests of the chameleon mechanism: 1. small galaxies should accelerate faster than large galaxies, even in environments where dynamical friction is negligible; 2. voids defined by small galaxies would appear larger compared to standard expectations; 3. stars and diffuse gas in small galaxies should have different velocities, even if they are on the same orbits; 4. lensing and dynamical mass estimates should agree for large galaxies but disagree for small ones. We discuss possible pitfalls in some of these tests. The cleanest is the third one where the mass estimate from HI rotational velocity could exceed that from stars by 30% or more. To avoid blanket screening of all objects, the most promising place to look is in
Quantum gravity and Lorentz invariance violation in the standard model.
Alfaro, Jorge
2005-06-10
The most important problem of fundamental physics is the quantization of the gravitational field. A main difficulty is the lack of available experimental tests that discriminate among the theories proposed to quantize gravity. Recently, Lorentz invariance violation by quantum gravity (QG) has been the source of growing interest. However, the predictions depend on an ad hoc hypothesis and too many arbitrary parameters. Here we show that the standard model itself contains tiny Lorentz invariance violation terms coming from QG. All terms depend on one arbitrary parameter alpha that sets the scale of QG effects. This parameter can be estimated using data from the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray spectrum to be |alpha|< approximately 10(-22)-10(-23).
Spin foam models of matter coupled to gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikovic, A.
2002-05-01
We construct a class of spin foam models describing matter coupled to gravity, such that the gravitational sector is described by the unitary irreducible representations of the appropriate symmetry group, while the matter sector is described by the finite-dimensional irreducible representations of that group. The corresponding spin foam amplitudes in the four-dimensional gravity case are expressed in terms of the spin network amplitudes for pentagrams with additional external and internal matter edges. We also give a quantum field theory formulation of the model, where the matter degrees of freedom are described by spin network fields carrying the indices from the appropriate group representation. In the non-topological Lorentzian gravity case, we argue that the matter representations should be appropriate SO(3) or SO(2) representations contained in a given Lorentz matter representation, depending on whether one wants to describe a massive or a massless matter field. The corresponding spin network amplitudes are given as multiple integrals of propagators which are matrix spherical functions.
Cluster abundance in f(R) gravity models
Ferraro, Simone; Hu, Wayne; Schmidt, Fabian
2011-03-15
As one of the most powerful probes of cosmological structure formation, the abundance of massive galaxy clusters is a sensitive probe of modifications to gravity on cosmological scales. In this paper, we present results from N-body simulations of a general class of f(R) models, which self-consistently solve the nonlinear field equation for the enhanced forces. Within this class we vary the amplitude of the field, which controls the range of the enhanced gravitational forces, both at the present epoch and as a function of redshift. Most models in the literature can be mapped onto the parameter space of this class. Focusing on the abundance of massive dark matter halos, we compare the simulation results to a simple spherical collapse model. Current constraints lie in the large-field regime, where the chameleon mechanism is not important. In this regime, the spherical collapse model works equally well for a wide range of models and can serve as a model-independent tool for placing constraints on f(R) gravity from cluster abundance. Using these results, we show how constraints from the observed local abundance of X-ray clusters on a specific f(R) model can be mapped onto other members of this general class of models.
Surface state decoherence in loop quantum gravity, a first toy model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feller, Alexandre; Livine, Etera R.
2017-02-01
The quantum-to-classical transition through decoherence is a major facet of the semi-classical analysis of quantum models that are supposed to admit a classical regime, as quantum gravity should be. A particular problem of interest is the decoherence of black hole horizons and holographic screens induced by the bulk-boundary coupling with interior degrees of freedom. Here in this paper we present a first toy-model, in the context of loop quantum gravity, for the dynamics of a surface geometry as an open quantum system. We discuss the resulting decoherence and recoherence and compare the exact density matrix evolution to the commonly used master equation approximation à la Lindblad underlining its merits and limitations. The prospect of this study is to have a clearer understanding of the boundary decoherence of black hole horizons seen by outside observers.
Nonlinear structure formation in the cubic Galileon gravity model
Barreira, Alexandre; Li, Baojiu; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Pascoli, Silvia E-mail: baojiu.li@durham.ac.uk E-mail: c.m.baugh@durham.ac.uk
2013-10-01
We model the linear and nonlinear growth of large scale structure in the Cubic Galileon gravity model, by running a suite of N-body cosmological simulations using the ECOSMOG code. Our simulations include the Vainshtein screening effect, which reconciles the Cubic Galileon model with local tests of gravity. In the linear regime, the amplitude of the matter power spectrum increases by ∼ 20% with respect to the standard ΛCDM model today. The modified expansion rate accounts for ∼ 15% of this enhancement, while the fifth force is responsible for only ∼ 5%. This is because the effective unscreened gravitational strength deviates from standard gravity only at late times, even though it can be twice as large today. In the nonlinear regime (k∼>0.1h Mpc{sup −1}), the fifth force leads to only a modest increase (∼<8%) in the clustering power on all scales due to the very efficient operation of the Vainshtein mechanism. Such a strong effect is typically not seen in other models with the same screening mechanism. The screening also results in the fifth force increasing the number density of halos by less than 10%, on all mass scales. Our results show that the screening does not ruin the validity of linear theory on large scales which anticipates very strong constraints from galaxy clustering data. We also show that, whilst the model gives an excellent match to CMB data on small angular scales (l∼>50), the predicted integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect is in tension with Planck/WMAP results.
Testing Quantum Gravity Induced Nonlocality via Optomechanical Quantum Oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M. T.; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello
2016-04-01
Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterized by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such nonlocal effective field theories lead to a modified Schrödinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of optomechanical quantum oscillators is characterized by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the nonlocality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology.
Testing Quantum Gravity Induced Nonlocality via Optomechanical Quantum Oscillators.
Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M T; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello
2016-04-22
Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterized by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such nonlocal effective field theories lead to a modified Schrödinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of optomechanical quantum oscillators is characterized by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the nonlocality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Trob, D.; Porter, H. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Special Session: SA03 The mesosphere/lower thermosphere region: Structure, dynamics, composition, and emission. Ground based and satellite observations in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) reveal large seasonal variations in the horizontal wind fields of the diurnal and semidiurnal tides. To provide an understanding of the observations, we discuss results obtained with our Numerical Spectral Model (NMS) that incorporates the gravity wave Doppler Spread Parameterization (DSP) of Hines. Our model reproduces many of the salient features observed, and we discuss numerical experiments that delineate the important processes involved. Gravity wave momentum deposition and the seasonal variations in the tidal excitation contribute primarily to produce the large equinoctial amplitude maxima in the diurnal tide. Gravity wave induced variations in eddy viscosity, not accounted for in the model, have been shown by Akmaev to be important too. For the semidiurnal tide, with amplitude maximum observed during winter solstice, these processes also contribute, but filtering by the mean zonal circulation is more important. A deficiency of our model is that it cannot reproduce the observed seasonal variations in the phase of the semidiurnal tide, and numerical experiments are being carried out to diagnose the cause and to alleviate this problem. The dynamical components of the upper mesosphere are tightly coupled through non-linear processes and wave filtering, and this may constrain the model and require it to reproduce in detail the observed phenomenology.
Affine group formulation of the Standard Model coupled to gravity
Chou, Ching-Yi; Ita, Eyo; Soo, Chopin
2014-04-15
In this work we apply the affine group formalism for four dimensional gravity of Lorentzian signature, which is based on Klauder’s affine algebraic program, to the formulation of the Hamiltonian constraint of the interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity with non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ, as an affine Lie algebra. We use the hermitian action of fermions coupled to gravitation and Yang–Mills theory to find the density weight one fermionic super-Hamiltonian constraint. This term, combined with the Yang–Mills and Higgs energy densities, are composed with York’s integrated time functional. The result, when combined with the imaginary part of the Chern–Simons functional Q, forms the affine commutation relation with the volume element V(x). Affine algebraic quantization of gravitation and matter on equal footing implies a fundamental uncertainty relation which is predicated upon a non-vanishing cosmological constant. -- Highlights: •Wheeler–DeWitt equation (WDW) quantized as affine algebra, realizing Klauder’s program. •WDW formulated for interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity, as affine algebra. •WDW features Hermitian generators in spite of fermionic content: Standard Model addressed. •Constructed a family of physical states for the full, coupled theory via affine coherent states. •Fundamental uncertainty relation, predicated on non-vanishing cosmological constant.
The model of lithospheric thickness beneath China from gravity data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, H.; Ravat, D.
2015-12-01
We compare estimates of lithospheric thickness from several studies in China and examine whether the available gravity field anomalies can constrain these estimates. Ma (1987) suggested based on integrated geophysics that the lithospheric thickness varies from ~130 km in Qinling Dabie orogenic belt to ~60 km in Beijing, and ~50 km in Bohai bay. Lebedev and Nolet (2003) determined the lithospheric thickness in Bohai bay to be ~140 km from S wave tomography. Sodoudi et al.'s (2006) estimate of the lithospheric thickness is 72 km in Qinling Dabie orogenic belt and ~60 km in north China block. Since physical character differences exist between lithosphere and asthenosphere, it is possible to determine the thickness of lithospheric though gravity data. In this study, we use the crustal thickness obtained from teleseismic receiver functions (Li et al., 2014) to model the Moho gravity field variation and then remove this variation from the observed gravity field. Based on the residual field, the lithospheric thickness is obtained by the Parker inversion. Results show that the lithospheric thickness beneath China varies from ~80 km in the north of XinJiang to ~140 km in Tibet, and it changes to ~100 km in Eastern China. The residual field used for inversion is smooth which results in a smooth lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). The LAB is generally in agreement with the previous seismic inversion result along profiles in eastern China (e.g. Li et al., 2011) and suggests that our method could be used to estimate the regional lithospheric variation in other areas in China, and somewhere else.
Flagellates as model system for gravity detection of single cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebert, Michael; Richter, Peter; Daiker, Viktor; Schuster, Martin; Tebart, Jenny; Strauch, Sebastian M.; Donat-Peter, H.
Euglena gracilis is a unicellular, photosynthetic organism which uses light and gravity as en-vironmental hints to reach and stay in horizons of the water column which are optimal for growth and reproduction. The orientation in respect to light (so called positive and nega-tive phototaxis, i.e. movement toward or away of a light source) was well known and fairly good understood. In contrast, knowledge about the movement away from the centre of gravity (negative gravitaxis) was rather scarce. Over a century it was unclear whether orientation in respect to the gravity vector is based on a physical or a physiological mechanism. Recent results clearly favour the latter. Knock-down mutants (RNAi) were characterized which define certain key components of the gravitactic signal transduction chain. These key components include a TRP-like channel, a gravitaxis-specific calmodulin and a protein kinase A. The molecular characterization of these components is currently performed and will be presented. Euglena is not only a model system for the close understanding of gravity detection in single cells, but can also be used as photosynthetic component, i.e. oxygen source and carbon dioxide as well as nitrogenic components sink in Closed Environmental Systems (CES). Due CES are systems of choice in times of scarce flight opportunities. They allow a massive sample sharing and combine possibilities to do microgravity research for biologists but also for engineers, physicists and material scientists. Recent attempts include Aquacells and Omegahab. In the near future miniaturized systems (Chinese ShenZhou) as well as advanced CES will be flown or tested, respectively. Current attempts and plans will be presented.
Constraining f (T ,T ) gravity models using type Ia supernovae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sáez-Gómez, Diego; Carvalho, C. Sofia; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Tereno, Ismael
2016-07-01
We present an analysis of an f (T ,T ) extension of the Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity, where T denotes the torsion and T denotes the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. This extension includes nonminimal couplings between torsion and matter. In particular, we construct two specific models that recover the usual continuity equation, namely, f (T ,T )=T +g (T ) and f (T ,T )=T ×g (T ). We then constrain the parameters of each model by fitting the predicted distance modulus to that measured from type Ia supernovae and find that both models can reproduce the late-time cosmic acceleration. We also observe that one of the models satisfies well the observational constraints and yields a goodness-of-fit similar to the Λ CDM model, thus demonstrating that f (T ,T ) gravity theory encompasses viable models that can be an alternative to Λ CDM .
Solar system constraints on f(G) gravity models
De Felice, Antonio; Tsujikawa, Shinji
2009-09-15
We discuss solar system constraints on f(G) gravity models, where f is a function of the Gauss-Bonnet term G. We focus on cosmologically viable f(G) models that can be responsible for late-time cosmic acceleration. These models generally give rise to corrections of the form {epsilon}(r/r{sub s}){sup p} to the vacuum Schwarzschild solution, where {epsilon}=H{sub *}{sup 2}r{sub s}{sup 2}<<1, r{sub s} is the Schwarzschild radius of the Sun, and H{sub *} is the Hubble parameter today. We generally estimate the strength of modifications to general relativity in order to confront models with a number of experiments, such as the deflection of light and the perihelion shift. We show that cosmologically viable f(G) models can be consistent with solar system constraints for a wide range of model parameters.
A finite difference model for free surface gravity drainage
Couri, F.R.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.
1993-09-01
The unconfined gravity flow of liquid with a free surface into a well is a classical well test problem which has not been well understood by either hydrologists or petroleum engineers. Paradigms have led many authors to treat an incompressible flow as compressible flow to justify the delayed yield behavior of a time-drawdown test. A finite-difference model has been developed to simulate the free surface gravity flow of an unconfined single phase, infinitely large reservoir into a well. The model was verified with experimental results in sandbox models in the literature and with classical methods applied to observation wells in the Groundwater literature. The simulator response was also compared with analytical Theis (1935) and Ramey et al. (1989) approaches for wellbore pressure at late producing times. The seepage face in the sandface and the delayed yield behavior were reproduced by the model considering a small liquid compressibility and incompressible porous medium. The potential buildup (recovery) simulated by the model evidenced a different- phenomenon from the drawdown, contrary to statements found in the Groundwater literature. Graphs of buildup potential vs time, buildup seepage face length vs time, and free surface head and sand bottom head radial profiles evidenced that the liquid refills the desaturating cone as a flat moving surface. The late time pseudo radial behavior was only approached after exaggerated long times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishihara, Yoshiro; Sasaki, Yasunori; Sasaki, Hana; Onishi, Yuri
2016-04-01
Fine-grained sediment gravity flow deposits induced by flood and lake slope failure events are frequently intercalated in lacustrine successions. When sediment gravity flow deposits are present in varved sediments, it is suggested that they provide valuable information about sediment gravity flows, because they can easily trace laterally and can give the magnitude of erosion and recurrence interval of events. In addition, because large sedimentary bodies of stacked sediment gravity flow deposits in varved sediments of a calm lake are not suggested, a relatively simple depositional environment is expected. In the present study, we analysed sedimentary facies of sediment gravity flow deposits in varved lacustrine diatomites in the Middle Pleistocene Hiruzenbara and Miyajima formations in Japan, and concluded a depositional model of the lacustrine sediment gravity flow deposits. Varved diatomites: The Hiruzenbara Fm., a dammed lake fill as foots of Hiruzen Volcanos, is deposited during an interglacial period during MIS12 to 15. Varves of ca. 8000 yr were measured in a 20 m intercalating flood and lake slope failure-induced sediment gravity flow deposits. The Miyajima Fm., distributed in a paleo-caldera lake in NE Japan, includes many sediment gravity flow deposits possibly originated from fandeltas around the lake. These formations have differences in their depositional setting; the Hiruzebara Fm. was deposited in a large lake basin, whereas the Miyajima Fm. was deposited in a relatively small basin. Because of the depositional setting, intercalation of volcaniclastics is dominant in the Miyajima Fm. Lacustrine sediment gravity flow deposits: Sediment gravity flow deposits in both formations can be classified into flood- and lake slope failure-induced types based on the sedimentary facies. Composites of the both types are also found. Flood-induced types comprise fine-grained silts dominated by carbonaceous fragments, whereas lake slope failure-induced types are
High-degree Gravity Models from GRAIL Primary Mission Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, Frank G.; Goossens, Sander J.; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Loomis, Bryant D.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Caprette, Douglas S.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.
2013-01-01
We have analyzed Ka?band range rate (KBRR) and Deep Space Network (DSN) data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) primary mission (1 March to 29 May 2012) to derive gravity models of the Moon to degree 420, 540, and 660 in spherical harmonics. For these models, GRGM420A, GRGM540A, and GRGM660PRIM, a Kaula constraint was applied only beyond degree 330. Variance?component estimation (VCE) was used to adjust the a priori weights and obtain a calibrated error covariance. The global root?mean?square error in the gravity anomalies computed from the error covariance to 320×320 is 0.77 mGal, compared to 29.0 mGal with the pre?GRAIL model derived with the SELENE mission data, SGM150J, only to 140×140. The global correlations with the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter?derived topography are larger than 0.985 between l = 120 and 330. The free?air gravity anomalies, especially over the lunar farside, display a dramatic increase in detail compared to the pre?GRAIL models (SGM150J and LP150Q) and, through degree 320, are free of the orbit?track?related artifacts present in the earlier models. For GRAIL, we obtain an a posteriori fit to the S?band DSN data of 0.13 mm/s. The a posteriori fits to the KBRR data range from 0.08 to 1.5 micrometers/s for GRGM420A and from 0.03 to 0.06 micrometers/s for GRGM660PRIM. Using the GRAIL data, we obtain solutions for the degree 2 Love numbers, k20=0.024615+/-0.0000914, k21=0.023915+/-0.0000132, and k22=0.024852+/-0.0000167, and a preliminary solution for the k30 Love number of k30=0.00734+/-0.0015, where the Love number error sigmas are those obtained with VCE.
Depth Estimation for Magnetic/Gravity Anomaly Using Model Correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Pengfei; Liu, Tianyou; Zhu, Peimin; Yang, Yushan; Zhou, Qiaoli; Zhang, Henglei; Chen, Guoxiong
2017-03-01
The Tilt-depth method has been widely used to determinate the source depth of a magnetic anomaly. In the present study, we deduce similar Tilt-depth methods for both magnetic and gravity data based on the contact and sphere models and obtain the same equation for a gravity anomaly as that for a magnetic anomaly. The theoretical equations and the model tests show that the routine Tilt-depth method would result in unreliable depth estimation for deep sources. This is due to that the contact model is no longer valid for causative sources under the condition in which the depths of causative sources are significantly larger than their horizontal lengths. Accordingly, we suggest that the Tilt-depth derived from the contact model can be used to detect a shallow source, whereas the Tilt-depth derived from the sphere model can be used to detect a deep source. We propose a weighting method based on the estimated depths from both the contact model and the sphere model to estimate the depth for real data. The model tests suggest that the determined depths from the contact model and the sphere model are shallower and deeper, respectively, than the real depth, while the estimated depth from the proposed method is more close to the actual depth. In the application to the Weigang iron ore located in Jiangsu province, China, the routine Tilt-depth method results in -76% relative error, whereas the proposed method obtains the reliable depth estimation compared with the drill holes. In addition, the proposed method works well in the application for the Shijiaquan iron ore located in Shandong province, China. These results indicate that the proposed weighting equation is a general improvement.
Modeling Volcanic Eruption Parameters by Near-Source Internal Gravity Waves.
Ripepe, M; Barfucci, G; De Angelis, S; Delle Donne, D; Lacanna, G; Marchetti, E
2016-11-10
Volcanic explosions release large amounts of hot gas and ash into the atmosphere to form plumes rising several kilometers above eruptive vents, which can pose serious risk on human health and aviation also at several thousands of kilometers from the volcanic source. However the most sophisticate atmospheric models and eruptive plume dynamics require input parameters such as duration of the ejection phase and total mass erupted to constrain the quantity of ash dispersed in the atmosphere and to efficiently evaluate the related hazard. The sudden ejection of this large quantity of ash can perturb the equilibrium of the whole atmosphere triggering oscillations well below the frequencies of acoustic waves, down to much longer periods typical of gravity waves. We show that atmospheric gravity oscillations induced by volcanic eruptions and recorded by pressure sensors can be modeled as a compact source representing the rate of erupted volcanic mass. We demonstrate the feasibility of using gravity waves to derive eruption source parameters such as duration of the injection and total erupted mass with direct application in constraining plume and ash dispersal models.
Modeling Volcanic Eruption Parameters by Near-Source Internal Gravity Waves
Ripepe, M.; Barfucci, G.; De Angelis, S.; Delle Donne, D.; Lacanna, G.; Marchetti, E.
2016-01-01
Volcanic explosions release large amounts of hot gas and ash into the atmosphere to form plumes rising several kilometers above eruptive vents, which can pose serious risk on human health and aviation also at several thousands of kilometers from the volcanic source. However the most sophisticate atmospheric models and eruptive plume dynamics require input parameters such as duration of the ejection phase and total mass erupted to constrain the quantity of ash dispersed in the atmosphere and to efficiently evaluate the related hazard. The sudden ejection of this large quantity of ash can perturb the equilibrium of the whole atmosphere triggering oscillations well below the frequencies of acoustic waves, down to much longer periods typical of gravity waves. We show that atmospheric gravity oscillations induced by volcanic eruptions and recorded by pressure sensors can be modeled as a compact source representing the rate of erupted volcanic mass. We demonstrate the feasibility of using gravity waves to derive eruption source parameters such as duration of the injection and total erupted mass with direct application in constraining plume and ash dispersal models. PMID:27830768
Modeling Volcanic Eruption Parameters by Near-Source Internal Gravity Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ripepe, M.; Barfucci, G.; de Angelis, S.; Delle Donne, D.; Lacanna, G.; Marchetti, E.
2016-11-01
Volcanic explosions release large amounts of hot gas and ash into the atmosphere to form plumes rising several kilometers above eruptive vents, which can pose serious risk on human health and aviation also at several thousands of kilometers from the volcanic source. However the most sophisticate atmospheric models and eruptive plume dynamics require input parameters such as duration of the ejection phase and total mass erupted to constrain the quantity of ash dispersed in the atmosphere and to efficiently evaluate the related hazard. The sudden ejection of this large quantity of ash can perturb the equilibrium of the whole atmosphere triggering oscillations well below the frequencies of acoustic waves, down to much longer periods typical of gravity waves. We show that atmospheric gravity oscillations induced by volcanic eruptions and recorded by pressure sensors can be modeled as a compact source representing the rate of erupted volcanic mass. We demonstrate the feasibility of using gravity waves to derive eruption source parameters such as duration of the injection and total erupted mass with direct application in constraining plume and ash dispersal models.
Modeling of the Earth's gravity field using the New Global Earth Model (NEWGEM)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Yeong E.; Braswell, W. Danny
1989-01-01
Traditionally, the global gravity field was described by representations based on the spherical harmonics (SH) expansion of the geopotential. The SH expansion coefficients were determined by fitting the Earth's gravity data as measured by many different methods including the use of artificial satellites. As gravity data have accumulated with increasingly better accuracies, more of the higher order SH expansion coefficients were determined. The SH representation is useful for describing the gravity field exterior to the Earth but is theoretically invalid on the Earth's surface and in the Earth's interior. A new global Earth model (NEWGEM) (KIM, 1987 and 1988a) was recently proposed to provide a unified description of the Earth's gravity field inside, on, and outside the Earth's surface using the Earth's mass density profile as deduced from seismic studies, elevation and bathymetric information, and local and global gravity data. Using NEWGEM, it is possible to determine the constraints on the mass distribution of the Earth imposed by gravity, topography, and seismic data. NEWGEM is useful in investigating a variety of geophysical phenomena. It is currently being utilized to develop a geophysical interpretation of Kaula's rule. The zeroth order NEWGEM is being used to numerically integrate spherical harmonic expansion coefficients and simultaneously determine the contribution of each layer in the model to a given coefficient. The numerically determined SH expansion coefficients are also being used to test the validity of SH expansions at the surface of the Earth by comparing the resulting SH expansion gravity model with exact calculations of the gravity at the Earth's surface.
Comparison of Alternative Gravity Models in Dwarf Galaxy Rotation Curves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harrington, Justin; Saintable, Taylor; O'Brien, James
2017-01-01
Galactic rotation curves have proven to be the testing ground for dark matter bounds in spiral galaxies of all morphologies. Dwarf Galaxies serve as an increasingly interesting testing ground of rotation curve dynamics due to their increased stellar formation and typically rising rotation curve. These galaxies usually are not dominated by typical stellar structure and mostly terminate at small radial distances. This, coupled with the fact that Cold Dark Matter theories such as NFW (∧ CDM) struggle with the universality of galactic rotation curves, allow for exclusive features of alternative gravitational models to be analyzed. Here, we present a thorough application of alternative gravitational models (conformal gravity and MOND) to a 2010 dwarf galaxy sample from Swaters et al. An analysis and discussion of the results of the fitting procedure of the two alternative gravitational models are explored. We posit here that both the Conformal Gravity and MOND can provide an accurate description of the galactic dynamics without the need for copious dark matter.
Decay of sandstone monuments in Petra (Jordan): Gravity-induced stress as a stabilizing factor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Řihošek, Jaroslav; Bruthans, Jiří; Mašín, David; Filippi, Michal; Schweigstillova, Jana
2016-04-01
As demonstrated by physical experiments and numerical modeling the gravity-induced stress (stress in further text) in sandstone massive reduces weathering and erosion rate (Bruthans et al. 2014). This finding is in contrast to common view that stress threatens stability of man-made monuments carved to sandstone. Certain low- levels of gravity-induced stress can in fact stabilize and protect these forms against weathering and disintegration. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the effect of the stress on weathering of sandstone monuments at the Petra World Heritage Site in Jordan via field observations, salt weathering experiments, and physical and numerical modeling. Previous studies on weathering of Petra monuments have neglected the impact of stress, but the ubiquitous presence of stress-controlled landforms in Petra suggests that it has a substantial effect on weathering and erosion processes on man-made monuments and natural surfaces. Laboratory salt weathering experiments with cubes of Umm Ishrin sandstone from Petra demonstrated the inverse relationship between stress magnitude and decay rate. Physical modeling with Strelec locked sand from the Czech Republic was used to simulate weathering and decay of Petra monuments. Sharp forms subjected to water erosion decayed to rounded shapes strikingly similar to tombs in Petra subjected to more than 2000 years of weathering and erosion. The physical modeling results enabled visualization of the recession of monument surfaces in high spatial and temporal resolution and indicate that the recession rate of Petra monuments is far from constant both in space and time. Numerical modeling of stress fields confirms the physical modeling results. This novel approach to investigate weathering clearly demonstrates that increased stress decreases the decay rate of Petra monuments. To properly delineate the endangered zones of monuments, the potential damage caused by weathering agents should be combined with stress
Establishing a Near Term Lunar Farside Gravity Model via Inexpensive Add-on Navigation Payload
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Folta, David; Mesarch, Michael; Miller, Ronald; Bell, David; Jedrey, Tom; Butman, Stanley; Asmar, Sami
2007-01-01
The Space Communications and Navigation, Constellation Integration Project (SCIP) is tasked with defining, developing, deploying and operating an evolving multi-decade communications and navigation (C/N) infrastructure including services and subsystems that will support both robotic and human exploration activities at the Moon. This paper discusses an early far side gravitational mapping service and related telecom subsystem that uses an existing spacecraft (WIND) and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to collect data that would address several needs of the SCIP. An important aspect of such an endeavor is to vastly improve the current lunar gravity model while demonstrating the navigation and stationkeeping of a relay spacecraft. We describe a gravity data acquisition activity and the trajectory design of the relay orbit in an Earth-Moon L2 co-linear libration orbit. Several phases of the transfer from an Earth-Sun to the Earth-Moon region are discussed along with transfers within the Earth-Moon system. We describe a proposed, but not integrated, add-on to LRO scheduled to be launched in October of 2008. LRO provided a real host spacecraft against which we designed the science payload and mission activities. From a strategic standpoint, LRO was a very exciting first flight opportunity for gravity science data collection. Gravity Science data collection requires the use of one or more low altitude lunar polar orbiters. Variations in the lunar gravity field will cause measurable variations in the orbit of a low altitude lunar orbiter. The primary means to capture these induced motions is to monitor the Doppler shift of a radio signal to or from the low altitude spacecraft, given that the signal is referenced to a stable frequency reference. For the lunar far side, a secondary orbiting radio signal platform is required. We provide an in-depth look at link margins, trajectory design, and hardware implications. Our approach posed minimum risk to a host mission while
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Zhikui; Chen, Chao; Tao, Chunhui
2016-04-01
Since 2007, there are four China Da yang cruises (CDCs), which have been carried out to investigate polymetallic sulfides in the southwest Indian ridge (SWIR) and have acquired both gravity data and bathymetry data on the corresponding survey lines(Tao et al., 2014). Sandwell et al. (2014) published a new global marine gravity model including the free air gravity data and its first order vertical gradient (Vzz). Gravity data and its gradient can be used to extract unknown density structure information(e.g. crust thickness) under surface of the earth, but they contain all the mass effect under the observation point. Therefore, how to get accurate gravity and its gradient effect of the existing density structure (e.g. terrain) has been a key issue. Using the bathymetry data or ETOPO1 (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/global/global.html) model at a full resolution to calculate the terrain effect could spend too much computation time. We expect to develop an effective method that takes less time but can still yield the desired accuracy. In this study, a constant-density polyhedral model is used to calculate the gravity field and its vertical gradient, which is based on the work of Tsoulis (2012). According to gravity field attenuation with distance and variance of bathymetry, we present an adaptive mesh refinement and coarsening strategies to merge both global topography data and multi-beam bathymetry data. The local coarsening or size of mesh depends on user-defined accuracy and terrain variation (Davis et al., 2011). To depict terrain better, triangular surface element and rectangular surface element are used in fine and coarse mesh respectively. This strategy can also be applied to spherical coordinate in large region and global scale. Finally, we applied this method to calculate Bouguer gravity anomaly (BGA), mantle Bouguer anomaly(MBA) and their vertical gradient in SWIR. Further, we compared the result with previous results in the literature. Both synthetic model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Shingo; Miyahara, Saburo
2009-04-01
The interaction of gravity waves (GWs) and the migrating diurnal tide are studied in a GW-resolving general circulation model (GCM) by calculating the tidal components of zonal wind accelerations and equivalent Rayleigh friction due to tidal induced GW dissipation. Two 15-day periods for perpetual equinoctial and solstice simulations are analyzed, which are performed with the Japanese Atmospheric General circulation model for Upper Atmosphere Research (JAGUAR) high-resolution GCM. The model can directly simulate GWs with horizontal wavelengths greater than about 190 km, and, thus reproduce the general features of the mean winds and temperatures from the surface to the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). The amplitudes of the migrating diurnal tide are successfully simulated during both seasons, and the tidal winds affect the altitudes of GW dissipation in the low-latitude MLT. The tidal component of GW forcing has maximal values of about 15 m s-1 d-1 near the maximal vertical shears of the tidal winds and generally works to shorten the vertical wavelength of the migrating diurnal tide. The phase relationship between the tidal winds and the tidal induced GW forcing is not exactly 90° out of phase, causing amplification/suppression of the tide. The GW forcing amplifies the migrating diurnal tide during the equinox, while during the solstice, it suppresses the tidal winds in the upper mesosphere of both hemispheres. This difference in behavior can be attributed to a seasonal variation of the mean zonal winds, because combination of the mean and tidal winds affects the altitudes of GW dissipation.
Observation and Modeling of Tsunami-Generated Gravity Waves in the Earth’s Upper Atmosphere
2014-10-15
Observation and modeling of tsunami -generated gravity waves in the earth’s upper atmosphere 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...ABSTRACT Build a compatible set of models which 1) calculate the atmospheric gravity waves (GWs) excited by a tsunami , 2) propagate these GWs into...modeling of tsunami -generated gravity waves in the earth’s upper atmosphere Sharon L. Vadas NWRA/CoRA 3380 S. Mitchell Lane Boulder, CO 80301, USA phone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lefevre, Maxence; Spiga, Aymeric; Lebonnois, Sebastien
2016-10-01
One of the main questions that remains unclear about the dynamics of the atmosphere of Venus and its interaction with the photochemistry is the characterization of the cloud convective layer which mixes momentum, heat, chemical species and generates gravity waves observed by Venus Express. This dynamical forcing induced by the cloud layer has been proposed as a significant contribution to the maintenance of the super-rotation. However these waves develop from regional to local scales and can not be resolved by global circulation models (GCM) developed insofar. Therefore we developed an unprecedented 3D Venusian mesoscale model based on the Martian mesoscale model using the Weather Research and Forecast terrestrial model. We report the first application of this model : simulating convection in the Venusian cloud layer and associated gravity waves by 3D turbulent-resolving simulations (Large-Eddy Simulations). The model employs an offline radiative forcing based on heating rates extracted from the LMD Venus GCM consisting of three distinct kind of rates. Two radiative ones for short wave (solar) and long wave (IR) and one for the adiabatic cooling/warming due to the global dynamics of the atmosphere (mainly the Hadley cell) with 2 different cloud models. Therefore we are able to characterize the convection and associated gravity waves in function of latitude and local time. To assess the impact of the general circulation on the convection we ran simulations with forcing from a 1D radiative model.The resolved convective layer takes place between 1.0 105 and 3.8 104 Pa with vertical wind between ± 3 m/s, is organized as polygonal closed cells of about 8x8km2, and emits gravity waves on either side with temperature perturbations of about 0.5 K with vertical wavelength of 1 km and horizontal wavelength from 1 to almost 20 km. The order of magnitude of the resolved plumes is consistent with observations though underestimated.We are working on coupling the model with a
Space-Wise approach for airborne gravity data modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sampietro, D.; Capponi, M.; Mansi, A. H.; Gatti, A.; Marchetti, P.; Sansò, F.
2016-12-01
Regional gravity field modelling by means of remove-compute-restore procedure is nowadays widely applied in different contexts: it is the most used technique for regional gravimetric geoid determination, and it is also used in exploration geophysics to predict grids of gravity anomalies (Bouguer, free-air, isostatic, etc.), which are useful to understand and map geological structures in a specific region. Considering this last application, due to the required accuracy and resolution, airborne gravity observations are usually adopted. However, due to the relatively high acquisition velocity, presence of atmospheric turbulence, aircraft vibration, instrumental drift, etc., airborne data are usually contaminated by a very high observation error. For this reason, a proper procedure to filter the raw observations in both the low and high frequencies should be applied to recover valuable information. In this work, a software to filter and grid raw airborne observations is presented: the proposed solution consists in a combination of an along-track Wiener filter and a classical Least Squares Collocation technique. Basically, the proposed procedure is an adaptation to airborne gravimetry of the Space-Wise approach, developed by Politecnico di Milano to process data coming from the ESA satellite mission GOCE. Among the main differences with respect to the satellite application of this approach, there is the fact that, while in processing GOCE data the stochastic characteristics of the observation error can be considered a-priori well known, in airborne gravimetry, due to the complex environment in which the observations are acquired, these characteristics are unknown and should be retrieved from the dataset itself. The presented solution is suited for airborne data analysis in order to be able to quickly filter and grid gravity observations in an easy way. Some innovative theoretical aspects focusing in particular on the theoretical covariance modelling are presented too
New Technology for Density Model Construction Using Gravity Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martyshko, P. S.
2010-12-01
The construction process of density sections using gravity data leads to solution of linear inverse problem, which is the classical example of ill-posed problem as its solution is not unique and unstable. It is possible to choose the specific variant of density distribution if additional information is presented. In this article we discuss one approach for constructing three-dimensional density sections using gravity data. Here we suggest the algorithm of finding density distribution in the area of investigations using prior information about geological structures in the region, for example, obtained with seismic methods. This problem appears during constructing earth-crust and mantle models, and, also oil and gas exploration. As the practical investigation involve non-plate layers, new method for searching density distributions inside curve-edged layers was developed. Calculate two-dimension density distribution in these layers if there are no other density anomalies outside given layers. Technology of gravity field sources separation was completely described in [1,2]. Initial data for investigations are located usually on a non-regular grid. As far as all following procedures are developed for data arrays located on regular grids we have to calculate data onto a regular grid (with a uniform nodes spacing). For separating sources of gravity field in depths we based on upward and downward continuation by means Poisson’s formula. The problem of definition of density values in the layer leads to integral equation of the first kind Δg(x,y,0)=Bσ(x,y,), where B - is integral operator, density σ(x,y) is seeking function. Consider double integral in equation above as a sum of integrals over elementary rectangles Δx by Δy, i.e. we imagine layer separated into bars Δx Δy (H2(x,y)-H1(x,y)), each having constant density, and use discrete integral formula (for example, trapeziums formula). Then calculation of the integral comes to the multiplication of vector of
Spectral action models of gravity on packed swiss cheese cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ball, Adam; Marcolli, Matilde
2016-06-01
We present a model of (modified) gravity on spacetimes with fractal structure based on packing of spheres, which are (Euclidean) variants of the packed swiss cheese cosmology models. As the action functional for gravity we consider the spectral action of noncommutative geometry, and we compute its expansion on a space obtained as an Apollonian packing of three-dimensional spheres inside a four-dimensional ball. Using information from the zeta function of the Dirac operator of the spectral triple, we compute the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the spectral action. They consist of a zeta regularization of the divergent sum of the leading terms of the spectral actions of the individual spheres in the packing. This accounts for the contribution of points 1 and 3 in the dimension spectrum (as in the case of a 3-sphere). There is an additional term coming from the residue at the additional point in the real dimension spectrum that corresponds to the packing constant, as well as a series of fluctuations coming from log-periodic oscillations, created by the points of the dimension spectrum that are off the real line. These terms detect the fractality of the residue set of the sphere packing. We show that the presence of fractality influences the shape of the slow-roll potential for inflation, obtained from the spectral action. We also discuss the effect of truncating the fractal structure at a certain scale related to the energy scale in the spectral action.
New analytic solutions for modeling vertical gravity gradient anomalies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Seung-Sep; Wessel, Paul
2016-05-01
Modern processing of satellite altimetry for use in marine gravimetry involves computing the along-track slopes of observed sea-surface heights, projecting them into east-west and north-south deflection of the vertical grids, and using Laplace's equation to algebraically obtain a grid of the vertical gravity gradient (VGG). The VGG grid is then integrated via overlapping, flat Earth Fourier transforms to yield a free-air anomaly grid. Because of this integration and associated edge effects, the VGG grid retains more short-wavelength information (e.g., fracture zone and seamount signatures) that is of particular importance for plate tectonic investigations. While modeling of gravity anomalies over arbitrary bodies has long been a standard undertaking, similar modeling of VGG anomalies over oceanic features is not commonplace yet. Here we derive analytic solutions for VGG anomalies over simple bodies and arbitrary 2-D and 3-D sources. We demonstrate their usability in determining mass excess and deficiency across the Mendocino fracture zone (a 2-D feature) and find the best bulk density estimate for Jasper seamount (a 3-D feature). The methodologies used herein are implemented in the Generic Mapping Tools, available from gmt.soest.hawaii.edu.
Singular boundary method for global gravity field modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cunderlik, Robert
2014-05-01
The singular boundary method (SBM) and method of fundamental solutions (MFS) are meshless boundary collocation techniques that use the fundamental solution of a governing partial differential equation (e.g. the Laplace equation) as their basis functions. They have been developed to avoid singular numerical integration as well as mesh generation in the traditional boundary element method (BEM). SBM have been proposed to overcome a main drawback of MFS - its controversial fictitious boundary outside the domain. The key idea of SBM is to introduce a concept of the origin intensity factors that isolate singularities of the fundamental solution and its derivatives using some appropriate regularization techniques. Consequently, the source points can be placed directly on the real boundary and coincide with the collocation nodes. In this study we deal with SBM applied for high-resolution global gravity field modelling. The first numerical experiment presents a numerical solution to the fixed gravimetric boundary value problem. The achieved results are compared with the numerical solutions obtained by MFS or the direct BEM indicating efficiency of all methods. In the second numerical experiments, SBM is used to derive the geopotential and its first derivatives from the Tzz components of the gravity disturbing tensor observed by the GOCE satellite mission. A determination of the origin intensity factors allows to evaluate the disturbing potential and gravity disturbances directly on the Earth's surface where the source points are located. To achieve high-resolution numerical solutions, the large-scale parallel computations are performed on the cluster with 1TB of the distributed memory and an iterative elimination of far zones' contributions is applied.
Brane induced gravity: From a no-go to a no-ghost theorem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berkhahn, Felix; Hofmann, Stefan; Niedermann, Florian
2012-12-01
Numerous claims in the literature suggest that gravity induced on a higher codimensional surface violates unitarity in the weak coupling regime. However, it remained unclear, why a conserved source localized on this surface and giving rise to an induced gravity term at low energies would absorb and emit the associated ghost, given a consistent source-free theory. In this article it is shown that the appearance of the induced Einstein-Hilbert term does not threaten the unitarity of the theory. It is shown that the would-be ghost highlighted in previous works is nondynamical and therefore not associated with a state in the Hilbert space. The physics arguments behind this statement are presented in a semicovariant language, but the detailed proof is given using Dirac’s constraint analysis. The Hamiltonian on the constraint surface of the linearized theory is derived and turns out to be manifestly positive definite. As a result of these investigations, brane-induced gravity goes without a ghost, opening an exciting window of opportunity for consistent deformations of gravity at the largest observable distances.
Prompt gravity signal induced by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montagner, Jean-Paul; Juhel, Kévin; Barsuglia, Matteo; Ampuero, Jean Paul; Chassande-Mottin, Eric; Harms, Jan; Whiting, Bernard; Bernard, Pascal; Clévédé, Eric; Lognonné, Philippe
2016-11-01
Transient gravity changes are expected to occur at all distances during an earthquake rupture, even before the arrival of seismic waves. Here we report on the search of such a prompt gravity signal in data recorded by a superconducting gravimeter and broadband seismometers during the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. During the earthquake rupture, a signal exceeding the background noise is observed with a statistical significance higher than 99% and an amplitude of a fraction of μGal, consistent in sign and order of magnitude with theoretical predictions from a first-order model. While prompt gravity signal detection with state-of-the-art gravimeters and seismometers is challenged by background seismic noise, its robust detection with gravity gradiometers under development could open new directions in earthquake seismology, and overcome fundamental limitations of current earthquake early-warning systems imposed by the propagation speed of seismic waves.
