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Sample records for induced map kinase

  1. Protein Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Promotes Obesity-induced Hyperinsulinemia*

    PubMed Central

    Roth Flach, Rachel J.; Danai, Laura V.; DiStefano, Marina T.; Kelly, Mark; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jurczyk, Agata; Sharma, Rohit B.; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K.; Bortell, Rita; Alonso, Laura C.; Czech, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo. After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced β cell mass, fewer proliferating β cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared with controls, although insulin content was normal. Interestingly, the reduced plasma insulin in M4K4 iKO mice exposed to chronic (16 weeks) HFD was not observed in response to acute HFD challenge or short term treatment with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. Furthermore, the improved insulin sensitivity in obese M4K4 iKO mice was abrogated by high exogenous insulin over the course of a euglycemic clamp study, indicating that hypoinsulinemia promotes insulin sensitivity in chronically obese M4K4 iKO mice. These results demonstrate that protein kinase Map4k4 drives obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in part by promoting insulin secretion from β cells in mice. PMID:27226575

  2. MAP KINASE ERK 1/2 INHIBITORS INDUCE DYSMORPHOLOGY IN MOUSE WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ROSEN, M.B. and E. S. HUNTER. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. MAP kinase Erk1/2 inhibitors induce dysmorphology in mouse whole embryo culture.

    MAP Kinase signal transduction is associated with a variety ...

  3. p38 MAP kinase mediates nitric oxide-induced apoptosis of neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, A; Chan, S L; Milhavet, O; Wang, S; Mattson, M P

    2001-11-16

    Neural progenitor cells (NPC) can proliferate, differentiate into neurons or glial cells, or undergo a form of programmed cell death called apoptosis. Although death of NPC occurs during development of the nervous system and in the adult, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we show that nitric oxide (NO) can induce death of C17.2 NPC by a mechanism requiring activation of p38 MAP kinase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and caspase-3. Nitric oxide causes release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and Bcl-2 protects the neural progenitor cells against nitric oxide-induced death, consistent with a pivotal role for mitochondrial changes in controlling the cell death process. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase by SB203580 abolished NO-induced cell death, cytochrome c release, and activation of caspase-3, indicating that p38 activation serves as an upstream mediator in the cell death process. The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 protected NPC against nitric oxide-induced apoptosis and suppressed activation of p38 MAP kinase. The ability of nitric oxide to trigger death of NPC by a mechanism involving p38 MAP kinase suggests that this diffusible gas may regulate NPC fate in physiological and pathological settings in which NO is produced.

  4. Dependence of Mos-induced Cdc2 activation on MAP kinase function in a cell-free system.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, C Y; Ferrell, J E

    1996-01-01

    The progression of G2-arrested Xenopus laevis oocytes into meiotic M-phase is accompanied by the nearly simultaneous activation of p42 MAP kinase and Cdc2/cyclin B. This timing raises the possibility that the activation of one kinase might depend upon the other. Here we have examined whether Cdc2 activation requires p42 MAP kinase function. We have reconstituted Mos-induced Cdc2 activation in cell-free Xenopus oocyte extracts, and have found that Mos-induced Cdc2 activation requires active p42 MAP kinase, is inhibited by a MAP kinase phosphatase and is independent of protein synthesis. These findings indicate that p42 MAP kinase is an essential component of the M phase trigger in this system. Images PMID:8641282

  5. TNF and MAP kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sabio, Guadalupe; Davis, Roger J.

    2014-01-01

    The binding of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) to cell surface receptors engages multiple signal transduction pathways, including three groups of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases: extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); the cJun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs); and the p38 MAP kinases. These MAP kinase signalling pathways induce a secondary response by increasing the expression of several inflammatory cytokines (including TNFα) that contribute to the biological activity of TNFα. MAP kinases therefore function both upstream and down-stream of signalling by TNFα receptors. Here we review mechanisms that mediate these actions of MAP kinases during the response to TNFα. PMID:24647229

  6. Thiazolides promote apoptosis in colorectal tumor cells via MAP kinase-induced Bim and Puma activation

    PubMed Central

    Brockmann, A; Bluwstein, A; Kögel, A; May, S; Marx, A; Tschan, M P; Brunner, T

    2015-01-01

    While many anticancer therapies aim to target the death of tumor cells, sophisticated resistance mechanisms in the tumor cells prevent cell death induction. In particular enzymes of the glutathion-S-transferase (GST) family represent a well-known detoxification mechanism, which limit the effect of chemotherapeutic drugs in tumor cells. Specifically, GST of the class P1 (GSTP1-1) is overexpressed in colorectal tumor cells and renders them resistant to various drugs. Thus, GSTP1-1 has become an important therapeutic target. We have recently shown that thiazolides, a novel class of anti-infectious drugs, induce apoptosis in colorectal tumor cells in a GSTP1-1-dependent manner, thereby bypassing this GSTP1-1-mediated drug resistance. In this study we investigated in detail the underlying mechanism of thiazolide-induced apoptosis induction in colorectal tumor cells. Thiazolides induce the activation of p38 and Jun kinase, which is required for thiazolide-induced cell death. Activation of these MAP kinases results in increased expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homologs Bim and Puma, which inducibly bind and sequester Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL leading to the induction of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Of interest, while an increase in intracellular glutathione levels resulted in increased resistance to cisplatin, it sensitized colorectal tumor cells to thiazolide-induced apoptosis by promoting increased Jun kinase activation and Bim induction. Thus, thiazolides may represent an interesting novel class of anti-tumor agents by specifically targeting tumor resistance mechanisms, such as GSTP1-1. PMID:26043078

  7. Panaxynol induces neurite outgrowth in PC12D cells via cAMP- and MAP kinase-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze-Jian; Nie, Bao-Ming; Chen, Hong-Zhuan; Lu, Yang

    2006-01-05

    Panaxynol, a polyacetylene ((3R)-heptadeca-1,9-diene-4,6-diyn-3-ol; syn. falcarinol), was isolated from the lipophilic fractions of Panax notoginseng, a Chinese traditional medicinal plant. In the present study, we reported the neurotrophic effects of panaxynol on PC12D cells and mechanism involved in neurite outgrowth of the cells. Panaxynol could morphologically promote neurite outgrowth in PC12D cells, concentration-dependently reduce cell division and up-regulate molecular marker (MAP1B) expression in PC12D cells. Panaxynol induces the elevation of intracellular cAMP in PC12D cells. The neurite outgrowth in PC12D cells induced by panaxynol could be inhibited by the protein kinase A inhibitor RpcAMPS and by MAP kinase kinase 1/2 inhibitor U0126. These observations reveal that panaxynol could induce the differentiation of PC12D cells in a process similar to but distinct from that of NGF and the panaxynol's effects were via cAMP- and MAP kinase-dependent mechanisms.

  8. Fluoride Induces a Volume Reduction in CA1 Hippocampal Slices Via MAP Kinase Pathway Through Volume Regulated Anion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaekwang; Han, Young-Eun; Favorov, Oleg; Tommerdahl, Mark; Whitsel, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of cell volume is an important aspect of cellular homeostasis during neural activity. This volume regulation is thought to be mediated by activation of specific transporters, aquaporin, and volume regulated anion channels (VRAC). In cultured astrocytes, it was reported that swelling-induced mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation is required to open VRAC, which are thought to be important in regulatory volume decrease and in the response of CNS to trauma and excitotoxicity. It has been also described that sodium fluoride (NaF), a recognized G-protein activator and protein phosphatase inhibitor, leads to a significant MAP kinase activation in endothelial cells. However, NaF's effect in volume regulation in the brain is not known yet. Here, we investigated the mechanism of NaF-induced volume change in rat and mouse hippocampal slices using intrinsic optical signal (IOS) recording, in which we measured relative changes in intracellular and extracellular volume as changes in light transmittance through brain slices. We found that NaF (1~5 mM) application induced a reduction in light transmittance (decreased volume) in CA1 hippocampus, which was completely reversed by MAP kinase inhibitor U0126 (10 µM). We also observed that NaF-induced volume reduction was blocked by anion channel blockers, suggesting that NaF-induced volume reduction could be mediated by VRAC. Overall, our results propose a novel molecular mechanism of NaF-induced volume reduction via MAP kinase signaling pathway by activation of VRAC. PMID:27122993

  9. Cadmium-induced activation of high osmolarity glycerol pathway through its Sln1 branch is dependent on the MAP kinase kinase kinase Ssk2, but not its paralog Ssk22, in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Linghuo; Cao, Chunlei; Zhang, Lilin; Lin, Wei; Xia, Jing; Xu, Huihui; Zhang, Yan

    2014-12-01

    Cadmium ions disrupt reactive oxygen species/Ca(2+) homeostasis and subsequently elicit cell death and adaptive signaling cascades in eukaryotic cells. Through a functional genomics approach, we have identified deletion mutants of 106 yeast genes, including three MAP kinase genes (HOG1, SLT2, and KSS1), are sensitive to a sublethal concentration of cadmium, and 64 mutants show elevated intracellular cadmium concentrations upon exposure to cadmium. Hog1 is phosphorylated, reaching a peak 30 min after the cadmium treatment. Both Sln1 and Sho1 upstream branches are involved in the cadmium-induced activation of high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway. Cadmium-induced HOG activation is dependent on the MAP kinase kinase kinase Ssk2, but not its paralog Ssk22, in the Sln1 branch.

  10. Probiotics ameliorate the hydrogen peroxide-induced epithelial barrier disruption by a PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Seth, A.; Yan, Fang; Polk, D.Brent; Rao, R. K.

    2009-01-01

    Probiotics promote intestinal epithelial integrity and reduce infection and diarrhea. We evaluated the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-produced soluble proteins (p40 and p75) on the hydrogen peroxide-induced disruption of tight junctions and barrier function in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Pretreatment of cell monolayers with p40 or p75 attenuated the hydrogen peroxide-induced decrease in transepithelial resistance and increase in inulin permeability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. p40 and p75 also prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced redistribution of occludin, ZO-1, E-cadherin, and β-catenin from the intercellular junctions and their dissociation from the detergent-insoluble fractions. Both p40 and p75 induced a rapid increase in the membrane translocation of PKCβI and PKCε. The attenuation of hydrogen peroxide-induced inulin permeability and redistribution of tight junction proteins by p40 and p75 was abrogated by Ro-32-0432, a PKC inhibitor. p40 and p75 also rapidly increased the levels of phospho-ERK1/2 in the detergent-insoluble fractions. U0126 (a MAP kinase inhibitor) attenuated the p40- and p75-mediated reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced tight junction disruption and inulin permeability. These studies demonstrate that probiotic-secretory proteins protect the intestinal epithelial tight junctions and the barrier function from hydrogen peroxide-induced insult by a PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent mechanism. PMID:18292183

  11. Probiotics ameliorate the hydrogen peroxide-induced epithelial barrier disruption by a PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Seth, A; Yan, Fang; Polk, D Brent; Rao, R K

    2008-04-01

    Probiotics promote intestinal epithelial integrity and reduce infection and diarrhea. We evaluated the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-produced soluble proteins (p40 and p75) on the hydrogen peroxide-induced disruption of tight junctions and barrier function in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Pretreatment of cell monolayers with p40 or p75 attenuated the hydrogen peroxide-induced decrease in transepithelial resistance and increase in inulin permeability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. p40 and p75 also prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced redistribution of occludin, ZO-1, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin from the intercellular junctions and their dissociation from the detergent-insoluble fractions. Both p40 and p75 induced a rapid increase in the membrane translocation of PKCbetaI and PKCepsilon. The attenuation of hydrogen peroxide-induced inulin permeability and redistribution of tight junction proteins by p40 and p75 was abrogated by Ro-32-0432, a PKC inhibitor. p40 and p75 also rapidly increased the levels of phospho-ERK1/2 in the detergent-insoluble fractions. U0126 (a MAP kinase inhibitor) attenuated the p40- and p75-mediated reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced tight junction disruption and inulin permeability. These studies demonstrate that probiotic-secretory proteins protect the intestinal epithelial tight junctions and the barrier function from hydrogen peroxide-induced insult by a PKC- and MAP kinase-dependent mechanism.

  12. Apoptosis of cerebellar granule cells induced by organotin compounds found in drinking water: involvement of MAP kinases.

    PubMed

    Mundy, William R; Freudenrich, Theresa M

    2006-01-01

    Mono- and dialkyl organotin compounds are used primarily as heat stabilizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. Recently, monomethyltin (MMT), dimethyltin (DMT), monobutyltin (MBT), and dibutyltin (DBT) have been detected in water from homes and businesses served by PVC pipes. While trialkyl organotins such as trimethyltin (TMT) and triethyltin (TET) are well known neurotoxicants, the toxicity of the mono- and dialkyl organotins is not well described. The present study compared the cytotoxicity of organotins found in drinking water with the known neurotoxicant TMT in primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells, and examined the role of MAP kinase signaling in organotin-induced cell death. Twenty-four hour exposure to TMT resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability with an EC(50) of 3 microM. Exposure to MMT, DMT, and MBT at concentrations up to 10 microM had no effect. DBT, however, was very potent, and decreased cell viability with an EC(50) of 0.3 microM. Staining of organotin-treated cerebellar granule cells with the nuclear dye Syto-13 revealed that TMT and DBT, but not MMT, DMT, or MBT, produced condensation and fragmentation of chromatin characteristic of apoptosis. TMT- and DBT-induced apoptosis was confirmed using TUNEL staining and measurement of PARP cleavage. Activation of MAP kinase pathways was examined after 6 h of exposure to the organotins which induced apoptosis. Both TMT and DBT activated ERK1/2, but only TMT activated the JNK/c-Jun and p38 pathways. Pharmacologic blockade of JNK/c-Jun and p38 activation significantly decreased apoptosis produced by TMT, but not by DBT. These results show that DBT is a potent neurotoxicant in vitro, but unlike TMT, does not induce cell death via activation of MAP kinase signaling.

  13. Inducible activation of ERK5 MAP kinase enhances adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb and improves olfactory function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenbin; Lu, Song; Li, Tan; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Abel, Glen M; Xu, Lihong; Storm, Daniel R; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-05-20

    Recent discoveries have suggested that adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb (OB) may be required for at least some forms of olfactory behavior in mice. However, it is unclear whether conditional and selective enhancement of adult neurogenesis by genetic approaches is sufficient to improve olfactory function under physiological conditions or after injury. Furthermore, specific signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB are not fully defined. We previously reported that ERK5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain, plays a critical role in adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB. Using a site-specific knock-in mouse model, we report here that inducible and targeted activation of the endogenous ERK5 in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances adult neurogenesis in the OB by increasing cell survival and neuronal differentiation. This conditional ERK5 activation also improves short-term olfactory memory and odor-cued associative olfactory learning under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these mice show enhanced recovery of olfactory function and have more adult-born neurons after a zinc sulfate-induced lesion of the main olfactory epithelium. We conclude that ERK5 MAP kinase is an important endogenous signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and that conditional activation of endogenous ERK5 is sufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis in the OB thereby improving olfactory function both under normal conditions and after injury.

  14. Multi-kinase inhibitors induce cutaneous toxicity through OAT6-mediated uptake and MAP3K7-driven cell death

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Eric I.; Gibson, Alice A.; Hu, Shuiying; Vasilyeva, Aksana; Orwick, Shelley J.; Du, Guoqing; Mascara, Gerard P.; Ong, Su Sien; Chen, Taosheng; Vogel, Peter; Inaba, Hiroto; Maitland, Michael L.; Sparreboom, Alex; Baker, Sharyn D.

    2015-01-01

    The use of multi-kinase inhibitors (MKI) in oncology, such as sorafenib, is associated with a cutaneous adverse event called hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) in which sites of pressure or friction become inflamed and painful, thus significantly impacting quality of life. The pathogenesis of MKI-induced HFSR is unknown, and the only available treatment options involve dose reduction or discontinuation of therapy, which have negative effects on primary disease management. To investigate the underlying mechanisms by which sorafenib promotes keratinocyte cytotoxicity and subsequent HFSR induction, we performed a transporter-directed RNAi screen in human epidermal keratinocytes and identified SLC22A20 (OAT6) as an uptake carrier of sorafenib. Further investigations into the intracellular mechanism of sorafenib activity through in situ kinome profiling identified the mitogen-activated protein kinase MAP3K7 (TAK1) as a target of sorafenib that induces cell death. Finally, we demonstrate that sorafenib induced keratinocyte injury in vivo, and that this effect could be reversed by co-treatment with the OAT6 inhibitor probenecid. Collectively, our findings reveal a novel pathway that regulates the entry of some MKIs into keratinocytes and explains the basis underlying sorafenib-induced skin toxicity, with important implications for the therapeutic management of HFSR. PMID:26677977

  15. Role played by Disabled-2 in albumin induced MAP Kinase signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Diwakar, Ramaswamy Pearson, Alexander L.; Colville-Nash, Paul; Baines, Deborah L.; Dockrell, Mark E.C.

    2008-02-15

    Albumin has been shown to activate the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in proximal tubular cells (PTECs) of the kidney. Megalin, the putative receptor for albumin has potential signalling properties. However, the mechanisms by which megalin signals are unclear. The adaptor phosphoprotein Disabled-2 (Dab2) is known to interact with the cytoplasmic tail of megalin and may be involved in albumin-mediated MAPK signalling. In this study, we investigated the role of Dab2 in albumin-mediated MAPK signalling and further studied the role of Dab2 in albumin-induced TGF{beta}-1 secretion, a MAPK dependent event. We used RNA interference to knockdown Dab2 protein abundance in HKC-8 cells a model of human PTECs. Albumin activated ERK1,2 and Elk-1 in a MEK-1 dependent manner and resulted in secretion of TGF{beta}-1. In the absence of albumin, knockdown of Dab2 resulted in a trend towards increase in pERK1,2 consistent with its putative role as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. However albumin-induced ERK1,2 activation was completely abolished by Dab2 knockdown. Dab2 knockdown did not however result in inhibition of albumin-induced TGF{beta}-1 secretion. These results suggest that Dab2 is a ligand dependent bi-directional regulator of ERK1,2 activity by demonstrating that in addition to its more traditional role as an inhibitor of ERK1,2 it may also activate ERK1,2.

  16. IκB kinase-induced interaction of TPL-2 kinase with 14-3-3 is essential for Toll-like receptor activation of ERK-1 and -2 MAP kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Addi, Abduelhakem; Mambole-Dema, Agnes; Brender, Christine; Martin, Stephen R.; Janzen, Julia; Kjaer, Sven; Smerdon, Stephen J.; Ley, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    The MEK-1/2 kinase TPL-2 is critical for Toll-like receptor activation of the ERK-1/2 MAP kinase pathway during inflammatory responses, but it can transform cells following C-terminal truncation. IκB kinase (IKK) complex phosphorylation of the TPL-2 C terminus regulates full-length TPL-2 activation of ERK-1/2 by a mechanism that has remained obscure. Here, we show that TPL-2 Ser-400 phosphorylation by IKK and TPL-2 Ser-443 autophosphorylation cooperated to trigger TPL-2 association with 14-3-3. Recruitment of 14-3-3 to the phosphorylated C terminus stimulated TPL-2 MEK-1 kinase activity, which was essential for TPL-2 activation of ERK-1/2. The binding of 14-3-3 to TPL-2 was also indispensible for lipopolysaccharide-induced production of tumor necrosis factor by macrophages, which is regulated by TPL-2 independently of ERK-1/2 activation. Our data identify a key step in the activation of TPL-2 signaling and provide a mechanistic insight into how C-terminal deletion triggers the oncogenic potential of TPL-2 by rendering its kinase activity independent of 14-3-3 binding. PMID:24912162

  17. Extracellular simian virus 40 induces an ERK/MAP kinase-independent signalling pathway that activates primary response genes and promotes virus entry.

    PubMed

    Dangoria, N S; Breau, W C; Anderson, H A; Cishek, D M; Norkin, L C

    1996-09-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) binding to growth-arrested cells activated an intracellular signalling pathway that induced the up-regulation of the primary response genes c-myc, c-jun and c-sis within 30 min and of JE within 90 min. The up-regulation of the primary response genes occurred in the presence of cycloheximide and when UV-inactivated SV40 was adsorbed to cells. SV40 binding did not activate Raf or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP/ERK1), or mobilize intracellular Ca2+. The SV40-induced up-regulation of c-myc and c-jun was blocked by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, and by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, calphostin C, but not by expression of the MAP kinase-specific phosphatase, MKP-1. These results suggest that the SV40-induced signalling pathway includes the activities of a tyrosine kinase and a Ca(2+)-independent isoform of PKC, but not of Raf or MAP kinase. Finally, SV40 infectious entry into cells was specifically and reversibly blocked by genistein.

  18. Obesity-induced insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle is characterised by defective activation of p42/p44 MAP kinase.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Alcaraz, Antonio J; Lipina, Christopher; Petrie, John R; Murphy, Michael J; Morris, Andrew D; Sutherland, Calum; Cuthbertson, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR), an impaired cellular, tissue and whole body response to insulin, is a major pathophysiological defect of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although IR is closely associated with obesity, the identity of the molecular defect(s) underlying obesity-induced IR in skeletal muscle remains controversial; reduced post-receptor signalling of the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) adaptor protein and downstream effectors such as protein kinase B (PKB) have previously been implicated. We examined expression and/or activation of a number of components of the insulin-signalling cascade in skeletal muscle of 22 healthy young men (with body mass index (BMI) range, 20-37 kg/m(2)). Whole body insulin sensitivity (M value) and body composition was determined by the hyperinsulinaemic (40 mU. min(-1).m(-2).), euglycaemic clamp and by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) respectively. Skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies were taken before and after one hour of hyperinsulinaemia and the muscle insulin signalling proteins examined by western blot and immunoprecipitation assay. There was a strong inverse relationship between M-value and BMI. The most striking abnormality was significantly reduced insulin-induced activation of p42/44 MAP kinase, measured by specific assay, in the volunteers with poor insulin sensitivity. However, there was no relationship between individuals' BMI or M-value and protein expression/phosphorylation of IRS1, PKB, or p42/44 MAP kinase protein, under basal or hyperinsulinaemic conditions. In the few individuals with poor insulin sensitivity but preserved p42/44 MAP kinase activation, other signalling defects were evident. These findings implicate defective p42/44 MAP kinase signalling as a potential contributor to obesity-related IR in a non-diabetic population, although clearly multiple signalling defects underlie obesity associated IR.

  19. Cyanidin-3-glucoside inhibits UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation by regulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways in SKH-1 hairless mice skin

    SciTech Connect

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Joseph, Binoy; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Kim, Donghern; Yin, Yuanqin; Roy, Ram Vinod; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Yitao; and others

    2014-10-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the United States. Exposure to ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation induces inflammation and photocarcinogenesis in mammalian skin. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), a member of the anthocyanin family, is present in various vegetables and fruits especially in edible berries, and displays potent antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. In this study, we have assessed the in vivo effects of C3G on UVB irradiation induced chronic inflammatory responses in SKH-1 hairless mice, a well-established model for UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis. Here, we show that C3G inhibited UVB-induced skin damage and inflammation in SKH-1 hairless mice. Our results indicate that C3G inhibited glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidation in mouse skin by chronic UVB exposure. C3G significantly decreased the production of UVB-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-α, associated with cutaneous inflammation. Likewise, UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by C3G as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP kinases, Erk1/2, p38, JNK1/2 and MKK4. Furthermore, C3G also decreased UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), PGE{sub 2} and iNOS levels, which are well-known key mediators of inflammation and cancer. Treatment with C3G inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and degradation of IκBα in mice skin. Immunofluorescence assay revealed that topical application of C3G inhibited the expression of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and cyclin D1 in chronic UVB exposed mouse skin. Collectively, these data indicates that C3G can provide substantial protection against the adverse effects of UVB radiation by modulating UVB-induced MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways. - Highlights: • C3G inhibited UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation. • C3G inhibited UVB-induced COX-2, iNOS and PGE{sub 2} production. • C3G

  20. A novel PPAR{gamma} agonist, KR62776, suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and activity by inhibiting MAP kinase pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Ju-Young; Bae, Myung-Ae; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong; Kim, Sung Soo; Hong, Jung-Min; Kim, Tae-Ho; Choi, Je-Yong; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Lim, Jiwon; Choi, Chang-Hyuk; Shin, Hong-In; Kim, Shin-Yoon Park, Eui Kyun

    2009-01-16

    We investigated the effects of a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonist, KR62776, on osteoclast differentiation and function, and on the underlying signaling pathways. KR62776 markedly suppressed differentiation into osteoclasts in various osteoclast model systems, including bone marrow mononuclear (BMM) cells and a co-culture of calvarial osteoblasts and BMM cells. KR62776 suppressed the activation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and the expression of genes associated with osteoclast differentiation, such as TRAP, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), and osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR). Furthermore, KR62776 reduced resorption pit formation in osteoclasts, and down-regulated genes essential for osteoclast activity, such as Src and {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin. An analysis of a signaling pathway showed that KR62776 inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL)-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). Together, these results demonstrate that KR62776 negatively affects osteoclast differentiation and activity by inhibiting the RANKL-induced activation of MAP kinases and NF-{kappa}B.

  1. Cyanidin-3-Glucoside inhibits UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation by regulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signalling pathways in SKH-1 hairless mice skin

    PubMed Central

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Wang, Xin; Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Joseph, Binoy; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Kim, Donghern; Yin, Yuanqin; Roy, Ram Vinod; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Yitao; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the United States. Exposure to ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation induces inflammation and photocarcinogenesis in mammalian skin. Cyanidin-3-Glucoside (C3G), a member of the anthocyanin family, is present in various vegetables and fruits especially in edible berries, and displays potent antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. In this study, we have assessed the in vivo effects of C3G on UVB irradiation induced chronic inflammatory responses in SKH-1 hairless mice, a well-established model for UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis. Here, we show that C3G inhibited UVB-induced skin damage and inflammation in SKH-1 hairless mice. Our results indicate that C3G inhibited glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidation in mouse skin by chronic UVB exposure. C3G significantly decreased the production of UVB-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF-α, associated with cutaneous inflammation. Likewise, UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by C3G as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP Kinases, Erk1/2, p38, JNK1/2 and MKK4. Furthermore, C3G also decreased UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), PGE2 and iNOS levels, which are well-known key mediators of inflammation and cancer. Treatment with C3G inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and degradation of IκBα in mice skin. Immunofluorescence assay revealed that topical application of C3G inhibited the expression of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and cyclin D1 in chronic UVB exposed mouse skin. Collectively, these data indicates that C3G can provide substantial protection against the adverse effects of UVB radiation by modulating UVB-induced MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:25062774

  2. Phosphorylation of P68 RNA Helicase by P38 MAP kinase contributes to colon cancer cells apoptosis induced by oxaliplatin

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously demonstrated that p68 phosphorylation at threonine residues correlates with cancer cell apoptosis under the treatments of TNF-α and TRAIL (Yang, L. Mol Cancer Res Vol 3, pp 355–63 2005). Results In this report, we characterized the role of p68 phosphorylation in apoptosis induction under the treatment of oxaliplatin in the colon cancer cells. Our data suggest that oxaliplatin treatment activates p38 MAP kinase, which subsequently phosphorylates p68 at T564 and/or T446. The phosphorylation of p68, at least partially, mediates the effects of the drug on apoptosis induction, as mutations at these two sites greatly reduce the cancer cell death. Conclusion Our studies reveal an important molecular mechanism that mediates the effects of anti-cancer drug, providing a potential strategy for improving cancer treatment. PMID:23110695

  3. A soluble factor from Trypanosoma cruzi inhibits transforming growth factor-ß-induced MAP kinase activation and gene expression in dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Mott, G Adam; Costales, Jaime A; Burleigh, Barbara A

    2011-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes human Chagas' disease, exerts a variety of effects on host extracellular matrix (ECM) including proteolytic degradation of collagens and dampening of ECM gene expression. Exposure of primary human dermal fibroblasts to live infective T. cruzi trypomastigotes or their shed/secreted products results in a rapid down-regulation of the fibrogenic genes collagenIα1, fibronectin and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2). Here we demonstrate the ability of a secreted/released T. cruzi factor to antagonize ctgf/ccn2 expression in dermal fibroblasts in response to TGF-ß, lysophosphatidic acid or serum, where agonist-induced phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases Erk1/2, p38 and JNK was also inhibited. Global analysis of gene expression in dermal fibroblasts identified a discrete subset of TGF-ß-inducible genes involved in cell proliferation, wound repair, and immune regulation that are inhibited by T. cruzi secreted/released factors, where the genes exhibiting the highest sensitivity to T. cruzi are known to be regulated by MAP kinase-activated transcription factors. Consistent with this observation, the Ets-family transcription factor binding site in the proximal promoter region of the ctgf/ccn2 gene (-91 bp to -84 bp) was shown to be required for T. cruzi-mediated down-regulation of ctgf/ccn2 reporter expression. The cumulative data suggest a model in which T. cruzi-derived molecules secreted/released early in the infective process dampen MAP kinase signaling and the activation of transcription factors that regulate expression of fibroblast genes involved in wound repair and tissue remodelling, including ctgf/ccn2. These findings have broader implications for local modulation of ECM synthesis/remodelling by T. cruzi during the early establishment of infection in the mammalian host and highlight the potential for pathogen-derived molecules to be exploited as tools to modulate the

  4. Blackberry extract inhibits UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation through MAP kinases and NF-κB signalling pathways in SKH-1 mice skin

    PubMed Central

    Son, Young-Ok; Roy, Ram Vinod; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Asha, Padmaja; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Extensive exposure of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to skin induces oxidative stress and inflammation that play a crucial role in the induction of skin cancer. Photochemoprevention with natural products represents a simple but very effective strategy for the management of cutaneous neoplasia. In this study, we investigated whether blackberry extract (BBE) reduces chronic inflammatory responses induced by UVB irradiation in SKH-1 hairless mice skin. Mice were exposed to UVB radiation (100 mJ/cm2) on alternate days for 10 weeks, and BBE (10% and 20%) was applied topically a day before UVB exposure. Our results show that BBE suppressed UVB-induced hyperplasia and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the SKH-1 hairless mice skin. BBE treatment reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in mouse skin by chronic UVB exposure. BBE significantly decreased the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in UVB-exposed skin. Likewise, UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by BBE as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP Kinases, Erk1/2, p38, JNK1/2 and MKK4. Furthermore, BBE also reduced inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels in UVB-exposed skin. Treatment with BBE inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and degradation of IκBα in mouse skin. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that topical application of BBE inhibited the expression of 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and cyclin D1 in UVB-exposed skin. Collectively, these data indicates that BBE protects from UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation by modulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:25680589

  5. Blackberry extract inhibits UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation through MAP kinases and NF-κB signaling pathways in SKH-1 mice skin.

    PubMed

    Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Wang, Xin; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Roy, Ram Vinod; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Asha, Padmaja; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-04-01

    Extensive exposure of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to skin induces oxidative stress and inflammation that play a crucial role in the induction of skin cancer. Photochemoprevention with natural products represents a simple but very effective strategy for the management of cutaneous neoplasia. In this study, we investigated whether blackberry extract (BBE) reduces chronic inflammatory responses induced by UVB irradiation in SKH-1 hairless mice skin. Mice were exposed to UVB radiation (100 mJ/cm(2)) on alternate days for 10 weeks, and BBE (10% and 20%) was applied topically a day before UVB exposure. Our results show that BBE suppressed UVB-induced hyperplasia and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the SKH-1 hairless mice skin. BBE treatment reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in mouse skin by chronic UVB exposure. BBE significantly decreased the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in UVB-exposed skin. Likewise, UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by BBE as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP Kinases, Erk1/2, p38, JNK1/2 and MKK4. Furthermore, BBE also reduced inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels in UVB-exposed skin. Treatment with BBE inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and degradation of IκBα in mouse skin. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that topical application of BBE inhibited the expression of 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and cyclin D1 in UVB-exposed skin. Collectively, these data indicate that BBE protects from UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation by modulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways.

  6. Inhibition of the MAP kinase activity suppresses estrogen-induced breast tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kaladhar B; Glaros, Selina

    2007-04-01

    Elevated expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (Erk/MAPK) has been noted in a significant percentage of primary human breast cancers. To directly assess the importance of Erk/MAPK activation in estrogen (E2)-induced tumor progression, we blocked E2-signaling with MEK-inhibitor CI-1040 and/or tamoxifen (Tam). Our data show that both MEK-inhibitor CI-1040 and Tam blocked E2-induced MAPK phosphorylation and cell proliferation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro. However, in vivo studies show that anti-tumor efficacy of combining the CI-1040 and Tam was similar to single agent(s). Furthermore, sequential treatment with Tam followed by CI-1040 or CI-1040 followed by Tam did not significantly reduce E2-induced tumor growth. This suggests that the combination of CI-1040 and Tam may not be synergistic in inhibiting E2-induced tumor growth. However, these findings also indicate that MAPK plays a critical role in E2-induced tumor growth, and that this could be a potential therapeutic target to combat hormonally regulated growth in ER-positive tumors.

  7. Aloe-Emodin Induces Chondrogenic Differentiation of ATDC5 Cells via MAP Kinases and BMP-2 Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Li, Liang; Heo, Seok-Mo; Soh, Yunjo

    2016-07-01

    Endochondral bone formation is the process by which mesenchymal cells condense into chondrocytes, which are ultimately responsible for new bone formation. The processes of chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy are critical for bone formation and are therefore highly regulated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aloe-emodin on chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Aloe-emodin treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. ATDC5 cells were treated with aloe-emodin and stained with alcian blue. Compared with the control cells, the ATDC5 cells showed more intense alcian blue staining. This finding suggested that aloe-emodin induced the synthesis of matrix proteoglycans and increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase. Aloe-emodin also enhanced the expressions of chondrogenic marker genes such as collagen II, collagen X, BSP and RunX2 in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, examination of the MAPK signaling pathway showed that aloe-emodin increased the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but had no effect on p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Aloe-emodin also enhanced the protein expression of BMP-2 in a time-dependent manner. Thus, these results showed that aloe-emodin exhibited chodromodulating effects via the BMP-2 or ERK signaling pathway. Aloe-emodin may have potential future applications for the treatment of growth disorders.

  8. Blackberry extract inhibits UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation through MAP kinases and NF-κB signaling pathways in SKH-1 mice skin

    SciTech Connect

    Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Wang, Xin; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Roy, Ram Vinod; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Asha, Padmaja; Shi, Xianglin; Zhang, Zhuo

    2015-04-01

    Extensive exposure of solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to skin induces oxidative stress and inflammation that play a crucial role in the induction of skin cancer. Photochemoprevention with natural products represents a simple but very effective strategy for the management of cutaneous neoplasia. In this study, we investigated whether blackberry extract (BBE) reduces chronic inflammatory responses induced by UVB irradiation in SKH-1 hairless mice skin. Mice were exposed to UVB radiation (100 mJ/cm{sup 2}) on alternate days for 10 weeks, and BBE (10% and 20%) was applied topically a day before UVB exposure. Our results show that BBE suppressed UVB-induced hyperplasia and reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells in the SKH-1 hairless mice skin. BBE treatment reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in mouse skin by chronic UVB exposure. BBE significantly decreased the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in UVB-exposed skin. Likewise, UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by BBE as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP Kinases, Erk1/2, p38, JNK1/2 and MKK4. Furthermore, BBE also reduced inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels in UVB-exposed skin. Treatment with BBE inhibited UVB-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and degradation of IκBα in mouse skin. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that topical application of BBE inhibited the expression of 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and cyclin D1 in UVB-exposed skin. Collectively, these data indicate that BBE protects from UVB-induced oxidative damage and inflammation by modulating MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways. - Highlights: • Blackberry extract inhibits UVB-induced glutathione depletion.

  9. Aristolochic acid-induced apoptosis and G2 cell cycle arrest depends on ROS generation and MAP kinases activation.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Victor; Whyard, Terry C; Waltzer, Wayne C; Grollman, Arthur P; Rosenquist, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Ingestion of aristolochic acids (AAs) contained in herbal remedies results in a renal disease and, frequently, urothelial malignancy. The genotoxicity of AA in renal cells, including mutagenic DNA adducts formation, is well documented. However, the mechanisms of AA-induced tubular atrophy and renal fibrosis are largely unknown. To better elucidate some aspects of this process, we studied cell cycle distribution and cell survival of renal epithelial cells treated with AAI at low and high doses. A low dose of AA induces cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase via activation of DNA damage checkpoint pathway ATM-Chk2-p53-p21. DNA damage signaling pathway is activated more likely via increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by AA treatment then via DNA damage induced directly by AA. Higher AA concentration induced cell death partly via apoptosis. Since mitogen-activated protein kinases play an important role in cell survival, death and cell cycle progression, we assayed their function in AA-treated renal tubular epithelial cells. ERK1/2 and p38 but not JNK were activated in cells treated with AA. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 and p38 as well as suppression of ROS generation with N-acetyl-L-cysteine resulted in the partial relief of cells from G2/M checkpoint and a decline of apoptosis level. Cell cycle arrest may be a mechanism for DNA repair, cell survival and reprogramming of epithelial cells to the fibroblast type. An apoptosis of renal epithelial cells at higher AA dose might be necessary to provide space for newly reprogrammed fibrotic cells.

  10. cAMP-Induced Histones H3 Dephosphorylation Is Independent of PKA and MAP Kinase Activations and Correlates With mTOR Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro; Rojas, Juan

    2016-03-01

    cAMP is a second messenger well documented to be involved in the phosphorylation of PKA, MAP kinase, and histone H3 (H3). Early, we reported that cAMP also induced H3 dephosphorylation in a variety of proliferating cell lines. Herein, it is shown that cAMP elicits a biphasic H3 dephosphorylation independent of PKA activation in cycling cells. H89, a potent inhibitor of PKA catalytic sub-unite, could not abolish this effect. Additionally, H89 induces a rapid and biphasic H3 serine 10 dephosphorylation, while a decline in the basal phosphorylation of CREB/ATF-1 is observed. Rp-cAMPS, an analog of cAMP and specific inhibitor of PKA, is unable to suppress cAMP-mediated H3 dephosphorylation, whereas Rp-cAMPS effectively blocks CREB/ATF-1 hyper-phosphorylation by cAMP and its inducers. Interestingly, cAMP exerts a rapid and profound H3 dephosphorylation at much lower concentration (50-fold lower, 0.125 mM) than the concentration required for maximal CREB/ATF-1 phosphorylation (5 mM). Much higher cAMP concentration is required to fully induce CREB/ATF-1 gain in phosphate (5 mM), which correlates with the inhibition of H3 dephosphorylation. Also, the dephosphorylation of H3 does not overlap at onset of MAP kinase phosphorylation pathways, p38 and ERK. Surprisingly, rapamycin (an mTOR inhibitor), cAMP, and its natural inducer isoproterenol, elicit identical dephosphorylation kinetics on both S6K1 ribosomal kinase (a downstream mTOR target) and H3. Finally, cAMP-induced H3 dephosphorylation is PP1/2-dependent. The results suggest that a pathway, requiring much lower cAMP concentration to that required for CREB/ATF-1 hyper-phosphorylation, is responsible for histone H3 dephosphorylation and may be linked to mTOR down regulation.

  11. PAR2 exerts local protection against acute pancreatitis via modulation of MAP kinase and MAP kinase phosphatase signaling.

    PubMed

    Namkung, Wan; Yoon, Jae Seok; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Min Goo

    2008-11-01

    During acute pancreatitis, protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) can be activated by interstitially released trypsin. In the mild form of pancreatitis, PAR2 activation exerts local protection against intrapancreatic damage, whereas, in the severe form of pancreatitis, PAR2 activation mediates some systemic complications. This study aimed to identify the molecular mechanisms of PAR2-mediated protective effects against intrapancreatic damage. A mild form of acute pancreatitis was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of caerulein (40 microg/kg) in rats. Effects of PAR2 activation on intrapancreatic damage and on mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling were assessed. Caerulein treatment activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) within 15 min and maintained phosphorylation of ERK and JNK for 2 h in the rat pancreas. Although PAR2 activation by the pretreatment with PAR2-activating peptide (AP) itself increased ERK phosphorylation in rat pancreas, the same treatment remarkably decreased caerulein-induced activation of ERK and JNK principally by accelerating their dephosphorylation. Inhibition of ERK and JNK phosphorylation by the pretreatment with MAP/ERK kinase (MEK) or JNK inhibitors decreased caerulein-induced pancreatic damage that was similar to the effect induced by PAR2-AP. Notably, in caerulein-treated rats, PAR2-AP cotreatment highly increased the expression of a group of MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs) that deactivate ERK and JNK. The above results imply that downregulation of MAP kinase signaling by MKP induction is a key mechanism involved in the protective effects of PAR2 activation on caerulein-induced intrapancreatic damage.

  12. 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol induces HuR-dependent MAP kinase phosphatase-1 expression via mGluR5-mediated Ca(2+)/PKCα signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunmi; Woo, Joo Hong; Lee, Jee Hoon; Joe, Eun-Hye; Jou, Ilo

    2016-08-01

    MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP)-1 plays a pivotal role in controlling MAP kinase (MAPK)-dependent (patho) physiological processes. Although MKP-1 gene expression is tightly regulated at multiple levels, the underlying mechanistic details remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that MKP-1 expression is regulated at the post-transcriptional level by 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol [22(R)-HC] through a novel mechanism. 22(R)-HC induces Hu antigen R (HuR) phosphorylation, cytoplasmic translocation and binding to MKP-1 mRNA, resulting in stabilization of MKP-1 mRNA. The resulting increase in MKP-1 leads to suppression of JNK-mediated inflammatory responses in brain astrocytes. We further demonstrate that 22(R)-HC-induced phosphorylation of nuclear HuR is mediated by PKCα, which is activated in the cytosol by increases in intracellular Ca(2+) levels mediated by the phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (PLC/IP3R) pathway and translocates from cytoplasm to nucleus. In addition, pharmacological interventions reveal that metabotropic glutamate receptor5 (mGluR5) is responsible for the increases in intracellular Ca(2+) that underlie these actions of 22(R)-HC. Collectively, our findings identify a novel anti-inflammatory mechanism of 22(R)-HC, which acts through PKCα-mediated cytoplasmic shuttling of HuR to post-transcriptionally regulate MKP-1 expression. These findings provide an experimental basis for the development of a RNA-targeted therapeutic agent to control MAPK-dependent inflammatory responses.

  13. Salicylic acid activates a 48-kD MAP kinase in tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S; Klessig, D F

    1997-01-01

    The involvement of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation in the salicylic acid (SA) signal transduction pathway leading to pathogenesis-related gene induction has previously been demonstrated using kinase and phosphatase inhibitors. Here, we show that in tobacco suspension cells, SA induced a rapid and transient activation of a 48-kD kinase that uses myelin basic protein as a substrate. This kinase is called the p48 SIP kinase (for SA-Induced Protein kinase). Biologically active analogs of SA, which induce pathogenesis-related genes and enhanced resistance, also activated this kinase, whereas inactive analogs did not. Phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue(s) in the SIP kinase was associated with its activation. The SIP kinase was purified to homogeneity from SA-treated tobacco suspension culture cells. The purified SIP kinase is strongly phosphorylated on a tyrosine residue(s), and treatment with either protein tyrosine or serine/threonine phosphatases abolished its activity. Using primers corresponding to the sequences of internal tryptic peptides, we cloned the SIP kinase gene. Analysis of the SIP kinase sequence indicates that it belongs to the MAP kinase family and that it is distinct from the other plant MAP kinases previously implicated in stress responses, suggesting that different members of the MAP kinase family are activated by different stresses. PMID:9165755

  14. Dominant Mutations of Drosophila Map Kinase Kinase and Their Activities in Drosophila and Yeast Map Kinase Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Y. M.; Tsuda, L.; Inoue, Y. H.; Irie, K.; Adachi-Yamada, T.; Hata, M.; Nishi, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Nishida, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Eight alleles of Dsor1 encoding a Drosophila homologue of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase were obtained as dominant suppressors of the MAP kinase kinase kinase D-raf. These Dsor1 alleles themselves showed no obvious phenotypic consequences nor any effect on the viability of the flies, although they were highly sensitive to upstream signals and strongly interacted with gain-of-function mutations of upstream factors. They suppressed mutations for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs); torso (tor), sevenless (sev) and to a lesser extent Drosophila EGF receptor (DER). Furthermore, the Dsor1 alleles showed no significant interaction with gain-of-function mutations of DER. The observed difference in activity of the Dsor1 alleles among the RTK pathways suggests Dsor1 is one of the components of the pathway that regulates signal specificity. Expression of Dsor1 in budding yeast demonstrated that Dsor1 can activate yeast MAP kinase homologues if a proper activator of Dsor1 is coexpressed. Nucleotide sequencing of the Dsor1 mutant genes revealed that most of the mutations are associated with amino acid changes at highly conserved residues in the kinase domain. The results suggest that they function as suppressors due to increased reactivity to upstream factors. PMID:9136016

  15. Timing is everything: highly specific and transient expression of a MAP kinase determines auxin-induced leaf venation patterns in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Stanko, Vera; Giuliani, Concetta; Retzer, Katarzyna; Djamei, Armin; Wahl, Vanessa; Wurzinger, Bernhard; Wilson, Cathal; Heberle-Bors, Erwin; Teige, Markus; Kragler, Friedrich

    2014-11-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are universal signal transduction modules present in all eukaryotes. In plants, MAPK cascades were shown to regulate cell division, developmental processes, stress responses, and hormone pathways. The subgroup A of Arabidopsis MAPKs consists of AtMPK3, AtMPK6, and AtMPK10. AtMPK3 and AtMPK6 are activated by their upstream MAP kinase kinases (MKKs) AtMKK4 and AtMKK5 in response to biotic and abiotic stress. In addition, they were identified as key regulators of stomatal development and patterning. AtMPK10 has long been considered as a pseudo-gene, derived from a gene duplication of AtMPK6. Here we show that AtMPK10 is expressed highly but very transiently in seedlings and at sites of local auxin maxima leaves. MPK10 encodes a functional kinase and interacts with the upstream MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK) AtMKK2. mpk10 mutants are delayed in flowering in long-day conditions and in continuous light. Moreover, cotyledons of mpk10 and mkk2 mutants have reduced vein complexity, which can be reversed by inhibiting polar auxin transport (PAT). Auxin does not affect AtMPK10 expression while treatment with the PAT inhibitor HFCA extends the expression in leaves and reverses the mpk10 mutant phenotype. These results suggest that the AtMKK2-AtMPK10 MAPK module regulates venation complexity by altering PAT efficiency.

  16. MAP kinase activator from insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle is a protein threonine/tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Nakielny, S; Cohen, P; Wu, J; Sturgill, T

    1992-01-01

    A 'MAP kinase activator' was purified several thousand-fold from insulin-stimulated rabbit skeletal muscle, which resembled the 'activator' from nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells in that it could be inactivated by incubation with protein phosphatase 2A, but not by protein tyrosine phosphatases and its apparent molecular mass was 45-50 kDa. In the presence of MgATP, 'MAP kinase activator' converted the normal 'wild-type' 42 kDa MAP kinase from an inactive dephosphorylated form to the fully active diphosphorylated species. Phosphorylation occurred on the same threonine and tyrosine residues which are phosphorylated in vivo in response to growth factors or phorbol esters. A mutant MAP kinase produced by changing a lysine at the active centre to arginine was phosphorylated in an identical manner by the 'MAP kinase activator', but no activity was generated. The results demonstrate that 'MAP kinase activator' is a protein kinase (MAP kinase kinase) and not a protein that stimulates the autophosphorylation of MAP kinase. MAP kinase kinase is the first established example of a protein kinase that can phosphorylate an exogenous protein on threonine as well as tyrosine residues. Images PMID:1318193

  17. Eicosapentaenoic acid prevents TCDD-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response by modulating MAP kinases and redox-sensitive transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Palanisamy, Kalaiselvi; Krishnaswamy, Rajashree; Paramasivan, Poornima; Chih-Yang, Huang; Vishwanadha, Vijaya Padma

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Oxidative stress and subsequent activation of inflammatory responses is a widely accepted consequence of exposure to environmental toxins. TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), a well-known environmental toxin, exerts its toxicity through many signalling mechanisms, with liver being the principal organ affected. However, an effective antidote to TCDD-induced toxicity is unknown. The present study evaluated the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an n3 fatty acid, on TCDD-induced toxicity. Experimental Approach In cultures of HepG2 cells, the EPA/AA ratio was determined using gas chromatography, oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, antioxidant status, [Ca2+]i, nuclear migration of two redox-sensitive transcription factors, NF-κB p65 and Nrf-2, expression of MAP kinase (p-Erk, p-p38), NF-κB p65, COX-2 and Nrf-2. Cellular changes in ΔΨm, acidic vesicular organelle formation, cell cycle analysis and scanning electron microscopy analysis were performed. Key Results EPA offered significant cytoprotection by increasing EPA/AA ratios in cell membranes, inhibiting ROS generation, enhancing antioxidant status and modulating nuclear translocation of redox-sensitive transcription factors (NF-κB p65 and Nrf-2) and expression of NF-κB p65, COX-2 and Nrf-2. Furthermore, TCDD-induced upstream events of MAPK phosphorylation, the increase in [Ca2+]i levels and cell surface changes in microvilli were significantly inhibited by EPA. EPA treatment maintained ΔΨm and prevented formation of acidic vesicular organelles. Conclusion and Implications The present study demonstrates for the first time some underlying molecular mechanisms of cytoprotection exerted by EPA against TCDD-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. PMID:26177858

  18. Effects of interleukins 2 and 12 on TBT-induced alterations of MAP kinases p38 and p44/42 in human natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Aluoch, Aloice O; Whalen, Margaret M

    2006-01-01

    NK cells are lymphocytes in the non-adaptive immune system that protect the body against intracellular pathogens and eliminate tumor cells. Tributyltin (TBT) is a toxic chemical that has been detected in human foods as well as in human blood. The role of TBT in immunosuppression has been described, including inhibition of the human NK-cell cytotoxic function. Previous studies indicated that exposure of NK cells to TBT for 1 h induced progressive and irreversible inhibition of cytotoxic function. However, it was found that if NK cells were incubated in TBT-free media with either IL-2 or IL-12, loss of cytotoxic function was prevented/reversed within 24 h. Molecular studies established that loss of cytotoxic function is accompanied by alteration of MAP kinases (MAPKs) p38 and p44/42 phosphorylation. This study examined whether interleukin-mediated recovery of cytotoxicity involved reversal of tributyltin-altered p38 and p44/42 phosphorylation. The results indicated that there was no substantial IL-2 prevention/reversal of the TBT-induced alteration of phosphorylation of either p38 or p44/42 after either a 24 or 48 h recovery period. Additionally, IL-12 caused no substantial prevention/reversal of the TBT-induced alteration of phosphorylation of the MAPKs seen after either 24 or 48 h. These data suggest that IL-2 and/or IL-12-mediated recovery of NK cytotoxic function is not a result of prevention/reversal of TBT-induced phosphorylation of p38 and p44/42 MAPKs at the 24 or 48 h time points.

  19. Inhibition of Adult Neurogenesis by Inducible and Targeted Deletion of ERK5 MAP Kinase Specifically in Adult Neurogenic Regions Impairs Contextual Fear Memory Extinction and Remote Fear Memory

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yung-Wei; Chan, Guy C.K.; Kuo, Chay T.; Storm, Daniel R.; Xia, Zhengui

    2012-01-01

    Although there is evidence suggesting that adult neurogenesis may contribute to hippocampus-dependent memory, signaling mechanisms responsible for adult hippocampal neurogenesis are not well characterized. Here we report that ERK5 MAP kinase is specifically expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult mouse brain. The inducible and conditional knockout (icKO) of erk5 specifically in neural progenitors of the adult mouse brain attenuated adult hippocampal neurogenesis. It also caused deficits in several forms of hippocampus-dependent memory including contextual fear conditioning generated by a weak foot shock. The ERK5 icKO mice were also deficient in extinction of contextual fear memory and reversal of Morris water maze spatial learning and memory, suggesting that adult neurogenesis is important for learning that requires active forgetting of a prior memory. Furthermore, our data suggest a critical role for ERK5-mediated adult neurogenesis in pattern separation, a form of dentate gyrus-dependent spatial learning and memory. Moreover, ERK5 icKO mice have no memory 21 days post-training in the passive avoidance test, suggesting a pivotal role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the expression of remote memory. Together, our results implicate ERK5 as a novel signaling molecule regulating adult neurogenesis and provide strong evidence that adult neurogenesis is critical for several forms of hippocampus-dependent memory formation including memory extinction, and for the expression of remote memory. PMID:22573667

  20. MAP kinases phosphorylate rice WRKY45.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Riichiro; Kishi-Kaboshi, Mitsuko; Matsushita, Akane; Jiang, Chang-Jie; Goto, Shingo; Takahashi, Akira; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Takatsuji, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    WRKY45 transcription factor is a central regulator of disease resistance mediated by the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway in rice. SA-activated WRKY45 protein induces the accumulation of its own mRNA. However, the mechanism underlying this regulation is still unknown. Here, we report three lines of evidence showing that a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is involved in this regulation. An inhibitor of MAPK kinase (MAPKK) suppressed the increase in WRKY45 transcript level in response to SA. Two MAPKs, OsMPK4 and OsMPK6, phosphorylated WRKY45 protein in vitro. The activity of OsMPK6 was rapidly upregulated by SA treatment in rice cells. These results suggest that WRKY45 is regulated by MAPK-dependent phosphorylation in the SA pathway.

  1. The Hog1 MAP Kinase Promotes the Recovery from Cell Cycle Arrest Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Correia, Inês; Alonso-Monge, Rebeca; Pla, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic cell cycle progression in response to environmental conditions is controlled via specific checkpoints. Signal transduction pathways mediated by MAPKs play a crucial role in sensing stress. For example, the canonical MAPKs Mkc1 (of the cell wall integrity pathway), and Hog1 (of the HOG pathway), are activated upon oxidative stress. In this work, we have analyzed the effect of oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide on cell cycle progression in Candida albicans. Hydrogen peroxide was shown to induce a transient arrest at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Specifically, a G1 arrest was observed, although phosphorylation of Mkc1 and Hog1 MAPKs can take place at all stages of the cell cycle. Interestingly, hog1 (but not mkc1) mutants required a longer time compared to wild type cells to resume growth after hydrogen peroxide challenge. Using GFP-labeled cells and mixed cultures of wild type and hog1 cells we were able to show that hog1 mutants progress faster through the cell cycle under standard growth conditions in the absence of stress (YPD at 37°C). Consequently, hog1 mutants exhibited a smaller cell size. The altered cell cycle progression correlates with altered expression of the G1 cyclins Cln3 and Pcl2 in hog1 cells compared to the wild type strain. In addition, Hgc1 (a hypha-specific G1 cyclin) as well as Cln3 displayed a different kinetics of expression in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in hog1 mutants. Collectively, these results indicate that Hog1 regulates the expression of G1 cyclins not only in response to oxidative stress, but also under standard growth conditions. Hydrogen peroxide treated cells did not show fluctuations in the mRNA levels for SOL1, which are observed in untreated cells during cell cycle progression. In addition, treatment with hydrogen peroxide prevented degradation of Sol1, an effect which was enhanced in hog1 mutants. Therefore, in C. albicans, the MAPK Hog1 mediates cell cycle progression in response to oxidative

  2. The Hog1 MAP Kinase Promotes the Recovery from Cell Cycle Arrest Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Correia, Inês; Alonso-Monge, Rebeca; Pla, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cell cycle progression in response to environmental conditions is controlled via specific checkpoints. Signal transduction pathways mediated by MAPKs play a crucial role in sensing stress. For example, the canonical MAPKs Mkc1 (of the cell wall integrity pathway), and Hog1 (of the HOG pathway), are activated upon oxidative stress. In this work, we have analyzed the effect of oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide on cell cycle progression in Candida albicans. Hydrogen peroxide was shown to induce a transient arrest at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Specifically, a G1 arrest was observed, although phosphorylation of Mkc1 and Hog1 MAPKs can take place at all stages of the cell cycle. Interestingly, hog1 (but not mkc1) mutants required a longer time compared to wild type cells to resume growth after hydrogen peroxide challenge. Using GFP-labeled cells and mixed cultures of wild type and hog1 cells we were able to show that hog1 mutants progress faster through the cell cycle under standard growth conditions in the absence of stress (YPD at 37°C). Consequently, hog1 mutants exhibited a smaller cell size. The altered cell cycle progression correlates with altered expression of the G1 cyclins Cln3 and Pcl2 in hog1 cells compared to the wild type strain. In addition, Hgc1 (a hypha-specific G1 cyclin) as well as Cln3 displayed a different kinetics of expression in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in hog1 mutants. Collectively, these results indicate that Hog1 regulates the expression of G1 cyclins not only in response to oxidative stress, but also under standard growth conditions. Hydrogen peroxide treated cells did not show fluctuations in the mRNA levels for SOL1, which are observed in untreated cells during cell cycle progression. In addition, treatment with hydrogen peroxide prevented degradation of Sol1, an effect which was enhanced in hog1 mutants. Therefore, in C. albicans, the MAPK Hog1 mediates cell cycle progression in response to oxidative

  3. Reversal of the TPA-induced inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication by Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extracts: effects on MAP kinases.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Ran; Park, Joon-Suk; Jo, Eun-Hye; Hwang, Jae-Woong; Kim, Sun-Jung; Ra, Jeong-Chan; Aruoma, Okezie I; Lee, Yong-Soon; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2006-01-01

    Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has continued to receive attention as a folk medicine with indications for the treatment of cancers and digestive diseases. The anticarcinogenic effect of Chaga mushroom extract was investigated using a model system of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in WB-F344 normal rat liver epithelial cells. The cells were pre-incubated with Chaga mushroom extracts (5, 10, 20 microg/ml) for 24 h and this was followed by co-treatment with Chaga mushroom extracts and TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, 10 ng/ml) for 1 h. The inhibition of GJIC by TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), promoter of cancer, was prevented with treatment of Chaga mushroom extracts. Similarly, the increased phosphorylated ERK1/2 and p38 protein kinases were markedly reduced in Chaga mushroom extracts-treated cells. There was no change in the JNK kinase protein level, suggesting that Chaga mushroom extracts could only block the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase. The Chaga mushroom extracts further prevented the inhibition of GJIC through the blocking of Cx43 phosphorylation. Indeed cell-to-cell communication through gap junctional channels is a critical factor in the life and death balance of cells because GJIC has an important function in maintaining tissue homeostasis through the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and adaptive functions of differentiated cells. Thus Chaga mushroom may act as a natural anticancer product by preventing the inhibition of GJIC through the inactivation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase.

  4. Paroxetine-induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cells: Activation of p38 MAP kinase and caspase-3 pathways without involvement of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.-T.; He Shiping; Jan, C.-R. . E-mail: crjan@isca.vghks.gov.tw

    2007-02-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), a group of antidepressants, are generally used for treatment of various mood and anxiety disorders. There has been much research showing the anti-tumor and cytotoxic activities of some antidepressants; but the detailed mechanisms were unclear. In cultured human osteosarcoma cells (MG63), paroxetine reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Paroxetine caused apoptosis as assessed by propidium iodide-stained cells and increased caspase-3 activation. Although immunoblotting data revealed that paroxetine could activate the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH{sub 2}-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), only SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) partially prevented cells from apoptosis. Paroxetine also induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases which involved the mobilization of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} stored in the endoplasmic reticulum and Ca{sup 2+} influx from extracellular medium. However, pretreatment with BAPTA/AM, a Ca{sup 2+} chelator, to prevent paroxetine-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases did not protect cells from death. The results suggest that in MG63 cells, paroxetine caused Ca{sup 2+}-independent apoptosis via inducing p38 MAPK-associated caspase-3 activation.

  5. Thimerosal-induced apoptosis in human SCM1 gastric cancer cells: activation of p38 MAP kinase and caspase-3 pathways without involvement of [Ca2+]i elevation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiuh-Inn; Huang, Chorng-Chih; Huang, Chun-Jen; Wang, Being-Whey; Chang, Po-Min; Fang, Yi-Chien; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Wang, Jue-Long; Lu, Yih-Chau; Chu, Sau-Tung; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2007-11-01

    Thimerosal is a mercury-containing preservative in some vaccines. The effect of thimerosal on human gastric cancer cells is unknown. This study shows that in cultured human gastric cancer cells (SCM1), thimerosal reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Thimerosal caused apoptosis as assessed by propidium iodide-stained cells and caspase-3 activation. Although immunoblotting data revealed that thimerosal could activate the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), only SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) partially prevented cells from apoptosis. Thimerosal also induced [Ca2+](i) increases via Ca2+ influx from the extracellular space. However, pretreatment with (bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate)/AM, a Ca2+ chelator, to prevent thimerosal-induced [Ca2+](i) increases did not protect cells from death. The results suggest that in SCM1 cells, thimerosal caused Ca2+-independent apoptosis via phosphorylating p38 MAPK resulting in caspase-3 activation.

  6. Phosphorylation of the Kinase Interaction Motif in Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Phosphatase-4 Mediates Cross-talk between Protein Kinase A and MAP Kinase Signaling Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Robin J.; Delavaine, Laurent; Cejudo-Marín, Rocío; Stewart, Graeme; Staples, Christopher J.; Didmon, Mark P.; Trinidad, Antonio Garcia; Alonso, Andrés; Pulido, Rafael; Keyse, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    MAP kinase phosphatase 4 (DUSP9/MKP-4) plays an essential role during placental development and is one of a subfamily of three closely related cytoplasmic dual-specificity MAPK phosphatases, which includes the ERK-specific enzymes DUSP6/MKP-3 and DUSP7/MKP-X. However, unlike DUSP6/MKP-3, DUSP9/MKP-4 also inactivates the p38α MAP kinase both in vitro and in vivo. Here we demonstrate that inactivation of both ERK1/2 and p38α by DUSP9/MKP-4 is mediated by a conserved arginine-rich kinase interaction motif located within the amino-terminal non-catalytic domain of the protein. Furthermore, DUSP9/MKP-4 is unique among these cytoplasmic MKPs in containing a conserved PKA consensus phosphorylation site 55RRXSer-58 immediately adjacent to the kinase interaction motif. DUSP9/MKP-4 is phosphorylated on Ser-58 by PKA in vitro, and phosphorylation abrogates the binding of DUSP9/MKP-4 to both ERK2 and p38α MAP kinases. In addition, although mutation of Ser-58 to either alanine or glutamic acid does not affect the intrinsic catalytic activity of DUSP9/MKP-4, phospho-mimetic (Ser-58 to Glu) substitution inhibits both the interaction of DUSP9/MKP-4 with ERK2 and p38α in vivo and its ability to dephosphorylate and inactivate these MAP kinases. Finally, the use of a phospho-specific antibody demonstrates that endogenous DUSP9/MKP-4 is phosphorylated on Ser-58 in response to the PKA agonist forskolin and is also modified in placental tissue. We conclude that DUSP9/MKP-4 is a bona fide target of PKA signaling and that attenuation of DUSP9/MKP-4 function can mediate cross-talk between the PKA pathway and MAPK signaling through both ERK1/2 and p38α in vivo. PMID:21908610

  7. Interferon-gamma expression by Th1 effector T cells mediated by the p38 MAP kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Rincón, M; Enslen, H; Raingeaud, J; Recht, M; Zapton, T; Su, M S; Penix, L A; Davis, R J; Flavell, R A

    1998-01-01

    Signal transduction via MAP kinase pathways plays a key role in a variety of cellular responses, including growth factor-induced proliferation, differentiation and cell death. In mammalian cells, p38 MAP kinase can be activated by multiple stimuli, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress. Although p38 MAP kinase is implicated in the control of inflammatory responses, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Upon activation, CD4+ T cells differentiate into Th2 cells, which potentiate the humoral immune response or pro-inflammatory Th1 cells. Here, we show that pyridinyl imidazole compounds (specific inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase) block the production of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) by Th1 cells without affecting IL-4 production by Th2 cells. These drugs also inhibit transcription driven by the IFNgamma promoter. In transgenic mice, inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase pathway by the expression of dominant-negative p38 MAP kinase results in selective impairment of Th1 responses. In contrast, activation of the p38 MAP kinase pathway by the expression of constitutivelyactivated MAP kinase kinase 6 in transgenic mice caused increased production of IFNgamma during the differentiation and activation of Th1 cells. Together, these data demonstrate that the p38 MAP kinase is relevant for Th1 cells, not Th2 cells, and that inhibition of p38 MAP kinase represents a possible site of therapeutic intervention in diseases where a predominant Th1 immune response leads to a pathological outcome. Moreover, our study provides an additional mechanism by which the p38 MAP kinase pathway controls inflammatory responses. PMID:9582275

  8. Gene expression studies demonstrate that the K-ras/Erk MAP kinase signal transduction pathway and other novel pathways contribute to the pathogenesis of cumene-induced lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Collins, Jennifer B; Parker, Joel S; Tessema, Mathewos; Clayton, Natasha P; Ton, Thai-Vu T; Hong, Hue-Hua L; Belinsky, Steven; Devereux, Theodora R; Sills, Robert C; Lahousse, Stephanie A

    2008-07-01

    National Toxicology Program (NTP) inhalation studies demonstrated that cumene significantly increased the incidence of alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas and carcinomas in B6C3F1 mice. Cumene or isopropylbenzene is a component of crude oil used primarily in the production of phenol and acetone. The authors performed global gene expression analysis to distinguish patterns of gene regulation between cumene-induced tumors and normal lung tissue and to look for patterns based on the presence or absence of K-ras and p53 mutations in the tumors. Principal component analysis segregated the carcinomas into groups with and without K-ras mutations, but failed to separate the tumors based on p53 mutation status. Expression of genes associated with the Erk MAP kinase signaling pathway was significantly altered in carcinomas with K-ras mutations compared to tumors without K-ras mutations or normal lung. Gene expression analysis also suggested that cumene-induced carcinomas with K-ras mutations have greater malignant potential than those without mutations. In addition, significance analysis of function and expression (SAFE) demonstrated expression changes of genes regulated by histone modification in carcinomas with K-ras mutations. The gene expression analysis suggested the formation of alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas in cumene-exposed mice typically involves mutation of K-ras, which results in increased Erk MAP kinase signaling and modification of histones.

  9. Oleanolic acid induces migration in Mv1Lu and MDA-MB-231 epithelial cells involving EGF receptor and MAP kinases activation

    PubMed Central

    Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Ramos-Morcillo, Antonio Jesús

    2017-01-01

    During wound healing, skin function is restored by the action of several cell types that undergo differentiation, migration, proliferation and/or apoptosis. These dynamics are tightly regulated by the evolution of the extra cellular matrix (ECM) contents along the process. Pharmacologically active flavonoids have shown to exhibit useful physiological properties interesting in pathological states. Among them, oleanolic acid (OA), a pentacyclic triterpene, shows promising properties over wound healing, as increased cell migration in vitro and improved wound resolution in vivo. In this paper, we pursued to disclose the molecular mechanisms underlying those effects, by using an in vitro scratch assay in two epithelial cell lines of different linage: non-malignant mink lung epithelial cells, Mv1Lu; and human breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231. In every case, we observed that OA clearly enhanced cell migration for in vitro scratch closure. This correlated with the stimulation of molecular pathways related to mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, as ERK1,2 and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1,2 activation and c-Jun phosphorylation. Moreover, MDA-MB-231 cells treated with OA displayed an altered gene expression profile affecting transcription factor genes (c-JUN) as well as proteins involved in migration and ECM dynamics (PAI1), in line with the development of an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) status. Strikingly, upon OA treatment, we observed changes in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) subcellular localization, while interfering with its signalling completely prevented migration effects. This data provides a physiological framework supporting the notion that lipophilic plant extracts used in traditional medicine, might modulate wound healing processes in vivo through its OA contents. The molecular implications of these observations are discussed. PMID:28231262

  10. Oleanolic acid induces migration in Mv1Lu and MDA-MB-231 epithelial cells involving EGF receptor and MAP kinases activation.

    PubMed

    Bernabé-García, Ángel; Armero-Barranco, David; Liarte, Sergio; Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Ramos-Morcillo, Antonio Jesús; Nicolás, Francisco José

    2017-01-01

    During wound healing, skin function is restored by the action of several cell types that undergo differentiation, migration, proliferation and/or apoptosis. These dynamics are tightly regulated by the evolution of the extra cellular matrix (ECM) contents along the process. Pharmacologically active flavonoids have shown to exhibit useful physiological properties interesting in pathological states. Among them, oleanolic acid (OA), a pentacyclic triterpene, shows promising properties over wound healing, as increased cell migration in vitro and improved wound resolution in vivo. In this paper, we pursued to disclose the molecular mechanisms underlying those effects, by using an in vitro scratch assay in two epithelial cell lines of different linage: non-malignant mink lung epithelial cells, Mv1Lu; and human breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231. In every case, we observed that OA clearly enhanced cell migration for in vitro scratch closure. This correlated with the stimulation of molecular pathways related to mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, as ERK1,2 and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1,2 activation and c-Jun phosphorylation. Moreover, MDA-MB-231 cells treated with OA displayed an altered gene expression profile affecting transcription factor genes (c-JUN) as well as proteins involved in migration and ECM dynamics (PAI1), in line with the development of an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) status. Strikingly, upon OA treatment, we observed changes in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) subcellular localization, while interfering with its signalling completely prevented migration effects. This data provides a physiological framework supporting the notion that lipophilic plant extracts used in traditional medicine, might modulate wound healing processes in vivo through its OA contents. The molecular implications of these observations are discussed.

  11. Processive phosphorylation of ERK MAP kinase in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Masashi; Kunida, Katsuyuki; Yasuda, Shuhei; Matsuda, Michiyuki

    2011-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway is comprised of a three-tiered kinase cascade. The distributive kinetic mechanism of two-site MAP kinase phosphorylation inherently generates a nonlinear switch-like response. However, a linear graded response of MAP kinase has also been observed in mammalian cells, and its molecular mechanism remains unclear. To dissect these input-output behaviors, we quantitatively measured the kinetic parameters involved in the MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase)-ERK MAP kinase signaling module in HeLa cells. Using a numerical analysis based on experimentally determined parameters, we predicted in silico and validated in vivo that ERK is processively phosphorylated in HeLa cells. Finally, we identified molecular crowding as a critical factor that converts distributive phosphorylation into processive phosphorylation. We proposed the term quasi-processive phosphorylation to describe this mode of ERK phosphorylation that is operated under the physiological condition of molecular crowding. The generality of this phenomenon may provide a new paradigm for a diverse set of biochemical reactions including multiple posttranslational modifications. PMID:21768338

  12. Abscisic Acid-Induced Resistance against the Brown Spot Pathogen Cochliobolus miyabeanus in Rice Involves MAP Kinase-Mediated Repression of Ethylene Signaling1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Yang, Yinong; Vera Cruz, Casiana; Höfte, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in an array of plant processes, including the regulation of gene expression during adaptive responses to various environmental cues. Apart from its well-established role in abiotic stress adaptation, emerging evidence indicates that ABA is also prominently involved in the regulation and integration of pathogen defense responses. Here, we demonstrate that exogenously administered ABA enhances basal resistance of rice (Oryza sativa) against the brown spot-causing ascomycete Cochliobolus miyabeanus. Microscopic analysis of early infection events in control and ABA-treated plants revealed that this ABA-inducible resistance (ABA-IR) is based on restriction of fungal progression in the mesophyll. We also show that ABA-IR does not rely on boosted expression of salicylic acid-, jasmonic acid -, or callose-dependent resistance mechanisms but, instead, requires a functional Gα-protein. In addition, several lines of evidence are presented suggesting that ABA steers its positive effect on brown spot resistance through antagonistic cross talk with the ethylene (ET) response pathway. Exogenous ethephon application enhances susceptibility, whereas genetic disruption of ET signaling renders plants less vulnerable to C. miyabeanus attack, thereby inducing a level of resistance similar to that observed on ABA-treated wild-type plants. Moreover, ABA treatment alleviates C. miyabeanus-induced activation of the ET reporter gene EBP89, while derepression of pathogen-triggered EBP89 transcription via RNA interference-mediated knockdown of OsMPK5, an ABA-primed mitogen-activated protein kinase gene, compromises ABA-IR. Collectively, these data favor a model whereby exogenous ABA enhances resistance against C. miyabeanus at least in part by suppressing pathogen-induced ET action in an OsMPK5-dependent manner. PMID:20130100

  13. Human p38{delta} MAP kinase mediates UV irradiation induced up-regulation of the gene expression of chemokine BRAK/CXCL14

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Shigeyuki; Ito, Shin; Kato, Yasumasa; Kubota, Eiro; Hata, Ryu-Ichiro

    2010-06-11

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family comprises ERK, JNK, p38 and ERK5 (big-MAPK, BMK1). UV irradiation of squamous cell carcinoma cells induced up-regulation of gene expression of chemokine BRAK/CXCL14, stimulated p38 phosphorylation, and down-regulated the phosphorylation of ERK. Human p38 MAPKs exist in 4 isoforms: p38{alpha}, {beta}, {gamma} and {delta}. The UV stimulation of p38 phosphorylation was not inhibited by the presence of SB203580 or PD169316, inhibitors of p38{alpha} and {beta}, suggesting p38 phosphorylation was not dependent on these 2 isoforms and that p38{gamma} and/or {delta} was responsible for the phosphorylation. In fact, inhibition of each of these 4 p38 isoforms by the introduction of short hairpin (sh) RNAs for respective isoforms revealed that only shRNA for p38{delta} attenuated the UV-induced up-regulation of BRAK/CXCL14 gene expression. In addition, over-expression of p38 isoforms in the cells showed the association of p38{delta} with ERK1 and 2, concomitant with down-regulation of ERK phosphorylation. The usage of p38{delta} isoform by UV irradiation is not merely due to the abundance of this p38 isoform in the cells. Because serum deprivation of the cells also induced an increase in BRAK/CXCL14 gene expression, and in this case p38{alpha} and/or {beta} isoform is responsible for up-regulation of BRAK/CXCL14 gene expression. Taken together, the data indicate that the respective stress-dependent action of p38 isoforms is responsible for the up-regulation of the gene expression of the chemokine BRAK/CXCL14.