Prompt gravity signal induced by the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake
Montagner, Jean-Paul; Juhel, Kévin; Barsuglia, Matteo; Ampuero, Jean Paul; Chassande-Mottin, Eric; Harms, Jan; Whiting, Bernard; Bernard, Pascal; Clévédé, Eric; Lognonné, Philippe
2016-01-01
Transient gravity changes are expected to occur at all distances during an earthquake rupture, even before the arrival of seismic waves. Here we report on the search of such a prompt gravity signal in data recorded by a superconducting gravimeter and broadband seismometers during the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. During the earthquake rupture, a signal exceeding the background noise is observed with a statistical significance higher than 99% and an amplitude of a fraction of μGal, consistent in sign and order of magnitude with theoretical predictions from a first-order model. While prompt gravity signal detection with state-of-the-art gravimeters and seismometers is challenged by background seismic noise, its robust detection with gravity gradiometers under development could open new directions in earthquake seismology, and overcome fundamental limitations of current earthquake early-warning systems imposed by the propagation speed of seismic waves. PMID:27874858
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McFadden, J. J.; Poovaiah, B. W.
1988-01-01
The effect of light and calcium depletion on in vivo protein phosphorylation was tested using dark-grown roots of Merit corn. Light caused rapid and specific promotion of phosphorylation of three polypeptides. Pretreatment of roots with ethylene glycol bis N,N,N',N' tetraacetic acid and A23187 prevented light-induced changes in protein phosphorylation. We postulate that these changes in protein phosphorylation are involved in the light-induced gravity response.
Spin foam models for quantum gravity from lattice path integrals
Bonzom, Valentin
2009-09-15
Spin foam models for quantum gravity are derived from lattice path integrals. The setting involves variables from both lattice BF theory and Regge calculus. The action consists in a Regge action, which depends on areas, dihedral angles and includes the Immirzi parameter. In addition, a measure is inserted to ensure a consistent gluing of simplices, so that the amplitude is dominated by configurations that satisfy the parallel transport relations. We explicitly compute the path integral as a sum over spin foams for a generic measure. The Freidel-Krasnov and Engle-Pereira-Rovelli models correspond to a special choice of gluing. In this case, the equations of motion describe genuine geometries, where the constraints of area-angle Regge calculus are satisfied. Furthermore, the Immirzi parameter drops out of the on-shell action, and stationarity with respect to area variations requires spacetime geometry to be flat.
Solving the standard model problems in softened gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvio, Alberto
2016-11-01
The Higgs naturalness problem is solved if the growth of Einstein's gravitational interaction is softened at an energy ≲1 011 GeV (softened gravity). We work here within an explicit realization where the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian is extended to include terms quadratic in the curvature and a nonminimal coupling with the Higgs. We show that this solution is preserved by adding three right-handed neutrinos with masses below the electroweak scale, accounting for neutrino oscillations, dark matter and the baryon asymmetry. The smallness of the right-handed neutrino masses (compared to the Planck scale) and the QCD θ -term are also shown to be natural. We prove that a possible gravitational source of C P violation cannot spoil the model, thanks to the presence of right-handed neutrinos. Inflation is approximately described by the Starobinsky model in this context and can occur even if we live in a metastable vacuum.
Thermodynamic behavior of particular f(R,T)-gravity models
Sharif, M. Zubair, M.
2013-08-15
We investigate the thermodynamics at the apparent horizon of the FRW universe in f(R, T) theory in the nonequilibrium description. The laws of thermodynamics are discussed for two particular models of the f(R, T) theory. The first law of thermodynamics is expressed in the form of the Clausius relation T{sub h} dS-circumflex{sub h} = {delta} Q , where {delta}Q is the energy flux across the horizon and dS-circumflex is the entropy production term. Furthermore, the conditions for the generalized second law of thermodynamics to be preserved are established with the constraints of positive temperature and attractive gravity. We illustrate our results for some concrete models in this theory.
Performance of FFT methods in local gravity field modelling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forsberg, Rene; Solheim, Dag
1989-01-01
Fast Fourier transform (FFT) methods provide a fast and efficient means of processing large amounts of gravity or geoid data in local gravity field modelling. The FFT methods, however, has a number of theoretical and practical limitations, especially the use of flat-earth approximation, and the requirements for gridded data. In spite of this the method often yields excellent results in practice when compared to other more rigorous (and computationally expensive) methods, such as least-squares collocation. The good performance of the FFT methods illustrate that the theoretical approximations are offset by the capability of taking into account more data in larger areas, especially important for geoid predictions. For best results good data gridding algorithms are essential. In practice truncated collocation approaches may be used. For large areas at high latitudes the gridding must be done using suitable map projections such as UTM, to avoid trivial errors caused by the meridian convergence. The FFT methods are compared to ground truth data in New Mexico (xi, eta from delta g), Scandinavia (N from delta g, the geoid fits to 15 cm over 2000 km), and areas of the Atlantic (delta g from satellite altimetry using Wiener filtering). In all cases the FFT methods yields results comparable or superior to other methods.
Ultralocal models of modified gravity without kinetic term
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brax, Philippe; Rizzo, Luca Alberto; Valageas, Patrick
2016-08-01
We present a class of modified-gravity theories which we call ultralocal models. We add a scalar field, with negligible kinetic terms, to the Einstein-Hilbert action. We also introduce a conformal coupling to matter. This gives rise to a new screening mechanism which is not entirely due to the nonlinearity of the scalar-field potential or the coupling function but to the absence of the kinetic term. As a result this removes any fifth force between isolated objects in vacuum. It turns out that these models are similar to chameleon-type theories with a large mass when considered outside the Compton wavelength but differ on shorter scales. The predictions of these models only depend on a single free function, as the potential and the coupling function are degenerate, with an amplitude given by a parameter α ≲10-6 , whose magnitude springs from requiring a small modification of Newton's potential astrophysically and cosmologically. This singles out a redshift zα˜α-1 /3≳100 where the fifth force is the greatest. The cosmological background follows the Λ cold dark matter (Λ CDM ) history within a 10-6 accuracy, while cosmological perturbations are significantly enhanced (or damped) on small scales, k ≳2 h Mpc-1 at z =0 . The spherical collapse and the halo mass function are modified in the same manner. We find that the modifications of gravity are greater for galactic or subgalactic structures. We also present a thermodynamic analysis of the nonlinear and inhomogeneous fifth-force regime where we find that the Universe is not made more inhomogeneous before zα when the fifth force dominates, and does not lead to the existence of clumped matter on extra small scales inside halos for large masses while this possibility exists for masses M ≲1 011M⊙ where the phenomenology of ultralocal models would be most different from Λ CDM .
The hidden flat like universe. Starobinsky-like inflation induced by f (T) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Hanafy, W.; Nashed, G. G. L.
2015-06-01
We study a single-fluid component in a flat like universe (FLU) governed by f( T) gravity theories, where T is the teleparallel torsion scalar. The FLU model, regardless of the value of the spatial curvature k, identifies a special class of f( T) gravity theories. Remarkably, FLU f( T) gravity does not reduce to teleparallel gravity theory. In large Hubble spacetime the theory is consistent with the inflationary universe scenario and respects the conservation principle. The equation of state evolves similarly in all models . We study the case when the torsion tensor consists of a scalar field, which enables to derive a quintessence potential from the obtained f( T) gravity theory. The potential produces Starobinsky-like model naturally without using a conformal transformation, with higher orders continuously interpolate between Starobinsky and quadratic inflation models. The slow-roll analysis shows double solutions, so that for a single value of the scalar tilt (spectral index) the theory can predict double tensor-to-scalar ratios r of E-mode and B-mode polarizations.
Modeling of Vapor Bubble Growth Under Nucleate Boiling Conditions in Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buyevich, Yu A.; Webbon, Bruce W.
1995-01-01
A dynamic model is developed to describe the evolution of a vapor bubble growing at a nucleation site on a superheated surface under arbitrary gravity. The bubble is separated from the surface by a thin microlayer and grows due to the evaporation from the microlayer interface. The average thickness of the microlayer increases as the bubble expands along the surface if the evaporation rate is lower than some critical value. The corresponding threshold value of the surface temperature has to be associated with the burn-out crisis. Two main reasons make for bubble separation, which are the buoyancy force and a force caused by the vapor momentum that comes to the bubble with vapor molecules. The latter force is somewhat diminished if condensation takes place at the upper bubble surface in subcooled liquids. The action of the said forces is opposed by inertia of the additional mass of liquid as the bubble center rises above the surface and by inertia of liquid being expelled by the growing bubble in radial directions. An extra pressure force arises due to the liquid inflow into the microlayer with a finite velocity. The last force helps in holding the bubble close to the surface during an initial stage of bubble evolution. Two limiting regimes with distinctly different properties can be singled out, depending on which of the forces that favor bubble detachment dominates. Under conditions of moderately reduced gravity, the situation is much the same as in normal gravity, although the bubble detachment volume increases as gravity diminishes. In microgravity, the buoyancy force is negligible. Then the bubble is capable of staying near the surface for a long time, with intensive evaporation from the microlayer. It suggests a drastic change in the physical mechanism of heat removal as gravity falls below a certain sufficiently low level. Inferences of the model and conclusions pertaining to effects caused on heat transfer processes by changes in bubble hydrodynamics induced
Detection of gravity-induced polarity of cytoplasmic streaming in Chara
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Staves, M. P.; Wayne, R.; Leopold, A. C.
1995-01-01
Gravity induces a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming in vertically-oriented internodal cells of characean algae. The motive force that powers cytoplasmic streaming is generated at the ectoplasmic/endoplasmic interface. The velocity of streaming, which is about 100 micrometers/s at this interface, decreases with distance from the interface on either side of the cell to 0 micrometers/s near the middle. Therefore, when discussing streaming velocity it is necessary to specify the tangential plane through the cell in which streaming is being measured. This is easily done with a moderate resolution light microscope (which has a lateral resolution of 0.6 micrometers and a depth of field of 1.4 micrometers), but is obscured when using any low resolution technique, such as low magnification light microscopy or laser Doppler spectroscopy. In addition, the effect of gravity on the polarity of cytoplasmic streaming declines with increasing physiological age of isolated cells. Using a classical mechanical analysis, we show that the effect of gravity on the polarity of cytoplasmic streaming cannot result from the effect of gravity acting directly on individual cytoplasmic particles. We suggest that gravity may best be perceived by the entire cell at the plasma membrane-extracellular matrix junction.
Influence of World and Gravity Model Selection on Surface Interacting Vehicle Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madden, Michael M.
2007-01-01
A vehicle simulation is surface-interacting if the state of the vehicle (position, velocity, and acceleration) relative to the surface is important. Surface-interacting simulations perform ascent, entry, descent, landing, surface travel, or atmospheric flight. Modeling of gravity is an influential environmental factor for surface-interacting simulations. Gravity is the free-fall acceleration observed from a world-fixed frame that rotates with the world. Thus, gravity is the sum of gravitation and the centrifugal acceleration due to the world s rotation. In surface-interacting simulations, the fidelity of gravity at heights above the surface is more significant than gravity fidelity at locations in inertial space. A surface-interacting simulation cannot treat the gravity model separately from the world model, which simulates the motion and shape of the world. The world model's simulation of the world's rotation, or lack thereof, produces the centrifugal acceleration component of gravity. The world model s reproduction of the world's shape will produce different positions relative to the world center for a given height above the surface. These differences produce variations in the gravitation component of gravity. This paper examines the actual performance of world and gravity/gravitation pairs in a simulation using the Earth.
One technique for refining the global Earth gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koneshov, V. N.; Nepoklonov, V. B.; Polovnev, O. V.
2017-01-01
The results of the theoretical and experimental research on the technique for refining the global Earth geopotential models such as EGM2008 in the continental regions are presented. The discussed technique is based on the high-resolution satellite data for the Earth's surface topography which enables the allowance for the fine structure of the Earth's gravitational field without the additional gravimetry data. The experimental studies are conducted by the example of the new GGMplus global gravity model of the Earth with a resolution about 0.5 km, which is obtained by expanding the EGM2008 model to degree 2190 with the corrections for the topograohy calculated from the SRTM data. The GGMplus and EGM2008 models are compared with the regional geoid models in 21 regions of North America, Australia, Africa, and Europe. The obtained estimates largely support the possibility of refining the global geopotential models such as EGM2008 by the procedure implemented in GGMplus, particularly in the regions with relatively high elevation difference.
Vector field models of modified gravity and the dark sector
Zuntz, J.; Ferreira, P. G.; Zlosnik, T. G; Bourliot, F.; Starkman, G. D.
2010-05-15
We present a comprehensive investigation of cosmological constraints on the class of vector field formulations of modified gravity called generalized Einstein-aether models. Using linear perturbation theory we generate cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure spectra for general parameters of the theory, and then constrain them in various ways. We investigate two parameter regimes: a dark matter candidate where the vector field sources structure formation, and a dark energy candidate where it causes late-time acceleration. We find that the dark matter candidate does not fit the data, and identify five physical problems that can restrict this and other theories of dark matter. The dark energy candidate does fit the data, and we constrain its fundamental parameters; most notably we find that the theory's kinetic index parameter n{sub ae} can differ significantly from its {Lambda}CDM value.
On the model structure of the gravity field of Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zharkov, V. N.; Gudkova, T. V.
2016-07-01
A discussion is presented about the constraints used in constructing a model for the internal structure of Mars. The most important fact is that the Martian chemical model proposed by Wänke and Dreibus (WD) has stood the test of time. This means that the chondritic ratio Fe/Si = 1.71 can be used as a constraint in constructing an interior structure model of the planet. Consideration is given to the constructing of the reference surface of Mars. It is concluded that the effectively hydrostatic-equilibrium model of Mars is well suited for this purpose. The areoid heights and gravity anomalies in the model of Mars are calculated. The results are shown in the figures (maps) and comments made. The results are compared with the similar data for the Earth. Mars deviates much more strongly from the hydrostatic equilibrium than the Earth. It is suggested that the average thickness of the Martian elastic lithosphere should exceed that of the Earth's continental lithosphere.
Sevrin, A.
1993-06-01
After reviewing some aspects of gravity in two dimensions, I show that non-trivial embeddings of sl(2) in a semi-simple (super) Lie algebra give rise to a very large class of extensions of 2D gravity. The induced action is constructed as a gauged WZW model and an exact expression for the effective action is given.
Stability of modulated-gravity-induced thermal convection in magnetic fields.
Li, B Q
2001-04-01
A stability analysis is presented of modulated-gravity-induced thermal convection in a heated fluid layer subject to an applied magnetic field. The nearest correction to the critical Rayleigh number for both single and multiple frequency oscillating-gravity components is obtained by solving the linearized magnetohydrodynamic equations using the small parameter perturbation technique. The correction depends on both the applied magnetic field and the oscillating frequency. In the absence of an applied magnetic field, the correction depends on the Prandtl number only when the exciting frequency is small. However, it asymptotically approaches zero as the frequency increases, with or without the presence of a magnetic field. The heated fluid layer is more stable with gravity modulation than with any type of wall temperature modulation. The difference becomes smaller with decreasing Prandtl number Pr. This finding is of critical importance in that ground-based experiments with appropriate wall temperature modulations may be conducted to simulate the oscillating-gravity effects on the onset of thermal convection in lower-Prandtl-number fluids. For conducting melts considered for microgravity applications, it is possible to apply an external magnetic field to further inhibit the onset of modulated-gravity-induced thermal convection. This effectiveness increases with the Hartmann number Ha. For large Ha, the nearest correction term R02 approximately Ha2 as the magnetic Prandtl number Pm<1. However, R02 approximately Ha(4/3) for Ha>1 and Pm>1, provided that Ha<0.5pi(Pm/Pr(3/2)), which is satisfied by a majority of space melt experiments. Thus, under normal laboratory conditions applied magnetic fields are more effective in stabilizing a conducting fluid subject to an oscillating-gravity field than one subject to a constant field. If Ha>0.5pi(Pm/Pr(3/2)), R02 approximately -Ha2 for Ha>1 and Pm>1 and the magnetic field becomes less effective in stabilizing thermal convection
A 10 km-resolution synthetic Venus gravity field model based on topography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Fei; Yan, Jianguo; Xu, Luyuan; Jin, Shuanggen; Rodriguez, J. Alexis P.; Dohm, James H.
2015-02-01
A high resolution gravity field model is extremely important in the exploration of Venus. In this paper, we present a 3-dimensional Venus gravity field VGM2014 constructed by using the latest gravity and topography models, residual terrain model (RTM) and the Airy-Heiskanen isostatic compensation model. The VGM2014 is the first 10 km scale Venus gravity field model; the final results are representations of the 3-dimensional surface gravity accelerations and gravity disturbances for Venus. We found that the optimal global compensation depth of Venus is about 60 km, and the crustal density is potentially less than the commonly accepted value of 2700-2900 kg m-3. This model will be potentially beneficial for the precise orbit determination and landing navigation of spacecraft around Venus, and may be utilized as a priori model for Venus gravity field simulation and inversion studies. The VGM2014 does not incorporate direct gravity information beyond degree 70 and it is not recommended for small-scale geophysical interpretation.
Gravity-induced asymmetric distribution of a plant growth hormone
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.; Momonoki, Y.
1984-01-01
Dolk (1936) demonstrated that gravistimulation induced an asymmetric distribution of auxin in a horizontally-placed shoot. An attempt is made to determine where and how that asymmetry arises, and to demonstrate that the endogenous auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, becomes asymmetrically distributed in the cortical cells of the Zea mays mesocotyl during 3 min of geostimulation. Further, indole-3-acetic acid derived by hydrolysis of an applied transport form of the hormone, indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol, becomes asymmetrically distributed within 15 min of geostimulus time. From these and prior data is developed a working theory that the gravitational stimulus induces a selective leakage, or secretion, of the hormone from the vascular tissue to the cortical cells of the mesocotyl.
A marked correlation function for constraining modified gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, Martin
2016-11-01
Future large scale structure surveys will provide increasingly tight constraints on our cosmological model. These surveys will report results on the distance scale and growth rate of perturbations through measurements of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations and Redshift-Space Distortions. It is interesting to ask: what further analyses should become routine, so as to test as-yet-unknown models of cosmic acceleration? Models which aim to explain the accelerated expansion rate of the Universe by modifications to General Relativity often invoke screening mechanisms which can imprint a non-standard density dependence on their predictions. This suggests density-dependent clustering as a `generic' constraint. This paper argues that a density-marked correlation function provides a density-dependent statistic which is easy to compute and report and requires minimal additional infrastructure beyond what is routinely available to such survey analyses. We give one realization of this idea and study it using low order perturbation theory. We encourage groups developing modified gravity theories to see whether such statistics provide discriminatory power for their models.
Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity models with bouncing behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Escofet, Anna; Elizalde, Emilio
2016-06-01
The following issue is addressed: How the addition of a Gauss-Bonnet term (generically coming from most fundamental theories, as string and M theories), to a viable model, can change the specific properties, and even the physical nature, of the corresponding cosmological solutions? Specifically, brand new original dark energy models are obtained in this way with quite interesting properties, which exhibit, in a unified fashion, the three distinguished possible cosmological phases corresponding to phantom matter, quintessence and ordinary matter, respectively. A model, in which the equation of state (EoS) parameter, w, is a function of time, is seen to lead either to a singularity of the Big Rip kind or to a bouncing solution which evolves into a de Sitter universe with w = -1. Moreover, new Gauss-Bonnet modified gravity models with bouncing behavior in the early stages of the universe evolution are obtained and tested for the validity and stability of the corresponding solutions. They allow for a remarkably natural, unified description of a bouncing behavior at early times and accelerated expansion at present.
Entropy corrected holographic dark energy models in modified gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jawad, Abdul; Azhar, Nadeem; Rani, Shamaila
We consider the power law and the entropy corrected holographic dark energy (HDE) models with Hubble horizon in the dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity. We explore various cosmological parameters and planes in this framework. The Hubble parameter lies within the consistent range at the present and later epoch for both entropy corrected models. The deceleration parameter explains the accelerated expansion of the universe. The equation of state (EoS) parameter corresponds to quintessence and cold dark matter (ΛCDM) limit. The ωΛ‑ωΛ‧ approaches to ΛCDM limit and freezing region in both entropy corrected models. The statefinder parameters are consistent with ΛCDM limit and dark energy (DE) models. The generalized second law of thermodynamics remain valid in all cases of interacting parameter. It is interesting to mention here that our results of Hubble, EoS parameter and ωΛ‑ωΛ‧ plane show consistency with the present observations like Planck, WP, BAO, H0, SNLS and nine-year WMAP.
Gravity modeling: the Jacobian function and its approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strykowski, G.; Lauritsen, N. L. B.
2012-04-01
In mathematics, the elements of a Jacobian matrix are the first-order partial derivatives of a scalar function or a vector function with respect to another vector. In inversion theory of geophysics the elements of a Jacobian matrix are a measure of the change of the output signal caused by a local perturbation of a parameter of a given (Earth) model. The elements of a Jacobian matrix can be determined from the general Jacobian function. In gravity modeling this function consists of the "geometrical part" (related to the relative location in 3D of a field point with respect to the source element) and the "source-strength part" (related to the change of mass density of the source element). The explicit (functional) expressions for the Jacobian function can be quite complicated and depend both on the coordinates used (Cartesian, spherical, ellipsoidal) and on the mathematical parametrization of the source (e.g. the homogenous rectangular prism). In practice, and irrespective of the exact expression for the Jacobian function, its value on a computer will always be rounded to a finite number of digits. In fact, in using the exact formulas such finite representation may cause numerical instabilities. If the Jacobian function is smooth enough, it is an advantage to approximate it by a simpler function, e.g. a piecewise-polynomial, which numerically is more robust than the exact formulas and which is more suitable for the subsequent integration. In our contribution we include a whole family of the Jacobian functions which are associated with all the partial derivatives of the gravitational potential of order 0 to 2, i.e. including all the elements of the gravity gradient tensor. The quality of the support points for the subsequent polynomial approximation of the Jacobian function is ensured by using the exact prism formulas in quadruple precision. We will show some first results. Also, we will discuss how such approximated Jacobian functions can be used for large scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehghani, Ali
2016-04-01
In the year 2010 extensive geophysical researches were carried out in the area of Hecataeus Rise using the German research vessel Maria S. Merian. Beside the bathymetry, refraction and reflection seismic data, marine gravity and marine magnetic data were acquired during this cruise. The result of the research along one Wide-Angle reflection/refraction seismic line of this cruise is published 2015 by K. Welford et al.. Based on interpretation of reflection seismic and bathymetry data across the Hecataeus Rise, S. Reiche published 2015 the crustal structure and bathymetric features along some seismic profiles of this cruise. The focus of this work is to use the available sediments and crustal structures inferred by seismic information together with real marine gravity and marine magnetic data in order to produce gravity and magnetic 2-D models along all seismic profiles. While Welford et al. used the altimetry gravity data and magnetic data from EMAG3 database for their modelling, the real gravity and magnetic data measured exactly along the seismic profiles will be used in this work. The advantage of the real marine gravity and real marine magnetic data used for the modelling is that they have higher accuracy in the values as well as in the positions. Furthermore, Welford et al. calculated the gravity and Magnetic models along some seismic profiles, while in this work the result of gravity and magnetic modelling along all seismic profiles of this cruise will be presented. The marine gravity and marine magnetic data along all seismic profiles were recorded continuously. The accuracy of marine gravity data is about ± 1 mGal, while the accuracy of Marine magnetic data is in the range of ± 3 nT. The results of 2-D gravity and magnetic modelling will be presented and discussed in this work.
Farside lunar gravity from a mass point model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ananda, M.
1975-01-01
A mass point representation of the lunar gravity field was determined from the long-period orbital variations of the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites and Lunar Orbiter V. A radial acceleration contour map, evaluated at 100 km altitude from the lunar surface, shows that the nearside is in close agreement with the result derived from the line of sight method by Muller and Sjogren. The farside map shows the highland regions as broad positive gravity anomaly areas and the basins such as Korolev, Hertzsprung, Moscoviense, Mendeleev, and Tsiolkovsky as localized, negative gravity anomaly regions. The farside map has a first-order agreement with the result derived from the harmonic field method by Ferrari. The mass points analysis indicates that the nearside is almost all negative gravity anomaly regions except for the known positive mass anomaly basins (mascons) and the farside is almost all positive gravity anomaly regions except for some localized negative areas near the basins.
Ray Tracing Modeling of Gravity Wave Propagation and Dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vadas, Sharon; Crowley, Geoff
In this paper, we describe a ray trace model which calculates the wavevector, location and phase of a gravity wave (GW) as it propagates in the lower atmosphere and thermosphere. If used for a discreet transient source (such as a deep convective plume), we describe how this model can calculate the body forcing and the heat/cooling that are created when the GWs within a wave packet dissipate in the thermosphere from kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusivity. Although the body force calculation requires only the divergence of the momentum flux, the heat/cooling calculation requires the reconstructed GW field (e.g., density, velocity perturbations), which in turn requires the GW dissipative polarization relations. We describe these relations. We then describe the results of a recent study involving GWs identified from TIDDBIT HF Doppler sounder data taken at Wallops Island, VI, USA. Using this ray trace model, we determine if the unusual neutral wind profile measured by a rocket experiment at high altitudes (~290-370 km) could have been caused by the propagation and dissipation of several waves observed by TIDDBIT at lower altitudes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antunes, V.; Novello, M.
2017-04-01
In the present work we revisit a model consisting of a scalar field with a quartic self-interaction potential non-minimally (conformally) coupled to gravity (Novello in Phys Lett 90A:347 1980). When the scalar field vacuum is in a broken symmetry state, an effective gravitational constant emerges which, in certain regimes, can lead to gravitational repulsive effects when only ordinary radiation is coupled to gravity. In this case, a bouncing universe is shown to be the only cosmological solution admissible by the field equations when the scalar field is in such broken symmetry state.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Imbriale, W. A.; Moore, M.; Rochblatt, D. J.; Veruttipong, W.
1995-01-01
At the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) Goldstone Complex, a 34-meter- diameter beam-waveguide antenna, DSS-13, was constructed in 1988-1990 and has become an integral part of an advanced systems program and a test bed for technologies being developed to introduce Ka-band (32 GHz) frequencies into the DSN. A method for compensating the gravity- induced structural deformations in this large antenna is presented.
Loop Heat Pipe Temperature Oscillation Induced by Gravity Assist and Reservoir Heating
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ku, Jentung; Garrison, Matthew; Patel, Deepak; Robinson, Franklin; Ottenstein, Laura
2015-01-01
The Laser Thermal Control System (LCTS) for the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) to be installed on NASA's Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-2) consists of a constant conductance heat pipe and a loop heat pipe (LHP) with an associated radiator. During the recent thermal vacuum testing of the LTCS where the LHP condenser/radiator was placed in a vertical position above the evaporator and reservoir, it was found that the LHP reservoir control heater power requirement was much higher than the analytical model had predicted. Even with the control heater turned on continuously at its full power, the reservoir could not be maintained at its desired set point temperature. An investigation of the LHP behaviors found that the root cause of the problem was fluid flow and reservoir temperature oscillations, which led to persistent alternate forward and reversed flow along the liquid line and an imbalance between the vapor mass flow rate in the vapor line and liquid mass flow rate in the liquid line. The flow and temperature oscillations were caused by an interaction between gravity and reservoir heating, and were exacerbated by the large thermal mass of the instrument simulator which modulated the net heat load to the evaporator, and the vertical radiator/condenser which induced a variable gravitational pressure head. Furthermore, causes and effects of the contributing factors to flow and temperature oscillations intermingled.
Reconciling induced-gravity inflation in supergravity with the Planck 2013 & BICEP2 results
Pallis, C.
2014-10-23
We generalize the embedding of induced-gravity inflation beyond the no-scale Supergravity presented in ref. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1475-7516/2014/08/057 employing two gauge singlet chiral superfields, a superpotential uniquely determined by applying a continuous R and a discrete ℤ{sub n} symmetries, and a logarithmic Kähler potential including all the allowed terms up to fourth order in powers of the various fields. We show that, increasing slightly the prefactor (−3) encountered in the adopted Kähler potential, an efficient enhancement of the resulting tensor-to-scalar ratio can be achieved rendering the predictions of the model consistent with the recent BICEP2 results, even with subplanckian excursions of the original inflaton field. The remaining inflationary observables can become compatible with the data by mildly tuning the coefficient involved in the fourth order term of the Kähler potential which mixes the inflaton with the accompanying non-inflaton field. The inflaton mass is predicted to be close to 10{sup 14} GeV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Kirtiman; Huitu, Katri
2012-06-01
We discuss the collider phenomenology of Universal Extra Dimension models with gravity mediated decays. We concentrate on diphoton associated with large missing transverse energy signature. At the collider, level-1 Kaluza-Klein (KK) particles are produced in pairs due to the conservation of KK-parity. Subsequently, KK-particles decay via cascades involving lighter KK-particles until reaching the lightest KK-particle (LKP). Finally, gravity induced decay of the LKP into photons gives rise to the diphoton signature. The search for diphoton events with large missing transverse energy was recently communicated by the ATLAS collaboration for 7 TeV center-of-mass energy and 3.1 inverse femtobarn integrated luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider. Above the Standard Model background prediction, no excess of such events was reported. We translate the absence of any excess of the diphoton events to constrain the model parameters, namely, the radius of compactification ( R) and the fundamental Planck mass ( M D ).
Neuroplastic reactivity of fish induced by altered gravity conditions: a review of recent results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahmann, H.; Anken, R. H.
A review is being presented concerning behavioural, biochemical, histochemical and electronmicroscopical data on the influence of altered gravitational forces on the swimming performance and on the neuronal differentiation of the brain of cichlid fish larvae and adult swordtail fish that had been exposed to hyper-gravity (3g in laboratory centrifuges), hypo-gravity (>10^-2g in a fast-rotating clinostat) and to near weightlessness (10^-4g aboard the spacelab D-2 mission). After long-term alterations of gravity (and parallel light deprivation), initial disturbances in the swimming behaviour followed by a stepwise regain of normal swimming modes are induced. Parallely, neuroplastic reactivities on different levels of investigation were found, such as adaptive alterations of activities of various enzymes in whole brain as well as in specific neuronal integration centers and an intraneuronal reactivity on ultrastructural level in individual brain parts and in the sensory epithelia of the inner ear. Taken together, these data reveal distinct adaptive neuroplastic reactions of fish to altered gravity conditions.
Isostatic gravity map of the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California
Ponce, D.A.; Blakely, R.J.; Morin, R.L.; Mankinen, E.A.
2001-01-01
An isostatic gravity map of the Death Valley groundwater model area was prepared from over 40,0000 gravity stations as part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Department of Energy to help characterize the geology and hydrology of southwest Nevada and parts of California.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, S. A.; Fritts, D. C.; Vanzandt, T. E.
1986-01-01
The results of a comparison of mesospheric wind fluctuation spectra computed from radial wind velocity estimates made by the Poker Flat mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar are compared with a gravity-wave model developed by VanZandt (1982, 1985). The principal conclusion of this comparison is that gravity waves can account for 80% of the mesospheric power spectral density.
New models for perfect fluids in EGB gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chilambwe, Brian; Hansraj, Sudan; Maharaj, Sunil D.
2015-04-01
We obtain new exact solutions to the field equations in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet (EGB) modified theory of gravity for a five-dimensional spherically symmetric static matter distribution. By using a coordinate transformation, the study is reduced to the analysis of a single first-order nonlinear differential equation which is an Abel equation of the second kind. Three classes of exact models are generated. The first solution has a constant density and a nonlinear equation-of-state; it contains the familiar Einstein static universe as a special case. The second solution has variable energy density and is expressible in terms of elementary functions. The third solution has vanishing Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant and is a five-dimensional generalization of the Durgapal-Bannerji model. The solution is briefly examined for physical admissibility. In particular, a set of constants is found which ensures that a pressure-free hypersurface exists which in turn defines the boundary of the distribution. The matter distribution is well behaved and the adiabatic sound speed criterion is also satisfied within the fluid ensuring a subluminal sound speed. Furthermore, the weak, strong and dominant conditions hold throughout the distribution.
Toward an internal gravity wave spectrum in global ocean models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, Malte; Arbic, Brian K.; Richman, James G.; Shriver, Jay F.; Kunze, Eric L.; Scott, Robert B.; Wallcraft, Alan J.; Zamudio, Luis
2015-05-01
High-resolution global ocean models forced by atmospheric fields and tides are beginning to display realistic internal gravity wave spectra, especially as model resolution increases. This paper examines internal waves in global simulations with 0.08° and 0.04° (~8 and 4 km) horizontal resolutions, respectively. Frequency spectra of internal wave horizontal kinetic energy in the North Pacific lie closer to observations in the 0.04° simulation than in the 0.08° simulation. The horizontal wave number and frequency (K-ω) kinetic energy spectra contain peaks in the semidiurnal tidal band and near-inertial band, along with a broadband frequency continuum aligned along the linear dispersion relations of low-vertical-mode internal waves. Spectral kinetic energy transfers describe the rate at which nonlinear mechanisms remove or supply kinetic energy in specific K-ω ranges. Energy is transferred out of low-mode inertial and semidiurnal internal waves into a broad continuum of higher-frequency and higher-wave number internal waves.
A Comparison Between Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes in Observations and Climate Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geller, Marvin A.; Alexadner, M. Joan; Love, Peter T.; Bacmeister, Julio; Ern, Manfred; Hertzog, Albert; Manzini, Elisa; Preusse, Peter; Sato, Kaoru; Scaife, Adam A.; Zhou, Tiehan
2013-01-01
For the first time, a formal comparison is made between gravity wave momentum fluxes in models and those derived from observations. Although gravity waves occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, the focus of this paper is on scales that are being parameterized in present climate models, sub-1000-km scales. Only observational methods that permit derivation of gravity wave momentum fluxes over large geographical areas are discussed, and these are from satellite temperature measurements, constant-density long-duration balloons, and high-vertical-resolution radiosonde data. The models discussed include two high-resolution models in which gravity waves are explicitly modeled, Kanto and the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 (CAM5), and three climate models containing gravity wave parameterizations,MAECHAM5, Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model 3 (HadGEM3), and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) model. Measurements generally show similar flux magnitudes as in models, except that the fluxes derived from satellite measurements fall off more rapidly with height. This is likely due to limitations on the observable range of wavelengths, although other factors may contribute. When one accounts for this more rapid fall off, the geographical distribution of the fluxes from observations and models compare reasonably well, except for certain features that depend on the specification of the nonorographic gravity wave source functions in the climate models. For instance, both the observed fluxes and those in the high-resolution models are very small at summer high latitudes, but this is not the case for some of the climate models. This comparison between gravity wave fluxes from climate models, high-resolution models, and fluxes derived from observations indicates that such efforts offer a promising path toward improving specifications of gravity wave sources in climate models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michel, V.
2005-12-01
A spherical wavelet analysis of monthly GRACE gravity data is presented. We observe strong correlations to gravity variations predicted by some common hydrology models, in particular in the Amazon, Zambezi and Ganges area. A time series analysis of the predicted gravity due to surface density changes in comparison to spherical wavelet coefficients of the GRACE potential demonstrates the advantages of spherical wavelets. Whereas a spherical harmonics expansion always implicitly includes a global averaging process, wavelets represent localizing basis functions that are much better able to analyze regional variations of a considered data set. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the spherical wavelet approach due to W. Freeden and U. Windheuser can be extended to a larger set of problems including the modelling of functions on balls, i.e. not only on the spherical surface. Examples of applications, such as the volume density recovery from simulated SGG gravity data (cf. planned satellite mission GOCE) are demonstrated. References: M.J. Fengler, W. Freeden, A. Kohlhaas, V. Michel, T. Peters: Wavelet Modelling of Regional and Temporal Variations of the Earth's Gravitational Potential Observed by GRACE, Schriften zur Funktionalanalysis und Geomathematik, 21 (2005), preprint, article submitted to Journal of Geodesy, 2005. V. Michel: Regularized Wavelet--based Multiresolution Recovery of the Harmonic Mass Density Distribution from Data of the Earth's Gravitational Field at Satellite Height, Inverse Problems, 21 (2005), 997-1025.
Modeling the QBO and SAO Driven by Gravity Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.
1999-01-01
Hines' Doppler spread parameterization (DSP) for small scale gravity waves (GW) is applied in a global scale numerical spectral model (NSM) to describe the semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations (SAO and QBO) as well as the long term interannual variations that are driven by wave mean flow interactions. This model has been successful in simulating the salient features observed near the equator at altitudes above 20 km, including the QBO extension into the upper mesosphere inferred from UARS measurements. The model has now been extended to describe also the mean zonal and meridional circulations of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that affect the equatorial QBO and its global scale extension. This is accomplished in part through tuning of the GW parameterization, and preliminary results lead to the following conclusions: (1) To reproduce the upwelling at equatorial latitudes associated with the Brewer/Dobson circulation that in part is modulated in the model by the vertical component of the Coriolis force, the eddy diffusivity in the lower stratosphere had to be enhanced and the related GW spectrum modified to bring it in closer agreement with the form recommended for the DSP. (2) To compensate for the required increase in the diffusivity, the observed QBO requires a larger GW source that is closer to the middle of the range recommended for the DSP. (3) Through global scale momentum redistribution, the above developments are conducive to extending the QBO and SAO oscillations to higher latitudes. Multi-year interannual oscillations are generated through wave filtering by the solar driven annual oscillation in the zonal circulation. (4) In a 3D version of the model, wave momentum is absorbed and dissipated by tides and planetary waves. Thus, a somewhat larger GW source is required to generate realistic amplitudes for the QBO and SAO.
Gravity-induced swirl of nanoparticles in microfluidics
Zhao, Chao; Oztekin, Alparslan
2013-01-01
Parallel flows of two fluids in microfluidic devices are used for miniaturized chemistry, physics, biology and bioengineering studies, and the streams are often considered to remain parallel. However, as the two fluids do not always have the same density, interface reorientation induced by density stratification is unavoidable. In this paper, flow characteristics of an aqueous polystyrene nanofluid and a sucrose-densified aqueous solution flowing parallel in microchannels are examined. Nanoparticles 100 nm in diameter are used in the study. The motion of the nanoparticles is simulated using the Lagrangian description and directly observed by a confocal microscope. Matched results are obtained from computational and empirical analysis. Although solution density homogenizes rapidly resulting from a fast diffusion of sucrose in water, the nanofluid is observed to rotate for an extended period. Angular displacement of the nanofluid depends on the ratio of gravitational force to viscous force, Re/Fr2, where Re is the Reynolds number and Fr is the Froude number. In the developing region at the steady state, the angular displacement is related to y/Dh, the ratio between distance from the inlet and the hydraulic diameter of the microfluidic channel. The development of nanofluid flow feature also depends on h/w, the ratio of microfluidic channel’s height to width. The quantitative description of the angular displacement of nanofluid will aid rational designs of microfluidic devices utilizing multistream, multiphase flows. PMID:24563612
Gravity-induced swirl of nanoparticles in microfluidics.
Zhao, Chao; Oztekin, Alparslan; Cheng, Xuanhong
2013-04-01
Parallel flows of two fluids in microfluidic devices are used for miniaturized chemistry, physics, biology and bioengineering studies, and the streams are often considered to remain parallel. However, as the two fluids do not always have the same density, interface reorientation induced by density stratification is unavoidable. In this paper, flow characteristics of an aqueous polystyrene nanofluid and a sucrose-densified aqueous solution flowing parallel in microchannels are examined. Nanoparticles 100 nm in diameter are used in the study. The motion of the nanoparticles is simulated using the Lagrangian description and directly observed by a confocal microscope. Matched results are obtained from computational and empirical analysis. Although solution density homogenizes rapidly resulting from a fast diffusion of sucrose in water, the nanofluid is observed to rotate for an extended period. Angular displacement of the nanofluid depends on the ratio of gravitational force to viscous force, Re/Fr(2), where Re is the Reynolds number and Fr is the Froude number. In the developing region at the steady state, the angular displacement is related to y/Dh, the ratio between distance from the inlet and the hydraulic diameter of the microfluidic channel. The development of nanofluid flow feature also depends on h/w, the ratio of microfluidic channel's height to width. The quantitative description of the angular displacement of nanofluid will aid rational designs of microfluidic devices utilizing multistream, multiphase flows.
An axion-induced SM/MSSM Higgs landscape and the Weak Gravity Conjecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herráez, Alvaro; Ibáñez, Luis E.
2017-02-01
We construct models in which the SM Higgs mass scans in a landscape. This is achieved by coupling the SM to a monodromy axion field through Minkowski 3-forms. The Higgs mass scans with steps given by δm H 2 ≃ ημf, where μ and f are the axion mass and periodicity respectively, and η measures the coupling of the Higgs to the associated 3-form. The observed Higgs mass scale could then be selected on anthropic grounds. The monodromy axion may have a mass μ in a very wide range depending on the value of η, and the axion periodity f . For η ≃ 1 and f ≃ 1010 GeV , one has 10-3 eV ≲ μ ≲ 103 eV, but ultralight axions with e.g. μ ≃ 10-17 eV are also possible. In a different realization we consider landscape models coupled to the MSSM. In the context of SUSY, 4-forms appear as being part of the auxiliary fields of SUSY multiplets. The scanning in the 4-forms thus translate into a landscape of vevs for the N = 1 auxiliary fields and hence as a landscape for the soft terms. This could provide a rationale for the MSSM fine-tuning suggested by LHC data. In all these models there are 3-forms coupling to membranes which induce transitions between different vacua through bubble nucleation. The Weak Gravity Conjecture (WGC) set limits on the tension of these membranes and implies new physics thresholds well below the Planck scale. More generaly, we argue that in the case of string SUSY vacua in which the Goldstino multiplet contains a monodromy axion the WGC suggests a lower bound on the SUSY breaking scale m 3/2 ≳ M s 2 / M p .
Deep magmatic structures of Hawaiian volcanoes, imaged by three-dimensional gravity models
Kauahikaua, J.; Hildenbrand, T.; Webring, M.
2000-01-01
A simplified three-dimensional model for the island of Hawai'i, based on 3300 gravity measurements, provides new insights on magma pathways within the basaltic volcanoes. Gravity anomalies define dense cumulates and intrusions beneath the summits and known rift zones of every volcano. Linear gravity anomalies project southeast from Kohala and Mauna Kea summits and south from Huala??lai and Mauna Loa; these presumably express dense cores of previously unrecognized rift zones lacking surface expression. The gravity-modeled dense cores probably define tholeiitic shield-stage structures of the older volcanoes that are now veneered by late alkalic lavas. The three-dimensional gravity method is valuable for characterizing the magmatic systems of basaltic oceanic volcanoes and for defining structures related to landslide and seismic hazards.
Three-dimensional gravity modeling of the geologic structure of Long Valley caldera
Carle, S.F.
1988-11-10
A 48-mGal gravity low coincides with Long Valley caldera and is mainly attributed to low-density caldera fill. Gravity measurements by Unocal Geothermal have been integrated with U.S. Geological Survey data, vastly improving gravity station coverage throughout the caldera. A strong regional gravity trend is mainly attributed to isostasy. A ''best fitting'' (based on regional control of basement densities) Airy-Heiskanen isostatic model was used for the regional correction. A three-dimensional, multiple-unit gravity modeling program with iterative capabilities was developed to model the residual gravity. The density structure of Long Valley caldera and vicinity was modeled with 22 discrete density units, most of which were based on geologic units. Information from drill hole lithologies, surface geology, and structural geology interpretations constrain the model. Some important points revealed by the three-dimensional gravity modeling are that (1) the volume of ejected magma associated with the Bishop Tuff eruption is greater than previously thought, (2) the caldera structure is strongly influenced by precaldera topography and the extensions of major, active faults, (3) the main west ring fracture is coincident with the Inyo Domes--Mono Craters fracture system, (4) a relatively low-density region probably underlies the caldera, and (5) a silicic magma chamber may underlie Devils Postpile. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brissaud, Quentin; Garcia, Raphael; Martin, Roland; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Sladen, Anthony
2016-04-01
Acoustic and gravity waves propagating in planetary atmospheres have been studied intensively as markers of specific phenomena (tectonic events, explosions) or as contributors to atmosphere dynamics. To get a better understanding of the physics behind these dynamic processes, both acoustic and gravity waves propagation should be modeled in an attenuating and windy 3D atmosphere from the ground all the way to the upper thermosphere. Thus, in order to provide an efficient numerical tool at the regional or global scale we introduce a high-order finite- difference time domain (FDTD) approach that relies on the linearized compressible Navier-Stokes equations with non constant physical parameters (density, viscosities and speed of sound) and background velocities (wind). We present applications of these simulations to the propagation of gravity waves generated by tsunamis for realistic cases for which atmospheric models are extracted from empirical models including 3D variations of atmospheric parameters, and tsunami forcing at the ocean surface is extracted from finite-fault dislocation simulations. We describe the specific difficulties induced by the size of the simulation, the boundary conditions and the spherical geometry and compare the simulation outputs to data gathered by gravimetric satellites crossing gravity waves generated by tsunamis.
Spherical systems in models of nonlocally corrected gravity
Bronnikov, K. A.; Elizalde, E.
2010-02-15
The properties of static, spherically symmetric configurations are considered in the framework of two models of nonlocally corrected gravity, suggested in S. Deser and R. Woodard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 111301 (2007) and S. Capozziello et al., Phys. Lett. B 671, 193 (2009). For the first case, where the Lagrangian of nonlocal origin represents a scalar-tensor theory with two massless scalars, an explicit condition is found under which both scalar fields are canonical (nonphantom). If this condition does not hold, one of the fields exhibits a phantom behavior. Scalar-vacuum configurations then behave in a manner known for scalar-tensor theories. In the second case, the Lagrangian of nonlocal origin exhibits a scalar field interacting with the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) invariant and contains an arbitrary scalar field potential. It is found that the GB term, in general, leads to violation of the well-known no-go theorems valid for minimally coupled scalar fields in general relativity. It is shown, however, that some configurations of interest are still forbidden--whatever be the scalar field potential and the GB-scalar coupling function, namely, 'force-free' wormholes (such that g{sub tt}=const) and black holes with higher-order horizons.
Covariance in models of loop quantum gravity: Spherical symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bojowald, Martin; Brahma, Suddhasattwa; Reyes, Juan D.
2015-08-01
Spherically symmetric models of loop quantum gravity have been studied recently by different methods that aim to deal with structure functions in the usual constraint algebra of gravitational systems. As noticed by Gambini and Pullin, a linear redefinition of the constraints (with phase-space dependent coefficients) can be used to eliminate structure functions, even Abelianizing the more difficult part of the constraint algebra. The Abelianized constraints can then easily be quantized or modified by putative quantum effects. As pointed out here, however, the method does not automatically provide a covariant quantization, defined as an anomaly-free quantum theory with a classical limit in which the usual (off-shell) gauge structure of hypersurface deformations in space-time appears. The holonomy-modified vacuum theory based on Abelianization is covariant in this sense, but matter theories with local degrees of freedom are not. Detailed demonstrations of these statements show complete agreement with results of canonical effective methods applied earlier to the same systems (including signature change).
Chronology protection in Galileon models and massive gravity
Burrage, Clare; Rham, Claudia de; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Tolley, Andrew J. E-mail: claudia.deRham@case.edu E-mail: andrew.j.tolley@case.edu
2012-07-01
Galileon models are a class of effective field theories that have recently received much attention. They arise in the decoupling limit of theories of massive gravity, and in some cases they have been treated in their own right as scalar field theories with a specific nonlinearly realized global symmetry (Galilean transformation). It is well known that in the presence of a source, these Galileon theories admit superluminal propagating solutions, implying that as quantum field theories they must admit a different notion of causality than standard local Lorentz invariant theories. We show that in these theories it is easy to construct closed timelike curves (CTCs) within the naive regime of validity of the effective field theory. However, on closer inspection we see that the CTCs could never arise since the Galileon inevitably becomes infinitely strongly coupled at the onset of the formation of a CTC. This implies an infinite amount of backreaction, first on the background for the Galileon field, signaling the break down of the effective field theory, and subsequently on the spacetime geometry, forbidding the formation of the CTC. Furthermore the background solution required to create CTCs becomes unstable with an arbitrarily fast decay time. Thus Galileon theories satisfy a direct analogue of Hawking's chronology protection conjecture.
Modeling and estimation of a low degree geopotential model from terrestrial gravity data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pavlis, Nikolaos K.
1988-01-01
The development of appropriate modeling and adjustment procedures for the estimation of harmonic coefficients of the geopotential, from surface gravity data was studied, in order to provide an optimum way of utilizing the terrestrial gravity information in combination solutions currently developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, for use in the TOPEX/POSEIDON mission. The mathematical modeling was based on the fundamental boundary condition of the linearized Molodensky boundary value problem. Atmospheric and ellipsoidal corrections were applied to the surface anomalies. Terrestrial gravity solutions were found to be in good agreement with the satellite ones over areas which are well surveyed (gravimetrically), such as North America or Australia. However, systematic differences between the terrestrial only models and GEMT1, over extended regions in Africa, the Soviet Union, and China were found. In Africa, gravity anomaly differences on the order of 20 mgals and undulation differences on the order of 15 meters, over regions extending 2000 km in diameter, occur. Comparisons of the GEMT1 implied undulations with 32 well distributed Doppler derived undulations gave an RMS difference of 2.6 m, while corresponding comparison with undulations implied by the terrestrial solution gave RMS difference on the order of 15 m, which implies that the terrestrial data in that region are substantially in error.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serafimovich, A.; Zülicke, Ch.; Hoffmann, P.; Peters, D.; Dalin, P.; Singer, W.
2006-11-01
We present an experimental and modelling study of a strong gravity wave event in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere near the Scandinavian mountain ridge. Continuous VHF radar measurements during the MaCWAVE rocket and ground-based measurement campaign were performed at the Norwegian Andoya Rocket Range (ARR) near Andenes (69.3° N, 16° E) in January 2003. Detailed gravity wave investigations based on PSU/NCAR Fifth-Generation Mesoscale Model (MM5) data have been used for comparison with experimentally obtained results. The model data show the presence of a mountain wave and of an inertia gravity wave generated by a jet streak near the tropopause region. Temporal and spatial dependencies of jet induced inertia gravity waves with dominant observed periods of about 13 h and vertical wavelengths of ~4.5-5 km are investigated with wavelet transform applied on radar measurements and model data. The jet induced wave packet is observed to move upstream and downward in the upper troposphere. The model data agree with the experimentally obtained results fairly well. Possible reasons for the observed differences, e.g. in the time of maximum of the wave activity, are discussed. Finally, the vertical fluxes of horizontal momentum are estimated with different methods and provide similar amplitudes. We found indications that the derived positive vertical flux of the horizontal momentum corresponds to the obtained parameters of the jet-induced inertia gravity wave, but only at the periods and heights of the strongest wave activity.
Thermo-hydro-dynamic characteristics of a zero-gravity, spherical model of the troposphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivatsangam, S.
1976-01-01
A model that exploits the radial inertia forces of a rotating fluid contained in a spherical annulus is described. The model would be flown in a satellite and experiments would be performed in very low or zero gravity. In such a model it would not be necessary to artificially simulate a radial gravity field. Thus small amounts of electrical energy would be sufficient to perform experiments. Since the only forces involved are thermo-hydro-dynamic ones, electromagnetic equations need not be considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barantseva, Olga; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans
2016-04-01
We study the link between deep geodynamic processes and their surface expression in the North Atlantic region which has an anomalous, complex structure compared to other oceans. We calculate a model of residual mantle gravity between the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone and Svalbard. The calculations are based on GOCE satellite data the regional crustal model EUNAseis (Artemieva and Thybo, 2013) ; for the crustal and topography effects, and the global totpgraphy and bathymetry model ETOPO1 from NOAA (Amante and Eakis, 2009). Results are complemented by sensitivity analysis of the various parameters' effects on the models. Our results identify strong heterogeneity in the upper mantle residual gravity, expressed as a sharp contrasts at the continent-ocean transition, positive mantle gravity below the continental blocks and negative - below oceanic blocks; the MOR has low-gravity anomaly. By introducing regional geochemical data and analysis of the tectonical history, we identify a strong correlation between residual mantle gravity anomalies and geochemical anomalies in ɛNd and Mg#. This analysis identifies three zones of North Atlantic mantle based on the correlation between upper mantle gravity and ocean floor age. In the area around Iceland, the residual mantle gravity is systematically lower than predicted from the half-space cooling model, and we estimate the thermal anomaly that could cause this shift.
Gravity effects on Soret-induced non-equilibrium fluctuations in ternary mixtures.
Martínez Pancorbo, Pablo; Ortiz de Zárate, José M; Bataller, Henri; Croccolo, Fabrizio
2017-02-01
We discuss the gravity effects on the dynamics of composition fluctuations in a ternary mixture around the non-equilibrium quiescent state induced by thermodiffusion when subjected to a stationary temperature gradient. We found that the autocorrelation matrix of concentration fluctuations can be expressed as the sum of two exponentially decaying concentration modes. Without accounting for confinement, we obtained exact analytical expressions for the two decay rates which, as a consequence of gravity, display a wave-number-dependent mixing. The stability of the quiescent solution is also examined, as a function of the two solutal Rayleigh numbers used to express the decay rates. After having discussed the dynamics of the two concentration modes, we calculate the corresponding amplitudes. Consequences for optical experiments are discussed.
Cytoplasmic pH Dynamics in Maize Pulvinal Cells Induced by Gravity Vector Changes1[w
Johannes, Eva; Collings, David A.; Rink, Jochen C.; Allen, Nina Strömgren
2001-01-01
In maize (Zea mays) and other grasses, changes in orientation of stems are perceived by pulvinal tissue, which responds to the stimulus by differential growth resulting in upward bending of the stem. The amyloplast-containing bundle sheath cells are the sites of gravity perception, although the initial steps of gravity perception and transmission remain unclear. In columella cells of Arabidopsis roots, we previously found that cytoplasmic pH (pHc) is a mediator in early gravitropic signaling (A.C. Scott, N.S. Allen [1999] Plant Physiol 121: 1291–1298). The question arises whether pHc has a more general role in signaling gravity vector changes. Using confocal ratiometric imaging and the fluorescent pH indicator carboxy seminaphtorhodafluor acetoxymethyl ester acetate, we measured pHc in the cells composing the maize pulvinus. When stem slices were gravistimulated and imaged on a horizontally mounted confocal microscope, pHc changes were only apparent within the bundle sheath cells, and not in the parenchyma cells. After turning, cytoplasmic acidification was observed at the sides of the cells, whereas the cytoplasm at the base of the cells where plastids slowly accumulated became more basic. These changes were most apparent in cells exhibiting net amyloplast sedimentation. Parenchyma cells and isolated bundle sheath cells did not show any gravity-induced pHc changes although all cell types responded to external stimuli in the predicted way: Propionic acid and auxin treatments induced acidification, whereas raising the external pH caused alkalinization. The results suggest that pHc has an important role in the early signaling pathways of maize stem gravitropism. PMID:11553740
Cytoplasmic pH dynamics in maize pulvinal cells induced by gravity vector changes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johannes, E.; Collings, D. A.; Rink, J. C.; Allen, N. S.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)
2001-01-01
In maize (Zea mays) and other grasses, changes in orientation of stems are perceived by pulvinal tissue, which responds to the stimulus by differential growth resulting in upward bending of the stem. The amyloplast-containing bundle sheath cells are the sites of gravity perception, although the initial steps of gravity perception and transmission remain unclear. In columella cells of Arabidopsis roots, we previously found that cytoplasmic pH (pH(c)) is a mediator in early gravitropic signaling (A.C. Scott, N.S. Allen [1999] Plant Physiol 121: 1291-1298). The question arises whether pH(c) has a more general role in signaling gravity vector changes. Using confocal ratiometric imaging and the fluorescent pH indicator carboxy seminaphtorhodafluor acetoxymethyl ester acetate, we measured pH(c) in the cells composing the maize pulvinus. When stem slices were gravistimulated and imaged on a horizontally mounted confocal microscope, pH(c) changes were only apparent within the bundle sheath cells, and not in the parenchyma cells. After turning, cytoplasmic acidification was observed at the sides of the cells, whereas the cytoplasm at the base of the cells where plastids slowly accumulated became more basic. These changes were most apparent in cells exhibiting net amyloplast sedimentation. Parenchyma cells and isolated bundle sheath cells did not show any gravity-induced pH(c) changes although all cell types responded to external stimuli in the predicted way: Propionic acid and auxin treatments induced acidification, whereas raising the external pH caused alkalinization. The results suggest that pH(c) has an important role in the early signaling pathways of maize stem gravitropism.
Regularized cosmological power spectrum and correlation function in modified gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taruya, Atsushi; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Bernardeau, Francis; Hiramatsu, Takashi; Koyama, Kazuya
2014-12-01
Based on the multipoint propagator expansion, we present resummed perturbative calculations for cosmological power spectra and correlation functions in the context of modified gravity. In a wide class of modified gravity models that have a screening mechanism to recover general relativity (GR) on small scales, we apply the eikonal approximation to derive the governing equation for resummed propagator that partly includes the nonperturbative effect in the high-k limit. The resultant propagator in the high-k limit contains the new corrections arising from the screening mechanism as well as the standard exponential damping. We explicitly derive the expression for new high-k contributions in specific modified gravity models, and find that in the case of f (R ) gravity for a currently constrained model parameter, the corrections are basically of the subleading order and can be neglected. Thus, in f (R ) gravity, similarly to the GR case, we can analytically construct the regularized propagator that reproduces both the resummed high-k behavior and the low-k results computed with standard perturbation theory, consistently taking account of the nonlinear modification of gravity valid at large scales. With the regularized multipoint propagators, we give predictions for power spectrum and correlation function at one-loop order, and compare those with N -body simulations in f (R ) gravity model. As an important application, we also discuss the redshift-space distortions and compute the anisotropic power spectra and correlation functions.
Integrated gravity and topography analysis in analog models: Intraplate deformation in Iberia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
FernáNdez-Lozano, Javier; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Willingshofer, Ernst; Dombrádi, Endre; MartíN, Alfonso M.; de Vicente, Gerardo; Cloetingh, Sierd
2012-12-01
Trends in the topography of the Iberian Peninsula show a pronounced contrast. In the western part of the Iberian microplate the main topographic highs trend E-W to NE-SW and are periodically spaced with wavelengths of 250 km. Conversely, in the northeastern part, the region of the Iberian Chain, topography is more irregular and strike directions vary from NW-SE to E-W and NE-SW. We relate this phenomenon to shortening of a continental lithosphere, which contains two different, well-defined domains of lithospheric strength. Our hypothesis is supported by physical analog models. A new processing method has been developed to assist the interpretation of the model results. It utilizes spectral analysis of gravity and topography data derived from the experiments. Folding of the crust and mantle lithosphere yields periodic gravity fluctuations, while thickening processes lead to localized gravity lows. In this way gravity data can be used to distinguish between the two forms of lithosphere deformation and to correlate areas that underwent the same type of deformation. Gravity modeling has been performed under full in-depth control of the experimental lithosphere structure. As such, gravity signals from the models may be compared to field gravity data for better understanding the underlying deformation mechanism.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imamura, Takeshi; Watanabe, Ayuka; Maejima, Yasumitsu
2016-03-01
Generation of gravity waves by convection was studied using a nonlinear two-dimensional model. A boundary-layer convection forced by a horizontally-uniform heating and a plume forced by a localized heating representing a local dust storm were tested. The results suggest that vigorous convection occurs due to the low density of the martian atmosphere and that short-period waves having frequencies near the buoyancy frequency can be preferentially generated. The propagation of those gravity waves to thermospheric heights was studied using a linearized one-dimensional model. Because of the fast vertical propagation the waves attain large amplitudes in the lower thermosphere, being consistent with Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey's accelerometer measurements and MAVEN's neutral and ion measurements. The heating and cooling caused by the waves are expected to be significant in the energy budget of the thermosphere, and the vertical mixing induced by those gravity waves should influence the homopause height. Since the thermospheric densities of light, minor species increase with the lowering of the homopause, a lower homopause may have enhanced the escape of such species to space for early Mars, where slower, weaker gravity waves should dominate.
The use of satellites in gravity field determination and model adjustment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Visser, Petrus Nicolaas Anna Maria
1992-06-01
Methods to improve gravity field models of the Earth with available data from satellite observations are proposed and discussed. In principle, all types of satellite observations mentioned give information of the satellite orbit perturbations and in conjunction the Earth's gravity field, because the satellite orbits are affected most by the Earth's gravity field. Therefore, two subjects are addressed: representation forms of the gravity field of the Earth and the theory of satellite orbit perturbations. An analytical orbit perturbation theory is presented and shown to be sufficiently accurate for describing satellite orbit perturbations if certain conditions are fulfilled. Gravity field adjustment experiments using the analytical orbit perturbation theory are discussed using real satellite observations. These observations consisted of Seasat laser range measurements and crossover differences, and of Geosat altimeter measurements and crossover differences. A look into the future, particularly relating to the ARISTOTELES (Applications and Research Involving Space Techniques for the Observation of the Earth's field from Low Earth Orbit Spacecraft) mission, is given.
Ensemble prediction and intercomparison analysis of GRACE time-variable gravity field models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakumura, C.; Bettadpur, S.; Bruinsma, S.
2014-03-01
Precise measurements of the Earth's time-varying gravitational field from the NASA/Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission allow unprecedented tracking of the transport of mass across and underneath the surface of the Earth and give insight into secular, seasonal, and subseasonal variations in the global water supply. Several groups produce these estimates, and while the various gravity fields are similar, differences in processing strategies and tuning parameters result in solutions with regionally specific variations and error patterns. This study examined the spatial, temporal, and spectral variations between the different gravity field products and developed an ensemble gravity field solution from the products of four such analysis centers. The solutions were found to lie within a certain analysis scatter regardless of the local relative water height variation, and the ensemble model is clearly seen to reduce the noise in the gravity field solutions within the available scatter of the solutions.
Thermo-electric transport in gauge/gravity models with momentum dissipation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amoretti, Andrea; Braggio, Alessandro; Maggiore, Nicola; Magnoli, Nicodemo; Musso, Daniele
2014-09-01
We present a systematic definition and analysis of the thermo-electric linear response in gauge/gravity systems focusing especially on models with massive gravity in the bulk and therefore momentum dissipation in the dual field theory. A precise treatment of finite counter-terms proves to be essential to yield a consistent physical picture whose hydrodynamic and beyond-hydrodynamics behaviors noticeably match with field theoretical expectations. The model furnishes a possible gauge/gravity description of the crossover from the quantum-critical to the disorder-dominated Fermi-liquid behaviors, as expected in graphene.
Bouncing universes in scalar-tensor gravity models admitting negative potentials
Boisseau, B.; Giacomini, H.; Starobinsky, A.A. E-mail: hector.giacomini@lmpt.univ-tours.fr E-mail: alstar@landau.ac.ru
2015-07-01
We consider the possibility to produce a bouncing universe in the framework of scalar-tensor gravity models in which the scalar field potential may be negative, and even unbounded from below. We find a set of viable solutions with nonzero measure in the space of initial conditions passing a bounce, even in the presence of a radiation component, and approaching a constant gravitational coupling afterwards. Hence we have a model with a minimal modification of gravity in order to produce a bounce in the early universe with gravity tending dynamically to general relativity (GR) after the bounce.
Simulation of the Indonesian land gravity data using a digital terrain model data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heliani, L. S.; Fukuda, Y.; Takemoto, S.
2004-01-01
The Indonesian gravity field is neither accurately nor comprehensively determined, especially due to inadequacy of land gravity data. This study deals with determination of Indonesian land gravity and proposes the solution to data unavailability by means of a simulation technique. The simulation was carried out by combining short wavelength topographic effects from GTOPO30 and long wavelength information from EGM96\\@. The simulated result was then compared with the observed gravity data. Over Java, Sumatra and Sulawesi islands, using three methods commonly used on the computation of topographic effect; topography, isostatic and RTM (Residual Terrain Model), it was estimated that error propagation by the GTOPO30 into the simulated gravity is about 4.5 to 11.7 mgal, with the RTM method was affected less than others. It was also shown that the simulated gravity from the RTM method gave the best agreement with STD (Standard Deviation) differences of 17 to 42 mgal compared to the observed data. This result was achieved after applying optimal RTM parameters over the Indonesian area: a reference field of 25'-27.5' and density of 2-2.2 gr/cm3. Compared to STD differences between EGM96 and observed data, that between the simulated gravity and observed data improved by 2.5-7 mgal, and gave more detailed gravity features, especially over areas of high topography.
Recent results on modelling the spatial and temporal structure of the Earth's gravity field.
Moore, P; Zhang, Q; Alothman, A
2006-04-15
The Earth's gravity field plays a central role in sea-level change. In the simplest application a precise gravity field will enable oceanographers to capitalize fully on the altimetric datasets collected over the past decade or more by providing a geoid from which absolute sea-level topography can be recovered. However, the concept of a static gravity field is now redundant as we can observe temporal variability in the geoid due to mass redistribution in or on the total Earth system. Temporal variability, associated with interactions between the land, oceans and atmosphere, can be investigated through mass redistributions with, for example, flow of water from the land being balanced by an increase in ocean mass. Furthermore, as ocean transport is an important contributor to the mass redistribution the time varying gravity field can also be used to validate Global Ocean Circulation models. This paper will review the recent history of static and temporal gravity field recovery, from the 1980s to the present day. In particular, mention will be made of the role of satellite laser ranging and other space tracking techniques, satellite altimetry and in situ gravity which formed the basis of gravity field determination until the last few years. With the launch of Challenging Microsatellite Payload and Gravity and Circulation Experiment (GRACE) our knowledge of the spatial distribution of the Earth's gravity field is taking a leap forward. Furthermore, GRACE is now providing insight into temporal variability through 'monthly' gravity field solutions. Prior to this data we relied on satellite tracking, Global Positioning System and geophysical models to give us insight into the temporal variability. We will consider results from these methodologies and compare them to preliminary results from the GRACE mission.
New Interpretations of the Rayn Anticlines in the Arabian Basin Inferred from Gravity Modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
AlMogren, S. M.; Mukhopadhyay, M.
2014-12-01
The Ryan Anticlines comprise of a regularly-spaced set of super-giant anticlines oriented NNW, developed due to E-W compression in the Arabian Basin. Most prominent of these being: the Ghawar Anticline, followed by the Summan, Khurais Anticlines and Qatar Arch. Gravity anomaly is largely characteristic for both Ryan Anticlines and its smaller size version the Jinadriah Anticline in the Riyadh Salt Basin. It displays a bipolar gravity field - a zone of gravity high running along the fold axis that is flanked by asymmetric gravity lows. Available structural models commonly infer structural uplift for the median gravity high but ignore the flanking lows. Here we interpret the bipolar gravity anomaly due primarily to such anticline structures, while, the flanking gravity lows are due to greater sediment thickness largely compacted and deformed over the basement depressions. Further complexities are created due to the salt layer and its migration at the lower horizons of sediment strata. Such diagnostic gravity anomaly pattern is taken here as an evidence for basement tectonics due to prevailing crustal dynamics in the Arabian Basin. Density inversion provides details on the subsurface density variation due to the folding and structural configuration for the sediment layers, including the salt layer, affected by basement deformation. This interpretation is largely supported by gravity forward and inversion models given in the present study what is partly constrained by the available seismic, MT and deep resistivity lines and surface geologic mapping. Most of the oil-gas fields in this part of the Arabian Basin are further known for salt diapirism. In this study the gravity interpretation help in identification of salt diapirism directly overlying the basement is firstly given here for Jinadriah Anticline; that is next extended to a regional geologic cross-section traversing the Ryan Anticlines to infer probable subsurface continuation of salt diapirs directly overlying
Forward modeling of gravity data using geostatistically generated subsurface density variations
Phelps, Geoffrey
2016-01-01
Using geostatistical models of density variations in the subsurface, constrained by geologic data, forward models of gravity anomalies can be generated by discretizing the subsurface and calculating the cumulative effect of each cell (pixel). The results of such stochastically generated forward gravity anomalies can be compared with the observed gravity anomalies to find density models that match the observed data. These models have an advantage over forward gravity anomalies generated using polygonal bodies of homogeneous density because generating numerous realizations explores a larger region of the solution space. The stochastic modeling can be thought of as dividing the forward model into two components: that due to the shape of each geologic unit and that due to the heterogeneous distribution of density within each geologic unit. The modeling demonstrates that the internally heterogeneous distribution of density within each geologic unit can contribute significantly to the resulting calculated forward gravity anomaly. Furthermore, the stochastic models match observed statistical properties of geologic units, the solution space is more broadly explored by producing a suite of successful models, and the likelihood of a particular conceptual geologic model can be compared. The Vaca Fault near Travis Air Force Base, California, can be successfully modeled as a normal or strike-slip fault, with the normal fault model being slightly more probable. It can also be modeled as a reverse fault, although this structural geologic configuration is highly unlikely given the realizations we explored.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwering, P. C.; Karlin, R. E.
2012-12-01
The Dixie Meadows geothermal prospect, located ~150 km east of Reno, Nevada, lies within an active NNE-trending fault zone between the Stillwater Range to the east and Dixie Valley to the west, at the northern extent of the 1954 Dixie Valley earthquake rupture. Geothermal surface expressions consist of extensive advanced argillic alteration, steam vents, and hot springs. Interpretation of existing gravity and magnetic datasets indicates that normal faults control geothermal fluid flow. Some faults exhibit little or no surface expression (i.e. blind faults). This study incorporates data from 80 aeromagnetic transects flown by the USGS in 2002 and 516 gravity stations acquired by Zonge Geosciences, Inc. in 2010 for a total of ~150 square kilometers of coverage. Forward modeling of the gravity data, supported by available exploration well data, indicate a basin thickness of ~2 km in the basin center, abruptly decreasing to within 500 m in the intrabasin - a 1-2 km wide zone on the basin margin, adjacent to the range front. A reduced-to-pole map of the magnetic data reveals normal fault-bounded magnetic anomalies. The horizontal derivative of the gravity data delineates the strike of normal faults, and vertical derivatives of the gravity data indicate the dip. The integrated analyses of the gravity and magnetic datasets indicate that steeply-dipping, NW-striking faults are intersected by younger, moderate- to steeply-dipping, NNE-striking, right-stepping faults. Normal faults primarily strike NNE and dip ESE, orthogonal to regional WNW extension that characterizes the northwestern Basin and Range province. A 2 km right-step in the range front is kinematically accommodated by offset of the intrabasin normal faults, resulting in ENE- and NNE-striking, anastomosing faults that intersect at hot springs and accompanying steam vents. In addition, NW-striking, SW-dipping normal faults cut through the Stillwater Range and into the intrabasin. The NW-striking faults exhibit
Explicit solutions of a gravity-induced film flow along a convectively heated vertical wall.
Raees, Ammarah; Xu, Hang
2013-01-01
The gravity-driven film flow has been analyzed along a vertical wall subjected to a convective boundary condition. The Boussinesq approximation is applied to simplify the buoyancy term, and similarity transformations are used on the mathematical model of the problem under consideration, to obtain a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. Then the reduced equations are solved explicitly by using homotopy analysis method (HAM). The resulting solutions are investigated for heat transfer effects on velocity and temperature profiles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rexer, Moritz; Hirt, Christian; Pail, Roland; Claessens, Sten
2014-04-01
In March 2013, the fourth generation of European Space Agency's (ESA) global gravity field models, DIR4 (Bruinsma et al. in Proceedings of the ESA living planet symposium, 28 June-2 July, Bergen, ESA, Publication SP-686, 2010b) and TIM4 (Migliaccio et al. in Proceedings of the ESA living planet symposium, 28 June-2 July, Bergen, ESA, Publication SP-686, 2010), generated from the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) gravity observation satellite was released. We evaluate the models using an independent ground truth data set of gravity anomalies over Australia. Combined with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite gravity, a new gravity model is obtained that is used to perform comparisons with GOCE models in spherical harmonics. Over Australia, the new gravity model proves to have significantly higher accuracy in the degrees below 120 as compared to EGM2008 and seems to be at least comparable to the accuracy of this model between degree 150 and degree 260. Comparisons in terms of residual quasi-geoid heights, gravity disturbances, and radial gravity gradients evaluated on the ellipsoid and at approximate GOCE mean satellite altitude ( km) show both fourth generation models to improve significantly w.r.t. their predecessors. Relatively, we find a root-mean-square improvement of 39 % for the DIR4 and 23 % for TIM4 over the respective third release models at a spatial scale of 100 km (degree 200). In terms of absolute errors, TIM4 is found to perform slightly better in the bands from degree 120 up to degree 160 and DIR4 is found to perform slightly better than TIM4 from degree 170 up to degree 250. Our analyses cannot confirm the DIR4 formal error of 1 cm geoid height (0.35 mGal in terms of gravity) at degree 200. The formal errors of TIM4, with 3.2 cm geoid height (0.9 mGal in terms of gravity) at degree 200, seem to be realistic. Due to combination with GRACE and SLR data, the DIR models, at satellite altitude, clearly
Comparison of theories for gravity wave induced fluctuations in airglow emissions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walterscheid, R. L.; Schubert, G.; Hickey, M. P.
1994-01-01
A comparison is undertaken of theories for the gravity wave induced fluctuations in the intensity of airglow emissions and the associated temperature of the source region. The comparison is made in terms of Krassovsky's ratio eta(sub E) for a vertically extended emission region (eta(sub E) is the ratio of the vertically integrated normalized intensity perturbation to the vertically integrated intensity-weighted temperature perturbation). It is shown that the formulas for eta(sub E) in the works by Tarasick and Hines (1990) and Schubert et al. (1991) are in agreement for the case of an inviscid atmosphere. The calculation of eta(sub E) using the theory of Tarasick and Hines (1990) requires determination of their function chi; we show that chi is simply related to the 'single-level' Krassovsky's ratio eta of Schubert et al. (1991). The general relationship between chi and eta is applied to a simple chemical-dynamical model of the O2 atmospheric airglow and the altitude dependence of these quantities is evaluated for nonsteady state chemistry. Though the Tarasick and Hines (1990) formula for eta(sub E) does not explicitly depend on the scale heights of the minor constituents involved in airglow chemistry, eta(sub E) implicitly depends upon these scale heights through its dependences on chemical production and loss contained in chi. We demonstrate this dependence of eta(sub E) for the OH nightglow on atomic oxygen scale height by direct numerical evaluation of eta(sub E) in this case the dependence originates in the chemical production of perturbed ozone.
Multi-Scale Modeling of Liquid Phase Sintering Affected by Gravity: Preliminary Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olevsky, Eugene; German, Randall M.
2012-01-01
A multi-scale simulation concept taking into account impact of gravity on liquid phase sintering is described. The gravity influence can be included at both the micro- and macro-scales. At the micro-scale, the diffusion mass-transport is directionally modified in the framework of kinetic Monte-Carlo simulations to include the impact of gravity. The micro-scale simulations can provide the values of the constitutive parameters for macroscopic sintering simulations. At the macro-scale, we are attempting to embed a continuum model of sintering into a finite-element framework that includes the gravity forces and substrate friction. If successful, the finite elements analysis will enable predictions relevant to space-based processing, including size and shape and property predictions. Model experiments are underway to support the models via extraction of viscosity moduli versus composition, particle size, heating rate, temperature and time.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayr, Hans G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Huang, F. T.
2010-01-01
As Lindzen (1981) had shown, small-scale gravity waves (GW) produce the observed reversals of the zonal-mean circulation and temperature variations in the upper mesosphere. The waves also play a major role in modulating and amplifying the diurnal tides (DT) (e.g., Waltersheid, 1981; Fritts and Vincent, 1987; Fritts, 1995a). We summarize here the modeling studies with the mechanistic numerical spectral model (NSM) with Doppler spread parameterization for GW (Hines, 1997a, b), which describes in the middle atmosphere: (a) migrating and non-migrating DT, (b) planetary waves (PW), and (c) global-scale inertio gravity waves. Numerical experiments are discussed that illuminate the influence of GW filtering and nonlinear interactions between DT, PW, and zonal mean variations. Keywords: Theoretical modeling, Middle atmosphere dynamics, Gravity wave interactions, Migrating and non-migrating tides, Planetary waves, Global-scale inertio gravity waves.
Gravity-induced rock mass damage related to large en masse rockslides: Evidence from Vajont
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paronuzzi, Paolo; Bolla, Alberto
2015-04-01
The Vajont landslide is a well-known, reservoir-induced slope failure that occurred on 9 October 1963 and was characterized by an 'en masse' sliding motion that triggered various large waves, determining catastrophic consequences for the nearby territory and adjacent villages. During the Vajont dam construction, and especially after the disaster, some researchers identified widespread field evidence of heavy rock mass damage involving the presumed prehistoric rockslide and/or the 1963 failed mass. This paper describes evidence of heavy gravitational damage, including (i) folding, (ii) fracturing, (iii) faulting, and (iv) intact rock disintegration. The gravity-induced rock mass damage (GRMD) characterizes the remnants of the basal shear zone, still resting on the large detachment surface, and the 1963 failed rock mass. The comprehensive geological study of the 1963 Vajont landslide, based on the recently performed geomechanical survey (2006-present) and on the critical analysis of the past photographic documentation (1959-1964), allows us to recognize that most GRMD evidence is related to the prehistoric multistage Mt. Toc rockslide. The 1963 catastrophic en masse remobilization induced an increase to the prehistoric damage, reworking preexisting structures and creating additional gravity-driven features (folds, fractures, faults, and rock fragmentation). The gravity-induced damage was formed during the slope instability phases that preceded the collapse (static or quasi-static GRMD) and also as a consequence of the sliding motion and of the devastating impact between the failed blocks (dynamic GRMD). Gravitational damage originated various types of small drag folds such as flexures, concentric folds, chevron, and kink-box folds, all having a radius of 1-5 m. Large buckle folds (radius of 10-50 m) are related to the dynamic damage and were formed during the en masse motion as a consequence of deceleration and impact processes that involved the sliding mass. Prior
Cytoplasmic streaming affects gravity-induced amyloplast sedimentation in maize coleoptiles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sack, F. D.; Leopold, A. C.
1985-01-01
Living maize (Zea mays L.) coleoptile cells were observed using a horizontal microscope to determine the interaction between cytoplasmic streaming and gravity-induced amyloplast sedimentation. Sedimentation is heavily influenced by streaming which may (1) hasten or slow the velocity of amyloplast movement and (2) displace the plastid laterally or even upwards before or after sedimentation. Amyloplasts may move through transvacuolar strands or through the peripheral cytoplasm which may be divided into fine cytoplasmic strands of much smaller diameter than the plastids. The results indicate that streaming may contribute to the dynamics of graviperception by influencing amyloplast movement.
Isostatic gravity map of the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California
Ponce, D.A.; Blakely, R.J.; Morin, R.L.; Mankinen, E.A.
2002-03-12
Gravity investigations of the Death Valley ground-water model area are part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (Interagency agreement DE-AI08-96NV11967) to help characterize the geology and hydrology of southwestern Nevada and parts of California. The Death Valley ground-water model is located between lat 35 degrees 00' and 38 degrees 15' N., and long 115 degrees and 118 degrees W. An isostatic gravity map of the Death Valley ground-water model was prepared from over 40,000 gravity stations, most of which are publicly available on a CD-ROM of gravity data of Nevada (Ponce, 1997). The map also includes gravity data recently collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (Mankinen and others, 1998; Morin and Blakely, 1999). A subset of these gravity data in the Nevada Test Site and vicinity were described in detail by Harris and others (1989) who included information on gravity meters used, dates of collection, sources, descriptions of base stations, plots of data, and digital and paper lists of principal facts. For display purposes only, gravity data within Yucca Flat were thinned by a factor of 10. The digital gravity data set was gridded at an interval of 400 m using a computer program (Webring, 1981) based on a minimum curvature algorithm by Briggs (1974). The resulting grid was then interpolated to a 200-m grid to minimize pixel size, and then it was color contoured.
Creed, R.; Edwards, A.
1997-08-01
Gravity gradiometry forward models have been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory (INEEL) that can characterize gravity gradient changes with the development of a cone of depression or injection mound in water table aquifers. Difference measurements at long time intervals reduce delayed drainage effects and eliminate the need for determining an initial density structure. Qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis of the gradient signal to determine changes in groundwater distribution with injection or pumping may be possible, particularly if the time varying nature of the signal is of interest. Gravity gradiometer instruments (such as the Gravity Gradient Survey System) have progressed to the point where the complete second order gravity gradient tensor can be measured with an instrument noise level of less than 1 Eotvos (0.1 microgals/meter). Modeling indicates direct gravity measurements for the injection mound perched aquifier case could produce similar signal to noise ratios. However gravity gradients provide 5 independent measurements and due to the common mode nature of the instruments are less susceptible to other effects (tide, latitude, elevation, etc.). The gradients also provide a sharper image of the edge of the anomaly. The systematic identification and removal of specific retention, rainfall and subsidence or uplift effects may be required to make gradiometry difference imaging practical for field use.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Chinn, D. S.; Chan, J. C.; Patel, G. B.; Klosko, S. M.
1993-01-01
A new method has been developed to provide a direct test of the error calibrations of gravity models based on actual satellite observations. The basic approach projects the error estimates of the gravity model parameters onto satellite observations, and the results of these projections are then compared with data residual computed from the orbital fits. To allow specific testing of the gravity error calibrations, subset solutions are computed based on the data set and data weighting of the gravity model. The approach is demonstrated using GEM-T3 to show that the gravity error estimates are well calibrated and that reliable predictions of orbit accuracies can be achieved for independent orbits.
Gravity research on plants: use of single-cell experimental models.
Chebli, Youssef; Geitmann, Anja
2011-01-01
Future space missions and implementation of permanent bases on Moon and Mars will greatly depend on the availability of ambient air and sustainable food supply. Therefore, understanding the effects of altered gravity conditions on plant metabolism and growth is vital for space missions and extra-terrestrial human existence. In this mini-review we summarize how plant cells are thought to perceive changes in magnitude and orientation of the gravity vector. The particular advantages of several single-celled model systems for gravity research are explored and an overview over recent advancements and potential use of these systems is provided.
Gravity Research on Plants: Use of Single-Cell Experimental Models
Chebli, Youssef; Geitmann, Anja
2011-01-01
Future space missions and implementation of permanent bases on Moon and Mars will greatly depend on the availability of ambient air and sustainable food supply. Therefore, understanding the effects of altered gravity conditions on plant metabolism and growth is vital for space missions and extra-terrestrial human existence. In this mini-review we summarize how plant cells are thought to perceive changes in magnitude and orientation of the gravity vector. The particular advantages of several single-celled model systems for gravity research are explored and an overview over recent advancements and potential use of these systems is provided. PMID:22639598
Gravity fluctuations induced by magma convection at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i
Carbone, Daniele; Poland, Michael P.
2012-01-01
Convection in magma chambers is thought to play a key role in the activity of persistently active volcanoes, but has only been inferred indirectly from geochemical observations or simulated numerically. Continuous microgravity measurements, which track changes in subsurface mass distribution over time, provide a potential method for characterizing convection in magma reservoirs. We recorded gravity oscillations with a period of ~150 s at two continuous gravity stations at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i. The oscillations are not related to inertial accelerations caused by seismic activity, but instead indicate variations in subsurface mass. Source modeling suggests that the oscillations are caused by density inversions in a magma reservoir located ~1 km beneath the east margin of Halema‘uma‘u Crater in Kīlauea Caldera—a location of known magma storage.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reasenberg, Robert D.