  14. Endothelin-1 induces proliferation of human lung fibroblasts and IL-11 secretion through an ET(A) receptor-dependent activation of MAP kinases.

    PubMed

    Gallelli, Luca; Pelaia, Girolamo; D'Agostino, Bruno; Cuda, Giovanni; Vatrella, Alessandro; Fratto, Donatella; Gioffrè, Vincenza; Galderisi, Umberto; De Nardo, Marilisa; Mastruzzo, Claudio; Salinaro, Elisa Trovato; Maniscalco, Mauro; Sofia, Matteo; Crimi, Nunzio; Rossi, Francesco; Caputi, Mario; Costanzo, Francesco S; Maselli, Rosario; Marsico, Serafino A; Vancheri, Carlo

    2005-11-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is implicated in the fibrotic responses characterizing interstitial lung diseases, as well as in the airway remodeling process occurring in asthma. Within such a context, the aim of our study was to investigate, in primary cultures of normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLFs), the ET-1 receptor subtypes, and the intracellular signal transduction pathways involved in the proliferative effects of this peptide. Therefore, cells were exposed to ET-1 in the presence or absence of an overnight pre-treatment with either ET(A) or ET(B) selective receptor antagonists. After cell lysis, immunoblotting was performed using monoclonal antibodies against the phosphorylated, active forms of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). ET-1 induced a significant increase in MAPK phosphorylation pattern, and also stimulated fibroblast proliferation and IL-6/IL-11 release into cell culture supernatants. All these effects were inhibited by the selective ET(A) antagonist BQ-123, but not by the specific ET(B) antagonist BQ-788. The stimulatory influence of ET-1 on IL-11, but not on IL-6 secretion, was prevented by MAPK inhibitors. Therefore, such results suggest that in human lung fibroblasts ET-1 exerts a profibrogenic action via an ET(A) receptor-dependent, MAPK-mediated induction of IL-11 release and cell proliferation.

  15. Ras, Raf, and MAP kinase in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Solus, Jason F; Kraft, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    A growing understanding of the biology and molecular mechanisms of melanoma has led to the identification of a number of driver mutations for this aggressive tumor. The most common mutations affect signaling of the Ras/Raf/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway. This review will focus on mutations in genes encoding proteins that play a role in the MAPK pathway and that have been implicated in melanoma biology, such as BRAF, NRAS, and MEK (MAPK kinase), and detail the current understanding of their role in melanoma progression from a molecular biology perspective. Furthermore, this review will also consider some additional mutations in genes such as KIT, GNAQ, and GNA11, which can be seen in certain subtypes of melanoma and whose gene products interact with the MAPK pathway. In addition, the association of these molecular changes with clinical and classical histopathologic characteristics of melanoma will be outlined and their role in diagnosis of melanocytic lesions discussed. Finally, a basic overview of the current targeted therapy landscape, as far as relevant to the pathologist, will be provided.

  16. Redundancy in the World of MAP Kinases: All for One

    PubMed Central

    Saba-El-Leil, Marc K.; Frémin, Christophe; Meloche, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The protein kinases ERK1 and ERK2 are the effector components of the prototypical ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. This signaling pathway regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and survival, and is essential for embryonic development and cellular homeostasis. ERK1 and ERK2 homologs share similar biochemical properties but whether they exert specific physiological functions or act redundantly has been a matter of controversy. However, recent studies now provide compelling evidence in support of functionally redundant roles of ERK1 and ERK2 in embryonic development and physiology. In this review, we present a critical assessment of the evidence for the functional specificity or redundancy of MAP kinase isoforms. We focus on the ERK1/ERK2 pathway but also discuss the case of JNK and p38 isoforms. PMID:27446918

  17. Mathematical modelling of the MAP kinase pathway using proteomic datasets.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tianhai; Song, Jiangning

    2012-01-01

    The advances in proteomics technologies offer an unprecedented opportunity and valuable resources to understand how living organisms execute necessary functions at systems levels. However, little work has been done up to date to utilize the highly accurate spatio-temporal dynamic proteome data generated by phosphoprotemics for mathematical modeling of complex cell signaling pathways. This work proposed a novel computational framework to develop mathematical models based on proteomic datasets. Using the MAP kinase pathway as the test system, we developed a mathematical model including the cytosolic and nuclear subsystems; and applied the genetic algorithm to infer unknown model parameters. Robustness property of the mathematical model was used as a criterion to select the appropriate rate constants from the estimated candidates. Quantitative information regarding the absolute protein concentrations was used to refine the mathematical model. We have demonstrated that the incorporation of more experimental data could significantly enhance both the simulation accuracy and robustness property of the proposed model. In addition, we used the MAP kinase pathway inhibited by phosphatases with different concentrations to predict the signal output influenced by different cellular conditions. Our predictions are in good agreement with the experimental observations when the MAP kinase pathway was inhibited by phosphatase PP2A and MKP3. The successful application of the proposed modeling framework to the MAP kinase pathway suggests that our method is very promising for developing accurate mathematical models and yielding insights into the regulatory mechanisms of complex cell signaling pathways.

  18. Dealing with osmostress through MAP kinase activation

    PubMed Central

    de Nadal, Eulàlia; Alepuz, Paula M.; Posas, Francesc

    2002-01-01

    In response to changes in the extracellular environment, cells coordinate intracellular activities to maximize their probability of survival and proliferation. Eukaryotic cells, from yeast to mammals, transduce diverse extracellular stimuli through the cell by multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. Exposure of cells to increases in extracellular osmolarity results in rapid activation of a highly conserved family of MAPKs, known as stress-activated MAPKs (SAPKs). Activation of SAPKs is essential for the induction of adaptive responses required for cell survival upon osmostress. Recent studies have begun to shed light on the broad effects of SAPK activation in the modulation of several aspects of cell physiology, ranging from the control of gene expression to the regulation of cell division. PMID:12151331

  19. Increased sensitivity to alcohol induced changes in ERK Map kinase phosphorylation and memory disruption in adolescent as compared to adult C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Spanos, Marina; Besheer, Joyce; Hodge, Clyde W

    2012-04-21

    Adolescence is a critical period of brain development that is accompanied by increased probability of risky behavior, such as alcohol use. Emerging research indicates that adolescents are differentially sensitive to the behavioral effects of acute ethanol as compared to adults but the neurobiological mechanisms of this effect remain to be fully elucidated. This study was designed to evaluate effects of acute ethanol on extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation (p-ERK1/2) in mesocorticolimbic brain regions. We also sought to determine if age-specific effects of ethanol on p-ERK1/2 are associated with ethanol-induced behavioral deficits on acquisition of the hippocampal-dependent novel object recognition (NOR) test. Adolescent and adult C57BL/6J mice were administered acute ethanol (0 0.5, 1, or 3g/kg, i.p.). Brains were removed 30-min post injection and processed for analysis of p-ERK1/2 immunoreactivity (IR). Additional groups of mice were administered ethanol (0 or 1g/kg) prior to the NOR test. Analysis of p-ERK1/2 IR showed that untreated adolescent mice had significantly higher levels of p-ERK1/2 IR in the nucleus accumbens shell, basolateral amygdala (BLA), central amygdala (CeA), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as compared to adults. Ethanol (1g/kg) selectively reduced p-ERK1/2 IR in the dentate gyrus and increased p-ERK1/2 IR in the BLA only in adolescent mice. Ethanol (3g/kg) produced the same effects on p-ERK1/2 IR in both age groups with increases in CeA and mPFC, but a decrease in the dentate gyrus, as compared to age-matched saline controls. Pretreatment with ethanol (1g/kg) disrupted performance on the NOR test specifically in adolescents, which corresponds with the ethanol-induced inhibition of p-ERK1/2 IR in the hippocampus. These data show that adolescent mice have differential expression of basal p-ERK1/2 IR in mesocorticolimbic brain regions. Acute ethanol produces a unique set of changes in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the adolescent

  20. CZK3, a MAP kinase kinase kinase homolog in Cercospora zeae-maydis, regulates cercosporin biosynthesis, fungal development, and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shim, Won-Bo; Dunkle, Larry D

    2003-09-01

    The fungus Cercospora zeae-maydis causes gray leaf spot of maize and produces cercosporin, a photosensitizing perylenequinone with toxic activity against a broad spectrum of organisms. However, little is known about the biosynthetic pathway or factors that regulate cercosporin production. Analysis of a cDNA subtraction library comprised of genes that are up-regulated during cercosporin synthesis revealed a sequence highly similar to mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in other fungi. Sequencing and conceptual translation of the full-length genomic sequence indicated that the gene, which we designated CZK3, contains a 4,119-bp open reading frame devoid of introns and encodes a 1,373-amino acid sequence that is highly similar to Wis4, a MAP kinase kinase kinase in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Targeted disruption of CZK3 suppressed expression of genes predicted to participate in cercosporin biosynthesis and abolished cercosporin production. The disrupted mutants grew faster on agar media than the wild type but were deficient in conidiation and elicited only small chlorotic spots on inoculated maize leaves compared with rectangular necrotic lesions incited by the wild type. Complementation of disruptants with the CZK3 open reading frame and flanking sequences restored wild-type levels of conidiation, growth rate, and virulence as well as the ability to produce cercosporin. The results suggest that cercosporin is a virulence factor in C. zeae-maydis during maize pathogenesis, but the pleiotropic effects of CZK3 disruption precluded definitive conclusions.

  1. Mechanical Impact Induces Cartilage Degradation via Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lei; Heying, Emily; Nicholson, Nathan; Stroud, Nicolas J.; Homandberg, Gene A.; Guo, Danping; Buckwalter, Joseph A.; Martin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the activation of MAP kinases in and around cartilage subjected to mechanical damage and to determine the effects of their inhibitors on impaction induced chondrocyte death and cartilage degeneration. Design The phosphorylation of MAP kinases was examined with confocal microscopy and immunoblotting. The effects of MAP kinase inhibitors on impaction-induced chondrocyte death and proteoglycan loss were determined with fluorescent microscopy and DMMB assay. The expression of catabolic genes at mRNA levels was examined with quantitative real time PCR. Results Early p38 activation was detected at 20 min and 1 hr post-impaction. At 24 hr, enhanced phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 was visualized in chondrocytes from in and around impact sites. The phosphorylation of p38 was increased by 3.0-fold in impact sites and 3.3-fold in adjacent cartilage. The phosphorylation of ERK-1 was increased by 5.8-fold in impact zone and 5.4-fold in adjacent cartilage; the phosphorylation of ERK-2 increased by 4.0-fold in impacted zone and 3.6-fold in adjacent cartilage. Furthermore, the blocking of p38 pathway did not inhibit impaction-induced ERK activation. The inhibition of p38 or ERK pathway significantly reduced injury-related chondrocyte death and proteoglycan losses. Quantative Real-time PCR analysis revealed that blunt impaction significantly up-regulated MMP-13, TNF-α, and ADAMTS-5 expression. Conclusion These findings implicate p38 and ERK MAPKs in the post injury spread of cartilage degeneration and suggest that the risk of PTOA following joint trauma could be decreased by blocking their activities, which might be involved in up-regulating expressions of MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, and TNF-α. PMID:20813194

  2. Dibutyltin activates MAP kinases in human natural killer cells, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Odman-Ghazi, Sabah O; Abraha, Abraham; Isom, Erica Taylor; Whalen, Margaret M

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that dibutyltin (DBT) interferes with the function of human natural killer (NK) cells, diminishing their capacity to destroy tumor cells, in vitro. DBT is a widespread environmental contaminant and has been found in human blood. As NK cells are our primary immune defense against tumor cells, it is important to understand the mechanism by which DBT interferes with their function. The current study examines the effects of DBT exposures on key enzymes in the signaling pathway that regulates NK responsiveness to tumor cells. These include several protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAP2Ks). The results showed that in vitro exposures of NK cells to DBT had no effect on PTKs. However, exposures to DBT for as little as 10 min were able to increase the phosphorylation (activation) of the MAPKs. The DBT-induced activations of these MAPKs appear to be due to DBT-induced activations of the immediate upstream activators of the MAPKs, MAP2Ks. The results suggest that DBT-interference with the MAPK signaling pathway is a consequence of DBT exposures, which could account for DBT-induced decreases in NK function.

  3. The MAP kinase Pmk1 and protein kinase A are required for rotenone resistance in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yiwei; Gulis, Galina; Buckner, Scott; Johnson, P. Connor; Sullivan, Daniel; Busenlehner, Laura; Marcus, Stevan

    2010-08-20

    Research highlights: {yields} Rotenone induces generation of ROS and mitochondrial fragmentation in fission yeast. {yields} The MAPK Pmk1 and PKA are required for rotenone resistance in fission yeast. {yields} Pmk1 and PKA are required for ROS clearance in rotenone treated fission yeast cells. {yields} PKA plays a role in ROS clearance under normal growth conditions in fission yeast. -- Abstract: Rotenone is a widely used pesticide that induces Parkinson's disease-like symptoms in rats and death of dopaminergic neurons in culture. Although rotenone is a potent inhibitor of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, it can induce death of dopaminergic neurons independently of complex I inhibition. Here we describe effects of rotenone in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which lacks complex I and carries out rotenone-insensitive cellular respiration. We show that rotenone induces generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as fragmentation of mitochondrial networks in treated S. pombe cells. While rotenone is only modestly inhibitory to growth of wild type S. pombe cells, it is strongly inhibitory to growth of mutants lacking the ERK-type MAP kinase, Pmk1, or protein kinase A (PKA). In contrast, cells lacking the p38 MAP kinase, Spc1, exhibit modest resistance to rotenone. Consistent with these findings, we provide evidence that Pmk1 and PKA, but not Spc1, are required for clearance of ROS in rotenone treated S. pombe cells. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of S. pombe for elucidating complex I-independent molecular targets of rotenone as well as mechanisms conferring resistance to the toxin.

  4. Basic fibroblast growth factor induces matrix metalloproteinase-13 via ERK MAP kinase-altered phosphorylation and sumoylation of Elk-1 in human adult articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Im, Hee-Jeong; Sharrocks, Andrew D; Lin, Xia; Yan, Dongyao; Kim, Jaesung; van Wijnen, Andre J; Hipskind, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) are principal aspects of the pathology of osteoarthritis (OA). ECM disruption leads to bFGF release, which activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) pathway and its downstream target the Ets-like transcription factor Elk-1. Previously we demonstrated that the bFGF-ERK-Elk-1 signaling axis is responsible for the potent induction of MMP-13 in human primary articular chondrocytes. Here we report that, in addition to phosphorylation of Elk-1, dynamic posttranslational modification of Elk-1 by small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) serves as an important mechanism through which MMP-13 gene expression is regulated. We show that bFGF activates Elk-1 mainly through the ERK pathway and that increased phosphorylation of Elk-1 is accompanied by decreased conjugation of SUMO to Elk-1. Reporter gene assays reveal that phosphorylation renders Elk-1 competent for induction of MMP-13 gene transcription, while sumoylation has the opposite effect. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the SUMO-conjugase Ubc9 acts as a key mediator for Elk-1 sumoylation. Taken together, our results suggest that sumoylation antagonizes the phosphorylation-dependent transactivation capacity of Elk-1. This attenuates transcription of its downstream target gene MMP-13 to maintain the integrity of cartilage ECM homeostasis.

  5. JS-K, a novel non-ionic diazeniumdiolate derivative, inhibits Hep 3B hepatoma cell growth and induces c-Jun phosphorylation via multiple MAP kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhenggang; Kar, Siddhartha; Wang, Ziqiu; Wang, Meifang; Saavedra, Joseph E; Carr, Brian I

    2003-12-01

    JS-K, a non-ionic diazeniumdiolate derivative, is capable of arylating nucleophiles and spontaneously generating nitric oxide (NO) at physiological pH. This recently synthesized low molecular weight compound is shown here to be an inhibitor of cell growth with concomitant activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) members ERK, JNK, and p38 and their downstream effectors c-Jun and AP-1. Inhibitors of these MAPK pathways abrogated the growth inhibitory actions of JS-K. In addition to the well-described actions of JNK as a kinase for c-Jun, we show that c-Jun is also an ERK target. Furthermore, JS-K generated NO in culture and NO inhibitors antagonized both MAPK induction and the growth inhibitory effects of JS-K. These results suggest two possible mechanisms for the mediation of JS-K growth inhibitory actions, namely NO-induction of MAPK pathway constituents as well as possible arylation reactions. The data support the idea that prolonged MAPK activation by JS-K action is important in mediating its growth-inhibitory actions. JS-K thus represents a promising platform for novel growth inhibitory analog synthesis.

  6. Discovery and Characterization of Non-ATP Site Inhibitors of the Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Comess, Kenneth M.; Sun, Chaohong; Abad-Zapatero, Cele; Goedken, Eric R.; Gum, Rebecca J.; Borhani, David W.; Argiriadi, Maria; Groebe, Duncan R.; Jia, Yong; Clampit, Jill E.; Haasch, Deanna L.; Smith, Harriet T.; Wang, Sanyi; Song, Danying; Coen, Michael L.; Cloutier, Timothy E.; Tang, Hua; Cheng, Xueheng; Quinn, Christopher; Liu, Bo; Xin, Zhili; Liu, Gang; Fry, Elizabeth H.; Stoll, Vincent; Ng, Teresa I.; Banach, David; Marcotte, Doug; Burns, David J.; Calderwood, David J.; Hajduk, Philip J.

    2012-03-02

    Inhibition of protein kinases has validated therapeutic utility for cancer, with at least seven kinase inhibitor drugs on the market. Protein kinase inhibition also has significant potential for a variety of other diseases, including diabetes, pain, cognition, and chronic inflammatory and immunologic diseases. However, as the vast majority of current approaches to kinase inhibition target the highly conserved ATP-binding site, the use of kinase inhibitors in treating nononcology diseases may require great selectivity for the target kinase. As protein kinases are signal transducers that are involved in binding to a variety of other proteins, targeting alternative, less conserved sites on the protein may provide an avenue for greater selectivity. Here we report an affinity-based, high-throughput screening technique that allows nonbiased interrogation of small molecule libraries for binding to all exposed sites on a protein surface. This approach was used to screen both the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase Jnk-1 (involved in insulin signaling) and p38{alpha} (involved in the formation of TNF{alpha} and other cytokines). In addition to canonical ATP-site ligands, compounds were identified that bind to novel allosteric sites. The nature, biological relevance, and mode of binding of these ligands were extensively characterized using two-dimensional {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, protein X-ray crystallography, surface plasmon resonance, and direct enzymatic activity and activation cascade assays. Jnk-1 and p38{alpha} both belong to the MAP kinase family, and the allosteric ligands for both targets bind similarly on a ledge of the protein surface exposed by the MAP insertion present in the CMGC family of protein kinases and distant from the active site. Medicinal chemistry studies resulted in an improved Jnk-1 ligand able to increase adiponectin secretion in human adipocytes and increase insulin-induced protein kinase PKB phosphorylation in human hepatocytes, in

  7. L-type calcium channels and MAP kinase contribute to thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced depolarization in thalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kolaj, Miloslav; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    In rat paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) neurons, activation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors enhances neuronal excitability via concurrent decrease in a G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K (GIRK)-like conductance and opening of a cannabinoid receptor-sensitive transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC)-like conductance. Here, we investigated the calcium (Ca2+) contribution to the components of this TRH-induced response. TRH-induced membrane depolarization was reduced in the presence of intracellular BAPTA, also in media containing nominally zero [Ca2+]o, suggesting a critical role for both intracellular Ca2+ release and Ca2+ influx. TRH-induced inward current was unchanged by T-type Ca2+ channel blockade, but was decreased by blockade of high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels (HVACCs). Both the pharmacologically isolated GIRK-like and the TRPC-like components of the TRH-induced response were decreased by nifedipine and increased by BayK8644, implying Ca2+ influx via L-type Ca2+ channels. Only the TRPC-like conductance was reduced by either thapsigargin or dantrolene, suggesting a role for ryanodine receptors and Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in this component of the TRH-induced response. In pituitary and other cell lines, TRH stimulates MAPK. In PVT neurons, only the GIRK-like component of the TRH-induced current was selectively decreased in the presence of PD98059, a MAPK inhibitor. Collectively, the data imply that TRH-induced depolarization and inward current in PVT neurons involve both a dependency on extracellular Ca2+ influx via opening of L-type Ca2+ channels, a sensitivity of a TRPC-like component to intracellular Ca2+ release via ryanodine channels, and a modulation by MAPK of a GIRK-like conductance component. PMID:27009047

  8. Role of Protein Kinase C, PI3-kinase and Tyrosine Kinase in Activation of MAP Kinase by Glucose and Agonists of G-protein Coupled Receptors in INS-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Böcker, Dietmar

    2001-01-01

    MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase (also called Erk 1/2) plays a crucial role in cell proliferation and differentiation. Its impact on secretory events is less well established. The interplay of protein kinase C (PKC), PI3-kinase nd cellular tyrosine kinase with MAP kinase activity using inhibitors and compounds such as glucose, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and agonists of G-protein coupled receptors like gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), oxytocin (OT) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) was investigated in INS-1 cells, an insulin secreting cell line. MAP kinase activity was determined by using a peptide derived from the EGF receptor as a MAP kinase substrate and [ P 32 ]ATP. Glucose as well as GRP, OT and GIP exhibited a time-dependent increase in MAP kinase activity with a maximum at time point 2.5 min. All further experiments were performed using 2.5 min incubations. The flavone PD 098059 is known to bind to the inactive forms of MEK1 (MAPK/ERK-Kinase) thus preventing activation by upstream activators. 20 μM PD 098059 ( IC 50 =51 μM) inhibited MAP kinase stimulated by either glucose, GRP, OT, GIP or PMA. Inhibiton (“downregulation”) of PKC by a long term (22h) pretreatment with 1 μM PMA did not influence MAP kinase activity when augmented by either of the above mentioned compound. To investigate whether PI3-kinase and cellular tyrosine kinase are involved in G-protein mediated effects on MAP kinase, inhibitors were used: 100 nM wortmannin (PI3-kinase inhibitor) reduced the effects of GRP, OT and GIP but not that of PMA; 100 μM genistein (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) inhibited the stimulatory effect of either above mentioned compound on MAP kinase activation. Inhibition of MAP kinase by 20 μM PD 098059 did not influence insulin secretion modulated by either compound (glucose, GRP, OT or GIP). [ H 3 ]Thymidine incorporation, however, was severely inhibited by PD 098059. Thus MAP kinase is important for INS-1 cell proliferation but

  9. Practical synthesis of a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Achmatowicz, Michał; Thiel, Oliver R; Wheeler, Philip; Bernard, Charles; Huang, Jinkun; Larsen, Robert D; Faul, Margaret M

    2009-01-16

    p38 MAP kinase inhibitors have attracted considerable interest as potential agents for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Herein, we describe a concise and efficient synthesis of inhibitor 1 that is based on a phthalazine scaffold. Highlights of our approach include a practical synthesis of a 1,6-disubstituted phthalazine building block 24 as well as the one-pot formation of boronic acid 27. Significant synthetic work to understand the reactivity principles of the intermediates helped in selection of the final synthetic route. Subsequent optimization of the individual steps of the final sequence led to a practical synthesis of 1.

  10. A developmentally regulated MAP kinase activated by hydration in tobacco pollen.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C; Voronin, V; Touraev, A; Vicente, O; Heberle-Bors, E

    1997-01-01

    A novel mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway has been identified in tobacco. This pathway is developmentally regulated during pollen maturation and is activated by hydration during pollen germination. Analysis of different stages of pollen development showed that transcriptional and translational induction of MAP kinase synthesis occurs at the mid-bicellular stage of pollen maturation. However, the MAP kinase is stored in an inactive form in the mature, dry pollen grain. Kinase activation is very rapid after hydration of the dry pollen, peaking at approximately 5 min and decreasing thereafter. Immunoprecipitation of the kinase activity by an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody is consistent with the activation of a MAP kinase. The kinetics of activation suggest that the MAP kinase plays a role in the activation of the pollen grain after hydration rather than in pollen tube growth. PMID:9401129

  11. Inhibition of MAP kinase/NF-kB mediated signaling and attenuation of lipopolysaccharide induced severe sepsis by cerium oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Vellaisamy; Nepal, Niraj; Rogers, Steven; Manne, Nandini D.P.K.; Arvapalli, Ravikumar; Rice, Kevin M.; Asano, Shinichi; Fankhanel, Erin; Ma, Jane J.; Shokuhfar, Tolou; Maheshwari, Mani; Blough, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a life threatening disease that is associated with high mortality. Existing treatments have failed to improve survivability in septic patients. The purpose of this present study is to evaluate whether cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs) can prevent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced severe sepsis mortality by preventing hepatic dysfunction in male Sprague Dawley rats. Administration of a single dose (0.5 mg/kg) of CeO2NPs intravenously to septic rats significantly improved survival rates and functioned to restore body temperature, respiratory rate and blood pressure towards baseline. Treatment-induced increases in animal survivability were associated with decreased hepatic damage along with reductions in serum cytokines/chemokines, and diminished inflammatory related signaling. Kupffer cells and macrophage cells exposed to CeO2NPs exhibited decreases in LPS-induced cytokine release (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, HMGB1) which were associated with diminished cellular ROS, reduced levels of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and decreased nuclear factor-kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) transcriptional activity. The findings of this study indicate that CeO2NPs may be useful as a therapeutic agent for sepsis. PMID:25968464

  12. Inhibition of MAP kinase/NF-kB mediated signaling and attenuation of lipopolysaccharide induced severe sepsis by cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Vellaisamy; Nepal, Niraj; Rogers, Steven; Manne, Nandini D P K; Arvapalli, Ravikumar; Rice, Kevin M; Asano, Shinichi; Fankhanel, Erin; Ma, Jane J; Shokuhfar, Tolou; Maheshwari, Mani; Blough, Eric R

    2015-08-01

    Sepsis is a life threatening disease that is associated with high mortality. Existing treatments have failed to improve survivability in septic patients. The purpose of this present study is to evaluate whether cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs) can prevent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced severe sepsis mortality by preventing hepatic dysfunction in male Sprague Dawley rats. Administration of a single dose (0.5 mg/kg) of CeO2NPs intravenously to septic rats significantly improved survival rates and functioned to restore body temperature, respiratory rate and blood pressure towards baseline. Treatment-induced increases in animal survivability were associated with decreased hepatic damage along with reductions in serum cytokines/chemokines, and diminished inflammatory related signaling. Kupffer cells and macrophage cells exposed to CeO2NPs exhibited decreases in LPS-induced cytokine release (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, HMGB1) which were associated with diminished cellular ROS, reduced levels of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and decreased nuclear factor-kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) transcriptional activity. The findings of this study indicate that CeO2NPs may be useful as a therapeutic agent for sepsis.

  13. Ixora parviflora Protects against UVB-Induced Photoaging by Inhibiting the Expression of MMPs, MAP Kinases, and COX-2 and by Promoting Type I Procollagen Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Kuo-Ching; Fan, Pei-Ching; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Shih, I-Chen; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Ixora parviflora with high polyphenol content exhibited antioxidant activity and reducing UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species production. In this study, results of the photoaging screening experiments revealed that IPE at 1000 μg/mL reduced the activity of bacterial collagenase by 92.7 ± 4.2% and reduced the activity of elastase by 32.6 ± 1.4%. Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms by which IPE exerts its anti-photoaging activity. IPE at 1 μg/mL led to an increase in type I procollagen expression and increased total collagen synthesis in fibroblasts at 5 μg/mL. We found that IPE inhibited MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-9 expression at doses of 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL, respectively, in fibroblasts exposed to UV irradiation (40 mJ/cm2). Gelatin zymography assay showed that IPE at 50 μg/mL inhibited MMP-9 secretion/activity in cultured fibroblasts after UVB exposure. In addition, IPE inhibited the phosphorylation of p38, ERK, and JNK induced by UVB. Furthermore, IPE inhibited the UVB-induced expression of Smad7. In addition, IPE at 1 μg/mL inhibited NO production and COX-2 expression in UV-exposed fibroblasts. These findings show that IPE exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-photoaging activities, indicating that IPE could be a potential anti-aging agent. PMID:22203872

  14. Elevated levels of serum creatine kinase induced by hyponatraemia.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, I; Jonas, M; Thaler, M; Grossman, E

    1997-08-01

    Elevated serum creatine kinase levels are one of the major criteria for the diagnosis of myocardial injury. Noncardiac causes such as muscular and brain damage may also be associated with elevated serum creatine kinase levels. Hyponatremia may induce increased serum creatine kinase in association with rhabdomyolysis or with hypothyroidism. A patient is described where three episodes of hyponatraemia not associated with rhabdomyolysis or hypothyroidism induced transient elevations of serum creatine kinase levels. The association between hyponatraemia and elevated creatine kinase levels should be emphasized to prevent erroneous diagnosis of myocardial injury.

  15. Cellular context–mediated Akt dynamics regulates MAP kinase signaling thresholds during angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hellesøy, Monica; Lorens, James B.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of new blood vessels by sprouting angiogenesis is tightly regulated by contextual cues that affect angiogeneic growth factor signaling. Both constitutive activation and loss of Akt kinase activity in endothelial cells impair angiogenesis, suggesting that Akt dynamics mediates contextual microenvironmental regulation. We explored the temporal regulation of Akt in endothelial cells during formation of capillary-like networks induced by cell–cell contact with vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and vSMC-associated VEGF. Expression of constitutively active Akt1 strongly inhibited network formation, whereas hemiphosphorylated Akt1 epi-alleles with reduced kinase activity had an intermediate inhibitory effect. Conversely, inhibition of Akt signaling did not affect endothelial cell migration or morphogenesis in vSMC cocultures that generate capillary-like structures. We found that endothelial Akt activity is transiently blocked by proteasomal degradation in the presence of SMCs during the initial phase of capillary-like structure formation. Suppressed Akt activity corresponded to the increased endothelial MAP kinase signaling that was required for angiogenic endothelial morphogenesis. These results reveal a regulatory principle by which cellular context regulates Akt protein dynamics, which determines MAP kinase signaling thresholds necessary drive a morphogenetic program during angiogenesis. PMID:26023089

  16. Regulation of atypical MAP kinases ERK3 and ERK4 by the phosphatase DUSP2

    PubMed Central

    Perander, Maria; Al-Mahdi, Rania; Jensen, Thomas C.; Nunn, Jennifer A. L.; Kildalsen, Hanne; Johansen, Bjarne; Gabrielsen, Mads; Keyse, Stephen M.; Seternes, Ole-Morten

    2017-01-01

    The atypical MAP kinases ERK3 and ERK4 are activated by phosphorylation of a serine residue lying within the activation loop signature sequence S-E-G. However, the regulation of ERK3 and ERK4 phosphorylation and activity is poorly understood. Here we report that the inducible nuclear dual-specificity MAP kinase phosphatase (MKP) DUSP2, a known regulator of the ERK and p38 MAPKs, is unique amongst the MKP family in being able to bind to both ERK3 and ERK4. This interaction is mediated by a conserved common docking (CD) domain within the carboxyl-terminal domains of ERK3 and ERK4 and the conserved kinase interaction motif (KIM) located within the non-catalytic amino terminus of DUSP2. This interaction is direct and results in the dephosphorylation of ERK3 and ERK4 and the stabilization of DUSP2. In the case of ERK4 its ability to stabilize DUSP2 requires its kinase activity. Finally, we demonstrate that expression of DUSP2 inhibits ERK3 and ERK4-mediated activation of its downstream substrate MK5. We conclude that the activity of DUSP2 is not restricted to the classical MAPK pathways and that DUSP2 can also regulate the atypical ERK3/4-MK5 signalling pathway in mammalian cells. PMID:28252035

  17. A double-mutant collection targeting MAP kinase related genes in Arabidopsis for studying genetic interactions.

    PubMed

    Su, Shih-Heng; Krysan, Patrick J

    2016-12-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades are conserved in all eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana there are approximately 80 genes encoding MAP kinase kinase kinases (MAP3K), 10 genes encoding MAP kinase kinases (MAP2K), and 20 genes encoding MAP kinases (MAPK). Reverse genetic analysis has failed to reveal abnormal phenotypes for a majority of these genes. One strategy for uncovering gene function when single-mutant lines do not produce an informative phenotype is to perform a systematic genetic interaction screen whereby double-mutants are created from a large library of single-mutant lines. Here we describe a new collection of 275 double-mutant lines derived from a library of single-mutants targeting genes related to MAP kinase signaling. To facilitate this study, we developed a high-throughput double-mutant generating pipeline using a system for growing Arabidopsis seedlings in 96-well plates. A quantitative root growth assay was used to screen for evidence of genetic interactions in this double-mutant collection. Our screen revealed four genetic interactions, all of which caused synthetic enhancement of the root growth defects observed in a MAP kinase 4 (MPK4) single-mutant line. Seeds for this double-mutant collection are publicly available through the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center. Scientists interested in diverse biological processes can now screen this double-mutant collection under a wide range of growth conditions in order to search for additional genetic interactions that may provide new insights into MAP kinase signaling.

  18. Punica granatum L. extract inhibits IL-1beta-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinases by inhibiting the activation of MAP kinases and NF-kappaB in human chondrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Salahuddin; Wang, Naizhen; Hafeez, Bilal Bin; Cheruvu, Vinay K; Haqqi, Tariq M

    2005-09-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1beta induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) implicated in cartilage resorption and joint degradation in osteoarthritis (OA). Pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) was recently shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects in different disease models. However, no studies have been undertaken to investigate whether PFE constituents protect articular cartilage. In the present studies, OA chondrocytes or cartilage explants were pretreated with PFE and then stimulated with IL-1beta at different time points in vitro. The amounts of proteoglycan released were measured by a colorimetric assay. The expression of MMPs, phosphorylation of the inhibitor of kappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was determined by Western immunoblotting. Expression of mRNA was quantified by real-time PCR. MAPK enzyme activity was assayed by in vitro kinase assay. Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. PFE inhibited the IL-1beta-induced proteoglycan breakdown in cartilage explants in vitro. At the cellular level, PFE (6.25-25 mg/L) inhibited the IL-1beta-induced expression of MMP-1, -3, and -13 protein in the medium (P < 0.05) and this was associated with the inhibition of mRNA expression. IL-1beta-induced phosphorylation of p38-MAPK, but not that of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase or extracellular regulated kinase, was most susceptible to inhibition by low doses of PFE, and the addition of PFE blocked the activity of p38-MAPK in a kinase activity assay. PFE also inhibited the IL-1beta-induced phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha and the DNA binding activity of the transcription factor NF-kappaB in OA chondrocytes. Taken together, these novel results indicate that PFE or compounds derived from it may inhibit cartilage degradation in OA and may also be a useful nutritive supplement for maintaining joint integrity and function.

  19. Selective phosphorylation of nuclear CREB by fluoxetine is linked to activation of CaM kinase IV and MAP kinase cascades.

    PubMed

    Tiraboschi, Ettore; Tardito, Daniela; Kasahara, Jiro; Moraschi, Stefania; Pruneri, Paolo; Gennarelli, Massimo; Racagni, Giorgio; Popoli, Maurizio

    2004-10-01

    Regulation of gene expression is purported as a major component in the long-term action of antidepressants. The transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is activated by chronic antidepressant treatments, although a number of studies reported different effects on CREB, depending on drug types used and brain areas investigated. Furthermore, little is known as to what signaling cascades are responsible for CREB activation, although cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) cascade was suggested to be a central player. We investigated how different drugs (fluoxetine (FLX), desipramine (DMI), reboxetine (RBX)) affect CREB expression and phosphorylation of Ser(133) in the hippocampus and prefrontal/frontal cortex (PFCX). Acute treatments did not induce changes in these mechanisms. Chronic FLX increased nuclear phospho-CREB (pCREB) far more markedly than pronoradrenergic drugs, particularly in PFCX. We investigated the function of the main signaling cascades that were shown to phosphorylate and regulate CREB. PKA did not seem to account for the selective increase of pCREB induced by FLX. All drug treatments markedly increased the enzymatic activity of nuclear Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM) kinase IV (CaMKIV), a major neuronal CREB kinase, in PFCX. Activation of this kinase was due to increased phosphorylation of the activatory residue Thr196, with no major changes in the expression levels of alpha- and beta-CaM kinase kinase, enzymes that phosphorylate CaMKIV. Again in PFCX, FLX selectively increased the expression level of MAP kinases Erk1/2, without affecting their phosphorylation. Our results show that FLX exerts a more marked effect on CREB phosphorylation and suggest that CaMKIV and MAP kinase cascades are involved in this effect.

  20. Tyrosine kinase/p21ras/MAP-kinase pathway activation by estradiol-receptor complex in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Migliaccio, A; Di Domenico, M; Castoria, G; de Falco, A; Bontempo, P; Nola, E; Auricchio, F

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism by which estradiol acts on cell multiplication is still unclear. Under conditions of estradiol-dependent growth, estradiol treatment of human mammary cancer MCF-7 cells triggers rapid and transient activation of the mitogen-activated (MAP) kinases, erk-1 and erk-2, increases the active form of p21ras, tyrosine phosphorylation of Shc and p190 protein and induces association of p190 to p21ras-GAP. Both Shc and p190 are substrates of activated src and once phosphorylated, they interact with other proteins and upregulate p21ras. Estradiol activates the tyrosine kinase/p21ras/MAP-kinase pathway in MCF-7 cells with kinetics which are similar to those of peptide mitogens. It is only after introduction of the human wild-type 67 kDa estradiol receptor cDNA that Cos cells become estradiol-responsive in terms of erk-2 activity. This finding, together with the inhibition by the pure anti-estrogen ICI 182 780 of the stimulatory effect of estradiol on each step of the pathway in MCF-7 cells proves that the classic estradiol receptor is responsible for the transduction pathway activation. Transfection experiments of Cos cells with the estradiol receptor cDNA and in vitro experiments with c-src show that the estradiol receptor activates c-src and this activation requires occupancy of the receptor by hormone. Our experiments suggest that c-src is an initial and integral part of the signaling events mediated by the estradiol receptor. Images PMID:8635462

  1. A Causal Gene for Seed Dormancy on Wheat Chromosome 4A Encodes a MAP Kinase Kinase.

    PubMed

    Torada, Atsushi; Koike, Michiya; Ogawa, Taiichi; Takenouchi, Yu; Tadamura, Kazuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Kawaura, Kanako; Ogihara, Yasunari

    2016-03-21

    Seed germination under the appropriate environmental conditions is important both for plant species survival and for successful agriculture. Seed dormancy, which controls germination time, is one of the adaptation mechanisms and domestication traits [1]. Seed dormancy is generally defined as the absence of germination of a viable seed under conditions that are favorable for germination [2]. The seed dormancy of cultivated plants has generally been reduced during domestication [3]. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most widely grown crops in the world. Weak dormancy may be an advantage for the productivity due to uniform emergence and a disadvantage for the risks of pre-harvest sprouting (PHS), which decreases grain quality and yield [4]. A number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling natural variation of seed dormancy have been identified on various chromosomes [5]. A major QTL for seed dormancy has been consistently detected on chromosome 4A [6-13]. The QTL was designated as a major gene, Phs1, which could be precisely mapped within a 2.6 cM region [14]. Here, we identified a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3) gene (designated TaMKK3-A) by a map-based approach as a candidate gene for the seed dormancy locus Phs1 on chromosome 4A in bread wheat. Complementation analysis showed that transformation of a dormant wheat cultivar with the TaMKK3-A allele from a nondormant cultivar clearly reduced seed dormancy. Cultivars differing in dormancy had a single nonsynonymous amino acid substitution in the kinase domain of the predicted MKK3 protein sequence, which may be associated with the length of seed dormancy.

  2. BDNF stimulation of protein synthesis in cortical neurons requires the MAP kinase-interacting kinase MNK1.

    PubMed

    Genheden, Maja; Kenney, Justin W; Johnston, Harvey E; Manousopoulou, Antigoni; Garbis, Spiros D; Proud, Christopher G

    2015-01-21

    Although the MAP kinase-interacting kinases (MNKs) have been known for >15 years, their roles in the regulation of protein synthesis have remained obscure. Here, we explore the involvement of the MNKs in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-stimulated protein synthesis in cortical neurons from mice. Using a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches, we show that BDNF-induced upregulation of protein synthesis requires MEK/ERK signaling and the downstream kinase, MNK1, which phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E. Translation initiation is mediated by the interaction of eIF4E with the m(7)GTP cap of mRNA and with eIF4G. The latter interaction is inhibited by the interactions of eIF4E with partner proteins, such as CYFIP1, which acts as a translational repressor. We find that BDNF induces the release of CYFIP1 from eIF4E, and that this depends on MNK1. Finally, using a novel combination of BONCAT and SILAC, we identify a subset of proteins whose synthesis is upregulated by BDNF signaling via MNK1 in neurons. Interestingly, this subset of MNK1-sensitive proteins is enriched for functions involved in neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Additionally, we find significant overlap between our subset of proteins whose synthesis is regulated by MNK1 and those encoded by known FMRP-binding mRNAs. Together, our data implicate MNK1 as a key component of BDNF-mediated translational regulation in neurons.

  3. Targeting chk2 kinase: molecular interaction maps and therapeutic rationale.

    PubMed

    Pommier, Yves; Sordet, Olivier; Rao, V Ashutosh; Zhang, Hongliang; Kohn, Kurt W

    2005-01-01

    Most anticancer drugs presently used clinically target genomic DNA. The selectivity of these anticancer drugs for tumor tissues is probably due to tumor-specific defects suppressing cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair, and enhancing apoptotic response in the tumor. We will review the molecular interactions within the ATM-Chk2 pathway implicating the DNA damage sensor kinases (ATM, ATR and DNA-PK), the adaptor BRCT proteins (Nbs1, Brca1, 53BP1, MDC1) and the effector kinases (Chk2, Chk1, Plk3, JNK, p38). The molecular interaction map convention (MIM) will be used for presenting this molecular network (http://discover.nci.nih.gov/mim/). A characteristic of the ATM-Chk2 pathway is its redundancy. First, ATM and Chk2 phosphorylate common substrates including p53, E2F1, BRCA1, and Chk2 itself, which suggests that Chk2 (also known as CHECK2, Cds1 in fission yeast, and Dmchk2 or Dmnk or Loki in the fruit fly) acts as a relay for ATM and/or as a salvage pathway when ATM is inactivated. Secondly, redundancy is apparent for the substrates, which can be phosphorylated/activated at similar residues by Chk2, Chk1, and the polo kinases (Plk's). Functionally, Chk2 can activate both apoptosis (via p53, E2F1 and PML) and cell cycle checkpoint (via Cdc25A and Cdc25C, p53, and BRCA1). We will review the short list of published Chk2 inhibitors. We will also propose a novel paradigm for screening interfacial inhibitors of Chk2. Chk2 inhibitors might be used to enhance the tumor selectivity of DNA targeted agents in p53-deficient tumors, and for the treatment of tumors whose growth depends on enhanced Chk2 activity.

  4. Combinatory action of VEGFR2 and MAP kinase pathways maintains endothelial-cell integrity.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hanbing; Wang, Danyang; Wang, Nan; Rios, Yesenia; Huang, Haigen; Li, Song; Wu, Xinrong; Lin, Shuo

    2011-07-01

    Blood vessels normally maintain stereotyped lumen diameters and their stable structures are crucial for vascular function. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling the maintenance of vessel diameters and the integrity of endothelial cells. We investigated this issue in zebrafish embryos by a chemical genetics approach. Small molecule libraries were screened using live Tg(kdrl:GRCFP)(zn1) transgenic embryos in which endothelial cells are specifically labeled with GFP. By analyzing the effects of compounds on the morphology and function of embryonic blood vessels after lumen formation, PP1, a putative Src kinase inhibitor, was identified as capable of specifically reducing vascular lumen size by interrupting endothelial-cell integrity. The inhibitory effect is not due to Src or general VEGF signaling inhibition because another Src inhibitor and Src morpholino as well as several VEGFR inhibitors failed to produce a similar phenotype. After profiling a panel of 22 representative mammalian kinases and surveying published data, we selected a few possible new candidates. Combinational analysis of these candidate kinase inhibitors established that PP1 induced endothelial collapse by inhibiting both the VEGFR2 and MAP kinase pathways. More importantly, combinatory use of two clinically approved drugs Dasatinib and Sunitinib produced the same phenotype. This is the first study to elucidate the pathways controlling maintenance of endothelial integrity using a chemical genetics approach, indicating that endothelial integrity is controlled by the combined action of the VEGFR2 and MAP kinase pathways. Our results also suggest the possible side effect of the combination of two anticancer drugs on the circulatory system.

  5. The involvement of MAP kinases JNK and p38 in photodynamic injury of crayfish neurons and glial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petin, Y. O.; Bibov, M. Y.; Uzdensky, A. B.

    2007-05-01

    The role of JNK and p38 MAP kinases in functional inactivation and necrosis of mechanoreceptor neurons as well as necrosis, apoptosis and proliferation of satellite glial cells induced by photodynamic treatment (10 -7 M Photosens, 30 min incubation, 670 nm laser irradiation at 0.4 W/cm2) in the isolated crayfish stretch receptor was studied using specific inhibitors SP600125 and SB202190, respectively. SP600125 enhanced PDT-induced apoptosis of photosensitized glial cells but did not influence PDT-induced changes in neuronal activity, density of glial nuclei around neuron body, and necrosis of receptor neurons and glial cells. SB202190 did not influence neuron activity and survival as well but reduced PDT-induced necrosis but not apoptosis of glial cells. Therefore, both MAP kinases influenced glial cells but not neurons. JNK protected glial cells from PDT-induced apoptosis but did not influence necrosis and proliferation of these cells. In contrast, p38 did not influence apoptosis but contributed into PDT-induced necrosis of glial cells and PDT-induced gliosis. These MAP kinase inhibitors may be used for modulation of photodynamic therapy of brain tumors.

  6. Human cervical cancer cells use Ca2+ signalling, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and MAP kinase in regulatory volume decrease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Meng-Ru; Chou, Cheng-Yang; Browning, Joseph A; Wilkins, Robert J; Ellory, J Clive

    2001-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying the signalling pathways involved in the activation of volume-regulatory mechanisms of human cervical cancer cells. Osmotic swelling of human cervical cancer cells induced a substantial increase in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) by the activation of Ca2+ entry across the cell membrane, as well as Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. This Ca2+ signalling was critical for the normal regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response. The activation of swelling-activated ion and taurine transport was significantly inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (genistein and tyrphostin AG 1478) and potentiated by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor Na3VO4. However, the Src family of tyrosine kinases was not involved in regulation of the swelling-activated Cl− channel. Cell swelling triggered mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades leading to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/ERK2) and p38 kinase. The volume-responsive ERK1/ERK2 signalling pathway linked with the activation of K+ and Cl− channels, and taurine transport. However, the volume-regulatory mechanism was independent of the activation of p38 MAP kinase. The phosphorylated ERK1/ERK2 expression following a hypotonic shock was up-regulated by protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and down-regulated by PKC inhibitor staurosporine. The response of ERK activation to hypotonicity also required Ca2+ entry and depended on tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated/ERK-activating kinase (MEK) activity. Considering the results overall, osmotic swelling promotes the activation of tyrosine kinase and ERK1/ERK2 and raises intracellular Ca2+, all of which play a crucial role in the volume-regulatory mechanism of human cervical cancer cells. PMID:11731569

  7. A semisynthetic Eph receptor tyrosine kinase provides insight into ligand-induced kinase activation

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Nikhil; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Himanen, Juha P.; Muir, Tom W.; Nikolov, Dimitar B.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY We have developed a methodology for generating milligram amounts of functional Eph tyrosine kinase receptor using the protein engineering approach of expressed protein ligation. Stimulation with ligand induces efficient autophosphorylation of the semisynthetic Eph construct. The in vitro phosphorylation of key Eph tyrosine residues upon ligand-induced activation was monitored via time-resolved, quantitative phosphoproteomics, suggesting a precise and unique order of phosphorylation of the Eph tyrosines in the kinase activation process. To our knowledge, this work represents the first reported semisynthesis of a receptor tyrosine kinase and provides a potentially general method for producing single-pass membrane proteins for structural and biochemical characterization. PMID:21439481

  8. IL-1 receptor antagonist attenuates MAP kinase/AP-1 activation and MMP1 expression in UVA-irradiated human fibroblasts induced by culture medium from UVB-irradiated human skin keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyong; Bi, Zhigang; Chu, Wenming; Wan, Yinsheng

    2005-12-01

    Solar UV light comprises UVB wavelengths (290-320 nm) and UVA wavelengths (320-400 nm). UVB radiation reaches the epidermis and, to a lesser extent, the upper part of the dermis, while UVA radiation penetrates more deeply into human skin. Existing studies have demonstrated that UV-irradiated epidermal keratinocytes release cytokines that indirectly promote MMP-1 production in dermal fibroblasts. In this study, we first investigated the effect of IL-1 on MAPK activity, c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA expression, and MMP-1 and MMP-2 production in UVA-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts. The results showed that UVA irradiation dose-dependently increased MMP-1 but not MMP-2 production in human skin fibroblasts. IL-1alpha and IL-1beta promoted MMP-1 but not MMP-2 production in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts. Both IL-1alpha and IL-1beta activated MAP kinase, significantly elevating c-Jun and c-Fos mRNA expression. We then investigated the indirect effect of UVB-irradiated keratinocyte culture medium on MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated primary cultured human dermal fibroblasts and the effect of IL-1Ra. The results showed that cell culture medium from UVB-irradiated keratinocytes increased MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts, and IL-1Ra dose-dependently inhibited MMP-1 production. IL-1Ra dose-dependently inhibited c-Jun mRNA expression of fibroblasts with no significant effect on c-Fos mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that UVB-irradiated keratinocytes promoted MMP-1 production in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts in a paracrine manner while IL-1Ra reduced MMP-1 production through inhibiting c-Jun mRNA expression. Collectively, our data suggest that IL-1 plays an important role in the dermal collagen degradation associated with UV-induced premature aging of the skin and IL-1Ra may be applied for the prevention and treatment of photoaging.

  9. Creatine kinase inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Horjus, D. L.; Nieuwland, R.; Boateng, K. B.; Schaap, M. C. L.; van Montfrans, G. A.; Clark, J. F.; Sturk, A.; Brewster, L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Bleeding risk with antiplatelet therapy is an increasing clinical challenge. However, the inter-individual variation in this risk is poorly understood. We assessed whether the level of plasma creatine kinase, the enzyme that utilizes ADP and phosphocreatine to rapidly regenerate ATP, may modulate bleeding risk through a dose-dependent inhibition of ADP-induced platelet activation. Exogenous creatine kinase (500 to 4000 IU/L, phosphocreatine 5 mM) added to human plasma induced a dose-dependent reduction to complete inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Accordingly, endogenous plasma creatine kinase, studied in 9 healthy men (mean age 27.9 y, SE 3.3; creatine kinase 115 to 859 IU/L, median 358), was associated with reduced ADP-induced platelet aggregation (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, −0.6; p < 0.05). After exercise, at an endogenous creatine kinase level of 4664, ADP-induced platelet aggregation was undetectable, normalizing after rest, with a concomitant reduction of creatine kinase to normal values. Thus, creatine kinase reduces ADP-induced platelet activation. This may promote bleeding, in particular when patients use platelet P2Y12 ADP receptor inhibitors. PMID:25298190

  10. Hepatitis B virus HBx protein activates Ras-GTP complex formation and establishes a Ras, Raf, MAP kinase signaling cascade.

    PubMed Central

    Benn, J; Schneider, R J

    1994-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus produces a small (154-amino acid) transcriptional transactivating protein, HBx, which is required for viral infection and has been implicated in virus-mediated liver oncogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism for HBx activity and its possible influence on cell proliferation have remained obscure. A number of studies suggest that HBx may stimulate transcription by indirectly activating transcription factors, possibly by influencing cell signaling pathways. We now present biochemical evidence that HBx activates Ras and rapidly induces a cytoplasmic signaling cascade linking Ras, Raf, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), leading to transcriptional transactivation. HBx strongly elevates levels of GTP-bound Ras, activated and phosphorylated Raf, and tyrosine-phosphorylated and activated MAP kinase. Transactivation of transcription factor AP-1 by HBx is blocked by inhibition of Ras or Raf activities but not by inhibition of Ca(2+)- and diacylglycerol-dependent protein kinase C. HBx was also found to stimulate DNA synthesis in serum-starved cells. The hepatitis B virus HBx protein therefore stimulates Ras-GTP complex formation and promotes downstream signaling through Raf and MAP kinases, and may influence cell proliferation. Images PMID:7937954

  11. p38 MAP kinase regulates circadian rhythms in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Vrailas-Mortimer, Alysia D; Ryan, Sarah M; Avey, Matthew J; Mortimer, Nathan T; Dowse, Harold; Sanyal, Subhabrata

    2014-12-01

    The large repertoire of circadian rhythms in diverse organisms depends on oscillating central clock genes, input pathways for entrainment, and output pathways for controlling rhythmic behaviors. Stress-activated p38 MAP Kinases (p38K), although sparsely investigated in this context, show circadian rhythmicity in mammalian brains and are considered part of the circadian output machinery in Neurospora. We find that Drosophila p38Kb is expressed in clock neurons, and mutants in p38Kb either are arrhythmic or have a longer free-running periodicity, especially as they age. Paradoxically, similar phenotypes are observed through either transgenic inhibition or activation of p38Kb in clock neurons, suggesting a requirement for optimal p38Kb function for normal free-running circadian rhythms. We also find that p38Kb genetically interacts with multiple downstream targets to regulate circadian locomotor rhythms. More specifically, p38Kb interacts with the period gene to regulate period length and the strength of rhythmicity. In addition, we show that p38Kb suppresses the arrhythmic behavior associated with inhibition of a second p38Kb target, the transcription factor Mef2. Finally, we find that manipulating p38K signaling in free-running conditions alters the expression of another downstream target, MNK/Lk6, which has been shown to cycle with the clock and to play a role in regulating circadian rhythms. These data suggest that p38Kb may affect circadian locomotor rhythms through the regulation of multiple downstream pathways.

  12. Computational Insights for the Discovery of Non-ATP Competitive Inhibitors of MAP Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Schnieders, Michael J.; Kaoud, Tamer S.; Yan, Chunli; Dalby, Kevin N.; Ren, Pengyu

    2014-01-01

    Due to their role in cellular signaling mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases represent targets of pharmaceutical interest. However, the majority of known MAP kinase inhibitors compete with cellular ATP and target an ATP binding pocket that is highly conserved in the 500 plus representatives of the human protein kinase family. Here we review progress toward the development of non-ATP competitive MAP kinase inhibitors for the extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK1/2), the c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3) and the p38 MAPKs (α, β, γ, and δ). Special emphasis is placed on the role of computational methods in the drug discovery process for MAP kinases. Topics include recent advances in X-ray crystallography theory that improve the MAP kinase structures essential to structure-based drug discovery, the use of molecular dynamics to understand the conformational heterogeneity of the activation loop and inhibitors discovered by virtual screening. The impact of an advanced polarizable force field such as AMOEBA used in conjunction with sophisticated kinetic and thermodynamic simulation methods is also discussed. PMID:22316156

  13. Arabidopsis MAP3K16 and Other Salt-Inducible MAP3Ks Regulate ABA Response Redundantly

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seo-wha; Lee, Seul-bee; Na, Yeon-ju; Jeung, Sun-geum; Kim, Soo Young

    2017-01-01

    In the Arabidopsis genome, approximately 80 MAP3Ks (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases) have been identified. However, only a few of them have been characterized, and the functions of most MAP3Ks are largely unknown. In this paper, we report the function of MAP3K16 and several other MAP3Ks, MAP3K14/15/17/18, whose expression is salt-inducible. We prepared MAP3K16 overexpression (OX) lines and analyzed their phenotypes. The result showed that the transgenic plants were ABA-insensitive during seed germination and cotyledon greening stage but their root growth was ABA-hypersensitive. The OX lines were more susceptible to water-deficit condition at later growth stage in soil. A MAP3K16 knockout (KO) line, on the other hand, exhibited opposite phenotypes. In similar transgenic analyses, we found that MAP3K14/15/17/18 OX and KO lines displayed similar phenotypes to those of MA3K16, suggesting the functional redundancy among them. MAP3K16 possesses in vitro kinase activity, and we carried out two-hybrid analyses to identify MAP3K16 substrates. Our results indicate that MAP3K16 interacts with MKK3 and the negative regulator of ABA response, ABR1, in yeast. Furthermore, MAP3K16 recombinant protein could phosphorylate MKK3 and ABR1, suggesting that they might be MAP3K16 substrates. Collectively, our results demonstrate that MAP3K16 and MAP3K14/15/17/18 are involved in ABA response, playing negative or positive roles depending on developmental stage and that MAP3K16 may function via MKK3 and ABR1. PMID:28292003

  14. Valproate inhibits MAP kinase signalling and cell cycle progression in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Desfossés-Baron, Kristelle; Hammond-Martel, Ian; Simoneau, Antoine; Sellam, Adnane; Roberts, Stephen; Wurtele, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of action of valproate (VPA), a widely prescribed short chain fatty acid with anticonvulsant and anticancer properties, remains poorly understood. Here, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as model to investigate the biological consequences of VPA exposure. We found that low pH strongly potentiates VPA-induced growth inhibition. Transcriptional profiling revealed that under these conditions, VPA modulates the expression of genes involved in diverse cellular processes including protein folding, cell wall organisation, sexual reproduction, and cell cycle progression. We further investigated the impact of VPA on selected processes and found that this drug: i) activates markers of the unfolded protein stress response such as Hac1 mRNA splicing; ii) modulates the cell wall integrity pathway by inhibiting the activation of the Slt2 MAP kinase, and synergizes with cell wall stressors such as micafungin and calcofluor white in preventing yeast growth; iii) prevents activation of the Kss1 and Fus3 MAP kinases of the mating pheromone pathway, which in turn abolishes cellular responses to alpha factor; and iv) blocks cell cycle progression and DNA replication. Overall, our data identify heretofore unknown biological responses to VPA in budding yeast, and highlight the broad spectrum of cellular pathways influenced by this chemical in eukaryotes. PMID:27782169

  15. An unusual MAP kinase is required for efficient penetration of the plant surface by Ustilago maydis

    PubMed Central

    Brachmann, Andreas; Schirawski, Jan; Müller, Philip; Kahmann, Regine

    2003-01-01

    In Ustilago maydis, pathogenic development is controlled by a heterodimer of the two homeodomain proteins bW and bE. We have identified by RNA fingerprinting a b-regulated gene, kpp6, which encodes an unusual MAP kinase. Kpp6 is similar to a number of other fungal MAP kinases involved in mating and pathogenicity, but contains an additional N-terminal domain unrelated to other proteins. Transcription of the kpp6 gene yields two transcripts differing in length, but encoding proteins of identical mass. One transcript is upregulated by the bW/bE heterodimer, while the other is induced after pheromone stimulation. kpp6 deletion mutants are attenuated in pathogenicity. kpp6T355A,Y357F mutants carrying a non-activatable allele of kpp6 are more severely compromised in pathogenesis. These strains can still form appressoria, but are defective in the subsequent penetration of the plant cuticle. Kpp6 is expressed during all stages of the sexual life cycle except mature spores. We speculate that Kpp6 may respond to a plant signal and regulate the genes necessary for efficient penetration of plant tissue. PMID:12727886

  16. An unusual MAP kinase is required for efficient penetration of the plant surface by Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Brachmann, Andreas; Schirawski, Jan; Müller, Philip; Kahmann, Regine

    2003-05-01

    In Ustilago maydis, pathogenic development is controlled by a heterodimer of the two homeodomain proteins bW and bE. We have identified by RNA fingerprinting a b-regulated gene, kpp6, which encodes an unusual MAP kinase. Kpp6 is similar to a number of other fungal MAP kinases involved in mating and pathogenicity, but contains an additional N-terminal domain unrelated to other proteins. Transcription of the kpp6 gene yields two transcripts differing in length, but encoding proteins of identical mass. One transcript is upregulated by the bW/bE heterodimer, while the other is induced after pheromone stimulation. kpp6 deletion mutants are attenuated in pathogenicity. kpp6(T355A,Y357F) mutants carrying a non-activatable allele of kpp6 are more severely compromised in pathogenesis. These strains can still form appressoria, but are defective in the subsequent penetration of the plant cuticle. Kpp6 is expressed during all stages of the sexual life cycle except mature spores. We speculate that Kpp6 may respond to a plant signal and regulate the genes necessary for efficient penetration of plant tissue.

  17. Dietary turmeric modulates DMBA-induced p21{sup ras}, MAP kinases and AP-1/NF-{kappa}B pathway to alter cellular responses during hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, Rachana; Ingle, Arvind; Maru, Girish

    2008-11-01

    The chemopreventive efficacy of turmeric has been established in experimental systems. However, its mechanism(s) of action are not fully elucidated in vivo. The present study investigates the mechanism of turmeric-mediated chemoprevention in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis at 2, 4, 6, 10 and 12 weeks. Dietary turmeric (1%) led to decrease in DMBA-induced tumor burden and multiplicity, and enhanced the latency period in parallel, to its modulatory effects on oncogene products and various cellular responses during HBP tumorigenesis. DMBA-induced expression of ras oncogene product, p21 and downstream target, the mitogen-activated protein kinases were significantly decreased by turmeric during HBP carcinogenesis. Turmeric also diminished the DMBA-induced mRNA expression of proto-oncogenes (c-jun, c-fos) and NF-{kappa}B, leading to decreased protein levels and in further attenuation of DMBA-induced AP-1/NF-{kappa}B DNA-binding in the buccal pouch nuclear extracts. Besides, buccal pouch of hamsters receiving turmeric diet showed significant alterations in DMBA-induced effects: (a) decrease in cell proliferation (diminished PCNA and Bcl2 expression), (b) enhanced apoptosis (increased expression of Bax, caspase-3 and apoptotic index), (c) decrease in inflammation (levels of Cox-2, the downstream target of AP-1/NF-{kappa}B, and PGE2) and (d) aberrant expression of differentiation markers, the cytokeratins (1, 5, 8, and 18). Together, the protective effects of dietary turmeric converge on augmenting apoptosis of the initiated cells and decreasing cell proliferation in DMBA-treated animals, which in turn, is reflected in decreased tumor burden, multiplicity and enhanced latency period. Some of these biomarkers are likely to be helpful in monitoring clinical trials and evaluating drug effect measurements.

  18. Activation mechanisms of endothelial NF-kappaB, IKK, and MAP kinase by tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Young; Yu, Byung Pal; Chung, Hae Young

    2005-04-01

    Lipid peroxidation plays a major role in vascular dysfunction and age-related cardiovascular diseases. A major product of lipid peroxidation, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), has been reported to modulate vascular reactivity and cellular signaling. To better understand vascular abnormality, we set out to delineate the activation mechanism of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) by t-BHP and the regulation of MAPK in endothelial cells. The results showed that t-BHP induces NF-kappaB activation by an inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB) phosphorylation through IkappaB kinase (IKK) activation. Our data from this t-BHP study also showed increased p38 MAP kinase and ERK activity; however, interestingly, t-BHP showed no influence on JNK. Pretreatment with the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, SB203580 and the ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, prevented t-BHP-induced increases in p65 translocation, NF-kappaB luciferase activity, and phospho-IKKalpha/beta. Data suggested that t-BHP induces NF-kappaB activation through the IKK pathway, which involves p38 MAPK and ERK activation. This study illustrates a role of t-BHP in NF-kappaB activation and MAPK related-signaling pathways. The t-BHP-induced activation of NF-kappaB and MAPK could be a major player in vascular dysfunctions, as seen in oxidative stressed responses and the vascular inflammatory process.

  19. The Drosophila rolled locus encodes a MAP kinase required in the sevenless signal transduction pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, W H; Zavitz, K H; Dickson, B; van der Straten, A; Brunner, D; Hafen, E; Zipursky, S L

    1994-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases have been proposed to play a critical role in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated signal transduction pathways. Although genetic and biochemical studies of RTK pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and mammals have revealed remarkable similarities, a genetic requirement for MAP kinases in RTK signaling has not been established. During retinal development in Drosophila, the sevenless (Sev) RTK is required for development of the R7 photoreceptor cell. Components of the signal transduction pathway activated by Sev in the R7 precursor include proteins encoded by the gap1, drk, Sos, ras1 and raf loci. In this report we present evidence that a Drosophila MAP kinase, ERK-A, is encoded by the rolled locus and is required downstream of raf in the Sev signal transduction pathway. Images PMID:8157002

  20. Overexpression of miR-199a-5p decreases esophageal cancer cell proliferation through repression of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase-11 (MAP3K11)

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Kimberly A.; Phatak, Pornima; Mansour, Daniel; Xiao, Lan; Zou, Tongtong; Rao, Jaladanki N.; Turner, Douglas J.; Wang, Jian-Ying; Donahue, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining the oncogenic or tumor suppressive functions of dysregulated microRNAs (miRs) in cancer cells may also identify novel miR targets, which can themselves serve as therapeutic targets. Using array analysis, we have previously determined that miR-199a-5p was the most downregulated miR in two esophageal cancer cell lines compared to esophageal epithelial cells. MiR-199a-5p is predicted to bind mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 11 (MAP3K11) mRNA with high affinity. In this study, we observed that MAP3K11 is markedly overexpressed in esophageal cancer cell lines. Forced expression of miR-199a-5p in these cells leads to a decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of MAP3K11, due to decreased MAP3K11 mRNA stability. A direct binding interaction between miR-199a-5p and MAP3K11 mRNA is demonstrated using biotin pull-down assays and heterologous luciferase reporter constructs and confirmed by mutational analysis. Finally, forced expression of miR-199a-5p decreases proliferation of esophageal cancer cells by inducing G2/M arrest. This effect is mediated, in part, by decreased transcription of cyclin D1, due to reduced MAP3K11-mediated phosphorylation of c-Jun. These findings suggest that miR-199a-5p acts as a tumor suppressor in esophageal cancer cells and that its downregulation contributes to enhanced cellular proliferation by targeting MAP3K11. PMID:26717044

  1. A crosslinker based on a tethered electrophile for mapping kinase-substrate networks.

    PubMed

    Riel-Mehan, Megan M; Shokat, Kevan M

    2014-05-22

    Despite the continuing progress made toward mapping kinase signaling networks, there are still many phosphorylation events for which the responsible kinase has not yet been identified. We are interested in addressing this problem through forming covalent crosslinks between a peptide substrate and the corresponding phosphorylating kinase. Previously we reported a dialdehyde-based kinase-binding probe capable of such a reaction with a peptide containing a cysteine substituted for the phosphorylatable ser/thr/tyr residue. Here, we examine the yield of a previously reported dialdehyde-based probe and report that the dialdehyde-based probes possess a significant limitation in terms of crosslinked kinase-substrate product yield. To address this limitation, we developed a crosslinking scheme based on a kinase activity-based probe, and this crosslinker provides an increase in efficiency and substrate specificity, including in the context of cell lysate.

  2. Protein kinase C-associated kinase regulates NF-κB activation through inducing IKK activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Woo; Schifano, Matthew; Oleksyn, David; Jordan, Craig T; Ryan, Daniel; Insel, Richard; Zhao, Jiyong; Chen, Luojing

    2014-10-01

    Activation of the transcription factor NF-κB induced by extracellular stimuli requires IKKα and IKKβ kinase activity. How IKKα and IKKβ are activated by various upstream signaling molecules is not fully understood. We previously showed that protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK, also known as DIK/RIP4), which belongs to the receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinase family, mediates the B cell activating factor of the TNF family (BAFF)-induced NF-κB activation in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell lines. Here we have investigated the mechanism underlying NF-κB activation regulated by PKK. Our results suggest that PKK can activate both the classical and the alternative NF-κB activation pathways. PKK associates with IKKα and IKKβ in mammalian cells and induces activation of both IKKα and IKKβ via phosphorylation of their serine residues 176/180 and 177/181, respectively. Unlike other members of the RIP family that activate NF-κB through a kinase-independent pathway, PKK appears to activate IKK and NF-κB mainly in a kinase-dependent manner. Suppression of PKK expression by RNA interference inhibits phosphorylation of IKKα and IKKβ as well as activation of NF-κB in human cancer cell lines. Thus, PKK regulates NF-κB activation by modulating activation of IKKα and IKKβ in mammalian cells. We propose that PKK may provide a critical link between IKK activation and various upstream signaling cascades, and may represent a potential target for inhibiting abnormal NF-κB activation in human cancers.

  3. Electromagnetic field-induced stimulation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Kristupaitis, D; Dibirdik, I; Vassilev, A; Mahajan, S; Kurosaki, T; Chu, A; Tuel-Ahlgren, L; Tuong, D; Pond, D; Luben, R; Uckun, F M

    1998-05-15

    Here we present evidence that exposure of DT40 lymphoma B-cells to low energy electromagnetic fields (EMF) results in activation of phospholipase C-gamma 2 (PLC-gamma2), leading to increased inositol phospholipid turnover. PLC-gamma2 activation in EMF-stimulated cells is mediated by stimulation of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a member of the Src-related TEC family of protein tyrosine kinases, which acts downstream of LYN kinase and upstream of PLC-gamma2. B-cells rendered BTK-deficient by targeted disruption of the btk gene did not show enhanced PLC-gamma2 activation in response to EMF exposure. Introduction of the wild-type (but not a kinase domain mutant) human btk gene into BTK-deficient B-cells restored their EMF responsiveness. Thus, BTK exerts a pivotal and mandatory function in initiation of EMF-induced signaling cascades in B-cells.

  4. Lipopolysaccharide Activation of the TPL-2/MEK/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade Is Regulated by IκB Kinase-Induced Proteolysis of NF-κB1 p105†

    PubMed Central

    Beinke, S.; Robinson, M. J.; Hugunin, M.; Ley, S. C.

    2004-01-01

    The MEK kinase TPL-2 (also known as Cot) is required for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade in macrophages and consequent upregulation of genes involved in innate immune responses. In resting cells, TPL-2 forms a stoichiometric complex with NF-κB1 p105, which negatively regulates its MEK kinase activity. Here, it is shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of primary macrophages causes the release of both long and short forms of TPL-2 from p105 and that TPL-2 MEK kinase activity is restricted to this p105-free pool. Activation of TPL-2, MEK, and ERK by LPS is also demonstrated to require proteasome-mediated proteolysis. p105 is known to be proteolysed by the proteasome following stimulus-induced phosphorylation of two serines in its PEST region by the IκB kinase (IKK) complex. Expression of a p105 point mutant, which is not susceptible to signal-induced proteolysis, in RAW264.7 macrophages impairs LPS-induced release of TPL-2 from p105 and its subsequent activation of MEK. Furthermore, expression of wild-type but not mutant p105 reconstitutes LPS stimulation of MEK and ERK phosphorylation in primary NF-κB1-deficient macrophages. Consistently, pharmacological blockade of IKK inhibits LPS-induced release of TPL-2 from p105 and TPL-2 activation. These data show that IKK-induced p105 proteolysis is essential for LPS activation of TPL-2, thus revealing a novel function of IKK in the regulation of the ERK MAP kinase cascade. PMID:15485931

  5. A Rice Kinase-Protein Interaction Map1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiaodong; Richter, Todd; Chen, Mei; Fujii, Hiroaki; Seo, Young Su; Xie, Mingtang; Zheng, Xianwu; Kanrar, Siddhartha; Stevenson, Rebecca A.; Dardick, Christopher; Li, Ying; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Fahong; Bartley, Laura E.; Chern, Mawsheng; Bart, Rebecca; Chen, Xiuhua; Zhu, Lihuang; Farmerie, William G.; Gribskov, Michael; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Fromm, Michael E.; Ronald, Pamela C.; Song, Wen-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Plants uniquely contain large numbers of protein kinases, and for the vast majority of the 1,429 kinases predicted in the rice (Oryza sativa) genome, little is known of their functions. Genetic approaches often fail to produce observable phenotypes; thus, new strategies are needed to delineate kinase function. We previously developed a cost-effective high-throughput yeast two-hybrid system. Using this system, we have generated a protein interaction map of 116 representative rice kinases and 254 of their interacting proteins. Overall, the resulting interaction map supports a large number of known or predicted kinase-protein interactions from both plants and animals and reveals many new functional insights. Notably, we found a potential widespread role for E3 ubiquitin ligases in pathogen defense signaling mediated by receptor-like kinases, particularly by the kinases that may have evolved from recently expanded kinase subfamilies in rice. We anticipate that the data provided here will serve as a foundation for targeted functional studies in rice and other plants. The application of yeast two-hybrid and TAPtag analyses for large-scale plant protein interaction studies is also discussed. PMID:19109415

  6. Positioning atypical protein kinase C isoforms in the UV-induced apoptotic signaling cascade.

    PubMed Central

    Berra, E; Municio, M M; Sanz, L; Frutos, S; Diaz-Meco, M T; Moscat, J

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have documented the involvement of the atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms in important cellular functions such as cell proliferation and survival. Exposure of cells to a genotoxic stimulus that induces apoptosis, such as UV irradiation, leads to a profound inhibition of the atypical PKC activity in vivo. In this study, we addressed the relationship between this phenomenon and different proteins involved in the apoptotic response. We show that (i) the inhibition of the aPKC activity precedes UV-induced apoptosis; (ii) UV-induced aPKC inhibition and apoptosis are independent of p53; (iii) Bcl-2 proteins are potent modulators of aPKC activity; and (iv) the aPKCs are located upstream of the interleukin-converting enzyme-like protease system, which is required for the induction of apoptosis by both Par-4 (a selective aPKC inhibitor) and UV irradiation. We also demonstrate here that inhibition of aPKC activity leads to a decrease in mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity and simultaneously an increase in p38 activity. Both effects are critical for the induction of apoptosis in response to Par-4 expression and UV irradiation. Collectively, these results clarify the position of the aPKCs in the UV-induced apoptotic pathway and strongly suggest that MAP kinases play a role in this signaling cascade. PMID:9234692

  7. Herpes simplex virus 2 VP22 phosphorylation induced by cellular and viral kinases does not influence intracellular localization

    SciTech Connect

    Geiss, Brian J.; Cano, Gina L.; Tavis, John E.; Morrison, Lynda A. . E-mail: morrisla@slu.edu

    2004-12-05

    Phosphorylation of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) VP22 protein is regulated by cellular kinases and the UL13 viral kinase, but the sites at which these enzymes induce phosphorylation of HSV-2 VP22 are not known. Using serine-to-alanine mutants to map phosphorylation sites on HSV-2 VP22 in cells, we made three major observations. First, phosphorylation by a cellular kinase mapped to serines 70, 71, and/or 72 within CKII consensus sites analogous to previously identified phosphorylation sites in HSV-1 VP22. Second, we mapped UL13-mediated phosphorylation of HSV-2 VP22 to serines 28 and 34, describing for the first time UL13-dependent phosphorylation sites on VP22. Third, previously identified VP22-associated cellular kinase sites in HSV-1 VP22 (serines 292 and 294) were not phosphorylated in HSV-2 VP22 (serines 291 and 293). VP22 expressed alone accumulated in the cytoplasm and to a lesser extent in the nucleus. Phosphorylation by endogenous cellular kinase(s) did not alter the localization of VP22. Co-expression of HSV-2 VP22 with active UL13, but not with enzymatically inactive UL13, resulted in nuclear accumulation of VP22 and altered nuclear morphology. Surprisingly, redistribution of VP22 to the nucleus occurred independently of UL13-induced phosphorylation of VP22. The altered nuclear morphology of UL13-expressing cells was not due to apoptosis. These results demonstrate that phosphorylation of HSV-2 VP22 at multiple serine residues is induced by UL13 and cellular kinase(s), and that the nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution of VP22 is independent of its phosphorylation status but is controlled indirectly by UL13 kinase activity.