1993-01-01
The anomalous gravity field of Venus shows high correlation with surface features revealed by radar. We extract gravity models from the Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) by means of a two-step process. In the first step, we solve the nonlinear spacecraft state estimation problem using a Kalman filter-smoother. The Kalman filter was evaluated through simulations. This evaluation and some unusual features of the filter are discussed. In the second step, we perform a geophysical inversion using a linear Bayesian estimator. To allow an unbiased comparison between gravity and topography, we use a simulation technique to smooth and distort the radar topographic data so as to yield maps having the same characteristics as our gravity maps. The maps presented cover 2/3 of the surface of Venus and display the strong topography-gravity correlation previously reported. The topography-gravity scatter plots show two distinct trends.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamindu Deepagoda, T. K. K.; Jones, Scott B.; Tuller, Markus; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen; Kawamoto, Ken; Komatsu, Toshiko; Moldrup, Per
2014-08-01
Growing plants to facilitate life in outer space, for example on the International Space Station (ISS) or at planned deep-space human outposts on the Moon or Mars, has received much attention with regard to NASA's advanced life support system research. With the objective of in situ resource utilization to conserve energy and to limit transport costs, native materials mined on Moon or Mars are of primary interest for plant growth media in a future outpost, while terrestrial porous substrates with optimal growth media characteristics will be useful for onboard plant growth during space missions. Due to limited experimental opportunities and prohibitive costs, liquid and gas behavior in porous substrates under reduced gravity conditions has been less studied and hence remains poorly understood. Based on ground-based measurements, this study examined water retention, oxygen diffusivity and air permeability characteristics of six plant growth substrates for potential applications in space, including two terrestrial analogs for lunar and Martian soils and four particulate substrates widely used in reduced gravity experiments. To simulate reduced gravity water characteristics, the predictions for ground-based measurements (1 - g) were scaled to two reduced gravity conditions, Martian gravity (0.38 - g) and lunar gravity (0.16 - g), following the observations in previous reduced gravity studies. We described the observed gas diffusivity with a recently developed model combined with a new approach that estimates the gas percolation threshold based on the pore size distribution. The model successfully captured measured data for all investigated media and demonstrated the implications of the poorly-understood shift in gas percolation threshold with improved gas percolation in reduced gravity. Finally, using a substrate-structure parameter related to the gaseous phase, we adequately described the air permeability under reduced gravity conditions.
Model-based optimization of gravity sagging for a horizontally mounted optical flat.
Quan, Haiyang; Gu, Wei; Hou, Xi; Wu, Fan
2016-02-10
A practical and generalized model-based gravity sagging reconstruction method for a horizontally mounted optical flat is proposed. It is a practical and generalized approach based on the finite element method (FEM) model and real experiment results. Gravity sagging and misalignment parameters are retrieved by solving the multivariable unconstrained optimization problem with a least squares sense. Finally, the accurate true surface figure can be obtained by subtracting the optimized gravity sagging from the test result in the practical mounting state. A reasonable agreement with the outcomes of the FEM analysis and the real experiment is achieved through the proposed method. The effectiveness of the method was verified by comparison with the result measured by three-flat calibration. Experimental results demonstrated that this reverse optimization method can effectively reconstruct the sagging information due to gravity, is generalized, and is computationally efficient in practice.
Multisensory integration and internal models for sensing gravity effects in primates.
Lacquaniti, Francesco; Bosco, Gianfranco; Gravano, Silvio; Indovina, Iole; La Scaleia, Barbara; Maffei, Vincenzo; Zago, Myrka
2014-01-01
Gravity is crucial for spatial perception, postural equilibrium, and movement generation. The vestibular apparatus is the main sensory system involved in monitoring gravity. Hair cells in the vestibular maculae respond to gravitoinertial forces, but they cannot distinguish between linear accelerations and changes of head orientation relative to gravity. The brain deals with this sensory ambiguity (which can cause some lethal airplane accidents) by combining several cues with the otolith signals: angular velocity signals provided by the semicircular canals, proprioceptive signals from muscles and tendons, visceral signals related to gravity, and visual signals. In particular, vision provides both static and dynamic signals about body orientation relative to the vertical, but it poorly discriminates arbitrary accelerations of moving objects. However, we are able to visually detect the specific acceleration of gravity since early infancy. This ability depends on the fact that gravity effects are stored in brain regions which integrate visual, vestibular, and neck proprioceptive signals and combine this information with an internal model of gravity effects.
Multisensory Integration and Internal Models for Sensing Gravity Effects in Primates
Lacquaniti, Francesco; La Scaleia, Barbara; Maffei, Vincenzo
2014-01-01
Gravity is crucial for spatial perception, postural equilibrium, and movement generation. The vestibular apparatus is the main sensory system involved in monitoring gravity. Hair cells in the vestibular maculae respond to gravitoinertial forces, but they cannot distinguish between linear accelerations and changes of head orientation relative to gravity. The brain deals with this sensory ambiguity (which can cause some lethal airplane accidents) by combining several cues with the otolith signals: angular velocity signals provided by the semicircular canals, proprioceptive signals from muscles and tendons, visceral signals related to gravity, and visual signals. In particular, vision provides both static and dynamic signals about body orientation relative to the vertical, but it poorly discriminates arbitrary accelerations of moving objects. However, we are able to visually detect the specific acceleration of gravity since early infancy. This ability depends on the fact that gravity effects are stored in brain regions which integrate visual, vestibular, and neck proprioceptive signals and combine this information with an internal model of gravity effects. PMID:25061610
Earth gravity model improvement - An alternative method for Doppler-tracked satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lansard, E.; Biancale, R.
A new method of earth gravity model improvement based on an analytical formulation of Doppler residuals is presented here in prospect of future geodetic and altimetric missions (DORIS< TOPEX/POSEIDON, ERS1). After an intermediate step of orbit improvement, disturbing forces due to gravity field mismodeling are recovered above tracking statins at satellite altitude. Some significant simulation results for Seasat and DORIS are presented.
Spherical collapse model and cluster number counts in power-law f(T) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malekjani, M.; Basilakos, S.; Heidari, N.
2017-04-01
We study the spherical collapse model in the framework of spatially flat power law f(T) ∝ (- T)b gravity model. We find that the linear and non-linear growth of spherical overdensities of this particular f(T) model are affected by the power-law parameter b. Finally, we compute the predicted number counts of virialized haloes in order to distinguish the current f(T) model from the expectations of the concordance Λ cosmology. Specifically, the present analysis suggests that the f(T) gravity model with positive (negative) b predicts more (less) virialized objects with respect to those of Λ cold dark matter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maślanka, K.
A model of reality based on quantum fields, but with a classical treatment of gravity, is inconsistent. Finding a solution has proved extremely difficult, possibly due to the beauty and conceptual simplicity of general relativity. There is a variety of approaches to a consistent theory of quntum gravity. At present, it seems that superstring theory is the most promising candidate.
Dynamics and Control Modeling for Gravity Probe B
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelivan, Ivanka
2010-03-01
A generic drag-free simulator has been developed to aid in the design, on-orbit and post-mission data analysis phases of increasingly complex future missions such as Gaia and STEP. Adaptation to the recent science mission Gravity Probe B (GP-B) has been carried out for a first simulator verification with actual flight data. Lessons learned from GP-B have shown that the controls simulator, developed concurrently with GP-B, has been invaluable to test flight control design and furthermore to resolve on-orbit anomalies in a time-saving manner. A complete mission software simulator including controls, full-body dynamics and comprehensive spacecraft environment disturbances has been established for Gravity Probe B. This simulator provides a reference and development platform for future mission design. The importance of this effort lies in the challenge to meet rising science requirements for future missions in the area of maximum disturbance rejection.
A Computer Model for Determining Operational Centers of Gravity
2002-05-31
rest of joint and service doctrine by equating centers of gravity with critical vulnerabilities. Despite this convergence, the preconception persists...Leyte, Malaya, Okinawa, Panama, Philippines, Sicily, and Somalia . Among these USAWC studies, the US invasion of Okinawa (1945) and Operation Just...leaving only “conclusions” that represent the end points of the various lines of reasoning. A graphical notation was used to record the task reduction
Lunar Prospector Orbit Determination Uncertainties Using the High Resolution Lunar Gravity Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carranza, Eric; Konopliv, Alex; Ryne, Mark
1999-01-01
The Lunar Prospector (LP) mission began on January 6, 1998, when the LP spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The objectives of the mission were to determine whether water ice exists at the lunar poles, generate a global compositional map of the lunar surface, detect lunar outgassing, and improve knowledge of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields. Orbit determination of LP performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducted as part of the principal science investigation of the lunar gravity field. This paper will describe the JPL effort in support of the LP Gravity Investigation. This support includes high precision orbit determination, gravity model validation, and data editing. A description of the mission and its trajectory will be provided first, followed by a discussion of the orbit determination estimation procedure and models. Accuracies will be examined in terms of orbit-to-orbit solution differences, as a function of oblateness model truncation, and inclination in the plane-of-sky. Long term predictions for several gravity fields will be compared to the reconstructed orbits to demonstrate the accuracy of the orbit determination and oblateness fields developed by the Principal Gravity Investigator.
A schematic model of crater modification by gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melosh, H. J.
1982-01-01
The morphology of craters found on planets and moons of the solar system is examined and a development model which can account for the observed crater characteristics is discussed. The prompt collapse of craters to form flat floors, terraced walls, and central peak structures is considered to be the result of an approximate Bingham plastic rheology of the material surrounding the crater. This rheology is induced dynamically by the strong incoherent acoustic 'noise' accompanying excavation of the crater. Central pits, peak rings, and other multiple symmetric-profile rings originate by oscillation of this fluid. Large craters with transient depths comparable to the lithosphere thickness are subject to collapse by fragmentation of the lithosphere as well as fluidization. The considered concepts are developed mathematically. A model emerges which appears capable of explaining most of the qualitative features of large impact structures.
Geological model for oil gravity variations in Oriente Basin, Ecuador
Dashwood, M.F.; Abbotts, I.L.
1988-01-01
The Oriente basin is one of the major productive Subandean basins. Most of the fields produce 29/sup 0/-33/sup 0/ API paraffinic oils, but oils have been discovered with gravities ranging from 10/sup 0/to 35/sup 0/ API. All the oils have been recovered from multiple middle to Late Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs (Hollin and Napo Formations). Wells display a variety of oil gravities by reservoir. The origin of the Oriente oils is problematical and controversial, but structural, geochemical, and well evidence suggest a vast oil kitchen west of the present Andean foothills that was mature for oil generation by at least early Tertiary. Oil analyses indicate a single family of oils is present. Oil gravity variations can be explained systematically in terms of the various alteration processes suffered by the oil in each reservoir. Intermittent early Andean uplift (latest Cretaceous to Mid-Eocene) resulted in biodegradation and water-washing of oils, particularly in the uppermost Napo reservoirs. The main Andean orogeny (Pliocene) uplifted the Hollin reservoir to outcrop in the west, and tilted the basin down to the south. This movement resulted in water washing or flushing of the Hollin aquifer and a phase of northward remigration of oil. Late Andean structures postdated primary oil migration. Almost all structures displaying growth during the Late Cretaceous to early Eocene have been oil bearing, but some, particularly those located on the present-day basin flanks, were later severely biodegraded or breached.
Three-dimensional gravity modeling and focusing inversion using rectangular meshes.
Commer, M.
2011-03-01
Rectangular grid cells are commonly used for the geophysical modeling of gravity anomalies, owing to their flexibility in constructing complex models. The straightforward handling of cubic cells in gravity inversion algorithms allows for a flexible imposition of model regularization constraints, which are generally essential in the inversion of static potential field data. The first part of this paper provides a review of commonly used expressions for calculating the gravity of a right polygonal prism, both for gravity and gradiometry, where the formulas of Plouff and Forsberg are adapted. The formulas can be cast into general forms practical for implementation. In the second part, a weighting scheme for resolution enhancement at depth is presented. Modelling the earth using highly digitized meshes, depth weighting schemes are typically applied to the model objective functional, subject to minimizing the data misfit. The scheme proposed here involves a non-linear conjugate gradient inversion scheme with a weighting function applied to the non-linear conjugate gradient scheme's gradient vector of the objective functional. The low depth resolution due to the quick decay of the gravity kernel functions is counteracted by suppressing the search directions in the parameter space that would lead to near-surface concentrations of gravity anomalies. Further, a density parameter transformation function enabling the imposition of lower and upper bounding constraints is employed. Using synthetic data from models of varying complexity and a field data set, it is demonstrated that, given an adequate depth weighting function, the gravity inversion in the transform space can recover geologically meaningful models requiring a minimum of prior information and user interaction.
Increased efficiency of rf-induced evaporative cooling by utilizing gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klinner, Julian; Wolke, Matthias; Hemmerich, Andreas
2010-04-01
We report on an efficient rf-induced forced evaporative cooling of an ensemble of Rb87 atoms in state |F=2,mF=2> magnetically trapped in a quadrupole-Ioffe configuration trap. The cigar-shaped trap is oriented with its weak confining axis along the direction of gravity leading to, first, a significant separation of the trapping positions for low-field-seeking atoms with different mF value and, second, a reduced resonance volume for rf-induced evaporation confined to a small region around the lower tip of the cigar-shaped ensemble. This results in an enhancement of the evaporation efficiency α≡dlnT/(dlnN) due to either reduced or completely vanishing scattering events between cooled and evaporated atoms. We present data illustrating this effect.
Assessing GOCE Gravity Models using Altimetry and In-situ Ocean Current Observation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole; Honecker, Johanna; Maximenko, Nikolai
2015-04-01
The Gravity and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite mission measures Earth's gravity field with an unprecedented accuracy at short spatial scales. Previous results have demonstrated a significant advance in our ability to determine the ocean's general circulation. The improved gravity models provided by the GOCE mission have enhanced the resolution and sharpened the boundaries of those features and the associated geostrophic surface currents reveal improvements for all of the ocean's current systems. In this study, a series of 23 newer gravity models including observations from GOCE are combined with the DTU13MSS mean sea surface to derive models for the Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT). The series of GOCE based MDT models are compared in regional analyses to identify differences and to quantify quality measures associated with the models. By using Fourier techniques the spectral characteristics are obtained as well as their anisotropic patterns. Then, regional analyses are carried out using in-situ observations of the geostrophic surface currents. This is done to analyse correlations and to derive resolution capacities of the MDT models. Also this information is used as quantified quality measures associated with the 23 GOCE gravity models.
Zhao, Gong-Bo
2014-04-01
Based on a suite of N-body simulations of the Hu-Sawicki model of f(R) gravity with different sets of model and cosmological parameters, we develop a new fitting formula with a numeric code, MGHalofit, to calculate the nonlinear matter power spectrum P(k) for the Hu-Sawicki model. We compare the MGHalofit predictions at various redshifts (z ≤ 1) to the f(R) simulations and find that the relative error of the MGHalofit fitting formula of P(k) is no larger than 6% at k ≤ 1 h Mpc{sup –1} and 12% at k in (1, 10] h Mpc{sup –1}, respectively. Based on a sensitivity study of an ongoing and a future spectroscopic survey, we estimate the detectability of a signal of modified gravity described by the Hu-Sawicki model using the power spectrum up to quasi-nonlinear scales.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ripetskyj, R. T.; Kit, N. A.
Isolated leafy shoots of the moss Pottia intermedia positioned horizontally on the agar surface in vertically oriented petri dishes regenerate unbranching negatively gravitropic protonemata on upper side of the regenerant. Gravity determines the site of regeneration not the process itself. White light of low intensity unsufficient to induce positive phototropism of dark-grown protonemata can, however, provoke their branching and gametophore bud formation (Ripetskyj et al., 1998; 1999). The presented experiments have been carried out with red light in Biological Research in Canisters/Light Emitting Diode (BRIC/LED) hardware developed at Kennedy Space Center, USA. Seven-day-old dark-grown negatively gravitropic secondary P. intermedia protonemata were positioned differently with respect to gravity vector and to the source of red light of low, 1 or 2 μ mol\\cdot m-2\\cdot s-1, intensities. The light induced intensive branching of the protonemata and gametophore bud formation initiation site of both processes as well as the direction of growth of branches and buds being depent on the position of protonemata with respect to gravity and light vectors. Vertically positioned, i.e. ungravistimulated, dark grown protonemata illuminated from one side with red light of 2 μ mol\\cdot m-2\\cdot s-1 intensity produced 96,9 ± 2,2% of side branches and buds growing directly towards the light source from the lit protonema side. Horizontally disposed protonemata irradiated from below with red light of the same intensity regenerate 31,7 ± 3,9% of branches and buds on the upper, i.e. shaded protonemata side, the upward growth of which should undoubtedly be determined by gravity. In vertically disposed protonemata illuminated with red light of 1 μ mol\\cdot m-2\\cdot s-1 intensity from aside 31,9 ± 5,5% of side branches and buds arised on shaded protonema side and grew away from the light. Illumination of the protonemata in horizontal position from below increased the number of
Modeling study of the impacts of inertial gravity wave forcing in middle atmosphere polar region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, B.; Liu, H.; Chu, X.
2012-12-01
The 'cold pole' problem refers to the cold bias of polar stratosphere temperature in the Southern Hemisphere in most general circulation models (GCMs) and chemistry climate models (CCMs) during the winter and spring. Accompanying the 'cold pole' is the excessively strong jet in the stratosphere and late vortex breaking. It is a long-standing problem in most models, implying the lack of wave forcing in the southern stratosphere. In current study we investigate the feasibility of using parameterized inertial gravity wave forcing to reduce the cold bias. The NCAR Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM 4.0) is used for this study. A new scheme that parameterizes inertial gravity waves is included in the WACCM. Although the inertial gravity waves are likely to break in the stratosphere and impact the middle atmosphere circulation, they are not well resolved by the model nor properly parameterized. Using the new gravity wave scheme, the simulated wintertime temperature is ~20 K warmer in the southern polar region while the simulated wintertime zonal wind jet is about 10 to 30 m/s slower than the originals. Also, the polar vortex in the Southern Hemisphere breaks earlier and the wind reversal level during spring is lower. All these changes make the WACCM simulations closer to ERA-40, suggesting that additional gravity waves are able to reduce the 'cold pole' bias.
Gravity Inversion with Geological Modeling Constraint and Its Application in the Okinawa Trough
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, S.
2014-12-01
The satellite altimetry gravity data is used to recover the 3D distribution of oceanic lithosphere density in the Okinawa Trough and its neighbor region. It's difficult to use only gravity data to invert complex geological structure and density distribution by 3D gravity Inversion method. In order to improve the vertical resolution of the density inversion result, 3D geological modeling method is used to build structural model for the inversion, prior constraint conditions can be applied to solve the non-unique problem. In the Okinawa Trough, it is proved by earthquake data that the Philippine plate dives beneath the Okinawa Trough, which result in the upwelling of mantel material and decrease of the crust thickness. The Benioff zone clearly shows the plate's subduction parameter, such as direction, dip, transformation. Therefore, a structural subduction model is created by geological modeling method and works as the initial model and as constraint condition in gravity inversion. The 3D gravity inversion result and seismology CMT data are both used to explain the oceanic lithosphere structure in the Okinawa Trough. The inversion result illustrates high density anomaly under the Okinawa Trough. Affected by small scale mantle convections, the continental lithosphere is separated, which result in the spreading of back-arc basin and the formation of the Okinawa Trough.
The role of topography in geodetic gravity field modelling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Forsberg, R.; Sideris, M. G.
1989-01-01
Masses associated with the topography, bathymetry, and its isostatic compensation are a dominant source of gravity field variations, especially at shorter wavelengths. On global scales the topographic/isostatic effects are also significant, except for the lowest harmonics. In practice, though, global effects need not be taken into account as such effects are included in the coefficients of the geopotential reference fields. On local scales, the short-wavelength gravity variations due to the topography may, in rugged terrain, be an order of magnitude larger than other effects. In such cases, explicit or implicit terrain reduction procedures are mandatory in order to obtain good prediction results. Such effects may be computed by space-domain integration or by fast Fourier transformation (FFT) methods. Numerical examples are given for areas of the Canadian Rockies. In principle, good knowledge of the topographic densities is required to produce the smoothest residual field. Densities may be determined from sample measurements or by gravimetric means, but both are somewhat troublesome methods in practice. The use of a standard density, e.g., 2.67 g/cu cm, may often yield satisfactory results and may be put within a consistent theoretical framework. The independence of density assumptions is the key point of the classical Molodensky approach to the geodetic boundary value problem. The Molodensky solutions take into account that land gravity field observations are done on a non-level surface. Molodensky's problem may be solved by integral expansions or more effective FFT methods, but the solution should not be intermixed with the use of terrain reductions. The methods are actually complimentary and may both be required in order to obtain the smoothest possible signal, least prone to aliasing and other effects coming from sparse data coverage, typical of rugged topography.
Tests of local Lorentz invariance violation of gravity in the standard model extension with pulsars.
Shao, Lijing
2014-03-21
The standard model extension is an effective field theory introducing all possible Lorentz-violating (LV) operators to the standard model and general relativity (GR). In the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension, nine coefficients describe dominant observable deviations from GR. We systematically implemented 27 tests from 13 pulsar systems to tightly constrain eight linear combinations of these coefficients with extensive Monte Carlo simulations. It constitutes the first detailed and systematic test of the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension with the state-of-the-art pulsar observations. No deviation from GR was detected. The limits of LV coefficients are expressed in the canonical Sun-centered celestial-equatorial frame for the convenience of further studies. They are all improved by significant factors of tens to hundreds with existing ones. As a consequence, Einstein's equivalence principle is verified substantially further by pulsar experiments in terms of local Lorentz invariance in gravity.
Determination of the threshold of gravity for inducing kinetosis in fish: a drop-tower experiment.
Anken, R H; Hilbig, R
2004-01-01
It has been repeatedly shown earlier that some fish of a given batch reveal motion sickness (a kinetosis) at the transition from 1 g to microgravity. In the course of parabolic aircraft flight experiments, it has been demonstrated that kinetosis susceptibility is correlated with asymmetric inner ear otoliths (i.e., differently weighed statoliths on the right and the left side of the head) or with genetically predispositioned malformed cells within the sensory epithelia of the inner ear. Hitherto, the threshold of gravity perception for inducing kinetotic behaviour as well as the relative importance of asymmetric otoliths versus malformed epithelia for kinetosis susceptibility has yet not been determined. The following experiment using the ZARM drop-tower facility in Bremen, Germany, is proposed to be carried out in order to answer the aforementioned questions. Larval cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) will be kept in a camcorder-equipped centrifuge during the microgravity phases of the drops and thus receive various gravity environments ranging from 0.1 to 0.9 g. Videographed controls will be housed outside of the centrifuge receiving 0 g. Based on the videorecordings, animals will be grouped into kinetotically and normally swimming samples. Subsequently, otoliths will be dissected and their size and asymmetry will be measured. Further investigations will focus on the numerical quantification of inner ear supporting and sensory cells as well as on the quantification of inner ear carbonic anhydrase reactivity. A correlation between (1) the results to be obtained concerning the g-loads inducing kinetosis and (2) the corresponding otolith asymmetry/morphology of sensory epithelia/carbonic anhydrase reactivity will further contribute to the understanding of the origin of kinetosis susceptibility. Besides an outline of the proposed principal experiments, the present study reports on a first series of drop-tower tests which were undertaken to elucidate the
The amphibian egg as a model system for analyzing gravity effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malacinski, G. M.; Neff, A. W.
Amphibian eggs provide several advantageous features as a model system for analyzing the effects of gravity on single cells. Those features include large size, readily tracked intracellular inclusions, and ease of experimental manipulation. Employing novel gravity orientation as a tool, a substantial data base is being developed. That information is being used to construct a 3-D model of the frog (Xenopus laevis) egg. Internal cytoplasmic organization (rather than surface features) are being emphasized. Several cytoplasmic compartments (domains) have been elucidated, and their behavior in inverted eggs monitored. They have been incorporated into the model, and serve as a point of departure for further inquiry and speculation.
The amphibian egg as a model system for analyzing gravity effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malacinski, G. M.; Neff, A. W.
1989-01-01
Amphibian eggs provide several advantageous features as a model system for analyzing the effects of gravity on single cells. Those features include large size, readily tracked intracellular inclusions, and ease of experimental manipulation. Employing novel gravity orientation as a tool, a substantial data base is being developed. That information is being used to construct a three-dimensional model of the frog (Xenopus laevis) egg. Internal cytoplasmic organization (rather than surface features) are being emphasized. Several cytoplasmic compartments (domains) have been elucidated, and their behavior in inverted eggs monitored. They have been incorporated into the model, and serve as a point of departure for further inquiry and speculation.
Benini, Marco Dappiaggi, Claudio; Murro, Simone
2014-08-01
We discuss the quantization of linearized gravity on globally hyperbolic, asymptotically flat, vacuum spacetimes, and the construction of distinguished states which are both of Hadamard form and invariant under the action of all bulk isometries. The procedure, we follow, consists of looking for a realization of the observables of the theory as a sub-algebra of an auxiliary, non-dynamical algebra constructed on future null infinity ℱ⁺. The applicability of this scheme is tantamount to proving that a solution of the equations of motion for linearized gravity can be extended smoothly to ℱ⁺. This has been claimed to be possible provided that a suitable gauge fixing condition, first written by Geroch and Xanthopoulos [“Asymptotic simplicity is stable,” J. Math. Phys. 19, 714 (1978)], is imposed. We review its definition critically, showing that there exists a previously unnoticed obstruction in its implementation leading us to introducing the concept of radiative observables. These constitute an algebra for which a Hadamard state induced from null infinity and invariant under the action of all spacetime isometries exists and it is explicitly constructed.
Variations of low-degree gravity coefficients induced by oceanic mass redistribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kao, Y.
2013-05-01
Sea level anomalies (SLA) are determined from TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite altimeter data. The Steric effect will be removed from SLA to compute low-degree gravity harmonic coefficients from 1992 to 2011, forming time series of low-frequency oceanic mass-induced gravity change. Wavelet coefficients is used to resolve the harmonic spectrum for the relationship between time and study the amplitude, frequency and time correlation. The preliminary results show that the sea level trend (SLT) of corrected sea level anomalies (CSLA) at multiple sea areas are contrary to the results of SLA and Steric. The SLA and Steric results shows that the years of the phase change in the equator as the boundary, the area is divided into north and south hemisphere opposite phase change, and the two results of the data trend is also consistent. The coefficient annual change rate is 1.16±0.07×10-10, amplitude is 5.13×10-10 and phase for -81.2 degrees. The wavelet spectrum analysis shows that the the CSLA J2 change cycle for 3-7 years. The change of is greater than coefficient and its mean pole motion in the y-direction movement is greater than the x-direction.
Moho topography, ranges and folds of Tibet by analysis of global gravity models and GOCE data
Shin, Young Hong; Shum, C.K.; Braitenberg, Carla; Lee, Sang Mook; Na, Sung -Ho; Choi, Kwang Sun; Hsu, Houtse; Park, Young-Sue; Lim, Mutaek
2015-01-01
The determination of the crustal structure is essential in geophysics, as it gives insight into the geohistory, tectonic environment, geohazard mitigation, etc. Here we present the latest advance on three-dimensional modeling representing the Tibetan Mohorovičić discontinuity (topography and ranges) and its deformation (fold), revealed by analyzing gravity data from GOCE mission. Our study shows noticeable advances in estimated Tibetan Moho model which is superior to the results using the earlier gravity models prior to GOCE. The higher quality gravity field of GOCE is reflected in the Moho solution: we find that the Moho is deeper than 65 km, which is twice the normal continental crust beneath most of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, while the deepest Moho, up to 82 km, is located in western Tibet. The amplitude of the Moho fold is estimated to be ranging from −9 km to 9 km with a standard deviation of ~2 km. The improved GOCE gravity derived Moho signals reveal a clear directionality of the Moho ranges and Moho fold structure, orthogonal to deformation rates observed by GPS. This geophysical feature, clearly more evident than the ones estimated using earlier gravity models, reveals that it is the result of the large compressional tectonic process. PMID:26114224
Is scalar-tensor gravity consistent with polytropic stellar models?
Henttunen, K.; Vilja, I. E-mail: vilja@utu.fi
2015-05-01
We study the scalar field potential V(φ) in the scalar-tensor gravity with self-consistent polytropic stellar configurations. Without choosing a particular potential, we numerically derive the potential inside various stellar objects. We restrict the potential to conform to general relativity or to f(R) gravity inside and require the solution to arrive at SdS vacuum at the surface. The studied objects are required to obtain observationally valid masses and radii corresponding to solar type stars, white dwarfs and neutron stars. We find that the resulting scalar-tensor potential V(φ) for the numerically derived polytrope that conforms to general relativity, in each object class, is highly dependent on the matter configuration as well as on the vacuum requirement at the boundary. As a result, every stellar configuration arrives at a potential V(φ) that is not consistent with the other stellar class potentials. Therefore, a general potential that conforms to all these polytropic stellar classes could not be found.
Experimental modeling of role of gravity and lateral shortening in Zagros mountain belt
Koyi, H.
1988-11-01
Dynamically scaled analogs of the geologic structures of the Zagros mountain belt are used to argue that different parts of the Zagros Mountains of Iran record different combinations of the effects of a gravity-driven overturn and a southwest-northeast lateral shortening superimposed on the Zagros overturn. Partially scaled material models have been used to simulate the Zagros geodynamics, which involve layer-parallel compression of a 6 to 7 km-thick Phanerozoic carbonate cover containing a pattern of preshortening diapirs. The folds in the Zagros form rapidly (1.5 mm/yr in a 20 to 30 km-wide zone), reactivate some of the preshortening diapirs, and generate new synshortening listric diapirs. A third set of postshortening diapirs rises from the Hormuz decollement behind the fold-thrust front. Model buckle folds superimposed on diapirs or pillows tend to avoid and curve around preshortening diapirs, which flatten in the synclines. Model profiles show that lateral shortening induces residual salt at depth to flow toward and rise through the anticlinal cores as synshortening or postshortening diapirs. The author suggests that any salt pillows in currently diapir-free zones of the Zagros fold-thrust belt may surface as diapirs through the anticlines in the future. 13 figures, 4 tables.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
C. A. Oliveira, Tiago; Kadri, Usama
2016-10-01
An uplift of the ocean bottom caused by a submarine earthquake can trigger acoustic-gravity waves that travel at near the speed of sound in water and thus may act as early tsunami precursors. We study the spatiotemporal evolution of the pressure field induced by acoustic-gravity modes during submarine earthquakes, analytically. We show that these modes may all induce comparable temporal variations in pressure at different water depths in regions far from the epicenter, though the pressure field depends on the presence of a leading acoustic-gravity wave mode. Practically, this can assist in the implementation of an early tsunami detection system by identifying the pressure and frequency ranges of measurement equipment and appropriate installation locations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wziontek, Hartmut; Wilmes, Herbert; Güntner, Andreas; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin
2010-05-01
Water mass changes are a major source of variations in residual gravimetric time series obtained from the combination of observations with superconducting and absolute gravimeters. Changes in the local water storage are the main influence, but global variations contribute to the signal significantly. For three European gravity stations, Bad Homburg, Wettzell and Medicina, different global hydrology models are compared. The influence of topographic effects is discussed and due to the long-term stability of the combined gravity time series, inter-annual signals in model data and gravimetric observations are compared. Two sources of influence are discriminated, i.e., the effect of a local zone with an extent of a few kilometers around the gravimetric station and the global contribution beyond 50km. Considering their coarse resolution and uncertainties, local effects calculated from global hydrological models are compared with the in-situ gravity observations and, for the station Wettzell, with local hydrological monitoring data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Staves, M. P.; Wayne, R.; Leopold, A. C.
1997-01-01
Gravity induces a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming in vertical internodal cells of Chara such that the downwardly directed stream moves faster than the upwardly directed stream. In order to determine whether the statolith theory (in which intracellular sedimenting particles are responsible for gravity sensing) or the gravitational pressure theory (in which the entire protoplast acts as the gravity sensor) best explain the gravity response in Chara internodal cells, we controlled the physical properties of the external medium, including density and osmolarity, with impermeant solutes and examined the effect on the polarity of cytoplasmic streaming. As the density of the external medium is increased, the polarity of cytoplasmic streaming decreases and finally disappears when the density of the external medium is equal to that of the cell (1015 kg/m3). A further increase in the density of the external medium causes a reversal of the gravity response. These results are consistent with the gravitational pressure theory of gravity sensing since the buoyancy of the protoplast is dependent on the difference between the density of the protoplast and the external medium, and are inconsistent with the statolith theory since the buoyancy of intracellular particles are unaffected by changes in the external medium.
Using a Gravity Model to Predict Circulation in a Public Library System.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ottensmann, John R.
1995-01-01
Describes the development of a gravity model based upon principles of spatial interaction to predict the circulation of libraries in the Indianapolis-Marion County Public Library (Indiana). The model effectively predicted past circulation figures and was tested by predicting future library circulation, particularly for a new branch library.…
Further Investigations of Gravity Modeling on Surface-Interacting Vehicle Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madden, Michael M.
2009-01-01
A vehicle simulation is "surface-interacting" if the state of the vehicle (position, velocity, and acceleration) relative to the surface is important. Surface-interacting simulations perform ascent, entry, descent, landing, surface travel, or atmospheric flight. The dynamics of surface-interacting simulations are influenced by the modeling of gravity. Gravity is the sum of gravitation and the centrifugal acceleration due to the world s rotation. Both components are functions of position relative to the world s center and that position for a given set of geodetic coordinates (latitude, longitude, and altitude) depends on the world model (world shape and dynamics). Thus, gravity fidelity depends on the fidelities of the gravitation model and the world model and on the interaction of the gravitation and world model. A surface-interacting simulation cannot treat the gravitation separately from the world model. This paper examines the actual performance of different pairs of world and gravitation models (or direct gravity models) on the travel of a subsonic civil transport in level flight under various starting conditions.
Gravity Modeling Effects on Surface-Interacting Vehicles in Supersonic Flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Madden, Michael M.
2010-01-01
A vehicle simulation is "surface-interacting" if the state of the vehicle (position, velocity, and acceleration) relative to the surface is important. Surface-interacting simulations per-form ascent, entry, descent, landing, surface travel, or atmospheric flight. The dynamics of surface-interacting simulations are influenced by the modeling of gravity. Gravity is the sum of gravitation and the centrifugal acceleration due to the world s rotation. Both components are functions of position relative to the world s center and that position for a given set of geodetic coordinates (latitude, longitude, and altitude) depends on the world model (world shape and dynamics). Thus, gravity fidelity depends on the fidelities of the gravitation model and the world model and on the interaction of these two models. A surface-interacting simulation cannot treat gravitation separately from the world model. This paper examines the actual performance of different pairs of world and gravitation models (or direct gravity models) on the travel of a supersonic aircraft in level flight under various start-ing conditions.
Model Investigation of Technique for Full Scale Landing Impact Tests at Simulated Lunar Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1965-01-01
Model Investigation of Technique for Full Scale Landing Impact Tests at Simulated Lunar Gravity. An investigation of a 1/6-scale dynamic model has been made to develop and evaluate a technique for conducting full-scale landing-impact tests at simulated lunar gravity. Landings were made at touchdown pitch attitudes of -15 degrees, 0 degrees, and 15 degrees. All landings were made with two gear pads forward and at a roll attitude of 0 degrees. Both roll and yaw attitudes were constrained. Vertical landing speed was varied from 5 to 15 feet per second (1.5 to 4.6 m/s) and horizontal speed was varied from 0 to 10 feet per second (0 to 3.0 m/s). Most of the landings were made at a vertical and horizontal speed of 10 feet per second or 3.0 m/s (45 degree flight-path angle) while pitch attitude and surface characteristics, friction and topography, were varied. These parameters were investigated with the free-body earth-gravity and the simulated lunar-gravity test techniques. The landings were made at a model mass corresponding to a full-scale lunar weight (force due to gravity) of 1,440 pounds (6.41 kN) or an earth weight of 8,640 pounds (38.4 kN). [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030977. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov
Release 3 of the GOCE-only Gravity Field Model Applying the Time-wise Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brockmann, J.; Pail, R.; Mayer-Gürr, T.; Hoeck, E.; Krasbutter, I.; Fecher, T.; Schuh, W.; Mayrhofer, R.
2011-12-01
The release 3 of the time-wise global GOCE-only gravity field model, which has been processed as part of the GOCE High-Level Processing Facility, is based on data of the full nominal mission operation phase from November 2009 to April 2011. The time-wise processing strategy is based on the solution of full normal equations, where gravity field information from precise kinematic orbits is combined with the analysis of the gravity gradients. Special emphasis is given to a realistic stochastic modelling of the individual contributions, facilitating the consistent combination. The optimum relative weights are derived from variance component estimation. In this contribution, this new solution is compared with the previous two releases, in order to evaluate the improvements due to a substantially larger amount of input data, as well as with external gravity field information. Additionally, a performance prediction of the achievable final accuracy of GOCE-only gravity field models, provided that the satellite stays healthy in orbit at least until the end of the extended mission phase (December 2012), will be presented, and possible mission scenarios after 2012 and their impact on the performance will be discussed.
Gravity and Magnetotelluric Modeling of the Santo Domingo Basin, Northern New Mexico
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamudio, K. D.; Keithline, N.; Blum, C.; Cunningham, E.; Fromont, A.; Jorgensen, M.; Lee, R.; McBride, K.; Saez Berrios, P.; Harper, C.; Pellerin, L.; McPhee, D.; Ferguson, J. F.
2015-12-01
The Santo Domingo Basin, one of a series of basins within the Rio Grande Rift, is located between Santa Fe and Albuquerque, NM, and has been the focus of research by the Summer of Geophysical Experience (SAGE) program since 2000. Gravity, magnetotelluric (MT), and seismic data have been collected throughout the region, although we are concentrating on gravity and MT data collected during SAGE 2014 and 2015. The study area is located in the center of the Santo Domingo basin, an extensional, Miocene age, rift basin, in an area that was minimally involved in the preceding local Laramide orogenic activity. Rift sediments (~3.5 km thick) are underlain by Eocene age sediments that were shed from adjacent uplifts. Up to 3 km of Mesozoic and Paleozoic sediments are preserved above the Precambrian basement. Geologic outcrop, borehole and seismic reflection data, and known density values were used in the construction of a ~100 km-long, generalized geologic cross section from which a gravity response was calculated. The modeled gravity response makes fairly definitive predictions about the geometry of the basin as well as the stratigraphy and faulting within and bounding the basin. MT data was collected at ten stations within the basin. The MT sounding curves exhibit one-dimensional behavior at short periods (<10 s), not surprisingly considering the relatively flat local structure in the area. Layered-earth MT models, without geologic constraints, show a conductive (<10 ohm-m) layer at ~1.5 km above a more resistive layer (>1000 ohm-m) at ~ 3.5-4 km. Conductivities of the major stratigraphic units have been determined from well logs and previous MT modeling. Forward and inverse MT models constrained by the gravity-modeled geologic cross section are used to develop a conductivity model consistent with the geology, and are a step towards a better unified treatment of MT, seismic and gravity data.
Gravity-induced modifications to development in hypocotyls of Arabidopsis tubulin mutants.
Matsumoto, Shouhei; Kumasaki, Saori; Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Takashi; Hoson, Takayuki
2010-02-01
We investigated the roles of cortical microtubules in gravity-induced modifications to the development of stem organs by analyzing morphology and orientation of cortical microtubule arrays in hypocotyls of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) tubulin mutants, tua3(D205N), tua4(S178Delta), and tua6(A281T), cultivated under 1g and hypergravity (300g) conditions. Hypocotyls of tubulin mutants were shorter and thicker than the wild type even at 1g, and hypergravity further suppressed elongation and stimulated expansion. The degree of such changes was clearly smaller in tubulin mutants, in particular in tua6. Hypocotyls of tubulin mutants also showed either left-handed or right-handed helical growth at 1g, and the degree of twisting phenotype was intensified under hypergravity conditions, especially in tua6. Hypergravity induced reorientation of cortical microtubules from transverse to longitudinal directions in epidermal cells of wild-type hypocotyls. In tubulin mutants, especially in tua6, the percentage of cells with longitudinal microtubules was high even at 1g, and it was further increased by hypergravity. The twisting phenotype was most obvious at cells 10 to 12 from the top, where reorientation of cortical microtubules from transverse to longitudinal directions occurred. Moreover, the left-handed helical growth mutants (tua3 and tua4) had right-handed microtubule arrays, whereas the right-handed mutant (tua6) had left-handed arrays. There was a close correlation between the alignment angle of epidermal cell files and the alignment of cortical microtubules. Gadolinium ions, blockers of mechanosensitive ion channels (mechanoreceptors), suppressed the twisting phenotype in tubulin mutants under both 1g and 300 g conditions. Microtubule arrays in tubulin mutants were oriented more transversely by gadolinium treatment, irrespective of gravity conditions. These results support the hypothesis that cortical microtubules play an essential role in maintenance of normal
Modeling of Thermal Performance of Multiphase Nuclear Fuel Cell Under Variable Gravity Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ding, Z.; Anghaie, S.
1996-01-01
A unique numerical method has been developed to model the dynamic processes of bulk evaporation and condensation processes, associated with internal heat generation and natural convection under different gravity levels. The internal energy formulation, for the bulk liquid-vapor phase change problems in an encapsulated container, was employed. The equations, governing the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for both phases involved in phase change, were solved. The thermal performance of a multiphase uranium tetra-fluoride fuel element under zero gravity, micro-gravity and normal gravity conditions has been investigated. The modeling yielded results including the evolution of the bulk liquid-vapor phase change process, the evolution of the liquid-vapor interface, the formation and development of the liquid film covering the side wall surface, the temperature distribution and the convection flow field in the fuel element. The strong dependence of the thermal performance of such multiphase nuclear fuel cell on the gravity condition has been revealed. Under all three gravity conditions, 0-g, 10(exp -3)-g, and 1-g, the liquid film is formed and covers the entire side wall. The liquid film covering the side wall is more isothermalized at the wall surface, which can prevent the side wall from being over-heated. As the gravity increases, the liquid film is thinner, the temperature gradient is larger across the liquid film and smaller across the vapor phase. This investigation provides valuable information about the thermal performance of multi-phase nuclear fuel element for the potential space and ground applications.
Smarr formula for BTZ black holes in general three-dimensional gravity models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Chao; Gong, Li; Zhang, Baocheng
2017-02-01
Recent studies have presented the interpretation of thermodynamic enthalpy for the mass of BTZ black holes and the corresponding Smarr formula. All these are made in the background of three-dimensional (3D) general relativity. In this paper, we extend such interpretation into general 3D gravity models. It is found that the direct extension is unfeasible and some extra conditions are required to preserve both the Smarr formula and the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Thus, BTZ black hole thermodynamics enforces some constraints for general 3D gravity models, and these constraints are consistent with all previous discussions.
Shaken, but not stirred—Potts model coupled to quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ambjørn, J. A.; Anagnostopoulos, K. N.; Loll, R.; Pushkina, I.
2009-01-01
We investigate the critical behaviour of both matter and geometry of the three-state Potts model coupled to two-dimensional Lorentzian quantum gravity in the framework of causal dynamical triangulations. Contrary to what general arguments on the effects of disorder suggest, we find strong numerical evidence that the critical exponents of the matter are not changed under the influence of quantum fluctuations in the geometry, compared to their values on fixed, regular lattices. This lends further support to previous findings that quantum gravity models based on causal dynamical triangulations are in many ways better behaved than their Euclidean counterparts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radugina, Elena A.; Almeida, Eduardo; Grigoryan, Eleonora
Gravity alterations are widely recognized to influence living systems. They may cause temporary or permanent effects on physiology and development at different levels, from gene expression to morphogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are often unclear, and adequate model systems to study them are required. To address this problem we developed a new experimental model of how gravity affects morphogenesis during tail regeneration in the newt Pleurodeles waltl. The effects of increased gravity on newt tail morphogenesis were first documented in two joint Russian-US NASA spaceflight experiments in the Russian Foton-M2 (2005) and Foton-M3 (2007) missions. In these experiments the shape of newt tail regenerate was found to depend on the gravity level, being dorso-ventrally symmetrical in microgravity and in neutrally-buoyant aquarium controls, versus hook-like and bent downward in 1g controls. These 1g controls were conducted in spaceflight habitats using a water-saturated PVA sponge mat. These results were reproducible in multiple spaceflight, and ground laboratory studies, both in the US at NASA ARC and in Russia at IDB RAS, and were characterized in detail using morphometry and histology approaches. The role of hypergravity in shaping morphogenesis was confirmed at NASA ARC with an experiment in the ISS Testbed 8-foot diameter centrifuge operating at 2g. Animals that experienced two-week centrifugation (the period of time used in the Foton flights) developed the same hook-like regenerates as 1g controls, and morphometric analysis revealed no significant difference between 1g and 2g groups, however both were significantly different from aquarium controls. We hypothesize that exposure to 1g or 2g during tail morphogenesis constitutes excessive loading for newts that are adapted to microgravity-like conditions in their aquatic habitat. Because Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) are stress-induced molecules that respond to a broad variety of
Analysis of harmonic spline gravity models for Venus and Mars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowin, Carl
1986-01-01
Methodology utilizing harmonic splines for determining the true gravity field from Line-Of-Sight (LOS) acceleration data from planetary spacecraft missions was tested. As is well known, the LOS data incorporate errors in the zero reference level that appear to be inherent in the processing procedure used to obtain the LOS vectors. The proposed method offers a solution to this problem. The harmonic spline program was converted from the VAX 11/780 to the Ridge 32C computer. The problem with the matrix inversion routine that improved inversion of the data matrices used in the Optimum Estimate program for global Earth studies was solved. The problem of obtaining a successful matrix inversion for a single rev supplemented by data for the two adjacent revs still remains.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Liang Cheng; Tsai, Jui pin; Chen, Yu Wen; Way Hwang, Chein; Chung Cheng, Ching; Chiang, Chung Jung
2014-05-01
For sustainable management, accurate estimation of recharge can provide critical information. The accuracy of estimation is highly related to uncertainty of specific yield (Sy). Because Sy value is traditionally obtained by a multi-well pumping test, the available Sy values are usually limited due to high installation cost. Therefore, this information insufficiency of Sy may cause high uncertainty for recharge estimation. Because gravity is a function of a material mass and the inverse square of the distance, gravity measurement can assist to obtain the mass variation of a shallow groundwater system. Thus, the groundwater level observation data and gravity measurements are used for the calibration of Sy for a groundwater model. The calibration procedure includes four steps. First, gravity variations of three groundwater-monitoring wells, Si-jhou, Tu-ku and Ke-cuo, are observed in May, August and November 2012. To obtain the gravity caused by groundwater variation, this study filters the noises from other sources, such as ocean tide and land subsidence, in the collected data The refined data, which are data without noises, are named gravity residual. Second, this study develops a groundwater model using MODFLOW 2005 to simulate the water mass variation of the groundwater system. Third, we use Newton gravity integral to simulate the gravity variation caused by the simulated water mass variation during each of the observation periods. Fourth, comparing the ratio of the gravity variation between the two data sets, which are observed gravity residuals and simulated gravities. The values of Sy is continuously modified until the gravity variation ratios of the two data sets are the same. The Sy value of Si-jhou is 0.216, which is obtained by the multi-well pumping test. This Sy value is assigned to the simulation model. The simulation results show that the simulated gravity can well fit the observed gravity residual without parameter calibration. This result indicates
Gravity modeling of the Muertos Trough and tectonic implications (north-eastern Caribbean)
Granja, Bruna J. L.; Munoz-Martin, A.; ten Brink, U.S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Llanes, Estrada P.; Martin-Davila, J.; Cordoba-Barba, D.; Catalan, Morollon M.
2010-01-01
The Muertos Trough in the northeast Caribbean has been interpreted as a subduction zone from seismicity, leading to infer a possible reversal subduction polarity. However, the distribution of the seismicity is very diffuse and makes definition of the plate geometry difficult. In addition, the compressive deformational features observed in the upper crust and sandbox kinematic modeling do not necessarily suggest a subduction process. We tested the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate's interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc using gravity modeling. Gravity models simulating a subduction process yield a regional mass deficit beneath the island arc independently of the geometry and depth of the subducted slab used in the models. This mass deficit results from sinking of the less dense Caribbean slab beneath the lithospheric mantle replacing denser mantle materials and suggests that there is not a subducted Caribbean plateau beneath the island arc. The geologically more realistic gravity model which would explain the N-S shortening observed in the upper crust requires an overthrusted Caribbean slab extending at least 60 km northward from the deformation front, a progressive increase in the thrusting angle from 8?? to 30?? reaching a maximum depth of 22 km beneath the insular slope. This new tectonic model for the Muertos Margin, defined as a retroarc thrusting, will help to assess the seismic and tsunami hazard in the region. The use of gravity modeling has provided targets for future wide-angle seismic surveys in the Muertos Margin. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
An Online Gravity Modeling Method Applied for High Precision Free-INS
Wang, Jing; Yang, Gongliu; Li, Jing; Zhou, Xiao
2016-01-01
For real-time solution of inertial navigation system (INS), the high-degree spherical harmonic gravity model (SHM) is not applicable because of its time and space complexity, in which traditional normal gravity model (NGM) has been the dominant technique for gravity compensation. In this paper, a two-dimensional second-order polynomial model is derived from SHM according to the approximate linear characteristic of regional disturbing potential. Firstly, deflections of vertical (DOVs) on dense grids are calculated with SHM in an external computer. And then, the polynomial coefficients are obtained using these DOVs. To achieve global navigation, the coefficients and applicable region of polynomial model are both updated synchronously in above computer. Compared with high-degree SHM, the polynomial model takes less storage and computational time at the expense of minor precision. Meanwhile, the model is more accurate than NGM. Finally, numerical test and INS experiment show that the proposed method outperforms traditional gravity models applied for high precision free-INS. PMID:27669261
An Online Gravity Modeling Method Applied for High Precision Free-INS.
Wang, Jing; Yang, Gongliu; Li, Jing; Zhou, Xiao
2016-09-23
For real-time solution of inertial navigation system (INS), the high-degree spherical harmonic gravity model (SHM) is not applicable because of its time and space complexity, in which traditional normal gravity model (NGM) has been the dominant technique for gravity compensation. In this paper, a two-dimensional second-order polynomial model is derived from SHM according to the approximate linear characteristic of regional disturbing potential. Firstly, deflections of vertical (DOVs) on dense grids are calculated with SHM in an external computer. And then, the polynomial coefficients are obtained using these DOVs. To achieve global navigation, the coefficients and applicable region of polynomial model are both updated synchronously in above computer. Compared with high-degree SHM, the polynomial model takes less storage and computational time at the expense of minor precision. Meanwhile, the model is more accurate than NGM. Finally, numerical test and INS experiment show that the proposed method outperforms traditional gravity models applied for high precision free-INS.
Modeling of micro thrusters for gravity probe B
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, Kenneth M.
1996-01-01
The concept of testing Einstein's general theory of relativity by means of orbiting gyroscopes was first proposed in 1959, which lead to the development of the Gravity Probe B experiment. Einstein's theory concerns the predictions of the relativistic precession of a gyroscope in orbit around earth. According to his theory, there will be two precessions due to the warping of space-time by the earth's gravitational field: the geodetic precession in the plane of the orbit, and the frame-dragging effect, in the direction of earth rotation. For a polar orbit, these components are orthogonal. In order to simplify the measurement of the precessions, Gravity Probe B (GP-B) will be placed in a circular polar orbit at 650 km, for which the predicted precessions will be 6.6 arcsec/year (geodetic) and 42 milli-arcsec/year (frame-dragging). As the gyroscope precesses, the orientation of its spin-axis will be measured with respect to the line-of-sight to Rigel, a star whose proper motion is known to be within the required accuracy. The line-of-sight to Rigel will be established using a telescope, and the orientation of the gyroscope spin axis will be measured using very sensitive SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers. The four gyroscopes will be coated with niobium. Below 2K, the niobium becomes superconducting and a dipole field will be generated which is precisely aligned with the gyroscope spin-axis. The change in orientation of these fields, as well as the spin-axis, is sensed by the SQUID magnetometers. In order to attain the superconducting temperatures for the gyroscopes and the SQUID's, the experiment package will be housed in a dewar filled with liquid helium. The helium flow through a GP-B micro thruster and into a vacuum is investigated using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method.
modern global models of the earth's gravity field: analysis of their accuracy and resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganagina, Irina; Karpik, Alexander; Kanushin, Vadim; Goldobin, Denis; Kosareva, Alexandra; Kosarev, Nikolay; Mazurova, Elena
2015-04-01
Introduction: Accurate knowledge of the fine structure of the Earth's gravity field extends opportunities in geodynamic problem-solving and high-precision navigation. In the course of our investigations have been analyzed the resolution and accuracy of 33 modern global models of the Earth's gravity field and among them 23 combined models and 10 satellite models obtained by the results of GOCE, GRACE, and CHAMP satellite gravity mission. The Earth's geopotential model data in terms of normalized spherical harmonic coefficients were taken from the web-site of the International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM) in Potsdam. Theory: Accuracy and resolution estimation of global Earth's gravity field models is based on the analysis of degree variances of geopotential coefficients and their errors. During investigations for analyzing models were obtained dependences of approximation errors for gravity anomalies on the spherical harmonic expansion of the geopotential, relative errors of geopotential's spherical harmonic coefficients, degree variances for geopotential coefficients, and error variances of potential coefficients obtained from gravity anomalies. Delphi 7-based software developed by authors was used for the analysis of global Earth's gravity field models. Experience: The results of investigations show that spherical harmonic coefficients of all matched. Diagrams of degree variances for spherical harmonic coefficients and their errors bring us to the conclusion that the degree variances of most models equal to their error variances for a degree less than that declared by developers. The accuracy of normalized spherical harmonic coefficients of geopotential models is estimated as 10-9. This value characterizes both inherent errors of models, and the difference of coefficients in various models, as well as a scale poor predicted instability of the geopotential, and resolution. Furthermore, we compared the gravity anomalies computed by models with those
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yazid, N. M.; Din, A. H. M.; Omar, K. M.; Som, Z. A. M.; Omar, A. H.; Yahaya, N. A. Z.; Tugi, A.
2016-09-01
Global geopotential models (GGMs) are vital in computing global geoid undulations heights. Based on the ellipsoidal height by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations, the accurate orthometric height can be calculated by adding precise and accurate geoid undulations model information. However, GGMs also provide data from the satellite gravity missions such as GRACE, GOCE and CHAMP. Thus, this will assist to enhance the global geoid undulations data. A statistical assessment has been made between geoid undulations derived from 4 GGMs and the airborne gravity data provided by Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia (DSMM). The goal of this study is the selection of the best possible GGM that best matches statistically with the geoid undulations of airborne gravity data under the Marine Geodetic Infrastructures in Malaysian Waters (MAGIC) Project over marine areas in Sabah. The correlation coefficients and the RMS value for the geoid undulations of GGM and airborne gravity data were computed. The correlation coefficients between EGM 2008 and airborne gravity data is 1 while RMS value is 0.1499.In this study, the RMS value of EGM 2008 is the lowest among the others. Regarding to the statistical analysis, it clearly represents that EGM 2008 is the best fit for marine geoid undulations throughout South China Sea.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chau, J. F.; Or, D.; Jones, S.; Sukop, M.
2004-05-01
Liquid distribution in unsaturated porous media under different gravitational forces and resulting gaseous diffusion coefficients were investigated to enhance understanding of plant growth conditions in microgravity. Different fluid behavior in plant growth media under microgravity conditions as compared to earth presents a challenge to plant growth in long duration space exploration missions. Our primary objective was to provide qualitative description and quantitative measures of the role of reduced gravity on hydraulic and gaseous transport properties in simulated porous media. We implemented a multi-phase lattice Boltzmann code for equilibrium distribution of liquid in an idealized two-dimensional porous medium under microgravity and "normal" gravity conditions. The information was then used to provide boundary conditions for simulation of gaseous diffusion through the equilibrium domains (considering diffusion through liquid phase negligibly small). The models were tested by comparison with several analytical solutions to the diffusion equation, with excellent results. The relative diffusion coefficient for both series of simulations (with and without gravity) as functions of air-filled porosity was in good agreement with established models of Millington-Quirk. Liquid distribution under earth's gravity featured increased water content at the lower part of the medium relative to the distribution in reduced gravity, which resulted in decreased gas diffusion through a vertically oriented column of a porous medium. Simulation results for larger domains under various orientations will be presented.
Martian atmospheric gravity waves simulated by a high-resolution general circulation model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuroda, Takeshi; Yiǧit, Erdal; Medvedev, Alexander S.; Hartogh, Paul
2016-07-01
Gravity waves (GWs) significantly affect temperature and wind fields in the Martian middle and upper atmosphere. They are also one of the observational targets of the MAVEN mission. We report on the first simulations with a high-resolution general circulation model (GCM) and present a global distributions of small-scale GWs in the Martian atmosphere. The simulated GW-induced temperature variances are in a good agreement with available radio occultation data in the lower atmosphere between 10 and 30 km. For the northern winter solstice, the model reveals a latitudinal asymmetry with stronger wave generation in the winter hemisphere and two distinctive sources of GWs: mountainous regions and the meandering winter polar jet. Orographic GWs are filtered upon propagating upward, and the mesosphere is primarily dominated by harmonics with faster horizontal phase velocities. Wave fluxes are directed mainly against the local wind. GW dissipation in the upper mesosphere generates a body force per unit mass of tens of m s^{-1} per Martian solar day (sol^{-1}), which tends to close the simulated jets. The results represent a realistic surrogate for missing observations, which can be used for constraining GW parameterizations and validating GCMs.
3D Geological Model of Nihe ore deposit Constrained by Gravity and Magnetic Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Guang; Yan, Jiayong; Lv, Qingtan; Zhao, Jinhua
2016-04-01
We present a case study on using integrated geologic model in mineral exploration at depth. Nihe ore deposit in Anhui Province, is deep hidden ore deposit which was discovered in recent years, this finding is the major driving force of deep mineral exploration work in Luzong. Building 3D elaborate geological model has the important significance for prospecting to deep or surround in this area, and can help us better understand the metallogenic law and ore-controlling regularity. A 3D geological model, extending a depth from +200m to -1500m in Nihe ore deposit, has been compiled from surface geological map, cross-section, borehole logs and amounts of geological inference. And then the 3D geological models have been given physical property parameter for calculating the potential field. Modelling the potential response is proposed as means of evaluating the viability of the 3D geological models, and the evidence of making small changes to the uncertain parts of the original 3D geological models. It is expected that the final models not only reproduce supplied prior geological knowledge, but also explain the observed geophysical data. The workflow used to develop the 3D geologic model in this study includes the three major steps, as follows: (1) Determine the basic information of Model: Defining the 3D limits of the model area, the basic geological and structural unit, and the tectonic contact relations and the sedimentary sequences between these units. (2) 3D model construction: Firstly, a series of 2D geological cross sections over the model area are built by using all kinds of prior information, including surface geology, borehole data, seismic sections, and local geologists' knowledge and intuition. Lastly, we put these sections into a 3D environment according to their profile locations to build a 3D model by using geostatistics method. (3) 3D gravity and magnetic modeling: we calculate the potential field responses of the 3D model, and compare the predicted and
An IBM-compatible program for interactive three-dimensional gravity modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broome, John
1992-04-01
G3D is a 3-D interactive gravity modeling program for IBM-compatible microcomputers. The program allows a model to be created interactively by defining multiple tabular bodies with horizontal tops and bottoms. The resulting anomaly is calculated using Plouff's algorithm at up to 2000 predefined random or regularly located points. In order to display the anomaly as a color image, the point data are interpolated onto a regular grid and quantized into discrete intervals. Observed and residual gravity field images also can be generated. Adjustments to the model are made using a graphics cursor to move, insert, and delete body points or whole bodies. To facilitate model changes, planview body outlines can be overlain on any of the gravity field images during editing. The model's geometry can be displayed in planview or along a user-defined vertical section. G3D is written in Microsoft® FORTRAN and utilizes the Halo-Professional® (or Halo-88®) graphics subroutine library. The program is written for use on an IBM-compatible microcomputer equipped with hard disk, numeric coprocessor, and VGA, Number Nine Revolution (Halo-88® only), or TIGA® compatible graphics cards. A mouse or digitizing tablet is recommended for cursor positioning. Program source code, a user's guide, and sample data are available as Geological Survey of Canada Open File (G3D: A Three-dimensional Gravity Modeling Program for IBM-compatible Microcomputers).
The Spatial Resolution of Mass Distributions Required For Forward Gravity Field Modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuhn, M.
In forward gravity field modelling all parameters can be derived from the Earth's mass distribution using Newton's law of gravitation. Now more and more information on the Earth's mass distribution is available such, as fine digital elevation models, dig- ital density models and models of the crustal thickness. Apart from the theoretical restriction that the Earth's mass distribution will never be completely known, this con- tribution studies the spatial resolution of different mass distributions of the Earth's crust in view of deriving gravity field quantities in a forward model with a given accu- racy. Here the influence of the topographic masses, mass anomalies above the geoid, compensation masses and crustal mass anomalies below the geoid will be studied by the spherical harmonic expansion of their corresponding potential effect. Using New- ton's law, these spherical harmonic expansions can be expressed directly by that of height, depth or density of the corresponding mass distributions. This representation is well suited to study the spectral sensitivity of different mass distributions on gravity field quantities. Numerical results will be presented in order to give an optimal data spacing required to forward model the gravity field of the Earth to a desired accuracy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bain, R. L.; Stermole, F. J.; Golden, J. O.
1972-01-01
Two theoretical models were developed to predict the thermal response of the phase change material to a given hot plate temperature. A two-dimensional pure conduction model was developed to predict the melting of the phase change material when heat transfer was a function of conduction. A combined conduction-convection model, also two-dimensional, was developed to predict the phase change phenomena when heat transfer was a function of conduction and gravity-induced free convection. Both models were solved using explicit finite difference approximations on a digital computer. The experimental equipment consisted of a rectangular cell utilizing a heat chamber, an expansion chamber, and a test chamber; a sixteen channel multipoint recorder, and a fluid flow system. The recorder monitered hot and cold plate temperatures and interior node temperatures at two second intervals. A comparison of theoretical temperature profiles and experimental temperature profiles is presented for six runs at various angles of inclination of the test cell with respect to the horizontal direction. A detailed discussion of results is presented.
Surface Gravity Data Contribution to the Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands Geoid Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, X.; Gerhards, C.; Holmes, S. A.; Saleh, J.; Shaw, B.
2015-12-01
The Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) project provides updated local gravity field information for the XGEOID15 models. In particular, its airborne gravity data in the area of Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands (PRVI) made substantial improvements (~60%) on the precision of the geoid models at the local GNSS/Leveling bench marks in the target area. Fortunately, PRVI is free of the huge systematic error in the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88). Thus, the airborne contribution was evaluated more realistically. In addition, the airborne data picked up more detailed gravity field information in the medium wavelength band (spherical harmonic degree 200 to 600) that are largely beyond the resolution of the current satellite missions, especially along the nearby ocean trench areas. Under this circumstance (significant airborne contributions in the medium band), local surface gravity data need to be examined more carefully than before during merging with the satellite and airborne information for local geoid improvement, especially considering the well-known systematic problems in the NGS historical gravity holdings (Saleh et al 2013 JoG). Initial tests showed that it is very important to maintain high consistency between the surface data sets and the airborne enhanced reference model. In addition, a new aggregation method (Gerhards 2014, Inverse Problems) will also be tested to optimally combine the local surface data with the reference model. The data cleaning and combining procedures in the target area will be summarized here as reference for future applications.
Determining upper mantle structures using gravity, seismology, and GIA modelling in Fennoscandia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Root, B. C.; van der Wal, W.; Vermeersen, B. L. A.
2015-12-01
The 3D structure of the upper mantle plays a large role in Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Finite-element software is able to model this 3D structure, but knowledge of the upper mantle is needed to make these models realistic. Nowadays, global maps are made of the crustal structure and temperature of the upper mantle from seismic observations. Also, satellite gravity missions, such as GOCE and GRACE, determine global gravity fields. Combining these data sets could give new insights in Glacial Isostatic Adjustment and explain some discrepancies seen in currents geological observations with 1D rheology Earth models. We obtain upper mantle models that fit gravity observations. Then, the upper mantle seismic velocities are converted to temperature profiles; that are used to determine the amount of strain according to diffusion and dislocation creep in the upper mantle. The obtained 3D rheology models are used in a finite element GIA model to observe the effect of the 3D structures during GIA. The GIA model results are compared to geological observations of the sea level change, GPS uplift rates, and ongoing gravity change in the area. This study specifically studies the effect of compositional differences in the upper mantle on the modelled remaining uplift and gravity signal. Molecular conversion relations for primitive mantle rock composition, Garnet Lherzolite rock composition, and Archon, iron depleted rock composition are used to compute the temperature and density profiles. The Fennoscandian lithosphere is believed to contain these three types of composition, yet, it is not yet known in what relative amounts and locations. An iterative approach is used to find the best compositional structure to fit the GIA observables in the Fenoscandian upper mantle.
Cryogenic Pressure Control Modeling for Ellipsoidal Space Tanks in Reduced Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hedayat, Ali; Lopez, Alfredo; Grayson, Gary D.; Chandler, Frank O.; Hastings, Leon J.
2008-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to simulate pressure control of an ellipsoidal-shaped liquid hydrogen tank under external heating in low gravity. Pressure control is provided by an axial jet thermodynamic vent system (TVS) centered within the vessel that injects cooler liquid into the tank, mixing the contents and reducing tank pressure. The two-phase cryogenic tank model considers liquid hydrogen in its own vapor with liquid density varying with temperature only and a fully compressible ullage. The axisymmetric model is developed using a custom version of the commercially available FLOW-3D software and simulates low gravity extrapolations of engineering checkout tests performed at Marshall Space Flight Center in 1999 in support of the Solar Thermal Upper Stage Technology Demonstrator (STUSTD) program. Model results illustrate that stable low gravity liquid-gas interfaces are maintained during all phases of the pressure control cycle. Steady and relatively smooth ullage pressurization rates are predicted. This work advances current low gravity CFD modeling capabilities for cryogenic pressure control and aids the development of a low cost CFD-based design process for space hardware.
Constraints on scalar-tensor models of dark energy from observational and local gravity tests
Tsujikawa, Shinji; Uddin, Kotub; Tavakol, Reza; Mizuno, Shuntaro; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi
2008-05-15
We construct a family of viable scalar-tensor models of dark energy (DE) which possess a phase of late-time acceleration preceded by a standard matter era, while at the same time satisfying the local gravity constraints (LGC). The coupling Q between the scalar field and the nonrelativistic matter in the Einstein frame is assumed to be constant in our scenario, which is a generalization of f(R) gravity theories corresponding to the coupling Q=-1/{radical}(6). We find that these models can be made compatible with local gravity constraints even when |Q| is of the order of unity through a chameleon mechanism, if the scalar-field potential is chosen to have a sufficiently large mass in the high-curvature regions. We show that these models generally lead to the divergence of the equation of state of DE, which occurs at smaller redshifts as the deviation from the {lambda}CDM model becomes more significant. We also study the evolution of matter density perturbations and employ them to place bounds on the coupling |Q| as well as model parameters of the field potential from observations of the matter power spectrum and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. We find that, as long as |Q| is smaller than the order of unity, there exist allowed parameter regions that are consistent with both observational and local gravity constraints.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scherer, Günther; Pietrzyk, Peter
formation. When mutants and wt only grown in the 1G centrifuge were compared the mutant leaves and cotyledons were smaller than in wt and hypocotyls were longer, but when the plants in µG for 12d were compared this difference was not found. Hence, gravity had an influence on leaf expansion and hypocotyl length in the mutant. The samples grown for 12d in 1G were kept in µG after 12d on due to a technical failure of the 1G centrifuge. They were retrieved about a year later. They had grown to full senescence and were preserved in a beautiful state as "straw". The observations on the root patterns by the astronaut photos at day 12 could be confirmed but plants had grown on and newer roots made coils just as the plants grown µG. Leaf sizes were different for wt and mutant. The most striking observation was that the mutants had developed small flower stems with a few flower buds but many flowers were incomplete, without the proper sepal or petal number or without gynaecium. The wild type plants had not developed any clear flower stem but only several malformed cell clumps shortly above the rosette. In ground laboratory experiments the mutants flower earlier which might explain why they developed flowers to some extent whereas the wt not at all. Microgravity might be a "stress" for flower formation. Taken together, several gravity-induced (or microgravity-induced) changes in differentiation occurred.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coco, A.; Gottsmann, J.; Whitaker, F.; Rust, A.; Currenti, G.; Jasim, A.; Bunney, S.
2016-04-01
Ground deformation and gravity changes in restless calderas during periods of unrest can signal an impending eruption and thus must be correctly interpreted for hazard evaluation. It is critical to differentiate variation of geophysical observables related to volume and pressure changes induced by magma migration from shallow hydrothermal activity associated with hot fluids of magmatic origin rising from depth. In this paper we present a numerical model to evaluate the thermo-poroelastic response of the hydrothermal system in a caldera setting by simulating pore pressure and thermal expansion associated with deep injection of hot fluids (water and carbon dioxide). Hydrothermal fluid circulation is simulated using TOUGH2, a multicomponent multiphase simulator of fluid flows in porous media. Changes in pore pressure and temperature are then evaluated and fed into a thermo-poroelastic model (one-way coupling), which is based on a finite-difference numerical method designed for axi-symmetric problems in unbounded domains.
Informed by constraints available for the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy), a series of simulations assess the influence of fluid injection rates and mechanical properties on the hydrothermal system, uplift and gravity. Heterogeneities in hydrological and mechanical properties associated with the presence of ring faults are a key determinant of the fluid flow pattern and consequently the geophysical observables. Peaks (in absolute value) of uplift and gravity change profiles computed at the ground surface are located close to injection points (namely at the centre of the model and fault areas). Temporal evolution of the ground deformation indicates that the contribution of thermal effects to the total uplift is almost negligible with respect to the pore pressure contribution during the first years of the unrest, but increases in time and becomes dominant after a long period of the simulation. After a transient increase over the first years of
Neutron stars in a perturbative f(R) gravity model with strong magnetic fields
Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Deliduman, Cemsinan; Güngör, Can; Keleş, Vildan; Ryu, C.Y.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J. E-mail: cemsinan@msgsu.edu.tr E-mail: kelesvi@itu.edu.tr E-mail: kajino@nao.ac.jp
2013-10-01
In Kaluza-Klein electromagnetism it is natural to associate modified gravity with strong electromagnetic fields. Hence, in this paper we investigate the combined effects of a strong magnetic field and perturbative f(R) gravity on the structure of neutron stars. The effect of an interior strong magnetic field of about 10{sup 17−18} G on the equation of state is derived in the context of a quantum hadrodynamics (QHD) equation of state (EoS) including effects of the magnetic pressure and energy along with occupied Landau levels. Adopting a random orientation of interior field domains, we solve the modified spherically symmetric hydrostatic equilibrium equations derived for a gravity model with f(R) = R+αR{sup 2}. Effects of both the finite magnetic field and the modified gravity are detailed for various values of the magnetic field and the perturbation parameter α along with a discussion of their physical implications. We show that there exists a parameter space of the modified gravity and the magnetic field strength, in which even a soft equation of state can accommodate a large ( > 2 M{sub s}un) maximum neutron star mass.
Risk analysis of gravity dam instability using credibility theory Monte Carlo simulation model.
Xin, Cao; Chongshi, Gu
2016-01-01
Risk analysis of gravity dam stability involves complicated uncertainty in many design parameters and measured data. Stability failure risk ratio described jointly by probability and possibility has deficiency in characterization of influence of fuzzy factors and representation of the likelihood of risk occurrence in practical engineering. In this article, credibility theory is applied into stability failure risk analysis of gravity dam. Stability of gravity dam is viewed as a hybrid event considering both fuzziness and randomness of failure criterion, design parameters and measured data. Credibility distribution function is conducted as a novel way to represent uncertainty of influence factors of gravity dam stability. And combining with Monte Carlo simulation, corresponding calculation method and procedure are proposed. Based on a dam section, a detailed application of the modeling approach on risk calculation of both dam foundation and double sliding surfaces is provided. The results show that, the present method is feasible to be applied on analysis of stability failure risk for gravity dams. The risk assessment obtained can reflect influence of both sorts of uncertainty, and is suitable as an index value.
Gravity-induced changes in intracellular potentials in elongating cortical cells of mung bean roots
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.
1990-01-01
Gravity-induced changes in intracellular potentials in primary roots of 2-day-old mung bean (Vigna mungo L. cv. black matpe) seedlings were investigated using glass microelectrodes held by 3-dimensional hydraulic micro-drives. The electrodes were inserted into outer cortical cells within the elongation zone. Intracellular potentials, angle of root orientation with respect to gravity, and position within the root of the impaled cortical cell were measured simultaneously. Gravistimulation caused intracellular potential changes in cortical cells of the elongation zone. When the roots were oriented vertically, the intracellular potentials of the outer cortical cells (2 mm behind the root apex) were approximately - 115 mV. When the roots were placed horizontally cortical cells on the upper side hyperpolarized to - 154 mV within 30 s while cortical cells on the lower side depolarized to about - 62 mV. This electrical asymmetry did not occur in cells of the maturation zone. Because attempts to insert the electrode into cells of the root cap were unsuccessful, these cells were not measured. The hyperpolarization of cortical cells on the upper side was greatly reduced upon application of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), an inhibitor of respiratory energy coupling. When stimulated roots were returned to the vertical, the degree of hyperpolarization of cortical cells on the previous upper side decreased within 30 s and approached that of cortical cells in non-stimulated roots. This cycle of hyperpolarization/loss of hyperpolarization was repeatable at least ten times by alternately turning the root from the vertical to the horizontal and back again. The very short (<30 s) lag period of these electrical changes indicates that they may result from stimulus-perception and transduction within the elongation zone rather than from transmission of a signal from the root cap.
Some implications of signature-change in cosmological models of loop quantum gravity
Bojowald, Martin; Mielczarek, Jakub E-mail: jakub.mielczarek@uj.edu.pl
2015-08-01
Signature change at high density has been obtained as a possible consequence of deformed space-time structures in models of loop quantum gravity. This article provides a conceptual discussion of implications for cosmological scenarios, based on an application of mathematical results for mixed-type partial differential equations (the Tricomi problem). While the effective equations from which signature change has been derived are shown to be locally regular and therefore reliable, the underlying theory of loop quantum gravity may face several global problems in its semiclassical solutions.
3D Gravity Field Modelling of the Lithosphere along the Dead Sea Transform (DESERT 2002)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Götze, H.-J.; Ebbing, J.; Schmidt, S.; Rykakov, M.; Hassouneh, M.; Hrahsha, M.; El-Kelani, R.; Desert Group
2003-04-01
From March to May 2002 a gravity field campaign has to be conducted in the area of Dead Sea Rift/Dead Sea Transform with regard to the isostatic state, the crustal density structure of the transform and the lithospheric rigidity in the Central Arava Valley (Jordan). Our multi-national and interdisciplinary gravity group with participants from the Geophysical Institute of Israel, the Natural Resources Authority (Jordan), and the An-Najah National University (Palestine), takes part in the interdisciplinary and international DESERT program which is coordinated by the GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany). The study area is located about 100 km away from both the basin of the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Elat/Aqaba basin, respectively. Between March and May 2002 some 800 new gravity observations were recorded at a local scale in the Arava valley and at regional scale along the DESERT seismic line. Station spacing in the area of the Arava valley was 100 - 300 m and in the nearest neighbourhood of the fault 50 m only. The survey of detailed observations covered an area of 10 by 10 km and was completed by a likewise dense survey at the western side of the valley in Israel. All gravity data were tied to the IGSN -71 gravity datum and are terrain-corrected as well. The station complete Bouguer gravity field, Free air anomaly and residual isostatic anomalies (based on both Airy and Vening-Meinesz models) were merged with the existing regional gravity data bases of the region. Constraining information for the 3D density models came from recent geophysical field data acquisition and consist of seismic, seismological, electromagnetic studies, and geological mapping which represent the integrated part of the interdisciplinary research program. Novel methods e.g. curvature techniques, and Euler deconvolution of the gravity fields shed new insight into the structure of upper and lower crust and the causing density domains. In particular the "dip-curvature" reveal a clear course
Gravity Field Analysis and 3D Density Modeling of the Lithosphere Along the Dead Sea Transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goetze, H.; Ebbing, J.; Hese, F.; Kollersberger, T.; Schmidt, S.; Rybakov, M.; Hassouneh, M.; Hrahsha, M.; El Kelani, R.
2002-12-01
The gravity field of Dead Sea Rift / Dead Sea Transform was investigated with regard to the isostatic state, the crustal density structure of the orogeny and the rigidity of the lithosphere in the Central Arava Valley. Our multi-national and interdisciplinary gravity group with participants from the Geophysical Institute of Israel, the Natural Resources Authority (Jordan), and the An-Najah National University (Palestine), is aiming to study the crustal density structure, the isostatic state of the lithosphere and mechanical properties of the Dead Sea Rift system under the framework of the international DESERT program which is coordinated by the GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany). The study area is located about 100 km away from both the basin of the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Elat/Aqaba basin, respectively. Between March and May 2002 some 800 new gravity observations were recorded at a local (Arava valley) and regional scale (along the DESERT seismic line). Station spacing in the Arava valley was 100 - 300 m and in the nearest neighborhood of the fault 50 m only. The survey of detailed observations covered an area of 10 by 10 km and was completed by a likewise dense survey at the western side of the valley in Israel. All gravity data were tied to the IGSN -71 gravity datum and are terrain-corrected as well. The station complete Bouguer gravity field, Free air anomaly and residual isostatic anomalies (based on both Airy and Vening-Meinesz models) were merged with the existing regional gravity data bases of the region. Constraining information for the 3D density models at regional and local came from recent geophysical field data acquisition and consist of seismic, seismological, electromagnetic, and geologic studies which represent the integrated part of the interdisciplinary research program. Novel methods e.g. curvature techniques, and Euler deconvolution of the gravity fields shed new insight into the structure of upper and lower crust and the causing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baran, I.; Kuhn, M.; Claessens, S. J.; Featherstone, W. E.; Holmes, S. A.; Vaníček, P.
2006-04-01
A synthetic [simulated] Earth gravity model (SEGM) of the geoid, gravity and topography has been constructed over Australia specifically for validating regional gravimetric geoid determination theories, techniques and computer software. This regional high-resolution (1-arc-min by 1-arc-min) Australian SEGM (AusSEGM) is a combined source and effect model. The long-wavelength effect part (up to and including spherical harmonic degree and order 360) is taken from an assumed errorless EGM96 global geopotential model. Using forward modelling via numerical Newtonian integration, the short-wavelength source part is computed from a high-resolution (3-arc-sec by 3-arc-sec) synthetic digital elevation model (SDEM), which is a fractal surface based on the GLOBE v1 DEM. All topographic masses are modelled with a constant mass-density of 2,670 kg/m3. Based on these input data, gravity values on the synthetic topography (on a grid and at arbitrarily distributed discrete points) and consistent geoidal heights at regular 1-arc-min geographical grid nodes have been computed. The precision of the synthetic gravity and geoid data (after a first iteration) is estimated to be better than 30 μ Gal and 3 mm, respectively, which reduces to 1 μ Gal and 1 mm after a second iteration. The second iteration accounts for the changes in the geoid due to the superposed synthetic topographic mass distribution. The first iteration of AusSEGM is compared with Australian gravity and GPS-levelling data to verify that it gives a realistic representation of the Earth’s gravity field. As a by-product of this comparison, AusSEGM gives further evidence of the north south-trending error in the Australian Height Datum. The freely available AusSEGM-derived gravity and SDEM data, included as Electronic Supplementary Material (ESM) with this paper, can be used to compute a geoid model that, if correct, will agree to in 3 mm with the AusSEGM geoidal heights, thus offering independent verification of theories
The direct effects of gravity on the control and output matrices of controlled structure models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rey, Daniel A.; Alexander, Harold L.; Crawley, Edward F.
1992-01-01
The effects of gravity on the dynamic performance of structural control actuators and sensors are dual forms of an additive perturbation that can attenuate or amplify the device response (input or output). The modal modeling of these perturbations is derived for the general case of arbitrarily oriented devices and arbitrarily oriented planes of deformation. A nondimensional sensitivity analysis to identify the circumstances under which the effects of gravity are important is presented. Results show that gravity effects become important when the product of the ratio of the normalized modal slope and the modal displacement is comparable to the ratio of the gravitational acceleration and the product of the beam length and the squared eigenfrequency for a given mode.
Satellite Elevation Magnetic and Gravity Models of Major South American Plate Tectonic Features
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.; Lidiak, E. G.; Keller, G. R. (Principal Investigator); Longacre, M. B.
1984-01-01
Some MAGSAT scalar and vector magnetic anomaly data together with regional gravity anomaly data are being used to investigate the regional tectonic features of the South American Plate. An initial step in this analysis is three dimensional modeling of magnetic and gravity anomalies of major structures such as the Andean subduction zone and the Amazon River Aulacogen at satellite elevations over an appropriate range of physical properties using Gaus-Legendre quadrature integration method. In addition, one degree average free-air gravity anomalies of South America and adjacent marine areas are projected to satellite elevations assuming a spherical Earth and available MAGSAT data are processed to obtain compatible data sets for correlation. Correlation of these data sets is enhanced by reduction of the MAGSAT data to radial polarization because of the profound effect of the variation of the magnetic inclination over South America.
Some interior models of compact stars in f(R) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zubair, M.; Abbas, G.
2016-10-01
This paper deals with the interior models of compact stars in the framework of modified f(R) theory of gravity, which is the generalization of the Einstein's gravity. In order to complete the study, we have involved solution of Krori and Barua to the static spacetime with fluid source in modified f(R) theory of gravity. Further, we have matched the interior solution with the exterior solution to determine the constants of Krori and Barua solution. Finally, the constants have been formulated by using the observational data of various compact stars like 4U1820-30, Her X-1, SAX J1808-3658. Using the evaluated form of the solutions, we have discussed the regularity of matter components at the center as well as on the boundary, energy conditions, anisotropy, stability analysis and mass-radius relation of the compact stars 4U1820-30, Her X-1, SAX J1808-3658.
Logit Estimation of a Gravity Model of the College Enrollment Decision.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leppel, Karen
1993-01-01
A study investigated the factors influencing students' decisions about attending a college to which they had been admitted. Logit analysis confirmed gravity model predictions that geographic distance and student ability would most influence the enrollment decision and found other variables, although affecting earlier stages of decision making, did…
Existence of global weak solution for a reduced gravity two and a half layer model
Guo, Zhenhua Li, Zilai Yao, Lei
2013-12-15
We investigate the existence of global weak solution to a reduced gravity two and a half layer model in one-dimensional bounded spatial domain or periodic domain. Also, we show that any possible vacuum state has to vanish within finite time, then the weak solution becomes a unique strong one.
Gravitational waves during inflation from a 5D large-scale repulsive gravity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reyes, Luz M.; Moreno, Claudia; Madriz Aguilar, José Edgar; Bellini, Mauricio
2012-10-01
We investigate, in the transverse traceless (TT) gauge, the generation of the relic background of gravitational waves, generated during the early inflationary stage, on the framework of a large-scale repulsive gravity model. We calculate the spectrum of the tensor metric fluctuations of an effective 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric on cosmological scales. This metric is obtained after implementing a planar coordinate transformation on a 5D Ricci-flat metric solution, in the context of a non-compact Kaluza-Klein theory of gravity. We found that the spectrum is nearly scale invariant under certain conditions. One interesting aspect of this model is that it is possible to derive the dynamical field equations for the tensor metric fluctuations, valid not just at cosmological scales, but also at astrophysical scales, from the same theoretical model. The astrophysical and cosmological scales are determined by the gravity-antigravity radius, which is a natural length scale of the model, that indicates when gravity becomes repulsive in nature.
Some Cosmological Models for Poincare Gauge Gravity and Accelerated Expansion of the Universe
Mebarki, N.
2010-10-31
Two cosmological Models for the Poincare Gauge Gravity theory with a non vanishing torsion are proposed. It is shown that the torsion plays an important role in explaining the accelerated expansion of the universe. Some of the cosmological parameters are also expressed in terms of the redshift and the dark energy scenarios are discussed.
Multiple Ising models coupled to 2-d gravity: a CSD analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowick, Mark; Falcioni, Marco; Harris, Geoffrey; Marinari, Enzo
1994-04-01
We simulate single and multiple Ising models coupled to 2-d gravity and we measure critical slowing down (CSD) with the standard methods. We find that the Swendsen-Wang and Wolff cluster algorithms do not eliminate CSD. We interpret the result as an effect of the mesh dynamics.
Disturbance vector in space from surface gravity anomalies using complementary models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cruz, J. Y.