  8. Aberrant Activation of p38 MAP Kinase-Dependent Innate Immune Responses Is Toxic to Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Cheesman, Hilary K.; Feinbaum, Rhonda L.; Thekkiniath, Jose; Dowen, Robert H.; Conery, Annie L.; Pukkila-Worley, Read

    2016-01-01

    Inappropriate activation of innate immune responses in intestinal epithelial cells underlies the pathophysiology of inflammatory disorders of the intestine. Here we examine the physiological effects of immune hyperactivation in the intestine of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We previously identified an immunostimulatory xenobiotic that protects C. elegans from bacterial infection by inducing immune effector expression via the conserved p38 MAP kinase pathway, but was toxic to nematodes developing in the absence of pathogen. To investigate a possible connection between the toxicity and immunostimulatory properties of this xenobiotic, we conducted a forward genetic screen for C. elegans mutants that are resistant to the deleterious effects of the compound, and identified five toxicity suppressors. These strains contained hypomorphic mutations in each of the known components of the p38 MAP kinase cassette (tir-1, nsy-1, sek-1, and pmk-1), demonstrating that hyperstimulation of the p38 MAPK pathway is toxic to animals. To explore mechanisms of immune pathway regulation in C. elegans, we conducted another genetic screen for dominant activators of the p38 MAPK pathway, and identified a single allele that had a gain-of-function (gf) mutation in nsy-1, the MAP kinase kinase kinase that acts upstream of p38 MAPK pmk-1. The nsy-1(gf) allele caused hyperinduction of p38 MAPK PMK-1-dependent immune effectors, had greater levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK, and was more resistant to killing by the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to wild-type controls. In addition, the nsy-1(gf) mutation was toxic to developing animals. Together, these data suggest that the activity of the MAPKKK NSY-1 is tightly regulated as part of a physiological mechanism to control p38 MAPK-mediated innate immune hyperactivation, and ensure cellular homeostasis in C. elegans. PMID:26818074

  9. Schistosoma mansoni infection enhances host portal vein contraction: role of potassium channels and p38 MAP kinase.

    PubMed

    Araujo, F P; Quintas, L E M; Noël, F; Silva, C L M

    2007-07-01

    Murine Schistosoma mansoni infection is related to an increased contraction of portal vein in response to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). The present study addressed a putative alteration of ion channels and enzymes involved in vascular contraction. In control group, either inhibition of K+ channels sensitive to ATP (K(ATP)) or Ca2+ (BK(Ca)) increased 5-HT-induced contraction, but the same did not occur in infected mice. On the other hand, inhibition of p38 MAP kinase markedly decreased the vascular contraction to 5-HT in the infected mice with minor effects in the control group. Accordingly, we observed a higher density of phospho-p38 MAP kinase, that refers to the fully active state of the enzyme, in portal veins from infected mice as compared to control animals. These results suggest that the reduced function of K(ATP) and BK(Ca) channels along with an increased contribution of p38 MAP kinase contribute to the increased contraction of portal veins to 5-HT observed in murine schistosomiasis.

  10. Scopolamine induced amnesia is reversed by Bacopa monniera through participation of kinase-CREB pathway.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Manish Kumar; Anand, Akshay; Prabhakar, Sudesh

    2010-02-01

    Scopolamine, an anticholinergic drug, is reported to produce amnesia by interference of long term potentiation and has been used for discerning the efficacy of various antiamnesic drugs. The intoxication with anticholinergics and benzodiazepines tend to produce neurodegeneration which cause memory deficits. Our earlier reports have shown the antiamnesic drug, B. monniera to be capable of alleviating diazepam induced memory deficits. We have now tested how scopolamine affects downstream signaling molecules of long term potentiation and if B. monniera can also modulate the scopolamine induced amnesia. We used Morris water maze scale to test the amnesic effect of scopolamine and its reversal by B. monniera. Rota-rod test was used to screen muscle coordination activity of mice before water maze investigations were carried out. The results showed that scopolamine downregulated protein kinase C and iNOS without affecting cAMP, protein kinase A, calmodulin, MAP kinase, nitrite, CREB and pCREB. B. monniera reversed the scopolamine induced amnesia by significantly improving calmodulin and by partially attenuating protein kinase C and pCREB. These observations suggest involvement of calmodulin in evoking antiamnesic effects of B. monniera.

  11. Escitalopram Ameliorates Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Spatial Memory Deficits Induced by Protein Kinase A Activation in Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Ren, Qing-Guo; Wang, Yan-Juan; Gong, Wei-Gang; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Here, we investigated the effect of escitalopram pretreatment on protein kinase A (PKA)-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory deficits in rats using western blot and behavioral tests, respectively. We demonstrated that escitalopram effectively ameliorated tau hyperphosphorylation and the spatial memory deficits induced by PKA activation. We measured the total and activity-dependent Ser9-phosphorylated levels of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β in hippocampal extracts. No significant change in the total level of GSK-3β was observed between the different groups. However, compared with forskolin injection alone, pretreatment with escitalopram increased the level of Ser9-phosphorylated GSK-3β. We also demonstrated that escitalopram increased Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 (the active form of Akt). Furthermore, we identified other important kinases and phosphatases, such as protein phosphatase 2A, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, and MAP kinase kinase-1/2, that have previously been reported to play a crucial role in tau phosphorylation; however, we did not detect any significant change in the activation of these kinases or phosphatases in our study. We unexpectedly demonstrated that forskolin caused anxiety-like behavior in rats, and pretreatment with escitalopram did not significantly ameliorate the anxiety-like behavior induced by forskolin. These data provide the first evidence that escitalopram ameliorates forskolin-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory impairment in rats; these effects do not occur via the anti-anxiety activity of escitalopram but may involve the Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway.

  12. FES kinase participates in KIT-ligand induced chemotaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Voisset, Edwige; Lopez, Sophie; Chaix, Amandine; Vita, Marina; George, Coralie; Dubreuil, Patrice; De Sepulveda, Paulo

    2010-02-26

    FES is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase activated by several membrane receptors, originally identified as a viral oncogene product. We have recently identified FES as a crucial effector of oncogenic KIT mutant receptor. However, FES implication in wild-type KIT receptor function was not addressed. We report here that FES interacts with KIT and is phosphorylated following activation by its ligand SCF. Unlike in the context of oncogenic KIT mutant, FES is not involved in wild-type KIT proliferation signal, or in cell adhesion. Instead, FES is required for SCF-induced chemotaxis. In conclusion, FES kinase is a mediator of wild-type KIT signalling implicated in cell migration.

  13. Effects of MAP kinase pathway and other factors on meiosis of Urechis unicinctus eggs.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xin; Wang, Yong-Chao; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Peng, An; Chen, Da-Yuan; Tang, Yong-Zheng

    2005-05-01

    The eggs of Urechis unicinctus Von Drasche, an echiuroid, are arrested at P-I stage in meiosis. The meiosis is reinitiated by fertilization. Immunoblotting analysis using anti-ERK2 and anti-phospho-MAPK antibodies revealed a 44 kDa MAP kinase species that was constantly expressed in U. unicinctus eggs, quickly phosphorylated after fertilization, and dephosphorylated slowly before the completion of meiosis I. Phosphorylation of the protein was not depressed by protein synthesis inhibitor Cycloheximide (CHX), but was depressed by the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059. Under PD98059 treatment, polar body extrusion was suppressed and the function of centrosome and spindle was abnormal though GVBD was not affected, indicating that MAP kinase cascade was important for meiotic division of U. unicinctus eggs. Other discovery includes: A23187 and OA could parthenogenetically activate U. unicinctus eggs and phosphorylated 44 kDa MAP kinase species, indicating that the effect of fertilization on reinitiating meiosis and phosphorylation of 44 kDa MAP kinase specie is mediated by raising intracellular free calcium and by phosphorylation of some proteins, and that phosphotase(s) sensitive to OA is responsible for arresting U. unicinctus eggs in prophase I. diC8, an activator of PKC, accelerated the process of U. unicinctus egg meiotic division after fertilization and accelerated the dephosphorylation of 44 kDa MAP kinase specie, which implied that the acceleration effect of PKC on meiotic division was mediated by inactivation of MAP kinase cascade. Elevating cAMP/PKA level in U. unicinctus eggs had no effect on meiotic division of the eggs.

  14. Torilin Inhibits Inflammation by Limiting TAK1-Mediated MAP Kinase and NF-κB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kwak, Yi-Seong; Kim, Na-Mi; Kim, Seung-Hyung

    2017-01-01

    Torilin, a sesquiterpene isolated from the fruits of Torilis japonica, has shown antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, data on the mechanism of torilin action against inflammation is limited. This study aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory property of torilin in LPS-induced inflammation using in vitro model of inflammation. We examined torilin's effect on expression levels of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The involvement of NF-kB and AP-1, MAP kinases, and adaptor proteins were assessed. Torilin strongly inhibited LPS-induced NO release, iNOS, PGE2, COX-2, NF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and GM-CSF gene and protein expressions. In addition, MAPKs were also suppressed by torilin pretreatment. Involvement of ERK1/2, P38MAPK, and JNK1/2 was further confirmed by PD98059, SB203580, and SP600125 mediated suppression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. Furthermore, torilin attenuated NF-kB and AP-1 translocation, DNA binding, and reporter gene transcription. Interestingly, torilin inhibited TAK1 kinase activation with the subsequent suppression of MAPK-mediated JNK, p38, ERK1/2, and AP-1 (ATF-2 and c-jun) activation and IKK-mediated I-κBα degradation, p65/p50 activation, and translocation. Together, the results revealed the suppression of NF-κB and AP-1 regulated inflammatory mediator and cytokine expressions, suggesting the test compound's potential as a candidate anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:28316375

  15. Protection against malonate-induced ischemic brain injury in rat by a cell-permeable peptidic c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor, (L)-HIV-TAT48-57-PP-JBD20, observed by the apparent diffusion coefficient mapping magnetic resonance imaging method.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Taketoshi; Inanami, Osamu; Tabu, Kouichi; Waki, Kenji; Kon, Yasuhiro; Kuwabara, Mikinori

    2004-04-08

    The present experiments were carried out to provide direct in vivo evidence for the involvement of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the induction of ischemic brain injury. Malonate, which produces lesions similar to those of focal ischemia-reperfusion by a reversible inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase in mitochondria, was injected into the left striatum in the rat brain without or with the simultaneous injection of a cell permeable peptidic JNK inhibitor, (L)-HIV-TAT48-57-PP-JBD20. Two regions of malonate-induced brain injury were visualized as a hyperintense region with surrounding hypointense regions by apparent diffusion coefficient mapping magnetic resonance imaging. The JNK inhibitor significantly counteracted both hyper- and hypointense regions at the early stage of brain injury. Histological examination clarified that the inhibitor suppressed the induction of coagulation necrosis and spongy degeneration at early and late stages.

  16. Silencing of MAP4K4 by short hairpin RNA suppresses proliferation, induces G1 cell cycle arrest and induces apoptosis in gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YUAN-FEI; QU, GUO-QIANG; LU, YUN-MIN; KONG, WU-MING; LIU, YUAN; CHEN, WEI-XIONG; LIAO, XIAO-HONG

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the second most common cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Previous studies suggest that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase isoform 4 (MAP4K4) is involved in cancer cell growth, apoptosis and migration. In the present study, bioinformatics analysis and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed to determine if MAP4K4 was overexpressed in GC. The knockdown of MAP4K4 by RNA interference in GC cells markedly inhibited cell proliferation, which may be mediated by cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. The silencing of MAP4K4 also induced cell apoptosis by increasing the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. In addition, Notch signaling was markedly reduced by MAP4K4 silencing. The results of the present study suggested that inhibition of MAP4K4 may be a therapeutic strategy for GC. PMID:26549737

  17. Lipoxin A4 antagonizes the mitogenic effects of leukotriene D4 in human renal mesangial cells. Differential activation of MAP kinases through distinct receptors.

    PubMed

    McMahon, B; Stenson, C; McPhillips, F; Fanning, A; Brady, H R; Godson, C

    2000-09-08

    The lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids leukotrienes and lipoxins are well defined regulators of hemeodynamics and leukocyte recruitment in inflammatory conditions. Here, we describe a novel bioaction of lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4)), namely inhibition of leukotriene D(4) (LTD(4))-induced human renal mesangial cell proliferation, and investigate the signal transduction mechanisms involved. LXA(4) blocked LTD(4)-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity in parallel to inhibition of LTD(4)-induced mesangial cell proliferation. Screening of a human mesangial cell cDNA library revealed expression of the recently described cys-leukotriene(1)/LTD(4) receptor. LTD(4)-induced mesangial cell proliferation required both extracellular-related signal regulated kinase (erk) and PI 3-kinase activation and may involve platelet-derived growth factor receptor transactivation. LTD(4)-stimulated the MAP kinases erk and p38 via a pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive pathway dependent on PI 3-kinase and protein kinase C activation. On screening a cDNA library, mesangial cells were found to express the previously described LXA(4) receptor. In contrast to LTD(4), LXA(4) showed differential activation of erk and p38. LXA(4) activation of erk was insensitive to PTX and PI 3-kinase inhibition, whereas LXA(4) activation of p38 was sensitive to PTX and could be blocked by the LTD(4) receptor antagonist SKF 104353. These data suggest that LXA(4) stimulation of the MAP kinase superfamily involves two distinct receptors: one shared with LTD(4) and coupled to a PTX-sensitive G protein (G(i)) and a second coupled via an alternative G protein, such as G(q) or G(12), to erk activation. These data expand on the spectrum of LXA(4) bioactions within an inflammatory milieu.

  18. MAP kinase pathways in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustin, M. C.; Albertyn, J.; Alexander, M.; Davenport, K.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    A cascade of three protein kinases known as a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is commonly found as part of the signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells. Almost two decades of genetic and biochemical experimentation plus the recently completed DNA sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome have revealed just five functionally distinct MAPK cascades in this yeast. Sexual conjugation, cell growth, and adaptation to stress, for example, all require MAPK-mediated cellular responses. A primary function of these cascades appears to be the regulation of gene expression in response to extracellular signals or as part of specific developmental processes. In addition, the MAPK cascades often appear to regulate the cell cycle and vice versa. Despite the success of the gene hunter era in revealing these pathways, there are still many significant gaps in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms for activation of these cascades and how the cascades regulate cell function. For example, comparison of different yeast signaling pathways reveals a surprising variety of different types of upstream signaling proteins that function to activate a MAPK cascade, yet how the upstream proteins actually activate the cascade remains unclear. We also know that the yeast MAPK pathways regulate each other and interact with other signaling pathways to produce a coordinated pattern of gene expression, but the molecular mechanisms of this cross talk are poorly understood. This review is therefore an attempt to present the current knowledge of MAPK pathways in yeast and some directions for future research in this area.

  19. MAP kinase p38 is a novel target of CacyBP/SIP phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Topolska-Woś, Agnieszka M; Rosińska, Sara; Filipek, Anna

    2017-03-10

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are important players in cellular signaling pathways. Recently, it has been shown that CacyBP/SIP serves as a phosphatase for one of the MAP kinases, ERK1/2. Through dephosphorylation of this kinase CacyBP/SIP modulates the transcriptional activity of Elk-1 and the activity of the CREB-BDNF pathway. In this work, using NB2a cell lysate and recombinant proteins, we show that CacyBP/SIP binds and dephosphorylates another member of the MAP kinase family, p38. Analysis of recombinant full-length CacyBP/SIP and its three major domains, N-terminal, middle CS and C-terminal SGS, indicates that the middle CS domain is responsible for p38 dephosphorylation. Moreover, we show that CacyBP/SIP might be implicated in response to oxidative stress. Dephosphorylation of phospho-p38 by CacyBP/SIP in NB2a cells treated with hydrogen peroxide is much more effective than in control ones. In conclusion, involvement of CacyBP/SIP in the regulation of p38 kinase activity, in addition to that of ERK1/2, might point to the function of CacyBP/SIP in pro-survival and pro-apoptotic pathways.

  20. Substituted N-aryl-6-pyrimidinones: A new class of potent, selective, and orally active p38 MAP kinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Devadas, Balekudru; Selness, Shaun R.; Xing, Li; Madsen, Heather M.; Marrufo, Laura D.; Shieh, Huey; Messing, Dean M.; Yang, Jerry Z.; Morgan, Heidi M.; Anderson, Gary D.; Webb, Elizabeth G.; Zhang, Jian; Devraj, Rajesh V.; Monahan, Joseph B.

    2012-02-28

    A novel series of highly potent and selective p38 MAP kinase inhibitors was developed originating from a substituted N-aryl-6-pyrimidinone scaffold. SAR studies coupled with in vivo evaluations in rat arthritis model culminated in the identification of 10 with excellent oral efficacy. Compound 10 exhibited a significantly enhanced dissolution rate compared to 1, translating to a high oral bioavailability (>90%) in rat. In animal studies 10 inhibited LPS-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} in a dose-dependent manner and demonstrated robust efficacy comparable to dexamethasone in a rat streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis model.

  1. Adiponectin inhibits neutrophil apoptosis via activation of AMP kinase, PKB and ERK 1/2 MAP kinase.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Alessandra; Lord, Janet M

    2013-12-01

    Neutrophils are abundant, short-lived leukocytes that play a key role in the immune defense against microbial infections. These cells die by apoptosis following activation and uptake of microbes and will also enter apoptosis spontaneously at the end of their lifespan if they do not encounter a pathogen. Adiponectin exerts anti-inflammatory effects on neutrophil antimicrobial functions, but whether this abundant adipokine influences neutrophil apoptosis is unknown. Here we report that adiponectin in the physiological range (1-10 μg/ml) reduced apoptosis in resting neutrophils, decreasing caspase-3 cleavage and maintaining Mcl-1 expression by stabilizing this anti-apoptotic protein. We show that adiponectin induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), protein kinase B (PKB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). Pharmacological inhibition of AMPK, PKB and ERK 1/2 ablated the pro-survival effects of adiponectin and treatment of neutrophils with an AMPK specific activator (AICAR) and AMPK inhibitor (compound C) respectively decreased and increased apoptosis. Finally, activation of AMPK by AICAR or adiponectin also decreased ceramide accumulation in the neutrophil cell membrane, a process involved in the early stages of spontaneous apoptosis, giving another possible mechanism downstream of AMPK activation for the inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis.

  2. Sphingosine kinase-1 mediates androgen-induced osteoblast cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Claire; Lafosse, Jean-Michel; Malavaud, Bernard; Cuvillier, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Herein we report that the lipid kinase sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1) is instrumental in mediating androgen-induced cell proliferation in osteoblasts. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) triggered cell growth in steroid-deprived MC3T3 cells, which was associated with a rapid stimulation of SphK1 and activation of both Akt and ERK signaling pathways. This mechanism relied on functional androgen receptor/PI3K/Akt nongenotropic signaling as pharmacological antagonists could block SphK1 stimulation by DHT and its consequences. Finally, SphK1 inhibition not only abrogated DHT-induced ERK activation but also blocked cell proliferation, while ERK inhibition had no impact, suggesting that SphK1 was critical for DHT signaling yet independently of the ERK.

  3. Investigation of potential glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors using pharmacophore mapping and virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Dessalew, Nigus; Bharatam, Prasad V

    2006-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 is a serine/threonine kinase that has attracted significant drug discovery attention in recent years. To investigate the identification of new potential glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors, a pharmacophore mapping study was carried out using a set of 21 structurally diverse glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors. A hypothesis containing four features: two hydrophobic, one hydrogen bond donor and another hydrogen bond acceptor was found to be the best from the 10 common feature hypotheses produced by HipHop module of Catalyst. The best hypothesis has a high cost of 156.592 and higher best fit values were obtained for the 21 inhibitors using this best hypothesis than the other HipHop hypotheses. The best hypothesis was then used to screen electronically the NCI2000 database. The hits obtained were docked into glycogen synthase kinase-3beta active site. A total of five novel potential leads were proposed after: (i) visual examination of how well they dock into the glycogen synthase kinase-3beta-binding site, (ii) comparative analysis of their FlexX, G-Score, PMF-Score, ChemScore and D-Scores values, (iii) comparison of their best fit value with the known inhibitors and (iv) examination of the how the hits retain interactions with the important amino acid residues of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta-binding site.

  4. A MAP Kinase pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans is required for defense against infection by opportunistic Proteus species.

    PubMed

    JebaMercy, Gnanasekaran; Vigneshwari, Loganathan; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

    2013-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans innate immunity requires a conserved mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that regulates the basal and pathogen-induced expression of immune effectors. Being in the group of opportunistic pathogens, Proteus spp. cause large number of nosocomial infections. Since, Proteus spp. do not cause death in wild type C. elegans, to understand the role and contribution of MAP Kinase pathway, the mutants (sek-1 and pmk-1) of this pathway were employed. Physiological experiments revealed that the Proteus spp. were able to kill MAP Kinase pathway mutant's C. elegans significantly. To understand the involvement of innate immune pathways specific players at the mRNA level, the regulation of few candidate antimicrobial genes were kinetically investigated during Proteus spp. infections. Real-time PCR analysis indicated a regulation of few candidate immune regulatory genes (F08G5.6, lys-7, nlp-29, ATF-7 and daf-16) during the course of Proteus spp. infections. In addition, the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) isolated from Proteus mirabilis upon exposure to mutant C. elegans showed modifications at their functional regions suggesting that the pathogen modifies its internal machinery according to the specific host for effective pathogenesis.

  5. MAP kinase dynamics in response to pheromones in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    van Drogen, F; Stucke, V M; Jorritsma, G; Peter, M

    2001-12-01

    Although scaffolding is a major regulator of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, scaffolding proteins are poorly understood. During yeast mating, MAPK Fus3p is phosphorylated by MAPKK Ste7p, which is activated by MAPKKK Ste11p. This MAPK module interacts with the scaffold molecule Ste5p. Here we show that Ste11p and Ste7p were predominantly cytoplasmic proteins, while Ste5p and Fus3p were found in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Ste5p, Ste7p and Fus3p also localized to tips of mating projections in pheromone-treated cells. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we demonstrate that Fus3p rapidly shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm independently of pheromones, Fus3p phosphorylation and Ste5p. Membrane-bound Ste5p can specifically recruit Fus3p and Ste7p to the cell cortex. Ste5p remains stably bound at the plasma membrane, unlike activated Fus3p, which dissociates from Ste5p and translocates to the nucleus.

  6. Cross-interactions of two p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitors and two cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor antagonists with the CCK1 receptor and p38 MAP kinase.

    PubMed

    Morel, Caroline; Ibarz, Géraldine; Oiry, Catherine; Carnazzi, Eric; Bergé, Gilbert; Gagne, Didier; Galleyrand, Jean-Claude; Martinez, Jean

    2005-06-03

    Although SB202190 and SB203580 are described as specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitors, several reports have indicated that other enzymes are also sensitive to SB203580. Using a pharmacological approach, we report for the first time that compounds SB202190 and SB203580 were able to directly and selectively interact with a G-protein-coupled receptor, namely the cholecystokinin receptor subtype CCK1, but not with the CCK2 receptor. We demonstrated that these compounds were non-competitive antagonists of the CCK1 receptor at concentrations typically used to inhibit protein kinases. By chimeric construction of the CCK2 receptor, we determined the involvement of two CCK1 receptor intracellular loops in the binding of SB202190 and SB203580. We also showed that two CCK antagonists, L364,718 and L365,260, were able to regulate p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity. Using a reporter gene strategy and immunoblotting experiments, we demonstrated that both CCK antagonists inhibited selectively the enzymatic activity of p38 MAP kinase. Kinase assays suggested that this inhibition resulted from a direct interaction with both CCK antagonists. Molecular modeling simulations suggested that this interaction occurs in the ATP binding pocket of p38 MAP kinase. These results suggest that SB202190 and SB203580 bind to the CCK1 receptor and, as such, these compounds should be used with caution in models that express this receptor. We also found that L364,718 and L365,260, two CCK receptor antagonists, directly interacted with p38 MAP kinase and inhibited its activity. These findings suggest that the CCK1 receptor shares structural analogies with the p38 MAP kinase ATP binding site. They open the way to potential design of either a new family of MAP kinase inhibitors from CCK1 receptor ligand structures or new CCK1 receptor ligands based on p38 MAP kinase inhibitor structures.

  7. Phosphoglycerate Kinase 1 Phosphorylates Beclin1 to Induce Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xu; Li, Xinjian; Cai, Qingsong; Zhang, Chuanbao; Yu, Qiujing; Jiang, Yuhui; Lee, Jong-Ho; Hawke, David; Wang, Yugang; Xia, Yan; Zheng, Yanhua; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Liu, David X; Jiang, Tao; Lu, Zhimin

    2017-03-02

    Autophagy is crucial for maintaining cell homeostasis. However, the precise mechanism underlying autophagy initiation remains to be defined. Here, we demonstrate that glutamine deprivation and hypoxia result in inhibition of mTOR-mediated acetyl-transferase ARD1 S228 phosphorylation, leading to ARD1-dependent phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) K388 acetylation and subsequent PGK1-mediated Beclin1 S30 phosphorylation. This phosphorylation enhances ATG14L-associated class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase VPS34 activity by increasing the binding of phosphatidylinositol to VPS34. ARD1-dependent PGK1 acetylation and PGK1-mediated Beclin1 S30 phosphorylation are required for glutamine deprivation- and hypoxia-induced autophagy and brain tumorigenesis. Furthermore, PGK1 K388 acetylation levels correlate with Beclin1 S30 phosphorylation levels and poor prognosis in glioblastoma patients. Our study unearths an important mechanism underlying cellular-stress-induced autophagy initiation in which the protein kinase activity of the metabolic enzyme PGK1 plays an instrumental role and reveals the significance of the mutual regulation of autophagy and cell metabolism in maintaining cell homeostasis.

  8. Sorbic acid stress activates the Candida glabrata high osmolarity glycerol MAP kinase pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jandric, Zeljkica; Gregori, Christa; Klopf, Eva; Radolf, Martin; Schüller, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Weak organic acids such as sorbic acid are important food preservatives and powerful fungistatic agents. These compounds accumulate in the cytosol and disturb the cellular pH and energy homeostasis. Candida glabrata is in many aspects similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, with regard to confrontation to sorbic acid, two of the principal response pathways behave differently in C. glabrata. In yeast, sorbic acid stress causes activation of many genes via the transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4. The C. glabrata homologs CgMsn2 and CgMsn4 are apparently not activated by sorbic acid. In contrast, in C. glabrata the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway is activated by sorbic acid. Here we show that the MAP kinase of the HOG pathway, CgHog1, becomes phosphorylated and has a function for weak acid stress resistance. Transcript profiling of weak acid treated C. glabrata cells suggests a broad and very similar response pattern of cells lacking CgHog1 compared to wild type which is over lapping with but distinct from S. cerevisiae. The PDR12 gene was the highest induced gene in both species and it required CgHog1 for full expression. Our results support flexibility of the response cues for general stress signaling pathways, even between closely related yeasts, and functional extension of a specific response pathway. PMID:24324463

  9. Arctigenin, a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, inhibits MAP kinases and AP-1 activation via potent MKK inhibition: the role in TNF-alpha inhibition.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min Kyung; Jang, Young Pyo; Kim, Young Choong; Kim, Sang Geon

    2004-10-01

    Arctigenin, naturally occurring in Bardanae fructus, Saussurea medusa, Arctium lappa L., Torreya nucifera and Ipomea cairica, is a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Previously, we showed that arctigenin potently inhibited the induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which involved suppression of NF-kappaB activation. In the present study, we examined the effects of arctigenin on mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation in Raw264.7 cells and MAP kinase kinase (MKK) activity. The effect of arctigenin on activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation was also studied in association with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression. Immunoblot analysis showed that arctigenin inhibited phosphorylation of MAP kinases ERK1/2, p38 kinase and JNK and their activities in Raw264.7 cells treated with LPS. Arctigenin potently inhibited the activity of MKK1 in vitro with the IC(50) value of 1 nM. Gel shift and reporter gene analyses revealed that arctigenin inhibited LPS-inducible AP-1 binding to the AP-1 consensus oligonucleotide and AP-1-mediated reporter gene expression. In view of the potential role of AP-1 in the induction of TNF-alpha, we next examined the inhibitory effects of arctigenin on the expression of TNF-alpha. Arctigenin blocked TNF-alpha production and decreased the level of TNF-alpha mRNA in the cells exposed to LPS. These results showed that arctigenin inhibited activation of MAP kinases including ERK1/2, p38 kinase and JNK through the inhibition of MKK activities, leading to AP-1 inactivation, which might, at least in part, contribute to the inhibition of TNF-alpha production.

  10. Gene-Environment Interactions Target Mitogen-activated Protein 3 Kinase 1 (MAP3K1) Signaling in Eyelid Morphogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Mongan, Maureen; Meng, Qinghang; Wang, Jingjing; Kao, Winston W.-Y.; Puga, Alvaro; Xia, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions determine the biological outcomes through mechanisms that are poorly understood. Mouse embryonic eyelid closure is a well defined model to study the genetic control of developmental programs. Using this model, we investigated how exposure to dioxin-like environmental pollutants modifies the genetic risk of developmental abnormalities. Our studies reveal that mitogen-activated protein 3 kinase 1 (MAP3K1) signaling is a focal point of gene-environment cross-talk. Dioxin exposure, acting through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), blocked eyelid closure in genetic mutants in which MAP3K1 signaling was attenuated but did not disturb this developmental program in either wild type or mutant mice with attenuated epidermal growth factor receptor or WNT signaling. Exposure also markedly inhibited c-Jun phosphorylation in Map3k1+/− embryonic eyelid epithelium, suggesting that dioxin-induced AHR pathways can synergize with gene mutations to inhibit MAP3K1 signaling. Our studies uncover a novel mechanism through which the dioxin-AHR axis interacts with the MAP3K1 signaling pathways during fetal development and provide strong empirical evidence that specific gene alterations can increase the risk of developmental abnormalities driven by environmental pollutant exposure. PMID:26109068

  11. NMR Characterization of Information Flow and Allosteric Communities in the MAP Kinase p38γ

    PubMed Central

    Aoto, Phillip C.; Martin, Bryan T.; Wright, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    The intramolecular network structure of a protein provides valuable insights into allosteric sites and communication pathways. However, a straightforward method to comprehensively map and characterize these pathways is not currently available. Here we present an approach to characterize intramolecular network structure using NMR chemical shift perturbations. We apply the method to the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38γ. p38γ contains allosteric sites that are conserved among eukaryotic kinases as well as unique to the MAPK family. How these regulatory sites communicate with catalytic residues is not well understood. Using our method, we observe and characterize for the first time information flux between regulatory sites through a conserved kinase infrastructure. This network is accessed, reinforced, and broken in various states of p38γ, reflecting the functional state of the protein. We demonstrate that the approach detects critical junctions in the network corresponding to biologically significant allosteric sites and pathways. PMID:27353957

  12. The Arabidopsis MAP kinase kinase 7: A crosstalk point between Auxin signaling and defense responses?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-pathogen interaction induces a complex host response that coordinates various signaling pathways through multiple signal molecules. Besides the well-documented signal molecules salicylic acid (SA), ethylene and jasmonic acid, auxin is emerging as an important player in this response. We recent...

  13. Sertraline, an antidepressant, induces apoptosis in hepatic cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Xuan, Jiekun; Wan, Liqing; Lin, Haixia; Couch, Letha; Mei, Nan; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Guo, Lei

    2014-02-01

    Sertraline is generally used for the treatment of depression and is also approved for the treatment of panic, obsessive-compulsive, and posttraumatic stress disorders. Previously, using rat primary hepatocytes and isolated mitochondria, we demonstrated that sertraline caused hepatic cytotoxicity and mitochondrial impairment. In the current study, we investigated and characterized molecular mechanisms of sertraline toxicity in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Sertraline decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Sertraline activated the intrinsic checkpoint protein caspase-9 and caused the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol; this process was Bcl-2 family dependent because antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins were decreased. Pretreatment of the HepG2 cells with caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 inhibitors partially but significantly reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase, indicating that sertraline-induced apoptosis is mediated by both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, sertraline markedly increased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and the phosphorylation of JNK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), and p38. In sertraline-treated cells, the induction of apoptosis and cell death was shown to be the result of activation of JNK, but not ERK1/2 or p38 in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Furthermore, silencing MAP4K4, the upstream kinase of JNK, attenuated both apoptosis and cell death caused by sertraline. Taken together, our findings suggest that sertraline induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells at least partially via activation of the TNF-MAP4K4-JNK cascade signaling pathway.

  14. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors induce DNA damage through nucleoside depletion

    PubMed Central

    Juvekar, Ashish; Hu, Hai; Yadegarynia, Sina; Lyssiotis, Costas A.; Ullas, Soumya; Lien, Evan C.; Bellinger, Gary; Son, Jaekyoung; Hok, Rosanna C.; Seth, Pankaj; Daly, Michele B.; Kim, Baek; Scully, Ralph; Asara, John M.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Wulf, Gerburg M.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that combining a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with a poly-ADP Rib polymerase (PARP)-inhibitor enhanced DNA damage and cell death in breast cancers that have genetic aberrations in BRCA1 and TP53. Here, we show that enhanced DNA damage induced by PI3K inhibitors in this mutational background is a consequence of impaired production of nucleotides needed for DNA synthesis and DNA repair. Inhibition of PI3K causes a reduction in all four nucleotide triphosphates, whereas inhibition of the protein kinase AKT is less effective than inhibition of PI3K in suppressing nucleotide synthesis and inducing DNA damage. Carbon flux studies reveal that PI3K inhibition disproportionately affects the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway that delivers Rib-5-phosphate required for base ribosylation. In vivo in a mouse model of BRCA1-linked triple-negative breast cancer (K14-Cre BRCA1f/fp53f/f), the PI3K inhibitor BKM120 led to a precipitous drop in DNA synthesis within 8 h of drug treatment, whereas DNA synthesis in normal tissues was less affected. In this mouse model, combined PI3K and PARP inhibition was superior to either agent alone to induce durable remissions of established tumors. PMID:27402769

  15. Interdomain allosteric regulation of Polo kinase by Aurora B and Map205 is required for cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Kachaner, David; Pinson, Xavier; El Kadhi, Khaled Ben; Normandin, Karine; Talje, Lama; Lavoie, Hugo; Lépine, Guillaume; Carréno, Sébastien; Kwok, Benjamin H; Hickson, Gilles R; Archambault, Vincent

    2014-10-27

    Drosophila melanogaster Polo and its human orthologue Polo-like kinase 1 fulfill essential roles during cell division. Members of the Polo-like kinase (Plk) family contain an N-terminal kinase domain (KD) and a C-terminal Polo-Box domain (PBD), which mediates protein interactions. How Plks are regulated in cytokinesis is poorly understood. Here we show that phosphorylation of Polo by Aurora B is required for cytokinesis. This phosphorylation in the activation loop of the KD promotes the dissociation of Polo from the PBD-bound microtubule-associated protein Map205, which acts as an allosteric inhibitor of Polo kinase activity. This mechanism allows the release of active Polo from microtubules of the central spindle and its recruitment to the site of cytokinesis. Failure in Polo phosphorylation results in both early and late cytokinesis defects. Importantly, the antagonistic regulation of Polo by Aurora B and Map205 in cytokinesis reveals that interdomain allosteric mechanisms can play important roles in controlling the cellular functions of Plks.

  16. MAP kinase-mediated stress relief that precedes and regulates the timing of transcriptional induction.

    PubMed

    Proft, Markus; Struhl, Kevin

    2004-08-06

    In yeast, hyperosmotic stress causes an immediate dissociation of most proteins from chromatin, presumably because cells are unprepared for, and initially unresponsive to, increased ion concentrations in the nucleus. Osmotic stress activates Hog1 MAP kinase, which phosphorylates at least two proteins located at the plasma membrane, the Nha1 Na+/H+ antiporter and the Tok1 potassium channel. Hog1 phosphorylation stimulates Nha1 activity, and this is crucial for the rapid reassociation of proteins with their target sites in chromatin. This initial response to hyperosmolarity precedes and temporally regulates the activation of stress-response genes that depends on Hog1 phosphorylation of transcription factors in the nucleus. Thus, a single MAP kinase coordinates temporally, spatially, and mechanistically distinct responses to stress, thereby providing very rapid stress relief that facilitates subsequent changes in gene expression that permit long-term adaptation to harsh environmental conditions.

  17. Role of p38alpha/beta MAP Kinase in Cell Susceptibility to Clostridium sordellii Lethal Toxin and Clostridium difficile Toxin B

    PubMed Central

    Schelle, Ilona; Bruening, Janina; Buetepage, Mareike; Genth, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Lethal Toxin from Clostridium sordellii (TcsL), which is casually involved in the toxic shock syndrome and in gas gangrene, enters its target cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Inside the cell, TcsL mono-O-glucosylates and thereby inactivates Rac/Cdc42 and Ras subtype GTPases, resulting in actin reorganization and an activation of p38 MAP kinase. While a role of p38 MAP kinase in TcsL-induced cell death is well established, data on a role of p38 MAP kinase in TcsL-induced actin reorganization are not available. In this study, TcsL-induced Rac/Cdc42 glucosylation and actin reorganization are differentially analyzed in p38alpha−/− MSCV empty vector MEFs and the corresponding cell line with reconstituted p38alpha expression (p38alpha−/− MSCV p38alpha MEFs). Genetic deletion of p38alpha results in reduced susceptibility of cells to TcsL-induced Rac/Cdc42 glucosylation and actin reorganization. Furthermore, SB203580, a pyridinyl imidazole inhibitor of p38alpha/beta MAP kinase, also protects cells from TcsL-induced effects in both p38−/− MSCV empty vector MEFs and in p38alpha−/− MSCV p38alpha MEFs, suggesting that inhibition of p38beta contributes to the protective effect of SB203580. In contrast, the effects of the related C. difficile Toxin B are responsive neither to SB203580 treatment nor to p38alpha deletion. In conclusion, the protective effects of SB203580 and of p38alpha deletion are likely not based on inhibition of the toxins’ glucosyltransferase activity rather than on inhibited endocytic uptake of specifically TcsL into target cells. PMID:28025502

  18. PD98059 and U0126 activate AMP-activated protein kinase by increasing the cellular AMP:ATP ratio and not via inhibition of the MAP kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Dokladda, Kanchana; Green, Kevin A; Pan, David A; Hardie, D Grahame

    2005-01-03

    The MAP kinase pathway inhibitor U0126 caused phosphorylation and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased phosphorylation of its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase, in HEK293 cells. This effect only occurred in cells expressing the upstream kinase, LKB1. Of two other widely used MAP kinase pathway inhibitors not closely related in structure to U0126, PD98059 also activated AMPK but PD184352 did not. U0126 and PD98059, but not PD184352, also increased the cellular ADP:ATP and AMP:ATP ratios, accounting for their ability to activate AMPK. These results suggest the need for caution in interpreting experiments conducted using U0126 and PD98059.

  19. Regulation of endothelial protein C receptor shedding by cytokines is mediated through differential activation of MAP kinase signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Menschikowski, Mario; Hagelgans, Albert; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Siegert, Gabriele

    2009-09-10

    The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) plays a pivotal role in coagulation, inflammation, cell proliferation, and cancer, but its activity is markedly changed by ectodomain cleavage and release as the soluble protein (sEPCR). In this study we examined the mechanisms involved in the regulation of EPCR shedding in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}) and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), but not interferon-{gamma} and interleukin-6, suppressed EPCR mRNA transcription and cell-associated EPCR expression in HUVEC. The release of sEPCR induced by IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} correlated with activation of p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). EPCR shedding was also induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, ionomycin, anisomycin, thiol oxidants or alkylators, thrombin, and disruptors of lipid rafts. Both basal and induced shedding of EPCR was blocked by the metalloproteinase inhibitors, TAPI-0 and GM6001, and by the reduced non-protein thiols, glutathione, dihydrolipoic acid, dithiothreitol, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Because other antioxidants and scavengers of reactive oxygen species failed to block the cleavage of EPCR, a direct suppression of metalloproteinase activity seems responsible for the observed effects of reduced thiols. In summary, the shedding of EPCR in HUVEC is effectively regulated by IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha}, and downstream by MAP kinase signaling pathways and metalloproteinases.

  20. The MAP kinase pathway coordinates crossover designation with disassembly of synaptonemal complex proteins during meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Nadarajan, Saravanapriah; Mohideen, Firaz; Tzur, Yonatan B; Ferrandiz, Nuria; Crawley, Oliver; Montoya, Alex; Faull, Peter; Snijders, Ambrosius P; Cutillas, Pedro R; Jambhekar, Ashwini; Blower, Michael D; Martinez-Perez, Enrique; Harper, J Wade; Colaiacovo, Monica P

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric disassembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC) is crucial for proper meiotic chromosome segregation. However, the signaling mechanisms that directly regulate this process are poorly understood. Here we show that the mammalian Rho GEF homolog, ECT-2, functions through the conserved RAS/ERK MAP kinase signaling pathway in the C. elegans germline to regulate the disassembly of SC proteins. We find that SYP-2, a SC central region component, is a potential target for MPK-1-mediated phosphorylation and that constitutively phosphorylated SYP-2 impairs the disassembly of SC proteins from chromosomal domains referred to as the long arms of the bivalents. Inactivation of MAP kinase at late pachytene is critical for timely disassembly of the SC proteins from the long arms, and is dependent on the crossover (CO) promoting factors ZHP-3/RNF212/Zip3 and COSA-1/CNTD1. We propose that the conserved MAP kinase pathway coordinates CO designation with the disassembly of SC proteins to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12039.001 PMID:26920220

  1. The Pelargonium sidoides Extract EPs 7630 Drives the Innate Immune Defense by Activating Selected MAP Kinase Pathways in Human Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Katrin; Koch, Egon; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Wolk, Kerstin; Sabat, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Pelargonium sidoides is a medical herb and respective extracts are used very frequently for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. However, the effects of Pelargonium sidoides and a special extract prepared from its roots (EPs 7630) on human immune cells are not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that EPs 7630 induced a rapid and dose-dependent production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 by human blood immune cells. This EPs 7630-induced cytokine profile was more pro-inflammatory in comparison with the profile induced by viral or bacterial infection-mimicking agents. The search for EPs 7630 target cells revealed that T-cells did not respond to EPs 7630 stimulation by production of TNF-α, IL-6, or IL-10. Furthermore, pretreatment of T-cells with EPs 7630 did not modulate their TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 secretion during subsequent activation. In contrast to lymphocytes, monocytes showed clear intracellular TNF-α staining after EPs 7630 treatment. Accordingly, EPs 7630 predominantly provoked activation of MAP kinases and inhibition of p38 strongly reduced the monocyte TNF-α production. The pretreatment of blood immune cells with EPs 7630 lowered their secretion of TNF-α and IL-10 and caused an IL-6 dominant response during second stimulation with viral or bacterial infection-mimicking agents. In summary, we demonstrate that EPs 7630 activates human monocytes, induces MAP kinase-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokines in these cells, and specifically modulates their production capacity of mediators known to lead to an increase of acute phase protein production in the liver, neutrophil generation in the bone marrow, and the generation of adaptive Th17 and Th22 cells. PMID:26406906

  2. Cyclic-GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the Ras/Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Suhasini, M; Li, H; Lohmann, S M; Boss, G R; Pilz, R B

    1998-12-01

    Agents which increase the intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP) concentration and cGMP analogs inhibit cell growth in several different cell types, but it is not known which of the intracellular target proteins of cGMP is (are) responsible for the growth-suppressive effects of cGMP. Using baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, which are deficient in cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G-kinase), we show that 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)guanosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate and 8-bromoguanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate inhibit cell growth in cells stably transfected with a G-kinase Ibeta expression vector but not in untransfected cells or in cells transfected with a catalytically inactive G-kinase. We found that the cGMP analogs inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and nuclear translocation of MAP kinase in G-kinase-expressing cells but not in G-kinase-deficient cells. Ras activation by EGF was not impaired in G-kinase-expressing cells treated with cGMP analogs. We show that activation of G-kinase inhibited c-Raf kinase activation and that G-kinase phosphorylated c-Raf kinase on Ser43, both in vitro and in vivo; phosphorylation of c-Raf kinase on Ser43 uncouples the Ras-Raf kinase interaction. A mutant c-Raf kinase with an Ala substitution for Ser43 was insensitive to inhibition by cGMP and G-kinase, and expression of this mutant kinase protected cells from inhibition of EGF-induced MAP kinase activity by cGMP and G-kinase, suggesting that Ser43 in c-Raf is the major target for regulation by G-kinase. Similarly, B-Raf kinase was not inhibited by G-kinase; the Ser43 phosphorylation site of c-Raf is not conserved in B-Raf. Activation of G-kinase induced MAP kinase phosphatase 1 expression, but this occurred later than the inhibition of MAP kinase activation. Thus, in BHK cells, inhibition of cell growth by cGMP analogs is strictly dependent on G-kinase and G-kinase activation inhibits the Ras/MAP kinase pathway (i) by

  3. c-Kit-kinase induces a cascade of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in normal human melanocytes in response to mast cell growth factor and stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase but is down-regulated in melanomas.

    PubMed Central

    Funasaka, Y; Boulton, T; Cobb, M; Yarden, Y; Fan, B; Lyman, S D; Williams, D E; Anderson, D M; Zakut, R; Mishima, Y

    1992-01-01

    The proto-oncogene c-Kit, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase, is an important regulator of cell growth whose constitutively active oncogenic counterpart, v-kit, induces sarcomas in cats. Mutations in murine c-kit that reduce the receptor tyrosine kinase activity cause deficiencies in the migration and proliferation of melanoblasts, hematopoietic stem cells, and primordial germ cells. We therefore investigated whether c-Kit regulates normal human melanocyte proliferation and plays a role in melanomas. We show that normal human melanocytes respond to mast cell growth factor (MGF), the Kit-ligand that stimulates phosphorylation of tyrosyl residues in c-Kit and induces sequential phosphorylation of tyrosyl residues in several other proteins. One of the phosphorylated intermediates in the signal transduction pathway was identified as an early response kinase (mitogen-activated protein [MAP] kinase). Dephosphorylation of a prominent 180-kDa protein suggests that MGF also activates a phosphotyrosine phosphatase. In contrast, MGF did not induce proliferation, the cascade of protein phosphorylations, or MAP kinase activation in the majority of cells cultured from primary nodular and metastatic melanomas that grow independently of exogenous factors. In the five out of eight human melanoma lines expressing c-kit mRNAs, c-Kit was not constitutively activated. Therefore, although c-Kit-kinase is a potent growth regulator of normal human melanocytes, its activity is not positively associated with malignant transformation. Images PMID:1372524

  4. Proteolytic Inhibition of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium-Induced Activation of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases ERK and JNK in Cultured Human Intestinal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mynott, Tracey L.; Crossett, Ben; Prathalingam, S. Radhika

    2002-01-01

    Bromelain, a mixture of cysteine proteases from pineapple stems, blocks signaling by the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases extracellular regulated kinase 1 (ERK-1) and ERK-2, inhibits inflammation, and protects against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection. In this study, we examined the effect of bromelain on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection, since an important feature of its pathogenesis is its ability to induce activation of ERK-1 and ERK-2, which leads to internalization of bacteria and induction of inflammatory responses. Our results show that bromelain dose dependently blocks serovar Typhimurium-induced ERK-1, ERK-2, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in Caco-2 cells. Bromelain also blocked signaling induced by carbachol and anisomycin, pharmacological MAP kinase agonists. Despite bromelain inhibition of serovar Typhimurium-induced MAP kinase signaling, it did not prevent subsequent invasion of the Caco-2 cells by serovar Typhimurium or alter serovar Typhimurium -induced decreases in resistance across Caco-2 monolayers. Surprisingly, bromelain also did not block serovar Typhimurium-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion but synergized with serovar Typhimurium to enhance IL-8 production. We also found that serovar Typhimurium does not induce ERK phosphorylation in Caco-2 cells in the absence of serum but that serovar Typhimurium-induced invasion and decreases in monolayer resistance are unaffected. Collectively, these data indicate that serovar Typhimurium-induced invasion of Caco-2 cells, changes in the resistance of epithelial cell monolayers, and IL-8 production can occur independently of the ERK and JNK signaling pathways. Data also confirm that bromelain is a novel inhibitor of MAP kinase signaling pathways and suggest a novel role for proteases as inhibitors of signal transduction pathways in intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:11748167

  5. Proteolytic inhibition of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK and JNK in cultured human intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Mynott, Tracey L; Crossett, Ben; Prathalingam, S Radhika

    2002-01-01

    Bromelain, a mixture of cysteine proteases from pineapple stems, blocks signaling by the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases extracellular regulated kinase 1 (ERK-1) and ERK-2, inhibits inflammation, and protects against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection. In this study, we examined the effect of bromelain on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection, since an important feature of its pathogenesis is its ability to induce activation of ERK-1 and ERK-2, which leads to internalization of bacteria and induction of inflammatory responses. Our results show that bromelain dose dependently blocks serovar Typhimurium-induced ERK-1, ERK-2, and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in Caco-2 cells. Bromelain also blocked signaling induced by carbachol and anisomycin, pharmacological MAP kinase agonists. Despite bromelain inhibition of serovar Typhimurium-induced MAP kinase signaling, it did not prevent subsequent invasion of the Caco-2 cells by serovar Typhimurium or alter serovar Typhimurium -induced decreases in resistance across Caco-2 monolayers. Surprisingly, bromelain also did not block serovar Typhimurium-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion but synergized with serovar Typhimurium to enhance IL-8 production. We also found that serovar Typhimurium does not induce ERK phosphorylation in Caco-2 cells in the absence of serum but that serovar Typhimurium-induced invasion and decreases in monolayer resistance are unaffected. Collectively, these data indicate that serovar Typhimurium-induced invasion of Caco-2 cells, changes in the resistance of epithelial cell monolayers, and IL-8 production can occur independently of the ERK and JNK signaling pathways. Data also confirm that bromelain is a novel inhibitor of MAP kinase signaling pathways and suggest a novel role for proteases as inhibitors of signal transduction pathways in intestinal epithelial cells.

  6. Ischemia induced activation of heat shock protein 27 kinases and casein kinase 2 in the preconditioned rabbit heart.

    PubMed

    Kim, S O; Baines, C P; Critz, S D; Pelech, S L; Katz, S; Downey, J M; Cohen, M V

    1999-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC), p38 MAP kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated kinases 2 and 3 (MAPKAPK2 and MAPKAPK3) have been implicated in ischemic preconditioning (PC) of the heart to reduce damage following a myocardial infarct. This study examined whether extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) 1, p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70 S6K), casein kinase 2 (CK2), and other hsp27 kinases are also activated by PC, and if they are required for protection in rabbit hearts. CK2 and hsp27 kinase activities declined during global ischemia in control hearts, whereas PC with 5 min ischemia and 10 min reperfusion increased their activities during global ischemia. Resource Q chromatography resolved two distinct peaks of hsp27 phosphotransferase activities; the first peak (at 0.36 M NaCl) appeared to correspond to the 55-kDa MAPKAPK2. Erk1 activity was elevated in both control and PC hearts after post-ischemic reperfusion, but no change was observed in p70 S6K activity. Infarct size (measured by triphenyltetrazolium staining) in isolated rabbit hearts subjected to 30 min regional ischemia and 2 h reperfusion was 31.0+/-2.6% of the risk zone in controls and was 10.3+/-2.2% in PC hearts (p<0.001). Neither the CK2 inhibitor 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) nor the Mek1/2 inhibitor PD98059 infused during ischemia blocked protection by PC. The activation of CK2 and Erk1 in ischemic preconditioned hearts appear to be epiphenomena and not required for the reduction of infarction from myocardial ischemia.

  7. Loss of Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein Induces Radioresistance in Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Woods Ignatoski, Kathleen M.; Grewal, Navdeep K.; Markwart, Sonja M.; Vellaichamy, Adaikkalam; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Yeung, Kam; Ray, Michael E.; Keller, Evan T.

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: External beam radiotherapy (RT) is often used in an attempt to cure localized prostate cancer (PCa), but it is only palliative against disseminated disease. Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) is a metastasis suppressor whose expression is reduced in approximately 50% of localized PCa tissues and is absent in metastases. Chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to induce tumor apoptosis through induction of RKIP expression. Our goal was to test whether RT similarly induces apoptosis through induction of RKIP expression. Methods and Materials: The C4-2B PCa cell line was engineered to overexpress or underexpress RKIP. The engineered cells were tested for apoptosis in cell culture and tumor regression in mice after RT. Results: RT induced both RKIP expression and apoptosis of PCa cells. Overexpression of RKIP sensitized PCa cells to radiation-induced apoptosis. In contrast, short-hairpin targeting of RKIP, so that RT could not induce RKIP expression, protected cells from radiation-induced apoptosis. In a murine model, knockdown of RKIP in PCa cells diminished radiation-induced apoptosis. Molecular concept mapping of genes altered on manipulation of RKIP expression revealed an inverse correlation with the concept of genes altered by RT. Conclusion: The data presented in this report indicate that the loss of RKIP, as seen in primary PCa tumors and metastases, confers protection against radiation-induced apoptosis. Therefore, it is conceivable that the loss of RKIP confers a growth advantage on PCa cells at distant sites, because the loss of RKIP would decrease apoptosis, favoring proliferation.

  8. Reactive oxygen species and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activate Bax to induce mitochondrial cytochrome c release and apoptosis in response to malonate.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Lazaro, M; Galindo, M F; Melero-Fernandez de Mera, R M; Fernandez-Gómez, F J; Concannon, C G; Segura, M F; Comella, J X; Prehn, J H M; Jordan, J

    2007-03-01

    Malonate, an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex II, is a widely used toxin to study neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease and ischemic stroke. We have shown previously that malonate increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, leading to oxidative stress, cytochrome c release, and apoptotic cell death. Expression of a green fluorescent protein-Bax fusion protein in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells demonstrated a Bax redistribution from the cytosol to mitochondria after 12 to 24 h of malonate treatment that coincided with mitochondrial potential collapse and chromatin condensation. Inhibition of Bax translocation using furosemide, as well as Bax gene deletion, afforded significant protection against malonate-induced apoptosis. Further experiments revealed that malonate induced a prominent increase in the level of activated p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and that treatment with the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SKF86002 potently blocked malonate-induced Bax translocation and apoptosis. Treatment with vitamin E diminished ROS production, reduced the activation status of p38 MAP kinase, inhibited Bax translocation, and protected against malonate-induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that malonate-induced ROS production and subsequent p38 MAP kinase activation mediates the activation of the pro-apoptotic Bax protein to induce mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and neuronal apoptosis.

  9. Requirement for Raf and MAP kinase function during the meiotic maturation of Xenopus oocytes

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The role of Raf and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) during the maturation of Xenopus oocytes was investigated. Treatment of oocytes with progesterone resulted in a shift in the electrophoretic mobility of Raf at the onset of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), which was coincident with the activation of MAPK. Expression of a kinase- defective mutant of the human Raf-1 protein (KD-RAF) inhibited progesterone-mediated MAPK activation. MAPK activation was also inhibited by KD-Raf in oocytes expressing signal transducers of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathway, including an activated tyrosine kinase (Tpr-Met), a receptor tyrosine kinase (EGFr), and Ha-RasV12. KD- RAF completely inhibited GVBD induced by the RTK pathway. In contrast, KD-RAF did not inhibit GVBD and the progression to Meiosis II in progesterone-treated oocytes. Injection of Mos-specific antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides inhibited MAPK activation in response to progesterone and Tpr-Met, but failed to inhibit these events in oocytes expressing an oncogenic deletion mutant of Raf-1 (delta N'Raf). Injection of antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides to Mos also reduced the progesterone- and Tpr-Met-induced electrophoretic mobility shift of Xenopus Raf. These results demonstrate that RTKs and progesterone participate in distinct yet overlapping signaling pathways resulting in the activation of maturation or M-phase promoting factor (MPF). Maturation induced by the RTK pathway requires activation of Raf and MAPK, while progesterone-induced maturation does not. Furthermore, the activation of MAPK in oocytes appears to require the expression of Mos. PMID:8335690

  10. HAM-5 functions as a MAP kinase scaffold during cell fusion in Neurospora crassa

    DOE PAGES

    Jonkers, Wilfried; Leeder, Abigail C.; Ansong, Charles; ...

    2014-11-20

    Cell fusion in genetically identical Neurospora crassa germlings and in hyphae is a highly regulated process involving the activation of a conserved MAP kinase cascade that includes NRC1, MEK2 and MAK2. During chemotrophic growth in germlings, the MAP kinase cascade members localize to conidial anastomosis tube (CAT) tips every 4 minutes, perfectly out of phase with another protein that is recruited to the tip: SOFT, a protein of unknown biochemical function. How this oscillation process is initiated, maintained and what proteins regulate the MAP kinase cascade is currently unclear. A global phosphoproteomics approach using an allele of mak-2 (mak-2Q100G) thatmore » can be specifically inhibited by the ATP analog 1NM-PP1 was utilized to identify MAK2 kinase targets in germlings that were potentially involved in this process. One such putative target was HAM5, a protein of unknown biochemical function. Previously, Δham-5 mutants were shown to be deficient for hyphal fusion. Here we show that HAM5-GFP co-localized with NRC1, MEK2 and MAK2 and oscillated with identical dynamics from the cytoplasm to CAT tips during chemotropic interactions. In the Δmak-2 strain, HAM5-GFP localized to punctate complexes that did not oscillate, but still localized to the germling tip, suggesting that MAK2 activity influences HAM5 function/localization. However, MAK2-GFP showed only cytoplasmic and nuclear localization in a Δham-5 strain and did not localize to puncta, as observed in wild type germlings. Via co-immunoprecipitation experiments, HAM5 was shown to physically interact with MAK2, MEK2 and NRC1, suggesting that it functions as a scaffold/transport hub for the MAP kinase cascade members during oscillation and chemotropic interactions during both germling and hyphal fusion in N. crassa. The identification of HAM5 as a scaffold-like protein will help to link the activation of MAK2 to upstream factors and other proteins involved in this intriguing process of fungal

  11. Activation of the MAP Kinase Cascade by Exogenous Calcium-Sensing Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, Susan A.; Wright, Jay W.; Lee, Fred; Mcneil, Scott; Bilderback, Tim R.; Rodland, Karin D.

    2003-02-01

    In Rat-1 fibroblasts and ovarian surface epithelial cells, extracellular calcium induces a proliferative response which appears to be mediated by the G-protein coupled Calcium-sensing Receptor (CaR), as expression of the non-functional CaR-R795W mutant inhibits both thymidine incorporation and activation of the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) in response to calcium. In this report we utilized CaR-transfected HEK293 cells to demonstrate that functional CaR is necessary and sufficient for calcium-induced ERK activation. CaR-dependent ERK activation was blocked by co-expression of the Ras dominant-negative mutant, Ras N17, and by exposure to the phosphatidyl inositol 3' kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. In contrast to Rat-1 fibroblasts, CaR-mediated in vitro kinase activity of ERK2 was unaffected by tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin in CaR-transfected HEK293 cells. These results suggest that usage of distinct pathways downstream of the CaR varies in a cell-type specific manner, suggesting a potential mechanism by which activation of the CaR could couple to distinct calcium-dependent responses.

  12. The c-mos proto-oncogene protein kinase turns on and maintains the activity of MAP kinase, but not MPF, in cell-free extracts of Xenopus oocytes and eggs.

    PubMed Central

    Nebreda, A R; Hunt, T

    1993-01-01

    During studies of the activation and inactivation of the cyclin B-p34cdc2 protein kinase (MPF) in cell-free extracts of Xenopus oocytes and eggs, we found that a bacterially expressed fusion protein between the Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein and the Xenopus c-mos protein kinase (malE-mos) activated a 42 kDa MAP kinase. The activation of MAP kinase on addition of malE-mos was consistent, whereas the activation of MPF was variable and failed to occur in some oocyte extracts in which cyclin A or okadaic acid activated both MPF and MAP kinase. In cases when MPF activation was transient, MAP kinase activity declined after MPF activity was lost, and MAP kinase, but not MPF, could be maintained at a high level by the presence of malE-mos. When intact oocytes were treated with progesterone, however, the activation of MPF and MAP kinase occurred simultaneously, in contrast to the behaviour of extracts. These observations suggest that one role of c-mos may be to maintain high MAP kinase activity in meiosis. They also imply that the activation of MPF and MAP kinase in vivo are synchronous events that normally rely on an agent that has still to be identified. Images PMID:8387916

  13. Vitamin E protected cultured cortical neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell death through the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Numakawa, Yumiko; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Yagasaki, Yuki; Kumamaru, Emi; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Takahisa; Niki, Etsuo

    2006-05-01

    The role of vitamin E in the CNS has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we found that pre-treatment with vitamin E analogs including alphaT (alpha-tocopherol), alphaT3 (alpha -tocotrienol), gammaT, and gammaT3 for 24 h prevented the cultured cortical neurons from cell death in oxidative stress stimulated by H2O2, while Trolox, a cell-permeable analog of alphaT, did not. The preventive effect of alphaT was dependent on de novo protein synthesis. Furthermore, we found that alphaT exposure induced the activation of both the MAP kinase (MAPK) and PI3 kinase (PI3K) pathways and that the alphaT-dependent survival effect was blocked by the inhibitors, U0126 (an MAPK pathway inhibitor) or LY294002 (a PI3K pathway inhibitor). Interestingly, the up-regulation of Bcl-2 (survival promoting molecule) was induced by alphaT application. The up-regulation of Bcl-2 did not occur in the presence of U0126 or LY294002, suggesting that alphaT-up-regulated Bcl-2 is mediated by these kinase pathways. These observations suggest that vitamin E analogs play an essential role in neuronal maintenance and survival in the CNS.

  14. PSM/SH2-B distributes selected mitogenic receptor signals to distinct components in the PI3-kinase and MAP kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Deng, Youping; Xu, Hu; Riedel, Heimo

    2007-02-15

    The Pro-rich, PH, and SH2 domain containing mitogenic signaling adapter PSM/SH2-B has been implicated as a cellular partner of various mitogenic receptor tyrosine kinases and related signaling mechanisms. Here, we report in a direct comparison of three peptide hormones, that PSM participates in the assembly of distinct mitogenic signaling complexes in response to insulin or IGF-I when compared to PDGF in cultured normal fibroblasts. The complex formed in response to insulin or IGF-I involves the respective peptide hormone receptor and presumably the established components leading to MAP kinase activation. However, our data suggest an alternative link from the PDGF receptor via PSM directly to MEK1/2 and consequently also to p44/42 activation, possibly through a scaffold protein. At least two PSM domains participate, the SH2 domain anticipated to link PSM to the respective receptor and the Pro-rich region in an association with an unidentified downstream component resulting in direct MEK1/2 and p44/42 regulation. The PDGF receptor signaling complex formed in response to PDGF involves PI 3-kinase in addition to the same components and interactions as described for insulin or IGF-I. PSM associates with PI 3-kinase via p85 and in addition the PSM PH domain participates in the regulation of PI 3-kinase activity, presumably through membrane interaction. In contrast, the PSM Pro-rich region appears to participate only in the MAP kinase signal. Both pathways contribute to the mitogenic response as shown by cell proliferation, survival, and focus formation. PSM regulates p38 MAP kinase activity in a pathway unrelated to the mitogenic response.

  15. MAP-kinase activity necessary for TGFbeta1-stimulated mesangial cell type I collagen expression requires adhesion-dependent phosphorylation of FAK tyrosine 397.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Tomoko; Wu, Ming-Hua; Pierce, Amy; Poncelet, Anne-Christine; Varga, John; Schnaper, H William

    2007-12-01

    The signals mediating transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)-stimulated kidney fibrogenesis are poorly understood. We previously reported TGFbeta-stimulated, Smad-mediated collagen production by human kidney mesangial cells, and that ERK MAP kinase activity optimizes collagen expression and enhances phosphorylation of the Smad3 linker region. Furthermore, we showed that disrupting cytoskeletal integrity decreases type I collagen production. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK, PTK2) activity could integrate these findings. Adhesion-dependent FAK Y397 phosphorylation was detected basally, whereas FAK Y925 phosphorylation was TGFbeta1-dependent. By immunocytochemistry, TGFbeta1 stimulated the merging of phosphorylated FAK with the ends of thickening stress fibers. Cells cultured on poly-L-lysine (pLL) to promote integrin-independent attachment spread less than those on control substrate and failed to demonstrate focal adhesion (FA) engagement with F-actin. FAK Y397 phosphorylation and ERK activity were also decreased under these conditions. In cells with decreased FAK Y397 phosphorylation from either plating on pLL or overexpressing a FAK Y397F point mutant, serine phosphorylation of the Smad linker region, but not of the C-terminus, was reduced. Y397F and Y925F FAK point mutants inhibited TGFbeta-induced Elk-Gal activity, but only the Y397F mutant inhibited TGFbeta-stimulated collagen-promoter activity. The inhibition by the Y397F mutant or by culture on pLL was prevented by co-transfection of constitutively active ERK MAP kinase kinase (MEK), suggesting that FAK Y397 phosphorylation promotes collagen expression via ERK MAP kinase activity. Finally, Y397 FAK phosphorylation, and both C-terminal and linker-region Smad3 phosphorylation were detected in murine TGFbeta-dependent kidney fibrosis. Together, these data demonstrate adhesion-dependent FAK phosphorylation promoting TGFbeta-induced responses to regulate collagen production.

  16. Deceleration of arginine kinase refolding by induced helical structures.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Long; Zhou, Sheng-Mei; Park, Daeui; Jeong, Hyoung Oh; Chung, Hae Young; Yang, Jun-Mo; Meng, Fan-Guo; Hu, Wei-Jiang

    2012-04-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) is a key metabolic enzyme for keeping energy balance in invertebrates. Therefore, regulation of the enzymatic activity and the folding studies of AK from the various invertebrates have been the focus of investigation. We studied the effects of helical structures by using hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) on AK folding. Folding kinetic studies showed that the folding rates of the urea-denatured AKs were significantly decelerated after being induced in various concentrations of HFIP. AK lost its activity completely at concentrations greater than 60%. The results indicated that the HFIP-induced helical structures in the denatured state play a negative role in protein folding, and the helical structures induced in 5% (v/v) HFIP act as the most effective barrier against AK taking its native structure. The computational docking simulations (binding energies for -2.19 kcal/mol for AutoDock4.2 and -20.47 kcal/mol for Dock6.3) suggested that HFIP interacts with the several important residues that are predicted by both programs. The excessively pre-organized helical structures not only hampered the folding process, but also ultimately brought about changes in the three-dimensional conformation and biological function of AK.

  17. Mechano-transduction in periodontal ligament cells identifies activated states of MAP-kinases p42/44 and p38-stress kinase as a mechanism for MMP-13 expression

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mechano-transduction in periodontal ligament (PDL) cells is crucial for physiological and orthodontic tooth movement-associated periodontal remodelling. On the mechanistic level, molecules involved in this mechano-transduction process in PDL cells are not yet completely elucidated. Results In the present study we show by western blot (WB) analysis and/or indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) that mechanical strain modulates the amount of the matrix metalloproteinase MMP-13, and induces non-coherent modulation in the amount and activity of signal transducing molecules, such as FAK, MAP-kinases p42/44, and p38 stress kinase, suggesting their mechanistic role in mechano-transduction. Increase in the amount of FAK occurs concomitant with increased levels of the focal contact integrin subunits β3 and β1, as indicated by WB or optionally by IIF. By employing specific inhibitors, we further identified p42/44 and p38 in their activated, i.e. phosphorylated state responsible for the expression of MMP-13. This finding may point to the obedience in the expression of this MMP as extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling executioner from the activation state of mechano-transducing molecules. mRNA analysis by pathway-specific RT-profiler arrays revealed up- and/or down-regulation of genes assigning to MAP-kinase signalling and cell cycle, ECM and integrins and growth factors. Up-regulated genes include for example focal contact integrin subunit α3, MMP-12, MAP-kinases and associated kinases, and the transcription factor c-fos, the latter as constituent of the AP1-complex addressing the MMP-13 promotor. Among others, genes down-regulated are those of COL-1 and COL-14, suggesting that strain-dependent mechano-transduction may transiently perturbate ECM homeostasis. Conclusions Strain-dependent mechano-/signal-transduction in PDL cells involves abundance and activity of FAK, MAP-kinases p42/44, and p38 stress kinase in conjunction with the amount of MMP-13, and integrin

  18. VEGF induces proliferation, migration, and TGF-{beta}1 expression in mouse glomerular endothelial cells via mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhaodong; Bork, Jens Peter; Krueger, Bettina; Patsenker, Eleonora; Schulze-Krebs, Anja; Hahn, Eckhart G.; Schuppan, Detlef; E-mail: dschuppa@bidmc.harvard.edu

    2005-09-09

    The role of glomerular endothelial cells in kidney fibrosis remains incompletely understood. While endothelia are indispensable for repair of acute damage, they can produce extracellular matrix proteins and profibrogenic cytokines that promote fibrogenesis. We used a murine cell line with all features of glomerular endothelial cells (glEND.2), which dissected the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on cell migration, proliferation, and profibrogenic cytokine production. VEGF dose-dependently induced glEND.2 cell migration and proliferation, accompanied by up-regulation of VEGFR-2 phosphorylation and mRNA expression. VEGF induced a profibrogenic gene expression profile, including up-regulation of TGF-{beta}1 mRNA, enhanced TGF-{beta}1 secretion, and bioactivity. VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration and TGF-{beta}1 induction were mediated by the phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinase pathway, while proliferation was dependent on the Erk1/2 MAP kinase pathway. This suggests that differential modulation of glomerular angiogenesis by selective inhibition of the two identified VEGF-induced signaling pathways could be a therapeutic approach to treat kidney fibrosis.

  19. Cloning of a phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase gene based on fiber strength transcriptome QTL mapping in the cotton species Gossypium barbadense.

    PubMed

    Liu, H W; Shi, R F; Wang, X F; Pan, Y X; Zang, G Y; Ma, Z Y

    2012-09-25

    Sea Island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) is highly valued for its superior fiber qualities, especially fiber strength. Based on a transcript-derived fragment originated from transcriptome QTL mapping, a fiber strength related candidate gene of phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase cDNA, designated as GbPI4K, was first cloned, and its expression was characterized in the secondary cell wall thickening stage of G. barbadense fibers. The ORF of GbPI4K was found to be 1926 bp in length and encoded a predicted protein of 641 amino acid residues. The putative protein contained a clear PI3/4K kinase catalytic domain and fell into the plant type II PI4K cluster in phylogenetic analysis. In this study, the expression of cotton PI4K protein was also induced in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) as a fused protein. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the gene expressed in the root, hypocotyl and leaf of the cotton plants. Real-time RT-PCR indicated that this gene in Sea Island cotton fibers expressed 10 days longer than that in Upland cotton fibers, and the main expression difference of PI4K between Sea Island cotton and Upland cotton in fibers was located in the secondary cell wall thickening stage of the fiber. Further analysis indicated that PI4K is a crucial factor in the ability of Rac proteins to regulate phospholipid signaling pathways.