1985-12-01
This modeling of the external disturbance vector of the Earth from surface gravity anomaly data is discussed. The low frequency features of the signal are represented in spherical harmonic series. The recovery of the coefficients of the series from the given gravity anomalies is discussed focusing on the use of analytical continuation and ellipsoidal corrections to account for the Earth's topography and ellipticity. The spectrum and data response of the spatial disturbance vector are studied to aid the design of models and experiments. The local models studied to complement the globally valid spherical harmonic model are: (1) the residual topographic model (RTM), (2) the classical integral model, (3) three versions of the Dirac approach to collocation, and finally (4) two versions of the least squares collocation approach.
Gravity versus radiation models: on the importance of scale and heterogeneity in commuting flows.
Masucci, A Paolo; Serras, Joan; Johansson, Anders; Batty, Michael
2013-08-01
We test the recently introduced radiation model against the gravity model for the system composed of England and Wales, both for commuting patterns and for public transportation flows. The analysis is performed both at macroscopic scales, i.e., at the national scale, and at microscopic scales, i.e., at the city level. It is shown that the thermodynamic limit assumption for the original radiation model significantly underestimates the commuting flows for large cities. We then generalize the radiation model, introducing the correct normalization factor for finite systems. We show that even if the gravity model has a better overall performance the parameter-free radiation model gives competitive results, especially for large scales.
A novel gravity-induced flow transition in two-phase fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
d'Avila, M. A.; Shapley, N. C.; Walton, J. H.; Phillips, R. J.; Powell, R. L.; Dungan, S. R.
2006-10-01
Experimental results are reported that show a gravity-induced flow transition in well-mixed suspensions and emulsions, even when the buoyancy-driven velocity of isolated drops or particles is several orders of magnitude smaller than the imposed velocity. The experiments were conducted with emulsions of isooctane in water and suspensions of polymethyl-methacrylate particles in water. Both the drop and particle diameters were approximately 3-5μm, and concentrations of the dispersed phases ranged from dilute (2%) to concentrated (40%). The two-phase fluids were confined to a horizontal, concentric-cylinder apparatus in which the outer cylinder was rotated, and the velocity profiles were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. The results show that the flow transition is relatively insensitive to the volume fraction of the dispersed phase. The flow transition occurs because, although the buoyancy-driven velocity is relatively small on the length scale of the particle or drop dimension, the flow itself induces a slight variation in the suspension concentration and, hence, density. Although only on the order of 10-4g/cm3, this density difference spans a macroscopic length scale, making the buoyancy effect competitive with the imposed flow. These arguments yield a dimensionless parameter that predicts very closely the nonequilibrium phase diagram generated by the experiments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fritts, David
1987-01-01
Gravity waves contributed to the establishment of the thermal structure, small scale (80 to 100 km) fluctuations in velocity (50 to 80 m/sec) and density (20 to 30%, 0 to peak). Dominant gravity wave spectrum in the middle atmosphere: x-scale, less than 100 km; z-scale, greater than 10 km; t-scale, less than 2 hr. Theorists are beginning to understand middle atmosphere motions. There are two classes: Planetary waves and equatorial motions, gravity waves and tidal motions. The former give rise to variability at large scales, which may alter apparent mean structure. Effects include density and velocity fluctuations, induced mean motions, and stratospheric warmings which lead to the breakup of the polar vortex and cooling of the mesosphere. On this scale are also equatorial quasi-biennial and semi-annual oscillations. Gravity wave and tidal motions produce large rms fluctuations in density and velocity. The magnitude of the density fluctuations compared to the mean density is of the order of the vertical wavelength, which grows with height. Relative density fluctuations are less than, or of the order of 30% below the mesopause. Such motions may cause significant and variable convection, and wind shear. There is a strong seasonal variation in gravity wave amplitude. Additional observations are needed to address and quantify mean and fluctuation statistics of both density and mean velocity, variability of the mean and fluctuations, and to identify dominant gravity wave scales and sources as well as causes of variability, both temporal and geographic.
GRGM900C: A Degree 900 Lunar Gravity Model from GRAIL Primary and Extended Mission Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, Frank G.; Goossens, Sander; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Bryant, D. Loomis; Chinn, Douglas S.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.
2014-01-01
We have derived a gravity field solution in spherical harmonics to degree and order 900, GRGM900C, from the tracking data of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Primary (1 March to 29 May 2012) and Extended Missions (30 August to 14 December 2012). A power law constraint of 3.6 × 10(exp -4)/l(exp 2) was applied only for degree l greater than 600. The model produces global correlations of gravity, and gravity predicted from lunar topography of greater than or equal to 0.98 through degree 638. The model's degree strength varies from a minimum of 575-675 over the central nearside and farside to 900 over the polar regions. The model fits the Extended Mission Ka-Band Range Rate data through 17 November 2012 at 0.13 micrometers/s RMS, whereas the last month of Ka-Band Range-Rate data obtained from altitudes of 2-10 km fit at 0.98 micrometers/s RMS, indicating that there is still signal inherent in the tracking data beyond degree 900.
Gravity and Nonconservative Force Model Tuning for the GEOSAT Follow-On Spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, Frank G.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Rowlands, David D.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Marr, Gregory C.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The US Navy's GEOSAT Follow-On spacecraft was launched on February 10, 1998 and the primary objective of the mission was to map the oceans using a radar altimeter. Three radar altimeter calibration campaigns have been conducted in 1999 and 2000. The spacecraft is tracked by satellite laser ranging (SLR) and Doppler beacons and a limited amount of data have been obtained from the Global Positioning Receiver (GPS) on board the satellite. Even with EGM96, the predicted radial orbit error due to gravity field mismodelling (to 70x70) remains high at 2.61 cm (compared to 0.88 cm for TOPEX). We report on the preliminary gravity model tuning for GFO using SLR, and altimeter crossover data. Preliminary solutions using SLR and GFO/GFO crossover data from CalVal campaigns I and II in June-August 1999, and January-February 2000 have reduced the predicted radial orbit error to 1.9 cm and further reduction will be possible when additional data are added to the solutions. The gravity model tuning has improved principally the low order m-daily terms and has reduced significantly the geographically correlated error present in this satellite orbit. In addition to gravity field mismodelling, the largest contributor to the orbit error is the non-conservative force mismodelling. We report on further nonconservative force model tuning results using available data from over one cycle in beta prime.
Speeding up N-body simulations of modified gravity: chameleon screening models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bose, Sownak; Li, Baojiu; Barreira, Alexandre; He, Jian-hua; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Koyama, Kazuya; Llinares, Claudio; Zhao, Gong-Bo
2017-02-01
We describe and demonstrate the potential of a new and very efficient method for simulating certain classes of modified gravity theories, such as the widely studied f(R) gravity models. High resolution simulations for such models are currently very slow due to the highly nonlinear partial differential equation that needs to be solved exactly to predict the modified gravitational force. This nonlinearity is partly inherent, but is also exacerbated by the specific numerical algorithm used, which employs a variable redefinition to prevent numerical instabilities. The standard Newton-Gauss-Seidel iterative method used to tackle this problem has a poor convergence rate. Our new method not only avoids this, but also allows the discretised equation to be written in a form that is analytically solvable. We show that this new method greatly improves the performance and efficiency of f(R) simulations. For example, a test simulation with 5123 particles in a box of size 512 Mpc/h is now 5 times faster than before, while a Millennium-resolution simulation for f(R) gravity is estimated to be more than 20 times faster than with the old method. Our new implementation will be particularly useful for running very high resolution, large-sized simulations which, to date, are only possible for the standard model, and also makes it feasible to run large numbers of lower resolution simulations for covariance analyses. We hope that the method will bring us to a new era for precision cosmological tests of gravity.
Closed-loop, estimator-based model of human posture following reduced gravity exposure.
Newman, D J; Schultz, K U; Rochlis, J L
1996-01-01
A computational and experimental method is employed to provide an understanding of a critical human space flight problem, posture control following reduced gravity exposure. In the case of an emergency egress, astronauts' postural stability could be life saving. It is hypothesized that muscular gains are lowered during reduced gravity exposure, causing a feeling of heavy legs, or a perceived feeling of muscular weakness, upon return to Earth's 1 g environment. We developed an estimator-based model that is verified by replicating spatial and temporal characteristics of human posture and incorporates an inverted pendulum plant in series with a Hill-type muscle model, two feedback pathways, a central nervous system estimator, and variable gains. Results obtained by lowering the variable muscle gain in the model support the hypothesis. Experimentally, subjects were exposed to partial gravity (3/8 g) simulation on a suspension apparatus, then performed exercises postulated to expedite recovery and alleviate the heavy legs phenomenon. Results show that the rms position of the center of pressure increases significantly after reduced gravity exposure. Closed-loop system behavior is revealed, and posture is divided into a short-term period that exhibits higher stochastic activity and persistent trends and a long-term period that shows relatively low stochastic activity and antipersistent trends.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vorontsov, Artem; Andreeva, Elena; Nesterov, Ivan; Padokhin, Artem; Kurbatov, Grigory
2016-04-01
The acoustic-gravity waves (AGW) in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere can be generated by a variety of the phenomena in the near-Earth environment and atmosphere as well as by some perturbations of the Earth's ground or ocean surface. For instance, the role of the AGW sources can be played by the earthquakes, explosions, thermal heating, seisches, tsunami waves. We present the examples of AGWs excited by the tsunami waves traveling in the ocean, by seisches, and by ionospheric heating by the high-power radio wave. In the last case, the gravity waves are caused by the pulsed modulation of the heating wave. The AGW propagation in the upper atmosphere induces the variations and irregularities in the electron density distribution of the ionosphere, whose structure can be efficiently reconstructed by the method of the ionospheric radio tomography (RT) based on the data from the global navigational satellite systems (GNSS). The input data for RT diagnostics are composed of the 150/400 MHz radio signals from the low-orbiting (LO) satellites and 1.2-1.5 GHz radio signals from the high-orbiting (HO) satellites with their orbits at ~1000 and ~20000 km above the ground, respectively. These data enable ionospheric imaging on different spatiotemporal scales with different spatiotemporal resolution and coverage, which is suitable, inter alia, for tracking the waves and wave-like features in the ionosphere. In particular, we demonstrate the maps of the ionospheric responses to the tornado at Moore (Oklahoma, USA) of May 20, 2013, which are reconstructed from the HO data. We present the examples of LORT images containing the waves and wavelike disturbances associated with various sources (e.g., auroral precipitation and high-power heating of the ionosphere). We also discuss the results of modeling the AGW generation by the surface and volumetric sources. The millihertz AGW from these sources initiate the ionospheric perturbation with a typical scale of a few hundred km at the
Gravity data for a 3-D density model of the Po plain and the surrounding region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tondi, Rosaria; Borghi, Alessandra; Reguzzoni, Mirko; Vuan, Alessandro; Klin, Peter
2015-04-01
In order to properly localise earthquakes and define, especially in tectonically active areas, the seismic risk, there is the necessity to have reliable earth models. Unfortunately, conventional geophysical tomographic methods face the problem of irregular data coverage over the surface of the studied volume, which can produce irregular image resolution. This problem is difficult to address for each isolated geophysical technique, and it demands an effort for the integration of different geophysical methods into a single inversion scheme. In this work, we show how gravity information is a valuable tool in discriminating among possible models. An appropriate density starting model: a 10 layers 1D model which represents the mean geological structure below the Po plain and the surrounding region ([7.24E-12.80E], [43.78N-46.18N]), is tested upon two different gravity data sets, three different model parametrizations and two different seismic information.. The contribution given by ground based gravity data has been compared to the one, obtained by the combination of the GOCE satellite observation with the Italian terrestrial gravity data. This combination has been performed by means of a frequency analysis, using the very low frequencies from the GOCE data, the low frequency (between 181 and 240 degrees, in term of spherical harmonics) from the integration of the ground data with the GOCE data by least-square collocation, the high frequencies are obtained by residual terrain correction modelling. The 2012 Emilia seismic sequence, together with recent instrumentation deployed within the Po plain, allows to improve the existing crustal models by using a 2-20 s regional surface wave tomography. Isotropic reference S-wave velocity models up to 25 km of depth are calculated from the local dispersion curves for both the Love and Rayleigh fundamental mode using a linearized inversion scheme. Furtherly, seismological models and gravimetric data are exploited in the Sequential
Xiang, Yongqing; Yakushin, Sergei B; Cohen, Bernard; Raphan, Theodore
2006-12-01
A neural network model was developed to explain the gravity-dependent properties of gain adaptation of the angular vestibuloocular reflex (aVOR). Gain changes are maximal at the head orientation where the gain is adapted and decrease as the head is tilted away from that position and can be described by the sum of gravity-independent and gravity-dependent components. The adaptation process was modeled by modifying the weights and bias values of a three-dimensional physiologically based neural network of canal-otolith-convergent neurons that drive the aVOR. Model parameters were trained using experimental vertical aVOR gain values. The learning rule aimed to reduce the error between eye velocities obtained from experimental gain values and model output in the position of adaptation. Although the model was trained only at specific head positions, the model predicted the experimental data at all head positions in three dimensions. Altering the relative learning rates of the weights and bias improved the model-data fits. Model predictions in three dimensions compared favorably with those of a double-sinusoid function, which is a fit that minimized the mean square error at every head position and served as the standard by which we compared the model predictions. The model supports the hypothesis that gravity-dependent adaptation of the aVOR is realized in three dimensions by a direct otolith input to canal-otolith neurons, whose canal sensitivities are adapted by the visual-vestibular mismatch. The adaptation is tuned by how the weights from otolith input to the canal-otolith-convergent neurons are adapted for a given head orientation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vajda, Peter; Zahorec Pavol, Pavol; Papčo, Juraj; Kubová, Anna
2015-06-01
We review here the gravitational effects on the temporal (time-lapse) gravity changes induced by the surface deformation (vertical displacements). We focus on two terms, one induced by the displacement of the benchmark (gravity station) in the ambient gravity field, and the other imposed by the attraction of the masses within the topographic deformation rind. The first term, coined often the Free Air Effect (FAE), is the product of the vertical gradient of gravity (VGG) and the vertical displacement of the benchmark. We examine the use of the vertical gradient of normal gravity, typically called the theoretical or normal Free Air Gradient (normal FAG), as a replacement for the true VGG in the FAE, as well as the contribution of the topography to the VGG. We compute a topographic correction to the normal FAG, to offer a better approximation of the VGG, and evaluate its size and shape (spatial behavior) for a volcanic study area selected as the Central Volcanic Complex (CVC) on Tenerife, where this correction reaches 77% of the normal FAG and varies rapidly with terrain. The second term, imposed by the attraction of the vertically displaced topo-masses, referred to here as the Topographic Deformation Effect (TDE) must be computed by numerical evaluation of the Newton volumetric integral. As the effect wanes off quickly with distance, a high resolution DEM is required for its evaluation. In practice this effect is often approximated by the planar or spherical Bouguer deformation effect (BDE). By a synthetic simulation at the CVC of Tenerife we show the difference between the rigorously evaluated TDE and its approximation by the planar BDE. The complete effect, coined here the Deformation Induced Topographic Effect (DITE) is the sum of FAE and TDE. Next we compare by means of synthetic simulations the DITE with two approximations of DITE typically used in practice: one amounting only to the first term in which the VGG is approximated by normal FAG, the other adopting a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, X.; Ditmar, P.; Zhao, Q.; Klees, R.; Farahani, H. H.
2017-02-01
GPS data collected by satellite gravity missions can be used for extracting the long-wavelength part of the Earth's gravity field. We propose a new data processing method which makes use of the `average acceleration' approach to gravity field modelling. In this method, satellite accelerations are directly derived from GPS carrier phase measurements with an epoch-differenced scheme. As a result, no ambiguity solutions are needed and the systematic errors that do not change much from epoch to epoch are largely eliminated. The GPS data collected by the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite mission are used to demonstrate the added value of the proposed method. An analysis of the residual accelerations shows that accelerations derived in this way are more precise, with noise being reduced by about 20 and 5% at the cross-track component and the other two components, respectively, as compared to those based on kinematic orbits. The accelerations obtained in this way allow the recovery of the gravity field to a slightly higher maximum degree compared to the solution based on kinematic orbits. Furthermore, the gravity field solution has an overall better performance. Errors in spherical harmonic coefficients are smaller, especially at low degrees. The cumulative geoid height error is reduced by about 15 and 5% up to degree 50 and 150, respectively. An analysis in the spatial domain shows that large errors along the geomagnetic equator, which are caused by a high electron density coupled with large short-term variations, are substantially reduced. Finally, the new method allows for a better observation of mass transport signals. In particular, sufficiently realistic signatures of regional mass anomalies in North America and south-west Africa are obtained.
Three-Dimensional Gravity and Magnetic Modelling Along the Peruvian Margin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehghani, A.; Sabetian, R.
2015-12-01
The gravity and magnetic models are constructed for three areas along the Peruvian margin between 7.25°S and 16.75°S and are based on the all available wide-angle seismic velocity models. The gravity and magnetic models image nearly the whole margin which has been only partly resolved with geophysical methods up to now. The continental margin is characterized by positive free-air anomalies of varying amplitudes, indicating that the margin has been shaped by the subduction of different features on the Nazca Plate. In the Yaquina Area (7.25°S to 11°S) gravity anomalies caused by the Trujillo Trough and the Mendaña Fracture Zone are successfully modelled with remarkable undulations in the layer geometry of the oceanic crust. Along the continental margin, especially in the Lima Area (10.50°S to 14.40°S), strong undulations of the lower continental crust influence the upper sedimentary layers and support the development of basins along the Peruvian margin. The theory stating that the Peruvian margin is uplifted by the subducting Nazca Ridge is supported by gravity modelling. Consequently the buoyant Nazca Ridge is, at least partly, responsible for the extended region of flat subduction. The thickened and slightly asymmetrical crust of the Nazca Ridge is envisaged in gravity modelling. In the Nazca Ridge Area (14.25°S to 16.75°S) no accretionary prism is modelled. We conclude that the ridge is eroding the continental margin; furthermore the subduction of eroded sediments is probable. Gravity modelling suggests that the Nazca Ridge has fractured the continental margin. North of the ridge, in the Lima Area, a rather uniform accretionary complex is observed. This indicates that, after the margin was eroded by the southwards moving Nazca Ridge, the prism rapidly reached its stable size. In the Yaquina Area an accretionary prism is modelled in the whole research area but local variations of its location and structure indicate the former erosive influence on the
An improved gravity model for Mars: Goddard Mars Model-1 (GMM-1)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.; Fricke, S. K.; Lemoine, F. G.
1993-01-01
Doppler tracking data of three orbiting spacecraft have been reanalyzed to develop a new gravitational field model for the planet Mars, GMM-1 (Goddard Mars Model-1). This model employs nearly all available data, consisting of approximately 1100 days of S-bank tracking data collected by NASA's Deep Space Network from the Mariner 9, and Viking 1 and Viking 2 spacecraft, in seven different orbits, between 1971 and 1979. GMM-1 is complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 50, which corresponds to a half-wavelength spatial resolution of 200-300 km where the data permit. GMM-1 represents satellite orbits with considerably better accuracy than previous Mars gravity models and shows greater resolution of identifiable geological structures. The notable improvement in GMM-1 over previous models is a consequence of several factors: improved computational capabilities, the use of optimum weighting and least-squares collocation solution techniques which stabilized the behavior of the solution at high degree and order, and the use of longer satellite arcs than employed in previous solutions that were made possible by improved force and measurement models. The inclusion of X-band tracking data from the 379-km altitude, near-polar orbiting Mars Observer spacecraft should provide a significant improvement over GMM-1, particularly at high latitudes where current data poorly resolves the gravitational signature of the planet.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barriot, J.-P.; Balmino, G.; Valès, N.
We present a new way to build reliable local models of the Venus gravity field from the cycles 5 and 6 of the Magellan probe by directly considering the Doppler residual profiles instead of the derived residual acceleration profiles. We give an example over a test area.
The IfE Global Gravity Field Model Recovered from GOCE Orbit and Gradiometer Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Hu; Muiller, Jurgen; Brieden, Phillip
2015-03-01
An independent global gravity field model is computed from the GOCE orbit and gradiometer data using our own IfE software. We analysed the same data period that were considered for the first released GOCE models. The Acceleration Approach is applied to process the orbit data. The gravity gradients are processed in the framework of the remove-restore technique by which the low-frequency noise of the original gradients are removed. For the combined solution, the normal equations are summed by the Variance Component Estimation Approach. The result in terms of accumulated geoid height error calculated from the coefficient difference w.r.t. EGM2008 is about 11 cm at D/O 200, which corresponds to the accuracy level of the first released TIM and DIR solutions. This indicates that our IfE model has a comparable performance as the other official GOCE models.
A multidimensional model of the effect of gravity on the spatial orientation of the monkey
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merfeld, D. M.; Young, L. R.; Oman, C. M.; Shelhamer, M. J.
1993-01-01
A "sensory conflict" model of spatial orientation was developed. This mathematical model was based on concepts derived from observer theory, optimal observer theory, and the mathematical properties of coordinate rotations. The primary hypothesis is that the central nervous system of the squirrel monkey incorporates information about body dynamics and sensory dynamics to develop an internal model. The output of this central model (expected sensory afference) is compared to the actual sensory afference, with the difference defined as "sensory conflict." The sensory conflict information is, in turn, used to drive central estimates of angular velocity ("velocity storage"), gravity ("gravity storage"), and linear acceleration ("acceleration storage") toward more accurate values. The model successfully predicts "velocity storage" during rotation about an earth-vertical axis. The model also successfully predicts that the time constant of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex is reduced and that the axis of eye rotation shifts toward alignment with gravity following postrotatory tilt. Finally, the model predicts the bias, modulation, and decay components that have been observed during off-vertical axis rotations (OVAR).
Schmidt, Werner
2006-12-01
Gravity-induced absorption changes as experienced during a series of parabolas on the Airbus 300 Zero-G have been measured previously pointwise on the basis of dual-wavelength spectroscopy. Only the two wavelengths of 460 and 665 nm as generated by light-emitting diodes have been utilised during our first two parabolic-flight campaigns. In order to gain complete spectral information throughout the wavelength range from 400 to 900 nm, a miniaturized rapid scan spectrophotometer was designed. The difference of spectra taken at 0 g and 1.8 g presents the first gravity-induced absorption change spectrum measured on wild-type Phycomyces blakesleeanus sporangiophores, exhibiting a broad positive hump in the visible range and negative values in the near infrared with an isosbestic point near 735 nm. The control experiment performed with the stiff mutant A909 of Phycomyces blakesleeanus does not show this structure. These results are in agreement with those obtained with an array spectrophotometer. In analogy to the more thoroughly understood so-called light-induced absorption changes, we assume that gravity-induced absorption changes reflect redox changes of electron transport components such as flavins and cytochromes localised within the plasma membrane.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oriti, Daniele
2009-03-01
Preface; Part I. Fundamental Ideas and General Formalisms: 1. Unfinished revolution C. Rovelli; 2. The fundamental nature of space and time G. 't Hooft; 3. Does locality fail at intermediate length scales R. Sorkin; 4. Prolegomena to any future quantum gravity J. Stachel; 5. Spacetime symmetries in histories canonical gravity N. Savvidou; 6. Categorical geometry and the mathematical foundations of quantum gravity L. Crane; 7. Emergent relativity O. Dreyer; 8. Asymptotic safety R. Percacci; 9. New directions in background independent quantum gravity F. Markopoulou; Questions and answers; Part II: 10. Gauge/gravity duality G. Horowitz and J. Polchinski; 11. String theory, holography and quantum gravity T. Banks; 12. String field theory W. Taylor; Questions and answers; Part III: 13. Loop Quantum Gravity T. Thiemann; 14. Covariant loop quantum gravity? E. LIvine; 15. The spin foam representation of loop quantum gravity A. Perez; 16. 3-dimensional spin foam quantum gravity L. Freidel; 17. The group field theory approach to quantum gravity D. Oriti; Questions and answers; Part IV. Discrete Quantum Gravity: 18. Quantum gravity: the art of building spacetime J. Ambjørn, J. Jurkiewicz and R. Loll; 19. Quantum Regge calculations R. Williams; 20. Consistent discretizations as a road to quantum gravity R. Gambini and J. Pullin; 21. The causal set approach to quantum gravity J. Henson; Questions and answers; Part V. Effective Models and Quantum Gravity Phenomenology: 22. Quantum gravity phenomenology G. Amelino-Camelia; 23. Quantum gravity and precision tests C. Burgess; 24. Algebraic approach to quantum gravity II: non-commutative spacetime F. Girelli; 25. Doubly special relativity J. Kowalski-Glikman; 26. From quantum reference frames to deformed special relativity F. Girelli; 27. Lorentz invariance violation and its role in quantum gravity phenomenology J. Collins, A. Perez and D. Sudarsky; 28. Generic predictions of quantum theories of gravity L. Smolin; Questions and
Barceló, Carlos; Liberati, Stefano; Visser, Matt
2011-01-01
Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for) gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing) and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity).
Viability of an arctan model of f (R ) gravity for late-time cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, Koushik; Panda, Sukanta; Patel, Avani
2016-07-01
f (R ) modification of Einstein's gravity is an interesting possibility to explain the late-time acceleration of the Universe. In this work we explore the cosmological viability of one such f (R ) modification proposed by Kruglov [Phys. Rev. D 89, 064004 (2014)]. We show that the model violates fifth-force constraints. The model is also plagued with the issue of a curvature singularity in a spherically collapsing object, where the effective scalar field reaches the point of diverging scalar curvature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakravarthi, V.; Mallesh, K.; Ramamma, B.
2017-03-01
We develop two automatic techniques in the spatial domain using the exponential density contrast model (EDCM) to trace the bottom surface of a 2.5D sedimentary basin from the observed gravity anomalies. The interface between the sediments and basement is described with a finite strike polygonal source, whose depth ordinates become the unknown parameters to be estimated. The proposed automatic modeling technique makes use of the forward difference approximation and the inversion solves a system of normal equations using the ridge regression to estimate the unknown parameters. Furthermore, the proposed inversion technique simultaneously estimates the regional gravity background that is associated with the residual gravity anomaly. In either case, forward modeling is realized in the spatial domain through a method that combines both analytical and numerical approaches. The utility of each algorithm was successfully tested on a theoretically produced noisy residual gravity dataset. The validity of the inversion technique is also exemplified with the noisy gravity anomalies attributable to a synthetic structure in the presence of regional gravity background. We demonstrate that the magnitude of gravity anomaly is offset dependent and that it would influence the modeling result. Additionally, some applications with real gravity datasets from the Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens in western Turkey using the derived EDCMs have produced geologically reasonable results which are in close agreement with those reported previously.
Gravity and thermal models for the twin peaks silicic volcanic center, Southwestern Utah
Carrier, D.L.; Chapman, D.S.
1981-11-10
Gravity, heat flow, and surface geology observations have been used as constraints for a thermal model of a late Tertiary silicic volcanic center at Twin Peaks, Utah. Silicic Volcanism began in the area with the extrusion of the Coyote Hills rhyolite 2.74 +- 0.1 m.y. ago, followed by the Cudahy Mine obsidian, felsite, and volcanoclastics, and finally by a complex sequence of domes and flows that lasted until 2.3 +- 0.1 m.y. ago. Basalt sequence span the time 2.5 to 0.9 m.y. Terrain-corrected Bouguer gravity anomalies at Twin Peaks are shaped by three features of varying characteristic dimensions: (1) a major north-northeast trending --30 mGal gravity trough roughly 40 km wide caused by a thick sequence of Cenozoic sediments in the Black Rock Desert Valley, (2) a local roughly circular -7 mGal gravity low, 26 km across, probably related to an intrusive body in the basement, and (3) a series of narrow positive anomalies up to + 10 mGal produced by the major Twin Peaks volcanic domes. The intrusive bodies have been modeled as three-dimensional vertical cylinders; the total volume of intrusive material is estimated to be about 500 km/sup 3/. Simple models, assuming conductive heat transfer and using geometrical constraints from the gravity results, predict that a negligible thermal anomaly should exist 1 m.y. after emplacement of the intrusion. This prediction is consistent with an average heat flow of 96 mW m/sup -2/ for the area, not significantly different from eastern Basin and Range values elsewhere. Magmatic longevity of this system 2.7 to 2.3 m.y. for silicic volcanism of 2.5 to 0.9 m.y. for basaltic volcanism, does not seem to prolong the cooling of the system substantially beyond that predicted by conductive cooling.
Rehabilitation Exercises to Induce Balanced Scapular Muscle Activity in an Anti-gravity Posture
Ishigaki, Tomonobu; Yamanaka, Masanori; Hirokawa, Motoki; Tai, Keita; Ezawa, Yuya; Samukawa, Mina; Tohyama, Harukazu; Sugawara, Makoto
2014-01-01
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the intramuscular balance ratios of the upper trapezius muscle (UT) and the lower trapezius muscle (LT), and the intermuscular balance ratios of the UT and the serratus anterior muscle (SA) among prone extension (ProExt), prone horizontal abduction with external rotation (ProHAbd), forward flexion in the side-lying position (SideFlex), side-lying external rotation (SideEr), shoulder flexion with glenohumeral horizontal abduction load (FlexBand), and shoulder flexion with glenohumeral horizontal adduction load (FlexBall) in the standing posture. [Methods] The electromyographic (EMG) activities of the UT, LT and SA were measured during the tasks. The percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) was calculated for each muscle, and the UT/LT ratios and the UT/SA ratios were compared among the tasks. [Results] The UT/LT ratio with the FlexBand was not significantly different from those of the four exercises in the side-lying and prone postures. The UT/SA ratio with the FlexBall demonstrated appropriate balanced activity. [Conclusion] In an anti-gravity posture, we recommend the FlexBand and the FlexBall for inducing balanced UT/LT and UT/SA ratios, respectively. PMID:25540485
Gravity induced diffusive mixing between fluids of different densities in a vertical tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lefaucheur, E.; Souche, M.; Salin, D.; Hulin, J. P.; Allouche, M.; Daccord, G.; Hinch, E. J.
2000-11-01
Gravity induced mixing is studied experimentally between two fluids of different densities initially separated in an unstable configuration inside a transparent vertical tube (4m height, 20 mm diameter). Spatiotemporal diagrams of the concentration profile along the tube are realized optically. For large density contrasts (Δ ρ = 10-40%), the mixing zone displays an erf like concentration profile with a width increasing diffusively as √t. The corresponding diffusion coefficient D is of order 10-4m^2/s (10^5 times larger than molecular diffusion) and varies slowly with the Δ ρ. This "diffusive mixing" is due to random tubulent motions in the mixing zone over distances of the order of the diameter and with velocities of a few cm/s. At lower contrasts Δ ρ = 0.05-1% and long times, the concentration profile remains diffusive at all distances, with D strongly increasing at low Δ ρ. At short times, Rayleigh-Tayor like fingers develop and get unstable : the concentration profile is diffusive only at short distances and terminates by a sharp front of roughly constant convection velocity.
Gravity effects on sediment sorting: limitations of models developed on Earth for Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Kuhn, Brigitte; Gartmann, Andres
2015-04-01
Most studies on surface processes on planetary bodies assume that the use of empirical models developed for Earth is possible if the mathematical equations include all the relevant factors, such as gravity, viscosity and the density of water and sediment. However, most models for sediment transport on Earth are at least semi-empirical, using coefficients to link observed sediment movement to controlling factors such as flow velocity, slope and channel dimensions. However, using roughness and drag coefficients, as well as parameters describing incipient motion of particles, observed on Earth on another planet, violates, strictly speaking, the boundary conditions set for their application by fluid dynamics because the coefficienst describe a flow condition, not a particle property. Reduced gravity affects the flow around a settling partcile or over the bed of a watercourse, therefore data and models from Earth do not apply to another planet. Comparing observations from reduced gravity experiments and model results obtained on Earth confirm the significance of this error, e.g. by underestimating settling velocities of sandy particles by 10 to 50% for Mars when using models from Earth. In this study, the relevance of this error is examined by simulating the sorting of sediment deposited from water flowing on Mars. The results indicate that sorting on Mars is less pronounced than models calibrated on Earth suggest. This has implications for the selection of landing sites and, more importantly, the identification of strata potentially bearing traces of past life during rover missions on Mars.
Gravity effects on sediment sorting: limitations of models developed on Earth for Mars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuhn, N. J.; Kuhn, B.; Gartmann, A.
2015-10-01
Most studies on surface processes on planetary bodies assume that the use of empirical models developed for Earth is possible if the mathematical equations include all the relevant factors, such as gravity, viscosity and the density of water and sediment. However, most models for sediment transport on Earth are at least semi-empirical, using coefficients to link observed sediment movement to controlling factors such as flow velocity, slope and channel dimensions. However, using roughness and drag coefficients, as well as parameters describing incipient motion of particles, observed on Earth on another planet, violates, strictly speaking, the boundary conditions set for their application by fluid dynamics because the coefficienst describe a flow condition, not a particle property. Reduced gravity affects the flow around a settling partcile or over the bed of a watercourse, therefore data and models from Earth do not apply to another planet. Comparing observations from reduced gravity experiments and model results obtained on Earth confirm the significance of this error, e.g. by underestimating settling velocities of sandy particles by 10 to 50% for Mars when using models from Earth. In this study, the relevance of this error is examined by simulating the sorting of sediment deposited from water flowing on Mars. The results indicate that sorting on Mars is less pronounced than models calibrated on Earth suggest. This has implications for the selection of landing sites and,more importantly, the identification of strata potentially bearing traces of past life during rover missions on Mars. try, 2001
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uva, B.; Strollo, F.; Ricci, F.; Masini, M. A.
Cultured astrocytes, neurons and testicular cells (myoid, germ, Sertoli, Leydig cells) as well as rat testes and testes'slices, were subjected to modeled microgravity using a three dimensional Random Positioning Machine (10-6G) for 5min, 30min, 1h, 24h and 32h. Parallel cell cultures and tissues were submitted to hypergravity using an hyperfuge (2.5G) for the same period of time. At the end of the rotations the cultures and tissues were fixed, the tissue was sectioned (5 micron). All the specimens were processed for immunohistochemical identification of microtubules, mitochondria, 3 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, caspase 7, heat shock proteins and identification of DNA fragmentation. At 5min at modeled microgravity and hypergravity, the histology of the cells in culture and the tissues was altered, microtubules and mitochondria were disorganized. Numerous cells underwent apoptosis. Immunostaining for enzymes involved in ion transmembrane transport, as Na+/K+ATPase and cotransporter proteins, and in steroidogenesis diminished or was abolished. At 1h in modeled microgravity or hypergravity, HSPs were expressed and ion transport enzymes as well as steroidogenic enzymes were again immunostainable. These data show that microgravity and hypergravity cause only transient alterations, and tissues and cells in cultures are able to adapt to different gravity conditions.
A model for gravity-wave spectra observed by Doppler sounding systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanzandt, T. E.
1986-01-01
A model for Mesosphere - Stratosphere - Troposphere (MST) radar spectra is developed following the formalism presented by Pinkel (1981). Expressions for the one-dimensional spectra of radial velocity versus frequency and versus radial wave number are presented. Their dependence on the parameters of the gravity-wave spectrum and on the experimental parameters, radar zenith angle and averaging time are described and the conditions for critical tests of the gravity-wave hypothesis are discussed. The model spectra is compared with spectra observed in the Arctic summer mesosphere by the Poker Flat radar. This model applies to any monostatic Doppler sounding system, including MST radar, Doppler lidar and Doppler sonar in the atmosphere, and Doppler sonar in the ocean.
The anisotropic cosmological models in f( R, T) gravity with Λ(T)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaubey, R.; Shukla, A. K.
2017-04-01
The general class of anisotropic Bianchi cosmological models in f( R, T) modified theories of gravity with Λ( T) has been considered. This paper deals with f( R, T) modified theories of gravity, where the gravitational Lagrangian is given by an arbitrary function of Ricci scalar R and the trace of the stress-energy tensor T has been investigated for a specific choice of f( R, T) = f 1( R) + f 2( T). The exact solutions to the corresponding field equations are obtained in quadrature form. We have discussed three types of solutions of the average scale factor for the general class of Bianchi cosmological models by using a special law for deceleration parameter which is linear in time with a negative slope. The solutions to the Einstein field equations are obtained for three different physical viable cosmologies. All physical parameters are calculated and discussed in each model.
A nonhydrostatic unstructured-mesh soundproof model for simulation of internal gravity waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smolarkiewicz, Piotr; Szmelter, Joanna
2011-12-01
A semi-implicit edge-based unstructured-mesh model is developed that integrates nonhydrostatic soundproof equations, inclusive of anelastic and pseudo-incompressible systems of partial differential equations. The model builds on nonoscillatory forward-in-time MPDATA approach using finite-volume discretization and unstructured meshes with arbitrarily shaped cells. Implicit treatment of gravity waves benefits both accuracy and stability of the model. The unstructured-mesh solutions are compared to equivalent structured-grid results for intricate, multiscale internal-wave phenomenon of a non-Boussinesq amplification and breaking of deep stratospheric gravity waves. The departures of the anelastic and pseudoincompressible results are quantified in reference to a recent asymptotic theory [Achatz et al. 2010, J. Fluid Mech., 663, 120-147)].
A 3D synoptic model of Central America inferred from gravity data interpretation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alvarado, G.; Fairhead, D.; Goetze, H.-J.; Lahrmann, B.; Leandro, G.; Luecke, O.; Schmidt, S.
2007-12-01
Large portions of the Central American Isthmus have served as key areas for the collaborative research program (SFB 574) and its goal to understand orogenic processes at convergent margins, such as the volatile and fluid cycle and the relationships between tectonics and magmatism. Gravity data from both on- and offshore has been gathered from various institutions and has been combined in a homogeneous data set. Due to difficult access to the high mountains the coverage by gravity observations remains rather incomplete mainly in the area of southern Costa Rica and eastern Nicaragua. Station complete Bouguer anomalies, Free Air anomalies and isostatic residual anomalies maps were compiled as a result of the homogenization of gravity field data. First analyses of the gravity field using curvature methods helps to separate density provinces in the crust. A comparison with the geological map shows a good correlation with tectonical units in most of the region and provides possibilities for crustal segmentation. Sources of gravity anomalies were investigated by Euler deconvolution and source point clusters in depths of 10 km and 30 km were obtained. For the first time a 3D density model up to the Central American lithosphere has been compiled by combining the results of curvature and Euler analysis with constraining data e.g. geological maps, seismic profiles, earthquake hypocenters and new results from tomographic modeling and receiver function analysis of the seismological task group of the SFB 574. The in-house software package IGMAS was used for modeling visualization of the model structures and gravity effects (e.g. serpentinization of the oceanic lithosphere at the Pacific side); it helps to identify borders between tectonic blocks e.g. the Chortis block in the north or the Chorotega block in the south of the research area. At a more local scale our 3D modeling works hand in hand with a small scale 3D modeling by Lücke and Alvarado and provides insight into the
The gravity signature of mantle uplift from impact modeling craters on the Moon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milbury, Colleen; Johnson, Brandon C.; Melosh, H. Jay; Collins, Gareth S.; Blair, David M.; Soderblom, Jason M.; Zuber, Maria T.
2014-11-01
NASA’s dual Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft have globally mapped the lunar gravity field at unprecedented resolution; this has enabled the study of lunar impact craters of all sizes and ages. Soderblom et al. [2014, LPSC abstract #1777] calculated the residual Bouguer anomalies for ~2700 craters 27-184 km in diameter (D). They found that the residual central Bouguer anomaly of craters smaller than 100 km is essentially zero, that there is a transition for 100-150 km, and that craters larger than 184 km have a positive residual Bouguer anomaly that increases with increasing crater size. We use the iSALE shock physics hydrocode to model crater formation, including the effects of porosity and dilatancy (shear bulking). We use strength parameters of gabbroic anorthosite for a 35-km-thick crust, and dunite for the mantle. Our dunite impactors range in size from 6-30 km, which produce craters 86-450 km in diameter. We calculate the Bouguer gravity anomaly due solely to mantle uplift. We eliminate the effects of pressure and temperature on density by setting the output densities from the simulations to 2550 kg/m^3 if they are below the cutoff value of 3000 kg/m^3, and 3220 kg/m^3 if they are above. We compare our modeling results to gravity data from GRAIL. We find that the crater size at which mantle uplift dominates the crater gravity occurs at a crater diameter that is close to the complex crater to peak-ring basin transition. This is in agreement with the observed trend reported by Soderblom et al. [2014, LPSC abstract #1777].
Potts models coupled to two-dimensional quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baillie, Clive F.
We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of the q=2 (Ising), 3 and 4 Potts models on dynamical phi-cubed graphs of spherical topology with up to 5000 nodes. We find that the measured critical exponents are in reasonable agreement with those from the exact solution of the Ising model and with those calculated from KPZ scaling for q=3,4 where no exact solution is available.
De Sá Teixeira, Nuno Alexandre
2014-12-01
Given its conspicuous nature, gravity has been acknowledged by several research lines as a prime factor in structuring the spatial perception of one's environment. One such line of enquiry has focused on errors in spatial localization aimed at the vanishing location of moving objects - it has been systematically reported that humans mislocalize spatial positions forward, in the direction of motion (representational momentum) and downward in the direction of gravity (representational gravity). Moreover, spatial localization errors were found to evolve dynamically with time in a pattern congruent with an anticipated trajectory (representational trajectory). The present study attempts to ascertain the degree to which vestibular information plays a role in these phenomena. Human observers performed a spatial localization task while tilted to varying degrees and referring to the vanishing locations of targets moving along several directions. A Fourier decomposition of the obtained spatial localization errors revealed that although spatial errors were increased "downward" mainly along the body's longitudinal axis (idiotropic dominance), the degree of misalignment between the latter and physical gravity modulated the time course of the localization responses. This pattern is surmised to reflect increased uncertainty about the internal model when faced with conflicting cues regarding the perceived "downward" direction.
Can representational trajectory reveal the nature of an internal model of gravity?
De Sá Teixeira, Nuno; Hecht, Heiko
2014-05-01
The memory for the vanishing location of a horizontally moving target is usually displaced forward in the direction of motion (representational momentum) and downward in the direction of gravity (representational gravity). Moreover, this downward displacement has been shown to increase with time (representational trajectory). However, the degree to which different kinematic events change the temporal profile of these displacements remains to be determined. The present article attempts to fill this gap. In the first experiment, we replicate the finding that representational momentum for downward-moving targets is bigger than for upward motions, showing, moreover, that it increases rapidly during the first 300 ms, stabilizing afterward. This temporal profile, but not the increased error for descending targets, is shown to be disrupted when eye movements are not allowed. In the second experiment, we show that the downward drift with time emerges even for static targets. Finally, in the third experiment, we report an increased error for upward-moving targets, as compared with downward movements, when the display is compatible with a downward ego-motion by including vection cues. Thus, the errors in the direction of gravity are compatible with the perceived event and do not merely reflect a retinotopic bias. Overall, these results provide further evidence for an internal model of gravity in the visual representational system.
Gravity Models from CHAMP and other Satellite Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoime, Frank G.; Cox, C. M.; Chinn, D. S.; Zelensky, N. P.; Thompson, B. F.; Rowlands, D. D.; Luthdke, S. B.; Nerem, R. S.
2003-01-01
CHAMP spacecraft is the first of a series of new spacecraft missions that are revolutionizing our ability to model the Earth's geopotential. We report on the analysis of over 100 days of CHAMP data in 2001 and 2002, merged with tracking data of other satellites such as Jason, Topex, GFO, Starlette, Stella, Spot-2, as well as satellite altimetry. We find that the CHAMP-only component of these solutions is a significant improvement over pre-CHAMP satellite only models with respect to the high degree information expressed by the geopotential model coefficients. For example, the variance of the differences with altimeter-derived anomalies through degree 70 is 2.80 mGal(sup 2) for the CHAMP-only solution based on 87 days of data vs. 10.19 mGal(sup 2) for EGM96S. Nonetheless, in order to model properly the various resonances to which different satellites are sensitive, we must include other satellite data. We evaluate the performance of these new CHAMP derived solutions with EGM96 and the EIGEN series of solutions. We review carefully the performance of these models for altimetric satellites.
High-resolution local gravity model of the south pole of the Moon from GRAIL extended mission data.
Goossens, Sander; Sabaka, Terence J; Nicholas, Joseph B; Lemoine, Frank G; Rowlands, David D; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A; Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T
2014-05-28
We estimated a high-resolution local gravity field model over the south pole of the Moon using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory's extended mission. Our solution consists of adjustments with respect to a global model expressed in spherical harmonics. The adjustments are expressed as gridded gravity anomalies with a resolution of 1/6° by 1/6° (equivalent to that of a degree and order 1080 model in spherical harmonics), covering a cap over the south pole with a radius of 40°. The gravity anomalies have been estimated from a short-arc analysis using only Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data over the area of interest. We apply a neighbor-smoothing constraint to our solution. Our local model removes striping present in the global model; it reduces the misfit to the KBRR data and improves correlations with topography to higher degrees than current global models.
High-resolution Local Gravity Model of the South Pole of the Moon from GRAIL Extended Mission Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goossens, Sander Johannes; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Rowlands, David D.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.
2014-01-01
We estimated a high-resolution local gravity field model over the south pole of the Moon using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory's extended mission. Our solution consists of adjustments with respect to a global model expressed in spherical harmonics. The adjustments are expressed as gridded gravity anomalies with a resolution of 1/6deg by 1/6deg (equivalent to that of a degree and order 1080 model in spherical harmonics), covering a cap over the south pole with a radius of 40deg. The gravity anomalies have been estimated from a short-arc analysis using only Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data over the area of interest. We apply a neighbor-smoothing constraint to our solution. Our local model removes striping present in the global model; it reduces the misfit to the KBRR data and improves correlations with topography to higher degrees than current global models.
Featured gravity waves induced by a tropical cyclone evolving in the tropics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zeyu; Chen, Dan; Lu, Daren
Focusing on the typhoon effect on generating stratospheric GWs, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, a next-generation mesoscale numerical weather prediction system, is applied to simulate the typhoon Matsa in 2005 that emerges on July 30, then propagates in the northwestern Pacific until lands on continental China on August 6. An 8-day model run covering the major stages of Matsa reproduces all the key features of the typhoon including the track and the intensity, as well as the spiral clouds associating to the typhoon. Preliminary results reveal that pronounced stratospheric GWs are triggered by the typhoon as it attains its mature stage. The pattern of the waves suggests that the waves can be closely associated with the typhoon. Hereafter, the waves are referred to as TC-GWs. For example at 20-km height, spiral like wave fronts propagate radial away from a center that coincides well to the typhoon center. The waves hold the characteristic feature of gravity waves, as they preferentially propagate in the upstream of background winds, and exhibit quadrature phase relationship between the perturbation field of isentrope and vertical velocity. Moreover, simulation results show that the TC-GWs exhibit horizontal scale comparable to that of the typhoon's spiral cloud bands, i.e., several hundreds to 1000 km. Further investigation results disclose that the TC-GWs are different from the convective GWs as are conventionally understood as being generated by isolated tropical deep convective storm. The details of the results will be presented in this talk.
Emergent gravity on covariant quantum spaces in the IKKT model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinacker, Harold C.
2016-12-01
We study perturbations of 4-dimensional fuzzy spheres as backgrounds in the IKKT or IIB matrix model. Gauge fields and metric fluctuations are identified among the excitation modes with lowest spin, supplemented by a tower of higher-spin fields. They arise from an internal structure which can be viewed as a twisted bundle over S 4, leading to a covariant noncommutative geometry. The linearized 4-dimensional Einstein equations are obtained from the classical matrix model action under certain conditions, modified by an IR cutoff. Some one-loop contributions to the effective action are computed using the formalism of string states.
Numerical Models of Human Circulatory System under Altered Gravity: Brain Circulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Chang Sung; Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan; David, Tim
2003-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is presented to model the blood flow through the human circulatory system under altered gravity conditions. Models required for CFD simulation relevant to major hemodynamic issues are introduced such as non-Newtonian flow models governed by red blood cells, a model for arterial wall motion due to fluid-wall interactions, a vascular bed model for outflow boundary conditions, and a model for auto-regulation mechanism. The three-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with these models are solved iteratively using the pseudocompressibility method and dual time stepping. Moving wall boundary conditions from the first-order fluid-wall interaction model are used to study the influence of arterial wall distensibility on flow patterns and wall shear stresses during the heart pulse. A vascular bed modeling utilizing the analogy with electric circuits is coupled with an auto-regulation algorithm for multiple outflow boundaries. For the treatment of complex geometry, a chimera overset grid technique is adopted to obtain connectivity between arterial branches. For code validation, computed results are compared with experimental data for steady and unsteady non-Newtonian flows. Good agreement is obtained for both cases. In sin-type Gravity Benchmark Problems, gravity source terms are added to the Navier-Stokes equations to study the effect of gravitational variation on the human circulatory system. This computational approach is then applied to localized blood flows through a realistic carotid bifurcation and two Circle of Willis models, one using an idealized geometry and the other model using an anatomical data set. A three- dimensional anatomical Circle of Willis configuration is reconstructed from human-specific magnetic resonance images using an image segmentation method. The blood flow through these Circle of Willis models is simulated to provide means for studying gravitational effects on the brain
Using the gravity model to estimate the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases.
Barrios, José Miguel; Verstraeten, Willem W; Maes, Piet; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Farifteh, Jamshid; Coppin, Pol
2012-11-30
The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the physical habitat of pathogens’ vectors and/or hosts, and urban areas, thus humans. This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis, based on current knowledge on the transmission mechanism of these diseases. Two sources of information on vegetated systems were tested: the CORINE land cover map and MODIS NDVI. The size of vegetated areas near urban centers and a local indicator of occupation-related exposure were found significant predictors of disease risk. Both the land cover map and the space-borne dataset were suited yet not equivalent input sources to locate and measure vegetated areas of importance for disease spread. The overall results point at the compatibility of the gravity model concept and the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases.
Numerical Model for Ultra-fine Particles in the Absence and Presence of Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutt, Meenakshi; Elliott, James A.
2009-06-01
Length scales of particles and their surrounding medium strongly determines the nature of their interactions with one another and their responses to external fields. We are interested in systems of ultra-fine particles (0.1-1.0 micron) such as volcanic ash, soot from forest fires, solid aerosols, or fine powders for pharmaceutical inhalation applications. We have a developed a numerical model which captures the dominant physical interactions which control the behavior of these systems. The adhesive interactions between the particles use the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT) adhesion theory along with the van der Waals attraction. The elastic restoring forces are modeled by the Hertz's contact model, and require details of material properties such as the Young's modulus and Poisson ratio. Commencing with a three dimensional gas of ultra-fine particles, the absence of gravity does not produce any noticeable clustering. The presence of gravity initially generates a large population of clusters with small number of particles, as the particles settle. The initial population of small clusters or single particles which have settled decrease with time as more particles, or clusters, agglomerate with one another. Our final results show clusters containing 10 to 100 particles, with a larger population of small clusters. We present details of the model, and some preliminary results which demonstrate the influence of the particle surface properties on the clustering dynamics of these systems, in the absence and presence of gravity (M. Dutt, J. A. Elliott, et al. in press).
Mars Gravity Field Model Development from Mars Global Surveyor Tracking Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemoine, F. G.; Zuber, M. T.
1999-01-01
Since Feb. 99 the MGS spacecraft has been in a near circular orbit at about 400 km altitude. The MGS has been regularly tracked by the Deep Space Network (DSN) at X-band and for a 3 week period in February was tracked almost continuously for an intensive gravity modeling activity that would form the basis of the orbital computations for the rest of the mission. The data collected during this calibration period and the earlier SPO and Hiatus periods have now been used to develop a new gravity field model for Mars that is showing considerable new detail in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Until February no data at 400 km altitude or lower had been acquired on any previous mission south of about 35S and all the previous data were of significantly lower quality. Low altitude data (-170 km) were obtained over the higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere during the SPO periods but because of the high eccentricity of the orbit nothing of similar quality was obtainable for the southern hemisphere. The new models are of spherical harmonic degree and order 70 or higher and are suggesting large anomalies are often associated with the large impact features. Gravity data have also been obtained over both the northern and southern polar ice caps. The MGS orbit quality resulting from the use of these newer models is better than any previous Mars missions and is approaching the ten's of meter level that had been hoped would be eventually realizable.
A three-dimensional gravity model of the geologic structure of Long Valley caldera
Carle, S.F.; Goldstein, N.E.
1987-03-01
Several attempts to define and interpret this anomaly have been made in the past using 2-D and 3-D models. None of the previous interpretations have yielded definitive results, but in fairness, the interpretation here has benefited from a larger gravity data base and more subsurface control than available to previous workers. All published 3-D models simplistically assumed constant density of fill. All 2-D models suffered from the inherent three-dimensionality of the complicated density structure of Long Valley caldera. In addition, previous interpreters have lacked access to geological data, such as well lithologies and density logs, seismic refraction interpretations, suface geology, and structural geology interpretations. The purpose of this study is to use all available gravity data and geological information to constrain a multi-unit, 3-D density model based on the geology of Long Valley caldera and its vicinity. Insights on the geologic structure of the caldera fill can help other geophysical interpretations in determining near-surface effects so that deeper structure may be resolved. With adequate control on the structure of the caldera fill, we are able to examine the gravity data for the presence of deeper density anomalies in the crust. 20 refs., 7 figs.
Disturbance vector in space from surface gravity anomalies using complementary models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cruz, J. Y.
1985-08-01
The modeling of the external disturbance vector of the Earth from surface gravity anomaly data is discussed. The low frequency features of the signal are represented in spherical harmonic series. The recovery of the coefficients of the series from the given gravity anomalies is discussed focusing on the use of analytical continuation and ellipsoidal corrections to account for the Earth's topography and ellipticity. The spectrum and data response of the spatial disturbance vector are studied to aid the design of models and experiments. The local models studied to complement the globally valid spherical harmonic model are the residual topographic model (RTM); the classical integral model; three versions of the Dirac approach to collocation; and two versions of the least squares collocation (l.s.c.) approach. Results indicate that the RTM itself should be used to model the high frequency signal variations whenever detailed (e.g., 1km x 1km) height data is available. The residual signal not already modeled by the RTM and spherical harmonic model can in most cases be accurately modeled by the integral model with meantopography accounted for. For high accuracies in mountainous areas, however, a collocation model should be used to account for the full variations of the topography, not just mean topography. Matrix conditioning problems with the l.s.c. approach support preference to the Dirac systems for rigorous treatment of the topography at detailed (5' x 5') resolutions.
Gibbons-Hawking boundary terms and junction conditions for higher-order brane gravity models
Balcerzak, Adam; Dabrowski, Mariusz P. E-mail: mpdabfz@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl
2009-01-15
We derive the most general junction conditions for the fourth-order brane gravity constructed of arbitrary functions of curvature invariants. We reduce these fourth-order theories to second order theories at the expense of introducing new scalar and tensor fields - the scalaron and the tensoron. In order to obtain junction conditions we apply the method of generalized Gibbons-Hawking boundary terms which are appended to the appropriate actions. After assuming the continuity of the scalaron and the tensoron on the brane, we recover junction conditions for such general brane universe models previously obtained by different methods. The derived junction conditions can serve studying the cosmological implications of the higher-order brane gravity models.
The model of a collisionless current sheet in a homogeneous gravity field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veselovsky, Igor S.; Kislov, Roman A.; Malova, Helmi V.; Khabarova, Olga V.
2016-10-01
The self-consistent 1D kinetic Harris-like model of a collisionless current sheet is developed for the case of the current sheet experiencing the impact of an external uniform gravity field. The ambipolar Pannekoek-Rosseland electric field appears in the system as a result of the additional drift motion of ions and electrons. This produces separation of charges, which is responsible for corresponding changes of the current sheet form. The presence of gravitation leads to formation of asymmetric distributions of the magnetic field as well as the plasma and the current density changes. Our estimations show that gravity-forced disruptions of the current sheet profile may occur in the Mercurial magnetosphere and, most probable, in the Io plasma torus near the Jupiter. Also, the model can be applied to magnetospheres of exoplanets.
Modification of the gravity model and application to the metropolitan Seoul subway system.
Goh, Segun; Lee, Keumsook; Park, Jong Soo; Choi, M Y
2012-08-01
The Metropolitan Seoul Subway system is examined through the use of the gravity model. Exponents describing the power-law dependence on the time distance between stations are obtained, which reveals a universality for subway lines of the same topology. In the short (time) distance regime the number of passengers between stations does not grow with the decrease in the distance, thus deviating from the power-law behavior. It is found that such reduction in passengers is well described by the Hill function. Further, temporal fluctuations in the passenger flow data, fitted to the gravity model modified by the Hill function, are analyzed to reveal the Yule-type nature inherent in the structure of Seoul.
HRMA calibration handbook: EKC gravity compensated XRCF models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tananbaum, H. D.; Jerius, D.; Hughes, J.
1994-01-01
This document, consisting of hardcopy printout of explanatory text, figures, and tables, represents one incarnation of the AXAF high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA) Calibration Handbook. However, as we have envisioned it, the handbook also consists of electronic versions of this hardcopy printout (in the form of postscript files), the individual scripts which produced the various figures and the associated input data, the model raytrace files, and all scripts, parameter files, and input data necessary to generate the raytraces. These data are all available electronically as either ASCII or FITS files. The handbook is intended to be a living document and will be updated as new information and/or fabrication data on the HRMA are obtained, or when the need for additional results are indicated. The SAO Mission Support Team (MST) is developing a high fidelity HRMA model, consisting of analytical and numerical calculations, computer software, and databases of fundamental physical constants, laboratory measurements, configuration data, finite element models, AXAF assembly data, and so on. This model serves as the basis for the simulations presented in the handbook. The 'core' of the model is the raytrace package OSAC, which we have substantially modified and now refer to as SAOsac. One major structural modification to the software has been to utilize the UNIX binary pipe data transport mechanism for passing rays between program modules. This change has made it possible to simulate rays which are distributed randomly over the entrance aperture of the telescope. It has also resulted in a highly efficient system for tracing large numbers of rays. In one application to date (the analysis of VETA-I ring focus data) we have employed 2 x 10(exp 7) rays, a substantial improvement over the limit of 1 x 10(exp 4) rays in the original OSAC module. A second major modification is the manner in which SAOsac incorporates low spatial frequency surface errors into the geometric raytrace
Modeling of non-rotating neutron stars in minimal dilatonic gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiziev, P.; Marinov, K.
2017-01-01
The model of minimal dilatonic gravity (MDG), called also the massive Branse-Dicke model with ω =0, is an alternative model of gravitation, which uses one Branse-Dicke gravitation-dilaton field Φ and offers a simultaneous explanation of the effects of dark energy (DE) and dark matter (DM). Here we present an extensive research of non-rotating neutron star models in MDG with four different realistic equations of state (EOS), which are in agreement with the latest observational data. The equations describing static spherically symmetric stars in MDG are solved numerically. The effects corresponding to DE and DM are clearly seen and discussed.
Local gravity and peculiar velocity - Probes of cosmological models
Lahav, O.; Kaiser, N.; Hoffman, Y. Toronto Univ. Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa )
1990-04-01
The convergence of the peculiar gravitational acceleration of the Local Group deduced from galaxy distribution and its alignment with the microwave background dipole are studied in the framework of linear theory and conditional probability. The acceleration generated in a volume of finite depth for general density fluctuations power spectrum is predicted. This is applied to the cold-dark-matter (CDM) and isocurvature baryon (PIB) family of models. The results are compared with IRAS and optical flux and redshift dipoles. The CDM predictions are in good agreement with the observations, while the PIB models show a wide range of behavior depending on the choice of parameters, Omega(b), h, and n. It is concluded that the alignment and convergence provide a useful discriminator between competing theories. 15 refs.
Analog model for light propagation in semiclassical gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bessa, C. H. G.; De Lorenci, V. A.; Ford, L. H.
2014-07-01
We treat a model based upon nonlinear optics for the semiclassical gravitational effects of quantum fields upon light propagation. Our model uses a nonlinear material with a nonzero third order polarizability. Here a probe light pulse satisfies a wave equation containing the expectation value of the squared electric field. This expectation value depends upon the presence of lower frequency quanta, the background field, and modifies the effective index of refraction, and hence the speed of the probe pulse. If the mean squared electric field is positive, then the pulse is slowed, which is analogous to the gravitational effects of ordinary matter. Such matter satisfies the null energy condition and produces gravitational lensing and time delay. If the mean squared field is negative, then the pulse has a higher speed than in the absence of the background field. This is analogous to the gravitational effects of exotic matter, such as stress tensor expectation values with locally negative energy densities, which lead to repulsive gravitational effects, such as defocusing and time advance. We give some estimates of the magnitude of the effects in our model and find that they may be large enough to be observable. We also briefly discuss the possibility that the mean squared electric field could be produced by the Casimir vacuum near a reflecting boundary.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobslaw, Henryk; Forootan, Ehsan; Bergmann-Wolf, Inga; Neumayer, Karl-Hans; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Kusche, Jürgen; Flechtner, Frank
2015-04-01
Recently completed performance studies of future gravity mission concepts arrived at sometimes contradicting conclusions about the importance of non-tidal aliasing errors that remain in the finally retrieved gravity field time-series. In those studies, typically a fraction of the differences between two different models of atmosphere and ocean mass variability determined the magnitude of the aliasing errors. Since differences among arbitrary pairs of the numerical models available might lead to widely different aliasing errors and thus conclusions regarding limiting error contributors of a candidate mission, we present here for the first time a version of a realistically perturbed de-aliasing model that is consistent with the updated ESA Earth System Model for gravity mission simulation studies (Dobslaw et al., 2015). The error model is available over the whole 12-year period of the ESA ESM and consists of two parts: (i) a component containing signals from physical processes that are intentionally omitted from de-aliasing models, as for a example, variations in global eustatic sea-level; and (ii) a series of true errors that consist of in total five different components with realistically re-scaled variability at both small and large spatial scales for different frequency bands ranging from sub-daily to sub-monthly periods. Based on a multi-model ensemble of atmosphere and ocean mass variability available to us for the year 2006, we will demonstrate that our re-scaled true errors have plausible magnitudes and correlation characteristics in all frequency bands considered. The realism of the selected scaling coefficients for periods between 1 and 30 days is tested further by means of a variance component estimation based on the constrained daily GRACE solution series ITSG-GRACE2014. Initial full-scale simulation experiments are used to re-assess the relative importance of non-tidal de-aliasing errors for the GRACE-FO mission, which might be subsequently expanded to
An Improved Model of Cryogenic Propellant Stratification in a Rotating, Reduced Gravity Environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliveira, Justin; Kirk, Daniel R.; Schallhorn, Paul A.; Piquero, Jorge L.; Campbell, Mike; Chase, Sukhdeep
2007-01-01
This paper builds on a series of analytical literature models used to predict thermal stratification within rocket propellant tanks. The primary contribution to the literature is to add the effect of tank rotation and to demonstrate the influence of rotation on stratification times and temperatures. This work also looks levels of thermal stratification for generic propellant tanks (cylindrical shapes) over a parametric range of upper-stage coast times, heating levels, rotation rates, and gravity levels.
A gravity current model for the May 18, 1980 Mount St. Helens plume
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bursik, M. I.; Carey, S. N.; Sparks, R. S. J.
1992-01-01
Observations of the stratospheric plume from the May 18, 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption suggest that it spread in the crosswind direction as an intrusive gravity current, as it was transported downwind. Grain size analyses of the plinian tephra are consistent with this model, suggesting that to distances of many hundreds of kilometers, turbulent atmospheric diffusion played a secondary role in plume spreading and tephra dispersal.
Gao Yajun
2008-08-15
A previously established Hauser-Ernst-type extended double-complex linear system is slightly modified and used to develop an inverse scattering method for the stationary axisymmetric general symplectic gravity model. The reduction procedures in this inverse scattering method are found to be fairly simple, which makes the inverse scattering method applied fine and effective. As an application, a concrete family of soliton double solutions for the considered theory is obtained.
Integrating Satellite Gravity Data with Geophysical Data Sets for Crustal Modeling in Africa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van der Meijde, M.; Tedla, G. E.
2006-12-01
The African continent is one of the least studied areas in the world. Due to local circumstances but also to restricted financial and technical means that can be devoted to science, it is difficult to obtain detailed information on the Earth's structure underneath Africa and to maintain geophysical networks. The map of the Earth's structure of Africa has many spots where the crustal thickness and structure is unknown or only known with very large uncertainties. This results in a limited knowledge on African tectonic processes and their relation with and influences on crustal structures. Knowledge of the crustal structure is important for understanding the past and present tectonics and geodynamic evolution of a region, issues that are crucial to many Earth science studies. The crustal structure is not only of importance for studies of the Earth's deep interior, but also for the development of countries on the African continent. In many developing countries, the unexplored crust still holds a great economical potential. To prospect for resources, underground and surface dynamics must be studied and models developed. A detailed crustal model would also improve the accuracy of determination of regional and local earthquake locations and therefore has an impact on seismic hazard assessment and urban planning. In this study, satellite gravity data will be inverted for determining the crustal thickness in Africa. Because of the high non-uniqueness of gravity data in general and satellite gravity data specifically, a multi-disciplinary joint inversion will be performed. A method will be developed to invert gravity satellite data for crustal structure, including various a priori crustal thickness constraints obtained using different geophysical and geological techniques. The inferred crustal structure will be related to known tectonic processes and the implications for the wider African tectonic framework will be assessed. A detailed elevation model will be derived from
Critical slowing down of cluster algorithms for Ising models coupled to 2-d gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bowick, Mark; Falcioni, Marco; Harris, Geoffrey; Marinari, Enzo
1994-02-01
We simulate single and multiple Ising models coupled to 2-d gravity using both the Swendsen-Wang and Wolff algorithms to update the spins. We study the integrated autocorrelation time and find that there is considerable critical slowing down, particularly in the magnetization. We argue that this is primarily due to the local nature of the dynamical triangulation algorithm and to the generation of a distribution of baby universes which inhibits cluster growth.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zlotnicki, V.; Stammer, D.; Fukumori, I.
2003-01-01
Here we assess the new generation of gravity models, derived from GRACE data. The differences between a global geoid model (one from GRACE data and one the well-known EGM-96), minus a Mean Sea Surface derived from over a decade of altimetric data are compared to hydrographic data from the Levitus compilation and to the ECCO numerical ocean model, which assimilates altimetry and other data.
Gravity and Magnetic Modeling of Basement Rocks Beneath Alabama and the Gulf Coastal Plain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolf, L. W.; Bajgain, S. K.; Steltenpohl, M. G.
2011-12-01
The southeastern United States has experienced two complete successions of Wilson cycles: (1) the assembly and break up of Rodinia and the opening of the Iapetus Ocean; and (2) the closing of Iapetus ocean, the assembly of the supercontinent Pangaea and its subsequent break up, and the opening of modern Atlantic Ocean. Evidence of these supercontinent cycles is recorded in the crust of Alabama and adjacent areas, but is covered by as much as 7 km of Coastal Plain sediments in the southern portion of the state. In this study, we use airborne gravity and magnetic data to develop crustal models along transects that cross major tectonic structures and the ancient North American (Laurentian) margin. Models derived from gravity and magnetic data are constrained by well-log information, geologic mapping, and nearby previous geophysical studies. Results show that a pronounced east-west trending gravity low observed in southern Alabama can be interpreted as the suture between relict Gondwanan crust and Peri-Gondwanan or Laurentian crust. The best-fit models suggest that the crust thickens from south to north, with a change in crustal thickness near the suture zone. Laurentian crust is characterized by northeast-southwest trending lineations in magnetic data that can be traced beneath the Coastal Plain until truncated by the tectonic suture with Gondwanan-affiliated crust. This truncation is marked by the Brunswick Magnetic Anomaly. The denser crystalline rocks of Piedmont and Valley and Ridge provinces in northern and central Alabama correspond to minor gravity highs. In southwestern Alabama, the crust of the Wiggins terrane appears to be a unique tectonic entity relative to other areas and shares similarities to the crust beneath the Mississippi Gulf coast. Sharp magnetic gradients and long-wavelength gravity gradients along faults such as the Towaliga fault, Alexander City fault, and Bartletts Ferry fault suggest these structures are major, crust-penetrating features. In
Coupling of Surface and Internal Gravity Waves: A Hamiltonian Model
1974-04-01
which w^ shall use is the somewhat unrealistic, but convenient, thin thermocline model: N(z) = 0, except near z = -D, -D+6 f N2(z)dz = g 5p/po...L) = C, -L ~*1 ~ (51) we satisfy the resonance condition between the internal wave and adjacent pairs of surface waves. In this case , a...modes as listed in Column II of Table II to represent the ocean environment. In this case , in addition to the surface waves having the equilibrium
Modelling the solution growth of TGS crystals in low gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nadarajah, Arunan; Rosenberger, Franz; Alexander, J. Iwan D.
1990-01-01
The experimental growth of triglycine sulfate (TGS) crystals from aqueous solution is modeled here in two dimensions using the PHOENICS finite volume code. Simulations are carried out for steady, impulsive, and periodic accelerations in order to determine tolerable acceleration levels. Scaling arguments are used to estimate the times required for thermal and solutal variations from the initial equilibrium state to be diffusively transported throughout the system, and to obtain order of magnitude information on the relative magnitudes of diffusive and convective transport. The computed concentration fields reflect the features of the concentration distributions found experimentally during experiments conducted aboard Spacelab 3 in 1985.
Possible daily and seasonal variations in quantum interference induced by Chern-Simons gravity.
Okawara, Hiroki; Yamada, Kei; Asada, Hideki
2012-12-07
Possible effects of Chern-Simons (CS) gravity on a quantum interferometer turn out to be dependent on the latitude and direction of the interferometer on Earth in orbital motion around the Sun. Daily and seasonal variations in phase shifts are predicted with an estimate of the size of the effects, wherefore neutron interferometry with ~5 m arm length and ~10(-4) phase measurement accuracy would place a bound on a CS parameter comparable to the Gravity Probe B satellite.
Why did the apple fall? A new model to explain Einstein’s gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stannard, Warren; Blair, David; Zadnik, Marjan; Kaur, Tejinder
2017-01-01
Newton described gravity as an attractive force between two masses but Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity provides a very different explanation. Implicit in Einstein’s theory is the idea that gravitational effects are the result of a distortion in the shape of space-time. Despite its elegance, Einstein’s concept of gravity is rarely encountered outside of an advanced physics course as it is often considered to be too complex and too mathematical. This paper describes a new conceptual and quantitative model of gravity based on General Relativity at a level most science students should be able to understand. The model illustrates geodesics using analogies with paths of navigation on the surface of the Earth. This is extended to space and time maps incorporating the time warping effects of General Relativity. Using basic geometry, the geodesic path of a falling object near the surface of the Earth is found. From this the acceleration of an object in free fall is calculated. The model presented in this paper can answer the question, ‘Why do things fall?’ without resorting to Newton’s gravitational force.
Higgs mass and gravity waves in standard model false vacuum inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Notari, Alessio
2015-03-01
In previous publications we have proposed that inflation can be realized in a second minimum of the standard model Higgs potential at energy scales of about 1 016 GeV , if the minimum is not too deep and if a mechanism which allows a transition to the radiation dominated era can be found. This is provided, e.g., by scalar-tensor gravity models or hybrid models. Using such ideas we had predicted the Higgs boson mass to be of about 126 ±3 GeV , which has been confirmed by the LHC, and that a possibly measurable amount of gravity waves should be produced. Using more refined recent theoretical calculations of the renormalization group equations we show that such scenario has the right scale of inflation only for small Higgs mass, lower than about 124 GeV, otherwise gravity waves are overproduced. The precise value is subject to some theoretical error and to experimental errors on the determination of the strong coupling constant. Finally we show that introducing a moderately large nonminimal coupling for the Higgs field the bound can shift to larger values and be reconciled with the LHC measurements of the Higgs mass.
Modeling gravity-driven fingering in rough-walled fractures using modified percolation theory
Glass, R.J.
1992-12-31
Pore scale invasion percolation theory is modified for imbibition of.wetting fluids into fractures. The effects of gravity, local aperture field geometry, and local in-plane air/water interfacial curvatureare included in the calculation of aperture filling potential which controls wetted structure growth within the fracture. The inclusion of gravity yields fingers oriented in the direction of the gravitational gradient. These fingers widen and tend to meander and branch more as the gravitational gradient decreases. In-plane interfacial curvature also greatly affects the wetted structure in both horizontal and nonhorizontal fractures causing the formation of macroscopic wetting fronts. The modified percolation model is used to simulate imbibition into an analogue rough-walled fracture where both fingering and horizontal imbibition experiments were previously conducted. Comparison of numerical and experimental results showed reasonably good agreement. This process oriented physical and numerical modeling is-a necessary step toward including gravity-driven fingering in models of flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock.
TOPICAL REVIEW: Emergent geometry and gravity from matrix models: an introduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinacker, Harold
2010-07-01
An introductory review to emergent noncommutative gravity within Yang-Mills matrix models is presented. Spacetime is described as a noncommutative brane solution of the matrix model, i.e. as a submanifold of {\\mathbb R}^D. Fields and matter on the brane arise as fluctuations of the bosonic resp. fermionic matrices around such a background, and couple to an effective metric interpreted in terms of gravity. Suitable tools are provided for the description of the effective geometry in the semi-classical limit. The relation to non-commutative gauge theory and the role of UV/IR mixing are explained. Several types of geometries are identified, in particular 'harmonic' and 'Einstein' types of solutions. The physics of the harmonic branch is discussed in some detail, emphasizing the non-standard role of vacuum energy. This may provide a new approach to some of the big puzzles in this context. The IKKT model with D = 10 and close relatives are singled out as promising candidates for quantum theory of fundamental interactions including gravity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bassiri, Sassan; Hajj, George A.
1993-01-01
Natural and man-made events like earthquakes and nuclear explosions launch atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) into the atmosphere. Since the particle density decreases exponentially with height, the gravity waves increase exponentially in amplitude as they propagate toward the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. As atmospheric gravity waves approach the ionospheric heights, the neutral particles carried by gravity waves collide with electrons and ions, setting these particles in motion. This motion of charged particles manifests itself by wave-like fluctuations and disturbances that are known as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID). The perturbation in the total electron content due to TID's is derived analytically from first principles. Using the tilted dipole magnetic field approximation and a Chapman layer distribution for the electron density, the variations of the total electron content versus the line-of-sight direction are numerically analyzed. The temporal variation associated with the total electron content measurements due to AGW's can be used as a means of detecting characteristics of the gravity waves. As an example, detection of tsunami generated earthquakes from their associated atmospheric gravity waves using the Global Positioning System is simulated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Roland; Brissaud, Quentin; Garcia, Raphael; Komatitsch, Dimitri
2015-04-01
During low-frequency events such as tsunamis, acoustic and gravity waves are generated and quickly propagate in the atmosphere. Due to the exponential decrease of the atmospheric density with the altitude, the conservation of the kinetic energy imposes that the amplitude of those waves increases (to the order of 105 at 200km of altitude), which allows their detection in the upper atmosphere. This propagation bas been modelled for years with different tools, such as normal modes modeling or to a greater extent time-reversal techniques, but a low-frequency multi-dimensional atmospheric wave modelling is still crucially needed. A modeling tool is worth of interest since there are many different sources, as earthquakes or atmospheric explosions, able to propagate acoustic and gravity waves. In order to provide a fine modeling of the precise observations of these waves by GOCE satellite data, we developed a new numerical modeling tool. By adding some developments to the SPECFEM package that already models wave propagation in solid, porous or fluid media using a spectral element method, we show here that acoustic and gravity waves propagation can now be modelled in a stratified attenuating atmosphere with a bottom forcing or an atmospheric source. The bottom forcing feature has been implemented to easily model the coupling with the Earth's or ocean's vibrating surfaces but also huge atmospheric events. Atmospheric attenuation is also introduced since it has a crucial impact on acoustic wave propagation. Indeed, it plays the role of a frequency filter that damps high-frequency signals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brissaud, Q.; Garcia, R.; Martin, R.; Komatitsch, D.
2014-12-01
Low-frequency events such as tsunamis generate acoustic and gravity waves which quickly propagate in the atmosphere. Since the atmospheric density decreases exponentially as the altitude increases and from the conservation of the kinetic energy, those waves see their amplitude raise (to the order of 105 at 200km of altitude), allowing their detection in the upper atmosphere. Various tools have been developed through years to model this propagation, such as normal modes modeling or to a greater extent time-reversal techniques, but none offer a low-frequency multi-dimensional atmospheric wave modelling.A modeling tool is worthy interest since there are many different phenomena, from quakes to atmospheric explosions, able to propagate acoustic and gravity waves. In order to provide a fine modeling of the precise observations of these waves by GOCE satellite data, we developed a new numerical modeling tool.Starting from the SPECFEM program that already propagate waves in solid, porous or fluid media using a spectral element method, this work offers a tool with the ability to model acoustic and gravity waves propagation in a stratified attenuating atmosphere with a bottom forcing or an atmospheric source.Atmospheric attenuation is required in a proper modeling framework since it has a crucial impact on acoustic wave propagation. Indeed, it plays the role of a frequency filter that damps high-frequency signals. The bottom forcing feature has been implemented due to its ability to easily model the coupling with the Earth's or ocean's surface (that vibrates when a surface wave go through it) but also huge atmospheric events.
Estimating gravity wave parameters from oblique high-frequency backscatter: Modeling and analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bristow, W. A.; Greenwald, R. A.
1995-01-01
A new technique for estimating electron density perturbation amplitudes of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs), using HF radar data, is presented. TIDs are observed in HF radar data as enhancements of the ground-scattered power which propagate through the radar's field of view. These TIDs are the ionospheric manifestation of atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves. TID electron density perturbation amplitudes were estimated by simulating the radar returns, using HF ray tracing through a model ionosphere perturbed by a model gravity wave. The simulation determined the return power in the ground-scattered portion of the signal as a function of range, and this was compared to HF radar data from the Goose Bay HF radar at a time when evidence of gravity waves was present in the data. By varying the amplitude of the electron density perturbation in the model it was possible to estimate the perturbation of the actual wave. It was found that the perturbations that are observed by the Goose Bay HF radar are of the order of 20% to 35%. It was also found that the number of observable power enhancements, and the relative amplitudes of these enhancements, depended on the vertical thickness of the gravity wave's source region. From the simulations and observations it was estimated that the source region for the case presented here was approximately 20 km thick. In addition, the energy in the wave packet was calculated and compared to an estimate of the available energy in the source region. It was found that the wave energy was about 0.2% of the estimated available source region energy.
Estimating gravity wave parameters from oblique high-frequency backscatter: Modeling and analysis
Bristow, W.A.; Greenwald, R.A.
1995-03-01
A new technique for estimating electron density perturbation amplitudes of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs), using HF radar data, is presented. TIDs are observed in HF radar data as enhancements of the ground-scattered power which propagate through the radar`s field of view. These TIDs are the ionospheric manifestation of atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves. TID electron density perturbation amplitudes were estimated by simulating the radar returns, using HF ray tracing through a model ionosphere perturbed by a model gravity wave. The simulation determined the return power in the ground-scattered portion of the signal as a function of range, and this was compared to HF radar data from the Goose Bay HF radar at a time when evidence of gravity waves was present in the data. By varying the amplitude of the electron density perturbation in the model it was possible to estimate the perturbation of the actual wave. It was found that the perturbations that are observed by the Goose Bay HF radar are of the order of 20% to 35%. It was also found that the number of observable power enhancements, and the relative amplitudes of these enhancements, depended on the vertical thickness of the gravity wave`s source region. From the simulations and observations it was estimated that the source region for the case presented here was approximately 20 km thick. In addition, the energy in the wave packet was calculated and compared to an estimate of the available energy in the source region. It was found that the wave energy was about 0.2% of the estimated available source region energy. 20 refs., 12 figs.
A 70th Degree Lunar Gravity Model (GLGM-2) from Clementine and other tracking data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemonie, Frank G. R.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.
1997-01-01
A spherical harmonic model of the lunar gravity field complete to degree and order 70 has been developed from S band Doppler tracking data from the Clementine mission, as well as historical tracking data from Lunar Orbiters 1-5 and the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites. The model combines 361,000 Doppler observations from Clementine with 347,000 historical observations. The historical data consist of mostly 60-s Doppler with a noise of 0.25 to several mm/s. The Clementine data consist of mostly 10-s Doppler data, with a data noise of 0.25 mm/s for the observations from the Deep Space Network, and 2.5 mm/s for the data from a naval tracking station at Pomonkey, Maryland. Observations provided Clementine, provide the strongest satellite constraint on the Moon's low-degree field. In contrast the historical data, collected by spacecraft that had lower periapsis altitudes, provide distributed regions of high-resolution coverage within +/- 29 deg of the nearside lunar equator. To obtain the solution for a high-degree field in the absence of a uniform distribution of observations, we applied an a priori power law constraint of the form 15 x 10(exp -5)/sq l which had the effect of limiting the gravitational power and noise at short wavelengths. Coefficients through degree and order 18 are not significantly affected by the constraint, and so the model permits geophysical analysis of effects of the major basins at degrees 10-12. The GLGM-2 model confirms major features of the lunar gravity field shown in previous gravitational field models but also reveals significantly more detail, particularly at intermediate wavelengths (10(exp 3) km). Free-air gravity anomaly maps derived from the new model show the nearside and farside highlands to be gravitationally smooth, reflecting a state of isostatic compensation. Mascon basins (including Imbrium, Serenitatis, Crisium, Smythii, and Humorum) are denoted by gravity highs first recognized from Lunar Orbiter tracking. All of the major
Influence of plume-induced internal gravity waves on the rotation profile of low-mass stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinçon, C.; Belkacem, K.; Goupil, M. J.
2016-12-01
High-quality seismic data due to the space-borne missions CoRoT and Kepler provide precious information on the core rotation of thousands of stars from the subgiant to the red giant stages. We know today that current stellar evolution codes need for an additional physical mechanism to extract angular momentum from the core to the envelope of evolved low-mass stars and explain the low observed internal rotation. In this framework, internal gravity waves generated by penetrative convection at the top of the radiative region may play a role. In this work, we investigate whether the transport of angular momentum by plume-induced gravity waves may counteract the accelereration due the the strong contraction of the innermost layers. On the red giant branch, we find that the strong radiative damping near the H-burning shell prevents these waves from slowing down the core, so that another process should operate in these stars. Nevertheless, we show that plume-induced gravity waves are a good candidate to regulate the amplitude of the differential rotation in subgiant stars.
Preliminary gravity inversion model of basins east of Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada.
Geoffrey A. Phelps; Carter W. Roberts, and Barry C. Moring
2006-03-17
The Yucca Flat eastern extension study area, a 14 kilometer by 45 kilometer region contiguous to Yucca Flat on the west and Frenchman Flat on the south, is being studied to expand the boundary of the Yucca Flat hydrogeologic model. The isostatic residual gravity anomaly was inverted to create a model of the depth of the geologic basins within the study area. Such basins typically are floored by dense pre-Tertiary basement rocks and filled with less-dense Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks and Quaternary alluvium, a necessary condition for the use of gravity modeling to predict the depth to the pre-Tertiary basement rocks within the basins. Three models were created: a preferred model to represent the best estimate of depth to pre-Tertiary basement rocks in the study area, and two end-member models to demonstrate the possible range of solutions. The preferred model predicts shallow basins, generally less than 1,000m depth, throughout the study area, with only Emigrant Valley reaching a depth of 1,100m. Plutonium valley and West Fork Scarp Canyon have maximum depths of 800m and 1,000m, respectively. The end-member models indicate that the uncertainty in the preferred model is less than 200m for most of the study area.
One model of modified gravity with dynamical torsion and its cosmological consequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikiforova, Vasilisa
2016-10-01
We consider a model belonging to the class of Poincarè gauge gravities. The model is free of ghosts, tachyons and gradient instabilities about Minkowski and torsionless Einstein backgrounds of sufficiently small curvature. At zero cosmological constant, the model admits a self-accelerating solution with non-Riemannian connection. We study scalar perturbations about the self-accelerating solution and find that the number of scalar modes is the same as in Minkow ski background; moreover, in the limit of small effective cosmological constant and below the UV cutoff of the low energy effective theory, the scalar sector does not have pathologies like ghosts or rapid gradient instabilities.