  20. Roles of tyrosine kinase-, 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-, and mitogen-activated protein kinase-signaling pathways in ethanol-induced contractions of rat aortic smooth muscle: possible relation to alcohol-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-wei; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Tao; Altura, Bella T; Altura, Burton M

    2002-08-01

    Insights into the relations between and among ethanol-induced contractions in rat aorta, tyrosine kinases (including src family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases), 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI-3Ks), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and regulation of intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) were investigated in the present study. Ethanol-induced concentration-dependent contractions in isolated rat aortic rings were attenuated greatly by pretreatment of the arteries with low concentrations of an antagonist of protein tyrosine kinases (genistein), an src homology domain 2 (SH2) inhibitor peptide, a highly specific antagonist of p38 MAPK (SB-203580), a potent, selective antagonist of two specific MAPK kinases-MEK1/MEK2 (U0126)-and a selective antagonist of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) (PD-98059), as well as by treatment with wortmannin or LY-294002 (both are selective antagonists of PI-3Ks). Inhibitory concentration 50 (IC(50)) levels obtained for these seven antagonists were consistent with reported inhibition constant (Ki) values for these tyrosine kinase, MAPK, and MAPKK antagonists. Ethanol-induced transient and sustained increases in [Ca(2+)](i) in primary single smooth muscle cells from rat aorta were markedly attenuated in the presence of genistein, an SH2 domain inhibitor peptide, SB-203580, U0126, PD-98059, wortmannin, and LY-294002. A variety of specific antagonists of known endogenously formed vasoconstrictors did not inhibit or attenuate either the ethanol-induced contractions or the elevations of [Ca(2+)](i). Results of the present study support the suggestion that activation of tyrosine kinases (including the src family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases), PI-3Ks, and MAPK seems to play an important role in ethanol-induced contractions and the elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) in smooth muscle cells from rat aorta. These signaling pathways thus may be important in hypertension in human beings associated with chronic alcohol

  1. Inhibition of Fast Axonal Transport by Pathogenic SOD1 Involves Activation of p38 MAP Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Morfini, Gerardo A.; Bosco, Daryl A.; Brown, Hannah; Gatto, Rodolfo; Kaminska, Agnieszka; Song, Yuyu; Molla, Linda; Baker, Lisa; Marangoni, M. Natalia; Berth, Sarah; Tavassoli, Ehsan; Bagnato, Carolina; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Hayward, Lawrence J.; Pigino, Gustavo F.; Watterson, D. Martin; Huang, Chun-Fang; Banker, Gary; Brown, Robert H.; Brady, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Dying-back degeneration of motor neuron axons represents an established feature of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) associated with superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations, but axon-autonomous effects of pathogenic SOD1 remained undefined. Characteristics of motor neurons affected in FALS include abnormal kinase activation, aberrant neurofilament phosphorylation, and fast axonal transport (FAT) deficits, but functional relationships among these pathogenic events were unclear. Experiments in isolated squid axoplasm reveal that FALS-related SOD1 mutant polypeptides inhibit FAT through a mechanism involving a p38 mitogen activated protein kinase pathway. Mutant SOD1 activated neuronal p38 in mouse spinal cord, neuroblastoma cells and squid axoplasm. Active p38 MAP kinase phosphorylated kinesin-1, and this phosphorylation event inhibited kinesin-1. Finally, vesicle motility assays revealed previously unrecognized, isoform-specific effects of p38 on FAT. Axon-autonomous activation of the p38 pathway represents a novel gain of toxic function for FALS-linked SOD1 proteins consistent with the dying-back pattern of neurodegeneration characteristic of ALS. PMID:23776455

  2. Involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinase in insulin- or IGF-1-induced membrane ruffling.

    PubMed Central

    Kotani, K; Yonezawa, K; Hara, K; Ueda, H; Kitamura, Y; Sakaue, H; Ando, A; Chavanieu, A; Calas, B; Grigorescu, F

    1994-01-01

    Insulin, IGF-1 or EGF induce membrane ruffling through their respective tyrosine kinase receptors. To elucidate the molecular link between receptor activation and membrane ruffling, we microinjected phosphorylated peptides containing YMXM motifs or a mutant 85 kDa subunit of phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase (delta p85) which lacks a binding site for the catalytic 110 kDa subunit of PI 3-kinase into the cytoplasm of human epidermoid carcinoma KB cells. Both inhibited the association of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) with PI 3-kinase in a cell-free system and also inhibited insulin- or IGF-1-induced, but not EGF-induced, membrane ruffling in KB cells. Microinjection of nonphosphorylated analogues, phosphorylated peptides containing the EYYE motif or wild-type 85 kDa subunit (Wp85), all of which did not inhibit the association of IRS-1 with PI 3-kinase in a cell-free system, did not inhibit membrane ruffling in KB cells. In addition, wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI 3-kinase activity, inhibited insulin- or IGF-1-induced membrane ruffling. These results suggest that the association of IRS-1 with PI 3-kinase followed by the activation of PI 3-kinase are required for insulin- or IGF-1-induced, but not for EGF-induced, membrane ruffling. Images PMID:8194523

  3. The Potential for Signal Integration and Processing in Interacting Map Kinase Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Schwacke, John H.; Voit, Eberhard O.

    2009-01-01

    The cellular response to environmental stimuli requires biochemical information processing through which sensory inputs and cellular status are integrated and translated into appropriate responses by way of interacting networks of enzymes. One such network, the Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) kinase cascade is a highly conserved signal transduction module that propagates signals from cell surface receptors to various cytosolic and nuclear targets by way of a phosphorylation cascade. We have investigated the potential for signal processing within a network of interacting feed-forward kinase cascades typified by the MAP kinase cascade. A genetic algorithm was used to search for sets of kinetic parameters demonstrating representative key input-output patterns of interest. We discuss two of the networks identified in our study, one implementing the exclusive-or function (XOR) and another implementing what we refer to as an in-band detector (IBD) or two-sided threshold. These examples confirm the potential for logic and amplitude-dependent signal processing in interacting MAP kinase cascades demonstrating limited cross-talk. Specifically, the XOR function allows the network to respond to either one, but not both signals simultaneously, while the IBD permits the network to respond exclusively to signals within a given range of strength, and to suppress signals below as well as above this range. The solution to the XOR problem is interesting in that it requires only two interacting pathways, crosstalk at only one layer, and no feedback or explicit inhibition. These types of responses are not only biologically relevant but constitute signal processing modules that can be combined to create other logical functions and that, in contrast to amplification, cannot be achieved with a single cascade or with two non-interacting cascades. Our computational results revealed surprising similarities between experimental data describing the JNK/MKK4/MKK7 pathway and the solution for

  4. Targeting sphingosine kinase 1 attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Long Shuang; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Mathew, Biji; Fu, Panfeng; Gorshkova, Irina A; He, Donghong; Ma, Wenli; Noth, Imre; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Pendyala, Srikanth; Reddy, Sekhar P; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Wei; Garzon, Steven A; Garcia, Joe G N; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2013-04-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and progressive interstitial lung disease, wherein transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) contribute to the pathogenesis of fibrosis. However, the in vivo contribution of sphingosine kinase (SphK) in fibrotic processes has not been documented. Microarray analysis of blood mononuclear cells from patients with IPF and SphK1- or SphK2-knockdown mice and SphK inhibitor were used to assess the role of SphKs in fibrogenesis. The expression of SphK1/2 negatively correlated with lung function and survival in patients with IPF. Also, the expression of SphK1 was increased in lung tissues from patients with IPF and bleomycin-challenged mice. Knockdown of SphK1, but not SphK2, increased survival and resistance to pulmonary fibrosis in bleomycin-challenged mice. Administration of SphK inhibitor reduced bleomycin-induced mortality and pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Knockdown of SphK1 or treatment with SphK inhibitor attenuated S1P generation and TGF-β secretion in a bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis mouse model that was accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of Smad2 and MAPKs in lung tissue. In vitro, bleomycin-induced expression of SphK1 in lung fibroblast was found to be TGF-β dependent. Taken together, these data indicate that SphK1 plays a critical role in the pathology of lung fibrosis and is a novel therapeutic target.

  5. Virtual screening filters for the design of type II p38 MAP kinase inhibitors: a fragment based library generation approach.

    PubMed

    Badrinarayan, Preethi; Sastry, G Narahari

    2012-04-01

    In this work, we introduce the development and application of a three-step scoring and filtering procedure for the design of type II p38 MAP kinase leads using allosteric fragments extracted from virtual screening hits. The design of the virtual screening filters is based on a thorough evaluation of docking methods, DFG-loop conformation, binding interactions and chemotype specificity of the 138 p38 MAP kinase inhibitors from Protein Data Bank bound to DFG-in and DFG-out conformations using Glide, GOLD and CDOCKER. A 40 ns molecular dynamics simulation with the apo, type I with DFG-in and type II with DFG-out forms was carried out to delineate the effects of structural variations on inhibitor binding. The designed docking-score and sub-structure filters were first tested on a dataset of 249 potent p38 MAP kinase inhibitors from seven diverse series and 18,842 kinase inhibitors from PDB, to gauge their capacity to discriminate between kinase and non-kinase inhibitors and likewise to selectively filter-in target-specific inhibitors. The designed filters were then applied in the virtual screening of a database of ten million (10⁷) compounds resulting in the identification of 100 hits. Based on their binding modes, 98 allosteric fragments were extracted from the hits and a fragment library was generated. New type II p38 MAP kinase leads were designed by tailoring the existing type I ATP site binders with allosteric fragments using a common urea linker. Target specific virtual screening filters can thus be easily developed for other kinases based on this strategy to retrieve target selective compounds.

  6. The NFKB Inducing Kinase Modulates Hematopoiesis During Stress.

    PubMed

    González-Murillo, África; Fernández, Lucía; Baena, Sara; Melen, Gustavo J; Sánchez, Rebeca; Sánchez-Valdepeñas, Carmen; Segovia, José C; Liou, Hsiou-Chi; Schmid, Roland; Madero, Luís; Fresno, Manuel; Ramírez, Manuel

    2015-09-01

    The genetic programs that maintain hematopoiesis during steady state in physiologic conditions are different from those activated during stress. Here, we show that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with deficiencies in components of the alternative NFκB pathway (the NFκB inducing kinase, NIK, and the downstream molecule NFκB2) had a defect in response to stressors such as supraphysiological doses of cytokines, chemotherapy, and hematopoietic transplantation. NIK-deficient mice had peripheral blood and bone marrow leukocyte numbers within normal ranges (except for the already reported defects in B-cell maturation); however, HSCs showed significantly slower expansion capacity in in vitro cultures compared to wild-type HSCs. This was due to a delayed cell cycle and increased apoptosis. In vivo experiments showed that NIK-deficient HSCs did not recover at the same pace as controls when challenged with myeloablative chemotherapy. Finally, NIK-deficient HSCs showed a significantly decreased competitive repopulation capacity in vivo. Using HSCs from mice deficient in one of two downstream targets of NIK, that is, either NFκB2 or c-Rel, only NFκB2 deficiency recapitulated the defects detected with NIK-deficient HSCs. Our results underscore the role of NIK and the alternative NFκB pathway for the recovery of normal levels of hematopoiesis after stress.

  7. Counteractive roles of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) and a MAP kinase kinase homolog in the osmoregulation of fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Shiozaki, K; Russell, P

    1995-02-01

    With the goal of discovering the cellular functions of type 2C protein phosphatases, we have cloned and analyzed two ptc (phosphatase two C) genes, ptc2+ and ptc3+, from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Together with the previously identified ptc1+ gene, the enzymes encoded by these genes account for approximately 90% of the measurable PP2C activity in fission yeast cells. No obvious growth defects result from individual disruptions of ptc genes, but a delta ptc1 delta ptc3 double mutant displays aberrant cell morphology and temperature-sensitive cell lysis that is further accentuated in a delta ptc1 delta ptc2 delta ptc3 triple mutant. These phenotypes are almost completely suppressed by the presence of osmotic stabilizers, strongly indicating that PP2C has an important role in osmoregulation. Genetic suppression of delta ptc1 delta ptc3 lethality identified two loci, mutations of which render cells hypersensitive to high-osmolarity media. One locus is identical to wis1+, encoding a MAP kinase kinase (MEK) homolog. The Wis1 sequence is most closely related to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MEK encoded by PBS2, which is required for osmoregulation. These data indicate that divergent yeasts have functionally conserved MAP kinase pathways, which are required to increase intracellular osmotic concentrations in response to osmotic stress. Moreover, our observations implicate PP2C enzymes as also having an important role in signal transduction processes involved in osmoregulation, probably acting to negatively regulate the osmosensing signal that is transmitted through Wis1 MAP kinase kinase.

  8. Chemical Genetics Approach Reveals Importance of cAMP and MAP Kinase Signaling to Lipid and Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon-E; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Ahn, Joon-Woo; Hwang, Hyemin; Yang, Ji-Won

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we attempted to understand signaling pathways behind lipid biosynthesis by employing a chemical genetics approach based on small molecule inhibitors. Specific signaling inhibitors of MAP kinase or modulators of cAMP signaling were selected to evaluate the functional roles of each of the key signaling pathways in three different microalgal species: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella vulgaris, and Haematococcus pluvialis. Our results clearly indicate that cAMP signaling pathways are indeed positively associated with microalgal lipid biosynthesis. In contrast, MAP kinase pathways in three microalgal species are all negatively implicated in both lipid and carotenoid biosynthesis.

  9. Phosphorylation and localization of Kss1, a MAP kinase of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone response pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, D; Cook, J G; Thorner, J

    1995-01-01

    Kss1 protein kinase, and the homologous Fus3 kinase, are required for pheromone signal transduction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In MATa haploids exposed to alpha-factor, Kss1 was rapidly phosphorylated on both Thr183 and Tyr185, and both sites were required for Kss1 function in vivo. De novo protein synthesis was required for sustained pheromone-induced phosphorylation of Kss1. Catalytically inactive Kss1 mutants displayed alpha-factor-induced phosphorylation on both residues, even in kss1 delta cells; hence, autophosphorylation is not obligatory for these modifications. In kss1 delta fus3 delta double mutants, Kss1 phosphorylation was elevated even in the absence of pheromone; thus, cross-phosphorylation by Fus3 is not responsible for Kss1 activation. In contrast, pheromone-induced Kss1 phosphorylation was eliminated in mutants deficient in two other protein kinases, Ste11 and Ste7. A dominant hyperactive allele of STE11 caused a dramatic increase in the phosphorylation of Kss1, even in the absence of pheromone stimulation, but required Ste7 for this effect, suggesting an order of function: Ste11-->Ste7-->Kss1. When overproduced, Kss1 stimulated recovery from pheromone-imposed G1 arrest. Catalytic activity was essential for Kss1 function in signal transmission, but not for its recovery-promoting activity. Kss1 was found almost exclusively in the particulate material and its subcellular fractionation was unaffected by pheromone treatment. Indirect immunofluorescence demonstrated that Kss1 is concentrated in the nucleus and that its distribution is not altered detectably during signaling. Images PMID:7579701

  10. p21(Cip-1/SDI-1/WAF-1) expression via the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in insulin-induced chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Masahiro; Negishi, Yoichi; Tanaka, Hiroyasu; Kawashima, Kohtaro

    2004-08-06

    The embryonal carcinoma-derived cell line, ATDC5, differentiates into chondrocytes in response to insulin or insulin-like growth factor-I stimulation. In this study, we investigated the roles of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in insulin-induced chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells. Insulin-induced accumulation of glycosaminoglycan and expression of chondrogenic differentiation markers, type II collagen, type X collagen, and aggrecan mRNA were inhibited by the MEK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) and the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor (SB203580). Conversely, the JNK inhibitor (SP600125) enhanced the synthesis of glycosaminoglycan and expression of chondrogenic differentiation markers. Insulin-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK but not that of p38 MAP kinase. We have previously clarified that the induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21(Cip-1/SDI-1/WAF-1), is essential for chondrogenic differentiation of ATDC5 cells. To assess the relationship between the induction of p21 and MAP kinase activity, we investigated the effect of these inhibitors on insulin-induced p21 expression in ATDC5 cells. Insulin-induced accumulation of p21 mRNA and protein was inhibited by the addition of U0126 and SB203580. In contrast, SP600125 enhanced it. Inhibitory effects of U0126 or stimulatory effects of SP600125 on insulin-induced chondrogenic differentiation were observed when these inhibitors exist in the early phase of differentiation, suggesting that MEK/ERK and JNK act on early phase differentiation. SB202580, however, is necessary not only for early phase but also for late phase differentiation, indicating that p38 MAP kinase stimulates differentiation by acting during the entire period of cultivation. These results for the first time demonstrate that up-regulation of p21 expression by ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase is required for chondrogenesis, and that JNK acts as a suppressor of chondrogenesis by down-regulating p21 expression.

  11. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 7 Cation Channel Kinase: New Player in Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Tayze T; Callera, Glaucia E; He, Ying; Yogi, Alvaro; Ryazanov, Alexey G; Ryazanova, Lillia V; Zhai, Alexander; Stewart, Duncan J; Shrier, Alvin; Touyz, Rhian M

    2016-04-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) is a bifunctional protein comprising a magnesium (Mg(2+))/cation channel and a kinase domain. We previously demonstrated that vasoactive agents regulate vascular TRPM7. Whether TRPM7 plays a role in the pathophysiology of hypertension and associated cardiovascular dysfunction is unknown. We studied TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice (TRPM7Δkinase; heterozygous for TRPM7 kinase) and wild-type (WT) mice infused with angiotensin II (Ang II; 400 ng/kg per minute, 4 weeks). TRPM7 kinase expression was lower in heart and aorta from TRPM7Δkinase versus WT mice, effects that were further reduced by Ang II infusion. Plasma Mg(2+) was lower in TRPM7Δkinase versus WT mice in basal and stimulated conditions. Ang II increased blood pressure in both strains with exaggerated responses in TRPM7Δkinase versus WT groups (P<0.05). Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation was reduced in Ang II-infused TRPM7Δkinase mice, an effect associated with Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase downregulation. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression was increased in Ang II-infused TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice. TRPM7 kinase targets, calpain, and annexin-1, were activated by Ang II in WT but not in TRPM7Δkinase mice. Echocardiographic and histopathologic analysis demonstrated cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction in Ang II-treated groups. In TRPM7 kinase-deficient mice, Ang II-induced cardiac functional and structural effects were amplified compared with WT counterparts. Our data demonstrate that in TRPM7Δkinase mice, Ang II-induced hypertension is exaggerated, cardiac remodeling and left ventricular dysfunction are amplified, and endothelial function is impaired. These processes are associated with hypomagnesemia, blunted TRPM7 kinase expression/signaling, endothelial nitric oxide synthase downregulation, and proinflammatory vascular responses. Our findings identify TRPM7 kinase as a novel player in Ang II-induced hypertension

  12. Functional mapping of protein kinase A reveals its importance in adult Schistosoma mansoni motor activity.

    PubMed

    de Saram, Paulu S R; Ressurreição, Margarida; Davies, Angela J; Rollinson, David; Emery, Aidan M; Walker, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A (PKA) is the major transducer of cAMP signalling in eukaryotic cells. Here, using laser scanning confocal microscopy and 'smart' anti-phospho PKA antibodies that exclusively detect activated PKA, we provide a detailed in situ analysis of PKA signalling in intact adult Schistosoma mansoni, a causative agent of debilitating human intestinal schistosomiasis. In both adult male and female worms, activated PKA was consistently found associated with the tegument, oral and ventral suckers, oesophagus and somatic musculature. In addition, the seminal vesicle and gynaecophoric canal muscles of the male displayed activated PKA whereas in female worms activated PKA localized to the ootype wall, the ovary, and the uterus particularly around eggs during expulsion. Exposure of live worms to the PKA activator forskolin (50 µM) resulted in striking PKA activation in the central and peripheral nervous system including at nerve endings at/near the tegument surface. Such neuronal PKA activation was also observed without forskolin treatment, but only in a single batch of worms. In addition, PKA activation within the central and peripheral nervous systems visibly increased within 15 min of worm-pair separation when compared to that observed in closely coupled worm pairs. Finally, exposure of adult worms to forskolin induced hyperkinesias in a time and dose dependent manner with 100 µM forskolin significantly increasing the frequency of gross worm movements to 5.3 times that of control worms (P≤0.001). Collectively these data are consistent with PKA playing a central part in motor activity and neuronal communication, and possibly interplay between these two systems in S. mansoni. This study, the first to localize a protein kinase when exclusively in an activated state in adult S. mansoni, provides valuable insight into the intricacies of functional protein kinase signalling in the context of whole schistosome physiology.

  13. Signaling through P2X7 receptor in human T cells involves p56lck, MAP kinases, and transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kappa B.

    PubMed

    Budagian, Vadim; Bulanova, Elena; Brovko, Luba; Orinska, Zane; Fayad, Raja; Paus, Ralf; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2003-01-17

    ATP-gated ion channel P2X receptors are expressed on the surface of most immune cells and can trigger multiple cellular responses, such as membrane permeabilization, cytokine production, and cell proliferation or apoptosis. Despite broad distribution and pleiotropic activities, signaling pathways downstream of these ionotropic receptors are still poorly understood. Here, we describe intracellular signaling events in Jurkat cells treated with millimolar concentrations of extracellular ATP. Within minutes, ATP treatment resulted in the phosphorylation and activation of p56(lck) kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase but not p38 kinase. These effects were wholly dependent upon the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) ions in the culture medium. Nevertheless, calmodulin antagonist calmidazolium and CaM kinase inhibitor KN-93 both had no effect on the activation of p56(lck) and ERK, whereas a pretreatment of Jurkat cells with MAP kinase kinase inhibitor P098059 was able to abrogate phosphorylation of ERK. Further, expression of c-Jun and c-Fos proteins and activator protein (AP-1) DNA binding activity were enhanced in a time-dependent manner. In contrast, DNA binding activity of NF-kappa B was reduced. ATP failed to stimulate the phosphorylation of ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and activation of AP-1 in the p56(lck)-deficient isogenic T cell line JCaM1, suggesting a critical role for p56(lck) kinase in downstream signaling. Regarding the biological significance of the ATP-induced signaling events we show that although extracellular ATP was able to stimulate proliferation of both Jurkat and JCaM1 cells, an increase in interleukin-2 transcription was observed only in Jurkat cells. The nucleotide selectivity and pharmacological profile data supported the evidence that the ATP-induced effects in Jurkat cells were mediated through the P2X7 receptor. Taken together, these results demonstrate the ability of extracellular ATP to activate

  14. Early Colony Establishment in Neurospora crassa Requires a MAP Kinase Regulatory Network

    PubMed Central

    Leeder, Abigail C.; Jonkers, Wilfried; Li, Jingyi; Glass, N. Louise

    2013-01-01

    Vegetative fusion is essential for the development of an interconnected colony in many filamentous fungi. In the ascomycete fungus Neurospora crassa, vegetative fusion occurs between germinated conidia (germlings) via specialized structures termed “conidial anastomosis tubes” (CATs) and between hyphae within a mature colony. In N. crassa, both CAT and hyphal fusion are under the regulation of a conserved MAP kinase cascade (NRC1, MEK2, and MAK2). Here we show that the predicted downstream target of the MAK2 kinase pathway, a Ste12-like transcription factor known as PP1, regulates elements required for CAT and hyphal fusion. The PP1 regulatory network was revealed by expression profiling of wild type and the Δpp-1 mutant during conidial germination and colony establishment. To identify targets required for cell fusion more specifically, expression-profiling differences were assessed via inhibition of MAK2 kinase activity during chemotropic interactions and cell fusion. These approaches led to the identification of new targets of the cell fusion pathway that, when mutated, showed alterations in chemotropic signaling and cell fusion. In particular, conidial germlings carrying a deletion of NCU04732 (Δham-11) failed to show chemotropic interactions and cell fusion. However, signaling (as shown by oscillation of MAK2 and SO to CAT tips), chemotropism, and cell fusion were restored in Δham-11 germlings when matched with wild-type partner germlings. These data reveal novel insights into the complex process of self-signaling, germling fusion, and colony establishment in filamentous fungi. PMID:24037267

  15. Flux Optimization in Human Specific Map-Kinase Pathways: A Systems Biology Approach to Study Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Sombeet

    2010-10-01

    Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAP kinases) transduces signals that are involved in a multitude of cellular pathways and functions in response to variety of ligands and cell stimuli. Aberrant or inappropriate functions of MAPKs have now been identified in diseases ranging from Cancer to Alzheimer disease to Leshmaniasis however the pathway is still growing and little is known about the dynamics of the pathway. Here we model the MAPK metabolic pathways and thus find the key metabolites or reactions involved on perturbing which the transcription factors are affected. The approach, which we used for modeling of this pathway, is Flux Balance Analysis (FBA). Further we established the growth factors EGF, PDGF were also responsible for the determination of downstream species concentrations. Tuning the parameters gave the optimum kinetics of the growth factor for which the downstream events were at the minimum. Also the Ras and Braf steady state concentrations were significantly affected when the Growth factor kinetics were tuned. This type of study can shed light on controlling various diseases and also may be helpful for identifying important drug targets.

  16. Activation of several MAP kinases upon stimulation of rat alveolar macrophages: role of the NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Torres, M; Forman, H J

    1999-06-15

    Zymosan-activated serum (ZAS), a source of C5a, stimulates the rat alveolar macrophages (AM) to release superoxide anion. Here we show that treatment of rat AM with ZAS induced a time-dependent increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins (116, 105-110, 82-78, 66-72, 62, 45, 42, and 38 kDa). This increase was sensitive to genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. ZAS stimulated the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of three members of a family of serine/threonine kinases known as the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), i.e., ERK1 and ERK2, as assessed by immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and phosphotransferase activity, and p38 MAPK, as determined by immunoblotting with phospho-specific antibodies. In addition, ZAS induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of the SHC proteins and their association with GRB2, suggesting a role for this complex in the activation of the ERK pathway. Addition of extracellular catalase during ZAS stimulation significantly reduced the tyrosine phosphorylation response and the activation of ERK1 and ERK2 and their activator MEK1/2 while it did not affect that of p38 MAPK and MKK3/MKK6. Superoxide dismutase marginally increased the response to ZAS, supporting a role for hydrogen peroxide. In contrast to the results with AM, stimulation of human neutrophils with ZAS in the presence of catalase minimally altered the activation of ERK1 and ERK2. These data show that, in ZAS-stimulated rat AM, activation of the respiratory burst and production of hydrogen peroxide via superoxide dismutation are largely responsible for the activation of the ERK pathway through an upstream target.

  17. Nuclear factor-κ B inducing kinase is required for graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Valdepeñas, Carmen; Casanova, Lucía; Colmenero, Isabel; Arriero, Mar; González, África; Lozano, Nieves; González-Vicent, Marta; Díaz, Miguel A.; Madero, Luís; Fresno, Manuel; Ramírez, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Background Donor T lymphocytes are directly responsible for graft-versus-host disease. Molecules important in T-cell function may, therefore, be appropriate targets for graft-versus-host disease therapy and/or prophylaxis. Here we analyzed whether nuclear factor-κ B inducing kinase might have a role in graft-versus-host disease. Design and Methods We studied the expression of nuclear factor-κ B inducing kinase in human samples from patients with graft-versus-host disease. We also explored the effect of nuclear factor-κ B inducing kinase in a murine model of graft-versus-host disease using donor cells from aly/aly mice (deficient in nuclear factor-κ B inducing kinase) and C57BL/6 mice (control). Results We detected expression of nuclear factor-κ B inducing kinase in T-lymphocytes in the pathological lesions of patients with acute graft-versus-host disease. Mice transplanted with aly/aly T lymphocytes did not develop graft-versus-host disease at all, while mice receiving C57BL/6 cells died of a lethal form of the disease. Deficiency of nuclear factor-κ B inducing kinase did not affect the engrafting ability of donor T cells, but severely impaired their expansion capacity early after transplantation, and aly/aly T cells showed a higher proportion of apoptosis than did C57BL/6 T cells. Effector T lymphocytes were the T-cell subset most affected by nuclear factor-κ B inducing kinase deficiency. We also detected lower amounts of inflammatory cytokines in the serum of mice receiving aly/aly T cells than in the serum of mice receiving C57BL/6 T cells. Conclusions Our results show that nuclear factor-κ B inducing kinase has a role in graft-versus-host disease by maintaining the viability of activated alloreactive T lymphocytes. PMID:20823135

  18. LRRK2 enhances oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity via its kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Heo, Hye Young; Park, Ji-Min; Kim, Cy-Hyun; Han, Baek Soo; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Seol, Wongi

    2010-02-15

    LRRK2 is an autosomal dominant gene whose mutations cause familial Parkinson's disease (PD). The LRRK2 protein contains a functional kinase and a GTPase domain. PD phenotypes caused by LRRK2 mutations are similar to those of idiopathic PD, implying that LRRK2 is an important participant in PD pathogenesis. Of LRRK2's PD-specific mutations, the G2019S is the most frequently observed one. Its over-expression is known to increase kinase activity and neurotoxicity compared to wild type (WT) LRRK2. Here, using a simple colorimetric cell viability assay, we analyzed LRRK2's neurotoxicity in dopaminergic SN4741 cells following treatment with hydrogen peroxide. When WT, G2019S, or empty vector was expressed in SN4741 cells, cell death was modestly and significantly increased in the order of G2019S>WT>vector. When these transfected cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide to mimic oxidative stress, cellular neurotoxicity was enhanced in the same order (i.e. G2019S>WT>vector). Moreover, incubation of SN4741 cells with conditioned medium from cells expressing G2019S and subjected to hydrogen peroxide treatment exhibited 10-15% more cell death than conditioned medium from cells transfected with vector or WT, suggesting that G2019S-expressing cells secrete a factor(s) affecting viability of neighboring cells. The kinase domain was mapped to be responsible for oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity. In addition, over-expression of WT and G2019S LRRK2 lead to a weak, but significant, increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the order of G2019S>WT as measured by DCFH-DA assay in both the presence and absence of H(2)O(2) treatment. Furthermore, in G2019S-expressing cells, co-expression of the anti-oxidant protein DJ-1 or ERK inhibitor treatment restored survival rate to a level similar to that of cells transfected with control vector under H(2)O(2) treatment. Taken together, our data suggest that the LRRK2 kinase domain increases the generation of ROS and causes

  19. Open Stomata 1 Kinase is Essential for Yeast Elicitor-Induced Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wenxiu; Adachi, Yuji; Munemasa, Shintaro; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    We recently demonstrated that yeast elicitor (YEL)-induced stomatal closure requires a Ca(2+)-dependent kinase, CPK6. A Ca(2+)-independent kinase, Open Stomata 1 (OST1), is involved in stomatal closure induced by various stimuli including ABA. In the present study, we investigated the role of OST1 in YEL-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis using a knock-out mutant, ost1-3, and a kinase-deficient mutant, ost1-2. YEL did not induce stomatal closure or activation of guard cell S-type anion channels in the ost1 mutants unlike in wild-type plants. However, YEL did not increase OST1 kinase activity in wild-type guard cells. The YEL-induced stomatal closure and activation of S-type anion channels were also impaired in a gain-of-function mutant of a clade A type 2C protein phosphatase (ABA INSENSITIVE 1), abi1-1C. In the ost1 mutants like in the wild type, YEL induced H2O2 accumulation, activation of non-selective Ca(2+)-permeable cation (ICa) channels and transient elevations in cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) in guard cells. These results suggest that OST1 kinase is essential for stomatal closure and activation of S-type anion channels induced by YEL and that OST1 is not involved in H2O2 accumulation, ICa channel activation or [Ca(2+)]cyt elevations in guard cells induced by YEL.

  20. Acetylcholine stimulates cortical precursor cell proliferation in vitro via muscarinic receptor activation and MAP kinase phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ma, W; Maric, D; Li, B S; Hu, Q; Andreadis, J D; Grant, G M; Liu, Q Y; Shaffer, K M; Chang, Y H; Zhang, L; Pancrazio, J J; Pant, H C; Stenger, D A; Barker, J L

    2000-04-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that some neurotransmitters act as growth-regulatory signals during brain development. Here we report a role for the classical neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) to stimulate proliferation of neural stem cells and stem cell-derived progenitor cells during neural cell lineage progression in vitro. Neuroepithelial cells in the ventricular zone of the embryonic rat cortex were found to express the m2 subtype of the muscarinic receptor. Neural precursor cells dissociated from the embryonic rat cortical neuroepithelium were expanded in culture with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed the presence of m2, m3 and m4 muscarinic receptor subtype transcripts, while immunocytochemistry demonstrated m2 protein. ACh and carbachol induced an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ and membrane currents in proliferating (BrdU+) cells, both of which were abolished by atropine. Exposure of bFGF-deprived precursor cells to muscarinic agonists not only increased both cell number and DNA synthesis, but also enhanced differentiation of neurons. These effects were blocked by atropine, indicating the involvement of muscarinic ACh receptors. The growth-stimulating effects were also antagonized by a panel of inhibitors of second messengers, including 1,2-bis-(O-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N', N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA-AM) to chelate cytosolic Ca2+, EGTA to complex extracellular Ca2+, pertussis toxin, which uncouples certain G-proteins, the protein kinase C inhibitor H7 and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor PD98059. Muscarinic agonists activated MAPK, which was significantly inhibited by atropine and the same panel of inhibitors. Thus, muscarinic receptors expressed by neural precursors transduce a growth-regulatory signal during neurogenesis via pathways involving pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins, Ca2+ signalling, protein kinase C activation, MAPK phosphorylation and DNA synthesis.

  1. Histamine activates p38 MAP kinase and alters local lamellipodia dynamics, reducing endothelial barrier integrity and eliciting central movement of actin fibers.

    PubMed

    Adderley, Shaquria P; Lawrence, Curtis; Madonia, Eyong; Olubadewo, Joseph O; Breslin, Jerome W

    2015-07-01

    The role of the actin cytoskeleton in endothelial barrier function has been debated for nearly four decades. Our previous investigation revealed spontaneous local lamellipodia in confluent endothelial monolayers that appear to increase overlap at intercellular junctions. We tested the hypothesis that the barrier-disrupting agent histamine would reduce local lamellipodia protrusions and investigated the potential involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and actin stress fiber formation. Confluent monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) expressing green fluorescent protein-actin were studied using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. The protrusion and withdrawal characteristics of local lamellipodia were assessed before and after addition of histamine. Changes in barrier function were determined using electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing. Histamine initially decreased barrier function, lamellipodia protrusion frequency, and lamellipodia protrusion distance. A longer time for lamellipodia withdrawal and reduced withdrawal distance and velocity accompanied barrier recovery. After barrier recovery, a significant number of cortical fibers migrated centrally, eventually resembling actin stress fibers. The p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580 attenuated the histamine-induced decreases in barrier function and lamellipodia protrusion frequency. SB203580 also inhibited the histamine-induced decreases in withdrawal distance and velocity, and the subsequent actin fiber migration. These data suggest that histamine can reduce local lamellipodia protrusion activity through activation of p38 MAP kinase. The findings also suggest that local lamellipodia have a role in maintaining endothelial barrier integrity. Furthermore, we provide evidence that actin stress fiber formation may be a reaction to, rather than a cause of, reduced endothelial barrier integrity.

  2. Involvement of BLT1 endocytosis and Yes kinase activation in leukotriene B4-induced neutrophil degranulation.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, Eric; Thompson, Charles; Stankova, Jana; Rola-Pleszczynski, Marek

    2005-03-15

    One of the important biological activities of human neutrophils is degranulation, which can be induced by leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Here we investigated the intracellular signaling events involved in neutrophil degranulation mediated by the high affinity LTB4 receptor, BLT1. Peripheral blood neutrophils as well as the promyeloid PLB-985 cell line, stably transfected with BLT1 cDNA and differentiated into a neutrophil-like cell phenotype, were used throughout this study. LTB4-induced enzyme release was inhibited by 50-80% when cells were pretreated with the pharmacological inhibitors of endocytosis sucrose, Con A and NH4Cl. In addition, transient transfection with a dominant negative form of dynamin (K44A) resulted in approximately 70% inhibition of ligand-induced degranulation. Pretreating neutrophils or BLT1-expressing PLB-985 cells with the Src family kinase inhibitor PP1 resulted in a 30-60% inhibition in BLT1-mediated degranulation. Yes kinase, but not c-Src, Fgr, Hck, or Lyn, was found to exhibit up-regulated kinase activity after LTB4 stimulation. Moreover, BLT1 endocytosis was found to be necessary for Yes kinase activation in neutrophils. LTB4-induced degranulation was also sensitive to inhibition of PI3K. In contrast, it was not affected by inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase MEK kinase, the Janus kinases, or the receptor tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor or platelet-derived growth factor receptor. Taken together, our results suggest an essential role for BLT1 endocytosis and Yes kinase activation in LTB4-mediated degranulation of human neutrophils.

  3. A novel mechanism of FSH regulation of DNA synthesis in the granulosa cells of hamster preantral follicles. Involvement of a protein kinase C mediated MAP kinase 3/1 self- activation loop

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peixin; Roy, Shyamal K.

    2006-01-01

    Summary FSH- or EGF-induced granulosa cell proliferation in intact preantral follicles depends on a novel PKC-mediated MAPK3/1 self-activation loop. The objective was to reveal whether a PKC-mediated self-sustaining MAPK3/1 activation loop was necessary for FSH- or EGF-induced DNA synthesis in the granulosa cells of intact preantral follicles. For this purpose, hamster preantral follicles were cultured with FSH or EGF in the presence of selective kinase inhibitors. FSH or EGF phosphorylated RAF1, MAP2K1 and MAPK3/1. However, relatively higher dose of EGF was necessary to sustain the MAPK3/1 activity, which was essential for CDK4 activation and DNA synthesis. In intact preantral follicles, FSH or EGF stimulated DNA synthesis only in the granulosa cells. Sustained activation of MAPK3/1 beyond 3h was independent of EGFR kinase activity, but dependent on PKC activity, which appeared to form a self-sustaining MAPK3/1 activation loop by activating RAF1, MAP2K1 and PLA2G4. Inhibition of PKC activity as late as 4h after the administration of FSH or EGF arrested DNA synthesis, which corresponded with attenuated phosphorylation of RAF1 and MAPK3/1, thus suggesting an essential role of PKC in MAPK3/1 activation. Collectively, these data present a novel self-sustaining mechanism comprised of MAPK3/1, PLA2G4, PKC and RAF1 for CDK4 activation leading to DNA synthesis in granulosa cells. Either FSH or EGF can activate the loop to activate CDK4 and initiate DNA synthesis; however, consistent with our previous findings, FSH effect seems to be mediated by EGF, which initiates the event by stimulating EGFR kinase. PMID:16525034

  4. Irciniastatin A induces potent and sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and thereby promotes ectodomain shedding of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in human lung carcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Quach, Hue Tu; Hirano, Seiya; Fukuhara, Sayuri; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Kanoh, Naoki; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu; Usui, Takeo; Kataoka, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Irciniastatin A is a pederin-type marine product that potently inhibits translation. We have recently shown that irciniastatin A induces ectodomain shedding of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1 with slower kinetics than other translation inhibitors. In human lung carcinoma A549 cells, irciniastatin A induced a marked and sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and induced little activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Moreover, the TNF receptor 1 shedding induced by irciniastatin A was blocked by the MAP kinase/ERK kinase inhibitor U0126, but not by the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580 or the JNK inhibitor SP600125. Thus unlike other translation inhibitors that trigger ribotoxic stress response, our results show that irciniastatin A is a unique translation inhibitor that induces a potent and sustained activation of the ERK pathway, and thereby promotes the ectodomain shedding of TNF receptor 1 in A549 cells.

  5. Effects of PU.1-induced mouse calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase I-like kinase (CKLiK) on apoptosis of murine erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Satoh, Hitoshi; Kihara-Negishi, Fumiko; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Oikawa, Tsuneyuki

    2004-03-10

    PU.1, a hematopoietic cell-specific Ets family transcription factor, is involved in the generation of murine erythroleukemia (MEL). To identify the target gene(s) of PU.1 in MEL cells, we carried out differential display (DD) analysis and isolated a novel gene whose expression was up-regulated after overexpression of PU.1 in MEL cells. Because the gene exhibited about 90% homology with the human calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase I-like kinase (CKLiK) gene, it was identified as a mouse homologue of human CKLiK. The mCKLiK gene was mapped to the mouse chromosome 2A1-A3 region and shown to be expressed predominantly in T cells lymphoma and embryonal carcinoma cell lines and primary thymus and brain. Two types of transcripts were present showing a difference in the 3' portion of the coding region and CREB-activating ability. Overexpression of each isoform of mCKLiK in MEL cells revealed that one of them induces, while the other inhibits apoptosis under low serum condition. Differentiation inhibition and lineage switch to myelomonocytes, which were previously observed in MEL cells overexpressing PU.1, were not provoked in the cells overexpressing mCKLiK. These results suggest that mCKLiK is up-regulated by PU.1 in MEL cells and involved in apoptosis of the cells.

  6. Sevoflurane Stimulates MAP Kinase Signal transduction through the Activation of PKC α and βII in Fetal Rat Cerebral Cortex Cultured Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Jun; Takekoshi, Susumu; Nagata, Hidetaka; Osamura, R. Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Toshiyasu

    2006-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a key enzyme that participates in various neuronal functions. PKC has also been identified as a target molecule for general anesthetic actions. Raf, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) have been thought to be target effectors of PKC. In the present study, we attempted to evaluate the effect of sevoflurane on PKC/MAPK cascade signaling in cultured fetal rat cerebral ­cortex neurons, prepared from embryonic day 18 fetuses. The effects of sevoflurane on the translocation of 7 PKC isoforms (α, βI, βII, γ, δ, ɛ and ζ) were observed by immunoblotting using isoform-selective antibodies to PKCs. The treatment of neurons with sevoflurane induced the translocation of PKC α and PKC βII species from the cytosol to the membrane fraction, which indicated the activation of these PKC isoforms. In contrast, there was no clear change in the distribution of other PKC isoforms. We next examined whether the specific activation of PKC α and βII by sevoflurane could stimulate the MAP kinase signaling pathway in cultured neurons. Raf phosphorylation was increased by the administration of 0.25 mM sevoflurane. The phosphorylation of Raf proteins reached a maximum at 5–10 min. Subsequently, the phosphorylation of MEK proteins was increased at 10–15 min after sevoflurane treatments. That of ERK proteins was induced at 15–60 min. Moreover, the phosphorylation of ERK induced by sevoflurane was significantly decreased by the treatment of PKC inhibitor (staurosporine) and MEK inhibitor (PD98059). On the other hand, the contents of total Raf, MEK and ERK proteins were relatively constant at all times examined. To examine the ­localization of phosphorylated-ERK protein, immunohistochemical staining of sevoflurane-treated cultured neurons was performed. The phosphorylated-ERK proteins were markedly accumulated in both the cytosol of the cell body and the neurites in the neuronal cells with time after 0

  7. PfIRR Interacts with HrIGF-I and Activates the MAP-kinase and PI3-kinase Signaling Pathways to Regulate Glycogen Metabolism in Pinctada fucata

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yu; He, Mao-xian

    2016-01-01

    The insulin-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways are major intracellular signaling modules and conserved among eukaryotes that are known to regulate diverse cellular processes. However, they have not been investigated in the mollusk species Pinctada fucata. Here, we demonstrate that insulin-related peptide receptor of P. fucata (pfIRR) interacts with human recombinant insulin-like growth factor I (hrIGF-I), and stimulates the MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways in P. fucata oocytes. We also show that inhibition of pfIRR by the inhibitor PQ401 significantly attenuates the basal and hrIGF-I-induced phosphorylation of MAPK and PI3K/Akt at amino acid residues threonine 308 and serine 473. Furthermore, our experiments show that there is cross-talk between the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways, in which MAPK kinase positively regulates the PI3K pathway, and PI3K positively regulates the MAPK cascade. Intramuscular injection of hrIGF-I stimulates the PI3K and MAPK pathways to increase the expression of pfirr, protein phosphatase 1, glucokinase, and the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase, decreases the mRNA expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta, decreases glucose levels in hemocytes, and increases glycogen levels in digestive glands. These results suggest that the MAPK and PI3K pathways in P. fucata transmit the hrIGF-I signal to regulate glycogen metabolism. PMID:26911653

  8. ERK1 and ERK2 Map Kinases: Specific Roles or Functional Redundancy?

    PubMed Central

    Buscà, Roser; Pouysségur, Jacques; Lenormand, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The MAP kinase signaling cascade Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK has been involved in a large variety of cellular and physiological processes that are crucial for life. Many pathological situations have been associated to this pathway. More than one isoform has been described at each level of the cascade. In this review we devoted our attention to ERK1 and ERK2, which are the effector kinases of the pathway. Whether ERK1 and ERK2 specify functional differences or are in contrast functionally redundant, constitutes an ongoing debate despite the huge amount of studies performed to date. In this review we compiled data on ERK1 vs. ERK2 gene structures, protein sequences, expression levels, structural and molecular mechanisms of activation and substrate recognition. We have also attempted to perform a rigorous analysis of studies regarding the individual roles of ERK1 and ERK2 by the means of morpholinos, siRNA, and shRNA silencing as well as gene disruption or gene replacement in mice. Finally, we comment on a recent study of gene and protein evolution of ERK isoforms as a distinct approach to address the same question. Our review permits the evaluation of the relevance of published studies in the field especially when measurements of global ERK activation are taken into account. Our analysis favors the hypothesis of ERK1 and ERK2 exhibiting functional redundancy and points to the concept of the global ERK quantity, and not isoform specificity, as being the essential determinant to achieve ERK function. PMID:27376062

  9. High density lipoproteins induce cell cycle entry in vascular smooth muscle cells via mitogen activated protein kinase-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Nofer, J R; Junker, R; Pulawski, E; Fobker, M; Levkau, B; von Eckardstein, A; Seedorf, U; Assmann, G; Walter, M

    2001-04-01

    In this study we found that HDL acts as a potent and specific mitogen in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) by stimulating entry into S-phase and DNA synthesis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, induction of cyclins D1, E, and A, as well as activation of cyclin D-dependent kinases as inferred from phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). Moreover, HDL induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway including Raf-, MEK-1, and ERK1/2, as well as the expression of proto-oncogen c-fos, which is controlled by ERK1/2. PD98059, an inhibitor of MEK-1 blocked the mitogenic activity of HDL and cyclin D1 expression. HDL-induced VSMC proliferation, cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 expression, and activation of the Raf-1/MEK-1/ERK1/2 cascade were blocked by preincubation of cells with pertussis toxin indicating involvement of trimeric G-protein. By contrast, none of these responses was inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor, GF109203X. The mitogenic effects of native HDL were not mimicked by apo A-I, reconstituted HDL containing apo A-I, or cholesterol-containing liposomes. In conclusion, HDL possesses an intrinsic property to induce G-protein- and MAP-kinase-dependent proliferation and cell cycle progression in VSMC. The strong and specific mitogenic effect of HDL should be taken into account, when therapeutic strategies to elevate the plasma level of these lipoproteins are developed.

  10. MAP kinase-signaling controls nuclear translocation of tripeptidyl-peptidase II in response to DNA damage and oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Preta, Giulio; Klark, Rainier de; Chakraborti, Shankhamala; Glas, Rickard

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} Nuclear translocation of TPPII occurs in response to different DNA damage inducers. {yields} Nuclear accumulation of TPPII is linked to ROS and anti-oxidant enzyme levels. {yields} MAPKs control nuclear accumulation of TPPII. {yields} Inhibited nuclear accumulation of TPPII decreases DNA damage-induced {gamma}-H2AX expression. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a continuous hazard in eukaroytic cells by their ability to cause damage to biomolecules, in particular to DNA. Previous data indicated that the cytosolic serine peptidase tripeptidyl-peptidase II (TPPII) translocates into the nucleus of most tumor cell lines in response to {gamma}-irradiation and ROS production; an event that promoted p53 expression as well as caspase-activation. We here observed that nuclear translocation of TPPII was dependent on signaling by MAP kinases, including p38MAPK. Further, this was caused by several types of DNA-damaging drugs, a DNA cross-linker (cisplatinum), an inhibitor of topoisomerase II (etoposide), and to some extent also by nucleoside-analogues (5-fluorouracil, hydroxyurea). In the minority of tumor cell lines where TPPII was not translocated into the nucleus in response to DNA damage we observed reduced intracellular ROS levels, and the expression levels of redox defense systems were increased. Further, treatment with the ROS-inducer {gamma}-hexa-chloro-cyclohexane ({gamma}-HCH, lindane), an inhibitor of GAP junctions, restored nuclear translocation of TPPII in these cell lines upon {gamma}-irradiation. Moreover, blocking nuclear translocation of TPPII in etoposide-treated cells, by using a peptide-derived inhibitor (Z-Gly-Leu-Ala-OH), attenuated expression of {gamma}-H2AX in {gamma}-irradiated melanoma cells. Our results indicated a role for TPPII in MAPK-dependent DNA damage signaling.

  11. β-Adrenergic stimulation activates protein kinase Cε and induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Cai, Hongyan; Liu, Hua; Guo, Tao

    2015-06-01

    The cardiac adrenergic signaling pathway is important in the induction of cardiac hypertrophy. The cardiac adrenergic pathway involves two main branches, phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) and the adenylate cyclase (cAMPase)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathways. It is hypothesized that PLC/PKC and cAMPase/PKA are activated by the α‑adrenergic receptor (αAR) and the β‑adrenergic receptor (βAR), respectively. Previous studies have demonstrated that exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), a guanine exchange factor, activates phospholipase Cε. It is possible that there are βAR‑activated PKC pathways mediated by Epac and PLC. In the present study, the role of Epac and PLC in βAR activated PKC pathways in cardiomyocytes was investigated. It was found that PKCε activation and translocation were induced by the βAR agonist, isoproterenol (Iso). Epac agonist 8‑CPT‑2'OMe‑cAMP also enhanced PKCε activation. βAR stimulation activated PKCε in the cardiomyocytes and was regulated by Epac. Iso‑induced change in PKCε was not affected in the cardiomyocytes, which were infected with adenovirus coding rabbit muscle cAMP‑dependent protein kinase inhibitor. However, Iso‑induced PKCε activation was inhibited by the PLC inhibitor, U73122. The results suggested that Iso‑induced PKCε activation was independent of PKA, but was regulated by PLC. To further investigate the downstream signal target of PKCε activation, the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (pERK)1/2 and the levels of ERK phosphorylation was analyzed. The results revealed that Iso‑induced PKCε activation led to an increase in the expression of pERK1/2. ERK phosphorylation was inhibited by the PKCε inhibitor peptide. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the βAR is able to activate PKCε dependent on Epac and PLC, but independent of PKA.

  12. Histone Hyperacetylation Up-regulates Protein Kinase Cδ in Dopaminergic Neurons to Induce Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Harischandra, Dilshan S.; Kondru, Naveen; Ghosh, Anamitra; Panicker, Nikhil; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Rana, Ajay; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative stress-sensitive protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) has been implicated in dopaminergic neuronal cell death. However, little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms regulating PKCδ expression in neurons. Here, we report a novel mechanism by which the PKCδ gene can be regulated by histone acetylation. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaBu) induced PKCδ expression in cultured neurons, brain slices, and animal models. Several other HDAC inhibitors also mimicked NaBu. The chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that hyperacetylation of histone H4 by NaBu is associated with the PKCδ promoter. Deletion analysis of the PKCδ promoter mapped the NaBu-responsive element to an 81-bp minimal promoter region. Detailed mutagenesis studies within this region revealed that four GC boxes conferred hyperacetylation-induced PKCδ promoter activation. Cotransfection experiments and Sp inhibitor studies demonstrated that Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 regulated NaBu-induced PKCδ up-regulation. However, NaBu did not alter the DNA binding activities of Sp proteins or their expression. Interestingly, a one-hybrid analysis revealed that NaBu enhanced transcriptional activity of Sp1/Sp3. Overexpression of the p300/cAMP-response element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP) potentiated the NaBu-mediated transactivation potential of Sp1/Sp3, but expressing several HDACs attenuated this effect, suggesting that p300/CBP and HDACs act as coactivators or corepressors in histone acetylation-induced PKCδ up-regulation. Finally, using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we showed that NaBu up-regulation of PKCδ sensitizes neurons to cell death in a human dopaminergic cell model and brain slice cultures. Together, these results indicate that histone acetylation regulates PKCδ expression to augment nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell death, which could contribute to the progressive neuropathogenesis of Parkinson disease. PMID:25342743

  13. Quantitative network mapping of the human kinome interactome reveals new clues for rational kinase inhibitor discovery and individualized cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Feixiong; Jia, Peilin; Wang, Quan; Zhao, Zhongming

    2014-01-01

    The human kinome is gaining importance through its promising cancer therapeutic targets, yet no general model to address the kinase inhibitor resistance has emerged. Here, we constructed a systems biology-based framework to catalogue the human kinome, including 538 kinase genes, in the broader context of the human interactome. Specifically, we constructed three networks: a kinase-substrate interaction network containing 7,346 pairs connecting 379 kinases to 36,576 phosphorylation sites in 1,961 substrates, a protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) containing 92,699 pairs, and an atomic resolution PPIN containing 4,278 pairs. We identified the conserved regulatory phosphorylation motifs (e.g., Ser/Thr-Pro) using a sequence logo analysis. We found the typical anticancer target selection strategy that uses network hubs as drug targets, might lead to a high adverse drug reaction risk. Furthermore, we found the distinct network centrality of kinases creates a high anticancer drug resistance risk by feedback or crosstalk mechanisms within cellular networks. This notion is supported by the systematic network and pathway analyses that anticancer drug resistance genes are significantly enriched as hubs and heavily participate in multiple signaling pathways. Collectively, this comprehensive human kinome interactome map sheds light on anticancer drug resistance mechanisms and provides an innovative resource for rational kinase inhibitor design. PMID:25003367

  14. Extracellular Signal-Regulated Protein Kinase, c-Jun N-terminal Protein Kinase, and Calcineurin Regulate Transient Receptor Potential M3 (TRPM3) Induced Activation of AP-1.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Andrea; Rössler, Oliver G; Thiel, Gerald

    2017-01-23

    Stimulation of transient receptor potential M3 (TRPM3) cation channels with pregnenolone sulfate induces an influx of Ca(2+) ions into the cells and a rise in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, leading to the activation of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor. Here, we show that expression of a constitutively active mutant of the Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin attenuated pregnenolone sulfate-induced AP-1 activation in TRPM3-expressing cells. Likewise, expression of the regulatory B subunit of calcineurin reduced AP-1 activity in the cells following stimulation of TRPM3 channels. MAP kinase phosphatase-1 has been shown to attenuate TRPM3-mediated AP-1 activation. Here, we show that pregnenolone sulfate-induced stimulation of TRPM3 triggers the phosphorylation and activation of the MAP kinase extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2). Pharmacological and genetic experiments revealed that stimulation of ERK1/2 is essential for the activation of AP-1 in cells expressing stimulated TRPM3 channels. ERK1/2 is required for the activation of the transcription factor c-Jun, a key component of the AP-1 transcription factor, and regulates c-Fos promoter activity. In addition, we identified c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK1/2) as a second signal transducer of activated TRPM3 channels. Together, the data show that calcineurin and the protein kinases ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 are important regulators within the signaling cascade connecting TRPM3 channel stimulation with increased AP-1-regulated transcription. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevention of neuronal apoptosis by phorbol ester-induced activation of protein kinase C: blockade of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Behrens, M M; Strasser, U; Koh, J Y; Gwag, B J; Choi, D W

    1999-01-01

    Consistent with previous studies on cell lines and non-neuronal cells, specific inhibitors of protein kinase C induced mouse primary cultured neocortical neurons to undergo apoptosis. To examine the complementary hypothesis that activating protein kinase C would attenuate neuronal apoptosis, the cultures were exposed for 1 h to phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, which activated protein kinase C as evidenced by downstream enhancement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Exposure to phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, or another active phorbol ester, phorbol-12,13-didecanoate, but not to the inactive ester, 4alpha-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate, markedly attenuated neuronal apoptosis induced by serum deprivation. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate also attenuated neuronal apoptosis induced by exposure to beta-amyloid peptide 1-42, or oxygen-glucose deprivation in the presence of glutamate receptor antagonists. The neuroprotective effects of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate were blocked by brief (non-toxic) concurrent exposure to the specific protein kinase C inhibitors, but not by a specific mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 inhibitor. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate blocked the induction of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and specific inhibition of this kinase by SB 203580 attenuated serum deprivation-induced apoptosis. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 activity was high at rest and not modified by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate treatment. These data strengthen the idea that protein kinase C is a key modulator of several forms of central neuronal apoptosis, in part acting through inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase regulated pathways.

  16. Aurora kinase inhibition induces PUMA via NF-κB to kill colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Knickelbein, Kyle; He, Kan; Chen, Dongshi; Dudgeon, Crissy; Shu, Yongqian; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Lin

    2014-05-01

    Aurora kinases play a key role in mitosis and are frequently overexpressed in a variety of tumor cells. Inhibition of aurora kinases results in mitotic arrest and death of cancer cells, and has been explored as an anticancer strategy. However, how aurora inhibition kills cancer cells is poorly understood. In this study, we found that inhibition of aurora kinases by siRNA or small-molecule inhibitors led to induction of p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), a BH3-only Bcl-2 family protein, in colorectal cancer cells irrespective of p53 status. Deficiency in PUMA increased polyploidy, improved cell survival, and abrogated mitochondria-mediated apoptosis induced by aurora kinase inhibitors. In response to aurora kinase inhibition, PUMA was directly activated by p65 through the canonical NF-κB pathway following AKT inhibition. Furthermore, PUMA was necessary for the chemosensitization and in vivo antitumor effects of aurora kinase inhibitors in colon cancer cells. These results suggest that PUMA induction mediates the apoptotic response to mitotic arrest imposed by aurora kinase inhibition, and may be a useful indicator for the anticancer activity of aurora kinase inhibitors.

  17. Analysis of the Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MAP2K4) tumor suppressor gene in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background MAP2K4 is a putative tumor and metastasis suppressor gene frequently found to be deleted in various cancer types. We aimed to conduct a comprehensive analysis of this gene to assess its involvement in ovarian cancer. Methods We screened for mutations in MAP2K4 using High Resolution Melt analysis of 149 primary ovarian tumors and methylation at the promoter using Methylation-Specific Single-Stranded Conformation Polymorphism analysis of 39 tumors. We also considered the clinical impact of changes in MAP2K4 using publicly available expression and copy number array data. Finally, we used siRNA to measure the effect of reducing MAP2K4 expression in cell lines. Results In addition to 4 previously detected homozygous deletions, we identified a homozygous 16 bp truncating deletion and a heterozygous 4 bp deletion, each in one ovarian tumor. No promoter methylation was detected. The frequency of MAP2K4 homozygous inactivation was 5.6% overall, and 9.8% in high-grade serous cases. Hemizygous deletion of MAP2K4 was observed in 38% of samples. There were significant correlations of copy number and expression in three microarray data sets. There was a significant correlation between MAP2K4 expression and overall survival in one expression array data set, but this was not confirmed in an independent set. Treatment of JAM and HOSE6.3 cell lines with MAP2K4 siRNA showed some reduction in proliferation. Conclusions MAP2K4 is targeted by genetic inactivation in ovarian cancer and restricted to high grade serous and endometrioid carcinomas in our cohort. PMID:21575258

  18. Nitric oxide affects ERK signaling through down-regulation of MAP kinase phosphatase levels during larval development of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Immacolata; Ercolesi, Elena; Palumbo, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In the ascidian Ciona intestinalis larval development and metamorphosis require a complex interplay of events, including nitric oxide (NO) production, MAP kinases (ERK, JNK) and caspase-3 activation. We have previously shown that NO levels affect the rate of metamorphosis, regulate caspase activity and promote an oxidative stress pathway, resulting in protein nitration. Here, we report that NO down-regulates MAP kinase phosphatases (mkps) expression affecting positively ERK signaling. By pharmacological approach, we observed that the reduction of endogenous NO levels caused a decrease of ERK phosphorylation, whereas increasing levels of NO induced ERK activation. We have also identified the ERK gene network affected by NO, including mpk1, mpk3 and some key developmental genes by quantitative gene expression analysis. We demonstrate that NO induces an ERK-independent down-regulation of mkp1 and mkp3, responsible for maintaining the ERK phosphorylation levels necessary for transcription of key metamorphic genes, such as the hormone receptor rev-erb and the van willebrand protein vwa1c. These results add new insights into the role played by NO during larval development and metamorphosis in Ciona, highlighting the cross-talk between different signaling pathways.

  19. Regulation of DNA damage-induced apoptosis by the c-Abl tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhi-Min; Huang, Yinyin; Ishiko, Takatoshi; Kharbanda, Surender; Weichselbaum, Ralph; Kufe, Donald

    1997-01-01

    Activation of the c-Abl protein tyrosine kinase by certain DNA-damaging agents contributes to down-regulation of Cdk2 and G1 arrest by a p53-dependent mechanism. The present work investigates the potential role of c-Abl in apoptosis induced by DNA damage. Transient transfection studies with wild-type, but not kinase-inactive, c-Abl demonstrate induction of apoptosis. Cells that stably express inactive c-Abl exhibit resistance to ionizing radiation-induced loss of clonogenic survival and apoptosis. Cells null for c-abl are also impaired in the apoptotic response to ionizing radiation. We further show that cells deficient in p53 undergo apoptosis in response to expression of c-Abl and exhibit decreases in radiation-induced apoptosis when expressing inactive c-Abl. These findings suggest that c-Abl kinase regulates DNA damage-induced apoptosis. PMID:9037071

  20. Phosphorylation of MAP65-1 by Arabidopsis Aurora Kinases Is Required for Efficient Cell Cycle Progression1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, Annika K.; Stoppin-Mellet, Virginie; Kosetsu, Ken; Cedeño, Cesyen; Jaquinod, Michel; Njo, Maria; De Milde, Liesbeth; Tompa, Peter; Inzé, Dirk; Beeckman, Tom; Vantard, Marylin

    2017-01-01

    Aurora kinases are key effectors of mitosis. Plant Auroras are functionally divided into two clades. The alpha Auroras (Aurora1 and Aurora2) associate with the spindle and the cell plate and are implicated in controlling formative divisions throughout plant development. The beta Aurora (Aurora3) localizes to centromeres and likely functions in chromosome separation. In contrast to the wealth of data available on the role of Aurora in other kingdoms, knowledge on their function in plants is merely emerging. This is exemplified by the fact that only histone H3 and the plant homolog of TPX2 have been identified as Aurora substrates in plants. Here we provide biochemical, genetic, and cell biological evidence that the microtubule-bundling protein MAP65-1—a member of the MAP65/Ase1/PRC1 protein family, implicated in central spindle formation and cytokinesis in animals, yeasts, and plants—is a genuine substrate of alpha Aurora kinases. MAP65-1 interacts with Aurora1 in vivo and is phosphorylated on two residues at its unfolded tail domain. Its overexpression and down-regulation antagonistically affect the alpha Aurora double mutant phenotypes. Phospho-mutant analysis shows that Aurora contributes to the microtubule bundling capacity of MAP65-1 in concert with other mitotic kinases. PMID:27879390

  1. Phosphorylation of MAP65-1 by Arabidopsis Aurora Kinases Is Required for Efficient Cell Cycle Progression.

    PubMed

    Boruc, Joanna; Weimer, Annika K; Stoppin-Mellet, Virginie; Mylle, Evelien; Kosetsu, Ken; Cedeño, Cesyen; Jaquinod, Michel; Njo, Maria; De Milde, Liesbeth; Tompa, Peter; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Inzé, Dirk; Beeckman, Tom; Vantard, Marylin; Van Damme, Daniël

    2017-01-01

    Aurora kinases are key effectors of mitosis. Plant Auroras are functionally divided into two clades. The alpha Auroras (Aurora1 and Aurora2) associate with the spindle and the cell plate and are implicated in controlling formative divisions throughout plant development. The beta Aurora (Aurora3) localizes to centromeres and likely functions in chromosome separation. In contrast to the wealth of data available on the role of Aurora in other kingdoms, knowledge on their function in plants is merely emerging. This is exemplified by the fact that only histone H3 and the plant homolog of TPX2 have been identified as Aurora substrates in plants. Here we provide biochemical, genetic, and cell biological evidence that the microtubule-bundling protein MAP65-1-a member of the MAP65/Ase1/PRC1 protein family, implicated in central spindle formation and cytokinesis in animals, yeasts, and plants-is a genuine substrate of alpha Aurora kinases. MAP65-1 interacts with Aurora1 in vivo and is phosphorylated on two residues at its unfolded tail domain. Its overexpression and down-regulation antagonistically affect the alpha Aurora double mutant phenotypes. Phospho-mutant analysis shows that Aurora contributes to the microtubule bundling capacity of MAP65-1 in concert with other mitotic kinases.

  2. Potentiation of Mitogenic Activity of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor by Physiological Concentrations of Insulin via the MAP Kinase Cascade in Rat A10 Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hitomi; Murakami, Hitomi; Uchigata, Yasuko; Iwamoto, Yasuhiko

    2002-01-01

    Hyperinsulinemia has been shown to be associated with diabetic angiopathy. Migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are the processes required for the development of atherosclerosis. In this study, we attempted to determine whether insulin affects mitogenic signaling induced by plateletderived growth factor (PDGF) in a rat VSMC cell line (A10 cells). PDGF stimulated DNA synthesis which was totally dependent on Ras, because transfection of dominant negative Ras resulted in complete loss of PDGF-stimulated DNA synthesis. Initiation of DNA synthesis was preceded by activation of Raf-1, MEK and MAP kinases (Erk 1 and Erk2). Treatment of the cells with PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK kinase (MEK) attenuated but did not abolish PDGF-stimulated DNA synthesis, suggesting that MAPK is required but not essential for DNA synthesis. PDGF also stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) and p70 S6Kinase (p70S6K) in a wortmannin-sensitive manner. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of p70S6K, markedly suppressed DNA synthesis. Low concentrations of insulin (1-10 nmol/l) alone showed little mitogenic activity and no significant effect on MAPK activity. However, the presence of insulin enhanced both DNA synthesis and MAPK activation by PDGF. The enhancing effect of insulin was not seen in cells treated with PD98059. Insulin was without effect on PDGF-stimulated activations of protein kinase B (Akt/PKB) and p70S6K. We conclude that insulin, at pathophysiologically relevant concentrations, potentiates the PDGFstimulated DNA synthesis, at least in part, by potentiating activation of the MAPK cascade. These results are consistent with the notion that hyperinsulinemia is a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:11991199

  3. Genetic variation in insulin-induced kinase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Isabel Xiaorong; Ramrattan, Girish; Cheung, Vivian G

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in sensitivity to insulin contribute to disease susceptibility including diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Cellular responses to insulin are well studied. However, which steps in these response pathways differ across individuals remains largely unknown. Such knowledge is needed to guide more precise therapeutic interventions. Here, we studied insulin response and found extensive individual variation in the activation of key signaling factors, including ERK whose induction differs by more than 20-fold among our subjects. This variation in kinase activity is propagated to differences in downstream gene expression response to insulin. By genetic analysis, we identified cis-acting DNA variants that influence signaling response, which in turn affects downstream changes in gene expression and cellular phenotypes, such as protein translation and cell proliferation. These findings show that polymorphic differences in signal transduction contribute to individual variation in insulin response, and suggest kinase modulators as promising therapeutics for diseases characterized by insulin resistance. PMID:26202599

  4. An interaction map of small-molecule kinase inhibitors with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutants in ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ai, Xinghao; Shen, Shengping; Shen, Lan; Lu, Shun

    2015-05-01

    Human anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) has become a well-established target for the treatment of ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, we have profiled seven small-molecule inhibitors, including 2 that are approved drugs, against a panel of clinically relevant mutations in ALK tyrosine kinase (TK) domain, aiming at a comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanism and biological implication underlying inhibitor response to ALK TK mutation. We find that (i) the gatekeeper mutation L1196M causes crizotinib resistance by simultaneously increasing and decreasing the binding affinities of, respectively, ATP and inhibitor to ALK, whereas the secondary mutation C1156Y, which is located far away from the ATP-binding site of ALK TK domain, causes the resistance by inducing marked allosteric effect on the site, (ii) the 2nd and 3rd generation kinase inhibitors exhibit relatively high sensitivity towards ALK mutants as compared to 1st generation inhibitors, (iii) the pan-kinase inhibitor staurosporine is insensitive for most mutations due to its high structural compatibility, and (iv) ATP affinity to ALK is generally reduced upon most clinically relevant mutations. Furthermore, we also identify six novel mutation-inhibitor pairs that are potentially associated with drug resistance. In addition, the G1202R and C1156Y mutations are expected to generally cause resistance for many existing inhibitors, since they can address significant effect on the geometric shape and physicochemical property of ALK active pocket.

  5. Regulation of the wheat MAP kinase phosphatase 1 by 14-3-3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel, Mouna; Cotelle, Valérie; Ebel, Chantal; Zaidi, Ikram; Ormancey, Mélanie; Galaud, Jean-Philippe; Hanin, Moez

    2017-04-01

    Plant MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs) are major regulators of MAPK signaling pathways and play crucial roles in controlling growth, development and stress responses. The presence of several functional domains in plant MKPs such as a dual specificity phosphatase catalytic domain, gelsolin, calmodulin-binding and serine-rich domains, suggests that MKPs can interact with distinct cellular partners, others than MAPKs. In this report, we identified a canonical mode I 14-3-3-binding motif (574KLPSLP579) located at the carboxy-terminal region of the wheat MKP, TMKP1. We found that this motif is well-conserved among other MKPs from monocots including Hordeum vulgare, Brachypodium distachyon and Aegilops taushii. Using co-immunoprecipitation assays, we provide evidence for interaction between TMKP1 and 14-3-3 proteins in wheat. Moreover, the phosphatase activity of TMKP1 is increased in a phospho-dependent manner by either Arabidopsis or yeast 14-3-3 isoforms. TMKP1 activation by 14-3-3 proteins is enhanced by Mn(2+), whereas in the presence of Ca(2+) ions, TMKP1 activation was limited to Arabidopsis 14-3-3φ (phi), an isoform harboring an EF-hand motif. Such findings strongly suggest that 14-3-3 proteins, in conjunction with specific divalent cations, may stimulate TMKP1 activity and point-out that 14-3-3 proteins bind and regulate the activity of a MKP in eukaryotes.

  6. A novel function for the MAP kinase SMA-5 in intestinal tube stability.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Florian; Gerhardus, Harald; Carberry, Katrin; Davis, Wayne; Jorgensen, Erik; Richardson, Christine; Bossinger, Olaf; Leube, Rudolf E

    2016-12-01

    Intermediate filaments are major cytoskeletal components whose assembly into complex networks and isotype-specific functions are still largely unknown. Caenorhabditis elegans provides an excellent model system to study intermediate filament organization and function in vivo. Its intestinal intermediate filaments localize exclusively to the endotube, a circumferential sheet just below the actin-based terminal web. A genetic screen for defects in the organization of intermediate filaments identified a mutation in the catalytic domain of the MAP kinase 7 orthologue sma-5(kc1) In sma-5(kc1) mutants, pockets of lumen penetrate the cytoplasm of the intestinal cells. These membrane hernias increase over time without affecting epithelial integrity and polarity. A more pronounced phenotype was observed in the deletion allele sma-5(n678) and in intestine-specific sma-5(RNAi) Besides reduced body length, an increased time of development, reduced brood size, and reduced life span were observed in the mutants, indicating compromised food uptake. Ultrastructural analyses revealed that the luminal pockets include the subapical cytoskeleton and coincide with local thinning and gaps in the endotube that are often enlarged in other regions. Increased intermediate filament phosphorylation was detected by two-dimensional immunoblotting, suggesting that loss of SMA-5 function leads to reduced intestinal tube stability due to altered intermediate filament network phosphorylation.

  7. A novel function for the MAP kinase SMA-5 in intestinal tube stability

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Florian; Gerhardus, Harald; Carberry, Katrin; Davis, Wayne; Jorgensen, Erik; Richardson, Christine; Bossinger, Olaf; Leube, Rudolf E.