Study of Bianchi type-I model in f(R,Tψ) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Siddiqa, Aisha
2017-03-01
We study the cosmological behavior of locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type-I universe model in f (R ,Tψ) gravity. For this purpose, we evaluate Hubble parameter, effective equation of state parameter (ωeff) and potential of scalar field (ψ) as a function of time using the assumption H = W (ψ). The behavior of these parameters is investigated for different models of W (ψ). It is concluded that exponential form of W (ψ) leads to time independent ωeff which corresponds to different stages of evolution while for the other two models, they correspond to stiff fluid stage.
High-resolution Gravity Field Models of the Moon Using GRAIL mission Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemoine, Frank G.; Goossens, Sander; Sabaka, Terrence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Loomis, Bryant D.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.
2015-04-01
The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission was designed to map the structure of the lunar interior from crust to core and to advance the understanding of the Moon's thermal evolution by producing a high-quality, high-resolution map of the gravitational field of the Moon. GRAIL consisted of two spacecraft, with Ka-band tracking between the two satellites as the single science instrument, with the addition of Earth-based tracking using the Deep Space Network. The science mission was divided into two phases: a primary mission from March 1, 2012 to May 29, 2012, and an extended mission from August 30, 2012 to December 14, 2012. The altitude varied from 3 km to 94 km above the lunar surface during both mission phases. Both the primary and the extended mission data have been processed into global models of the lunar gravity field at NASA/GSFC using the GEODYN software up to 1080 x 1080 in spherical harmonics. In addition to the high-resolution global models, local models have also been developed. Due to varying spacecraft altitude and ground track spacing, the actual resolution of the global models varies geographically. Information beyond the current resolution is still present in the data, as indicated by relatively higher fits in the last part of the extended mission, where the satellites achieved their lowest altitude above lunar surface. Local models of the lunar gravitational field at high resolution were thus estimated to accommodate this signal. Here, we present the current status of GRAIL gravity modeling at NASA/GSFC, for both global and local models. We discuss the methods we used for the processing of the GRAIL data, and evaluate these solutions with respect to the derived power spectra, Bouguer anomalies, and fits with independent data (such as from the low-altitude phase of the Lunar Prospector mission). We also evaluate the prospects for extending the resolution of our current models
Toward Understanding the Conformal Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berezin, V. A.; Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.
2017-03-01
We constructed the conformally invariant model for scalar particle creation induced by strong gravitational fields. Starting from the usual hydrodynamic description of the particle motion written in the Eulerian coordinates, we substituted the particle number conservation law (which enters the formalism) by the particle creation law, proportional to the square of the Weyl tensor, following the famous result by Ya. B. Zel'dovich and A. A. Starobinsky. Then, demanding the conformal invariance of the whole dynamical system, we have got both the Weyl-conformal gravity and the Einstein-Hilbert dilaton gravity action integral. Thus, we obtained something like the induced gravity suggested first by A. D. Sakharov. It is shown that the resulting system is self-consistent.
Gravity Data Analysis and Forward Modelling Along the Chilean Margin at 36-42\\deg S
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tasarova, Z.; Goetze, H.; Schmidt, S.
2004-12-01
The Chilean margin between 36 and 42\\deg S is the subject of new geological and geophysical research. The information about this area come from comprehensive gravity database, field geological observations, seismic reflection profiles (amphibious wide-angle seismic experiment across the subduction zone) at 36-38\\deg S, and the integrated active and passive seismological experiment ISSA 2000 at 36-39\\deg S, including also the receiver function study and the local earthquake tomography model. Based on these constraining data, the 3D density model has been developed within the framework of the German Collaborative Research Center 267 "Deformation Processes in the Andes" (SFB 267, task group F4). The convergent Andean margin, which is subject to some of the earth largest earthquakes, shows pronounced along-strike changes in the tectonic setting, deformation history and its morphological expression. The study area is characterized by much lower (on average less than 2000 meters) and narrower Main Cordillera than in the Central Andes (15-33\\deg S), as well as by a thinner crust. The central part of the study region is the site of the large 1960 Valdivia earthquake, which occurred onshore the transition between the oceanic lithosphere generated at two different spreading centers. This region shows no gravity high, whereas a positive Bouguer gravity anomaly is an omnipresent feature along most of the coastline south of 10\\deg S. The gravity data, combined under agreements from the oil industry data and other sources, as well as the own measurements, were reprocessed and show clearly a local scale segmentation of the region under study. The results of the forward density modelling show that the position of the Nazca plate and changes in its geometry controls the gravity field. Shallower oceanic plate below the forearc region at 36-39\\deg S vs. deeper slab south of 39\\deg S might also have its impact on the plate coupling between the subducting and overriding plates
2015-09-30
being centimeter scale, surface mixed layer processes arising from the combined actions of tides, winds and mesoscale currents. Issues related to...the internal wave field and how it impacts the surface waves. APPROACH We are focusing on the problem of modification of the wind -wave field...does the wind -wave field evolve in the presence of surface currents driven by ISWs? 3) How does the surface gravity wave field above ISWs modify the
Spherical-earth gravity and magnetic anomaly modeling by Gauss-Legendre quadrature integration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Von Frese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.; Luca, A. J.
1981-01-01
Gauss-Legendre quadrature integration is used to calculate the anomalous potential of gravity and magnetic fields and their spatial derivatives on a spherical earth. The procedure involves representation of the anomalous source as a distribution of equivalent point gravity poles or point magnetic dipoles. The distribution of equivalent point sources is determined directly from the volume limits of the anomalous body. The variable limits of integration for an arbitrarily shaped body are obtained from interpolations performed on a set of body points which approximate the body's surface envelope. The versatility of the method is shown by its ability to treat physical property variations within the source volume as well as variable magnetic fields over the source and observation surface. Examples are provided which illustrate the capabilities of the technique, including a preliminary modeling of potential field signatures for the Mississippi embayment crustal structure at 450 km.
Spherical-earth Gravity and Magnetic Anomaly Modeling by Gauss-legendre Quadrature Integration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.; Luca, A. J. (Principal Investigator)
1981-01-01
The anomalous potential of gravity and magnetic fields and their spatial derivatives on a spherical Earth for an arbitrary body represented by an equivalent point source distribution of gravity poles or magnetic dipoles were calculated. The distribution of equivalent point sources was determined directly from the coordinate limits of the source volume. Variable integration limits for an arbitrarily shaped body are derived from interpolation of points which approximate the body's surface envelope. The versatility of the method is enhanced by the ability to treat physical property variations within the source volume and to consider variable magnetic fields over the source and observation surface. A number of examples verify and illustrate the capabilities of the technique, including preliminary modeling of potential field signatures for Mississippi embayment crustal structure at satellite elevations.
Gravi-sensing microorganisms as model systems for gravity sensing in eukaryotes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Streb, C.; Richter, P.; Lebert, M.; Häder, D.-P.
2001-08-01
Gravi-sensing in single cells and multicellular organisms is a very active field of investigation. Similarities between gravity sensing mechanisms in uni- and multicellular eukaryotes make single cells ideal model systems for the understanding of gravity responses on the cellular and molecular level with far fetching significance for other systems. This article gives a short overview about gravi-sensing in plants (Arabidopsis, Chara) as well as the ciliates Loxodes and Paramecium and concentrates on gravitaxis research in the single cellular flagellate, Euglena gracilis. Experiments revealed the involvement of cAMP, Ca2+ specific mechanosensitive channels and membrane potential in the signal transduction chain of gravitaxis. Future perspectives for the use of motile, photosynthetic and other unicellular microorganisms for space applications e.g. for oxygen supply in life support systems or research on the origin of life are discussed.
The role of conformal symmetry in gravity and the standard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucat, Stefano; Prokopec, Tomislav
2016-12-01
In this paper we consider conformal symmetry in the context of manifolds with general affine connection. We extend the conformal transformation law of the metric to a general metric compatible affine connection, and find that it is a symmetry of both the geodesic equation and the Riemann tensor. We derive the generalised Jacobi equation and Raychaudhuri equation and show that they are both conformally invariant. Using the geodesic deviation (Jacobi) equation we analyse the behaviour of geodesics in different conformal frames. Since we find that our version of conformal symmetry is exact in classical pure Einstein's gravity, we ask whether one can extend it to the standard model. We find that it is possible to write conformal invariant Lagrangians in any dimensions for vector, fermion and scalar fields, but that such Lagrangians are only gauge invariant in four dimensions. Provided one introduces a dilaton field, gravity can be conformally coupled to matter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galanti, Eli; Kaspi, Yohai
2017-04-01
Observations of the flow on Jupiter exists essentially only for the cloud-level, which is dominated by strong east-west jet-streams. These have been suggested to result from dynamics in a superficial thin weather-layer, or alternatively be a manifestation of deep interior cylindrical flows. However, it is possible that the observed wind is indeed superficial, yet there exists a completely decoupled deep flow. To date, all models linking the wind, via the induced density anomalies, to the gravity field, to be measured by Juno, consider only flow that is a projection of the observed cloud-level wind. Here we explore the possibility of complex wind dynamics that include both the shallow weather-layer wind, and a deep flow that is decoupled from the flow above it. The upper flow is based on the observed cloud-level flow and is set to decay with depth. The deep flow is constructed to produce cylindrical structures with variable width and magnitude, thus allowing for a wide range of possible scenarios for the unknown deep flow. The combined flow is then related to the density anomalies and gravitational moments via a dynamical model. An adjoint inverse model is used for optimizing the parameters controlling the setup of the deep and surface-bound flows, so that these flows can be reconstructed given a gravity field. We show that the model can be used for examination of various scenarios, including cases in which the deep flow is dominating over the surface wind, and discuss the uncertainties associated with the model solution. The flexibility of the adjoint method allows for a wide range of dynamical setups, so that when new observations and physical understanding will arise, these constraints could be easily implemented and used to better decipher Jupiter flow dynamics.
Heat flow and gravity responses over salt bodies: A comparative model analysis
Corrigan, J.; Sweat, M.
1995-07-01
Two-dimensional numerical modeling of sea-floor heat flow and water-bottom gravity responses to systematic variations in simple subsurface salt body geometries provides insight on the relative usefulness of these two data types for extracting salt geometry information. For a given salt body geometry, diffusion of heat through overlying sediments results in a dramatic decrease in the amplitude of heat flow anomalies as the depth to the top of the salt body increases. For top-of-salt depths greater than about 1 km, the heat flow response is insensitive to the length of salt feeder stocks and to the thickness of salt tongues/sheets. This shallow depth-to-top-of-salt sensitivity range, in addition to a number of environmental factors that can adversely affect interpretation of heat flow anomalies in terms of heat refraction towards and through salt bodies, severely limits the usefulness of sea-floor heat flow data for constraining aspects of salt body geometry. For gravity data, the critical factor for addressing salt body geometry is the distribution of salt relative to the sediment-salt density crossover depth (above and below which salt is more and less dense, respectively, than the surrounding sediment). Except when ht relevant geometry information being sought (presence and/or length of feeder stock, thickness of salt tongue or sheet) is near the density crossover depth, the geometry-related information content of the gravity field is greater than that of the heat flow field. Based on these model results, measurement uncertainty considerations, and data limitations, the authors conclude that gravity data generally offer an order of magnitude greater resolution capability than sea-floor heat flow data for addressing salt body geometry issues of exploration interest.
Progress in the Determination of the Earth's Gravity Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rapp, Richard H. (Editor)
1989-01-01
Topics addressed include: global gravity model development; methods for approximation of the gravity field; gravity field measuring techniques; global gravity field applications and requirements in geophysics and oceanography; and future gravity missions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erol, Serdar; Serkan Isık, Mustafa; Erol, Bihter
2016-04-01
The recent Earth gravity field satellite missions data lead significant improvement in Global Geopotential Models in terms of both accuracy and resolution. However the improvement in accuracy is not the same everywhere in the Earth and therefore quantifying the level of improvement locally is necessary using the independent data. The validations of the level-3 products from the gravity field satellite missions, independently from the estimation procedures of these products, are possible using various arbitrary data sets, as such the terrestrial gravity observations, astrogeodetic vertical deflections, GPS/leveling data, the stationary sea surface topography. Quantifying the quality of the gravity field functionals via recent products has significant importance for determination of the regional geoid modeling, base on the satellite and terrestrial data fusion with an optimal algorithm, beside the statistical reporting the improvement rates depending on spatial location. In the validations, the errors and the systematic differences between the data and varying spectral content of the compared signals should be considered in order to have comparable results. In this manner this study compares the performance of Wavelet decomposition and spectral enhancement techniques in validation of the GOCE/GRACE based Earth gravity field models using GPS/leveling and terrestrial gravity data in Turkey. The terrestrial validation data are filtered using Wavelet decomposition technique and the numerical results from varying levels of decomposition are compared with the results which are derived using the spectral enhancement approach with contribution of an ultra-high resolution Earth gravity field model. The tests include the GO-DIR-R5, GO-TIM-R5, GOCO05S, EIGEN-6C4 and EGM2008 global models. The conclusion discuss the superiority and drawbacks of both concepts as well as reporting the performance of tested gravity field models with an estimate of their contribution to modeling the
Preliminary gravity inversion model of Frenchman Flat Basin, Nevada Test Site, Nevada
Phelps, Geoffrey A.; Graham, Scott E.
2002-01-01
The depth of the basin beneath Frenchman Flat is estimated using a gravity inversion method. Gamma-gamma density logs from two wells in Frenchman Flat constrained the density profiles used to create the gravity inversion model. Three initial models were considered using data from one well, then a final model is proposed based on new information from the second well. The preferred model indicates that a northeast-trending oval-shaped basin underlies Frenchman Flat at least 2,100 m deep, with a maximum depth of 2,400 m at its northeast end. No major horst and graben structures are predicted. Sensitivity analysis of the model indicates that each parameter contributes the same magnitude change to the model, up to 30 meters change in depth for a 1% change in density, but some parameters affect a broader area of the basin. The horizontal resolution of the model was determined by examining the spacing between data stations, and was set to 500 square meters.
Preliminary gravity inversion model of Frenchman Flat Basin, Nevada Test Site, Nevada
Phelps, G.A.; Graham, S.E.
2002-10-01
The depth of the basin beneath Frenchman Flat is estimated using a gravity inversion method. Gamma-gamma density logs from two wells in Frenchman Flat constrained the density profiles used to create the gravity inversion model. Three initial models were considered using data from one well, then a final model is proposed based on new information from the second well. The preferred model indicates that a northeast-trending oval-shaped basin underlies Frenchman Flat at least 2,100 m deep, with a maximum depth of 2,400 m at its northeast end. No major horst and graben structures are predicted. Sensitivity analysis of the model indicates that each parameter contributes the same magnitude change to the model, up to 30 meters change in depth for a 1% change in density, but some parameters affect a broader area of the basin. The horizontal resolution of the model was determined by examining the spacing between data stations, and was set to 500 square meters.
Anisotropic cosmologies with ghost dark energy models in f (R, T) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fayaz, V.; Hossienkhani, H.; Zarei, Z.; Azimi, N.
2016-02-01
In this work, the generalized Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) ghost model of dark energy in the framework of Einstein gravity is investigated. For this purpose, we use the squared sound speed vs2 whose sign determines the stability of the model. At first, the non-interacting ghost dark energy in a Bianchi type-I (BI) background is discussed. Then the equation-of-state parameter, ω_D=pD/ρD, the deceleration parameter, and the evolution equation of the generalized ghost dark energy are obtained. It is shown that the equation-of-state parameter of the ghost dark energy can cross the phantom line ( ω=-1 in some range of the parameter spaces. Then, this investigation was extended to the general scheme for modified f(R,T) gravity reconstruction from a realistic case in an anisotropic Bianchi type-I cosmology, using the dark matter and ghost dark energy. Special attention is taken into account for the case in which the function f is given by f(R,T)=f1(R) +f2(T). We consider a specific model which permits the standard continuity equation in this modified theory. Besides Ω_{Λ} and Ω in standard Einstein cosmology, another density parameter, Ω_{σ}, is expected by the anisotropy. This theory implies that if Ω_{σ} is zero then it yields the FRW universe model. Interestingly enough, we find that the corresponding f ( R, T) gravity of the ghost DE model can behave like phantom or quintessence of the selected models which describe the accelerated expansion of the universe.
Chiral fermions in asymptotically safe quantum gravity.
Meibohm, J; Pawlowski, J M
2016-01-01
We study the consistency of dynamical fermionic matter with the asymptotic safety scenario of quantum gravity using the functional renormalisation group. Since this scenario suggests strongly coupled quantum gravity in the UV, one expects gravity-induced fermion self-interactions at energies of the Planck scale. These could lead to chiral symmetry breaking at very high energies and thus to large fermion masses in the IR. The present analysis which is based on the previous works (Christiansen et al., Phys Rev D 92:121501, 2015; Meibohm et al., Phys Rev D 93:084035, 2016), concludes that gravity-induced chiral symmetry breaking at the Planck scale is avoided for a general class of NJL-type models. We find strong evidence that this feature is independent of the number of fermion fields. This finding suggests that the phase diagram for these models is topologically stable under the influence of gravitational interactions.
Modelling the Interior Structure of Enceladus Based on the 2014's Cassini Gravity Data.
Taubner, R-S; Leitner, J J; Firneis, M G; Hitzenberger, R
2016-06-01
We present a model for the internal structure of Saturn's moon Enceladus. This model allows us to estimate the physical conditions at the bottom of the satellite's potential subsurface water reservoir and to determine the radial distribution of pressure and gravity. This leads to a better understanding of the physical and chemical conditions at the water/rock boundary. This boundary is the most promising area on icy moons for astrobiological studies as it could serve as a potential habitat for extraterrestrial life similar to terrestrial microbes that inhabit rocky mounds on Earth's sea floors.
Gravity field models from kinematic orbits of CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezděk, Aleš; Sebera, Josef; Klokočník, Jaroslav; Kostelecký, Jan
2014-02-01
The aim of our work is to generate Earth's gravity field models from GPS positions of low Earth orbiters. Our inversion method is based on Newton's second law, which relates the observed acceleration of the satellite with forces acting on it. The observed acceleration is obtained as numerical second derivative of kinematic positions. Observation equations are formulated using the gradient of the spherical harmonic expansion of the geopotential. Other forces are either modelled (lunisolar perturbations, tides) or provided by onboard measurements (nongravitational perturbations). From this linear regression model the geopotential harmonic coefficients are obtained. To this basic scheme of the acceleration approach we added some original elements, which may be useful in other inversion techniques as well. We tried to develop simple, straightforward and still statistically correct model of observations. (i) The model is linear in the harmonic coefficients, no a priori gravity field model is needed, no regularization is applied. (ii) We use the generalized least squares to successfully mitigate the strong amplification of noise due to numerical second derivative. (iii) The number of other fitted parameters is very small, in fact we use only daily biases, thus we can monitor their behaviour. (iv) GPS positions have correlated errors. The sample autocorrelation function and especially the partial autocorrelation function indicate suitability of an autoregressive model to represent the correlation structure. The decorrelation of residuals improved the accuracy of harmonic coefficients by a factor of 2-3. (v) We found it better to compute separate solutions in the three local reference frame directions than to compute them together at the same time; having obtained separate solutions for along-track, cross-track and radial components, we combine them using the normal matrices. Relative contribution of the along-track component to the combined solution is 50 percent on
Modelling the Interior Structure of Enceladus Based on the 2014's Cassini Gravity Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taubner, R.-S.; Leitner, J. J.; Firneis, M. G.; Hitzenberger, R.
2016-06-01
We present a model for the internal structure of Saturn's moon Enceladus. This model allows us to estimate the physical conditions at the bottom of the satellite's potential subsurface water reservoir and to determine the radial distribution of pressure and gravity. This leads to a better understanding of the physical and chemical conditions at the water/rock boundary. This boundary is the most promising area on icy moons for astrobiological studies as it could serve as a potential habitat for extraterrestrial life similar to terrestrial microbes that inhabit rocky mounds on Earth's sea floors.
Anisotropic Bianchi type-III model in Palatini f (R) gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banik, Debika Kangsha; Banik, Sebika Kangsha; Bhuyan, Kalyan
2017-03-01
We derive exact solutions for anisotropic Bianchi type-III cosmological model in the Palatini formalism of f (R) gravity using Dynamical System Approach. For the f (R) of the form f(R) =R-β /Rn and f(R) =R+α Rm , we have found the fixed points describing the radiation-dominated, matter dominated and de Sitter evolution periods. Fixed points have also been found which have non-vanishing shear playing a very significant role in describing the anisotropy present in the early universe. In addition, we have also found that the spatial curvature affect isotropisation of this cosmological model.
Gravity Anomalies of Complex Craters on Earth and the Moon: Insight from Numerical Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collins, G. S.
2012-12-01
The impact cratering process alters the density of target rocks and deforms subsurface strata to produce characteristic geophysical anomalies. Principal among these is a broad, circular gravity anomaly concentric to the crater. By accounting for dilatancy--the creation of pore space in a shearing granular material--in numerical models of impact crater formation, the origin of gravity anomalies in complex craters is investigated. A semi-empirical approach is used to account for dilatancy. Shear failure leads to a prescribed increase in distension (porosity), depending on a user-defined function for the dilatancy angle, describing the tendency for the target rock to dilate. Here, the dilatancy angle is defined as a function of porosity, pressure and temperature, based on measurements from soil and rock mechanics experiments. The maximum dilatancy angle occurs at zero porosity, pressure, and temperature and decreases as any of these three variables increase. This approach ensures that, after impact, the increase in distension caused by shear failure is preserved. The final sub-crater porosity distribution can be compared with observations at terrestrial craters and used to make predictions about the gravity anomalies over terrestrial and lunar complex craters. Simulations of terrestrial impacts using the dilatancy model result in porosity and gravity anomalies consistent with observation, provided that the maximum dilatancy angle is only a few degrees. The decrease in dilatancy angle with increasing pressure has three important effects. While a small amount of dilation (bulking) occurs during tensile failure behind the shock wave, in general the high pressures in the shock wave suppress the generation of porosity as it propagates through the target rocks. Moreover, at depths exceeding about 10 km on Earth (60 km on the Moon) the confining pressure is sufficient to suppress porosity generation at any stage during crater formation. As a result, the majority of the
3D free-air gravity anomaly modeling for the Southeast Indian Ridge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Girolami, Chiara; Heyde, Ingo; Rinaldo Barchi, Massimiliano; Pauselli, Cristina
2016-04-01
In this study we analyzed the free-air gravity anomalies measured on the northwestern part of the Southeast Indian Ridge (hereafter SEIR) during the BGR cruise INDEX2012 with RV FUGRO GAUSS. The survey area covered the ridge from the Rodriguez Triple Junction along about 500 km towards the SSE direction. Gravity and magnetic data were measured along 65 profiles with a mean length of 60 km running approximately perpendicular to the ridge axis. The final gravity data were evaluated every 20 seconds along each profile. This results in a sampling interval of about 100 m. The mean spacing of the profiles is about 7 km. Together with the geophysical data also the bathymetry was measured along all profiles with a Kongsberg Simrad EM122 multibeam echosounder system. Previous studies reveal that the part of the ridge covered by the high resolution profiles is characterized by young geologic events (the oldest one dates back to 1 Ma) and that the SEIR is an intermediate spreading ridge. We extended the length of each profile to the area outside the ridge, integrating INDEX2012 high resolution gravity and bathymetric data with low resolution data derived from satellite radar altimeter measurements. The 3D forward gravity modeling made it possible to reconstruct a rough crustal density model for an extended area (about 250000 km2) of the SEIR. We analyzed the gravity signal along those 2D sections which cross particular geological features (uplifted areas, accommodation zones, hydrothermal fields and areas with hints for extensional processes e.g. OCCs) in order to establish a correlation between the gravity anomaly signal and the surface geology. We started with a simple "layer-cake" geologic model consisting of four density bodies which represent the sea, upper oceanic crust, lower oceanic crust and the upper mantle. Considering that in the study area the oceanic crust is young, we did not include the sediment layer. We assumed the density values of these bodies considering
Speeding up N-body simulations of modified gravity: Vainshtein screening models
Barreira, Alexandre; Bose, Sownak; Li, Baojiu E-mail: sownak.bose@durham.ac.uk
2015-12-01
We introduce and demonstrate the power of a method to speed up current iterative techniques for N-body modified gravity simulations. Our method is based on the observation that the accuracy of the final result is not compromised if the calculation of the fifth force becomes less accurate, but substantially faster, in high-density regions where it is relatively weak due to screening. We focus on the nDGP model which employs Vainshtein screening, and test our method by running AMR simulations in which the fifth force on the finer levels of the mesh (high density) is not obtained iteratively, but instead interpolated from coarser levels. The calculation of the standard gravity component of the force still employs the full AMR structure. We show that the impact this has on the matter power spectrum is below 1% for k < 5h/Mpc at 0z = , and even smaller at higher redshift. The impact on halo properties is also small (∼< 3% for abundance, profiles, mass; and ∼< 0.05% for positions and velocities). The method can boost the performance of modified gravity simulations by more than a factor of 10. This allows them to run on timescales similar to GR simulations and to push them to resolution levels that were previously hard to achieve.
A gravity model for the spread of a pollinator-borne plant pathogen.
Ferrari, Matthew J; Bjørnstad, Ottar N; Partain, Jessica L; Antonovics, Janis
2006-09-01
Many pathogens of plants are transmitted by arthropod vectors whose movement between individual hosts is influenced by foraging behavior. Insect foraging has been shown to depend on both the quality of hosts and the distances between hosts. Given the spatial distribution of host plants and individual variation in quality, vector foraging patterns may therefore produce predictable variation in exposure to pathogens. We develop a "gravity" model to describe the spatial spread of a vector-borne plant pathogen from underlying models of insect foraging in response to host quality using the pollinator-borne smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum as a case study. We fit the model to spatially explicit time series of M. violaceum transmission in replicate experimental plots of the white campion Silene latifolia. The gravity model provides a better fit than a mean field model or a model with only distance-dependent transmission. The results highlight the importance of active vector foraging in generating spatial patterns of disease incidence and for pathogen-mediated selection for floral traits.
3D gravity modeling of the Triassic salt diapirs of the Cubeta Alavesa (northern Spain)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinto, V.; Casas, A.; Rivero, L.; Torné, M.
2005-08-01
Up to now subsurface information permitted the delineation of the top of the Triassic salt, all throughout the Cantabro-Navarro domain, although little was known on the location and geometry of its base and thus on the estimation of the total salt thickness. A 3D-gravity inversion scheme combined with a 3D analytic method has been conducted to map out the geometry of the main salt structures of the basin. The gravity modeling results have been constrained by well log information and available geological and reflection seismic data. The combined 3D scheme integrated with available geological and geophysical data has allowed us to obtain the geometry of the main diapirs that characterize the central and marginal regions of the basin. From our interpretation, the Salinas de Añana diapir has almost vertical flanks and can be divided into two different parts, one of them forming a lateral overhang of the main body. The Salinas de Oro diapir has near vertical flanks and a main axis in the N-S direction. Also, the anomaly is rather more extensive than the outcrop of the diapir, which implies an important expansion of non-outcropping salt in this area. Like the Hoz-Sobrón diapir, the Salinas de Ollo diapir is long and narrow. stretching in the NW-SE direction, which includes three important highs, plus an intense zone of salt migration. The Estella and Alloz diapirs crop out individually in spite of being connected at depth. Also two non-outcropping salt domes have been detected to the south of Atauri that, like the Estella diapir, are related to the thrust front. We point out the gravity signature of the Murguia diapir, which shows an intense gravity high probably due to the presence of high-density rocks in the cap rock or more probably due to the existence of Triassic volcanites of ophitic texture pinched-off into the diapir.
Plant Growth Biophysics: the Basis for Growth Asymmetry Induced by Gravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cosgrove, D.
1985-01-01
The identification and quantification of the physical properties altered by gravity when plant stems grow upward was studied. Growth of the stem in vertical and horizontal positions was recorded by time lapse photography. A computer program that uses a cubic spline fitting algorithm was used to calculate the growth rate and curvature of the stem as a function of time. Plant stems were tested to ascertain whether cell osmotic pressure was altered by gravity. A technique for measuring the yielding properties of the cell wall was developed.
Azimuthal dependence in the gravity field induced by recent and past cryospheric forcings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuen, David A.; Gasperini, Paolo; Sabadini, Roberto; Boschi, Enzo
1987-01-01
Present-day glacial activities and the current variability of the Antarctic ice volume can cause variations in the long-wavelength gravity field as a consequence of transient viscoelastic responses in the mantle. The azimuthal dependence of the secular variations of the gravitational potential are studied and it is found that the nonaxisymmetric contributions are more important for recent glacial retreats than for Pleistocene deglaciation. Changes in land-based ice covering Antarctica can be detected by monitoring satellite orbits and their sensitivity to variations in gravitational harmonic for degree l greater than 3. Resonances in satellite orbits may be useful for detecting these azimuthally-dependent gravity signals.
A geopotential model from satellite tracking, altimeter, and surface gravity data: GEM-T3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Putney, B. H.; Felsentreger, T. L.; Sanchez, B. V.; Marshall, J. A.; Klosko, S. M.; Patel, G. B.; Williamson, R. G.; Chinn, D. S.
1994-01-01
An improved model of Earth's gravitational field, Goddard Earth Model T-3 (GEM-T3), has been developed from a combination of satellite tracking, satellite altimeter, and surface gravimetric data. GEM-T3 provides a significant improvement in the modeling of the gravity field at half wavelengths of 400 km and longer. This model, complete to degree and order 50, yields more accurate satellite orbits and an improved geoid representation than previous Goddard Earth Models. GEM-T3 uses altimeter data from GEOS 3 (1975-1976), Seasat (1978) and Geosat (1986-1987). Tracking information used in the solution includes more than 1300 arcs of data encompassing 31 different satellites. The recovery of the long-wavelength components of the solution relies mostly on highly precise satellite laser ranging (SLR) data, but also includes Tracking Network (TRANET) Doppler, optical, and satellite-to-satellite tracking acquired between the ATS 6 and GEOS 3 satellites. The main advances over GEM-T2 (beyond the inclusion of altimeter and surface gravity information which is essential for the resolution of the shorter wavelength geoid) are some improved tracking data analysis approaches and additional SLR data. Although the use of altimeter data has greatly enhanced the modeling of the ocean geoid between 65 deg N and 60 deg S latitudes in GEM-T3, the lack of accurate detailed surface gravimetry leaves poor geoid resolution over many continental regions of great tectonic interest (e.g., Himalayas, Andes). Estimates of polar motion, tracking station coordinates, and long-wavelength ocean tidal terms were also made (accounting for 6330 parameters). GEM-T3 has undergone error calibration using a technique based on subset solutions to produce reliable error estimates. The calibration is based on the condition that the expected mean square deviation of a subset gravity solution from the full set values is predicted by the solutions' error covariances. Data weights are iteratively adjusted until
Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations.
Harms, Jan
2015-01-01
Different forms of fluctuations of the terrestrial gravity field are observed by gravity experiments. For example, atmospheric pressure fluctuations generate a gravity-noise foreground in measurements with super-conducting gravimeters. Gravity changes caused by high-magnitude earthquakes have been detected with the satellite gravity experiment GRACE, and we expect high-frequency terrestrial gravity fluctuations produced by ambient seismic fields to limit the sensitivity of ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Accordingly, terrestrial gravity fluctuations are considered noise and signal depending on the experiment. Here, we will focus on ground-based gravimetry. This field is rapidly progressing through the development of GW detectors. The technology is pushed to its current limits in the advanced generation of the LIGO and Virgo detectors, targeting gravity strain sensitivities better than 10(-23) Hz(-1/2) above a few tens of a Hz. Alternative designs for GW detectors evolving from traditional gravity gradiometers such as torsion bars, atom interferometers, and superconducting gradiometers are currently being developed to extend the detection band to frequencies below 1 Hz. The goal of this article is to provide the analytical framework to describe terrestrial gravity perturbations in these experiments. Models of terrestrial gravity perturbations related to seismic fields, atmospheric disturbances, and vibrating, rotating or moving objects, are derived and analyzed. The models are then used to evaluate passive and active gravity noise mitigation strategies in GW detectors, or alternatively, to describe their potential use in geophysics. The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of
Sheen, D.R.; Liu, C.H.
1988-12-01
Two types of disturbances observed in the ionization density and the line-of-sight ion velocity data from the Worldwide Atmospheric Gravity Wave Study are analyzed and compared with theoretical studies. The study concentrates on the source-response relationship between auroral activities and gravity waves observed in the F-region. In the first section, the measured and derived wave parameters for a semiperiodic TID observed on October 18, 1985 during a moderately magnetically active period are shown to be consistent with predictions from wave theory. In the second section, the background wave spectra observed during several magnetically quiet days are analyzed. It is shown that the neutral vertical velocity spectrum can be modeled as a power law type spectrum. The overall kinetic energy of this spectrum is calculated and compared with the TID. 32 references.
High-resolution local gravity model of the south pole of the Moon from GRAIL extended mission data
Goossens, Sander; Sabaka, Terence J; Nicholas, Joseph B; Lemoine, Frank G; Rowlands, David D; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A; Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T
2014-01-01
We estimated a high-resolution local gravity field model over the south pole of the Moon using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory's extended mission. Our solution consists of adjustments with respect to a global model expressed in spherical harmonics. The adjustments are expressed as gridded gravity anomalies with a resolution of 1/6° by 1/6° (equivalent to that of a degree and order 1080 model in spherical harmonics), covering a cap over the south pole with a radius of 40°. The gravity anomalies have been estimated from a short-arc analysis using only Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data over the area of interest. We apply a neighbor-smoothing constraint to our solution. Our local model removes striping present in the global model; it reduces the misfit to the KBRR data and improves correlations with topography to higher degrees than current global models. Key Points We present a high-resolution gravity model of the south pole of the Moon Improved correlations with topography to higher degrees than global models Improved fits to the data and reduced striping that is present in global models PMID:26074637
Modeling of shallow structures in the Cappadocia region using gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosaroglu, Sinan; Buyuksarac, Aydin; Aydemir, Attila
2016-07-01
In this study, shallow structures and bodies creating gravity and magnetic anomalies in the Cappadocia Volcanic Complex region in central Anatolia were investigated in order to determine the tectonic origin and structural setting of young volcanic units. The shallow geological structures in the region are depressions filled with mainly low-density, loose volcano-clastics and ignimbrite sheets associated with the continental Neogene deposits. These units together with other volcanic products are originated from the large Neogene and Quaternary volcanoes of the central Anatolia, particularly in the Cappadocia region. At first, spectral analysis to obtain the cut-off frequencies for the high-pass filter was performed in this investigation. Then, gravity and magnetic data were high-pass filtered to remove the deep and regional effects on anomalies and to unveil only shallow structures' effects. Subsequently, upward and downward continuations were carried out to determine how these shallow structures influence the total anomalies and their contribution in the confining total potential field. In addition, three and two dimensional gravity models (3D and 2D) of the study area were also constructed to obtain the bottom depth of shallow bodies. According to spectral analysis results, shallow structures could be separated into two groups from the power spectrums and bottom depth of deeper structure was commonly determined about 2 km in gravity and magnetic spectrum, both. More shallow structure is at the depth around 0.317 km according to the gravity power spectrum. Obviously, 3D and 2D models are consistent with the spectral analysis results for the deeper unit depth. A circular, large depression (70 × 50 km2) surrounds Mount Melendiz with a 1-2.7 km depth range (2 km in average). Because the depressions around the central volcanoes of Mount Melendiz and Mount Hasan cover very large areas in the basin scale, the shallow and low-density volcanic units can hardly be claimed
Gravity and magnetic anomaly modeling and correlation using the SPHERE program and Magsat data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J. (Principal Investigator); Vonfrese, R. R. B.
1980-01-01
The spherical Earth inversion, modeling, and contouring software were tested and modified for processing data in the Southern Hemisphere. Preliminary geologic/tectonic maps and selected cross sections for South and Central America and the Caribbean region are being compiled and as well as gravity and magnetic models for the major geological features of the area. A preliminary gravity model of the Andeas Beniff Zone was constructed so that the density columns east and west of the subducted plates are in approximate isostatic equilibrium. The magnetic anomaly for the corresponding magnetic model of the zone is being computed with the SPHERE program. A test tape containing global magnetic measurements was converted to a tape compatible with Purdue's CDC system. NOO data were screened for periods of high diurnal activity and reduced to anomaly form using the IGS-75 model. Magnetic intensity anomaly profiles were plotted on the conterminous U.S. map using the track lines as the anomaly base level. The transcontinental magnetic high seen in POGO and MAGSAT data is also represented in the NOO data.
Global gravity field models from the GPS positions of CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE satellites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezděk, A.; Sebera, J.; Klokočník, J.; Kostelecký, J.
2012-04-01
The aim of our work is to generate Earth's gravity field models from the GPS positions of low Earth orbiters. We will present our inversion method and numerical results based on the real-world data of CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE satellites. The presented inversion method is based on Newton's second law of motion, which relates the observed acceleration of the satellite with the forces acting on it. The vector of the observed acceleration is obtained through a numerical second-derivative filter applied to the time series of the kinematic positions. Forces other than those due to the geopotential are either modelled (lunisolar perturbations, tides) or provided by the onboard measurements (nongravitational perturbations). Then the observation equations are formulated using the gradient of the spherical harmonic expansion of the geopotential. From this linear system the harmonic coefficients are directly obtained. We do not use any a priori gravity field model. Although the basic scheme of the acceleration approach is straightforward, the implementation details play a crucial role in obtaining reasonable results. The numerical derivative of noisy data (here the GPS positions) strongly amplifies the high frequency noise and creates autocorrelation in the observation errors. We successfully solve both of these problems by using the generalized least squares method, which defines a linear transformation of the observation equations. In the transformed variables the errors become uncorrelated, so the ordinary least squares estimation may be used to find the regression parameters with correct estimates of their uncertainties. The digital filter of the second derivative is an approximation to the analytical operation. We will show how different the results might be depending on the particular choice of the parameters defining the filter. Another problem is the correlation of the errors in the GPS positions. Here we use the tools from time series analysis. The systematic behaviour
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Chuang; Chen, Liang; Liu, Xi-kai
2016-04-01
Urban faults in Shenzhen are potential threat to the city security and sustainable development. To improve the knowledge of the Shenzhen fault zone, interpretation and inversion of gravity data were carried out. Bouguer gravity covering the whole Shenzhen city was calculated with a resolution of 1kmx1km. Wavelet multi-scale analysis (MSA) was applied to the Bouguer gravity data to obtain the multilayer residual anomalies corresponding to different depths. In addition, 2D gravity models were constructed along three profiles. The Bouguer gravity anomaly shows a NE-striking high-low-high pattern from northwest to southeast, strongly related to the main faults. According to the result of MSA, the correlation between gravity anomaly and faults is particularly significant from 4 to 12 km depth. The residual gravity with small amplitude in each layer indicates weak tectonic activity in the crust. In the upper layers, positive anomalies along most of faults reveal the upwelling of high-density materials during the past tectonic movements. The multilayer residual anomalies also implicate important information about the faults, such as the vertical extension and the dip direction. The maximum depth of the faults is about 20km. In general, NE-striking faults extend deeper than NW-striking Faults and have a larger dip angle. This study is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.41504015) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No.2015M572146).
Gravity wave initiated convection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, R. J.
1990-01-01
The vertical velocity of convection initiated by gravity waves was investigated. In one particular case, the convective motion-initiated and supported by the gravity wave-induced activity (excluding contributions made by other mechanisms) reached its maximum value about one hour before the production of the funnel clouds. In another case, both rawinsonde and geosynchronous satellite imagery were used to study the life cycles of severe convective storms. Cloud modelling with input sounding data and rapid-scan imagery from GOES were used to investigate storm cloud formation, development and dissipation in terms of growth and collapse of cloud tops, as well as, the life cycles of the penetration of overshooting turrets above the tropopause. The results based on these two approaches are presented and discussed.
A laboratory model of post-Newtonian gravity with high power lasers and 4th generation light sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gregori, G.; Levy, M. C.; Wadud, M. A.; Crowley, B. J. B.; Bingham, R.
2016-04-01
Using the post-Newtonian formalism of gravity, we attempt to calculate the x-ray Thomson scattering cross section of electrons that are accelerated in the field of a high intensity optical laser. We show that our results are consistent with previous calculations, suggesting that the combination of high power laser and 4th generation light sources may become a powerful platform to test models exploring high order corrections to the Newtonian gravity.
A Computational Study of the Mechanics of Gravity-induced Torque on Cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haranas, Ioannis; Gkigkitis, Ioannis; Zouganelis, George D.
2013-10-01
In this paper, we study the effects of the acceleration gravity on the sedimentation deposition probability, as well as the aerosol deposition rate on the surface of the Earth and Mars, but also aboard a spacecraft in orbit around Earth and Mars as well. For particles with density ?p = 1300 kg/m3, diameters dp = 1, 10, 30 μm and residence times t = 0.0272, 0.2 s respectively, we find that, on the surface of Earth and Mars the deposition probabilities are higher at the poles when compared to the ones at the equator. Similarly, when in orbit around Earth we find that the deposition probabilities exhibit 0.0001 % higher percentage difference in equatorial circular and elliptical orbits when compared to polar ones. For both residence times particles with the diameters considered above in circular and elliptical orbits around Mars, the deposition probabilities appear to be the same for all orbital inclinations. Sedimentation probability increases drastically with particle diameter and orbital eccentricity of the orbiting spacecraft. Finally, as an alternative framework for the study of interaction and the effect of gravity in biology, and in particular gravity and the respiratory system we introduce is the term information in a way Shannon has introduced it, considering the sedimentation probability as a random variable. This can be thought as a way in which gravity enters the cognitive processes of the system (processing of information) in the cybernetic sense.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yale, Mara M.
This thesis consists of modeling upper mantle rheology with numerical experiments and mapping marine gravity anomalies with satellite altimetry data. Chapter 1 introduces my reasoning for undertaking projects in two distinct fields. Chapters 2 and 3 are numerical modeling projects. Chapters 4 and 5 and the appendix are satellite altimetry projects. Chapter 2 presents numerical modeling experiments of small-scale convection in the asthenosphere beneath California. Using the timing provided by the tectonic history and knowledge of the current thermal state from seismic tomography, our numerical experiments provide upper and lower bounds on the asthenosphere viscosity, and demonstrate the effects of rheologies that depend on temperature, pressure, and strain rate. Chapter 3 presents a numerical model to test the