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate filaments are major cytoskeletal components whose assembly into complex networks and isotype-specific functions are still largely unknown. Caenorhabditis elegans provides an excellent model system to study intermediate filament organization and function in vivo. Its intestinal intermediate filaments localize exclusively to the endotube, a circumferential sheet just below the actin-based terminal web. A genetic screen for defects in the organization of intermediate filaments identified a mutation in the catalytic domain of the MAP kinase 7 orthologue sma-5(kc1). In sma-5(kc1) mutants, pockets of lumen penetrate the cytoplasm of the intestinal cells. These membrane hernias increase over time without affecting epithelial integrity and polarity. A more pronounced phenotype was observed in the deletion allele sma-5(n678) and in intestine-specific sma-5(RNAi). Besides reduced body length, an increased time of development, reduced brood size, and reduced life span were observed in the mutants, indicating compromised food uptake. Ultrastructural analyses revealed that the luminal pockets include the subapical cytoskeleton and coincide with local thinning and gaps in the endotube that are often enlarged in other regions. Increased intermediate filament phosphorylation was detected by two-dimensional immunoblotting, suggesting that loss of SMA-5 function leads to reduced intestinal tube stability due to altered intermediate filament network phosphorylation. PMID:27733627

  8. 2′,5′-Dihydroxychalcone-induced glutathione is mediated by oxidative stress and kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kachadourian, Remy; Pugazhenthi, Subbiah; Velmurugan, Kalpana; Backos, Donald S.; Franklin, Christopher C.; McCord, Joe M.; Day, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxychalcones are naturally occurring compounds that continue to attract considerable interest due to their anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties. They have been reported to inhibit the synthesis of the inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase and to induce the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This study examines the mechanisms by which 2′,5′-dihydroxychalcone (2′,5′-DHC) induces an increase in cellular glutathione (GSH) levels using a cell line stably expressing a luciferase reporter gene driven by antioxidant response elements (MCF-7/AREc32). 2′,5′-DHC-induced increase in cellular GSH levels was partially inhibited by the catalytic antioxidant MnTDE-1,3-IP5+, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate the antioxidant adaptive response. 2′,5′-DHC treatment induced the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway that was also inhibited by MnTDE-1,3-IP5+. These findings suggest a ROS-dependent activation of the AP-1 transcriptional response. However, while 2′,5′-DHC triggered the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) transcriptional response, co-treatment with MnTDE-1,3-IP5+ did not decrease 2′,5′-DHC-induced Nrf2/ARE activity, showing that this pathway is not dependent on ROS. Moreover, pharmacological inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways showed a role for JNK and p38MAPK in mediating the 2′,5′-DHC-induced Nrf2 response. These findings suggest that the 2′,5′-DHC-induced increase in GSH levels results from a combination of ROS-dependent and ROS-independent pathways. PMID:21712085

  9. Mitochondrial DNA is released by shock and activates neutrophils via p38 map kinase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Itagaki, Kiyoshi; Hauser, Carl J

    2010-07-01

    Bacterial DNA (bDNA) can activate an innate-immune stimulatory "danger" response via toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is unique among endogenous molecules in that mitochondria evolved from prokaryotic ancestors. Thus, mtDNA retains molecular motifs similar to bDNA. It is unknown, however, whether mtDNA is released by shock or is capable of eliciting immune responses like bDNA. We hypothesized shock-injured tissues might release mtDNA and that mtDNA might act as a danger-associated molecular pattern (or "alarmin") that can activate neutrophils (PMNs) and contribute to systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Standardized trauma/hemorrhagic shock caused circulation of mtDNA as well as nuclear DNA. Human PMNs were incubated in vitro with purified mtDNA or nuclear DNA, with or without pretreatment by chloroquine (an inhibitor of endosomal receptors like TLR9). Neutrophil activation was assessed as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 8 and MMP-9 release as well as p38 and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. Mitochondrial DNA induced PMN MMP-8/MMP-9 release and p38 phosphorylation but did not activate p44/42. Responses were inhibited by chloroquine. Nuclear DNA did not induce PMN activation. Intravenous injection of disrupted mitochondria (mitochondrial debris) into rats induced p38 MAPK activation and IL-6 and TNF-alpha accumulation in the liver. In summary, mtDNA is released into the circulation by shock. Mitochondrial DNA activates PMN p38 MAPK, probably via TLR9, inducing an inflammatory phenotype. Mitochondrial DNA may act as a danger-associated molecular pattern or alarmin after shock, contributing to the initiation of systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

  10. Reciprocal Regulation of Aquaporin-2 Abundance and Degradation by Protein Kinase A and p38-MAP Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Nedvetsky, Pavel I.; Tabor, Vedrana; Tamma, Grazia; Beulshausen, Sven; Skroblin, Philipp; Kirschner, Aline; Mutig, Kerim; Boltzen, Mareike; Petrucci, Oscar; Vossenkämper, Anna; Wiesner, Burkhard; Bachmann, Sebastian; Rosenthal, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) modulates the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) in the renal collecting duct to maintain homeostasis of body water. AVP binds to vasopressin V2 receptors (V2R), increasing cAMP, which promotes the redistribution of AQP2 from intracellular vesicles into the plasma membrane. cAMP also increases AQP2 transcription, but whether altered degradation also modulates AQP2 protein levels is not well understood. Here, elevation of cAMP increased AQP2 protein levels within 30 minutes in primary inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells, in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells ectopically expressing AQP2, and in mouse kidneys. Accelerated transcription or translation did not explain this increase in AQP2 abundance. In IMCD cells, cAMP inhibited p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) via activation of protein kinase A (PKA). Inhibition of p38-MAPK associated with decreased phosphorylation (serine 261) and polyubiquitination of AQP2, preventing proteasomal degradation. Our results demonstrate that AVP enhances AQP2 protein abundance by altering its proteasomal degradation through a PKA- and p38-MAPK–dependent pathway. PMID:20724536

  11. Context Specificity of Stress-activated Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Signaling: The Story as Told by Caenorhabditis elegans*

    PubMed Central

    Andrusiak, Matthew G.; Jin, Yishi

    2016-01-01

    Stress-associated p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling cascades trigger specific cellular responses and are involved in multiple disease states. At the root of MAP kinase signaling complexity is the differential use of common components on a context-specific basis. The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans was developed as a system to study genes required for development and nervous system function. The powerful genetics of C. elegans in combination with molecular and cellular dissections has led to a greater understanding of how p38 and JNK signaling affects many biological processes under normal and stress conditions. This review focuses on the studies revealing context specificity of different stress-activated MAPK components in C. elegans. PMID:26907690

  12. VEGF secretion during hypoxia depends on free radicals-induced Fyn kinase activity in mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Roman, Jonathan; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo; Lamas, Monica; Gonzalez Espinosa, Claudia

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) secrete functional VEGF but do not degranulate after Cobalt chloride-induced hypoxia. {yields} CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion in mast cells occurs by a Ca{sup 2+}-insensitive but brefeldin A and Tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism. {yields} Trolox and N-acetylcysteine inhibit hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion but only Trolox inhibits Fc{epsilon}RI-dependent anaphylactic degranulation in mast cells. {yields} Src family kinase Fyn activation after free radical production is necessary for hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in mast cells. -- Abstract: Mast cells (MC) have an important role in pathologic conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), where hypoxia conduce to deleterious inflammatory response. MC contribute to hypoxia-induced angiogenesis producing factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but the mechanisms behind the control of hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in this cell type is poorly understood. We used the hypoxia-mimicking agent cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}) to analyze VEGF secretion in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). We found that CoCl{sub 2} promotes a sustained production of functional VEGF, able to induce proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro. CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion was independent of calcium rise but dependent on tetanus toxin-sensitive vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs). VEGF exocytosis required free radicals formation and the activation of Src family kinases. Interestingly, an important deficiency on CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion was observed in Fyn kinase-deficient BMMCs. Moreover, Fyn kinase was activated by CoCl{sub 2} in WT cells and this activation was prevented by treatment with antioxidants such as Trolox and N-acetylcysteine. Our results show that BMMCs are able to release VEGF under hypoxic conditions through a tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism, promoted by free radicals

  13. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Promote Wound Healing through Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAP Kinases) Signaling Pathway in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Hee; Yang, Dong Joo; Kulkarni, Atul; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ki Woo

    2015-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are secondary metabolites found in diverse marine, freshwater, and terrestrial organisms. Evidence suggests that MAAs have several beneficial effects on skin homeostasis such as protection against UV radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, MAAs are also involved in the modulation of skin fibroblasts proliferation. However, the regulatory function of MAAs on wound repair in human skin is not yet clearly elucidated. To investigate the roles of MAAs on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes, three MAAs, Shinorine (SH), Mycosporine-glycine (M-Gly), and Porphyra (P334) were purified from Chlamydomonas hedlyei and Porphyra yezoensis. We found that SH, M-Gly, and P334 have significant effects on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes and these effects were mediated by activation of focal adhesion kinases (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK). These results suggest that MAAs accelerate wound repair by activating the FAK-MAPK signaling pathways. This study also indicates that MAAs can act as a new wound healing agent and further suggests that MAAs might be a novel biomaterial for wound healing therapies. PMID:26703626

  14. The selective protein kinase C inhibitor, Ro-31-8220, inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) expression, induces c-Jun expression, and activates Jun N-terminal kinase.

    PubMed

    Beltman, J; McCormick, F; Cook, S J

    1996-10-25

    The role of protein kinase C (PKC) in inflammation, mitogenesis, and differentiation has been deduced in part through the use of a variety of PKC inhibitors. Two widely used inhibitors are the structurally related compounds GF109203X and Ro-31-8220, both of which potently inhibit PKC activity and are believed to be highly selective. While using GF109203X and Ro-31-8220 to address the role of PKC in immediate early gene expression, we observed striking differential effects by each of these two compounds. Growth factors induce the expression of the immediate early gene products MAP kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), c-Fos and c-Jun. Ro-31-8220 inhibits growth factor-stimulated expression of MKP-1 and c-Fos but strongly stimulated c-Jun expression, even in the absence of growth factors. GF109203X displays none of these properties. These data suggest that Ro-31-8220 may have other pharmacological actions in addition to PKC inhibition. Indeed, Ro-31-8220 strongly stimulates the stress-activated protein kinase, JNK1. Furthermore, Ro-31-8220 apparently activates JNK in a PKC-independent manner. Neither the down-regulation of PKC by phorbol esters nor the inhibition of PKC by GF109203X affected the ability of Ro-31-8220 to activate JNK1. These data suggest that, in addition to potently inhibiting PKC, Ro-31-8220 exhibits novel pharmacological properties which are independent of its ability to inhibit PKC.

  15. The Mos/MAP kinase pathway stabilizes c-Fos by phosphorylation and augments its transforming activity in NIH 3T3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, K; Sagata, N

    1995-01-01

    The c-mos proto-oncogene product, Mos, is a serine/threonine kinase that can activate ERK1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases by direct phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK). ERK activation is essential for oncogenic transformation of NIH 3T3 cells by Mos. In this study, we examined how mitogenic and oncogenic signalling from the Mos/MEK/ERK pathway reaches the nucleus to activate downstream target genes. We show that c-Fos (the c-fos protooncogene product), which is an intrinsically unstable nuclear protein, is metabolically highly stabilized, and greatly enhances the transforming efficiency of NIH 3T3 cells, by Mos. This stabilization of c-Fos required Mos-induced phosphorylation of its C-terminal region on Ser362 and Ser374, and double replacements of these serines with acidic (Asp) residues markedly increased the stability and transforming efficiency of c-Fos even in the absence of Mos. Moreover, activation of the ERK pathway was necessary and sufficient for the c-Fos phosphorylation and stabilization by Mos. These results indicate that c-Fos undergoes stabilization, and mediates at least partly the oncogenic signalling, by the Mos/MEK/ERK pathway. The present findings also suggest that, in general, the ERK pathway may regulate the cell fate and function by affecting the metabolic stability of c-Fos. Images PMID:7588633

  16. Sphingosine-1-phosphate stimulates human glioma cell proliferation through Gi-coupled receptors: role of ERK MAP kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase beta.

    PubMed

    Van Brocklyn, James; Letterle, Catherine; Snyder, Pamela; Prior, Thomas

    2002-07-26

    The regulation of glioma cell proliferation by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) was studied using the human glioblastoma cell line U-373 MG. U-373 MG cells responded mitogenically to nanomolar concentrations of S1P, and express mRNA encoding the S1P receptors S1P1/endothelial differentiation gene (EDG)-1, S1P3/EDG-3 and S1P2/EDG-5. S1P-induced proliferation required extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and was partially sensitive to pertussis toxin and wortmannin, indicating involvement of a Gi-coupled receptor and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Moreover, S1P1, S1P3 and S1P2 receptors are expressed in the majority of human glioblastomas as determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Thus, S1P signaling through EDG receptors may contribute to glioblastoma growth in vivo.

  17. Sphingosine induces phospholipase D and mitogen activated protein kinase in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Taher, M M; Abd-Elfattah, A S; Sholley, M M

    1998-12-01

    The enzymes phospholipase D and diacylglycerol kinase generate phosphatidic acid which is considered to be a mitogen. Here we report that sphingosine produced a significant amount of phosphatidic acid in vascular smooth muscle cells from the rat aorta. The diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59 949 partially depressed sphingosine induced phosphatidic acid formation, suggesting that activation of phospholipase C and diacylglycerol kinase can not account for the bulk of phosphatidic acid produced and that additional pathways such as phospholipase D may contribute to this. Further, we have shown that phosphatidylethanol was produced by sphingosine when vascular smooth muscle cells were stimulated in the presence of ethanol. Finally, as previously shown for other cell types, sphingosine stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  18. Overexpression of the MAP kinase gene OsMAPK33 enhances sensitivity to salt stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling cascades are activated by extracellular stimuli such as environmental stresses and pathogens in higher eukaryotic plants. To know more about MAPK signaling in plants, a MAPK cDNA clone, OsMAPK33 was isolated from rice. The gene is mainly induced by ...

  19. FAK and Src kinases are required for netrin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of UNC5.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiquan; Aurandt, Jennifer; Jürgensen, Claudia; Jürgense, Claudia; Rao, Yi; Guan, Kun-Liang

    2006-01-01

    During neuronal development, netrin and its receptors UNC5 and DCC (deleted in colorectal cancer) guide axonal growth cones in navigating to their targets. Netrin also plays important roles in the regulation of cell migration, tissue morphogenesis and tumor growth. Here, we show that netrin induces UNC5 tyrosine phosphorylation and that this effect of netrin is dependent on its co-receptor DCC. UNC5 tyrosine phosphorylation is known to be important for netrin to induce cell migration and axonal repulsion. Src tyrosine kinase activity is required for netrin to stimulate UNC5 tyrosine phosphorylation in neurons and transfected cells. The SH2 domain of Src kinase directly interacts with the cytosolic domain of UNC5 in a tyrosine-phosphorylation-dependent manner. Furthermore, the tyrosine kinase focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is also involved in netrin-induced UNC5 tyrosine phosphorylation. Both Src and FAK can phosphorylate UNC5. Our data suggest a model in which netrin stimulates UNC5 tyrosine phosphorylation and signaling in a manner dependent on the co-receptor DCC, through the recruitment of Src and FAK kinases.

  20. MAP kinases Erk1/2 phosphorylate sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1a at serine 117 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Roth, G; Kotzka, J; Kremer, L; Lehr, S; Lohaus, C; Meyer, H E; Krone, W; Müller-Wieland, D

    2000-10-27

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1a is a transcription factor sensing cellular cholesterol levels and integrating gene regulatory signals mediated by MAP kinase cascades. Here we report the identification of serine 117 in SREBP-1a as the major phosphorylation site of the MAP kinases Erk1/2. This site was identified by nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry and peptide sequencing of recombinant fusion proteins phosphorylated by Erk1/2 in vitro. Serine 117 was verified as the major phosphorylation site by in vitro mutagenesis. Mutation of serine 117 to alanine abolished Erk2-mediated phosphorylation in vitro and the MAP kinase-related transcriptional activation of SREBP-1a by insulin and platelet-derived growth factor in vivo. Our data indicate that the MAP kinase-mediated effects on SREBP-1a-regulated target genes are linked to this phosphorylation site.

  1. RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) depletes nutrients, inducing phosphorylation of AMP-activated kinase in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chengcheng; Hao, Chuncheng; Shao, RuPing; Fang, Bingliang; Correa, Arlene M; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Roth, Jack A; Behrens, Carmen; Kalhor, Neda; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Swisher, Stephen G; Pataer, Apar

    2015-05-10

    We have demonstrated that RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and its downstream protein p-eIF2α are independent prognostic markers for overall survival in lung cancer. In the current study, we further investigate the interaction between PKR and AMPK in lung tumor tissue and cancer cell lines. We examined PKR protein expression in 55 frozen primary lung tumor tissues by Western blotting and analyzed the association between PKR expression and expression of 139 proteins on tissue samples examined previously by Reverse Phase Protein Array (RPPA) from the same 55 patients. We observed that biomarkers were either positively (phosphorylated AMP-activated kinase(T172) [p-AMPK]) or negatively (insulin receptor substrate 1, meiotic recombination 11, ATR interacting protein, telomerase, checkpoint kinase 1, and cyclin E1) correlated with PKR. We further confirmed that induction of PKR with expression vectors in lung cancer cells causes activation of the AMPK protein independent of the LKB1, TAK1, and CaMKKβ pathway. We found that PKR causes nutrient depletion, which increases AMP levels and decreases ATP levels, causing AMPK phosphorylation. We further demonstrated that inhibiting AMPK expression with compound C or siRNA enhanced PKR-mediated cell death. We next explored the combination of PKR and p-AMPK expression in NSCLC patients and observed that expression of p-AMPK predicted a poor outcome for adenocarcinoma patients with high PKR expression and a better prognosis for those with low PKR expression. These findings were consistent with our in vitro results. AMPK might rescue cells facing metabolic stresses, such as ATP depletion caused by PKR. Our data indicate that PKR causes nutrient depletion, which induces the phosphorylation of AMPK. AMPK might act as a protective response to metabolic stresses, such as nutrient deprivation.

  2. VEGF secretion during hypoxia depends on free radicals-induced Fyn kinase activity in mast cells.

    PubMed

    García-Román, Jonathan; Ibarra-Sánchez, Alfredo; Lamas, Mónica; González Espinosa, Claudia

    2010-10-15

    Mast cells (MC) have an important role in pathologic conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), where hypoxia conduce to deleterious inflammatory response. MC contribute to hypoxia-induced angiogenesis producing factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but the mechanisms behind the control of hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in this cell type is poorly understood. We used the hypoxia-mimicking agent cobalt chloride (CoCl2) to analyze VEGF secretion in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). We found that CoCl2 promotes a sustained production of functional VEGF, able to induce proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro. CoCl2-induced VEGF secretion was independent of calcium rise but dependent on tetanus toxin-sensitive vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs). VEGF exocytosis required free radicals formation and the activation of Src family kinases. Interestingly, an important deficiency on CoCl2-induced VEGF secretion was observed in Fyn kinase-deficient BMMCs. Moreover, Fyn kinase was activated by CoCl2 in WT cells and this activation was prevented by treatment with antioxidants such as Trolox and N-acetylcysteine. Our results show that BMMCs are able to release VEGF under hypoxic conditions through a tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism, promoted by free radicals-dependent Fyn kinase activation.

  3. Lyn tyrosine kinase regulates thrombopoietin-induced proliferation of hematopoietic cell lines and primary megakaryocytic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Lannutti, Brian J; Drachman, Jonathan G

    2004-05-15

    In this study we demonstrate that thrombopoietin (TPO)-stimulated Src family kinases (SFKs) inhibit cellular proliferation and megakaryocyte differentiation. Using the Src kinase inhibitors pyrolopyrimidine 1 and 2 (PP1, PP2), we show that TPO-dependent proliferation of BaF3/Mpl cells was enhanced at concentrations that are specific for SFKs. Similarly, proliferation is increased after introducing a dominant-negative form of Lyn into BaF3/Mpl cells. Murine marrow cells from Lyn-deficient mice or wild-type mice cultured in the presence of the Src inhibitor, PP1, yielded a greater number of mature megakaryocytes and increased nuclear ploidy. Truncation and targeted mutation of the Mpl cytoplasmic domain indicate that Y112 is critical for Lyn activation. Examining the molecular mechanism for this antiproliferative effect, we determined that SFK inhibitors did not affect tyrosine phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), Shc, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5, or STAT3. In contrast, pretreatment of cells with PP2 increased Erk1/2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK]) phosphorylation and in vitro kinase activity, particularly after prolonged TPO stimulation. Taken together, our results show that Mpl stimulation results in the activation of Lyn kinase, which appears to limit the proliferative response through a signaling cascade that regulates MAPK activity. These data suggest that SFKs modify the rate of TPO-induced proliferation and are likely to affect cell cycle regulation during megakaryocytopoiesis.

  4. Hippocampal Src kinase is required for novelty-induced enhancement of contextual fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Liang, Ri-Chu; Liu, Zheng-Shan; Luo, Bing; Ding, Ya; Chen, Zi-Xiang; Liao, Yong-Shi; Wang, Xiao-Guang

    2016-04-15

    Exposure to a novel environment enhances the extinction of contextual fear through the "tagging-and-capture" process. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of novelty-induced enhancement of fear extinction are still unclear. NMDA receptor activity was recently revealed to be required for the enhancement of fear extinction caused by exposure to novelty. Src family kinases (SFKs) act as a molecular hub for regulation of NMDA receptors. We hypothesized that SFKs might be involved in novelty-induced enhancement of fear extinction. We found that the enhancement of fear extinction induced by novelty exposure is accompanied by Src kinase phosphorylation and activation in a restricted time window. Furthermore, intrahippocampal infusion of SFKs inhibitor PP2 inhibits Src kinase phosphorylation and activation, attenuates the activation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors, and thereby reverses the enhancement of fear extinction induced by novelty exposure. These results suggested that Src kinase may serve as a behavioral tag in the procedural enhancement of fear extinction by novelty exposure.

  5. Spermidine-Induced Improvement of Reconsolidation of Memory Involves Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girardi, Bruna Amanda; Ribeiro, Daniela Aymone; Signor, Cristiane; Muller, Michele; Gais, Mayara Ana; Mello, Carlos Fernando; Rubin, Maribel Antonello

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we determined whether the calcium-dependent protein kinase (PKC) signaling pathway is involved in the improvement of fear memory reconsolidation induced by the intrahippocampal administration of spermidine in rats. Male Wistar rats were trained in a fear conditioning apparatus using a 0.4-mA footshock as an unconditioned stimulus.…

  6. Serotonin-induced cleavage of the atypical protein kinase C Apl III in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Bougie, Joanna K; Cai, Diancai; Hastings, Margaret; Farah, Carole A; Chen, Shanping; Fan, Xiaotang; McCamphill, Patrick K; Glanzman, David L; Sossin, Wayne S

    2012-10-17

    A constitutively active kinase, known as protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ), is proposed to act as a long-lasting molecular memory trace. While PKMζ is formed in rodents through translation of a transcript initiating in an intron of the protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) gene, this transcript does not exist in Aplysia californica despite the fact that inhibitors of PKMζ erase memory in Aplysia in a fashion similar to rodents. We have previously shown that, in Aplysia, the ortholog of PKCζ, PKC Apl III, is cleaved by calpain to form a PKM after overexpression of PKC Apl III. We now show that kinase activity is required for this cleavage. We further use a FRET reporter to measure cleavage of PKC Apl III into PKM Apl III in live neurons using a stimulus that induces plasticity. Our results show that a 10 min application of serotonin induces cleavage of PKC Apl III in motor neuron processes in a calpain- and protein synthesis-dependent manner, but does not induce cleavage of PKC Apl III in sensory neuron processes. Furthermore, a dominant-negative PKM Apl III expressed in the motor neuron blocked the late phase of intermediate-term facilitation in sensory-motor neuron cocultures induced by 10 min of serotonin. In summary, we provide evidence that PKC Apl III is cleaved into PKM Apl III during memory formation, that the requirements for cleavage are the same as the requirements for the plasticity, and that PKM in the motor neuron is required for intermediate-term facilitation.

  7. Enhancement of cytosolic tyrosine kinase activity by propylthiouracil-induced hyperplasia in the rat thyroid.

    PubMed

    Polychronakos, C; Piscina, R; Fantus, I G

    1989-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland induced by propylthiouracil (PTU) is a well established model of rapid cell proliferation in vivo. Recent evidence indicates that tyrosine kinase activity is associated with growth factor receptors and oncogene protein products and may have an important regulatory action in the control of cell growth. Thus, we examined tyrosine kinase activity in rat thyroid membrane and cytosol preparations at rest and during PTU-induced hyperplasia. Although kinase activity was present in a crude microsomal membrane preparation, no change was observed during thyroid growth. In contrast, tyrosine kinase activity assayed with the artificial substrate poly(Glu,Na:Tyr) 4:1 was present in normal rat thyroid cytosol and increased 2- to 6-fold during the rapid phase of hyperplasia in the first 5-10 days of PTU treatment. It declined to control values by day 15, when the size and DNA content of the thyroid reached a plateau. Preincubation of the cytosolic preparations with several peptides known to bind to and activate growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases failed to enhance the activity, suggesting, along with the cytosolic localization, that the activity was distinct from these receptors. By gel filtration chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tyrosine kinase activity was associated with a 55 kDa protein. Partial purification over a poly(Glu,Na:Tyr)4:1-Sepharose column, yielded a protein that appeared capable of autophosphorylation. It is suggested that this tyrosine kinase plays a role in mediating the growth-promoting effects of this model of thyroid cell hyperplasia.

  8. Decreased collagen-induced arthritis severity and adaptive immunity in mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 6 -deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Hammaker, Deepa; Topolewski, Katharyn; Edgar, Meghan; Yoshizawa, Toshio; Fukushima, Akihisa; Boyle, David L.; Firestein, Gary S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective MAPK kinases MKK3 and MKK6 regulate p38 MAPK activation in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Previous studies demonstrated that MKK3- or MKK6-deficiency inhibits K/BxN serum-induced arthritis. However, the role of these kinases in adaptive immunity-dependent models of chronic arthritis is not known. The goal of this study was to evaluate MKK3- and MKK6-deficiency in the collagen induced arthritis model. Methods Wildtype, MKK3−/−, and MKK6−/− mice were immunized with bovine type II collagen (CII). Disease activity was evaluated by semiquantitative scoring, histology, and microcomputed tomography. Serum anti-collagen antibody levels were quantified by ELISA. In-vitro T cell cytokine response was measured by flow cytometry and multiplex analysis. Expression of joint cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase was determined by qPCR. Results MKK6-deficiency markedly reduced arthritis severity compared with WT mice, while absence of MKK3 had an intermediate effect. Joint damage was minimal in arthritic MKK6−/− mice and intermediate in MKK3−/− mice compared with wild type mice. MKK6−/− mice had modestly lower levels of pathogenic anti-collagen antibodies than WT or MKK3−/− mice. In vitro T cell assays showed reduced proliferation and IL-17 production by MKK6−/− cells in response to type II collagen. Gene expression of synovial IL-6, matrix metalloproteinases MMP3, and MMP13 was significantly inhibited in MKK6-deficient mice. Conclusion Reduced disease severity in MKK6−/− mice correlated with decreased anti-collagen responses indicating that MKK6 is a crucial regulator of inflammation joint destruction in CIA. MKK6 is a potential therapeutic target in complex diseases involving adaptive immune responses like rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:21953132

  9. AMP-activated protein kinase induces actin cytoskeleton reorganization in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Lisa; Carpentier, Sarah; Platek, Anna; Hussain, Nusrat; Gueuning, Marie-Agnès; Vertommen, Didier; Ozkan, Yurda; Sid, Brice; Hue, Louis; Courtoy, Pierre J; Rider, Mark H; Horman, Sandrine

    2010-06-04

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a known regulator of cellular and systemic energy balance, is now recognized to control cell division, cell polarity and cell migration, all of which depend on the actin cytoskeleton. Here we report the effects of A769662, a pharmacological activator of AMPK, on cytoskeletal organization and signalling in epithelial Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. We show that AMPK activation induced shortening or radiation of stress fibers, uncoupling from paxillin and predominance of cortical F-actin. In parallel, Rho-kinase downstream targets, namely myosin regulatory light chain and cofilin, were phosphorylated. These effects resembled the morphological changes in MDCK cells exposed to hyperosmotic shock, which led to Ca(2+)-dependent AMPK activation via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta(CaMKKbeta), a known upstream kinase of AMPK. Indeed, hypertonicity-induced AMPK activation was markedly reduced by the STO-609 CaMKKbeta inhibitor, as was the increase in MLC and cofilin phosphorylation. We suggest that AMPK links osmotic stress to the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.

  10. Protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase pathways regulate lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide synthase activity in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, A; Pendreigh, R H; Plevin, R

    1995-01-01

    1. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and gamma-interferon (IFN gamma) alone or in combination stimulated the induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and increased the expression of the 130 kDa isoform of NOS. 2. LPS-induced NOS activity was reduced by incubation with CD14 neutralising antibodies and abolished in macrophages deprived of serum. 3. LPS stimulated a small increase in protein kinase C (PKC) activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages which was dependent on the presence of serum. However, IFN gamma did not potentiate LPS-stimulated PKC activity. 4. The protein kinase C inhibitor, Ro-318220, abolished both LPS- and IFN gamma-stimulated protein kinase C activity and the induction of NOS activity. 5. LPS- and IFN gamma-induced NOS activity was reduced by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genestein. Genestein also reduced LPS-stimulated protein kinase C activity but did not affect the response to the protein kinase C activator, tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA). 6. Nicotinamide, an inhibitor of poly-ADP ribosylation, abolished LPS- and IFN gamma-induced NOS activity. 7. Brefeldin A, an inhibitor of a factor which stimulates nucleotide exchange activity on the 21 kDa ADP-ribosylation factor, ARF, reduced LPS- and IFN gamma-induced NOS activity by approximately 80%. 8. These results suggest the involvement of protein kinase C, tyrosine kinase and poly-ADP ribosylation pathways in the regulation of the induction of nitric oxide synthase in RAW 264.7 macrophages by LPS and IFN gamma. Images Figure 2 PMID:7533621

  11. Trivalent dimethylarsenic compound induces histone H3 phosphorylation and abnormal localization of Aurora B kinase in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Toshihide; Miyazaki, Koichi; Kita, Kayoko; Ochi, Takafumi

    2009-12-15

    Trivalent dimethylarsinous acid [DMA(III)] has been shown to induce mitotic abnormalities, such as centrosome abnormality, multipolar spindles, multipolar division, and aneuploidy, in several cell lines. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these mitotic abnormalities, we investigated DMA(III)-mediated changes in histone H3 phosphorylation and localization of Aurora B kinase, which is a key molecule in cell mitosis. DMA(III) caused the phosphorylation of histone H3 (ser10) and was distributed predominantly in mitotic cells, especially in prometaphase cells. By contrast, most of the phospho-histone H3 was found to be localized in interphase cells after treatment with inorganic arsenite [iAs(III)], suggesting the involvement of a different pathway in phosphorylation. DMA(III) activated Aurora B kinase and slightly activated ERK MAP kinase. Phosphorylation of histone H3 by DMA(III) was effectively reduced by ZM447439 (Aurora kinase inhibitor) and slightly reduced by U0126 (MEK inhibitor). By contrast, iAs(III)-dependent histone H3 phosphorylation was markedly reduced by U0126. Aurora B kinase is generally localized in the midbody during telophase and plays an important role in cytokinesis. However, in some cells treated with DMA(III), Aurora B was not localized in the midbody of telophase cells. These findings suggested that DMA(III) induced a spindle abnormality, thereby activating the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) through the Aurora B kinase pathway. In addition, cytokinesis was not completed because of the abnormal localization of Aurora B kinase by DMA(III), thereby resulting in the generation of multinucleated cells. These results provide insight into the mechanism of arsenic tumorigenesis.

  12. HAM-5 functions as a MAP kinase scaffold during cell fusion in Neurospora crassa

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkers, Wilfried; Leeder, Abigail C.; Ansong, Charles; Wang, Yuexi; Yang, Feng; Starr, Trevor L.; Camp, II, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Glass, N. Louise; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-11-20

    Cell fusion in genetically identical Neurospora crassa germlings and in hyphae is a highly regulated process involving the activation of a conserved MAP kinase cascade that includes NRC1, MEK2 and MAK2. During chemotrophic growth in germlings, the MAP kinase cascade members localize to conidial anastomosis tube (CAT) tips every 4 minutes, perfectly out of phase with another protein that is recruited to the tip: SOFT, a protein of unknown biochemical function. How this oscillation process is initiated, maintained and what proteins regulate the MAP kinase cascade is currently unclear. A global phosphoproteomics approach using an allele of mak-2 (mak-2Q100G) that can be specifically inhibited by the ATP analog 1NM-PP1 was utilized to identify MAK2 kinase targets in germlings that were potentially involved in this process. One such putative target was HAM5, a protein of unknown biochemical function. Previously, Δham-5 mutants were shown to be deficient for hyphal fusion. Here we show that HAM5-GFP co-localized with NRC1, MEK2 and MAK2 and oscillated with identical dynamics from the cytoplasm to CAT tips during chemotropic interactions. In the Δmak-2 strain, HAM5-GFP localized to punctate complexes that did not oscillate, but still localized to the germling tip, suggesting that MAK2 activity influences HAM5 function/localization. However, MAK2-GFP showed only cytoplasmic and nuclear localization in a Δham-5 strain and did not localize to puncta, as observed in wild type germlings. Via co-immunoprecipitation experiments, HAM5 was shown to physically interact with MAK2, MEK2 and NRC1, suggesting that it functions as a scaffold/transport hub for the MAP kinase cascade members during oscillation and chemotropic interactions during both germling and hyphal fusion in N. crassa. The identification of HAM5 as a scaffold-like protein will help to link the activation of MAK2 to upstream factors and other proteins involved in this intriguing process of fungal

  13. Separating myoblast differentiation from muscle cell fusion using IGF-I and the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB202190

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Samantha; Gross, Sean M.; David, Larry L.; Klimek, John E.

    2015-01-01

    The p38 MAP kinases play critical roles in skeletal muscle biology, but the specific processes regulated by these kinases remain poorly defined. Here we find that activity of p38α/β is important not only in early phases of myoblast differentiation, but also in later stages of myocyte fusion and myofibrillogenesis. By treatment of C2 myoblasts with the promyogenic growth factor insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, the early block in differentiation imposed by the p38 chemical inhibitor SB202190 could be overcome. Yet, under these conditions, IGF-I could not prevent the later impairment of muscle cell fusion, as marked by the nearly complete absence of multinucleated myofibers. Removal of SB202190 from the medium of differentiating myoblasts reversed the fusion block, as multinucleated myofibers were detected several hours later and reached ∼90% of the culture within 30 h. Analysis by quantitative mass spectroscopy of proteins that changed in abundance following removal of the inhibitor revealed a cohort of upregulated muscle-enriched molecules that may be important for both myofibrillogenesis and fusion. We have thus developed a model system that allows separation of myoblast differentiation from muscle cell fusion and should be useful in identifying specific steps regulated by p38 MAP kinase-mediated signaling in myogenesis. PMID:26246429

  14. Separating myoblast differentiation from muscle cell fusion using IGF-I and the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB202190.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Samantha; Gross, Sean M; David, Larry L; Klimek, John E; Rotwein, Peter

    2015-10-01

    The p38 MAP kinases play critical roles in skeletal muscle biology, but the specific processes regulated by these kinases remain poorly defined. Here we find that activity of p38α/β is important not only in early phases of myoblast differentiation, but also in later stages of myocyte fusion and myofibrillogenesis. By treatment of C2 myoblasts with the promyogenic growth factor insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, the early block in differentiation imposed by the p38 chemical inhibitor SB202190 could be overcome. Yet, under these conditions, IGF-I could not prevent the later impairment of muscle cell fusion, as marked by the nearly complete absence of multinucleated myofibers. Removal of SB202190 from the medium of differentiating myoblasts reversed the fusion block, as multinucleated myofibers were detected several hours later and reached ∼90% of the culture within 30 h. Analysis by quantitative mass spectroscopy of proteins that changed in abundance following removal of the inhibitor revealed a cohort of upregulated muscle-enriched molecules that may be important for both myofibrillogenesis and fusion. We have thus developed a model system that allows separation of myoblast differentiation from muscle cell fusion and should be useful in identifying specific steps regulated by p38 MAP kinase-mediated signaling in myogenesis.

  15. In vivo and in vitro correlation of pulmonary MAP kinase activation following metallic exposure.

    PubMed

    Silbajoris, R; Ghio, A J; Samet, J M; Jaskot, R; Dreher, K L; Brighton, L E

    2000-06-01

    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a particulate pollutant produced in the combustion of fuel oil. Exposure to ROFA is associated with adverse respiratory effects in humans, induces lung inflammation in animals, and induces inflammatory mediator expression in cultured human airway epithelial cells (HAEC). ROFA has a high content of transition metals, including vanadium, a potent tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor that we have previously shown to disregulate phosphotyrosine metabolism and activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades in HAEC. In order to study MAPK activation in response to in vivo metal exposure, we used immunohistochemical methods to detect levels of phosphorylated protein tyrosines (P-Tyr) and the MAPKs ERK1/2, JNK, and P38 in lung sections from rats intratracheally exposed to ROFA. After a 1-h exposure to 500 microg ROFA, rat lungs showed no histological changes and no significant increases in immunostaining for either P-Tyr or phospho-(P-) MAPKs compared to saline-instilled controls. At 4 h of exposure, there was mild and variable inflammation in the lung, which was accompanied by an increase in specific immunostaining for P-Tyr and P-MAPKs in airway and alveolar epithelial cells and resident macrophages. By 24 h of exposure, there was a pronounced inflammatory response to ROFA instillation and a marked increase in levels of P-Tyr and P-MAPKs present within the alveolar epithelium and in the inflammatory cells, while the airway epithelium showed a continued increase in the expression of P-ERK1/2. By comparison, HAEC cultures exposed to 100 microg/ml ROFA for 20 min resulted in marked increases in P-Tyr and P-MAPKs, which persisted after 24 h of exposure. P-Tyr levels continued to accumulate for up to 24 h in HAEC exposed to ROFA. These results demonstrate in vivo activation in cell signaling pathways in response to pulmonary exposure to particulate matter, and support the relevance of in vitro studies in the identification of

  16. Induction of Macrophage Function in Human THP-1 Cells Is Associated with Rewiring of MAPK Signaling and Activation of MAP3K7 (TAK1) Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Erik; Ventz, Katharina; Harms, Manuela; Mostertz, Jörg; Hochgräfe, Falko

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages represent the primary human host response to pathogen infection and link the immediate defense to the adaptive immune system. Mature tissue macrophages convert from circulating monocyte precursor cells by terminal differentiation in a process that is not fully understood. Here, we analyzed the protein kinases of the human monocytic cell line THP-1 before and after induction of macrophage differentiation by using kinomics and phosphoproteomics. When comparing the macrophage-like state with the monocytic precursor, 50% of the kinome was altered in expression and even 71% of covered kinase phosphorylation sites were affected. Kinome rearrangements are for example characterized by a shift of overrepresented cyclin-dependent kinases associated with cell cycle control in monocytes to calmodulin-dependent kinases and kinases involved in proinflammatory signaling. Eventually, we show that monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation is associated with major rewiring of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling networks and demonstrate that protein kinase MAP3K7 (TAK1) acts as the key signaling hub in bacterial killing, chemokine production and differentiation. Our study proves the fundamental role of protein kinases and cellular signaling as major drivers of macrophage differentiation and function. The finding that MAP3K7 is central to macrophage function suggests MAP3K7 and its networking partners as promising targets in host-directed therapy for macrophage-associated disease. PMID:27066479

  17. Complexing of the CD-3 subunit by a monoclonal antibody activates a microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) serine kinase in Jurkat cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hanekom, C; Nel, A; Gittinger, C; Rheeder, A; Landreth, G

    1989-01-01

    Treatment of Jurkat T-cells with anti-CD-3 monoclonal antibodies resulted in the rapid and transient activation of a serine kinase which utilized the microtubule-associated protein, MAP-2, as a substrate in vitro. The kinase was also activated on treatment of Jurkat cells with phytohaemagglutinin, but with a different time course. The activation of the MAP-2 kinase by anti-CD-3 antibodies was dose-dependent, with maximal activity observed at concentrations of greater than 500 ng/ml. Normal human E-rosette-positive T-cells also exhibited induction of MAP-2 kinase activity during anti-CD-3 treatment. The enzyme was optimally active in the presence of 2 mM-Mn2+; lower levels of activity were observed with Mg2+, even at concentrations up to 20 mM. The kinase was partially purified by passage over DE-52 Sephacel with the activity eluting as a single peak at 0.25 M-NaCl. The molecular mass was estimated to be 45 kDa by gel filtration. The activation of the MAP-2 kinase was probably due to phosphorylation of this enzyme as treatment with alkaline phosphatase diminished its activity. These data demonstrate that the stimulation of T-cells through the CD-3 complex results in the activation of a novel serine kinase which may be critically involved in signal transduction in these cells. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2552997

  18. Attenuation of endothelin-1-induced calcium response by tyrosine kinase inhibitors in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, C Y; Sturek, M

    1996-06-01

    Although tyrosine kinases play an important role in cell growth and have been implicated in regulation of smooth muscle contraction, their role in agonist-induced myoplasmic Ca2+ responses is unclear. We examined effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and methyl 2,5-dihydroxycinnamate (MDHC) on the endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced Ca2+ response and determined underlying mechanisms for the effects. Freshly isolated smooth muscle cells from porcine coronary arteries were loaded with fura 2 ester, and myoplasmic free Ca2+ (Ca2+ (m)) concentration was estimated with fura 2 microfluorometry. Both genistein and MDHC inhibited the initial transient Cam2+ response to ET by 54 and 81%, respectively (P < 0.05), in the presence of extracellular Ca2+. Genistein also significantly delayed the Cam2+ response, with the latent period from ET-1 application to the beginning of the Cam2+ response being increased from 1.08 +/- 0.17 to 2.65 +/- 0.52 min (P < 0.05). In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, genistein inhibited the ET-1-induced Cam2+ response by 93% (P < 0.05). The Cam2+ responses to caffeine (5 mM) or inositol trisphosphate (IP3) applied intracellularly via a patch-clamp pipette were not affected by genistein. Both genistein and MDHC also abolished the sustained Cam2+ response to ET-1. However, the Cam2+ response to depolarization by 80 mM K+ was not inhibited by MDHC and only inhibited 22% by genistein (P < 0.05). These results indicate that 1) activation of tyrosine kinases is an important regulatory mechanism for the ET-1-induced Cam2+ response in vascular smooth muscle and 2) tyrosine kinases mediate ET-1-induced Ca2+ release with no direct effect on IP3-mediated Ca2+ release. Thus ET-1-mediated signaling upstream of IP3 interaction with the Ca2+ stores is regulated by tyrosine kinases.

  19. MAP kinases p38 and JNK are activated by the steroid hormone 1alpha,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 in the C2C12 muscle cell line.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Claudia G; Ronda, Ana C; de Boland, Ana Russo; Boland, Ricardo

    2006-03-01

    In chick skeletal muscle cell primary cultures, we previously demonstrated that 1alpha,25(OH)2-vitamin D3 [1alpha,25(OH)2D3], the hormonally active form of vitamin D, increases the phosphorylation and activity of the extracellular signal-regulated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase isoforms ERK1 and ERK2, their subsequent translocation to the nucleus and involvement in DNA synthesis stimulation. In this study, we show that other members of the MAP kinase superfamily are also activated by the hormone. Using the muscle cell line C2C12 we found that 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 within 1 min phosphorylates and increases the activity of p38 MAPK. The immediately upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 3/6 (MKK3/MKK6) were also phosphorylated by the hormone suggesting their participation in p38 activation. 1Alpha,25(OH)2D3 was able to dephosphorylate/activate the ubiquitous cytosolic tyrosine kinase c-Src in C2C12 cells and studies with specific inhibitors imply that Src participates in hormone induced-p38 activation. Of relevance, 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 induced in the C2C12 line the stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase activating protein kinase 2 (MAPKAP-kinase 2) and subsequent phosphorylation of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) in a p38 kinase activation-dependent manner. Treatment with the p38 inhibitor, SB203580, blocked p38 phosphorylation caused by the hormone and inhibited the phosphorylation of its downstrean substrates. 1Alpha,25(OH)2D3 also promotes the phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal protein kinases (JNK 1/2), the response is fast (0.5-1 min) and maximal phosphorylation of the enzyme is observed at physiological doses of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 (1 nM). The relative contribution of ERK-1/2, p38, and JNK-1/2 and their interrelationships in hormonal regulation of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation remain to be established.

  20. SRC family kinase (SFK) inhibition reduces rhabdomyosarcoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo and triggers p38 MAP kinase-mediated differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Casini, Nadia; Forte, Iris Maria; Mastrogiovanni, Gianmarco; Pentimalli, Francesca; Angelucci, Adriano; Festuccia, Claudio; Tomei, Valentina; Ceccherini, Elisa; Di Marzo, Domenico; Schenone, Silvia; Botta, Maurizio; Giordano, Antonio; Indovina, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Recent data suggest that SRC family kinases (SFKs) could represent potential therapeutic targets for rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children. Here, we assessed the effect of a recently developed selective SFK inhibitor (a pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivative, called SI221) on RMS cell lines. SI221, which showed to be mainly effective against the SFK member YES, significantly reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis, without affecting non-tumor cells, such as primary human skin fibroblasts and differentiated C2C12 cells. Moreover, SI221 decreased in vitro cell migration and invasion and reduced tumor growth in a RMS xenograft model. SFK inhibition also induced muscle differentiation in RMS cells by affecting the NOTCH3 receptor-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) axis, which regulates the balance between proliferation and differentiation. Overall, our findings suggest that SFK inhibition, besides reducing RMS cell growth and invasive potential, could also represent a differentiation therapeutic strategy for RMS. PMID:25762618

  1. A MAP4 kinase related to Ste20 is a nutrient-sensitive regulator of mTOR signalling

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, Greg M.; Yan, Lijun; Procter, Julia; Mieulet, Virginie; Lamb, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    The mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signalling pathway is a key regulator of cell growth and is controlled by growth factors and nutrients such as amino acids. Although signalling pathways from growth factor receptors to mTOR have been elucidated, the pathways mediating signalling by nutrients are poorly characterized. Through a screen for protein kinases active in the mTOR signalling pathway in Drosophila we have identified a Ste20 family member (MAP4K3) that is required for maximal S6K (S6 kinase)/4E-BP1 [eIF4E (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E)-binding protein 1] phosphorylation and regulates cell growth. Importantly, MAP4K3 activity is regulated by amino acids, but not the growth factor insulin and is not regulated by the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin. Our results therefore suggest a model whereby nutrients signal to mTORC1 via activation of MAP4K3. PMID:17253963

  2. Involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha-induced lymphocyte polarization and chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Manzanares, M; Rey, M; Jones, D R; Sancho, D; Mellado, M; Rodriguez-Frade, J M; del Pozo, M A; Yáñez-Mó, M; de Ana, A M; Martínez-A, C; Mérida, I; Sánchez-Madrid, F

    1999-10-01

    The role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), an important enzyme involved in signal transduction events, has been studied in the polarization and chemotaxis of lymphocytes induced by the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1 alpha). This chemokine was able to directly activate p85/p110 PI3-kinase in whole human PBL and to induce the association of PI3-kinase to the SDF-1 alpha receptor, CXCR4, in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. Two unrelated chemical inhibitors of PI3-kinase, wortmannin and Ly294002, prevented ICAM-3 and ERM protein moesin polarization as well as the chemotaxis of PBL in response to SDF-1 alpha. However, they did not interfere with the reorganization of either tubulin or the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, the transient expression of a dominant negative form of the PI3-kinase 85-kDa regulatory subunit in the constitutively polarized Peer T cell line inhibited ICAM-3 polarization and markedly reduced SDF-1 alpha-induced chemotaxis. Conversely, overexpression of a constitutively activated mutant of the PI3-kinase 110-kDa catalytic subunit in the round-shaped PM-1 T cell line induced ICAM-3 polarization. These results underline the role of PI3-kinase in the regulation of lymphocyte polarization and motility and indicate that PI3-kinase plays a selective role in the regulation of adhesion and ERM proteins redistribution in the plasma membrane of lymphocytes.

  3. IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis is mediated by Janus kinase 3 (JAK3).

    PubMed

    Henkels, Karen M; Frondorf, Kathleen; Gonzalez-Mejia, M Elba; Doseff, Andrea L; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

    2011-01-03

    Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase vital to the regulation of T-cells. We report that JAK3 is a mediator of interleukin-8 (IL-8) stimulation of a different class of hematopoietic relevant cells: human neutrophils. IL-8 induced a time- and concentration-dependent activation of JAK3 activity in neutrophils and differentiated HL-60 leukemic cells. JAK3 was more robustly activated by IL-8 than other kinases: p70S6K, mTOR, MAPK or PKC. JAK3 silencing severely inhibited IL-8-mediated chemotaxis. Thus, IL-8 stimulates chemotaxis through a mechanism mediated by JAK3. Further, JAK3 activity and chemotaxis were inhibited by the flavonoid apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone) at ∼5nM IC(50). These new findings lay the basis for understanding the molecular mechanism of cell migration as it relates to neutrophil-mediated chronic inflammatory processes.

  4. Role of MAP kinases in regulating expression of antioxidants and inflammatory mediators in mouse keratinocytes following exposure to the half mustard, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Adrienne T.; Joseph, Laurie B.; Casillas, Robert P.; Heck, Diane E.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2010-06-15

    Dermal exposure to sulfur mustard causes inflammation and tissue injury. This is associated with changes in expression of antioxidants and eicosanoids which contribute to oxidative stress and toxicity. In the present studies we analyzed mechanisms regulating expression of these mediators using an in vitro skin construct model in which mouse keratinocytes were grown at an air-liquid interface and exposed directly to 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), a model sulfur mustard vesicant. CEES (100-1000 {mu}M) was found to cause marked increases in keratinocyte protein carbonyls, a marker of oxidative stress. This was correlated with increases in expression of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, thioredoxin reductase and the glutathione S-transferases, GSTA1-2, GSTP1 and mGST2. CEES also upregulated several enzymes important in the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-2 (mPGES-2), prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), leukotriene A{sub 4} (LTA{sub 4}) hydrolase and leukotriene C{sub 4} (LTC{sub 4}) synthase. CEES readily activated keratinocyte JNK and p38 MAP kinases, signaling pathways which are known to regulate expression of antioxidants, as well as prostaglandin and leukotriene synthases. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase suppressed CEES-induced expression of GSTA1-2, COX-2, mPGES-2, PGDS, 5-LOX, LTA{sub 4} hydrolase and LTC{sub 4} synthase, while JNK inhibition blocked PGDS and GSTP1. These data indicate that CEES modulates expression of antioxidants and enzymes producing inflammatory mediators by distinct mechanisms. Increases in antioxidants may be an adaptive process to limit tissue damage. Inhibiting the capacity of keratinocytes to generate eicosanoids may be important in limiting inflammation and protecting the skin from vesicant-induced oxidative stress and injury.

  5. Integrin-linked kinase: a hypoxia-induced anti-apoptotic factor exploited by cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Elizabeth R; Coffelt, Seth B; Figueroa, Yanira G; Zwezdaryk, Kevin J; Nelson, Anne B; Sullivan, Deborah E; Morris, Cindy B; Tang, Yan; Beckman, Barbara S; Scandurro, Aline B

    2007-01-01

    Based on cDNA microarray results, integrin-linked kinase (ILK) emerged as an interesting candidate in hypoxia-mediated survival mechanisms employed by cancer cells. This notion was confirmed here by the following observations: the 5' promoter region of the ilk gene contains hypoxia responsive elements (HRE) that bind hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factor complexes and drive HRE-luciferase gene expression in reporter assays; ILK protein and kinase activity are induced following hypoxia; downstream targets of ILK signaling are induced following hypoxia treatment; inhibition of ILK leads to increased apoptosis; and HIF and ILK are co-localized within human cancer tissues. The identification of ILK as a player in hypoxia survival signaling employed by cancer cells further validates ILK as a unique target for cancer therapy.

  6. Salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) is induced by gastrin and inhibits migration of gastric adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Selvik, Linn-Karina M; Rao, Shalini; Steigedal, Tonje S; Haltbakk, Ildri; Misund, Kristine; Bruland, Torunn; Prestvik, Wenche S; Lægreid, Astrid; Thommesen, Liv

    2014-01-01

    Salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1/Snf1lk) belongs to the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family of kinases, all of which play major roles in regulating metabolism and cell growth. Recent studies have shown that reduced levels of SIK1 are associated with poor outcome in cancers, and that this involves an invasive cellular phenotype with increased metastatic potential. However, the molecular mechanism(s) regulated by SIK1 in cancer cells is not well explored. The peptide hormone gastrin regulates cellular processes involved in oncogenesis, including proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. The aim of this study was to examine the role of SIK1 in gastrin responsive adenocarcinoma cell lines AR42J, AGS-GR and MKN45. We show that gastrin, known to signal through the Gq/G11-coupled CCK2 receptor, induces SIK1 expression in adenocarcinoma cells, and that transcriptional activation of SIK1 is negatively regulated by the Inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER). We demonstrate that gastrin-mediated signalling induces phosphorylation of Liver Kinase 1B (LKB1) Ser-428 and SIK1 Thr-182. Ectopic expression of SIK1 increases gastrin-induced phosphorylation of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) and enhances gastrin-induced transcription of c-fos and CRE-, SRE-, AP1- and NF-κB-driven luciferase reporter plasmids. We also show that gastrin induces phosphorylation and nuclear export of HDACs. Next we find that siRNA mediated knockdown of SIK1 increases migration of the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line AGS-GR. Evidence provided here demonstrates that SIK1 is regulated by gastrin and influences gastrin elicited signalling in gastric adenocarcinoma cells. The results from the present study are relevant for the understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in gastric adenocarcinomas.

  7. Cadmium induces apoptosis in primary rat osteoblasts through caspase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongyan; Liu, Wei; Wang, Yi; Dai, Nannan; Gu, Jianhong; Yuan, Yan; Liu, Xuezhong; Bian, Jianchun

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to cadmium (Cd) induces apoptosis in osteoblasts (OBs); however, little information is available regarding the specific mechanisms of Cd-induced primary rat OB apoptosis. In this study, Cd reduced cell viability, damaged cell membranes and induced apoptosis in OBs. We observed decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potentials, ultrastructure collapse, enhanced caspase-3 activity, and increased concentrations of cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 following Cd treatment. Cd also increased the phosphorylation of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in OBs. Pretreatment with the caspase inhibitor, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone, ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126), p38 inhibitor (SB203580) and JNK inhibitor (SP600125) abrogated Cd-induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, Cd-treated OBs exhibited signs of oxidative stress protection, including increased antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase levels and decreased formation of reactive oxygen species. Taken together, the results of our study clarified that Cd has direct cytotoxic effects on OBs, which are mediated by caspase- and MAPK pathways in Cd-induced apoptosis of OBs. PMID:26425111

  8. Increased intracellular calcium activates serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) through a calmodulin-calcium calmodulin dependent kinase kinase pathway in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Imai, Seiji; Okayama, Naotsuka; Shimizu, Manabu; Itoh, Makoto

    2003-04-04

    SGK1 is one of the protein-serine/threonine kinases that is activated by insulin in a PI3K-dependent manner. Although SGK1 mediates a variety of biological activities, the mechanisms regulating its activity remain unclear. In this study, we examined the potential roles of calcium signaling in the activation of SGK1. Treatment of CHO-IR cells with a cell-permeable calcium chelator, BAPTA-AM, abolished the insulin-induced activation of SGK1. Increasing intracellular calcium concentration by treating cells with thapsigargin or ionomycin induced a 6-8 fold increase in SGK1 activation. This was not affected by a PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin, but was completely inhibited by the calmodulin inhibitors, W 7 and W 5. Co-transfection of CHO cells with FLAG-SGK1 and CaMKK revealed the direct association of CaMKK with SGK1. These results suggest a calcium-triggered signaling cascade in which an increase in intracellular calcium concentration directly stimulates SGK1 through CaMKK.

  9. Sucrose-induced Receptor Kinase SIRK1 Regulates a Plasma Membrane Aquaporin in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xu Na; Sanchez Rodriguez, Clara; Pertl-Obermeyer, Heidi; Obermeyer, Gerhard; Schulze, Waltraud X.

    2013-01-01

    The transmembrane receptor kinase family is the largest protein kinase family in Arabidopsis, and it contains the highest fraction of proteins with yet uncharacterized functions. Here, we present functions of SIRK1, a receptor kinase that was previously identified with rapid transient phosphorylation after sucrose resupply to sucrose-starved seedlings. SIRK1 was found to be an active kinase with increasing activity in the presence of an external sucrose supply. In sirk1 T-DNA insertional mutants, the sucrose-induced phosphorylation patterns of several membrane proteins were strongly reduced; in particular, pore-gating phosphorylation sites in aquaporins were affected. SIRK1-GFP fusions were found to directly interact with aquaporins in affinity pull-down experiments on microsomal membrane vesicles. Furthermore, protoplast swelling assays of sirk1 mutants and SIRK1-GFP expressing lines confirmed a direct functional interaction of receptor kinase SIRK1 and aquaporins as substrates for phosphorylation. A lack of SIRK1 expression resulted in the failure of mutant protoplasts to control water channel activity upon changes in external sucrose concentrations. We propose that SIRK1 is involved in the regulation of sucrose-specific osmotic responses through direct interaction with and activation of an aquaporin via phosphorylation and that the duration of this response is controlled by phosphorylation-dependent receptor internalization. PMID:23820729

  10. The gene for creatine kinase, mitochondrial 2 (sarcomeric; CKMT2), maps to chromosome 5q13. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, I.; Devaud, C. ); Cherif, D.; Cohen, D.; Beckmann, J.S. )

    1993-10-01

    YAC clones for the creatine kinase, mitochrondial 2 (sarcomeric; CKMT2), gene were isolated. One of these YACs was localized on chromosome 5q13.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. A polymorphic dinucleotide repeat (heterozygosity 0.77) was identified within the seventh intron of the CKMT2 gene. Genotyping of CEPH families allowed positioning of CKMT2 on the multipoint map of chromosome 5 between D5S424 and D5S428, distal to spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) (5q12-q14). 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Constitutively activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase primes platelets from patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia for thrombopoietin-induced aggregation.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Y; Tanaka, T; Ohnishi, H; Kitanaka, A; Okutani, Y; Taminato, T; Ishida, T; Kamano, H

    2004-06-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of thrombopoietin (TPO) on the aggregation of platelets from 40 patients with myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), including 17 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia in the chronic phase (CML-CP), 10 with polycythemia vera, 10 with essential thrombocythemia, and three with myelofibrosis. TPO by itself dose-dependently induced the aggregation of platelets from patients with CML-CP but not from those with other MPDs or with CML-CP in cytogenetical complete remission. The expression of CD63 in CML-CP platelets was induced by TPO treatment. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) was constitutively activated in CML-CP platelets. Pretreatment with PI3-kinase inhibitors (wortmannin and LY294002) dose-dependently inhibited TPO-induced aggregation of CML-CP platelets. The Abl kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate and the Jak inhibitor AG490 suppressed TPO-induced aggregation of CML-CP platelets. Pretreatment with imatinib mesylate, but not with AG490, inhibited the activity of PI3-kinase in CML-CP platelets. In addition, tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak2 was undetected in CML-CP platelets before TPO treatment. These findings indicate that the constitutive activation of PI3-kinase primes CML-CP platelets for the aggregation induced by TPO, and that Bcr-Abl, but not Jak family protein tyrosine kinases, are involved in the constitutive activation of PI3-kinase in CML-CP platelets.

  12. Rewiring MAP kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to regulate novel targets through ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Benjamin; Khakhar, Arjun; Nadel, Cory M; Gardner, Richard G; Seelig, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Evolution has often copied and repurposed the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling module. Understanding how connections form during evolution, in disease and across individuals requires knowledge of the basic tenets that govern kinase-substrate interactions. We identify criteria sufficient for establishing regulatory links between a MAPK and a non-native substrate. The yeast MAPK Fus3 and human MAPK ERK2 can be functionally redirected if only two conditions are met: the kinase and substrate contain matching interaction domains and the substrate includes a phospho-motif that can be phosphorylated by the kinase and recruit a downstream effector. We used a panel of interaction domains and phosphorylation-activated degradation motifs to demonstrate modular and scalable retargeting. We applied our approach to reshape the signaling behavior of an existing kinase pathway. Together, our results demonstrate that a MAPK can be largely defined by its interaction domains and compatible phospho-motifs and provide insight into how MAPK-substrate connections form. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15200.001 PMID:27525484

  13. Isolation of a protein kinase induced by herpes simplex virus type 1

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, W.T.; Stobbs, D.G.

    1981-04-01

    Researchers have isolated a new cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase activity induced in HeLa cells by infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. Induction of the enzyme does not occur in cells treated with cycloheximide at the time of infection, or in cells infected with UV-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 1. The amount of enzyme induced in infected cells is dependent upon the multiplicity of infection. An enzyme with identical properties to the appearing in infected HeLa cells is also induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 in BHK cells.

  14. Induction of B(1)-kinin receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells: cellular mechanisms of map kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Christopher, J; Velarde, V; Jaffa, A A

    2001-09-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation is a prominent feature of the atherosclerotic process that occurs after endothelial injury. Although a vascular wall kallikrein-kinin system has been described, its contribution to vascular disease remains undefined. Because the B(1)-kinin receptor subtype (B1KR) is induced in VSMCs only in response to injury, we hypothesize that this receptor may be mediating critical events in the progression of vascular disease. In the present study, we provide evidence that des-Arg(9)-bradykinin (dABK) (10(-8) M), acting through B1KR, stimulates the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (p42(mapk) and p44(mapk)). Activation of MAPK by dABK is mediated via a cholera toxin-sensitive pathway and appears to involve protein kinase C, Src kinase, and MAPK kinase. These findings demonstrate that the activation of B1KR in VSMCs leads to the generation of second messengers that converge to activate MAPK and provide a rationale to investigate the mitogenic actions of dABK in vascular injury.

  15. CXCL13/CXCR5 enhances sodium channel Nav1.8 current density via p38 MAP kinase in primary sensory neurons following inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Bo; Cao, De-Li; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Bao-Chun; Zhao, Lin-Xia; Qian, Bin; Gao, Yong-Jing

    2016-10-06

    CXCL13 is a B lymphocyte chemoattractant and activates CXCR5 receptor in the immune system. Here we investigated whether CXCL13/CXCR5 mediates inflammatory pain in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and the underlying mechanisms. Peripheral injection of complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) increased the expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 in DRG neurons. In Cxcr5(-/-) mice, CFA-induced pain hypersensitivity were attenuated. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording showed that the excitability of dissociated DRG neurons was increased after CFA injection or CXCL13 incubation from wild-type (WT) mice, but not from Cxcr5(-/-) mice. Additionally, sodium channel Nav1.8 was co-expressed with CXCR5 in dissociated DRG neurons, and the increased neuronal excitability induced by CFA or CXCL13 was reduced by Nav1.8 blocker. Intrathecal injection of Nav1.8 blocker also attenuated intrathecal injection of CXCL13-induced pain hypersensitivity. Furthermore, CXCL13 increased Nav1.8 current density in DRG neurons, which was inhibited by p38 MAP kinase inhibitor. CFA and CXCL13 increased p38 phosphorylation in the DRG of WT mice but not Cxcr5(-/-) mice. Finally, intrathecal p38 inhibitor alleviated CXCL13-induced pain hypersensitivity. Taken together, these results demonstrated that CXCL13, upregulated by peripheral inflammation, acts on CXCR5 on DRG neurons and activates p38, which increases Nav1.8 current density and further contributes to the maintenance of inflammatory pain.

  16. TCR-induced Akt serine 473 phosphorylation is regulated by protein kinase C-alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lifen; Qiao, Guilin; Ying, Haiyan; Zhang, Jian; Yin, Fei

    2010-09-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Conventional PKC positively regulates TCR-induced phosphorylation of Akt. {yields} PKC-alpha is the PDK-2 responsible for phosphorylating Akt at Ser{sup 473} upon TCR stimulation. {yields} Knockdown of PKC-alpha decreases TCR-induced Akt phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Akt signaling plays a central role in T cell functions, such as proliferation, apoptosis, and regulatory T cell development. Phosphorylation at Ser{sup 473} in the hydrophobic motif, along with Thr{sup 308} in its activation loop, is considered necessary for Akt function. It is widely accepted that phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK-1) phosphorylates Akt at Thr{sup 308}, but the kinase(s) responsible for phosphorylating Akt at Ser{sup 473} (PDK-2) remains elusive. The existence of PDK-2 is considered to be specific to cell type and stimulus. PDK-2 in T cells in response to TCR stimulation has not been clearly defined. In this study, we found that conventional PKC positively regulated TCR-induced Akt Ser{sup 473} phosphorylation. PKC-alpha purified from T cells can phosphorylate Akt at Ser{sup 473} in vitro upon TCR stimulation. Knockdown of PKC-alpha in T-cell-line Jurkat cells reduced TCR-induced phosphorylation of Akt as well as its downstream targets. Thus our results suggest that PKC-alpha is a candidate for PDK-2 in T cells upon TCR stimulation.

  17. Lithium blocks ethanol-induced modulation of protein kinases in the developing brain

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Goutam; Saito, Mitsuo; Mao, Rui-Fen; Wang, Ray; Vadasz, Csaba; Saito, Mariko

    2008-03-14

    Lithium has been shown to be neuroprotective against various insults including ethanol exposure. We previously reported that ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the postnatal day 7 (P7) mice is associated with decreases in phosphorylation levels of Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}), and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and alteration in lipid profiles in the brain. Here, P7 mice were injected with ethanol and lithium, and the effects of lithium on ethanol-induced alterations in phosphorylation levels of protein kinases and lipid profiles in the brain were examined. Immunoblot and immunohistochemical analyses showed that lithium significantly blocked ethanol-induced caspase-3 activation and reduction in phosphorylation levels of Akt, GSK-3{beta}, and AMPK. Further, lithium inhibited accumulation of cholesterol ester (ChE) and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) triggered by ethanol in the brain. These results suggest that Akt, GSK-3{beta}, and AMPK are involved in ethanol-induced neurodegeneration and the neuroprotective effects of lithium by modulating both apoptotic and survival pathways.

  18. Evolutionary Conserved Role of c-Jun-N-Terminal Kinase in CO2-Induced Epithelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Vadász, István; Dada, Laura A.; Briva, Arturo; Helenius, Iiro Taneli; Sharabi, Kfir; Welch, Lynn C.; Kelly, Aileen M.; Grzesik, Benno A.; Budinger, G. R. Scott; Liu, Jing; Seeger, Werner; Beitel, Greg J.; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated CO2 levels (hypercapnia) occur in patients with respiratory diseases and impair alveolar epithelial integrity, in part, by inhibiting Na,K-ATPase function. Here, we examined the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in CO2 signaling in mammalian alveolar epithelial cells as well as in diptera, nematodes and rodent lungs. In alveolar epithelial cells, elevated CO2 levels rapidly induced activation of JNK leading to downregulation of Na,K-ATPase and alveolar epithelial dysfunction. Hypercapnia-induced activation of JNK required AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein kinase C-ζ leading to subsequent phosphorylation of JNK at Ser-129. Importantly, elevated CO2 levels also caused a rapid and prominent activation of JNK in Drosophila S2 cells and in C. elegans. Paralleling the results with mammalian epithelial cells, RNAi against Drosophila JNK fully prevented CO2-induced downregulation of Na,K-ATPase in Drosophila S2 cells. The importance and specificity of JNK CO2 signaling was additionally demonstrated by the ability of mutations in the C. elegans JNK homologs, jnk-1 and kgb-2 to partially rescue the hypercapnia-induced fertility defects but not the pharyngeal pumping defects. Together, these data provide evidence that deleterious effects of hypercapnia are mediated by JNK which plays an evolutionary conserved, specific role in CO2 signaling in mammals, diptera and nematodes. PMID:23056407

  19. A Major Facilitator Superfamily Transporter-Mediated Resistance to Oxidative Stress and Fungicides Requires Yap1, Skn7, and MAP Kinases in the Citrus Fungal Pathogen Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Hung; Tsai, Hsieh-Chin; Yu, Pei-Ling; Chung, Kuang-Ren

    2017-01-01

    Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) transporters play an important role in multidrug resistance in fungi. We report an AaMFS19 gene encoding a MFS transporter required for cellular resistance to oxidative stress and fungicides in the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata. AaMFS19, containing 12 transmembrane domains, displays activity toward a broad range of substrates. Fungal mutants lacking AaMFS19 display profound hypersensitivities to cumyl hydroperoxide, potassium superoxide, many singlet oxygen-generating compounds (eosin Y, rose Bengal, hematoporphyrin, methylene blue, and cercosporin), and the cell wall biosynthesis inhibitor, Congo red. AaMFS19 mutants also increase sensitivity to copper ions, clotrimazole, fludioxonil, and kocide fungicides, 2-chloro-5-hydroxypyridine (CHP), and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA). AaMFS19 mutants induce smaller necrotic lesions on leaves of a susceptible citrus cultivar. All observed phenotypes in the mutant are restored by introducing and expressing a wild-type copy of AaMFS19. The wild-type strain of A. alternata treated with either CHP or TIBA reduces radial growth and formation and germination of conidia, increases hyphal branching, and results in decreased expression of the AaMFS19 gene. The expression of AaMFS19 is regulated by the Yap1 transcription activator, the Hog1 and Fus3 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, the 'two component' histidine kinase, and the Skn7 response regulator. Our results demonstrate that A. alternata confers resistance to different chemicals via a membrane-bound MFS transporter.

  20. Mitogen-activated protein kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase are involved in Prevotella intermedia-induced proinflammatory cytokines expression in human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Guan, Su-Min; Zhang, Ming; He, Jian-Jun; Wu, Jun-Zheng

    2009-08-28

    Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease affecting periodontal connective tissues and alveolar bone. Proinflammatory mediators induced by periodontal pathogens play vital roles in the initiation and progression of the disease. In this study, we examined whether Prevotella intermedia induces proinflammatory cytokines expression in human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs). The mRNA expression and protein production were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) respectively. P. intermedia treatment dose- and time-dependently increased IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF, but not IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA expression and protein secretion. Preincubation of hPDLs with extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors PD98059, SP600125, SB203580 and LY294002 resulted in significant reduction in P. intermedia-induced IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF expression. Blocking the synthesis of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) by indomethacin also abolished the stimulatory effects of P. intermedia on cytokines expression. Our results indicate that P. intermedia induces proinflammatory cytokines through MAPKs and PI3K signaling pathways, and PGE(2) is involved in the P. intermedia-induced proinflammatory cytokines upregulation.

  1. Epigenetic regulation of diacylglycerol kinase alpha promotes radiation-induced fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, Christoph; Veldwijk, Marlon R.; Oakes, Christopher C.; Seibold, Petra; Slynko, Alla; Liesenfeld, David B.; Rabionet, Mariona; Hanke, Sabrina A.; Wenz, Frederik; Sperk, Elena; Benner, Axel; Rösli, Christoph; Sandhoff, Roger; Assenov, Yassen; Plass, Christoph; Herskind, Carsten; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Schmezer, Peter; Popanda, Odilia

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a fundamental part of cancer treatment but its use is limited by the onset of late adverse effects in the normal tissue, especially radiation-induced fibrosis. Since the molecular causes for fibrosis are largely unknown, we analyse if epigenetic regulation might explain inter-individual differences in fibrosis risk. DNA methylation profiling of dermal fibroblasts obtained from breast cancer patients prior to irradiation identifies differences associated with fibrosis. One region is characterized as a differentially methylated enhancer of diacylglycerol kinase alpha (DGKA). Decreased DNA methylation at this enhancer enables recruitment of the profibrotic transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR1) and facilitates radiation-induced DGKA transcription in cells from patients later developing fibrosis. Conversely, inhibition of DGKA has pronounced effects on diacylglycerol-mediated lipid homeostasis and reduces profibrotic fibroblast activation. Collectively, DGKA is an epigenetically deregulated kinase involved in radiation response and may serve as a marker and therapeutic target for personalized radiotherapy. PMID:26964756

  2. TEC protein tyrosine kinase is involved in the Erk signaling pathway induced by HGF

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Feifei; Jiang, Yinan; Zheng, Qiping; Yang, Xiaoming; Wang, Siying

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} TEC is rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated and activated by HGF-stimulation in vivo or after partial hepatectomy in mice. {yields} TEC enhances the activity of Elk and serum response element (SRE) in HGF signaling pathway in hepatocyte. {yields} TEC promotes hepatocyte proliferation through the Erk-MAPK pathway. -- Abstract: Background/aims: TEC, a member of the TEC family of non-receptor type protein tyrosine kinases, has recently been suggested to play a role in hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration. This study aims to investigate the putative mechanisms of TEC kinase regulation of hepatocyte differentiation, i.e. to explore which signaling pathway TEC is involved in, and how TEC is activated in hepatocyte after hepatectomy and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulation. Methods: We performed immunoprecipitation (IP) and immunoblotting (IB) to examine TEC tyrosine phosphorylation after partial hepatectomy in mice and HGF stimulation in WB F-344 hepatic cells. The TEC kinase activity was determined by in vitro kinase assay. Reporter gene assay, antisense oligonucleotide and TEC dominant negative mutant (TEC{sup KM}) were used to examine the possible signaling pathways in which TEC is involved. The cell proliferation rate was evaluated by {sup 3}H-TdR incorporation. Results: TEC phosphorylation and kinase activity were increased in 1 h after hepatectomy or HGF treatment. TEC enhanced the activity of Elk and serum response element (SRE). Inhibition of MEK1 suppressed TEC phosphorylation. Blocking TEC activity dramatically decreased the activation of Erk. Reduced TEC kinase activity also suppressed the proliferation of WB F-344 cells. These results suggest TEC is involved in the Ras-MAPK pathway and acts between MEK1 and Erk. Conclusions: TEC promotes hepatocyte proliferation and regeneration and is involved in HGF-induced Erk signaling pathway.

  3. QSAR Analysis of Some Antagonists for p38 map kinase Using Combination of Principal Component Analysis and Artificial Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Doosti, Elham; Shahlaei, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative relationships between structures of a set of p38 map kinase inhibitors and their activities were investigated by principal component regression (PCR) and principal componentartificial neural network (PC-ANN). Latent variables (called components) generated by principal component analysis procedure were applied as the input of developed Quantitative structure- activity relationships (QSAR) models. An exact study of predictability of PCR and PC-ANN showed that the later model has much higher ability to calculate the biological activity of the investigated molecules. Also, experimental and estimated biological activities of compounds used in model development step have indicated a good correlation. Obtained results show that a non-linear model explaining the relationship between the pIC50s and the calculated principal components (that extract from structural descriptors of the studied molecules) is superior than linear model. Some typical figures of merit for QSAR studies explaining the accuracy and predictability of the suggested models were calculated. Therefore, to design novel inhibitors of p38 map kinase with high potency and low undesired effects the developed QSAR models were used to estimate biological pIC50 of the studied compounds.

  4. Accumulation of specific sterol precursors targets a MAP kinase cascade mediating cell-cell recognition and fusion.

    PubMed

    Weichert, Martin; Lichius, Alexander; Priegnitz, Bert-Ewald; Brandt, Ulrike; Gottschalk, Johannes; Nawrath, Thorben; Groenhagen, Ulrike; Read, Nick D; Schulz, Stefan; Fleißner, André

    2016-10-18

    Sterols are vital components of eukaryotic cell membranes. Defects in sterol biosynthesis, which result in the accumulation of precursor molecules, are commonly associated with cellular disorders and disease. However, the effects of these sterol precursors on the metabolism, signaling, and behavior of cells are only poorly understood. In this study, we show that the accumulation of only ergosterol precursors with a conjugated double bond in their aliphatic side chain specifically disrupts cell-cell communication and fusion in the fungus Neurospora crassa Genetically identical germinating spores of this fungus undergo cell-cell fusion, thereby forming a highly interconnected supracellular network during colony initiation. Before fusion, the cells use an unusual signaling mechanism that involves the coordinated and alternating switching between signal sending and receiving states of the two fusion partners. Accumulation of only ergosterol precursors with a conjugated double bond in their aliphatic side chain disrupts this coordinated cell-cell communication and suppresses cell fusion. These specific sterol precursors target a single ERK-like mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (MAK-1)-signaling cascade, whereas a second MAP kinase pathway (MAK-2), which is also involved in cell fusion, is unaffected. These observations indicate that a minor specific change in sterol structure can exert a strong detrimental effect on a key signaling pathway of the cell, resulting in the absence of cell fusion.

  5. Bakuchiol suppresses proliferation of skin cancer cells by directly targeting Hck, Blk, and p38 MAP kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Younghyun; Yang, Hee; Heo, Yong-Seok; Bode, Ann M.; Lee, Ki Won; Dong, Zigang

    2016-01-01

    Bakuchiol is a meroterpene present in the medicinal plant Psoralea corylifolia, which has been traditionally used in China, India, Japan and Korea for the treatment of premature ejaculation, knee pain, alopecia spermatorrhea, enuresis, backache, pollakiuria, vitiligo, callus, and psoriasis. Here, we report the chemopreventive properties of bakuchiol, which acts by inhibiting epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced neoplastic cell transformation. Bakuchiol also decreased viability and inhibited anchorage-independent growth of A431 human epithelial carcinoma cells. Bakuchiol reduced A431 xenograft tumor growth in an in vivo mouse model. Using kinase profiling, we identified Hck, Blk and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) as targets of bakuchiol, which directly bound to each kinase in an ATP-competitive manner. Bakuchiol also inhibited EGF-induced signaling pathways downstream of Hck, Blk and p38 MAPK, including the MEK/ERKs, p38 MAPK/MSK1 and AKT/p70S6K pathways. This report is the first mechanistic study identifying molecular targets for the anticancer activity of bakuchiol and our findings indicate that bakuchiol exhibits potent anticancer activity by targeting Hck, Blk and p38 MAPK. PMID:26910280

  6. Chronic antidepressants induce redistribution and differential activation of alphaCaM kinase II between presynaptic compartments.

    PubMed

    Barbiero, Valentina S; Giambelli, Roberto; Musazzi, Laura; Tiraboschi, Ettore; Tardito, Daniela; Perez, Jorge; Drago, Filippo; Racagni, Giorgio; Popoli, Maurizio

    2007-12-01

    Changes in synaptic plasticity are involved in pathophysiology of depression and in the mechanism of antidepressants. Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM) kinase II, a protein kinase involved in synaptic plasticity, has been previously shown to be a target of antidepressants. We previously found that antidepressants activate the kinase in hippocampal neuronal cell bodies by increasing phosphorylation at Thr(286), reduce the kinase phosphorylation in synaptic membranes, and in turn its phosphorylation-dependent interaction with syntaxin-1 and the release of glutamate from hippocampal synaptosomes. Here, we investigated the chronic effect of different antidepressants (fluoxetine, desipramine, and reboxetine) on the expression and function of the kinase in distinct subcellular compartments in order to dissect the different kinase pools affected. Acute treatments did not induce any change in the kinase. In total tissue extracts chronic drug treatments induced activation of the kinase; in hippocampus (HC), but not in prefrontal/frontal cortex, this was partially accounted for by increased Thr(286) phosphorylation, suggesting the involvement of different mechanisms of activation. In synaptosomes, all drugs reduced the kinase phosphorylation, particularly in HC where, upon fractionation of the synaptosomal particulate into synaptic vesicles and membranes, we found that the drugs induced a redistribution and differential activation of the kinase between membranes and vesicles. Furthermore, a large decrease in the level and phosphorylation of synapsin I located at synaptic membranes was consistent with the observed decrease of CaM kinase II. Overall, antidepressants induce a complex pattern of modifications in distinct subcellular compartments; at presynaptic level, these changes are in line with a dampening of glutamate release.

  7. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase up-regulates NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activation through RelA phosphorylation during stretch-induced myogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Guoping; Liu, Dongxu; Liu, Jing; Gao, Hui; Yuan, Xiao; Shen, Gang

    2010-01-01

    p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-B (NF-B) signaling pathways play an indispensable role in the control of skeletal myogenesis. The specific contribution of these signaling pathways to the response of myoblast to the mechanical stimulation and the molecular mechanisms underlying this response remain unresolved. Using an established in vitro model, we now show that p38 MAP kinase activity regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-{kappa}B in response to mechanical stimulation of myoblasts. Furthermore, SB203580 blocked stretch-induced NF-{kappa}B activation during myogenesis, not through down-regulation of degradation of I{kappa}B-{alpha}, and consequent translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-{kappa}B to the nucleus. It is likely that stretch-induced NF-{kappa}B activation by phosphorylation of p65 NF-{kappa}B. Moreover, depletion of p38{alpha} using siRNA significantly reduces stretch-induced phosphorylation of RelA and NF-{kappa}B activity. These results provides the first evidence of a cross-talk between p38 MAPK and NF-{kappa}B signaling pathways during stretch-induced myogenesis, with phosphorylation of RelA being one of the effectors of this promyogenic mechanism. The {alpha} isoform of p38MAP kinase regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-{kappa}B following stimulation with cyclic stretch.

  8. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Is a Negative Regulator of Growth Factor-induced Activation of the c-Jun N-terminal Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuying; Yu, Shuangxing; Hasegawa, Yutaka; LaPushin, Ruth; Xu, Hong-Ji; Woodgett, James R.; Mills, Gordon B.; Fang, Xianjun

    2016-01-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/stress activated protein kinase is preferentially activated by stress stimuli. Growth factors, particularly ligands for G protein-coupled receptors, usually induce only modest JNK activation, although they may trigger marked activation of the related extracellular signal-regulated kinase. In the present study, we demonstrated that homozygous disruption of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) dramatically sensitized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to JNK activation induced by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate, two prototype ligands for G protein-coupled receptors. To a lesser degree, a lack of GSK-3β also potentiated JNK activation in response to epidermal growth factor. In contrast, the absence of GSK-3β decreased UV light-induced JNK activation. The increased JNK activation induced by LPA in GSK-3β null MEFs was insufficient to trigger apoptotic cell death or growth inhibition. Instead, the increased JNK activation observed in GSK-3β−/− MEFs was associated with an increased proliferative response to LPA, which was reduced by the inhibition of JNK. Ectopic expression of GSK-3β in GSK-3β-negative MEFs restrained LPA-triggered JNK phosphorylation and induced a concomitant decrease in the mitogenic response to LPA compatible with GSK-3β through the inhibition of JNK activation, thus limiting LPA-induced cell proliferation. Mutation analysis indicated that GSK-3β kinase activity was required for GSK-3β to optimally inhibit LPA-stimulated JNK activation. Thus GSK-3β serves as a physiological switch to specifically repress JNK activation in response to LPA, sphingosine-1-phosphate, or the epidermal growth factor. These results reveal a novel role for GSK-3β in signal transduction and cellular responses to growth factors. PMID:15466414

  9. Early events in the induction of apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma cells by CD437: activation of the p38 MAP kinase signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Holmes, William F; Soprano, Dianne Robert; Soprano, Kenneth J

    2003-09-25

    Retinoids have great potential in the areas of cancer therapy and chemoprevention. 6-[3-(1-admantyl)]-4-hydroxyphenyl]-2-naphthalene carboxylic acid (CD437) is a conformationally restricted synthetic retinoid that has been reported to induce growth arrest and apoptosis in ovarian tumor cell lines but the entire mechanism for apoptotic induction has not been fully defined. We set out to identify the early events of CD437-induced apoptosis of the CA-OV-3 cell line and determine if these occur in a CA-OV-3 cell line resistant to CD437 (CA-CD437R). Using inhibitors for the MAP kinase cascade, we determined that MEK and p38 inhibitors could block CD437-induced apoptosis of the CA-OV-3 cell line. Moreover, treatment of CA-OV-3 and CA-CD437R cells with CD437 resulted in increased phosphorylation and activity of p38 independent of caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, p38 induced the phosphorylation of MEF2 in both CA-OV-3 and CA-CD437R cells after CD437 treatment. Finally, GFP-TR3 protein translocated to the cytosol and associated with mitochondria in both cell lines in response to CD437 treatment. This leads to depolarization of mitochondria and subsequent induction of apoptosis only in CA-OV-3 cells. These results identify a number of initial molecular events in the induction of apoptosis by CD437 in CA-OV-3 cells and demonstrate that the alteration in CA-CD437R cells, which results in resistance to CD437 maps downstream of these early events after TR3 translocation but prior to mitochondrial depolarization.

  10. Ligand-induced EGF Receptor Oligomerization Is Kinase-dependent and Enhances Internalization*

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, Erik G.; Bader, Arjen N.; Voortman, Jarno; van den Heuvel, Dave J.; Sigismund, Sara; Verkleij, Arie J.; Gerritsen, Hans C.; van Bergen en Henegouwen, Paul M. P.

    2010-01-01

    The current activation model of the EGF receptor (EGFR) predicts that binding of EGF results in dimerization and oligomerization of the EGFR, leading to the allosteric activation of the intracellular tyrosine kinase. Little is known about the regulatory mechanism of receptor oligomerization. In this study, we have employed FRET between identical fluorophores (homo-FRET) to monitor the dimerization and oligomerization state of the EGFR before and after receptor activation. Our data show that, in the absence of ligand, ∼40% of the EGFR molecules were present as inactive dimers or predimers. The monomer/predimer ratio was not affected by deletion of the intracellular domain. Ligand binding induced the formation of receptor oligomers, which were found in both the plasma membrane and intracellular structures. Ligand-induced oligomerization required tyrosine kinase activity and nine different tyrosine kinase substrate residues. This indicates that the binding of signaling molecules to activated EGFRs results in EGFR oligomerization. Induction of EGFR predimers or pre-oligomers using the EGFR fused to the FK506-binding protein did not affect signaling but was found to enhance EGF-induced receptor internalization. Our data show that EGFR oligomerization is the result of EGFR signaling and enhances EGFR internalization. PMID:20940297

  11. Secretin induces neurite outgrowth of PC12 through cAMP-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon Soo; Yumkham, Sanatombi; Kim, Sun-Hee; Yea, Kyungmoo; Shin, You Chan; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2006-02-28

    The gastrointestinal functions of secretin have been fairly well established. However, its function and mode of action within the nervous system remain largely unclear. To gain insight into this area, we have attempted to determine the effects of secretin on neuronal differentiation. Here, we report that secretin induces the generation of neurite outgrowth in pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. The expressions of Tau and beta-tubulin, neuronal differentiation markers, are increased upon secretin stimulation. In addition, secretin induces sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and also stimulates the cAMP secretion. Moreover, the neurite outgrowth elicited by secretin is suppressed to a marked degree in the presence of either PD98059, a specific MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor, or H89, a specific protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that secretin induces neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells through cAMP- MAPK pathway, and provide a novel insight into the manner in which secretin participates in neuritogenesis.

  12. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 inhibition and sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation in camptothecin-induced human colon cancer cell death

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minyoung; Young Kim, Sun; Kim, JongGuk; Kim, Hak-Su; Kim, Sang-Man; Kim, Eun Ju

    2013-01-01

    Camptothecins are commonly used chemotherapeutics; in some models, they enhance signaling via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway through effects on upstream kinases. To evaluate the impact of camptothecin (CPT) on MAPKs in human colon cancer, we studied HCT116 and CaCo2 colon cancer cells. We found that HCT116 cells highly express mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP1), which selectively inactivates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), whereas MKP1 levels were undetectable in CaCo2 cells. CPT did not affect ERK activity in CaCo2 cells, but did induce a striking increase in ERK activity in HCT116 cells in association with a corresponding decrease in MKP1. The reduction in MKP1 expression occurred at a posttranscriptional level and was blocked by the proteasome inhibitor MG132, whereas that CPT-induced downregulation of MKP1 was not due to proteasome-mediated degradation. Treatment of HCT116 cells with CPT induced a sustained activation of nuclear ERK, which was required for CPT-induced apoptosis. P38 and JNK activity were unaffected by CPT, suggesting that the effects of CPT are mediated specifically by ERK. These results suggest that targeting dual-specificity MAPK phosphatases in colon cancer cells may be a viable strategy for optimizing camptothecin-based therapeutic protocols. PMID:24005240

  13. CREB, AP‐1, ternary complex factors and MAP kinases connect transient receptor potential melastatin‐3 (TRPM3) channel stimulation with increased c‐Fos expression

    PubMed Central

    Rubil, Sandra; Rössler, Oliver G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The rise in intracellular Ca2+ stimulates the expression of the transcription factor c‐Fos. Depending on the mode of entry of Ca2+ into the cytosol, distinct signal transducers and transcription factors are required. Here, we have analysed the signalling pathway connecting a Ca2+ influx via activation of transient receptor potential melastatin‐3 (TRPM3) channels with enhanced c‐Fos expression. Experimental Approach Transcription of c‐Fos promoter/reporter genes that were integrated into the chromatin via lentiviral gene transfer was analysed in HEK293 cells overexpressing TRPM3. The transcriptional activation potential of c‐Fos was measured using a GAL4‐c‐Fos fusion protein. Key Results The signalling pathway connecting TRPM3 stimulation with enhanced c‐Fos expression requires the activation of MAP kinases. On the transcriptional level, three Ca2+‐responsive elements, the cAMP‐response element and the binding sites for the serum response factor (SRF) and AP‐1, are essential for the TRPM3‐mediated stimulation of the c‐Fos promoter. Ternary complex factors are additionally involved in connecting TRPM3 stimulation with the up‐regulation of c‐Fos expression. Stimulation of TRPM3 channels also increases the transcriptional activation potential of c‐Fos. Conclusions and Implications Signalling molecules involved in connecting TRPM3 with the c‐Fos gene are MAP kinases and the transcription factors CREB, SRF, AP‐1 and ternary complex factors. As c‐Fos constitutes, together with other basic region leucine zipper transcription factors, the AP‐1 transcription factor complex, the results of this study explain TRPM3‐induced activation of AP‐1 and connects TRPM3 with the biological functions regulated by AP‐1. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society PMID:26493679

  14. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates sidestream cigarette smoke-induced endothelial permeability.

    PubMed

    Low, Brad; Liang, Mei; Fu, Jian

    2007-07-01

    Second-hand smoke is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. So far, little is known about the signaling mechanisms of second-hand smoke-induced vascular dysfunction. Endothelial junctions are fundamental structures important for maintaining endothelial barrier function. Our study showed that sidestream cigarette smoke (SCS), a major component of second-hand smoke, was able to disrupt endothelial junctions and increase endothelial permeability. Sidestream cigarette smoke stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and myosin light chain (MLC). A selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK (SB203580) prevented SCS-induced loss of endothelial barrier integrity as evidenced by transendothelial resistance measurements. Resveratrol, an antioxidant that was able to inhibit SCS-induced p38 MAPK and MLC phosphorylation, also protected endothelial cells from the damage. Thus, p38 MAPK mediates SCS-induced endothelial permeability. Inhibition of p38 MAPK may have therapeutic potential for second-hand smoke-induced vascular injury.

  15. Inhibition of neurite outgrowth in differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells by phenyl saligenin phosphate: effects on MAP kinase (ERK 1/2) activation, neurofilament heavy chain phosphorylation and neuropathy target esterase activity.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Alan J; Fowler, Maxine J; Sachana, Magdalini; Flaskos, John; Bountouri, Mary; Coutts, Ian C; Glynn, Paul; Harris, Wayne; Graham McLean, W

    2006-04-14

    Sub-lethal concentrations of the organophosphate phenyl saligenin phosphate (PSP) inhibited the outgrowth of axon-like processes in differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells (IC(50) 2.5 microM). A transient rise in the phosphorylation state of neurofilament heavy chain (NFH) was detected on Western blots of cell extracts treated with 2.5 microM PSP for 4 h compared to untreated controls, as determined by a relative increase in reactivity with monoclonal antibody Ta51 (anti-phosphorylated NFH) compared to N52 (anti-total NFH). However, cross-reactivity of PSP-treated cell extracts was lower than that of untreated controls after 24 h exposure, as indicated by decreased reactivity with both antibodies. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis with these antibodies revealed the appearance of neurofilament aggregates in the cell bodies of treated cells and reduced axonal staining compared to controls. By contrast, there was no significant change in reactivity with anti-alpha-tubulin antibody B512 at either time point. The activation state of the MAP kinase ERK 1/2 increased significantly after PSP treatment compared to controls, particularly at 4 h, as indicated by increased reactivity with monoclonal antibody E-4 (anti-phosphorylated MAP kinase) but not with polyclonal antibody K-23 (anti-total MAP kinase). The observed early changes were concomitant with almost complete inhibition of the activity of neuropathy target esterase (NTE), one of the proposed early molecular targets in organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN).

  16. Protein-Protein Interactions in the Yeast Pheromone Response Pathway: Ste5p Interacts with All Members of the Map Kinase Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Printen, J. A.; Sprague-Jr., G. F.

    1994-01-01

    We have used the two-hybrid system of Fields and Song to identify protein-protein interactions that occur in the pheromone response pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pathway components Ste4p, Ste5p, Ste7p, Ste11p, Ste12p, Ste20p, Fus3p and Kss1p were tested in all pairwise combinations. All of the interactions we detected involved at least one member of the MAP kinase cascade that is a central element of the response pathway. Ste5p, a protein of unknown biochemical function, interacted with protein kinases that operate at each step of the MAP kinase cascade, specifically with Ste11p (an MEKK), Ste7p (an MEK), and Fus3p (a MAP kinase). This finding suggests that one role of Ste5p is to serve as a scaffold to facilitate interactions among members of the kinase cascade. In this role as facilitator, Ste5p may make both signal propagation and signal attenuation more efficient. Ste5p may also help minimize cross-talk with other MAP kinase cascades and thus ensure the integrity of the pheromone response pathway. We also found that both Ste11p and Ste7p interact with Fus3p and Kss1p. Finally, we detected an interaction between one of the MAP kinases, Kss1p, and a presumptive target, the transcription factor Ste12p. We failed to detect interactions of Ste4p or Ste20p with any other component of the response pathway. PMID:7851759

  17. Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase induces apoptosis in human osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jialiang; Zu, Jianing; Xu, Gongping; Zhao, Wei; Jinglong, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase protein, acts as an early modulator of integrin signaling cascade, regulating basic cellular functions. In transformed cells, unopposed FAK signaling has been considered to promote tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. The aim of this study was to assess the role of focal adhesion kinase in human osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells. SAOS-2 cells were transfected with PGPU6/GFP/shNC, and PGPU6/GFP/FAK-334 (shRNA-334), respectively. Expression of FAK was detected by real-time PCR and western blots. MTT assay was used to examine changes in cell proliferation. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of caspase-3,-7,-9 was measured by Western blots. The expression of FAK in SAOS-2 cells significantly decreased in shRNA-334 group contrast to the control group (P < 0.01). Cells proliferation was inhibited by shRNA-334 and shRNA-334 + cisplatin, and the effects were clearly enhanced when cells treated with the anticancer agents. The level of cell apoptosis in shRNA-334 and shRNA-334 + cisplatin group was higher than in the control group (P < 0.01). The current data support evidence that down-regulation of FAK could induce SAOS-2 apoptosis through the caspase-dependent cell death pathway. Inhibition of the kinases may be important for therapies designed to enhance the apoptosis in osteosarcoma.

  18. Ribosomal Protein Mutations Induce Autophagy through S6 Kinase Inhibition of the Insulin Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pereboom, Tamara C.; Goos, Yvonne J.; Seinen, Cor W.; van Oirschot, Brigitte A.; van Dooren, Rowie; Gastou, Marc; Giles, Rachel H.; van Solinge, Wouter; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Gazda, Hanna T.; Bierings, Marc B.; Da Costa, Lydie; MacInnes, Alyson W.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations affecting the ribosome lead to several diseases known as ribosomopathies, with phenotypes that include growth defects, cytopenia, and bone marrow failure. Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), for example, is a pure red cell aplasia linked to the mutation of ribosomal protein (RP) genes. Here we show the knock-down of the DBA-linked RPS19 gene induces the cellular self-digestion process of autophagy, a pathway critical for proper hematopoiesis. We also observe an increase of autophagy in cells derived from DBA patients, in CD34+ erythrocyte progenitor cells with RPS19 knock down, in the red blood cells of zebrafish embryos with RP-deficiency, and in cells from patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS). The loss of RPs in all these models results in a marked increase in S6 kinase phosphorylation that we find is triggered by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). We show that this increase in S6 kinase phosphorylation inhibits the insulin pathway and AKT phosphorylation activity through a mechanism reminiscent of insulin resistance. While stimulating RP-deficient cells with insulin reduces autophagy, antioxidant treatment reduces S6 kinase phosphorylation, autophagy, and stabilization of the p53 tumor suppressor. Our data suggest that RP loss promotes the aberrant activation of both S6 kinase and p53 by increasing intracellular ROS levels. The deregulation of these signaling pathways is likely playing a major role in the pathophysiology of ribosomopathies. PMID:24875531

  19. Probabilistic, Seismically-Induced Landslide Hazard Mapping of Western Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, M. J.; Sharifi Mood, M.; Gillins, D. T.; Mahalingam, R.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake-induced landslides can generate significant damage within urban communities by damaging structures, obstructing lifeline connection routes and utilities, generating various environmental impacts, and possibly resulting in loss of life. Reliable hazard and risk maps are important to assist agencies in efficiently allocating and managing limited resources to prepare for such events. This research presents a new methodology in order to communicate site-specific landslide hazard assessments in a large-scale, regional map. Implementation of the proposed methodology results in seismic-induced landslide hazard maps that depict the probabilities of exceeding landslide displacement thresholds (e.g. 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 10 meters). These maps integrate a variety of data sources including: recent landslide inventories, LIDAR and photogrammetric topographic data, geology map, mapped NEHRP site classifications based on available shear wave velocity data in each geologic unit, and USGS probabilistic seismic hazard curves. Soil strength estimates were obtained by evaluating slopes present along landslide scarps and deposits for major geologic units. Code was then developed to integrate these layers to perform a rigid, sliding block analysis to determine the amount and associated probabilities of displacement based on each bin of peak ground acceleration in the seismic hazard curve at each pixel. The methodology was applied to western Oregon, which contains weak, weathered, and often wet soils at steep slopes. Such conditions have a high landslide hazard even without seismic events. A series of landslide hazard maps highlighting the probabilities of exceeding the aforementioned thresholds were generated for the study area. These output maps were then utilized in a performance based design framework enabling them to be analyzed in conjunction with other hazards for fully probabilistic-based hazard evaluation and risk assessment. a) School of Civil and Construction

  20. Identification of a dual-specificity protein phosphatase that inactivates a MAP kinase from Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, R.; Huang, Y.; Kieber, J.; Luan, S.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play a key role in plant responses to stress and pathogens. Activation and inactivation of MAPKs involve phosphorylation and dephosphorylation on both threonine and tyrosine residues in the kinase domain. Here we report the identification of an Arabidopsis gene encoding a dual-specificity protein phosphatase capable of hydrolysing both phosphoserine/threonine and phosphotyrosine in protein substrates. This enzyme, designated AtDsPTP1 (Arabidopsis thaliana dual-specificity protein tyrosine phosphatase), dephosphorylated and inactivated AtMPK4, a MAPK member from the same plant. Replacement of a highly conserved cysteine by serine abolished phosphatase activity of AtDsPTP1, indicating a conserved catalytic mechanism of dual-specificity protein phosphatases from all eukaryotes.

  1. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase-1 Is a Key Regulator of Hypoxia-Induced Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression and Vessel Density in Lung

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Kristin M.; Panzhinskiy, Evgeniy; Burns, Nana; Zawada, W. Michael; Das, Mita

    2011-01-01

    Although mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) is a key deactivator of MAP kinases, known effectors of lung vessel formation, whether it plays a role in the expression of proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in hypoxic lung is unknown. We therefore hypothesized that MKP-1 is a crucial modulator of hypoxia-stimulated vessel development by regulating lung VEGF levels. Wild-type MKP-1+/+, heterozygous MKP-1+/−, and deficient MKP-1−/− mice were exposed to sea level (SL), Denver altitude (DA) (1609 m [5280 feet]), and severe high altitude (HYP) (∼5182 m [∼17,000 feet]) for 6 weeks. Hypoxia enhanced phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, a substrate of MKP-1, as well as α smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression in vessels, respiratory epithelium, and interstitium of phosphatase-deficient lung. αSMA-positive vessel (<50 μm outside diameter) densities were markedly reduced, whereas vessel wall thickness was increased in hypoxic MKP-1−/− lung. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) of all three genotypes were isolated to pinpoint the mechanism involved in hypoxia-induced vascular abnormalities of MKP-1−/− lung. Sustained phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase was observed in MKP-1-null MEFs in response to hypoxia exposure. Although hypoxia up-regulated VEGF levels in MKP-1+/+ MEFs eightfold, only a 70% increase in VEGF expression was observed in MKP-1-deficient cells. Therefore, our data strongly suggest that MKP-1 might be the key regulator of vascular densities through the regulation of VEGF levels in hypoxic lung. PMID:21224048

  2. Effects of the brominated flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) on cell signaling and function of Mytilus hemocytes: involvement of MAP kinases and protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Canesi, Laura; Lorusso, Lucia Cecilia; Ciacci, Caterina; Betti, Michele; Gallo, Gabriella

    2005-11-10

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a large group of compounds added to or applied as a treatment to polymeric materials to prevent fires. Tetrabisphenol A (TBBPA) is the most important individual BFR used in industry. Although TBBPA and its derivatives can be found in environmental samples, data are very limited on the presence of this compound in biota. Research on mammals indicates that TBBPA has low toxicity in vivo; however, in vitro TBBPA can act as a cytotoxicant, neurotoxicant, immunotoxicant, thyroid hormone agonist and has a weak estrogenic activity; in particular, the effects of TBBPA have been recently ascribed to its interactions with cellular signaling pathways, in particular with mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs). TBBPA has high acute toxicity to aquatic organisms, such as algae, molluscs, crustaceans and fish; however, little is known on the mechanisms of action of this compound in the cells of aquatic species. In this work, we investigated the possible effects and mechanisms of action of TBBPA on the immune cells, the hemocytes, of the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The results demonstrate that TBBPA in the low micromolar range induces hemocyte lysosomal membrane destabilization. The effect was reduced or prevented by hemocyte pre-treatment by specific inhibitors of MAPKs and of protein kinase C (PKC). TBBPA stimulated phosphorylation of MAPK members and PKC, as evaluated by electrophoresis and Western blotting with anti-phospho-antibodies, although to a different extent and with distinct time-courses. A rapid (from 5 min) and transient increase in phosphoryation of the stress-activated JNK MAPKs and of PKC was observed, followed by a later increase (at 30-60 min) in phosphorylation of extracellularly regulated MAPKs (ERK2 MAPK) and of the stress-activated p38 MAPK. TBBPA significantly stimulated the hemocyte microbicidal activity towards E. coli, lysosomal enzyme release, phagocytic activity and extracellular superoxide (O2

  3. Tat engagement of p38 MAP kinase and IRF7 pathways leads to activation of interferon-stimulated genes in antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nayoung; Kukkonen, Sami; Martinez-Viedma, Maria Del Pilar; Gupta, Sumeet; Aldovini, Anna

    2013-05-16

    As a result of its interaction with transcription factors, HIV type 1 (HIV-1) Tat can modulate the expression of both HIV and cellular genes. In antigen-presenting cells Tat induces the expression of a subset of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs) in the absence of IFNs. We investigated the genome-wide Tat association with promoters in immature dendritic cells and in monocyte-derived macrophages. Among others, Tat associated with the MAP2K6, MAP2K3, and IRF7 promoters that are functionally part of IL-1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. The association correlated with their increased gene expression, increased activation of p38 MAPK and of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), and consequent induction of ISGs. Probing these pathways with RNA interference, pharmacological p38 MAPK inhibition, and in cell lines lacking STAT1s or the type I IFN receptor chain confirmed the role of MAPKKs and IRF7 in Tat-mediated modulation of ISGs and excluded the involvement of IFNs in this modulation. Tat interaction with the 2 MAPKK and IRF7 promoters in HIV-1-infected cells and the resulting persistent activation of ISGs, which include inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, can contribute to the increased immune activation that characterizes HIV infection.

  4. Signal transduction pathway regulating prostaglandin EP3 receptor-induced neurite retraction: requirement for two different tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, J; Katoh, H; Yasui, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Nakamura, K; Hasegawa, H; Ichikawa, A; Negishi, M

    1999-01-01

    We reported previously that activation of the prostaglandin E receptor EP3 subtype triggered neurite retraction through the small GTPase Rho-, and its target, RhoA-binding kinase alpha (ROKalpha)-, dependent pathway in EP3 receptor-expressing PC12 cells. Here we examined the involvement of tyrosine kinases in this pathway in nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 cells. Tyrphostin A25, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocked neurite retraction and cell rounding induced by activation of the EP3 receptor, however, it failed to block neurite retraction and cell rounding induced by microinjection of constitutively active RhoA, RhoAV14, indicating that a tyrphostin-sensitive tyrosine kinase was involved in the pathway from the EP3 receptor to Rho activation. On the other hand, genistein, another tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocked neurite retraction and cell rounding induced by both activation of the EP3 receptor and microinjection of RhoAV14. However, genistein did not block neuronal morphological changes induced by microinjection of a constitutively active mutant of ROKalpha. These results indicate that two different tyrosine kinases, tyrphostin A25-sensitive and genistein-sensitive kinases, are involved in the EP3 receptor-mediated neurite retraction acting upstream and downstream of Rho, respectively. PMID:10333476

  5. Ca+2/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Mediates Glucose Toxicity-Induced Cardiomyocyte Contractile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rong-Huai; Guo, Haitao; Kandadi, Machender R.; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    (1) Hyperglycemia leads to cytotoxicity in the heart. Although several theories are postulated for glucose toxicity-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction, the precise mechanism still remains unclear. (2) This study was designed to evaluate the impact of elevated extracellular Ca2+ on glucose toxicity-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca2+ anomalies as well as the mechanism(s) involved with a focus on Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent kinase. Isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes were maintained in normal (NG, 5.5 mM) or high glucose (HG, 25.5 mM) media for 6-12 hours. Contractile indices were measured including peak shortening (PS), maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (±dL/dt), time-to-PS (TPS), and time-to-90% relengthening (TR90). (3) Cardiomyocytes maintained with HG displayed abnormal mechanical function including reduced PS, ±dL/dt, and prolonged TPS, TR90 and intracellular Ca2+ clearance. Expression of intracellular Ca2+ regulatory proteins including SERCA2a, phospholamban and Na+-Ca2+ exchanger were unaffected whereas SERCA activity was inhibited by HG. Interestingly, the HG-induced mechanical anomalies were abolished by elevated extracellular Ca2+ (from 1.0 to 2.7 mM). Interestingly, the high extracellular Ca2+-induced beneficial effect against HG was abolished by the CaM kinase inhibitor KN93. (4) These data suggest that elevated extracellular Ca2+ protects against glucose toxicity-induced cardiomyocyte contractile defects through a mechanism associated with CaM kinase. PMID:22745633

  6. Control of thrombopoietin-induced megakaryocytic differentiation by the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Rouyez, M C; Boucheron, C; Gisselbrecht, S; Dusanter-Fourt, I; Porteu, F

    1997-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is the major regulator of both growth and differentiation of megakaryocytes. We previously showed that both functions can be generated by TPO in the megakaryoblastic cell line UT7, in which murine Mpl was introduced, and are independently controlled by distinct regions of the cytoplasmic domain of Mpl. Particularly, residues 71 to 94 of this domain (deleted in the mutant mpl delta3) were found to be required for megakaryocytic maturation but dispensable for proliferation. We show here that TPO-induced differentiation in UT7 cells is tightly dependent on a strong, long-lasting activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Indeed, (i) in UT7-mpl cells, TPO induced a strong activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) which was persistent until at least 4 days in TPO-containing medium; (ii) a specific MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor inhibited TPO-induced megakaryocytic gene expression; (iii) the Mpl mutant mpl delta3, which displayed no maturation activity, transduced only a weak and transient ERK activation in UT7 cells; and (iv) TPO-induced megakaryocytic differentiation in UT7-mpl delta3 cells was partially restored by expression of a constitutively activated mutant of MEK. The capacity of TPO to trigger a strong and prolonged MAPK signal depended on the cell in which Mpl was introduced. In BAF3-mpl cells, TPO triggered a weak and transient ERK activation, similar to that induced in UT7-mpl delta3 cells. In these cells, no difference in MAPK activation was found between normal Mpl and mpl delta3. Thus, depending on the cellular context, several distinct regions of the cytoplasmic domain of Mpl and signaling pathways may contribute to generate quantitative variations in MAPK activation. PMID:9271377

  7. Development of regional liquefaction-induced deformation hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosinski, A.; Knudsen, K.-L.; Wu, J.; Seed, R.B.; Real, C.R.; ,

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes part of a project to assess the feasibility of producing regional (1:24,000-scale) liquefaction hazard maps that are based-on potential liquefaction-induced deformation. The study area is the central Santa Clara Valley, at the south end of San Francisco Bay in Central California. The information collected and used includes: a) detailed Quaternary geological mapping, b) over 650 geotechnical borings, c) probabilistic earthquake shaking information, and d) ground-water levels. Predictions of strain can be made using either empirical formulations or numerical simulations. In this project lateral spread displacements are estimated and new empirical relations to estimate future volumetric and shear strain are used. Geotechnical boring data to are used to: (a) develop isopach maps showing the thickness of sediment thatis likely to liquefy and deform under earthquake shaking; and (b) assess the variability in engineering properties within and between geologic map units. Preliminary results reveal that late Holocene deposits are likely to experience the greatest liquefaction-induced strains, while Holocene and late Pleistocene deposits are likely to experience significantly less horizontal and vertical strain in future earthquakes. Development of maps based on these analyses is feasible.

  8. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide stimulates the phosphorylation of p44 and p42 MAP kinases through CD14 and TLR-4 receptor activation in human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Venegas, Gloria; Kawasaki-Cárdenas, Perla; Cruz-Arroyo, Santa Rita; Pérez-Garzón, Miguel; Maldonado-Frías, Silvia

    2006-04-25

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is an early step in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated monocytes and macrophages that appears to play a key role in signal transduction. We have demonstrated that LPS purified from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans also increases protein tyrosine phosphorylation in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). This effect was elicited rapidly after LPS stimulation at concentrations that stimulate anti-bacterial responses in human gingival fibroblasts. Two main proteins, with an apparent molecular weight of 44 and 42 kDa, were phosphorylated after LPS stimulation of the human gingival fibroblasts. The phosphorylation was detected after 5 to 15 min and reached the maximum at 30 min of treatment. The increase in tyrosine phosphorylation was apparent following stimulation with LPS at 10 ng/ml and the response was dose dependent up to 10 microg/ml. Pretreatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, herbimycin A and genistein inhibited the LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of p44 and p42 MAP kinases in a dose dependent manner. Pretreatment of human gingival fibroblasts with antibodies anti-CD14 or anti-TLR-4 but not anti-TLR-2 inhibited the LPS-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of p44 and p42. Additionally, LPS-induced p44 and p42 phosphorylation was inhibited by polymyxin treatment. These findings demonstrate that LPS from A. actinomycetemcomintans increases rapidly p44 and p42 phosphorylation (ERK 1 and ERK 2, respectively) in human gingival fibroblasts. Our data also suggest that CD14 and TLR-4 receptors are involved in the LPS effects in human gingival fibroblasts.

  9. VEGF165-induced vascular permeability requires NRP1 for ABL-mediated SRC family kinase activation

    PubMed Central

    Lampropoulou, Anastasia; Senatore, Valentina; Brash, James T.; Liyanage, Sidath E.; Raimondi, Claudio; Bainbridge, James W.

    2017-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) isoform VEGF165 stimulates vascular growth and hyperpermeability. Whereas blood vessel growth is essential to sustain organ health, chronic hyperpermeability causes damaging tissue edema. By combining in vivo and tissue culture models, we show here that VEGF165-induced vascular leakage requires both VEGFR2 and NRP1, including the VEGF164-binding site of NRP1 and the NRP1 cytoplasmic domain (NCD), but not the known NCD interactor GIPC1. In the VEGF165-bound receptor complex, the NCD promotes ABL kinase activation, which in turn is required to activate VEGFR2-recruited SRC family kinases (SFKs). These results elucidate the receptor complex and signaling hierarchy of downstream kinases that transduce the permeability response to VEGF165. In a mouse model with choroidal neovascularisation akin to age-related macular degeneration, NCD loss attenuated vessel leakage without affecting neovascularisation. These findings raise the possibility that targeting NRP1 or its NCD interactors may be a useful therapeutic strategy in neovascular disease to reduce VEGF165-induced edema without compromising vessel growth. PMID:28289053

  10. Heme-induced Trypanosoma cruzi proliferation is mediated by CaM kinase II

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, C.F.; Carneiro, A.B.; Silveira, A.B.; Laranja, G.A.T.; Silva-Neto, M.A.C.; Costa, S.C. Goncalves da; Paes, M.C.

    2009-12-18

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is transmitted through triatomine vectors during their blood-meal on vertebrate hosts. These hematophagous insects usually ingest approximately 10 mM of heme bound to hemoglobin in a single meal. Blood forms of the parasite are transformed into epimastigotes in the crop which initiates a few hours after parasite ingestion. In a previous work, we investigated the role of heme in parasite cell proliferation and showed that the addition of heme significantly increased parasite proliferation in a dose-dependent manner . To investigate whether the heme effect is mediated by protein kinase signalling pathways, parasite proliferation was evaluated in the presence of several protein kinase (PK) inhibitors. We found that only KN-93, a classical inhibitor of calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMKs), blocked heme-induced cell proliferation. KN-92, an inactive analogue of KN-93, was not able to block this effect. A T. cruzi CaMKII homologue is most likely the main enzyme involved in this process since parasite proliferation was also blocked when Myr-AIP, an inhibitory peptide for mammalian CaMKII, was included in the cell proliferation assay. Moreover, CaMK activity increased in parasite cells with the addition of heme as shown by immunological and biochemical assays. In conclusion, the present results are the first strong indications that CaMKII is involved in the heme-induced cell signalling pathway that mediates parasite proliferation.

  11. p38 MAP kinase-dependent phosphorylation of the Gp78 E3 ubiquitin ligase controls ER-mitochondria association and mitochondria motility.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Gao, Guang; Shankar, Jay; Joshi, Bharat; Foster, Leonard J; Nabi, Ivan R

    2015-11-01

    Gp78 is an ERAD-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase that induces degradation of the mitofusin mitochondrial fusion proteins and mitochondrial fission. Gp78 is localized throughout the ER; however, the anti-Gp78 3F3A monoclonal antibody (mAb) recognizes Gp78 selectively in mitochondria-associated ER domains. Epitope mapping localized the epitope of 3F3A and a commercial anti-Gp78 mAb to an 8-amino acid motif (533-541) in mouse Gp78 isoform 2 that forms part of a highly conserved 41-amino acid region containing 14-3-3- and WW-binding domains and a p38 MAP kinase (p38 MAPK) consensus site on Ser-538 (S538). 3F3A binds selectively to nonphosphorylated S538 Gp78. Using 3F3A as a reporter, we induced Gp78 S538 phosphorylation by serum starvation and showed it to be mediated by p38 MAPK. Mass spectroscopy analysis of Gp78 phosphopeptides confirmed S538 as a major p38 MAPK phosphorylation site on Gp78. Gp78 S538 phosphorylation limited its ability to induce mitochondrial fission and degrade MFN1 and MFN2 but did not affect in vitro Gp78 ubiquitin E3 ligase activity. Phosphomimetic Gp78 S538D mutation prevented Gp78 promotion of ER-mitochondria interaction, and SB203580 inhibition of p38 MAPK increased ER-mitochondria association. p38 MAPK phosphorylation of Gp78 S538 therefore regulates Gp78-dependent ER-mitochondria association and mitochondria motility.

  12. Inhibition of pacemaker activity in interstitial cells of Cajal by LPS via NF-κB and MAP kinase

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Dong Chuan; Choi, Seok; Shahi, Pawan Kumar; Kim, Man Yoo; Park, Chan Guk; Kim, Young Dae; Lee, Jun; Chang, In Yeoup; So, Insuk; Jun, Jae Yeoul

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate lipopolysaccharide (LPS) related signal transduction in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) from mouse small intestine. METHODS: For this study, primary culture of ICCs was prepared from the small intestine of the mouse. LPS was treated to the cells prior to measurement of the membrane currents by using whole-cell patch clamp technique. Immunocytochemistry was used to examine the expression of the proteins in ICCs. RESULTS: LPS suppressed the pacemaker currents of ICCs and this could be blocked by AH6809, a prostaglandin E2-EP2 receptor antagonist or NG-Nitro-L-arginine Methyl Ester, an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase. Toll-like receptor 4, inducible NO synthase or cyclooxygenase-2 immunoreactivity by specific antibodies was detected on ICCs. Catalase (antioxidant agent) had no action on LPS-induced action in ICCs. LPS actions were blocked by nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, actinomycin D (a gene transcription inhibitor), PD 98059 (a p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases inhibitor) or SB 203580 [a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) inhibitor]. SB 203580 also blocked the prostaglandin E2-induced action on pacemaker currents in ICCs but not NO. CONCLUSION: LPS inhibit the pacemaker currents in ICCs via prostaglandin E2- and NO-dependent mechanism through toll-like receptor 4 and suggest that MAPK and NF-κB are implicated in these actions. PMID:23482668

  13. Developmentally divergent effects of Rho-kinase inhibition on cocaine- and BDNF-induced behavioral plasticity.

    PubMed

    DePoy, Lauren M; Noble, Benjamin; Allen, Amanda G; Gourley, Shannon L

    2013-04-15

    Prefrontal cortical dendritic spine remodeling during adolescence may open a window of vulnerability to pathological stimuli that impact long-term behavioral outcomes, but causal mechanisms remain unclear. We administered the Rho-kinase inhibitor HA-1077 during three adolescent periods in mice to destabilize dendritic spines. In adulthood, cocaine-induced locomotor activity was exaggerated. By contrast, when administered in adulthood, HA-1077 had no psychomotor consequences and normalized food-reinforced instrumental responding after orbitofrontal-selective knockdown of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a potential factor in addiction. Thus, early-life Rho-kinase inhibition confers cocaine vulnerability, but may actually protect against pathological reward-seeking - particularly in cases of diminished neurotrophic support - in adulthood.

  14. Neuronal and intestinal protein kinase d isoforms mediate Na+ (salt taste)-induced learning.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ya; Ren, Min; Feng, Hui; Chen, Lu; Altun, Zeynep F; Rubin, Charles S

    2009-08-11

    Ubiquitously expressed protein kinase D (PKD) isoforms are poised to disseminate signals carried by diacylglycerol (DAG). However, the in vivo regulation and functions of PKDs are poorly understood. We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans gene, dkf-2, encodes not just DKF-2A, but also a second previously unknown isoform, DKF-2B. Whereas DKF-2A is present mainly in intestine, we show that DKF-2B is found in neurons. Characterization of dkf-2 null mutants and transgenic animals expressing DKF-2B, DKF-2A, or both isoforms revealed that PKDs couple DAG signals to regulation of sodium ion (Na+)-induced learning. EGL-8 (a phospholipase Cbeta4 homolog) and TPA-1 (a protein kinase Cdelta homolog) are upstream regulators of DKF-2 isoforms in vivo. Thus, pathways containing EGL-8-TPA-1-DKF-2 enable learning and behavioral plasticity by receiving, transmitting, and cooperatively integrating environmental signals targeted to both neurons and intestine.

  15. Ventricular hypertrophy abrogates intralipid-induced cardioprotection by alteration of reperfusion injury salvage kinase/glycogen synthase kinase 3β signal.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei-Lei; Ge, Hong-Wei; Kong, Fei-Juan; Qian, Ling-Bo; Hu, Bang-Chuan; Li, Qian; Xu, Liang; Liu, Jing-Quan; Xu, Yun-Xiang; Sun, Ren-Hua

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that intralipid (ILP) conferred myocardial protection against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury through activation of reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) pathway. As RISK signal has been shown to be impaired in hypertrophied myocardium, we investigated whether ILP-induced cardiac protection was maintained in hypertrophied rat hearts. Transverse aortic constriction was performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats to induce left ventricular hypertrophy, then sham-operated or hypertrophied rat hearts were isolated and perfused retrogradely by the Langendorff for 30 min (equilibration) followed by 40 min of ischemia and then 120 min of reperfusion. The isolated hearts received 15-min episode of 1% ILP separated by 15 min of washout or three episodes of 5-min ischemia followed by 5-min reperfusion before ischemia. The hemodynamics, infarct size, apoptosis, phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt), phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), Bcl-2, phosphorylated Bad, and Bax were determined. We found that ILP significantly improved left ventricular hemodynamics and reduced infarct size and the number of TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling)-positive cells in the sham-operated rat hearts exposed to IR. However, such myocardial infarct-sparing effect of ILP was completely blocked by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin, but only partially by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD98059 in sham-operated hearts. Intralipd upregulated the phosphorylation of Akt, extracellular regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and their downstream target of GSK3β and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression in healthy rat hearts. Nonetheless, ILP failed to improve left ventricular hemodynamics and reduced infarct size and apoptosis and increase the phosphorylated Akt, ERK1/2, GSK3β, and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 in hypertrophied myocardium

  16. Salmonella induces SRC protein tyrosine kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and NF-kappaBp65 signaling pathways in commercial and wild-type turkey leukocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies comparing signaling in wild-type turkey (WT) leukocytes and commercial turkey (CT) leukocytes found that the activity of protein tyrosine kinases and MAP kinases, ERK 1/2 and p38, were significantly higher in WT leukocytes compared to CT lines upon exposure to both SE and OPSE on d...

  17. Mumps Virus Induces Protein-Kinase-R-Dependent Stress Granules, Partly Suppressing Type III Interferon Production

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Shin; Yamamoto, Soh; Ogasawara, Noriko; Sato, Toyotaka; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Katoh, Hiroshi; Kubota, Toru; Shiraishi, Tsukasa; Kojima, Takashi; Himi, Tetsuo; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic granular aggregations that are induced by cellular stress, including viral infection. SGs have opposing antiviral and proviral roles, which depend on virus species. The exact function of SGs during viral infection is not fully understood. Here, we showed that mumps virus (MuV) induced SGs depending on activation of protein kinase R (PKR). MuV infection strongly induced interferon (IFN)-λ1, 2 and 3, and IFN-β through activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) via retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and the mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) pathway. MuV-induced IFNs were strongly upregulated in PKR-knockdown cells. MuV-induced SG formation was suppressed by knockdown of PKR and SG marker proteins, Ras-GTPase-activating protein SH3-domain-binding protein 1 and T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1, and significantly increased the levels of MuV-induced IFN-λ1. However, viral titer was not altered by suppression of SG formation. PKR was required for induction of SGs by MuV infection and regulated type III IFN (IFN-λ1) mRNA stability. MuV-induced SGs partly suppressed type III IFN production by MuV; however, the limited suppression was not sufficient to inhibit MuV replication in cell culture. Our results provide insight into the relationship between SGs and IFN production induced by MuV infection. PMID:27560627

  18. Glabridin induces glucose uptake via the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway in muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Keisuke; Yamashita, Yoko; Zhang, Tianshun; Nakagawa, Kaku; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2014-08-05

    The present study demonstrates that glabridin, a prenylated isoflavone in licorice, stimulates glucose uptake through the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway in L6 myotubes. Treatment with glabridin for 4h induced glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner accompanied by the translocation of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane. Glabridin needed at least 4h to increase glucose uptake, while it significantly decreased glycogen and increased lactic acid within 15 min. Pharmacological inhibition of AMPK by Compound C suppressed the glabridin-induced glucose uptake, whereas phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Akt inhibition by LY294002 and Akt1/2 inhibitor, respectively, did not. Furthermore, glabridin induced AMPK phosphorylation, and siRNA for AMPK completely abolished glabridin-induced glucose uptake. We confirmed that glabridin-rich licorice extract prevent glucose intolerance accompanied by the AMPK-dependent GLUT4 translocation in the plasma membrane of mice skeletal muscle. These results indicate that glabridin may possess a therapeutic effect on metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and hyperglycemia, by modulating glucose metabolism through AMPK in skeletal muscle cells.

  19. The role of protein kinase C alpha translocation in radiation-induced bystander effect.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zihui; Xu, An; Wu, Lijun; Hei, Tom K; Hong, Mei

    2016-05-11

    Ionizing radiation is a well known human carcinogen. Evidence accumulated over the past decade suggested that extranuclear/extracellular targets and events may also play a critical role in modulating biological responses to ionizing radiation. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of radiation-induced bystander effect is still unclear. In the current study, AL cells were irradiated with alpha particles and responses of bystander cells were investigated. We found out that in bystander AL cells, protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) translocated from cytosol to membrane fraction. Pre-treatment of cells with PKC translocation inhibitor chelerythrine chloride suppressed the induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) activity and the increased cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression as well as the mutagenic effect in bystander cells. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) was elevated in directly irradiated but not bystander cells; while TNFα receptor 1 (TNFR1) increased in the membrane fraction of bystander cells. Further analysis revealed that PKC activation caused accelerated internalization and recycling of TNFR1. Our data suggested that PKCα translocation may occur as an early event in radiation-induced bystander responses and mediate TNFα-induced signaling pathways that lead to the activation of ERK and up-regulation of COX-2.

  20. Receptor expression is essential for proliferation induced by dimerized Jak kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Hodaka

    2008-06-13

    Two members of Jak kinases, Jak1 and Jak3, are associated with the cytoplasmic domains of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor (IL-2R) {beta} chain (IL-2R{beta}) and the common cytokine receptor {gamma} chain ({gamma}c), respectively, and accumulating evidence indicates their functional importance in IL-2 signaling. Here, I showed that coumermycin-induced chemical heterodimerization of Jak1 and Jak3 but not homodimerization of Jak1 or Jak3 induces cell proliferation of an IL-2R-reconstituted cell line. In this regard, expression of IL-2R{beta} was essential for cell proliferation by chemical heterodimerization of Jak1 and Jak3, indicating that dimerized Jak1 and Jak3 induce heterodimerization of IL-2R{beta} and {gamma}c, which may activate receptor-bound signaling molecules. Previous reports using chemical dimerization suggest that dimerization of Jak kinases is sufficient to induce cell proliferation. The present study indicates that re-evaluation of this conclusion is necessary and that interpretation of functional analysis of signaling molecules using chemical dimerizers needs more careful assessment.

  1. Norathyriol Suppresses Skin Cancers Induced by Solar Ultraviolet Radiation by Targeting ERK Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jixia; Malakhova, Margarita; Mottamal, Madhusoodanan; Reddy, Kanamata; Kurinov, Igor; Carper, Andria; Langfald, Alyssa; Oi, Naomi; Kim, Myoung Ok; Zhu, Feng; Sosa, Carlos P.; Zhou, Keyuan; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

    2012-06-27

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is the leading factor in the development of skin cancer, prompting great interest in chemopreventive agents for this disease. In this study, we report the discovery of norathyriol, a plant-derived chemopreventive compound identified through an in silico virtual screening of the Chinese Medicine Library. Norathyriol is a metabolite of mangiferin found in mango, Hypericum elegans, and Tripterospermum lanceolatum and is known to have anticancer activity. Mechanistic investigations determined that norathyriol acted as an inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activity to attenuate UVB-induced phosphorylation in mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling cascades. We confirmed the direct and specific binding of norathyriol with ERK2 through a cocrystal structural analysis. The xanthone moiety in norathyriol acted as an adenine mimetic to anchor the compound by hydrogen bonds to the hinge region of the protein ATP-binding site on ERK2. Norathyriol inhibited in vitro cell growth in mouse skin epidermal JB6 P+ cells at the level of G{sub 2}-M phase arrest. In mouse skin tumorigenesis assays, norathyriol significantly suppressed solar UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Further analysis indicated that norathyriol mediates its chemopreventive activity by inhibiting the ERK-dependent activity of transcriptional factors AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B during UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Taken together, our results identify norathyriol as a safe new chemopreventive agent that is highly effective against development of UV-induced skin cancer.

  2. Biliverdin Reductase Mediates Hypoxia-Induced EMT via PI3-Kinase and Akt

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Rui; Yao, Ying; Han, Min; Zhao, Xiaoqin; Liu, Xiao-Cheng; Wei, Juncheng; Luo, Yun; Zhang, Juan; Zhou, Jianfeng; Wang, Shixuan; Ma, Ding; Xu, Gang

    2008-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia in the renal parenchyma is thought to induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), leading to fibrogenesis and ultimately end-stage renal failure. Biliverdin reductase, recently identified as a serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase that may activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt, is upregulated in response to reactive oxygen species that may accompany hypoxia. We investigated this potential role of biliverdin reductase in hypoxia-induced renal tubular EMT. Expression of biliverdin reductase was upregulated in a human proximal tubule cell line (HK-2) cultured in hypoxic conditions (1% O2), and this was accompanied by reduced expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of the mesenchymal marker vimentin. Inhibiting PI3K reversed these changes, consistent with EMT. In normoxic conditions, overexpression of biliverdin reductase promoted similar characteristics of EMT, which were also reversed by inhibiting PI3K. Furthermore, using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knockdown biliverdin reductase, we demonstrated that the enzyme associates with phosphorylated Akt and mediates the hypoxia-induced EMT phenotype. In vivo, expression of biliverdin reductase increased in the tubular epithelia of 5/6-nephrectomized rats, and immunohistochemistry of serial sections demonstrated similar localization of phosphorylated Akt and biliverdin reductase. In conclusion, biliverdin reductase mediates hypoxia-induced EMT through a PI3K/Akt-dependent pathway. PMID:18184861

  3. Systems Analysis of Adaptive Responses to MAP Kinase Pathway Blockade in BRAF Mutant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Capaldo, Brian J.; Roller, Devin; Axelrod, Mark J.; Koeppel, Alex F.; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Slingluff, Craig L.; Weber, Michael J.; Mackey, Aaron J.; Gioeli, Daniel; Bekiranov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Fifty percent of cutaneous melanomas are driven by activated BRAFV600E, but tumors treated with RAF inhibitors, even when they respond dramatically, rapidly adapt and develop resistance. Thus, there is a pressing need to identify the major mechanisms of intrinsic and adaptive resistance and develop drug combinations that target these resistance mechanisms. In a combinatorial drug screen on a panel of 12 treatment-naïve BRAFV600E mutant melanoma cell lines of varying levels of resistance to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway inhibition, we identified the combination of PLX4720, a targeted inhibitor of mutated BRaf, and lapatinib, an inhibitor of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases, as synergistically cytotoxic in the subset of cell lines that displayed the most resistance to PLX4720. To identify potential mechanisms of resistance to PLX4720 treatment and synergy with lapatinib treatment, we performed a multi-platform functional genomics analysis to profile the genome as well as the transcriptional and proteomic responses of these cell lines to treatment with PLX4720. We found modest levels of resistance correlated with the zygosity of the BRAF V600E allele and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) mutational status. Layered over base-line resistance was substantial upregulation of many ErbB pathway genes in response to BRaf inhibition, thus generating the vulnerability to combination with lapatinib. The transcriptional responses of ErbB pathway genes are associated with a number of transcription factors, including ETS2 and its associated cofactors that represent a convergent regulatory mechanism conferring synergistic drug susceptibility in the context of diverse mutational landscapes. PMID:26405815

  4. Cell-permeable p38 MAP kinase promotes migration of adult neural stem/progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Hamanoue, Makoto; Morioka, Kazuhito; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Ohsawa, Keiko; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Tsuburaya, Kayo; Akasaka, Yoshikiyo; Mikami, Tetsuo; Ogata, Toru; Takamatsu, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) can migrate toward sites of injury, but the migration activity of NPCs is insufficient to regenerate damaged brain tissue. In this study, we showed that p38 MAP kinase (p38) is expressed in doublecortin-positive adult NPCs. Experiments using the p38 inhibitor SB203580 revealed that endogenous p38 participates in NPC migration. To enhance NPC migration, we generated a cell-permeable wild-type p38 protein (PTD-p38WT) in which the HIV protein transduction domain (PTD) was fused to the N-terminus of p38. Treatment with PTD-p38WT significantly promoted the random migration of adult NPCs without affecting cell survival or differentiation; this effect depended on the cell permeability and kinase activity of the fusion protein. These findings indicate that PTD-p38WT is a novel and useful tool for unraveling the roles of p38, and that this protein provides a reasonable approach for regenerating the injured brain by enhancing NPC migration. PMID:27067799

  5. Role of serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase-1 in regulating torsion-induced apoptosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Y-M; Pu, H-F; Huang, W J; Ho, L-T; Wang, S-W; Wang, P S

    2011-01-01

    Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase-1 (SGK1) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that responds to various stimuli and mediates cell survival. Although it is known that testicular torsion leads to testicular damage and male infertility, the role of SGK1 in torsion remains unclear. This study investigated whether torsion-induced apoptosis is associated with changes in phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1), SGK1 and forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a expression and/or phosphorylation in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham (control), 1, 2 and 4 h of unilateral torsion. Bilateral testes, testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) and blood samples were collected immediately after torsion. Our results revealed that SGK1 protein and mRNA were abundantly present in testes and were induced by 2 h of torsion, but that phosphorylation of SGK1, PDK1 and FOXO3a decreased simultaneously. After 2 h of torsion, the testosterone secretion capacity of the primary Leydig cells and testicular interstitial cells (TICs) was impaired and apoptotic spermatogonia and TICs were observed; in addition, the mean seminiferous tubular diameter was decreased. Torsion increased plasma corticosterone levels, but decreased plasma luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels. However, the testosterone levels of the TIF in the ipsilateral testes were significantly enhanced after 2 h of torsion, but suppressed in the contralateral testes. This animal study suggests that PDK1, SGK1 and FOXO3a are involved in torsion-induced apoptosis and that medical therapy should be performed as early as 2 h after the occurrence of torsion to prevent further damage. PMID:20738430

  6. Distinct steps in yeast spore morphogenesis require distinct SMK1 MAP kinase thresholds.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, M; Briza, P; Pierce, M; Winter, E

    1999-01-01

    The SMK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase is required for spore morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to the multiple aberrant spore wall assembly patterns seen even within a single smk1 null ascus, different smk1 missense mutants block in a coordinated fashion at intermediate stages. One smk1 mutant forms asci in which the four spores are surrounded only by prospore wall-like structures, while another smk1 mutant forms asci in which the spores are surrounded by inner but not outer spore wall layers. Stepwise increases in gene dosage of a hypomorphic smk1 allele allow for the completion of progressively later morphological and biochemical events and for the acquisition of distinct spore-resistance phenotypes. Furthermore, smk1 allelic spore phenotypes can be recapitulated by reducing wild-type SMK1 expression. The data demonstrate that SMK1 is required for the execution of multiple steps in spore morphogenesis that require increasing thresholds of SMK1 activity. These results suggest that quantitative changes in mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling play a role in coordinating multiple events of a single cellular differentiation program. PMID:10101160

  7. Mechanisms of cell signaling by nitric oxide and peroxynitrite: from mitochondria to MAP kinases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levonen, A. L.; Patel, R. P.; Brookes, P.; Go, Y. M.; Jo, H.; Parthasarathy, S.; Anderson, P. G.; Darley-Usmar, V. M.

    2001-01-01

    Many of the biological and pathological effects of nitric oxide (NO) are mediated through cell signaling pathways that are initiated by NO reacting with metalloproteins. More recently, it has been recognized that the reaction of NO with free radicals such as superoxide and the lipid peroxyl radical also has the potential to modulate redox signaling. Although it is clear that NO can exert both cytotoxic and cytoprotective actions, the focus of this overview are those reactions that could lead to protection of the cell against oxidative stress in the vasculature. This will include the induction of antioxidant defenses such as glutathione, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in response to blood flow, and modulation of mitochondrial function and its impact on apoptosis. Models are presented that show the increased synthesis of glutathione in response to shear stress and inhibition of cytochrome c release from mitochondria. It appears that in the vasculature NO-dependent signaling pathways are of three types: (i) those involving NO itself, leading to modulation of mitochondrial respiration and soluble guanylate cyclase; (ii) those that involve S-nitrosation, including inhibition of caspases; and (iii) autocrine signaling that involves the intracellular formation of peroxynitrite and the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases. Taken together, NO plays a major role in the modulation of redox cell signaling through a number of distinct pathways in a cellular setting.

  8. Comprehensive gene expression atlas for the Arabidopsis MAP kinase signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Menges, Margit; Dóczi, Róbert; Okrész, László; Morandini, Piero; Mizzi, Luca; Soloviev, Mikhail; Murray, James A H; Bögre, László

    2008-01-01

    * Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are signal transduction modules with layers of protein kinases having c. 120 genes in Arabidopsis, but only a few have been linked experimentally to functions. * We analysed microarray expression data for 114 MAPK signalling genes represented on the ATH1 Affymetrix arrays; determined their expression patterns during development, and in a wide range of time-course microarray experiments for their signal-dependent transcriptional regulation and their coregulation with other signalling components and transcription factors. * Global expression correlation of the MAPK genes with each of the represented 21 692 Arabidopsis genes was determined by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients. To group MAPK signalling genes based on similarities in global regulation, we performed hierarchical clustering on the pairwise correlation values. This should allow inferring functional information from well-studied MAPK components to functionally uncharacterized ones. Statistical overrepresentation of specific gene ontology (GO) categories in the gene lists showing high expression correlation values with each of the MAPK components predicted biological themes for the gene functions. * The combination of these methods provides functional information for many uncharacterized MAPK genes, and a framework for complementary future experimental dissection of the function of this complex family.

  9. MST50 Is Involved in Multiple MAP Kinase Signaling Pathways in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Li, Guotian; Zhang, Xue; Tian, Huan; Choi, Yoon-E; Andy Tao, W; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2017-02-28

    Appressorium formation plays a critical role in Magnaporthe oryzae. Mst50 is an adapter protein of the Mst11-Mst7-Pmk1 cascade that is essential for appressorium formation. To further characterize its functions, affinity purification was used to identify Mst50-interacting proteins (MIPs) in this study. Two of the MIPs are Mst11 and Mst7 that are known to interact with Mst50 for Pmk1 activation. Surprisingly, two other MIPs are Mck1 and Mkk2 that are the upstream kinases of the Mps1 pathway. Domain deletion analysis showed that the sterile alpha-motif of Mst50 but not the Ras-association domain was important for its interaction with Mck1 and responses to cell wall and oxidative stresses. The mst50 mutant was reduced in Mps1 activation under stress conditions. MIP11 encodes a RACK1 protein that also interacted with Mck1. Deletion of MIP11 resulted in defects in cell wall integrity, Mps1 phosphorylation, and plant infection. Furthermore, Mst50 interacted with histidine kinase Hik1, and the mst50 mutant was reduced in Osm1 phosphorylation. These results indicated that Mst50 is involved in all three MAPK pathways in M. oryzae although its functions differ in each pathway. Several MIPs are conserved hypothetical proteins and may be involved in responses to various signals and crosstalk among signaling pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibition of Receptor Interacting Protein Kinases Attenuates Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Induced by Palmitic Acid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingyue; Lu, Lihui; Lei, Song; Chai, Hua; Wu, Siyuan; Tang, Xiaoju; Bao, Qinxue; Chen, Li; Wu, Wenchao; Liu, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) is known to cause cardiomyocyte dysfunction. Cardiac hypertrophy is one of the important pathological features of PA-induced lipotoxicity, but the mechanism by which PA induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is still unclear. Therefore, our study was to test whether necroptosis, a receptor interacting protein kinase 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3-) dependent programmed necrosis, was involved in the PA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We used the PA-treated primary neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NCMs) or H9c2 cells to study lipotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was induced by PA treatment, determined by upregulation of hypertrophic marker genes and cell surface area enlargement. Upon PA treatment, the expression of RIPK1 and RIPK3 was increased. Pretreatment with the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), the PA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, was attenuated. Knockdown of RIPK1 or RIPK3 by siRNA suppressed the PA-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Moreover, a crosstalk between necroptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was observed in PA-treated cardiomyocytes. Inhibition of RIPK1 with Nec-1, phosphorylation level of AKT (Ser473), and mTOR (Ser2481) was significantly reduced in PA-treated cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, RIPKs-dependent necroptosis might be crucial in PA-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Activation of mTOR may mediate the effect of necroptosis in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by PA.

  11. Amphotericin B-Induced Renal Tubular Cell Injury Is Mediated by Na+ Influx through Ion-Permeable Pores and Subsequent Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases and Elevation of Intracellular Ca2+ Concentration▿

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Takahisa; Itoh, Yoshinori; Kawamura, Eiko; Maeda, Asuka; Egashira, Nobuaki; Nishida, Motohiro; Kurose, Hitoshi; Oishi, Ryozo

    2009-01-01

    Amphotericin B (AMB) is one of the most effective antifungal agents; however, its use is often limited by the occurrence of adverse events, especially nephrotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the possible mechanisms underlying the nephrotoxic action of AMB. The exposure of a porcine proximal renal tubular cell line (LLC-PK1 cells) to AMB caused cell injury, as assessed by mitochondrial enzyme activity, the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, and tissue ATP depletion. Propidium iodide uptake was enhanced, while terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling was not affected by AMB, suggesting a lack of involvement of apoptosis in AMB-induced cell injury. The cell injury was inhibited by the depletion of membrane cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin, which lowered the extracellular Na+ concentration or the chelation of intracellular Ca2+. The rise in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration may be mediated through the activation of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) on the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondrial Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, since cell injury was attenuated by dantrolene (an RyR antagonist) and CGP37157 (an Na+-Ca2+ exchanger inhibitor). Moreover, AMB-induced cell injury was reversed by PD169316 (a p38 mitogen-activated protein [MAP] kinase inhibitor), c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor II, and PD98059 (a MEK1/2 inhibitor). The phosphorylations of these MAP kinases were enhanced by AMB in a calcium-independent manner, suggesting the involvement of MAP kinases in AMB-induced cell injury. These findings suggest that Na+ entry through membrane pores formed by the association of AMB with membrane cholesterol leads to the activation of MAP kinases and the elevation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, leading to renal tubular cell injury. PMID:19139282

  12. A plant triterpenoid, avicin D, induces autophagy by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z-X; Liang, J; Haridas, V; Gaikwad, A; Connolly, F P; Mills, G B; Gutterman, J U

    2007-11-01

    Avicins, a family of plant triterpene electrophiles, can trigger apoptosis-associated tumor cell death, and suppress chemical-induced carcinogenesis by its anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, and antioxidant properties. Here, we show that tumor cells treated with benzyloxycarbonylvalyl-alanyl-aspartic acid (O-methyl)-fluoro-methylketone, an apoptosis inhibitor, and Bax(-/-)Bak(-/-) apoptosis-resistant cells can still undergo cell death in response to avicin D treatment. We demonstrate that this non-apoptotic cell death is mediated by autophagy, which can be suppressed by chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, and by specific knockdown of autophagy-related gene-5 (Atg5) and Atg7. Avicin D decreases cellular ATP levels, stimulates the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S6 kinase activity. Suppression of AMPK by compound C and dominant-negative AMPK decreases avicin D-induced autophagic cell death. Furthermore, avicin D-induced autophagic cell death can be abrogated by knockdown of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2), a key mediator linking AMPK to mTOR inhibition, suggesting that AMPK activation is a crucial event targeted by avicin D. These findings indicate the therapeutic potential of avicins by triggering autophagic cell death.

  13. Alpha B-Crystallin Protects Rat Articular Chondrocytes against Casein Kinase II Inhibition-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Rho, Jee Hyun; Lee, Sang Yeob; Yoo, Seung Hee; Kim, Hye Young; Chung, Won Tae; Yoo, Young Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Although alpha (α)B-crystallin is expressed in articular chondrocytes, little is known about its role in these cells. Protein kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibition induces articular chondrocyte death. The present study examines whether αB-crystallin exerts anti-apoptotic activity in articular chondrocytes. Primary rat articular chondrocytes were isolated from knee joint slices. Cells were treated with CK2 inhibitors with or without αB-crystallin siRNA. To examine whether the silencing of αB-crystallin sensitizes rat articular chondrocytes to CK2 inhibition-induced apoptosis, we assessed apoptosis by performing viability assays, mitochondrial membrane potential measurements, flow cytometry, nuclear morphology observations, and western blot analysis. To investigate the mechanism by which αB-crystallin modulates the extent of CK2 inhibition-mediated chondrocyte death, we utilized confocal microscopy to observe the subcellular location of αB-crystallin and its phosphorylated forms and performed a co-immunoprecipitation assay to observe the interaction between αB-crystallin and CK2. Immunochemistry was employed to examine αB-crystallin expression in cartilage obtained from rats with experimentally induced osteoarthritis (OA). Our results demonstrated that silencing of αB-crystallin sensitized rat articular chondrocytes to CK2 inhibitor-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, CK2 inhibition modulated the expression and subcellular localization of αB-crystallin and its phosphorylated forms and dissociated αB-crystallin from CK2. The population of rat articular chondrocytes expressing αB-crystallin and its phosphorylated forms was reduced in an experimentally induced rat model of OA. In summary, αB-crystallin protects rat articular chondrocytes against CK2 inhibition-induced apoptosis. αB-crystallin may represent a suitable target for pharmacological interventions to prevent OA. PMID:27851782

  14. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 deficiency attenuates cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang Joo; Ha, Chae-Myeong; Choi, Young-Keun; Park, Sungmi; Choe, Mi Sun; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Huh, Yang Hoon; Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Kweon, Hee-Seok; Lee, Ji-Min; Lee, Sun Joo; Jeon, Jae-Han; Harris, Robert A; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2017-04-01

    Clinical prescription of cisplatin, one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents, is limited by its side effects, particularly tubular injury-associated nephrotoxicity. Since details of the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, we investigated the role of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. Among the PDK isoforms, PDK4 mRNA and protein levels were markedly increased in the kidneys of mice treated with cisplatin, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation was involved in cisplatin-induced renal PDK4 expression. Treatment with the PDK inhibitor sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) or genetic knockout of PDK4 attenuated the signs of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury, including apoptotic morphology of the kidney tubules along with numbers of TUNEL-positive cells, cleaved caspase-3, and renal tubular injury markers. Cisplatin-induced suppression of the mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption rate, expression of electron transport chain components, cytochrome c oxidase activity, and disruption of mitochondrial morphology were noticeably improved in the kidneys of DCA-treated or PDK4 knockout mice. Additionally, levels of the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species were attenuated, whereas superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase expression and glutathione synthetase and glutathione levels were recovered in DCA-treated or PDK4 knockout mice. Interestingly, lipid accumulation was considerably attenuated in DCA-treated or PDK4 knockout mice via recovered expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and coactivator PGC-1α, which was accompanied by recovery of mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, PDK4 mediates cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury, suggesting that PDK4 might be a therapeutic target for attenuating cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury.

  15. The Role of Deoxycytidine Kinase (dCK) in Radiation-Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Rui; Xin, Rui; Chen, Zongyan; Liang, Nan; Liu, Yang; Ma, Shumei; Liu, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) is a key enzyme in deoxyribonucleoside salvage and the anti-tumor activity for many nucleoside analogs. dCK is activated in response to ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage and it is phosphorylated on Serine 74 by the Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase in order to activate the cell cycle G2/M checkpoint. However, whether dCK plays a role in radiation-induced cell death is less clear. In this study, we genetically modified dCK expression by knocking down or expressing a WT (wild-type), S74A (abrogates phosphorylation) and S74E (mimics phosphorylation) of dCK. We found that dCK could decrease IR-induced total cell death and apoptosis. Moreover, dCK increased IR-induced autophagy and dCK-S74 is required for it. Western blotting showed that the ratio of phospho-Akt/Akt, phospho-mTOR/mTOR, phospho-P70S6K/P70S6K significantly decreased in dCK-WT and dCK-S74E cells than that in dCK-S74A cells following IR treatment. Reciprocal experiment by co-immunoprecipitation showed that mTOR can interact with wild-type dCK. IR increased polyploidy and decreased G2/M arrest in dCK knock-down cells as compared with control cells. Taken together, phosphorylated and activated dCK can inhibit IR-induced cell death including apoptosis and mitotic catastrophe, and promote IR-induced autophagy through PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. PMID:27879648

  16. MAP KINASE SIGNALING IN PULMONARY FIBROBLASTS EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND BRONCHOAL VEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID (BALF) FROM HEALTHY AND HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MAP KINASE SIGNALING IN PULMONARY FIBROBLASTS EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID (BALF) FROM HEALTHY AND HYPERTENSIVE RATS. 1P Zhang, UP Kodavanti. NHEERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, 1School of Vet Med, NCSU, Raleigh, NC
    Exposure to PM ma...

  17. Involvement of OS-2 MAP kinase in regulation of the large-subunit catalases CAT-1 and CAT-3 in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kazuhiro; Shiozawa, Azusa; Banno, Shinpei; Fukumori, Fumiyasu; Ichiishi, Akihiko; Kimura, Makoto; Fujimura, Makoto

    2007-08-01

    Neurospora crassa has four catalase genes--cat-1, cat-2, cat-3, and ctt-1/cat-4. cat-1 and cat-3 encode two fungal-specific large-subunit catalases CAT-1 and CAT-3 normally produced in conidia and growing hyphae, respectively. cat-2 encodes CAT-2 catalase-peroxidase normally produced in conidia. ctt-1 (or cat-4), of which expression was controlled by OS-2 MAP kinase (Noguchi et al., Fungal Genet. Biol. 44, 208-218), encodes a small-subunit catalase with unknown function. To clarify the contribution of OS-2 on the regulation of CAT-1, CAT-2, and CAT-3, we performed quantitative RT-PCR and in-gel catalase activity analyses. When the hyphae were treated with a fungicide (1 mug/ml fludioxonil) or subjected to an osmotic stress (1 M sorbitol), cat-1 was strongly upregulated and CAT-1 was reasonably induced in the wild-type strain. Interestingly, fludioxonil caused not only the CAT-1 induction but also a remarkable CAT-3 decrease in the wild-type hyphae, implying of an abnormal stimulation of asexual differentiation. These responses were not observed in an os-2 mutant hyphae, indicating an involvement of OS-2 in the cat-1 expression; however, os-2 was dispensable for the production of CAT-1 in conidia. In contrast, the expression of cat-2 was significantly induced by heat shock (45 degrees C) and that of cat-3 was moderately stimulated by an oxidative stress (50 microg/ml methyl viologen) in both the wild-type strain and the os-2 mutant, and corresponding enzyme activities were detected after the treatments. Although basal levels of transcription of cat-1 and cat-3 in an os-2 mutant hyphae were a few-fold lower than in the wild-type hyphae, the os-2 mutant exhibited a considerably lower levels of CAT-3 activity than the wild-type strain. These findings suggest that OS-2 MAP kinase regulated the expression of cat-1 and cat-3 transcriptionally, and probably that of cat-3 posttranscriptionally, even though the presence of another regulatory system for each of these two

  18. A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor induced compound skin toxicity with oedema in metastatic malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Thomas, C L; Mortimer, P S; Larkin, J M; Basu, T N; Gore, M E; Fearfield, L

    2016-04-01

    We report three cases of skin toxicity associated with oral mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor treatment for metastatic malignant melanoma (MM). All three patients developed oedema, and a single patient experienced eyelash trichomegaly. This is the first known report of eyelash trichomegaly secondary to MEK inhibitor use. We also discuss possible mechanisms for MEK inhibitor-associated oedema development. This series supports the role of the dermatologist in the screening and management of patients in the rapidly developing oncology setting, as new targeted agents can give rise to marked skin toxicity.

  19. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors enhance ciprofloxacin-induced phototoxicity by inhibiting ABCG2.

    PubMed

    Mealey, Katrina L; Dassanayake, Sandamali; Burke, Neal S

    2014-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) class of anticancer agents inhibits ABCG2-mediated drug efflux. ABCG2 is an important component of the blood-retinal barrier, where it limits retinal exposure to phototoxic compounds such as fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Patients treated with TKIs would be expected to be at greater risk for retinal phototoxicity. Using an in vitro system, our results indicate that the TKIs gefitinib and imatinib abrogate the ability of ABCG2 to protect cells against ciprofloxacin-induced phototoxicity. We conclude that the concurrent administration of ABCG2 inhibitors with photoreactive fluoroquinolone antibiotics may result in retinal damage.

  20. Inhibitory activity for the interferon-induced protein kinase is associated with the reovirus serotype 1 sigma 3 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Imani, F; Jacobs, B L

    1988-01-01

    In this report we demonstrate that reovirus serotype 1-infected cells contain an inhibitor of the interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase. We provide evidence that suggests that the virus-encoded sigma 3 protein is likely responsible for this kinase inhibitory activity. We could not detect activation of the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase in extracts prepared from either interferon-treated or untreated reovirus serotype 1-infected mouse L cells under conditions that led to activation of the kinase in extracts prepared from either interferon-treated or untreated, uninfected cells. Extracts from reovirus-infected cells blocked activation of kinase in extracts from interferon-treated cells when the two were mixed prior to assay. The kinase inhibitory activity in extracts of reovirus-infected cells could be overcome by adding approximately 100-fold excess of dsRNA over the amount required to activate kinase in extracts of uninfected cells. Kinase inhibitory activity in extracts of interferon-treated, virus-infected cells could be overcome with somewhat less dsRNA (approximately 10-fold excess). Most of the inhibitory activity in the extracts could be removed by adsorption with immobilized anti-reovirus sigma 3 serum or immobilized dsRNA, suggesting that the dsRNA-binding sigma 3 protein is necessary for kinase inhibitory activity. Purified sigma 3 protein, when added to reaction mixtures containing partially purified kinase, inhibited enzyme activation. Control of activation of this kinase, which can modify eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation factor 2, may be relevant to the sensitivity of reovirus replication to treatment of cells with interferon and to the shutoff of host protein synthesis in reovirus-infected cells. Images PMID:2460857

  1. Arachidonic acid-induced Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle contraction through activation of Rho-kinase.

    PubMed

    Araki, S; Ito, M; Kureishi, Y; Feng, J; Machida, H; Isaka, N; Amano, M; Kaibuchi, K; Hartshorne, D J; Nakano, T

    2001-02-01

    Arachidonic acid activates isolated Rho-kinase and contracts permeabilized smooth muscle fibres. Various assays were carried out to examine the mechanism of this activation. Native Rho-kinase was activated 5-6 times by arachidonic acid but an N-terminal, constitutively-active fragment of Rho-kinase, expressed as a glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion protein and including the catalytic subunit (GST-Rho-kinase-CAT), was not. GST-Rho-kinase-CAT was inhibited by a C-terminal fragment of Rho-kinase and arachidonic acid removed this inhibition. These results suggest that the C-terminal part of Rho-kinase, containing the RhoA binding site and the pleckstrin homology domain, acts as an autoinhibitor. It is suggested further that activation by arachidonic acid is due to its binding to the autoinhibitory region and subsequent release from the catalytic site. Arachidonic acid, at concentrations greater than 30 microM, increases force in alpha-toxin-permeabilized femoral artery but not in Triton X-100-skinned fibres. The content of Rho-kinase in the latter was lower than in alpha-toxin-treated or intact fibres. The arachidonic acid-induced contraction was not observed at a pCa above 8.0 and was inhibited by Y-27632 and wortmannin, inhibitors of Rho-kinase and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK), respectively. The activation of Rho-kinase and subsequent phosphorylation of the myosin phosphatase target subunit inhibits myosin phosphatase and increases myosin phosphorylation.

  2. Combining Microinjection and Immunoblotting to Analyze MAP Kinase Phosphorylation in Single Starfish Oocytes and Eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, David J.; Hua, Wei

    The starfish oocyte has proven useful for studies involving microinjection because it is relatively large (190 μm) and optically clear. These oocytes are easily obtained from the ovary arrested at prophase of meiosis I, making them useful as a model system for the study of cell cycle-related events. In this chapter, a method for combining microinjection with immunoblotting of single cells is described. Individual starfish oocytes are injected, removed from the microinjection chamber, and analyzed by immunoblotting for the dual-phosphorylated form of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). This method will allow for experiments testing the regulation of MAPK in single cells and for the manipulation of these cells by a quantitative microinjection technique.

  3. Differential effects of the peptides Stomagen, EPF1 and EPF2 on activation of MAP kinase MPK6 and the SPCH protein level.

    PubMed

    Jewaria, Pawan Kumar; Hara, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Kondo, Tatsuhiko; Betsuyaku, Shigeyuki; Sawa, Shinichiro; Sakagami, Youji; Aimoto, Saburo; Kakimoto, Tatsuo

    2013-08-01

    The positioning and density of leaf stomata are regulated by three secretory peptides, EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR 1 (EPF1), EPF2 and stomagen. Several lines of published evidence have suggested a regulatory pathway as follows. EPF1 and EPF2 are perceived by receptor complexes consisting of a receptor-like protein, TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM), and receptor kinases, ERECTA (ER), ERECTA-LIKE (ERL) 1 and ERL2. These receptors activate a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase module. MAP kinases phosphorylate and destabilize the transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH), resulting in a decrease in the number of stomatal lineage cells. Stomagen acts antagonistically to EPF1 and EPF2. However, there is no direct evidence that EPF1 and EPF2 activate or that stomagen inactivates the MAP kinase cascade, through which they might regulate the SPCH level. Experimental modulation of these peptides in Arabidopsis thaliana would change the number of stomatal lineage cells in developing leaves, which in turn would change the expression of SPCH, making the interpretation difficult. Here we reconstructed this signaling pathway in differentiated leaf cells of Nicotiana benthamiana to examine signaling without the confounding effect of cell type change. We show that EPF1 and EPF2 are able to activate the MAP kinase MPK6, and that both EPF1 and EPF2 are able to decrease the SPCH level, whereas stomagen is able to increase it. Our data also suggest that EPF1 can be recognized by TMM together with any ER family receptor kinase, whereas EPF2 can be recognized by TMM together with ERL1 or ERL2, but not by TMM together with ER.

  4. Regulation of transport across cell membranes by the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK1.

    PubMed

    Lang, Florian; Stournaras, Christos; Alesutan, Ioana

    2014-02-01

    The serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) is genomically upregulated by cell stress including energy depletion and hyperosmotic shock as well as a variety of hormones including glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and TGFβ. SGK1 is activated by insulin, growth factors and oxidative stress via phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase PDK1 and mTOR. SGK1 is a powerful stimulator of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, carriers (e.g., NCC, NKCC, NHE1, NHE3, SGLT1, several amino acid transporters) and ion channels (e.g., ENaC, SCN5A, TRPV4-6, ORAI1/STIM1, ROMK, KCNE1/KCNQ1, GluR6, CFTR). Mechanisms employed by SGK1 in transport regulation include direct phosphorylation of target transport proteins, phosphorylation and thus activation of other transport regulating kinases, stabilization of membrane proteins by phosphorylation and thus inactivation of the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-2, as well as stimulation of transport protein expression by upregulation transcription factors (e.g., nuclear factor kappa-B [NFκB]) and by fostering of protein translation. SGK1 sensitivity of pump, carrier and channel activities participate in the regulation of epithelial transport, cardiac and neuronal excitability, degranulation, platelet function, migration, cell proliferation and apoptosis. SGK1-sensitive functions do not require the presence of SGK1 but are markedly upregulated by SGK1. Accordingly, the phenotype of SGK1 knockout mice is mild. The mice are, however, less sensitive to excessive activation of transport by glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, insulin and inflammation. Moreover, excessive SGK1 activity contributes to the pathophysiology of hypertension, obesity, diabetes, thrombosis, stroke, inflammation, autoimmune disease, fibrosis and tumor growth.

  5. The Erk MAP kinase pathway is activated at muscle spindles and is required for induction of the muscle spindle-specific gene Egr3 by neuregulin1.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Carter A; Ankenbruck, Nick; Fromm, Larry

    2014-02-01

    Muscle spindles are sensory receptors composed of specialized muscle fibers, known as intrafusal muscle fibers, along with the endings of sensory neuron axons that innervate these muscle fibers. Formation of muscle spindles requires neuregulin1 (NRG1), which is released by sensory axons, activating ErbB receptors in muscle cells that are contacted. The transcription factor Egr3 is transcriptionally induced by NRG1, which in turn activates various target genes involved in forming intrafusal fibers. We have previously shown that, in cultured muscle cells, NRG1 signaling activates the Egr3 gene through SRF and CREB, which bind to a composite regulatory element, and that NRG1 signaling targets SRF by stimulating nuclear translocation of SRF coactivators myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF)-A and MRTF-B and targets CREB by phosphorylation. The current studies examined signaling relays that might function in the NRG1 pathway upstream of SRF and CREB. We found that transcriptional induction of Egr3 in response to NRG1 requires the MAP kinase Erk1/2, which acts upstream of CREB to induce its phosphorylation. MRTFs are targeted by the Rho-actin pathway, yet in the absence of Rho-actin signaling, even though MRTFs fail to be translocated to the nucleus, NRG1 induces Egr3 transcription. In mouse muscle in vivo, activation of Erk1/2 is enhanced selectively where muscle spindles are located. These results suggest that Erk1/2 acts in intrafusal fibers of muscle spindles to induce transcription of Egr3 and that Egr3 induction occurs independently of MRTFs and involves Erk1/2 acting on other transcriptional regulatory targets that interact with the SRF-CREB regulatory element.

  6. CXCL13/CXCR5 enhances sodium channel Nav1.8 current density via p38 MAP kinase in primary sensory neurons following inflammatory pain

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-Bo; Cao, De-Li; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Bao-Chun; Zhao, Lin-Xia; Qian, Bin; Gao, Yong-Jing

    2016-01-01

    CXCL13 is a B lymphocyte chemoattractant and activates CXCR5 receptor in the immune system. Here we investigated whether CXCL13/CXCR5 mediates inflammatory pain in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and the underlying mechanisms. Peripheral injection of complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) increased the expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 in DRG neurons. In Cxcr5−/− mice, CFA-induced pain hypersensitivity were attenuated. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording showed that the excitability of dissociated DRG neurons was increased after CFA injection or CXCL13 incubation from wild-type (WT) mice, but not from Cxcr5−/− mice. Additionally, sodium channel Nav1.8 was co-expressed with CXCR5 in dissociated DRG neurons, and the increased neuronal excitability induced by CFA or CXCL13 was reduced by Nav1.8 blocker. Intrathecal injection of Nav1.8 blocker also attenuated intrathecal injection of CXCL13-induced pain hypersensitivity. Furthermore, CXCL13 increased Nav1.8 current density in DRG neurons, which was inhibited by p38 MAP kinase inhibitor. CFA and CXCL13 increased p38 phosphorylation in the DRG of WT mice but not Cxcr5−/− mice. Finally, intrathecal p38 inhibitor alleviated CXCL13-induced pain hypersensitivity. Taken together, these results demonstrated that CXCL13, upregulated by peripheral inflammation, acts on CXCR5 on DRG neurons and activates p38, which increases Nav1.8 current density and further contributes to the maintenance of inflammatory pain. PMID:27708397

  7. Cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates S6 phosphorylation and induced activation of S6 protein kinase in rat pancreatic acini

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, C.; Okabayashi, Y.; Williams, J.

    1987-05-01

    CCK and insulin stimulate pancreatic protein synthesis at a post transcriptional step. To better understand this regulation the authors evaluated the phosphorylation state of ribosomal protein S6 and the presence of a specific S6 protein kinase in pancreatic acini from diabetic rats. Both CCK and insulin increased S6 phosphorylation by up to 400% in intact TSP-labelled acini. The phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate also stimulated both protein synthesis and S6 phosphorlyation suggesting a role for protein kinase C in mediating the effect of CCK. By contrast, the CaS ionophore ionomycin had no effect on either parameter. Recently, insulin has been shown to activate a unique S6 kinase in various cells. To test for its presence, cytosolic extracts were prepared from acini stimulated with CCK and insulin by homogenization in US -glycerophosphate buffer and assayed for the kinase using el-TSP ATP and rat pancreatic ribosomes followed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. CCK and insulin both increased S6 kinase activity which required neither CaS or phospholipid. The dose response for CCk was similar to S6 phosphorlyation in the intact acini. TPA did not stimulate the S6 kinase. Thus, CCK may induce S6 phosphorylation both via C kinase and by activation of a unique S6 kinase.

  8. A Major Facilitator Superfamily Transporter-Mediated Resistance to Oxidative Stress and Fungicides Requires Yap1, Skn7, and MAP Kinases in the Citrus Fungal Pathogen Alternaria alternata

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Hung; Tsai, Hsieh-Chin; Yu, Pei-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) transporters play an important role in multidrug resistance in fungi. We report an AaMFS19 gene encoding a MFS transporter required for cellular resistance to oxidative stress and fungicides in the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata. AaMFS19, containing 12 transmembrane domains, displays activity toward a broad range of substrates. Fungal mutants lacking AaMFS19 display profound hypersensitivities to cumyl hydroperoxide, potassium superoxide, many singlet oxygen-generating compounds (eosin Y, rose Bengal, hematoporphyrin, methylene blue, and cercosporin), and the cell wall biosynthesis inhibitor, Congo red. AaMFS19 mutants also increase sensitivity to copper ions, clotrimazole, fludioxonil, and kocide fungicides, 2-chloro-5-hydroxypyridine (CHP), and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA). AaMFS19 mutants induce smaller necrotic lesions on leaves of a susceptible citrus cultivar. All observed phenotypes in the mutant are restored by introducing and expressing a wild-type copy of AaMFS19. The wild-type strain of A. alternata treated with either CHP or TIBA reduces radial growth and formation and germination of conidia, increases hyphal branching, and results in decreased expression of the AaMFS19 gene. The expression of AaMFS19 is regulated by the Yap1 transcription activator, the Hog1 and Fus3 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, the ‘two component’ histidine kinase, and the Skn7 response regulator. Our results demonstrate that A. alternata confers resistance to different chemicals via a membrane-bound MFS transporter. PMID:28060864

  9. Telencephalin protects PAJU cells from amyloid beta protein-induced apoptosis by activating the ezrin/radixin/moesin protein family/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Heping; Wu, Dapeng; Zhang, Xiaojie; Wang, Xiang; Peng, Yi; Hu, Zhiping

    2012-10-05

    Telencephalin is a neural glycoprotein that reduces apoptosis induced by amyloid beta protein in the human neural tumor cell line PAJU. In this study, we examined the role of the ezrin/radixin/moesin protein family/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway in this process. Western blot analysis demonstrated that telencephalin, phosphorylated ezrin/radixin/moesin and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B were not expressed in PAJU cells transfected with empty plasmid, while they were expressed in PAJU cells transfected with a telencephalin expression plasmid. After treatment with 1.0 nM amyloid beta protein 42, expression of telencephalin and phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B in the transfected cells gradually diminished, while levels of phosphorylated ezrin/radixin/moesin increased. In addition, the high levels of telencephalin, phosphorylated ezrin/radixin/moesin and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B expression in PAJU cells transfected with a telencephalin expression plasmid could be suppressed by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. These findings indicate that telencephalin activates the ezrin/radixin/moesin family/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway and protects PAJU cells from amyloid beta protein-induced apoptosis.

  10. Effects of butyltins on mitogen-activated-protein kinase kinase kinase and Ras activity in human natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Celada, Lindsay J; Whalen, Margaret M

    2014-09-01

    Butyltins (BTs) contaminate the environment and are found in human blood. BTs, tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) diminish the cytotoxic function and levels of key proteins of human natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells are an initial immune defense against tumors, virally infected cells and antibody-coated cells and thus critical to human health. The signaling pathways that regulate NK cell functions include mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Studies have shown that exposure to BTs leads to activation of specific MAPKs and MAPK kinases (MAP2Ks) in human NK cells. MAP2K kinases (MAP3Ks) are upstream activators of MAP2Ks, which then activate MAPKs. The current study examined if BT-induced activation of MAP3Ks was responsible for MAP2K and thus, MAPK activation. This study examines the effects of TBT and DBT on the total levels of two MAP3Ks, c-Raf and ASK1, as well as activating and inhibitory phosphorylation sites on these MAP3Ks. In addition, the immediate upstream activator of c-Raf, Ras, was examined for BT-induced alterations. Our results show significant activation of the MAP3K, c-Raf, in human NK cells within 10 min of TBT exposure and the MAP3K, ASK1, after 1 h exposures to TBT. In addition, our results suggest that both TBT and DBT affect the regulation of c-Raf.

  11. Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 in angiotensin II-induced inflammation and hypertension: regulation of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimian, Talin; Li, Melissa Wei; Lemarié, Catherine A; Simeone, Stefania M C; Pagano, Patrick J; Gaestel, Matthias; Paradis, Pierre; Wassmann, Sven; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2011-02-01

    Vascular oxidative stress and inflammation play an important role in angiotensin II-induced hypertension, and mitogen-activated protein kinases participate in these processes. We questioned whether mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), a downstream target of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, is involved in angiotensin II-induced vascular responses. In vivo experiments were performed in wild-type and Mk2 knockout mice infused intravenously with angiotensin II. Angiotensin II induced a 30 mm Hg increase in mean blood pressure in wild-type that was delayed in Mk2 knockout mice. Angiotensin II increased superoxide production and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in blood vessels of wild-type but not in Mk2 knockout mice. Mk2 knockdown by small interfering RNA in mouse mesenteric vascular smooth muscle cells caused a 42% reduction in MK2 protein and blunted the angiotensin II-induced 40% increase of MK2 expression. Mk2 knockdown blunted angiotensin II-induced doubling of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, 2.4-fold increase of nuclear p65, and 1.4-fold increase in Ets-1. Mk2 knockdown abrogated the angiotensin II-induced 4.7-fold and 1.3-fold increase of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA and protein. Angiotensin II enhanced reactive oxygen species levels (by 29%) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity (by 48%), both abolished by Mk2 knockdown. Reduction of MK2 blocked angiotensin II-induced p47phox translocation to the membrane, associated with a 53% enhanced catalase expression. Angiotensin II-induced increase of MK2 was prevented by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase inhibitor Nox2ds-tat. Mk2 small interfering RNA prevented the angiotensin II-induced 30% increase of proliferation. In conclusion, MK2 plays a critical role in angiotensin II signaling, leading to hypertension, oxidative stress via activation of p47phox and inhibition of antioxidants, and vascular inflammation

  12. Sphingosine Kinase 1 Deficiency Confers Protection against Hyperoxia-Induced Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Harijith, Anantha; Pendyala, Srikanth; Reddy, Narsa M.; Bai, Tao; Usatyuk, Peter V.; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Gorshkova, Irina; Huang, Long Shuang; Mohan, Vijay; Garzon, Steve; Kanteti, Prasad; Reddy, Sekhar P.; Raj, J. Usha; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2014-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia of the premature newborn is characterized by lung injury, resulting in alveolar simplification and reduced pulmonary function. Exposure of neonatal mice to hyperoxia enhanced sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) levels in lung tissues; however, the role of increased S1P in the pathobiological characteristics of bronchopulmonary dysplasia has not been investigated. We hypothesized that an altered S1P signaling axis, in part, is responsible for neonatal lung injury leading to bronchopulmonary dysplasia. To validate this hypothesis, newborn wild-type, sphingosine kinase1−/− (Sphk1−/−), sphingosine kinase 2−/− (Sphk2−/−), and S1P lyase+/− (Sgpl1+/−) mice were exposed to hyperoxia (75%) from postnatal day 1 to 7. Sphk1−/−, but not Sphk2−/− or Sgpl1+/−, mice offered protection against hyperoxia-induced lung injury, with improved alveolarization and alveolar integrity compared with wild type. Furthermore, SphK1 deficiency attenuated hyperoxia-induced accumulation of IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2 and NOX4 protein expression in lung tissue. In vitro experiments using human lung microvascular endothelial cells showed that exogenous S1P stimulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, whereas SphK1 siRNA, or inhibitor against SphK1, attenuated hyperoxia-induced S1P generation. Knockdown of NOX2 and NOX4, using specific siRNA, reduced both basal and S1P-induced ROS formation. These results suggest an important role for SphK1-mediated S1P signaling–regulated ROS in the development of hyperoxia-induced lung injury in a murine neonatal model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. PMID:23933064

  13. Nutrient deprivation induces the Warburg effect through ROS/AMPK-dependent activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-An; Chao, Yee; Shiah, Shine-Gwo; Lin, Wan-Wan

    2013-05-01

    The Warburg effect is known to be crucial for cancer cells to acquire energy. Nutrient deficiencies are an important phenomenon in solid tumors, but the effect on cancer cell metabolism is not yet clear. In this study, we demonstrate that starvation of HeLa cells by incubation with Hank's buffered salt solution (HBSS) induced cell apoptosis, which was accompanied by the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. Notably, HBSS starvation increased lactate production, cytoplasmic pyruvate content and decreased oxygen consumption, but failed to change the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity or the glucose uptake. We found that HBSS starvation rapidly induced pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) activation and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) phosphorylation, both of which were inhibited by compound C (an AMPK inhibitor), NAC (a ROS scavenger), and the dominant negative mutant of AMPK. Our data further revealed the involvement of ROS production in AMPK activation. Moreover, DCA (a PDK inhibitor), NAC, and compound C all significantly decreased HBSS starvation-induced lactate production accompanied by enhancement of HBSS starvation-induced cell apoptosis. Not only in HeLa cells, HBSS-induced lactate production and PDH phosphorylation were also observed in CL1.5, A431 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Taken together, we for the first time demonstrated that a low-nutrient condition drives cancer cells to utilize glycolysis to produce ATP, and this increases the Warburg effect through a novel mechanism involving ROS/AMPK-dependent activation of PDK. Such an event contributes to protecting cells from apoptosis upon nutrient deprivation.

  14. In vivo Evaluation of Two Thiazolidin-4-one Derivatives in High Sucrose Diet Fed Pre-diabetic Mice and Their Modulatory Effect on AMPK, Akt and p38 MAP Kinase in L6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mudgal, Jayesh; Shetty, Priya; Reddy, Neetinkumar D.; Akhila, H. S.; Gourishetti, Karthik; Mathew, Geetha; Nayak, Pawan G.; Kumar, Nitesh; Kishore, Anoop; Kutty, Nampurath G.; Nandakumar, Krishnadas; Shenoy, Rekha R.; Rao, Chamallamudi M.; Joseph, Alex

    2016-01-01

    We had previously demonstrated the anti-diabetic potential and pancreatic protection of two thiazolidin-4-one derivatives containing nicotinamide moiety (NAT-1 and NAT-2) in STZ-induced diabetic mice. However, due to the limitations of the STZ model, we decided to undertake a detailed evaluation of anti-diabetic potential of the molecules on a high sucrose diet (HSD) fed diabetic mouse model. Further, in vitro mechanistic studies on the phosphorylation of AMPK, Akt and p38 MAP kinase in L6 myotubes and anti-inflammatory studies in RAW264.7 mouse monocyte macrophage cells were performed. 15 months of HSD induced fasting hyperglycaemia and impaired glucose tolerance in mice. Treatment with NAT-1 and NAT-2 (100 mg/kg) for 45 days significantly improved the glucose tolerance and lowered fasting blood glucose levels compared to untreated control. An improvement in the elevated triglycerides and total cholesterol levels, and favorable rise in HDL cholesterol were also observed with test drug treatment. Also, no major changes were observed in the liver (albumin, AST and ALT) and kidney (creatinine and urea) parameters. This was further confirmed in their respective histology profiles which revealed no gross morphological changes. In L6 cells, significant phosphorylation of Akt and p38 MAP kinase proteins were observed with 100 μM of NAT-1 and NAT-2 with no significant changes in phosphorylation of AMPK. The molecules failed to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity as observed by their effect on the generation of ROS and nitrite, and nuclear levels of NF-κB in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In summary, the molecules activated Akt and p38 MAP kinase which could have partly contributed to their anti-hyperglycaemic and hypolipidemic activities in vivo. PMID:27790148

  15. A protein kinase from Colletotrichum trifolii is induced by plant cutin and is required for appressorium formation.

    PubMed

    Dickman, M B; Ha, Y S; Yang, Z; Adams, B; Huang, C

    2003-05-01

    When certain phytopathogenic fungi contact plant surfaces, specialized infection structures (appressoria) are produced that facilitate penetration of the plant external barrier; the cuticle. Recognition of this hydrophobic host surface must be sensed by the fungus, initiating the appropriate signaling pathway or pathways for pathogenic development. Using polymerase chain reaction and primers designed from mammalian protein kinase C sequences (PKC), we have isolated, cloned, and characterized a protein kinase from Colletotrichum trifolii, causal agent of alfalfa anthracnose. Though sequence analysis indicated conserved sequences in mammalian PKC genes, we were unable to induce activity of the fungal protein using known activators of PKC. Instead, we show that the C. trifolii gene, designated LIPK (lipid-induced protein kinase) is induced specifically by purified plant cutin or long-chain fatty acids which are monomeric constituents of cutin. PKC inhibitors prevented appressorium formation and, to a lesser extent, spore germination. Overexpression of LIPK resulted in multiple, abnormally shaped appressoria. Gene replacement of lipk yielded strains which were unable to develop appressoria and were unable to infect intact host plant tissue. However, these mutants were able to colonize host tissue following artificial wounding, resulting in typical anthracnose lesions. Taken together, these data indicate a central role in triggering infection structure formation for this protein kinase, which is induced specifically by components of the plant cuticle. Thus, the fungus is able to sense and use host surface chemistry to induce a protein kinase-mediated pathway that is required for pathogenic development.

  16. Sequential phosphorylation mediates receptor- and kinase-induced inhibition of TREK-1 background potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Murbartián, Janet; Lei, Qiubo; Sando, Julianne J; Bayliss, Douglas A

    2005-08-26

    Background potassium channels determine membrane potential and input resistance and serve as prominent effectors for modulatory regulation of cellular excitability. TREK-1 is a two-pore domain background K+ channel (KCNK2, K2P2.1) that is sensitive to a variety of physicochemical and humoral factors. In this work, we used a recombinant expression system to show that activation of G alpha(q)-coupled receptors leads to inhibition of TREK-1 channels via protein kinase C (PKC), and we identified a critical phosphorylation site in a key regulatory domain that mediates inhibition of the channel. In HEK 293 cells co-expressing TREK-1 and either the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR1) or the Orexin receptor (Orx1R), agonist stimulation induced robust channel inhibition that was suppressed by a bisindolylmaleimide PKC inhibitor but not by a protein kinase A blocker ((R(p))-cAMP-S). Channel inhibition by agonists or by direct activators of PKC (phorbol dibutyrate) and PKA (forskolin) was disrupted not only by alanine or aspartate mutations at an identified PKA site (Ser-333) in the C terminus, but also at a more proximal regulatory site in the cytoplasmic C terminus (Ser-300); S333A and S300A mutations enhanced basal TREK-1 current, whereas S333D and S300D substitutions mimicked phosphorylation and strongly diminished currents. When studied in combination, TREK-1 current density was enhanced in S300A/S333D but reduced in S300D/S333A mutant channels. Channel mutants were expressed and appropriately targeted to cell membranes. Together, these data support a sequential phosphorylation model in which receptor-induced kinase activation drives modification at Ser-333 that enables subsequent phosphorylation at Ser-300 to inhibit TREK-1 channel activity.

  17. Insulin inhibits AMPA-induced neuronal damage via stimulation of protein kinase B (Akt).

    PubMed

    Kim, S-J; Han, Y

    2005-02-01

    We designed a series of experiments to explore the neuroprotective effects of insulin. Insulin significantly inhibited the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-induced neuronal cell damage as evidenced by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium-bromide (MTT) assay. However, insulin had little affect on the AMPA-induced glial cell damage. To determine whether insulin inhibits AMPA-induced excitotoxicity, we performed grease-gap recording assays using rat brain slices. In these experiments, insulin also significantly inhibited AMPA-induced depolarization. Flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation assays showed that insulin inhibits AMPA-induced apoptosis and DNA fragmentation, respectively. Insulin stimulated protein kinase B (Akt) activity, whereas AMPA pretreatment did not alter the insulin-stimulated Akt activity. On the contrary, insulin blocked induction of SAPK/JNK, which AMPA stimulated. Taken together, these results suggest that insulin exerts neuroprotective effects by inhibiting AMPA-induced excitotoxicity and apoptosis, possibly by activating Akt and blocking SAPK/JNK.

  18. Apigenin Attenuates Melanoma Cell Migration by Inducing Anoikis through Integrin and Focal Adhesion Kinase Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hasnat, Md Abul; Pervin, Mehnaz; Lim, Ji Hong; Lim, Beong Ou

    2015-11-27

    Apigenin, a nonmutagenic flavonoid, has been found to have antitumor properties and is therefore particularly relevant for the development of chemotherapeutic agents for cancers. In this study, time- and dose-dependent cell viability and cytotoxicity were assessed to determine the effects of apigenin on A2058 and A375 melanoma cells. Melanoma cells were pretreated with different concentrations of apigenin and analyzed for morphological changes, anoikis induction, cell migration, and levels of proteins associated with apoptosis. Apigenin reduced integrin protein levels and inhibited the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), which induce anoikis in human cutaneous melanoma cells. Apigenin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of melanoma cell migration, unlike untreated controls. Furthermore, apigenin treatment increased apoptotic factors such as caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating the metastasis of melanoma cells. Our results provide a new insight into the mechanisms by which apigenin prevents melanoma metastasis by sensitizing anoikis induced by the loss of integrin proteins in the FAK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway. These findings elucidate the related mechanisms and suggest the potential of apigenin in developing clinical treatment strategies against malignant melanoma.

  19. Pim1 kinase synergizes with c-MYC to induce advanced prostate carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Kim, Jongchan; Roh, Meejeon; Franco, Omar E.; Hayward, Simon W.; Wills, Marcia L.; Abdulkadir, Sarki A.

    2010-01-01

    The oncogenic PIM1 kinase has been implicated as a cofactor for c-MYC in prostate carcinogenesis. Here we show that in human prostate tumors, coexpression of c-MYC and PIM1 is associated with higher Gleason grades. Using a tissue recombination model coupled with lentiviral-mediated gene transfer we find that Pim1 is weakly oncogenic in naïve adult mouse prostatic epithelium. However, it cooperates dramatically with c-MYC to induce prostate cancer within 6-weeks. Importantly, c-MYC/Pim1 synergy is critically dependent on Pim1 kinase activity. c-MYC/Pim1 tumors showed increased levels of the active serine-62 (S62) phosphorylated form of c-MYC. Grafts expressing a phosphomimetic c-MYCS62D mutant had higher rates of proliferation than grafts expressing wild type c-MYC but did not form tumors like c-MYC/Pim1 grafts, indicating that Pim1 cooperativity with c-MYC in vivo involves additional mechanisms other than enhancement of c-MYC activity by S62 phosphorylation. c-MYC/Pim1-induced prostate carcinomas demonstrate evidence of neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation. Additional studies, including the identification of tumor cells coexpressing androgen receptor and NE cell markers synaptophysin and Ascl1 suggested that NE tumors arose from adenocarcinoma cells through transdifferentiation. These results directly demonstrate functional cooperativity between c-MYC and PIM1 in prostate tumorigenesis in vivo and support efforts for targeting PIM1 in prostate cancer. PMID:20140016

  20. Functional Effects of AKT3 on Aurora Kinase Inhibitor-induced Aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Kohji; Hongama, Keita; Hariki, Shiori; Nonomiya, Yuma; Katayama, Kazuhiro; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2017-02-03

    The suppression of mitotic Aurora kinases (AURKs) by AURK inhibitors frequently causes cytokinetic failure, leading to polyploidy or aneuploidy, indicating the critical role of AURK-mediated phosphorylation during cytokinesis. We demonstrate the deregulated expression of AKT3 in Aurora kinase inhibitor (AURKi)-resistant cells, which we established from human colorectal cancer HCT 116 cells. The AKT family, which includes AKT1, -2, and -3, plays multiple roles in antiapoptotic functions and drug resistance and is involved in cell growth and survival pathways. We found that an AKT inhibitor, AZD5363, showed synergistic effect with an AURKi, VX-680, on two AKT3-expressing AURKi-resistant cell lines, and AKT3 knockdown sensitized cells to VX-680. Consistent with these activities, AKT3 expression suppressed AURKi-induced apoptosis and conferred resistance to AURKi. Thus, AKT3 expression affects cell sensitivity to AURKi. Moreover, we found that AKT3 expression suppressed AURKi-induced aneuploidy, and inversely AKT3 knockdown enhanced it. In addition, partial co-localization of AKT3 with AURKB was observed during anaphase. Overall, this study suggests that AKT3 could repress the antiproliferative effects of AURKi, with a novel activity particularly suppressing the aneuploidy induction.

  1. Efficacy of Rho kinase inhibitor on cognitive impairment induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Jun-Jian; Han, Zhong-Mou

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to explore the efficacy of Rho kinase inhibitor Fasudil on cognitive impairment induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats. A total of 32 male adult Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups: treatment group, control group and sham-operated group for severe carotid artery stenosis model. After two weeks, 8.35 mg/kg Fasudil and physiological saline were intraperitoneally applied twice per day in treatment group and control group, respectively. Morris water maze test was performed in each group to detect the changes of cognitive function and observe the hippocampal pathomorphology in rats after eight weeks. The average escape latency distinctly shortened (P < 0.01) and the percentage of swimming distance in the platform quadrant significantly increased (P < 0.01) in treatment group compared with those at corresponding time points in control group. The rate of carotid artery stenosis in rats had no statistical difference between treatment and control groups (P > 0.05). Fasudil effectively improved hippocampal pathomorphology. Rho kinase inhibitor obviously ameliorated cognitive impairment induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats. PMID:25932185

  2. Ligand-induced global transitions in the catalytic domain of protein kinase A

    PubMed Central

    Hyeon, Changbong; Jennings, Patricia A.; Adams, Joseph A.; Onuchic, José N.

    2009-01-01

    Conformational transitions play a central role in the phosphorylation mechanisms of protein kinase. To understand the nature of these transitions, we investigated the dynamics of nucleotide binding to the catalytic domain of PKA, a prototype for the protein kinase enzyme family. The open-to-closed transition in PKA was constructed as a function of ATP association by using available X-ray data and Brownian dynamics. Analyzing the multiple kinetic trajectories at the residue level, we find that the spatial rearrangement of the residues around the nucleotide-binding pocket, along with suppressed local fluctuations, controls the compaction of the entire molecule. In addition, to accommodate the stresses induced by ATP binding at the early transition stage, partial unfoldings (cracking) and reformations of several native contacts occur at the interfaces between the secondary structure motifs enveloping the binding pocket. This suggests that the enzyme experiences local structural deformations while reaching its functional, ATP-bound state. Our dynamical view of the ligand-induced transitions in PKA suggests that the kinetic hierarchy of local and global dynamics, the variable fluctuation of residues and the necessity of partial local unfolding may be fundamental components in other large scale allosteric transitions. PMID:19204278

  3. Polycystin-1 Induces Resistance to Apoptosis through the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Boca, Manila; Distefano, Gianfranco; Boletta, Alessandra; Qian, Feng; Bhunia, Anil K.; Germino, Gregory G.

    2006-01-01

    Polycystin-1 (PC-1), the PKD1 gene product, is a large receptor whose expression in renal epithelial cells results in resistance to apoptosis and tubulogenesis, a model consistent with the phenotype observed in patients. This study links PC-1 expression to a signaling pathway that is known to be both antiapoptotic and important for normal tubulogenesis. This study found that PC-1 expression results in phosphorylation of Akt and downstream effectors and that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitors prevent this process. In addition, it is shown that dominant negative Akt can revert PC-1-induced protection from apoptosis. Furthermore, it was observed that increased PI3-K β activity in PC-1- expressing MDCK cells seems to be dependent on both tyrosine-kinase activity and heterotrimeric G proteins. It also was found that PC-1-induced tubulogenesis is inhibited by PI3-K inhibitors. Taken together, these data suggest that the PI3-K/Akt cascade may be a central modulator of PC-1 function and that its deregulation might be important in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PMID:16452497

  4. Opposing actions of TGF{beta} and MAP kinase signaling in undifferentiated hen granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Dori C.; Haugen, Morgan J.; Johnson, A.L. . E-mail: johnson.128@nd.edu

    2005-10-21

    The present studies were conducted to establish interactions between transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family members, TGF{alpha} and betacellulin (BTC), relative to proliferation and differentiation of granulosa cells in hen ovarian follicles. Results presented demonstrate expression of TGF{beta} isoforms, plus TGF{alpha}, BTC, and ErbB receptors in prehierarchal follicles, thus establishing the potential for autocrine/paracrine signaling and cross-talk within granulosa cells at the onset of differentiation. Treatment with TGF{alpha} or BTC increases levels of TGF{beta}1 mRNA in undifferentiated granulosa cells, while the selective inhibitor of mitogen activated protein kinase signaling, U0126, reverses these effects. Moreover, TGF{beta}1 attenuates c-myc mRNA expression and granulosa cell proliferation, while TGF{alpha} blocks both these inhibitory effects. Collectively, these data provide evidence that EGF family ligands regulate both the expression and biological actions of TGF{beta}1 in hen granulosa cells, and indicate that the timely interaction of these opposing factors is an important modulator of both granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation.

  5. MAP Kinase-Mediated Negative Regulation of Symbiotic Nodule Formation in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hojin; Laffont, Carole; Frugier, Florian; Hwang, Ildoo

    2017-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades play critical roles in various cellular events in plants, including stress responses, innate immunity, hormone signaling, and cell specificity. MAPK-mediated stress signaling is also known to negatively regulate nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interactions, but the molecular mechanism of the MAPK signaling cascades underlying the symbiotic nodule development remains largely unknown. We show that the MtMKK5-MtMPK3/6 signaling module negatively regulates the early symbiotic nodule formation, probably upstream of ERN1 (ERF Required for Nodulation 1) and NSP1 (Nod factor Signaling Pathway 1) in Medicago truncatula. The overexpression of MtMKK5 stimulated stress and defense signaling pathways but also reduced nodule formation in M. truncatula roots. Conversely, a MAPK specific inhibitor, U0126, enhanced nodule formation and the expression of an early nodulation marker gene, MtNIN. We found that MtMKK5 directly activates MtMPK3/6 by phosphorylating the TEY motif within the activation loop and that the MtMPK3/6 proteins physically interact with the early nodulation-related transcription factors ERN1 and NSP1. These data suggest that the stress signaling-mediated MtMKK5/MtMPK3/6 module suppresses symbiotic nodule development via the action of early nodulation transcription factors. PMID:28152300

  6. Network Modeling Reveals Cross Talk of MAP Kinases during Adaptation to Caspofungin Stress in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Altwasser, Robert; Baldin, Clara; Weber, Jakob; Guthke, Reinhard; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Brakhage, Axel A; Linde, Jörg; Valiante, Vito

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are highly conserved in eukaryotic organisms. In pathogenic fungi, their activities were assigned to different physiological functions including drug adaptation and resistance. Aspergillus fumigatus is a human pathogenic fungus, which causes life-threatening invasive infections. Therapeutic options against invasive mycoses are still limited. One of the clinically used drugs is caspofungin, which specifically targets the fungal cell wall biosynthesis. A systems biology approach, based on comprehensive transcriptome data sets and mathematical modeling, was employed to infer a regulatory network and identify key interactions during adaptation to caspofungin stress in A. fumigatus. Mathematical modeling and experimental validations confirmed an intimate cross talk occurring between the cell wall-integrity and the high osmolarity-glycerol signaling pathways. Specifically, increased concentrations of caspofungin promoted activation of these signalings. Moreover, caspofungin affected the intracellular transport, which caused an additional osmotic stress that is independent of glucan inhibition. High concentrations of caspofungin reduced this osmotic stress, and thus decreased its toxic activity. Our results demonstrated that MAPK signaling pathways play a key role during caspofungin adaptation and are contributing to the paradoxical effect exerted by this drug.

  7. Low concentrations of paraquat induces early activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, protein kinase B, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 pathways: role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase in paraquat-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Niso-Santano, Mireia; Morán, José M; García-Rubio, Lourdes; Gómez-Martín, Ana; González-Polo, Rosa A; Soler, Germán; Fuentes, José M

    2006-08-01

    Paraquat is a herbicide with a potential risk to induce parkinsonism due to its demonstrated neurotoxicity and its strong structural similarity to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), a well-known neurotoxin which causes a clinical syndrome similar to Parkinson's disease (PD). However, at present very little is known about the signaling pathways activated by paraquat in any cell system. In this study, we have investigated the effect of paraquat on extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and protein kinase B (PKB) activation in E18 cells. Low concentrations of paraquat stimulated very early increases in ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and PKB phosphorylation. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K) inhibitors wortmannin and LY 294002 (2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) inhibited early paraquat-induced increases in PKB phosphorylation. Furthermore, early paraquat-mediated increases in ERK1/2 activation were sensitive to the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1) inhibitor PD 98059 (2'-amino-3'-methoxyflavone), whereas JNK1/2 responses were blocked by the JNK1/2 inhibitor SP 600125 (anthra[1-9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one). Pretreatment with wortmannin, LY 294002, or PD 98059 had no effect on paraquat cell death in E18 cells. In contrast, SP 600125 significantly decreased paraquat-induced cell death in E18 cells. In conclusion, we have shown that low concentrations of paraquat stimulate robust very early increases in ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and PKB phosphorylation in E18 cells. Furthermore, the data presented clearly suggest that inhibition of the JNK1/2 pathway protects E18 cells from paraquat-induced cell death and support the fact that inhibition of early activation of JNK1/2 can constitute a potential strategy in PD treatment.

  8. δ-Tocopherol inhibits receptor tyrosine kinase-induced AKT activation in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Hong, Jungil; Yang, Chung S

    2016-11-01

    The cancer preventive activity of vitamin E is suggested by epidemiological studies and supported by animal studies with vitamin E forms, γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol (δ-T). Several recent large-scale cancer prevention trials with high dose of α-tocopherol, however, yielded disappointing results. Whether vitamin E prevents or promotes cancer is a serious concern. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action of the different forms of tocopherols would enhance our understanding of this topic. In this study, we demonstrated that δ-T was the most effective tocopherol form in inhibiting prostate cancer cell growth, by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. By profiling the effects of δ-T on the cell signaling using the phospho-kinase array, we found that the most inhibited target was the phosphorylation of AKT on T308. Further study on the activation of AKT by EGFR and IGFR revealed that δ-T attenuated the EGF/IGF-induced activation of AKT (via the phosphorylation of AKT on T308 induced by the activation of PIK3). Expression of dominant active PIK3 and AKT in prostate cancer cell line DU145 in which PIK3, AKT, and PTEN are wild type caused the cells to be reflectory to the inhibition of δ-T, supporting that δ-T inhibits the PIK3-mediated activation of AKT. Our data also suggest that δ-T interferes with the EGF-induced EGFR internalization, which leads to the inhibition of the receptor tyrosine kinase-dependent activation of AKT. In summary, our results revealed a novel mechanism of δ-T in inhibiting prostate cancer cell growth, supporting the cancer preventive activity δ-T. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Protein kinase Cmu plays an essential role in hypertonicity-induced heat shock protein 70 expression.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yun Sook; Lee, Jae Seon; Huang, Tai Qin; Seo, Jeong Sun

    2008-12-31

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), which evidences important functions as a molecular chaperone and anti-apoptotic molecule, is substantially induced in cells exposed to a variety of stresses, including hypertonic stress, heavy metals, heat shock, and oxidative stress, and prevents cellular damage under these conditions. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the induction of HSP70 in response to hypertonicity has been characterized to a far lesser extent. In this study, we have investigated the cellular signaling pathway of HSP70 induction under hypertonic conditions. Initially, we applied a variety of kinase inhibitors to NIH3T3 cells that had been exposed to hypertonicity. The induction of HSP70 was suppressed specifically by treatment with protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors (Gö6976 and GF109203X). As hypertonicity dramatically increased the phosphorylation of PKCmu, we then evaluated the role of PKCmu in hypertonicity-induced HSP70 expression and cell viability. The depletion of PKCmu with siRNA or the inhibition of PKCmu activity with inhibitors resulted in a reduction in HSP70 induction and cell viability. Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP), a transcription factor for hypertonicity-induced HSP70 expression, was translocated rapidly into the nucleus and was modified gradually in the nucleus under hypertonic conditions. When we administered treatment with PKC inhibitors, the mobility shift of TonEBP was affected in the nucleus. However, PKCmu evidenced no subcellular co-localization with TonEBP during hypertonic exposure. From our results, we have concluded that PKCmu performs a critical function in hypertonicity-induced HSP70 induction, and finally cellular protection, via the indirect regulation of TonEBP modification.

  10. Protein kinase A mediates inhibition of the thrombin-induced platelet shape change by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Baard Olav; Selheim, Frode; Døskeland, Stein Ove; Gear, Adrian R L; Holmsen, Holm

    2004-11-01

    The thrombin-induced platelet shape change was blocked by nitric oxide (NO), as revealed by scanning electron microscopy, light transmission, and resistive-particle volume determination. The inhibitory effect of NO was accompanied by an increase in levels of both cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and phosphorylation of the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). However, the inhibition of the shape change was only mimicked by cAMP analogs (Sp-5,6-DClcBIMPS, 8-AHA-cAMP, and 8-CPT-cAMP) and not by cGMP analogs (8-Br-PET-cGMP, 8-Br-cGMP, and 8-pCPT-cGMP). The effect of NO on the thrombin-induced shape change was prevented by the protein kinase A (PKA) antagonists Rp-8-Br-cAMPS and Rp-cAMPS. The protein kinase G (PKG) antagonist Rp-8-CPT-cGMPS strongly inhibited PKG-mediated 46-kDa VASP Ser239 phosphorylation, but did not inhibit the thrombin-induced shape change or the PKA-mediated VASP Ser157 phosphorylation. Whereas an inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3A (milrinone) mimicked the effect of NO, inhibitors of PDE2 (erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine) and PDE5 (dipyridamole) were poorly effective. We concluded that (1) NO was a potent and reversible inhibitor of the platelet shape change, (2) the shape change was reversible, (3) the inhibitory effect of NO was mediated through activation of PKA, (4) the onset of the NO effect coincided with VASP Ser157 phosphorylation, and (5) removal of NO and platelet shape change coincided with VASP Ser157 dephosphorylation. These findings are compatible with elevation of cGMP by NO in a compartment close to PDE3A, PKA, and VASP, leading to a local increase of cAMP able to block thrombin-induced shape change.

  11. Suppression of VEGF-induced angiogenesis by the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, lavendustin A.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, D E; Fan, T P

    1995-01-01

    1. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a heparin-binding angiogenic factor which specifically acts on endothelial cells via distinct membrane-spanning tyrosine kinase receptors. Here we used the rat sponge implant model to test the hypothesis that the angiogenic activity of VEGF can be suppressed by protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors. 2. Neovascular responses in subcutaneous sponge implants were determined by measurements of relative sponge blood flow by use of a 133Xe clearance technique, and confirmed by histological studies and morphometric analysis. 3. Daily local administration of 250 ng VEGF165 accelerated the rate of 133Xe clearance from the sponges and induced an intense neovascularisation. This VEGF165-induced angiogenesis was inhibited by daily co-administration of the selective PTK inhibitor, lavendustin A (10 micrograms), but not its negative control, lavendustin B (10 micrograms). Blood flow measurements and morphometric analysis of 8-day-old sponges showed that lavendustin A reduced the 133Xe clearance of VEGF165-treated sponges from 32.9 +/- 1.5% to 20.9 +/- 1.6% and the total fibrovascular growth area from 62.4 +/- 6.1% to 21.6 +/- 6.8% (n = 12, P < 0.05). 4. Co-injection of suramin (3 mg), an inhibitor of heparin-binding growth factors, also suppressed the VEGF165-elicited neovascular response. In contrast, neither lavendustin A nor suramin produced any effect on the basal sponge-induced angiogenesis. 5. When given alone, low doses of VEGF165 (25 ng) or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; 10 ng) did not modify the basal sponge-induced neovascularisation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 2 Figure 2 PMID:7533611

  12. MAP-kinase activity in etiolated Cucumis sativus cotyledons: the effect of red and far-red light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Flórez, Fagua; Vidal, Dolors; Simón, Esther

    2013-02-01

    Phytochrome (phy) signalling in plants may be transduced through protein phosphorylation. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP-kinase, MAPK) activity and the effect of R (red) and FR (far-red) light irradiation on MAPK activity were studied in etiolated Cucumis sativus L. cotyledons. By in vitro protein phosphorylation and in-gel assays with myelin basic protein (MBP), a protein band (between 48 and 45 kDa) with MAPK-like activity was detected. The addition to the phosphorylation buffer of specific protein phosphatase (PTP) inhibitors (Na(3)VO(4) and NaF) and genistein, apigenin or PD98059 as MAPK inhibitors allowed us to confirm the MAPK activity of the protein band. Irradiation of etiolated cotyledons with FR light for 5, 10 or 60 min rapidly and transiently stimulated the MAPK activity of the protein band. This suggests that there was a very low fluence response (VLFR) of phys. In addition, 15 min of R light irradiation or a sequential treatment of 15 min of R plus 5 min of FR also increased MAPK activity. The stimulatory effect of R light was also attributed to the same photoreceptor, which suggests that MAPKs are involved in phytochrome signal transduction. Protein immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting analysis with the polyclonal antibody anti-pERK1/2 (Tyr 204) and the monoclonal antibody anti-phosphotyrosine PY20 allowed us to recognize the above mentioned protein band as two proteins with molecular masses (M(r)) of approximately 47 and 45 kDa, and MAPK activity. The biochemical and immunological properties showed by the proteins detected indicated that they were members of the MAPK family phosphorylated in tyrosine residues.

  13. Inhibition of melanogenesis by jineol from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans via MAP-Kinase mediated MITF downregulation and the proteasomal degradation of tyrosinase

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Md Badrul; Bajpai, Vivek K.; Lee, JungIn; Zhao, Peijun; Byeon, Jung-Hee; Ra, Jeong-Sic; Majumder, Rajib; Lee, Jong Sung; Yoon, Jung-In; Rather, Irfan A.; Park, Yong-Ha; Kim, Kangmin; Na, MinKyun; Lee, Sang-Han

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the anti-melanogenic effects of 3,8-dihydroxyquinoline (jineol) isolated from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, the mechanisms responsible for its inhibition of melanogenesis in melan-a cells, and its antioxidant efficacy. Mushroom tyrosinase activities and melanin contents were determined in melan-a cells, and the protein and mRNA levels of MITF, tyrosinase, TYRP-1, and TYRP-2 were assessed. Jineol exhibited significant, concentration-dependent antioxidant effects as determined by DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, and FRAP assays. Jineol significantly inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity by functioning as an uncompetitive inhibitor, and markedly inhibited melanin production and intracellular tyrosinase activity in melan-a cells. In addition, jineol abolished the expressions of tyrosinase, TYRP-1, TYRP-2, and MITF, thereby blocking melanin production and interfering with the phosphorylations of ERK1/2 and p38. Furthermore, specific inhibitors of ERK1/2 and p38 prevented melanogenesis inhibition by jineol, and the proteasome inhibitor (MG-132) prevented jineol-induced reductions in cellular tyrosinase levels. Taken together, jineol was found to stimulate MAP-kinase (ERK1/2 and p38) phosphorylation and the proteolytic degradation pathway, which led to the degradations of MITF and tyrosinase, and to suppress the productions of melanin. PMID:28393917

  14. Cholesterol depletion inhibits src family kinase-dependent calcium mobilization and apoptosis induced by rituximab crosslinking

    PubMed Central

    Unruh, Tammy L; Li, Haidong; Mutch, Cathlin M; Shariat, Neda; Grigoriou, Lana; Sanyal, Ratna; Brown, Christopher B; Deans, Julie P

    2005-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody (mAb) rituximab produces objective clinical responses in patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and antibody-based autoimmune diseases. Mechanisms mediating B-cell depletion by rituximab are not completely understood and may include direct effects of signalling via the target antigen CD20. Like most but not all CD20 mAbs, rituximab induces a sharp change in the solubility of the CD20 protein in the non-ionic detergent Triton-X-100, reflecting a dramatic increase in the innate affinity of CD20 for membrane raft signalling domains. Apoptosis induced by rituximab hypercrosslinking has been shown to require src family kinases (SFK), which are enriched in rafts. In this report we provide experimental evidence that SFK-dependent apoptotic signals induced by rituximab are raft dependent. Cholesterol depletion prevented the association of hypercrosslinked CD20 with detergent-insoluble rafts, and attenuated both calcium mobilization and apoptosis induced with rituximab. CD20 cocapped with the raft-associated transmembrane adaptor LAB/NTAL after hypercrosslinking with CD20 mAbs, regardless of their ability to induce a change in the affinity of CD20 for rafts. Taken together, the data demonstrate that CD20 hypercrosslinking via rituximab activates SFKs and downstream signalling events by clustering membrane rafts in which antibody-bound CD20 is localized in a high-affinity configuration. PMID:16162271

  15. Protein kinase C-δ isoform mediates lysosome labilization in DNA damage-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    PARENT, NICOLAS; SCHERER, MAX; LIEBISCH, GERHARD; SCHMITZ, GERD; BERTRAND, RICHARD

    2013-01-01

    A lysosomal pathway, characterized by the partial rupture or labilization of lysosomal membranes (LLM) and cathepsin release into the cytosol, is evoked during the early events of 20-S-camptothecin lactone (CPT)-induced apoptosis in human cancer cells, including human histiocytic lymphoma U-937 cells. These lysosomal events begin rapidly and simultaneously with mitochondrial permeabilization and caspase activation within 3 h after drug treatment. Recently, in a comparative proteomics analysis performed on highly-enriched lysosomal extracts, we identified proteins whose translocation to lysosomes correlated with LLM induction after CPT treatment, including protein kinase C-δ (PKC-δ). In this study, we show that the PKC-δ translocation to lysosomes is required for LLM, as silencing its expression with RNA interference or suppressing its activity with the inhibitor, rottlerin, prevents CPT-induced LLM. PKC-δ translocation to lysosomes is associated with lysosomal acidic sphingomyelinase (ASM) phosphorylation and activation, which in turn leads to an increase in ceramide (CER) content in lysosomes. The accumulation of endogenous CER in lysosomes is a critical event for CPT-induced LLM as suppressing PKC-δ or ASM activity reduces both the CPT-mediated CER generation in lysosomes and CPT-induced LLM. These findings reveal a novel mechanism by which PKC-δ mediates ASM phosphorylation/activation and CER accumulation in lysosomes in CPT-induced LLM, rapidly activating the lysosomal pathway of apoptosis after CPT treatment. PMID:21174057

  16. Suppressed expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases in hyperthermia induced defective neural tube.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianliang; Leng, Zhaoting; Liu, Wenjing; Wang, Xia; Yan, Xue; Yu, Li

    2015-05-06

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common congenital malformations. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway is involved in many physiological processes. HMGB1 has been showed closely associated with neurulation and NTDs induced by hyperthermia and could activate MAPKs pathway. Since hyperthermia caused increased activation of MAPKs in many systems, the present study aims to investigate whether HMGB1 contributes to hyperthermia induced NTDs through MAPKs pathway. The mRNA levels of MAPKs and HMGB1 between embryonic day 8.5 and 10 (E8.5-10) in hyperthermia induced defective neural tube were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). By immunofluorescence and western blotting, the expressions of HMGB1 and phosphorylated MAPKs (ERK1/2, JNK and p38) in neural tubes after hyperthermia were studied. The mRNA levels of MAPKs and HMGB1, as well as the expressions of HMGB1 along with phosphorylated JNK, p38 and ERK, were downregulated in NTDs groups induced by hyperthermia compared with control. The findings suggested that HMGB1 may contribute to hyperthermia induced NTDs formation through decreased cell proliferation due to inhibited phosphorylated ERK1/2 MAPK.

  17. Apoptosis and melanogenesis in human melanoma cells induced by anthrax lethal factor inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Han-Mo; Vanbrocklin, Matt; McWilliams, Mary Jane; Leppla, Stephan H.; Duesbery, Nicholas S.; Vande Woude, George F.

    2002-03-01

    Lethal factor, the principal virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling by proteolytically cleaving MAPK kinases. Edema factor, another component of anthrax toxin, is an adenylate cyclase, which increases intracellular cAMP. Inhibition of MAPK signaling with either anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) or small molecule MAPK kinase inhibitors triggers apoptosis in human melanoma cells. Normal melanocytes do not undergo apoptosis in response to MAPK inhibition but arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Importantly, in vivo treatment of human melanoma xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice with LeTx results in significant or complete tumor regression without apparent side effects, suggesting that inhibiting the MAPK signaling pathway may be a useful strategy for treating melanoma. Additionally, interrupting MAPK signaling with LeTx and elevating cAMP with anthrax edema toxin in both melanoma cells and melanocytes lead to dramatic melanin production, perhaps explaining the formation of blackened eschars in cutaneous anthrax.

  18. A comparative study of the aneugenic and polyploidy-inducing effects of fisetin and two model Aurora kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gollapudi, P; Hasegawa, L S; Eastmond, D A

    2014-06-01

    Fisetin, a plant flavonol commonly found in fruits, nuts and vegetables, is frequently added to nutritional supplements due to its reported cardioprotective, anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant properties. Earlier reports from our laboratory and others have indicated that fisetin has both aneugenic and clastogenic properties in cultured cells. More recently, fisetin has also been reported to target Aurora B kinase, a Ser/Thr kinase involved in ensuring proper microtubule attachment at the spindle assembly checkpoint, and an enzyme that is overexpressed in several types of cancer. Here we have further characterized the chromosome damage caused by fisetin and compared it with that induced by two known Aurora kinase inhibitors, VX-680 and ZM-447439, in cultured TK6 cells using the micronucleus assay with CREST staining as well as a flow cytometry-based assay that measures multiple types of numerical chromosomal aberrations. The three compounds were highly effective in inducing aneuploidy and polyploidy as evidenced by increases in kinetochore-positive micronuclei, hyperdiploidy, and polyploidy. With fisetin, however, the latter two effects were most significantly observed only after cells were allowed to overcome a cell cycle delay, and occurred at higher concentrations than those induced by the other Aurora kinase inhibitors. Modest increases in kinetochore-negative micronuclei were also seen with the model Aurora kinase inhibitors. These results indicate that fisetin induces multiple types of chromosome abnormalities in human cells, and indicate a need for a thorough investigation of fisetin-augmented dietary supplements.

  19. Collagen-induced platelet activation mainly involves the protein kinase C pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Karniguian, A; Grelac, F; Levy-Toledano, S; Legrand, Y J; Rendu, F

    1990-01-01

    This study analyses early biochemical events in collagen-induced platelet activation. An early metabolic event occurring during the lag phase was the activation of PtdIns(4,5)P2-specific phospholipase C. Phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) formation, phosphorylation of P43 and P20, thromboxane B2 (TXB2) synthesis and platelet secretion began after the lag phase, and were similarly time-dependent, except for TXB2 synthesis, which was delayed. Collagen induced extensive P43 phosphorylation, whereas P20 phosphorylation was weak and always lower than with thrombin. The dose-response curves of P43 phosphorylation and granule secretion were similar, and both reached a peak at 7.5 micrograms of collagen/ml, a dose which induced half-maximal PtdOH and TXB2 formation. Sphingosine, assumed to inhibit protein kinase C, inhibited P43 phosphorylation and secretion in parallel. However, sphingosine was not specific for protein kinase C, since a 15 microM concentration, which did not inhibit P43 phosphorylation, blocked TXB2 synthesis by 50%. Sphingosine did not affect PtdOH formation at all, even at 100 microM, suggesting that collagen itself induced this PtdOH formation, independently of TXB2 generation. The absence of external Ca2+ allowed the cleavage of polyphosphoinositides and the accumulation of InsP3 to occur, but impaired P43 phosphorylation, PtdOH and TXB2 formation, and secretion; these were only restored by adding 0.11 microM-Ca2+. In conclusion, stimulation of platelet membrane receptors for collagen initiates a PtdInsP2-specific phospholipase C activation, which is independent of external Ca2+, and might be the immediate receptor-linked response. A Ca2+ influx is indispensable to the triggering of subsequent platelet responses. This stimulation predominantly involves the protein kinase C pathway associated with secretion, and appears not to be mediated by TXB2, at least during its initial stage. Images Fig. 6. PMID:2163606

  20. Protein kinase C modulates Aurora-kinase inhibition induced by CCT129202 in HMC-1⁵⁶⁰,⁸¹⁶ cell line.

    PubMed

    Tobío, Araceli; Alfonso, Amparo; Fernández-Araujo, Andrea; Alonso, Eva; Botana, Luis M

    2013-01-01

    The human mast cell line HMC-1⁵⁶⁰,⁸¹⁶ carries activating mutations in the proto-oncogene of c-kit that cause autophosphorylation and permanent c-kit receptor activation. The compound CCT129202 is a new and selective inhibitor of Aurora kinase A and B that decreases the viability of a variety of human tumor cell lines. The effect of Aurora kinase inhibition was assessed in the HMC-1⁵⁶⁰,⁸¹⁶ line in order to find a suitable tool for mastocytosis treatment. CCT129202 treatment induces a significant decrease in cell viability in HMC-1⁵⁶⁰,⁸¹⁶ cells after 48 hours of treatment. Moreover, caspase-3 and caspase-8 activation was induced after incubation of HMC-1⁵⁶⁰,⁸¹⁶ cells in the presence of CCT129202. It has been demonstrated that Protein Kinase C (PKC) plays a crucial role in mast cell activation as well as cell migration, adhesion and apoptotic cell death. Co-treatment of Ca²⁺-independent PKCs (δ ε and θ) inhibitor GF109203X with CCT129202, reduces caspase-3 activation which controls cell levels. In contrast, Go6976, an inhibitor of Ca²⁺-dependent PKCs, increases caspase-3 activation. Oppositely, GF109203X does not modify CCT129202-induced apoptosis through the caspase-8 pathway whereas Go6976 treatment abolishes the increase on caspase-8 activity due to CCT129202. This implies that Ca²⁺-independent PKC isoforms seems to be related with CCT129202-induced apoptosis through the caspase- 3 pathway, whereas Ca²⁺-dependent PKC isoforms are related with the CCT129202 effect on the caspase-8 pathway. Interestingly, CCT129202 cytotoxic effect remains even though Ca²⁺-dependent PKCs are inhibited, which shows that the Aurora kinase inhibitor effect is acting through the caspase-3 pathway. On the other hand, Ca²⁺-independent PKCs inhibition does not affect the final apoptotic CCT129202 effect because this seems to be mediated by the caspase-8 pathway. Moreover, CCT129202 does not affect PKCδ and Ca

  1. Protein Kinase RNA-Like Endoplasmic Reticulum Kinase-Mediated Bcl-2 Protein Phosphorylation Contributes to Evodiamine-Induced Apoptosis of Human Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-Shin; Chien, Chih-Chiang; Chen, Yen-Chou; Chiu, Wen-Ta

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the anticancer mechanism of evodiamine (EVO) against the viability of human A498 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro study showed that EVO decreased the viability of A498 cells with the occurrence of apoptotic characteristics such as hypodiploid cells, DNA ladders, chromatin-condensed cells, and cleaved caspase (Casp)-3/poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) proteins. Pharmacological studies using chemical inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) indicated that phosphorylation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) protein participated in EVO-induced cell death of A498 cells, and application of the JNK inhibitor, SP600125 (SP), inhibited EVO-induced cleavage of the Casp-3/PARP proteins and chromatin condensation according to Giemsa staining. EVO disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) with increased protein levels of the phosphorylated Bcl-2 protein (p-Bcl-2) was prevented by JNK inhibitors in A498 cells. A structure-activity relationship study showed that a methyl group at position 14 in EVO was important for its apoptotic effects and increased p-Bcl-2 protein in A498 cells. Furthermore, significant increases in the phosphorylated endoplasmic reticular stress protein, protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (p-PERK at Thr980), by EVO were detected in A498 cells, and the PERK inhibitor, GSK2606414, significantly suppressed EVO-induced apoptosis, p-JNK, p-PERK, and cleaved PARP proteins. The in vivo study showed that EVO significantly reduced RCC growth elicited by a subcutaneous injection of A498 cells, and an increased protein level of p-PERK was observed according to an immunohistochemical analysis. Apoptosis by EVO was also demonstrated in other RCC cells such as 786-O, ACHN, and Caki-1 cells. This is the first study to demonstrate the anti-RCC effect of EVO via apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, and activation of JNK and PERK to induce Bcl-2

  2. Intein-mediated peptide arrays for epitope mapping and kinase/phosphatase assays.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming-Qun; Ghosh, Inca; Kochinyan, Samvel; Sun, Luo

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are widely used for production and analysis of antibodies as well as in the study of protein modification enzymes. To circumvent the technical challenges of the existing techniques regarding peptide quantization and normalization, a new method of producing peptide arrays has been developed. This approach utilizes intein-mediated protein ligation that involves linkage of a carrier protein possessing a reactive carboxyl-terminal thioester to a peptide with an amino-terminal cysteine through a native peptide bond. Ligated protein substrates or enzyme-treated samples are arrayed on nitrocellulose membranes with a standard dot-blot apparatus and analyzed by immunoassay. This technique has improved sensitivity and reproducibility, and is suitable for various peptide-based applications. In this report, several experimental procedures including epitope mapping and the study of protein modifications were described.

  3. MAP kinase pathway gene copy alterations in NRAS/BRAF wild-type advanced melanoma.

    PubMed

    Orouji, Elias; Orouji, Azadeh; Gaiser, Timo; Larribère, Lionel; Gebhardt, Christoffer; Utikal, Jochen

    2016-05-01

    Recent therapeutic advances have improved melanoma patientś clinical outcome. Novel therapeutics targeting BRAF, NRAS and cKit mutant melanomas are widely used in clinical practice. However therapeutic options in NRAS(wild-type) /BRAF(wild-type) /cKit(wild-type) melanoma patients are limited. Our study shows that gene copy numbers of members of the MAPK signaling pathway vary in different melanoma subgroups. NRAS(wild-type) /BRAF(wild-type) melanoma metastases are characterized by significant gains of MAP2K1 (MEK1) and MAPK3 (ERK1) gene loci. These additional gene copies could lead to an activation of the MAPK signaling pathway via a gene-dosage effect. Our results suggest that downstream analyses of the pMEK and pERK expression status in NRAS(wild-type) /BRAF(wild-type) melanoma patients identify patients that could benefit from targeted therapies with MEK and ERK inhibitors.

  4. DA-9601, a standardized extract of Artemisia asiatica, blocks TNF-α-induced IL-8 and CCL20 production by inhibiting p38 kinase and NF-κB pathways in human gastric epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Suck-Chei; Choi, Eun-Ju; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, SungGa; Lee, Jeong-Kun; Lee, Meung-Su; Shin, Yong-Il; Choi, Suck-Jun; Chae, Jeong-Ryong; Lee, Kang-Min; Lee, Won-Jung; Park, Jae-Sik; Shin, Chang-Yell; Oh, Tae-Young; Jun, Chang-Duk

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether, or how, DA-9601, which is a new gastroprotective agent, inhibits TNF-α-induced inflammatory signals in gastric epithelial AGS cells. METHODS: Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. IL-8 and CCL20 promoter activities were determined by a luciferease reporter gene assay. NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity was determined by I-κBα degradation, NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and a luciferase activity assay. IL-8 and CCL20 gene expression and protein secretion were determined by RT-PCR and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Total and phosphorylated forms of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were determined by Western blot. RESULTS: Treatment of AGS cells with DA-9601 reduced TNF-α-induced IL-8 and CCL20 promoter activities, as well as their gene expression and protein release. TNF-α also induced NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity in AGS cells. In contrast, in cells treated with DA-9601, TNF-α-induced NF-κB activity was significantly blocked. Although all three MAP kinase family members were phosphorylated in response to TNF-α, a selective inhibitor of p38 kinase SB203580 only could inhibit both NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity and IL-8 and CCL20 production, suggesting a potential link between p38 kinase and NF-κB-dependent pathways in AGS cells. Interestingly, DA-9601 also selectively inhibited p38 kinase phosphorylation induced by TNF-α. CONCLUSION: DA-9601 blocked TNF-α-mediated inflammatory signals by potentially modulating the p38 kinase pathway and/or a signal leading to NF-κB-dependent pathways in gastric epithelial cells. PMID:16937467

  5. Protein tyrosine kinase 6 promotes ERBB2-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Peng, M; Ball-Kell, S M; Tyner, A L

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6) expression, activation, and amplification of the PTK6 gene have been reported in ERBB2/HER2-positive mammary gland cancers. To explore contributions of PTK6 to mammary gland tumorigenesis promoted by activated ERBB2, we crossed Ptk6−/− mice with the mouse mammary tumor virus-ERBB2 transgenic mouse line expressing activated ERBB2 and characterized tumor development and progression. ERBB2-induced tumorigenesis was significantly delayed and diminished in mice lacking PTK6. PTK6 expression was induced in the mammary glands of ERBB2 transgenic mice before tumor development and correlated with activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and increased proliferation. Disruption of PTK6 impaired STAT3 activation and proliferation. Phosphorylation of the PTK6 substrates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 1 (BCAR1; p130CAS) was decreased in Ptk6−/− mammary gland tumors. Reduced numbers of metastases were detected in the lungs of Ptk6−/− mice expressing activated ERBB2, compared with wild-type ERBB2 transgenic mice. PTK6 activation was detected at the edges of ERBB2-positive tumors. These data support roles for PTK6 in both ERBB2-induced mammary gland tumor initiation and metastasis, and identify STAT3, FAK, and BCAR1 as physiologically relevant PTK6 substrates in breast cancer. Including PTK6 inhibitors as part of a treatment regimen could have distinct benefits in ERBB2/HER2-positive breast cancers. PMID:26247733

  6. Src family kinases involved in CXCL12-induced loss of acute morphine analgesia.

    PubMed

    Rivat, Cyril; Sebaihi, Soumia; Van Steenwinckel, Juliette; Fouquet, Stéphane; Kitabgi, Patrick; Pohl, Michel; Melik Parsadaniantz, Stéphane; Reaux-Le Goazigo, Annabelle

    2014-05-01

    Functional interactions between the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and opioid receptors have been reported in the brain, leading to a decreased morphine analgesic activity. However the cellular mechanisms responsible for this loss of opioid analgesia are largely unknown. Here we examined whether Src family-kinases (SFK)-linked mechanisms induced by CXCR4 contributed to the loss of acute morphine analgesia and could represent a new physiological anti-opioid signaling pathway. In this way, we showed by immunohistochemistry and western blot that CXCL12 rapidly activated SFK phosphorylation in vitro in primary cultured lumbar rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) but also in vivo in the DRG and the spinal cord. We showed that SFK activation occurred in a sub population of sensory neurons, in spinal microglia but also in spinal nerve terminals expressing mu-(MOR) and delta-opioid (DOR) receptor. In addition we described that CXCR4 is detected in MOR- and DOR-immunoreactive neurons in the DRG and spinal cord. In vivo, we demonstrated that an intrathecal administration of CXCL12 (1μg) significantly attenuated the subcutaneous morphine (4mg/kg) analgesia. Conversely, pretreatment with a potent CXCR4 antagonist (5μg) significantly enhanced morphine analgesia. Similar effects were obtained after an intrathecal injection of a specific SFK inhibitor, PP2 (10μg). Furthermore, PP2 abrogated CXCL12-induced decrease in morphine analgesia by suppressing SFK activation in the spinal cord. In conclusion, our data highlight that CXCL12-induced loss of acute morphine analgesia is linked to Src family kinases activation.

  7. Synergistic effects of ion transporter and MAP kinase pathway inhibitors in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Eskiocak, Ugur; Ramesh, Vijayashree; Gill, Jennifer G.; Zhao, Zhiyu; Yuan, Stacy W.; Wang, Meng; Vandergriff, Travis; Shackleton, Mark; Quintana, Elsa; Johnson, Timothy M.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Morrison, Sean J.

    2016-01-01

    New therapies are required for melanoma. Here, we report that multiple cardiac glycosides, including digitoxin and digoxin, are significantly more toxic to human melanoma cells than normal human cells. This reflects on-target inhibition of the ATP1A1 Na+/K+ pump, which is highly expressed by melanoma. MEK inhibitor and/or BRAF inhibitor additively or synergistically combined with digitoxin to induce cell death, inhibiting growth of patient-derived melanomas in NSG mice and synergistically extending survival. MEK inhibitor and digitoxin do not induce cell death in human melanocytes or haematopoietic cells in NSG mice. In melanoma, MEK inhibitor reduces ERK phosphorylation, while digitoxin disrupts ion gradients, altering plasma membrane and mitochondrial membrane potentials. MEK inhibitor and digitoxin together cause intracellular acidification, mitochondrial calcium dysregulation and ATP depletion in melanoma cells but not in normal cells. The disruption of ion homoeostasis in cancer cells can thus synergize with targeted agents to promote tumour regression in vivo. PMID:27545456

  8. Aurintricarboxylic acid protects against cell death caused by lipopolysaccharide in macrophages by decreasing inducible nitric-oxide synthase induction via IkappaB kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Tsi, Chin-Ju; Chao, Yee; Chen, Ching-Wen; Lin, Wan Wan

    2002-07-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms involved in cell protection by aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), an endonuclease inhibitor, high nitric oxide (NO)-induced macrophage apoptosis was studied. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, a high level of NO production accompanied by cell apoptosis was apparent with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. Direct NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) also dramatically induced cell death, with an EC(50) of 1 mM. Coincubation of ATA (1-500 microM) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells resulted in a striking reduction of NO production and cell apoptosis, whereas only a partial cell protection was achieved in response to SNP. This suggests that abrogation of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS)-dependent NO production might contribute to ATA protection of LPS-treated cells. Immunoblotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that ATA down-regulated iNOS protein through transcriptional inhibition of iNOS gene expression but was unrelated to iNOS protein stability. ATA not only inhibited nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation through impairment of the targeting and degradation of IkappaBs but also reduced LPS-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation. These actions of ATA were not caused by the influence on LPS binding to macrophage membrane. Kinase assays indicated that ATA inhibited IkappaB kinase (IKK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting a direct interaction between ATA and these signaling molecules. Taken together, these results provide novel action targets of ATA and indicate that ATA protection of macrophages from LPS-mediated cell death is primarily the result of its inhibition of NO production, which closely relates to the inactivation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 and inhibition of IKK, ERK and p38 MAPK.

  9. Leucine-rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) Pharmacological Inhibition Abates α-Synuclein Gene-induced Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Daher, João P L; Abdelmotilib, Hisham A; Hu, Xianzhen; Volpicelli-Daley, Laura A; Moehle, Mark S; Fraser, Kyle B; Needle, Elie; Chen, Yi; Steyn, Stefanus J; Galatsis, Paul; Hirst, Warren D; West, Andrew B

    2015-08-07

    Therapeutic approaches to slow or block the progression of Parkinson disease (PD) do not exist. Genetic and biochemical studies implicate α-synuclein and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) in late-onset PD. LRRK2 kinase activity has been linked to neurodegenerative pathways. However, the therapeutic potential of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors is not clear because significant toxicities have been associated with one class of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors. Furthermore, LRRK2 kinase inhibitors have not been tested previously for efficacy in models of α-synuclein-induced neurodegeneration. To better understand the therapeutic potential of LRRK2 kinase inhibition in PD, we evaluated the tolerability and efficacy of a LRRK2 kinase inhibitor, PF-06447475, in preventing α-synuclein-induced neurodegeneration in rats. Both wild-type rats as well as transgenic G2019S-LRRK2 rats were injected intracranially with adeno-associated viral vectors expressing human α-synuclein in the substantia nigra. Rats were treated with PF-06447475 or a control compound for 4 weeks post-viral transduction. We found that rats expressing G2019S-LRRK2 have exacerbated dopaminergic neurodegeneration and inflammation in response to the overexpression of α-synuclein. Both neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation associated with G2019S-LRRK2 expression were mitigated by LRRK2 kinase inhibition. Furthermore, PF-06447475 provided neuroprotection in wild-type rats. We could not detect adverse pathological indications in the lung, kidney, or liver of rats treated with PF-06447475. These results demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of LRRK2 is well tolerated for a 4-week period of time in rats and can counteract dopaminergic neurodegeneration caused by acute α-synuclein overexpression.

  10. Pim-1 Kinase Regulating Dynamics Related Protein 1 Mediates Sevoflurane Postconditioning-induced Cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-Dong; Chen, Hui-Juan; Wang, Da-Liang; Wang, Hui; Deng, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is well documented that sevoflurane postconditioning (SP) has a significant myocardial protection effect. However, the mechanisms underlying SP are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that the Pim-1 kinase played a key role in SP-induced cardioprotection by regulating dynamics-related protein 1 (Drp1). Methods: A Langendorff model was used in this study. Seventy-two rats were randomly assigned into six groups as follows: CON group, ischemia reperfusion (I/R) group, SP group, SP+proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (Pim-1) inhibitor II group, SP+dimethylsufoxide group, and Pim-1 inhibitor II group (n = 12, each). Hemodynamic parameters and infarct size were measured to reflect the extent of myocardial I/R injury. The expressions of Pim-1, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and cytochrome C (Cyt C) in cytoplasm and mitochondria, the Drp1 in mitochondria, and the total Drp1 and p-Drp1ser637 were measured by Western blotting. In addition, transmission electron microscope was used to observe mitochondrial morphology. The experiment began in October 2014 and continued until July 2016. Results: SP improved myocardial I/R injury-induced hemodynamic parametric changes, cardiac function, and preserved mitochondrial phenotype and decreased myocardial infarct size (24.49 ± 1.72% in Sev group compared with 41.98 ± 4.37% in I/R group; P < 0.05). However, Pim-1 inhibitor II significantly (P < 0.05) abolished the protective effect of SP. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that, compared with I/R group, the expression of Pim-1 and Bcl-2 in cytoplasm and mitochondria as well as the total p-Drp1ser637 in Sev group (P < 0.05) were upregulated. Meanwhile, SP inhibited Drp1 compartmentalization to the mitochondria followed by a reduction in the release of Cyt C. Pretreatment with Pim-1 inhibitor II significantly (P < 0.05) abolished SP-induced Pim-1/p-Drp1ser637 signaling activation. Conclusions: These findings suggested

  11. Regulation of Thrombin-Induced Lung Endothelial Cell Barrier Disruption by Protein Kinase C Delta

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lishi; Chiang, Eddie T.; Kelly, Gabriel T.; Kanteti, Prasad; Singleton, Patrick A.; Camp, Sara M.; Zhou, Tingting; Dudek, Steven M.; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Wang, Ting; Black, Steven M.; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Jacobson, Jeffrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Protein Kinase C (PKC) plays a significant role in thrombin-induced loss of endothelial cell (EC) barrier integrity; however, the existence of more than 10 isozymes of PKC and tissue–specific isoform expression has limited our understanding of this important second messenger in vascular homeostasis. In this study, we show that PKCδ isoform promotes thrombin-induced loss of human pulmonary artery EC barrier integrity, findings substantiated by PKCδ inhibitory studies (rottlerin), dominant negative PKCδ construct and PKCδ silencing (siRNA). In addition, we identified PKCδ as a signaling mediator upstream of both thrombin-induced MLC phosphorylation and Rho GTPase activation affecting stress fiber formation, cell contraction and loss of EC barrier integrity. Our inhibitor-based studies indicate that thrombin-induced PKCδ activation exerts a positive feedback on Rho GTPase activation and contributes to Rac1 GTPase inhibition. Moreover, PKD (or PKCμ) and CPI-17, two known PKCδ targets, were found to be activated by PKCδ in EC and served as modulators of cytoskeleton rearrangement. These studies clarify the role of PKCδ in EC cytoskeleton regulation, and highlight PKCδ as a therapeutic target in inflammatory lung disorders, characterized by the loss of barrier integrity, such as acute lung injury and sepsis. PMID:27442243

  12. Neuroprotective Effects of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase on Scopolamine Induced Memory Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Jun-Ho; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Song, Joo-Hyun; Ha, Joohun

    2013-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of energy metabolism, is activated in response to cellular stress when intracellular levels of AMP increase. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of AMPK against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in vivo and glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. An adenovirus expressing AMPK wild type alpha subunit (WT) or a dominant negative form (DN) was injected into the hippocampus of rats using a stereotaxic apparatus. The AMPK WT-injected rats showed significant reversal of the scopolamine induced cognitive deficit as evaluated by escape latency in the Morris water maze. In addition, they showed enhanced acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-reactive neurons in the hippocampus, implying increased cholinergic activity in response to AMPK. We also studied the cellular mechanism by which AMPK protects against glutamate-induced cell death in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons. We further demonstrated that AMPK WT-infected cells increased cell viability and reduced Annexin V positive hippocampal neurons. Western blot analysis indicated that AMPK WT-infected cells reduced the expression of Bax and had no effects on Bcl-2, which resulted in a decreased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These data suggest that AMPK is a useful cognitive impairment treatment target, and that its beneficial effects are mediated via the protective capacity of hippocampal neurons. PMID:23946693

  13. Correlation between Cyclin Dependent Kinases and Artemisinin-Induced Dormancy in Plasmodium falciparum In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Karen-Ann; Gresty, Karryn J.; Chen, Nanhua; Zhang, Veronica; Gutteridge, Clare E.; Peatey, Christopher L.; Chavchich, Marina; Waters, Norman C.; Cheng, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Background Artemisinin-induced dormancy provides a plausible explanation for recrudescence following artemisinin monotherapy. This phenomenon shares similarities with cell cycle arrest where cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclins play an important role. Methods Transcription profiles of Plasmodium falciparum CDKs and cyclins before and after dihydroartemisinin (DHA) treatment in three parasite lines, and the effect of CDK inhibitors on parasite recovery from DHA-induced dormancy were investigated. Results After DHA treatment, parasites enter a dormancy phase followed by a recovery phase. During the dormancy phase parasites up-regulate pfcrk1, pfcrk4, pfcyc2 and pfcyc4, and down-regulate pfmrk, pfpk5, pfpk6, pfcrk3, pfcyc1 and pfcyc3. When entering the recovery phase parasites immediately up-regulate all CDK and cyclin genes. Three CDK inhibitors, olomoucine, WR636638 and roscovitine, produced distinct effects on different phases of DHA-induced dormancy, blocking parasites recovery. Conclusions The up-regulation of PfCRK1 and PfCRK4, and down regulation of other CDKs and cyclins correlate with parasite survival in the dormant state. Changes in CDK expression are likely to negatively regulate parasite progression from G1 to S phase. These findings provide new insights into the mechanism of artemisinin-induced dormancy and cell cycle regulation of P. falciparum, opening new opportunities for preventing recrudescence following artemisinin treatment. PMID:27326764

  14. [Effect of mitogen-activated protein kinases on ATRA-induced differentiation of NB4 cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Su; Liu, Yun-Peng; Hou, Ke-Zuo; Wang, Yan; Luo, Ying

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effect of p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580 on ATRA-induced differentiation of NB4 cells. The proliferation activity of cells was assayed by MTT method, the cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry, the differentiation of NB4 cells into granulocytes was measured by test of NBT reduction, the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was detected by substrate phosphorylation. The results showed that the ATRA in 0.01-01 micromol/L inhibited the proliferation of NB4 cells in time-and dose-dependent manner and induced the differentiation of NB4 cells into myeloid; the ATRA stimulated ERK activity in this process; ERK inhibitor PD98059 could partially block ATRA effect, specific inhibitor of p38MAPK, SB203580, combined with ATRA also could partially block the effects of ATRA on inhibition of NB4 growth and induction of differentiation. It is concluded that the ATRA stimulates ERK and p38MAPK pathway in the process inducing differentiation of NB4 cells, the ERK and P38MAPK may be necessary for the ATRA-induced differentiation in NB4 cells.

  15. Sensitization of human colon cancer cells to sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis by modulation of sphingosine kinase 2 and protein kinase D

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Min; Liu, Yungang; Zou, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine kinases (SphKs) have been recognized as important proteins regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Of the two isoforms of SphK (SphK1 and SphK2), little is known about the functions of SphK2. Sodium butyrate (NaBT) has been established as a promising chemotherapeutic agent, but the precise mechanism for its effects is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of SphK2 in NaBT-induced apoptosis of HCT116 colon cancer cells. The results indicated that following NaBT treatment SphK2 was translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, leading to its accumulation in the cytoplasm; in the meantime, only mild apoptosis occurred. However, downregulation of SphK2 resulted in sensitized apoptosis, and overexpression of SphK2 led to even lighter apoptosis; these strongly indicate an inhibitory role of SphK2 in cell apoptosis induced by NaBT. After knocking down protein kinase D (PKD), another protein reported to be critical in cell proliferation/apoptosis process, by using siRNA, blockage of cytoplasmic accumulation of SphK2 and sensitized apoptosis following NaBT treatment were observed. The present study suggests that PKD and SphK2 may form a mechanism for the resistance of cancer cells to tumor chemotherapies, such as HCT116 colon cancer cells to NaBT, and these two proteins may become molecular targets for designation of new tumor-therapeutic drugs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the present study sodium butyrate (10 mM) induced mild apoptosis of cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The apoptosis was negatively regulated by cytoplasmic Sphingosine Kinase 2 (SphK2). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Translocation of SphK2 from nucleus to cytoplasm was mediated by protein kinase D. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Downregulation of SphK2 or protein kinase D leads to sensitized cell apoptosis.

  16. Protein kinase Cη activates NF-κB in response to camptothecin-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Raveh-Amit, Hadas; Hai, Naama; Rotem-Dai, Noa; Shahaf, Galit; Gopas, Jacob; Livneh, Etta

    2011-08-26

    The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) family of transcription factors participates in the regulation of genes involved in innate- and adaptive-immune responses, cell death and inflammation. The involvement of the Protein kinase C (PKC) family in the regulation of NF-κB in inflammation and immune-related signaling has been extensively studied. However, not much is known on the role of PKC in NF-κB regulation in response to DNA damage. Here we demonstrate for the first time that PKC-eta (PKCη) regulates NF-κB upstream signaling by activating the IκB kinase (IKK) and the degradation of IκB. Furthermore, PKCη enhances the nuclear translocation and transactivation of NF-κB under non-stressed conditions and in response to the anticancer drug camptothecin. We and others have previously shown that PKCη confers protection against DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Our present study suggests that PKCη is involved in NF-κB signaling leading to drug resistance.

  17. Modulation of PDT-induced apoptosis by protein kinases and phosphatases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yu; Chang, Chi K.; Kessel, David

    1996-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy of neoplastic cell lines can lead to the rapid initiation of apoptosis, a mode of cell death that results in a characteristic pattern of cellular and DNA fragmentation. In this study, we examine the effects of protein tyrosine- and serine/threonine phosphatases and kinases on the fragmentation of DNA to 50 kb and photodynamic effects of lysosomal and mitochondrial photosensitizers on murine leukemia P388 cells. The data are consistent with the proposal that maintenance of phosphorylated tyrosine residues is essential for the PDT- induced processing of 50 kb DNA to nucleosomes, while maintenance of serine phosphorylation inhibits such processing. Factors involved in chromatin fragmentation to 50 kb particles have yet to be elucidated. Several agents which mediate membrane photodamage mimic the effect of protein serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitors, i.e., they inhibit further processing of the 50 kb DNA formed as a consequence of lysosomal or mitochondrial photodamage. These results indicate that even the rapid initiation of apoptosis by PDT is modulated by phosphatase and kinase activities.

  18. Acrolein-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling is mediated by alkylation of thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin 1.

    PubMed

    Randall, Matthew J; Spiess, Page C; Hristova, Milena; Hondal, Robert J; van der Vliet, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking remains a major health concern worldwide, and many of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke (CS) can be attributed to its abundant electrophilic aldehydes, such as acrolein (2-propenal). Previous studies indicate that acrolein readily reacts with thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), a critical enzyme involved in regulation of thioredoxin (Trx)-mediated redox signaling, by alkylation at its selenocysteine (Sec) residue. Because alkylation of Sec within TrxR1 has significant implications for its enzymatic function, we explored the potential importance of TrxR1 alkylation in acrolein-induced activation or injury of bronchial epithelial cells. Exposure of human bronchial epithelial HBE1 cells to acrolein (1-30 μM) resulted in dose-dependent loss of TrxR thioredoxin reductase activity, which coincided with its alkylation, as determined by biotin hydrazide labeling, and was independent of initial GSH status. To test the involvement of TrxR1 in acrolein responses in HBE1 cells, we suppressed TrxR1 using siRNA silencing or augmented TrxR1 by cell supplementation with sodium selenite. Acrolein exposure of HBE1 cells induced dose-dependent activation of the MAP kinases, extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38, and activation of JNK was markedly enhanced after selenite-mediated induction of TrxR1, and was associated with increased alkylation of TrxR1. Conversely, siRNA silencing of TrxR1 significantly suppressed the ability of acrolein to activate JNK, and also appeared to attenuate acrolein-dependent activation of ERK and p38. Alteration of initial TrxR1 levels by siRNA or selenite supplementation also affected initial Trx1 redox status and acrolein-mediated alkylation of Trx1, but did not significantly affect acrolein-mediated activation of HO-1 or cytotoxicity. Collectively, our findings indicate that alkylation of TrxR1 and/or Trx1 may contribute directly to acrolein-mediated activation of MAP kinases such as JNK, and

  19. Disassembly of microtubules and inhibition of neurite outgrowth, neuroblastoma cell proliferation, and MAP kinase tyrosine dephosphorylation by dibenzyl trisulphide.

    PubMed

    Rösner, H; Williams, L A; Jung, A; Kraus, W

    2001-08-22

    Dibenzyl trisulphide (DTS), a main lipophilic compound in Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae), was identified as one of the active immunomodulatory compounds in extracts of the plant. To learn more about its biological activities and molecular mechanisms, we conducted one-dimensional NMR interaction studies with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and tested DTS and related compounds in two well-established neuronal cell-and-tissue culture systems. We found that DTS preferentially binds to an aromatic region of BSA which is rich in tyrosyl residues. In SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, DTS attenuates the dephosphorylation of tyrosyl residues of MAP kinase (erk1/erk2). In the same neuroblastoma cell line and in Wistar 38 human lung fibroblasts, DTS causes a reversible disassembly of microtubules, but it did not affect actin dynamics. Probably due to the disruption of the microtubule dynamics, DTS also inhibits neuroblastoma cell proliferation and neurite outgrowth from spinal cord explants. Related dibenzyl compounds with none, one, or two sulphur atoms were found to be significantly less effective. These data confirmed that the natural compound DTS has a diverse spectrum of biological properties, including cytostatic and neurotoxic actions in addition to immunomodulatory activities.

  20. p38 MAP kinase-dependent regulation of the expression level and subcellular distribution of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 and its involvement in cellular senescence in normal human fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Naoko; Rios, Ileana; Moran, Heriberto; Sayers, Brendan; Hubbard, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) is a RNA binding protein that plays important role in the biogenesis of mRNA, such as alternative splicing and mRNA stability. We have previously demonstrated that hnRNP A1 has diminished protein levels and shows cytoplasmic accumulation in senescent human diploid fibroblasts. Recent reports showed that p38 MAP kinase (p38 MAPK), a member of the MAP kinase family is necessary and sufficient for the cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP A1 by stress stimuli such as osmotic shock. p38 MAP kinase has been shown to be involved in cell proliferation and the induction of senescence in response to extracellular stimuli. However, the relationship between hnRNP A1 and p38 MAPK and the roles of hnRNP A1 in cellular senescence have not yet been elucidated. Here we show that hnRNP A1 forms a complex with phospho-p38 MAPK in vivo. Inhibition of p38 MAPK activity with SB203580 elevated hnRNP A1 protein levels and prohibited the cytoplasmic accumulation of the protein, but not hnRNP A2, in senescent cells. The phosphorylation level of hnRNP A1 was elevated in senescent cells. Reduction of hnRNP A1 and A2 levels by siRNA transfection induced a senescence-like morphology and elevated the level of F-actin, a marker of senescence. These results suggest that the expression levels and subcellular distribution of hnRNP A1 are regulated in a p38 MAPK-dependent manner, probably via its phosphorylation. Our results also suggest that hnRNP A2 in addition to hnRNP A1 may play a role in establishing the senescence phenotype. PMID:19430204

  1. Moclobemide upregulated Bcl-2 expression and induced neural stem cell differentiation into serotoninergic neuron via extracellular-regulated kinase pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Ku, Hung-Hai; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Lin, Heng-Liang; Chen, Li-Hsin; Chien, Chan-Shiu; Ho, Larry L -T; Lee, Chen-Hsen; Chang, Yuh-Lih

    2006-01-01

    Moclobemide (MB) is an antidepressant drug that selectively and reversibly inhibits monoamine oxidase-A. Recent studies have revealed that antidepressant drugs possess the characters of potent growth-promoting factors for the development of neurogenesis and improve the survival rate of serotonin (5-hydroxytrytamine; 5-HT) neurons. However, whether MB comprises neuroprotection effects or modulates the proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) needs to be elucidated. In this study, firstly, we used the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay to demonstrate that 50 μM MB can increase the cell viability of NSCs. The result of real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR) showed that the induction of MB can upregulate the gene expressions of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. By using caspases 8 and 3, ELISA and terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, our data further confirmed that 50 μM MB-treated NSCs can prevent FasL-induced apoptosis. The morphological findings also supported the evidence that MB can facilitate the dendritic development and increase the neurite expansion of NSCs. Moreover, we found that MB treatment increased the expression of Bcl-2 in NSCs through activating the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. By using the triple-staining immunofluorescent study, the percentages of serotonin- and MAP-2-positive cells in the day 7 culture of MB-treated NSCs were significantly increased (P<0.01). Furthermore, our data supported that MB treatment increased functional production of serotonin in NSCs via the modulation of ERK1/2. In sum, the study results support that MB can upregulate Bcl-2 expression and induce the differentiation of NSCs into serotoninergic neuron via ERK pathway. PMID:16702990

  2. Novel effect of 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate through inhibition of calcium sensitization induced by Rho kinase activation in human detrusor smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Shahab, Nouval; Kajioka, Shunichi; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Maya; Nakayama, Shinsuke; Sakamoto, Kazuyuki; Takeda, Masahiro; Masuda, Noriyuki; Naito, Seiji

    2013-05-15

    Since the introduction of 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate (2-APB) as a membrane permeable modulator of inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptors, subsequent studies have revealed additional actions of this chemical on multiple Ca(2+)-permeable ionic channels in the plasma membrane. However, no reports have yet examined 2-APB as a modulator targeting contractile machinery in smooth muscle, independent of Ca(2+) mobilization, namely Ca(2+) sensitization. Here, we assessed whether or not 2-APB affects intracellular signaling pathways of Ca(2+) sensitization for contraction using α-toxin permeabilized human detrusor smooth muscle. Although contractions were induced by application of Ca(2+)-containing bath solutions, 2-APB had little effect on contractions induced by 1 µM Ca(2+) alone but significantly reversed the carbachol-induced augmentation of Ca(2+)-induced contraction in the presence of guanosine triphosphate (carbachol-induced Ca(2+) sensitization). The rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 and protein kinase C inhibitor GF-109203X also reversed the carbachol-mediated Ca(2+) sensitization. Additional application of 2-APB caused a small but significant further attenuation of the contraction in the presence of GF-109203X but not in the presence of Y-27632. Like carbachol, the rho kinase activator; sphingosylphosphorylcholine, protein kinase C activator; phorbol 12,13 dibutyrate, and myosin light chain phosphatase inhibitor; calyculin-A all induced Ca(2+) sensitization. However, the inhibitory activity of 2-APB was limited with sphingosylphosphorylcholine-induced Ca(2+) sensitization. This study revealed a novel inhibitory effect of 2-APB on smooth muscle contractility through inhibition of the rho kinase pathway.

  3. Selective p38α MAP kinase/MAPK14 inhibition in enzymatically modified LDL-stimulated human monocytes: implications for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fei; Twardowski, Laura; Fehr, Sarah; Aner, Christoph; Schaeffeler, Elke; Joos, Thomas; Knorpp, Thomas; Dorweiler, Bernhard; Laufer, Stefan; Schwab, Matthias; Torzewski, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The first ATP-competitive p38α MAPK/MAPK14 inhibitor with excellent in vivo efficacy and selectivity, skepinone-L, is now available. We investigated the impact of selective p38α MAPK/MAPK14 inhibition on enzymatically modified LDL (eLDL) stimulated human monocytes with its implications for atherosclerosis. Among the different p38 MAPK isoforms, p38α/MAPK14 was the predominantly expressed and activated isoform in isolated human peripheral blood monocytes. Moreover, eLDL colocalized with macrophages positive for p38α MAPK/MAPK14 in human carotid endarterectomy specimens. Using the human leukemia cell line THP-1 and/or primary monocyte-derived macrophages, skepinone-L inhibited eLDL-induced activation of the p38 MAPK pathway, inhibited eLDL induced expression of both cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) and ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1), without a net effect on foam cell formation, had a cell- and time-dependent effect on eLDL-triggered apoptosis, and inhibited eLDL-stimulated secretion of IL-8 and MIP-1β/CCL4 (macrophage inflammatory protein-1β/chemokine, CC motif, ligand 4). Inhibition of a key signaling molecule of the p38 MAPK pathway, p38α MAPK/MAPK14, by selective inhibitors like skepinone-L, conclusively facilitates elucidation of the impact of the complex network of p38 MAPK signaling on atherogenesis and might provide a promising therapeutic tool to prevent inflammatory cascades in atherosclerosis.-Cheng, F., Twardowski, L., Fehr, S., Aner, C., Schaeffeler, E., Joos, T., Knorpp, T., Dorweiler, B., Laufer, S., Schwab, M., Torzewski, M. Selective p38α MAP kinase/MAPK14 inhibition in enzymatically modified LDL-stimulated human monocytes: implications for atherosclerosis.

  4. Antofine-induced connexin43 gap junction disassembly in rat astrocytes involves protein kinase Cβ.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Fang; Liao, Chih-Kai; Lin, Jau-Chen; Jow, Guey-Mei; Wang, Hwai-Shi; Wu, Jiahn-Chun

    2013-03-01

    Antofine, a phenanthroindolizidine alkaloid derived from Cryptocaryachinensis and Ficusseptica in the Asclepiadaceae milkweed family, is cytotoxic for various cancer cell lines. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment of rat primary astrocytes with antofine induced dose-dependent inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC), as assessed by scrape-loading 6-carboxyfluorescein dye transfer. Levels of Cx43 protein were also decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner following antofine treatment. Double-labeling immunofluorescence microscopy showed that antofine (10ng/ml) induced endocytosis of surface gap junctions into the cytoplasm, where Cx43 was co-localized with the early endosome marker EEA1. Inhibition of lysosomes or proteasomes by co-treatment with antofine and their respective specific inhibitors, NH4Cl or MG132, partially inhibited the antofine-induced decrease in Cx43 protein levels, but did not inhibit the antofine-induced inhibition of GJIC. After 30min of treatment, antofine induced a rapid increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and activation of protein kinase C (PKC)α/βII, which was maintained for at least 6h. Co-treatment of astrocytes with antofine and the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM prevented downregulation of Cx43 and inhibition of GJIC. Moreover, co-treatment with antofine and a specific PKCβ inhibitor prevented endocytosis of gap junctions, downregulation of Cx43, and inhibition of GJIC. Taken together, these findings indicate that antofine induces Cx43 gap junction disassembly by the PKCβ signaling pathway. Inhibition of GJIC by antofine may undermine the neuroprotective effect of astrocytes in CNS.

  5. Protein Kinase Cβ Modulates Ligand-induced Cell Surface Death Receptor Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xue Wei; Heldebrant, Michael P.; Flatten, Karen S.; Loegering, David A.; Dai, Haiming; Schneider, Paula A.; Gomez, Timothy S.; Peterson, Kevin L.; Trushin, Sergey A.; Hess, Allan D.; Smith, B. Douglas; Karp, Judith E.; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2010-01-01

    Although treatment with the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) is known to protect a subset of cells from induction of apoptosis by death ligands such as Fas ligand and tumor necrosis factor-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, the mechanism of this protection is unknown. This study demonstrated that protection in short term apoptosis assays and long term proliferation assays was maximal when Jurkat or HL-60 human leukemia cells were treated with 2–5 nm PMA. Immunoblotting demonstrated that multiple PKC isoforms, including PKCα, PKCβ, PKCϵ, and PKCθ, translocated from the cytosol to a membrane-bound fraction at these PMA concentrations. When the ability of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) constructs that specifically down-regulated each of these isoforms was examined, PKCβ shRNA uniquely reversed PMA-induced protection against cell death. The PKCβ-selective small molecule inhibitor enzastaurin had a similar effect. Although mass spectrometry suggested that Fas is phosphorylated on a number of serines and threonines, mutation of these sites individually or collectively had no effect on Fas-mediated death signaling or PMA protection. Further experiments demonstrated that PMA diminished ligand-induced cell surface accumulation of Fas and DR5, and PKCβ shRNA or enzastaurin reversed this effect. Moreover, enzastaurin sensitized a variety of human tumor cell lines and clinical acute myelogenous leukemia isolates, which express abundant PKCβ, to tumor necrosis factor-α related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced death in the absence of PMA. Collectively, these results identify a specific PKC isoform that modulates death receptor-mediated cytotoxicity as well as a small molecule inhibitor that mitigates the inhibitory effects of PKC activation on ligand-induced death receptor trafficking and cell death. PMID:19887445

  6. The ATM Kinase Induces MicroRNA Biogenesis in the DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinna; Wan, Guohui; Berger, Franklin G.; He, Xiaoming; Lu, Xiongbin

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The DNA damage response involves a complex network of processes that detect and repair DNA damage. Here we show that miRNA biogenesis is globally induced upon DNA damage in an ATM-dependent manner. About one fourth of miRNAs are significantly up-regulated after DNA damage, while loss of ATM abolishes their induction. KSRP (KH-type splicing regulatory protein) is a key player that translates DNA damage signaling to miRNA biogenesis. The ATM kinase directly binds to and phosphorylates KSRP, leading to enhanced interaction between KSRP and pri-miRNAs and increased KSRP activity in miRNA processing. Mutations of the ATM phosphorylation sites of KSRP impaired its activity in regulating miRNAs. These findings reveal a mechanism by which DNA damage signaling is linked to miRNA biogenesis. PMID:21329876

  7. Biphasic function of focal adhesion kinase in endothelial tube formation induced by fibril-forming collagens.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Junko; Shigematsu, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Keishi; Takeda, Teiji; Yamazaki, Masanori; Kakizawa, Tomoko; Hashizume, Kiyoshi

    2008-10-03

    Migration and tube formation of endothelial cells are important in angiogenesis and require a coordinated response to the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) and growth factor. Since focal adhesion kinase (FAK) integrates signals from both ECM and growth factor, we investigated its role in angiogenesis. Type I and II collagens are fibril-forming collagens and stimulate human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to form tube structure. Although knockdown of FAK restrained cell motility and resulted in inhibition of tube formation, FAK degradation and tube formation occurred simultaneously after incubation with fibril-forming collagens. The compensation for the FAK degradation by a calpain inhibitor or transient over-expression of FAK resulted in disturbance of tube formation. These phenomena are specific to fibril-forming collagens and mediated via alpha2beta1 integrin. In conclusion, our data indicate that FAK is functioning in cell migration, but fibril-forming collagen-induced FAK degradation is necessary for endothelial tube formation.

  8. Discovery of rice essential genes by characterizing a CRISPR-edited mutation of closely related rice MAP kinase genes.

    PubMed

    Minkenberg, Bastian; Xie, Kabin; Yang, Yinong

    2017-02-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 nuclease (Cas9) system depends on a guide RNA (gRNA) to specify its target. By efficiently co-expressing multiple gRNAs that target different genomic sites, the polycistronic tRNA-gRNA gene (PTG) strategy enables multiplex gene editing in the family of closely related mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) genes in Oryza sativa (rice). In this study, we identified MPK1 and MPK6 (Arabidopsis AtMPK6 and AtMPK4 orthologs, respectively) as essential genes for rice development by finding the preservation of MPK functional alleles and normal phenotypes in CRISPR-edited mutants. The true knock-out mutants of MPK1 were severely dwarfed and sterile, and homozygous mpk1 seeds from heterozygous parents were defective in embryo development. By contrast, heterozygous mpk6 mutant plants completely failed to produce homozygous mpk6 seeds. In addition, the functional importance of specific MPK features could be evaluated by characterizing CRISPR-induced allelic variation in the conserved kinase domain of MPK6. By simultaneously targeting between two and eight genomic sites in the closely related MPK genes, we demonstrated 45-86% frequency of biallelic mutations and the successful creation of single, double and quadruple gene mutants. Indels and fragment deletion were both stably inherited to the next generations, and transgene-free mutants of rice MPK genes were readily obtained via genetic segregation, thereby eliminating any positional effects of transgene insertions. Taken together, our study reveals the essentiality of MPK1 and MPK6 in rice development, and enables the functional discovery of previously inaccessible genes or domains with phenotypes masked by lethality or redundancy.

  9. Isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in breast cancer via Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    HU, SHAN; HUANG, LIMING; MENG, LIWEI; SUN, HE; ZHANG, WEI; XU, YINGCHUN

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of female cancer-associated mortality. Although treatment options, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery have led to a decline in the mortality rates associated with breast cancer, drug resistance remains one of the predominant causes for poor prognosis and high recurrence rates. The present study investigated the potential effects of the natural product, isorhamnetin on breast cancer, and examined the effects of isorhamnetin on the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/MAPK kinase (MEK) signaling cascades, which are two important signaling pathways for endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer. The results of the present study indicate that isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell apoptosis. In addition, isorhamnetin was observed to inhibit the Akt/mTOR and the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation cascades. The inhibition of these two signaling pathways was attenuated by the two Akt and MEK1 inhibitors, but not by the nuclear factor-κB inhibitor. Furthermore, epidermal growth factor inhibited the effects of isorhamnetin via activation of the Akt and MEK signaling pathways. These results indicate that isorhamnetin exhibits antitumor effects in breast cancer, which are mediated by the Akt and MEK signaling pathways. PMID:26502751

  10. Isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in breast cancer via Akt and mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shan; Huang, Liming; Meng, Liwei; Sun, He; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Yingchun

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of female cancer-associated mortality. Although treatment options, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery have led to a decline in the mortality rates associated with breast cancer, drug resistance remains one of the predominant causes for poor prognosis and high recurrence rates. The present study investigated the potential effects of the natural product, isorhamnetin on breast cancer, and examined the effects of isorhamnetin on the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/MAPK kinase (MEK) signaling cascades, which are two important signaling pathways for endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer. The results of the present study indicate that isorhamnetin inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell apoptosis. In addition, isorhamnetin was observed to inhibit the Akt/mTOR and the MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation cascades. The inhibition of these two signaling pathways was attenuated by the two Akt and MEK1 inhibitors, but not by the nuclear factor-κB inhibitor. Furthermore, epidermal growth factor inhibited the effects of isorhamnetin via activation of the Akt and MEK signaling pathways. These results indicate that isorhamnetin exhibits antitumor effects in breast cancer, which are mediated by the Akt and MEK signaling pathways.

  11. Isoflurane protects against human endothelial cell apoptosis by inducing sphingosine kinase-1 via ERK MAPK.

    PubMed

    Bakar, Adnan M; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Mihwa; Lee, H Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a major clinical problem affecting virtually every patient requiring critical care. Volatile anesthetics are frequently used during the perioperative period and protect the heart and kidney against ischemia and reperfusion injury. We aimed to determine whether isoflurane, the most commonly used volatile anesthetic in the USA, protects against endothelial apoptosis and necrosis and the mechanisms involved in this protection. Human endothelial EA.hy926 cells were pretreated with isoflurane or carrier gas (95% room air + 5% CO(2)) then subjected to apoptosis with tumor necrosis factor-α or to necrosis with hydrogen peroxide. DNA laddering and in situ Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) staining determined EA.hy926 cell apoptosis and percent LDH released determined necrosis. We also determined whether isoflurane modulates the expression and activity of sphingosine kinase-1 (SK1) and induces the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK MAPK) as both enzymes are known to protect against cell death. Isoflurane pretreatment significantly decreased apoptosis in EA.hy926 cells as evidenced by reduced TUNEL staining and DNA laddering without affecting necrosis. Mechanistically, isoflurane induces the phosphorylation of ERK MAPK and increased SK1 expression and activity in EA.hy926 cells. Finally, selective blockade of SK1 (with SKI-II) or S1P(1) receptor (with W146) abolished the anti-apoptotic effects of isoflurane. Taken together, we demonstrate that isoflurane, in addition to its potent analgesic and anesthetic properties, protects against endothelial apoptosis most likely via SK1 and ERK MAPK activation. Our findings have significant clinical implication for protection of endothelial cells during the perioperative period and patients requiring critical care.

  12. Aurora kinase A inhibition-induced autophagy triggers drug resistance in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhengzhi; Yuan, Zhongyu; Zhang, Qiongxia; Long, Zijie; Chen, Jinna; Tang, Zhiping; Zhu, Yuliang; Chen, Shupeng; Xu, Jie; Yan, Min; Wang, Jing; Liu, Quentin

    2012-12-01

    We have previously shown that elevated expression of mitotic kinase aurora kinase A (AURKA) in cancer cells promotes the development of metastatic phenotypes and is associated clinically with adverse prognosis. Here, we first revealed a clinically positive correlation between AURKA and autophagy-associated protein SQSTM1 in breast cancer and further demonstrated that AURKA regulated SQSTM1 through autophagy. Indeed, depletion by siRNA or chemical inhibition of AURKA by the small molecule VX-680 increased both the level of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II) and the number of autophagosomes, along with decreased SQSTM1. Conversely, overexpression of AURKA inhibited autophagy, as assessed by decreased LC3-II and increased SQSTM1 either upon nutrient deprivation or normal conditions. In addition, phosphorylated forms of both RPS6KB1 and mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) were elevated by overexpression of AURKA whereas they were suppressed by depletion or inhibition of AURKA. Moreover, inhibition of MTOR by PP242, an inhibitor of MTOR complex1/2, abrogated the changes in both LC3-II and SQSTM1 in AURKA-overexpressing BT-549 cells, suggesting that AURKA-suppressed autophagy might be associated with MTOR activation. Lastly, repression of autophagy by depletion of either LC3 or ATG5, sensitized breast cancer cells to VX-680-induced apoptosis. Similar findings were observed in cells treated with the autophagy inhibitors chloroquine (CQ) and bafilomycin A 1 (BAF). Our data thus revealed a novel role of AURKA as a negative regulator of autophagy, showing that AURKA inhibition induced autophagy, which may represent a novel mechanism of drug resistance in apoptosis-aimed therapy for breast cancer.

  13. Stimulated calcium entry and constitutive RhoA kinase activity cause stretch-induced detrusor contraction.

    PubMed

    Poley, Rainer N; Dosier, Christopher R; Speich, John E; Miner, Amy S; Ratz, Paul H

    2008-12-03

    Urinary bladder wall muscle (i.e., detrusor smooth muscle; DSM) contracts in response to a quick-stretch, but this response is neither fully characterized, nor completely understood at the subcellular level. Strips of rabbit DSM were quick-stretched (5 ms) and held isometric for 10 s to measure the resulting peak quick-stretch contractile response (PQSR). The ability of selective Ca(2+) channel blockers and kinase inhibitors to alter the PQSR was measured, and the phosphorylation levels of myosin light chain (MLC) and myosin phosphatase targeting regulatory subunit (MYPT1) were recorded. DSM responded to a quick-stretch with a biphasic response consisting of an initial contraction peaking at 0.24+/-0.02-fold the maximum KCl-induced contraction (F(o)) by 1.48+/-0.17 s (PQSR) before falling to a weaker tonic (10 s) level (0.12+/-0.03-fold F(o)). The PQSR was dependent on the rate and degree of muscle stretch, displayed a refractory period, and was converted to a sustained response in the presence of muscarinic receptor stimulation. The PQSR was inhibited by nifedipine, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), 100 microM gadolinium and Y-27632, but not by atropine, 10 microM gadolinium, LOE-908, cyclopiazonic acid, or GF-109203X. Y-27632 and nifedipine abolished the increase in MLC phosphorylation induced by a quick-stretch. Y-27632, but not nifedipine, inhibited basal MYPT1 phosphorylation, and a quick-stretch failed to increase phosphorylation of this rhoA kinase (ROCK) substrate above the basal level. These data support the hypothesis that constitutive ROCK activity is required for a quick-stretch to activate Ca(2+) entry and cause a myogenic contraction of DSM.

  14. Inhibition of Janus kinase signaling during controlled mechanical ventilation prevents ventilation-induced diaphragm dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ira J; Godinez, Guillermo L; Singh, Baljit K; McCaughey, Kelly M; Alcantara, Raniel R; Gururaja, Tarikere; Ho, Melissa S; Nguyen, Henry N; Friera, Annabelle M; White, Kathy A; McLaughlin, John R; Hansen, Derek; Romero, Jason M; Baltgalvis, Kristen A; Claypool, Mark D; Li, Wei; Lang, Wayne; Yam, George C; Gelman, Marina S; Ding, Rongxian; Yung, Stephanie L; Creger, Daniel P; Chen, Yan; Singh, Rajinder; Smuder, Ashley J; Wiggs, Michael P; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Sollanek, Kurt J; Powers, Scott K; Masuda, Esteban S; Taylor, Vanessa C; Payan, Donald G; Kinoshita, Taisei; Kinsella, Todd M

    2014-07-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is associated with the development of diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction, and respiratory muscle weakness is thought to contribute significantly to delayed weaning of patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies for preventing these processes may have clinical benefit. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in CMV-mediated diaphragm wasting and weakness in rats. CMV-induced diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction coincided with marked increases in STAT3 phosphorylation on both tyrosine 705 (Tyr705) and serine 727 (Ser727). STAT3 activation was accompanied by its translocation into mitochondria within diaphragm muscle and mitochondrial dysfunction. Inhibition of JAK signaling during CMV prevented phosphorylation of both target sites on STAT3, eliminated the accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3 within the mitochondria, and reversed the pathologic alterations in mitochondrial function, reduced oxidative stress in the diaphragm, and maintained normal diaphragm contractility. In addition, JAK inhibition during CMV blunted the activation of key proteolytic pathways in the diaphragm, as well as diaphragm atrophy. These findings implicate JAK/STAT3 signaling in the development of diaphragm muscle atrophy and dysfunction during CMV and suggest that the delayed extubation times associated with CMV can be prevented by inhibition of Janus kinase signaling.-Smith, I. J., Godinez, G. L., Singh, B. K., McCaughey, K. M., Alcantara, R. R., Gururaja, T., Ho, M. S., Nguyen, H. N., Friera, A. M., White, K. A., McLaughlin, J. R., Hansen, D., Romero, J. M., Baltgalvis, K. A., Claypool, M. D., Li, W., Lang, W., Yam, G. C., Gelman, M. S., Ding, R., Yung, S. L., Creger, D. P., Chen, Y., Singh, R., Smuder, A. J., Wiggs, M. P., Kwon, O.-S., Sollanek, K. J., Powers, S. K., Masuda, E. S., Taylor, V. C., Payan, D. G

  15. Inhibition of Janus kinase signaling during controlled mechanical ventilation prevents ventilation-induced diaphragm dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ira J.; Godinez, Guillermo L.; Singh, Baljit K.; McCaughey, Kelly M.; Alcantara, Raniel R.; Gururaja, Tarikere; Ho, Melissa S.; Nguyen, Henry N.; Friera, Annabelle M.; White, Kathy A.; McLaughlin, John R.; Hansen, Derek; Romero, Jason M.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Claypool, Mark D.; Li, Wei; Lang, Wayne; Yam, George C.; Gelman, Marina S.; Ding, Rongxian; Yung, Stephanie L.; Creger, Daniel P.; Chen, Yan; Singh, Rajinder; Smuder, Ashley J.; Wiggs, Michael P.; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Sollanek, Kurt J.; Powers, Scott K.; Masuda, Esteban S.; Taylor, Vanessa C.; Payan, Donald G.; Kinoshita, Taisei; Kinsella, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is associated with the development of diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction, and respiratory muscle weakness is thought to contribute significantly to delayed weaning of patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies for preventing these processes may have clinical benefit. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in CMV-mediated diaphragm wasting and weakness in rats. CMV-induced diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction coincided with marked increases in STAT3 phosphorylation on both tyrosine 705 (Tyr705) and serine 727 (Ser727). STAT3 activation was accompanied by its translocation into mitochondria within diaphragm muscle and mitochondrial dysfunction. Inhibition of JAK signaling during CMV prevented phosphorylation of both target sites on STAT3, eliminated the accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3 within the mitochondria, and reversed the pathologic alterations in mitochondrial function, reduced oxidative stress in the diaphragm, and maintained normal diaphragm contractility. In addition, JAK inhibition during CMV blunted the activation of key proteolytic pathways in the diaphragm, as well as diaphragm atrophy. These findings implicate JAK/STAT3 signaling in the development of diaphragm muscle atrophy and dysfunction during CMV and suggest that the delayed extubation times associated with CMV can be prevented by inhibition of Janus kinase signaling.—Smith, I. J., Godinez, G. L., Singh, B. K., McCaughey, K. M., Alcantara, R. R., Gururaja, T., Ho, M. S., Nguyen, H. N., Friera, A. M., White, K. A., McLaughlin, J. R., Hansen, D., Romero, J. M., Baltgalvis, K. A., Claypool, M. D., Li, W., Lang, W., Yam, G. C., Gelman, M. S., Ding, R., Yung, S. L., Creger, D. P., Chen, Y., Singh, R., Smuder, A. J., Wiggs, M. P., Kwon, O.-S., Sollanek, K. J., Powers, S. K., Masuda, E. S., Taylor, V. C., Payan, D. G

  16. MAPKAP kinase-2; a novel protein kinase activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Stokoe, D; Campbell, D G; Nakielny, S; Hidaka, H; Leevers, S J; Marshall, C; Cohen, P

    1992-01-01

    A novel protein kinase, which was only active when phosphorylated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase), has been purified 85,000-fold to homogeneity from rabbit skeletal muscle. This MAP kinase activated protein kinase, termed MAPKAP kinase-2, was distinguished from S6 kinase-II (MAPKAP kinase-1) by its response to inhibitors, lack of phosphorylation of S6 peptides and amino acid sequence. MAPKAP kinase-2 phosphorylated glycogen synthase at Ser7 and the equivalent serine (*) in the peptide KKPLNRTLS*VASLPGLamide whose sequence is similar to the N terminus of glycogen synthase. MAPKAP kinase-2 was resolved into two monomeric species of apparent molecular mass 60 and 53 kDa that had similar specific activities and substrate specificities. Peptide sequences of the 60 and 53 kDa species were identical, indicating that they are either closely related isoforms or derived from the same gene. MAP kinase activated the 60 and 53 kDa forms of MAPKAP kinase-2 by phosphorylating the first threonine residue in the sequence VPQTPLHTSR. Furthermore, Mono Q chromatography of extracts from rat phaeochromocytoma and skeletal muscle demonstrated that two MAP kinase isoforms (p42mapk and p44mapk) were the only enzymes in these cells that were capable of reactivating MAPKAP kinase-2. These results indicate that MAP kinase activates at least two distinct protein kinases, suggesting that it represents a point at which the growth factor-stimulated protein kinase cascade bifurcates. Images PMID:1327754

  17. A single transient episode of hyperammonemia induces long-lasting alterations in protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Montoliu, Carmina; Piedrafita, Blanca; Serra, Miguel A; del Olmo, Juan A; Rodrigo, José M; Felipo, Vicente

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy in patients with liver disease is associated with poor prognosis. This could be due to the induction by the transient episode of hepatic encephalopathy of long-lasting alterations making patients more susceptible. We show that a single transient episode of hyperammonemia induces long-lasting alterations in signal transduction. The content of the regulatory subunit of the protein kinase dependent on cAMP (PKA-RI) is increased in erythrocytes from cirrhotic patients. This increase is reproduced in rats with portacaval anastomosis and in rats with hyperammonemia without liver failure, suggesting that hyperammonemia is responsible for increased PKA-RI in patients. We analyzed whether there is a correlation between ammonia levels and PKA-RI content in patients. All cirrhotic patients had increased content of PKA-RI. Some of them showed normal ammonia levels but had suffered previous hyperammonemia episodes. This suggested that a single transient episode of hyperammonemia could induce the long-lasting increase in PKA-RI. To assess this, we injected normal rats with ammonia and blood was taken at different times. Ammonia returned to basal levels at 2 h. However, PKA-RI was significantly increased in blood cells from rats injected with ammonia 3 wk after injection. In conclusion, it is shown that a single transient episode of hyperammonemia induces long-lasting alterations in signal transduction both in blood and brain. These alterations may contribute to the poor prognosis of patients suffering hepatic encephalopathy.

  18. GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE KINASE-3 REGULATES MICROGLIAL MIGRATION, INFLAMMATION, AND INFLAMMATION-INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY

    PubMed Central

    Yuskaitis, Christopher J.; Jope, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Microglia play a prominent role in the brain’s inflammatory response to injury or infection by migrating to affected locations, secreting inflammatory molecules, and phagocytosing damaged tissue. However, because severe or chronic neuroinflammation exacerbates many neurological conditions, controlling microglia actions may provide therapeutic benefits in a diverse array of diseases. Since glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) promotes inflammatory responses in peripheral immune cells, we investigated if inhibitors of GSK3 attenuated microglia responses to inflammatory stimuli. Treatment of BV-2 microglia with GSK3 inhibitors greatly reduced the migration of microglia in both a scratch assay and in a transwell migration assay. Treatment of BV-2 microglia with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated the production of interleukin-6 and increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NO production. Each of these microglia responses to inflammatory stimulation were greatly attenuated by GSK3 inhibitors. However, GSK3 inhibitors did not cause a general impairment of microglia functions, as the LPS-induced stimulated expression of cylcooxygenase-2 was unaltered. Regulation of microglia functions were also evident in cultured mouse hippocampal slices where GSK3 inhibitors reduced cytokine production and microglial migration, and provided protection from inflammation-induced neuronal toxicity. These findings demonstrate that GSK3 promotes microglial responses to inflammation and that the utilization of GSK3 inhibitors provides a means to limit the inflammatory actions of microglia. PMID:19007880

  19. Calcium/calmodulin kinase II activity of hippocampus in kainate-induced epilepsy.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, M. C.; Ban, S. S.; Woo, Y. J.; Kim, S. U.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) activity related to long-standing neuronal injury of the hippocampus in kainate (KA)-induced experimental temporal lobe epilepsy. Epileptic seizure was induced by injection of KA (1 microg/microL) dissolved in phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.4) into the left amygdala. Clinical seizures, histopathologic changes and CaMKII activity of the hippocampus were evaluated. Characteristic early limbic and late seizures were developed. Hippocampal CaMKII activity increased significantly 4 and 8 weeks after intra-amygdaloid injection of KA, when late seizures developed. The histopathologic changes of the hippocampus included swelling of neuronal cytoplasm with nuclear pyknosis and loss of neurons in CA3 during this period. The increased activity of CaMKII may correlate with appearance of distant damage in the hippocampus. The above results indicate that intra-amygdaloid injection of KA produces excitatory signals for ipsilateral CA3 neurons in the hippocampus and that subsequently increased levels of CaMKII in postsynaptic neurons induce neuronal injury via phosphorylation of N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptor. PMID:11641537

  20. Lyn kinase represses mucus hypersecretion by regulating IL-13-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in asthma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Yang, Xiaoqiong; Li, Yin; Wang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yun; Dai, Xi; Niu, Bin; Wu, Juan; Yuan, Xiefang; Xiong, Anjie; Liu, Zhigang; Zhong, Nanshan; Wu, Min; Li, Guoping

    2017-02-01

    In asthma, mucus hypersecretion is thought to be a prominent pathological feature associated with widespread mucus plugging. However, the current treatments for mucus hypersecretion are often ineffective or temporary. The potential therapeutic targets of mucus hypersecretion in asthma remain unknown. Here, we show that Lyn is a central effector of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and mucous hypersecretion in asthma. In Lyn-transgenic mice (Lyn-TG) and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J mice exposed to ovalbumin (OVA), Lyn overexpression attenuates mucus hypersecretion and ER stress. Interleukin 13 (IL-13) induced MUC5AC expression by enhancing ER stress in vitro. Lyn serves as a negative regulator of IL-13-induced ER stress and MUC5AC expression. We further find that an inhibitor of ER stress, which is likely involved in the PI3K p85α/Akt pathway and NFκB activity, blocked MUC5AC expression in Lyn-knockdown cells. Furthermore, PI3K/Akt signaling is required for IL-13-induced ER stress and MUC5AC expression in airway epithelial cells. The ER stress regulation of MUC5AC expression depends on NFκB in Lyn-knockdown airway epithelial cells. Our studies indicate not only a concept of mucus hypersecretion in asthma that involves Lyn kinase but also an important therapeutic candidate for asthma.

  1. Localization of the human stress responsive MAP kinase-like CSAIDs binding protein (CSBP) gene to chromosome 6p21.3/21.2

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, P.C.; Young, P.R.; DiLella, A.G.

    1995-09-01

    The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) play a pivotal role in the initiation of inflammatory responses. Soluble protein antagonists of IL-1 and TNF, such as IL-1ra, sTNFR-Fc fusion, and monoclonal antibodies to TNF have proven to be effective at blocking acute and chronic responses in a number of animal models of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, septic shock, and inflammatory bowel disease. Consequently, there has been considerable interest in discovering compounds that could inhibit the production of these cytokines and might therefore become treatments. Recently, a structurally related series of pyridinyl imidazoles was found to block IL-1 and TNF production from LPS-stimulated human monocytes and to ameliorate inflammatory diseases significantly in vivo, leading to their being named CSAIDs (cytokine suppressive anti-inflammatory drugs). The protein target of these compounds, termed CSBP (CSAID binding protein), was discovered to be a new member of the MAP kinase family of serine-threonine protein kinases whose kinase activity is activated by LPS in human monocytes. Independently, the same kinase, or its rodent homologues, was found to respond also to chemical, thermal, and osmotic stress and IL-1 treatment. Inhibition of this kinase correlated with reduction in inflammatory cytokine production from LPS-activated monocytes. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Increased dietary protein attenuates C-reactive protein and creatine kinase responses to exercise-induced energy deficit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined if dietary protein (P) modulates responses of C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase (CK), biomarkers of inflammation and muscle damage, during exercise-induced energy deficit (DEF). Thirteen healthy men (22 +/- 1 y, VO2peak 60 +/- 2 ml.kg-1.min-1) balanced energy expenditure (EE...

  3. Corosolic acid protects hepatocytes against ethanol-induced damage by modulating mitogen-activated protein kinases and activating autophagy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaolan; Cui, Ruibing; Zhao, Jianjian; Mo, Rui; Peng, Lei; Yan, Ming

    2016-11-15

    The reactive oxygen species(ROS)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) destroyed autophagy and the reactive oxygen species/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway are considered closely related to ethanol-induced hepatocellular injury. Previous work indicated that corosolic acid, the natural extracts of leaves of the banaba tree, Lagerstroemia speciosa L., could protect the liver against ethanol-induced damage, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In the study we found that corosolic acid significantly inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis, increased level of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and reactive oxygen species accumulation in vitro. Corosolic acid inhibited ethanol-activated p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase MAPK signaling in BRL-3A and HepG2 cells as well as in experimental rats. Corosolic acid restored the ethanol-suppressed expression of autophagy-related genes, including beclin-1 and the ratio of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3II/I (LC3II/I) via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation both in vitro and in vivo. In experimental rats, corosolic acid ameliorated the detrimental histopathological findings. Corosolic acid may protect the liver against ethanol-induced injury by modulation of MAPK signaling and autophagy activation. These findings suggested that corosolic acid might be a promising agent in treatment of alcoholic liver diseases.

  4. PROLACTIN-INDUCED TYROSINE PHOSPHORYLATION, ACTIVATION AND RECEPTOR ASSOCIATION OF FOCAL ADHESION KINASE (FAK) IN MAMMARY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prolactin-Induced Tyrosine Phosphorylation, Activation and Receptor
    Association of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) in Mammary Epithelial Cells.
    Suzanne E. Fenton1 and Lewis G. Sheffield2. 1U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency, MD-72, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, and

  5. Activation of S6 kinase in human neutrophils by calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals: protein kinase C-dependent and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-independent pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Tudan, C; Jackson, J K; Charlton, L; Pelech, S L; Sahl, B; Burt, H M

    1998-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) has been shown previously to be a central enzyme in crystal-induced neutrophil activation. Since activation of the 70 kDa S6 kinase (p70S6K) has been shown to be dependent on PI 3-kinase activation in mammalian cells, and since the former is a key enzyme in the transmission of signals to the cell nucleus, activation of p70(S6K) was investigated in crystal-stimulated neutrophils. Cytosolic fractions from calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD)-crystal-activated neutrophils were separated by Mono Q chromatography and analysed for phosphotransferase activity using a range of substrates and probed by Western analysis using antibodies to p70(S6K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase). CPPD crystals induced a robust, transient activation (peak activity at 2 min) of p70(S6K) that was fully inhibited by pretreatment with rapamycin. This is the first report of the activation of p70(S6K) in neutrophil signal transduction pathways induced by an agonist. This crystal-induced activation of p70(S6K) could also be inhibited by a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor (Compound 3), but not by the PI 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin. CPPD crystals also activated the ERK1 and ERK2 forms of MAP kinase (wortmannin insensitive), PKC (Compound 3 sensitive) and protein kinase B (wortmannin sensitive) in neutrophils. These data suggest that activation of p70(S6K) may proceed through a PI 3-kinase- and protein kinase B-independent but PKC-dependent pathway in crystal-activated neutrophils. PMID:9531494

  6. Cell cycle regulation of breast cancer cells through estrogen-induced activities of ERK and Akt protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Geffroy, Nancy; Guédin, Aurore; Dacquet, Catherine; Lefebvre, Philippe

    2005-06-15

    The proliferative effect of estrogens on breast cancer cell (BCC) is mainly mediated through estrogen receptors (ER). Non-transcriptional effects of estrogens, exerted through activation of several protein kinases, may also contribute to BCC proliferation. However, the relative contribution of these two responses to BCC proliferation is not known. We characterized a novel estrogenic receptor ligand which possess Akt and ERK activating properties distinct from that of 17beta-estradiol. Early and delayed waves of activation of these kinases were detected upon estrogenic challenge of BCC, but only molecules able to promote a significant, delayed activation of ERK-induced BCC proliferation. Estrogen-induced cell cycle progression was not sensitive to the inhibition of ERK-regulating kinases MEK1 and 2. ERalpha was found to be necessary, but not sufficient for kinases activation. Thus, estrogens elicit a distinct pattern of early and delayed activation of ERK and Akt, and early protein kinase activation is probably not involved in BCC proliferation. Structural variations in the estrogen molecule may confer novel biological properties unrelated to estrogen-dependent transcriptional activation.

  7. Glyoxal and methylglyoxal trigger distinct signals for map family kinases and caspase activation in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Akhand, A A; Hossain, K; Mitsui, H; Kato, M; Miyata, T; Inagi, R; Du, J; Takeda, K; Kawamoto, Y; Suzuki, H; Kurokawa, K; Nakashima, I

    2001-07-01

    Carbonyl compounds with diverse carbon skeletons may be differentially related to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. In this study, we compared intracellular signals delivered into cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by glyoxal (GO) and methylglyoxal (MGO), which differ only by a methyl group. Depending on their concentrations, GO and MGO promoted phosphorylations of ERK1 and ERK2, which were blocked by the protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors herbimycin A and staurosporine, thereby being PTK-dependent. GO and MGO also induced phosphorylations of JNK, p38 MAPK, and c-Jun, either PTK-dependently (GO) or -independently (MGO). Next, we found that MGO, but not GO, induced degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) as the intracellular substrate of caspase-3. Curcumin and SB203580, which inhibit JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, but not herbimycin A/staurosporine, prevented the MGO-induced PARP degradation. We then found that MGO, but not GO, reduced the intracellular glutathione level, and that cysteine, but not cystine, inhibited the MGO-mediated activation of ERK, JNK, p38 MAPK, or c-Jun more extensively than did lysine or arginine. In addition, all the signals triggered by GO and MGO were blocked by amino guanidine (AG), which traps carbonyls. These results demonstrated that GO and MGO triggered two distinct signal cascades, one for PTK-dependent control of ERK and another for PTK-independent redox-linked activation of JNK/p38 MAPK and caspases in HUVECs, depending on the structure of the carbon skeleton of the chemicals.

  8. Role of Calmodulin-Calmodulin Kinase II, cAMP/Protein Kinase A and ERK 1/2 on Aeromonas hydrophila-Induced Apoptosis of Head Kidney Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Chaitali; Khatri, Preeti; Raman, Rajagopal; Bhatia, Himanshi; Datta, Malabika; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2014-01-01

    The role of calcium (Ca2+) and its dependent protease calpain in Aeromonas hydrophila-induced head kidney macrophage (HKM) apoptosis has been reported. Here, we report the pro-apoptotic involvement of calmodulin (CaM) and calmodulin kinase II gamma (CaMKIIg) in the process. We observed significant increase in CaM levels in A. hydrophila-infected HKM and the inhibitory role of BAPTA/AM, EGTA, nifedipine and verapamil suggested CaM elevation to be Ca2+-dependent. Our studies with CaM-specific siRNA and the CaM inhibitor calmidazolium chloride demonstrated CaM to be pro-apoptotic that initiated the downstream expression of CaMKIIg. Using the CaMKIIg-targeted siRNA, specific inhibitor KN-93 and its inactive structural analogue KN-92 we report CaM-CaMKIIg signalling to be critical for apoptosis of A. hydrophila-infected HKM. Inhibitor studies further suggested the role of calpain-2 in CaMKIIg expression. CaMK Kinase (CaMKK), the other CaM dependent kinase exhibited no role in A. hydrophila-induced HKM apoptosis. We report increased production of intracellular cAMP in infected HKM and our results with KN-93 or KN-92 implicate the role of CaMKIIg in cAMP production. Using siRNA to PKACA, the catalytic subunit of PKA, anti-PKACA antibody and H-89, the specific inhibitor for PKA we prove the pro-apoptotic involvement of cAMP/PKA pathway in the pathogenicity of A. hydrophila. Our inhibitor studies coupled with siRNA approach further implicated the role of cAMP/PKA in activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2). We conclude that the alteration in intracellular Ca2+ levels initiated by A. hydrophila activates CaM and calpain-2; both pathways converge on CaMKIIg which in turn induces cAMP/PKA mediated ERK 1/2 phosphorylation leading to caspase-3 mediated apoptosis of infected HKM. PMID:24763432

  9. High glucose induces inflammatory cytokine through protein kinase C-induced toll-like receptor 2 pathway in gingival fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Shao-Yun; Wei, Cong-Cong; Shang, Ting-Ting; Lian, Qi; Wu, Chen-Xuan; Deng, Jia-Yin

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High glucose significantly induced TLR2 expression in gingival fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High glucose increased NF-{kappa}B p65 nuclear activity, IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PKC-{alpha}/{delta}-TLR2 pathway is involved in periodontal inflammation under high glucose. -- Abstract: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in innate immune response and inflammation, especially in periodontitis. Meanwhile, hyperglycemia can induce inflammation in diabetes complications. However, the activity of TLRs in periodontitis complicated with hyperglycemia is still unclear. In the present study, high glucose (25 mmol/l) significantly induced TLR2 expression in gingival fibroblasts (p < 0.05). Also, high glucose increased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) p65 nuclear activity, tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-l{beta} (IL-1{beta}) levels. Protein kinase C (PKC)-{alpha} and {delta} knockdown with siRNA significantly decreased TLR2 and NF-{kappa}B p65 expression (p < 0.05), whereas inhibition of PKC-{beta} had no effect on TLR2 and NF-{kappa}B p65 under high glucose (p < 0.05). Additional studies revealed that TLR2 knockdown significantly abrogated high-glucose-induced NF-{kappa}B expression and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Collectively, these data suggest that high glucose stimulates TNF-{alpha} and IL-1{beta} secretion via inducing TLR2 through PKC-{alpha} and PKC-{delta} in human gingival fibroblasts.

  10. Kinase Signaling in Apoptosis Induced by Saturated Fatty Acids in Pancreatic β-Cells.

    PubMed

    Šrámek, Jan; Němcová-Fürstová, Vlasta; Kovář, Jan

    2016-09-12

    Pancreatic β-cell failure and death is considered to be one of the main factors responsible for type 2 diabetes. It is caused by, in addition to hyperglycemia, chronic exposure to increased concentrations of fatty acids, mainly saturated fatty acids. Molecular mechanisms of apoptosis induction by saturated fatty acids in β-cells are not completely clear. It has been proposed that kinase signaling could be involved, particularly, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), protein kinase C (PKC), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and Akt kinases and their pathways. In this review, we discuss these kinases and their signaling pathways with respect to their possible role in apoptosis induction by saturated fatty acids in pancreatic β-cells.

  11. The syndecan-4/protein kinase Cα pathway mediates prostaglandin E2-induced extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) activation in endothelial cells and angiogenesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Corti, Federico; Finetti, Federica; Ziche, Marina; Simons, Michael

    2013-05-03

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is regarded as the main mediator of inflammatory symptoms. In addition, it also plays an important role in tumor growth and angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the mechanism of PGE2-induced angiogenic response. We show that in the absence of proteoglycan syndecan-4 (Sdc4), PGE2-induced ERK activation is decreased significantly, as is endothelial cell migration and cord formation in a two-dimensional Matrigel assay. In vivo, PGE2-induced angiogenesis is reduced dramatically in Sdc4(-/-) mice. The mechanism was traced to Sdc4-dependent activation of protein kinase Cα (PKCα). Transduction of an Sdc4 S183E mutant (a cytoplasmic domain mutation that blocks Sdc4-dependent PKCα activation) into Sdc4(-/-) endothelial cells was not able to rescue the loss of PGE2-induced ERK activation, whereas a transduction with full-length Sdc4 resulted in full rescue. Furthermore, PGE2-induced angiogenesis was also reduced in PKCα(-/-) mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PGE2-induced activation of angiogenesis is mediated via syndecan-4-dependent activation of PKCα.

  12. 8-Amino-adenosine induces loss of phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and Akt kinase: role in induction of apoptosis in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Ghias, Kulsoom; Ma, Chunguang; Gandhi, Varsha; Platanias, Leonidas C; Krett, Nancy L; Rosen, Steven T

    2005-04-01

    Multiple myeloma is a slowly proliferating B-cell malignancy that accumulates apoptosis-resistant and replication-quiescent cell populations, posing a challenge for current chemotherapeutics that target rapidly replicating cells. Multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease in need of new therapeutic approaches. The purine nucleoside analogue, 8-amino-adenosine (8-NH2-Ado), exhibits potent activity in preclinical studies, inducing apoptosis in several multiple myeloma cell lines. This cytotoxic effect requires phosphorylation of 8-NH2-Ado to its triphosphate form, 8-amino-ATP, and results in a concomitant loss of endogenous ATP levels. Here, we show the novel effect of 8-NH2-Ado on the phosphorylation status of key cellular signaling molecules. Multiple myeloma cells treated with 8-NH2-Ado exhibit a dramatic loss of phosphorylation of several important signaling proteins, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Akt kinase. Cells depleted of ATP independent of 8-NH2-Ado do not exhibit the same decrease in phosphorylation of vital cellular proteins. Therefore, the significant shifts in endogenous ATP pools caused by 8-NH2-Ado treatment cannot account for the changes in phosphorylation levels. Instead, 8-NH2-Ado may influence the activity of select regulatory protein kinases and/or phosphatases, with preliminary data suggesting that protein phophatase 2A activity is affected by 8-NH2-Ado. The distinctive effect of 8-NH2-Ado on the phosphorylation status of cellular proteins is a novel phenomenon for a nucleoside analogue drug and is unique to 8-NH2-Ado among this class of drugs. The kinetics of 8-NH2-Ado-mediated changes in phosphorylation levels of critical prosurvival and apoptosis-regulating proteins suggests that the modulation of these proteins by dephosphorylation at early time points may be an important mechanistic step in 8-NH2-Ado-induced apoptosis.

  13. Autophagy-related gene 7 (ATG7) and reactive oxygen species/extracellular signal-regulated kinase regulate tetrandrine-induced autophagy in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ke; Chen, Chao; Zhan, Yao; Chen, Yan; Huang, Zebo; Li, Wenhua

    2012-10-12

    Tetrandrine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the broadly used Chinese medicinal herb Stephaniae tetrandrae, exhibits potent antitumor effects and has the potential to be used as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent. We previously reported that high concentrations of tetrandrine induce apoptosis in liver cancer cells. Here, we found that in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, a low dose of tetrandrine (5 μm) induced the expression of LC3-II, resulted in the formation of acidic autophagolysosome vacuoles (AVOs), and caused a punctate fluorescence pattern with the GFP-LC3 protein, which all are markers for cellular autophagy. Tetrandrine induced the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and treatment with ROS scavengers significantly abrogated the tetrandrine-induced autophagy. These results suggest that the generation of ROS plays an important role in promoting tetrandrine-induced autophagy. Tetrandrine-induced mitochondrial dysfunction resulted in ROS accumulation and autophagy. ROS generation activated the ERK MAP kinase, and the ERK signaling pathway at least partially contributed to tetrandrine-induced autophagy in HCC cells. Moreover, we found that tetrandrine transcriptionally regulated the expression of autophagy related gene 7 (ATG7), which promoted tetrandrine-induced autophagy. In addition to in vitro studies, similar results were also observed in vivo, where tetrandrine caused the accumulation of ROS and induced cell autophagy in a tumor xenograft model. Interestingly, tetrandrine treatment also induced autophagy in a ROS-dependent manner in C. elegans muscle cells. Therefore, these findings suggest that tetrandrine is a potent autophagy agonist and may be a promising clinical chemotherapeutic agent.

  14. Functional characterization of the three mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAP2Ks) present in the Cryphonectria parasitica genome reveals the necessity of Cpkk1 and Cpkk2, but not Cpkk3, for pathogenesis on chestnut (Castanea spp.).

    PubMed

    Moretti, Marino; Rossi, Marika; Ciuffo, Marina; Turina, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    The biological function(s) of the cpkk1, cpkk2 and cpkk3 genes, encoding the three mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAP2Ks) of Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight, were examined through knockout strains. Cpkk1, the Mkk1 orthologue, acts in a phosphorylation cascade essential for cell integrity; Cpkk2 is the Ste7 orthologue involved in the pheromone response pathway; Cpkk3 is the Pbs2 orthologue, the MAP2K activated during the high-osmolarity response. Our analysis confirmed the role of each MAP2K in its respective signalling cascade with some peculiarities: abnormal hyphae with a reduced number of septa and thinner cell walls were observed in Δcpkk1 mutants, and a strong growth defect on solid media was evident in Δcpkk2 mutants, when compared with the controls. Virulence on chestnut was affected in both the Δcpkk1 and Δcpkk2 strains, which were also unable to complete the developmental steps essential for mating. No alterations were reported in Δcpkk3, except under hyperosmotic conditions and in the presence of fludioxonil. Δcpkk2 mutants, however, showed higher sensitivity during growth in medium containing the antibiotic G418 (Geneticin).

  15. Hydroxytyrosol induces antioxidant/detoxificant enzymes and Nrf2 translocation via extracellular regulated kinases and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathways in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Martín, María Angeles; Ramos, Sonia; Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Rodríguez-Ramiro, Ildefonso; Trujillo, Mariana; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2010-07-01

    Hydroxytyrosol (HTy) is a natural polyphenol abundant in olive oil, which possesses multiple biological actions. Particularly, HTy has cytoprotective activity against oxidative-stress-induced cell damage, but the underlying mechanisms of action remain unclear. Here, we have investigated the molecular mechanism involved in the protection exerted by HTy on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced damage in human HepG2 liver cells. Treatment of HepG2 cells with HTy increased the expression and the activity of glutathione-related enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase. HTy also induced the nuclear transcription factor erythroid 2p45-related factor (Nrf2), a transcription factor implicated in the expression of several antioxidant/detoxificant enzymes. Moreover, two important signalling proteins involved in Nrf2 translocation, the protein kinase B and the extracellular regulated kinases, were also activated by HTy. Further studies with specific inhibitors confirmed that both molecular pathways are critical for the nuclear translocation of Nrf2, the increased enzyme expression and activity and the beneficial effect against oxidative stress induced by HTy. In conclusion, together with the inherent radical scavenging activity of HTy, our results provide an additional mechanism of action to prevent oxidative stress damage through the modulation of signalling pathways involved in antioxidant/detoxifying enzymes regulation.

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) protects against pressure overload-induced heart failure and lung remodeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Kwak, Dongmin; Lu, Zhongbing; Xu, Xin; Fassett, John; Wang, Huan; Wei, Yidong; Cavener, Douglas R; Hu, Xinli; Hall, Jennifer; Bache, Robert J; Chen, Yingjie

    2014-10-01

    Studies have reported that development of congestive heart failure is associated with increased endoplasmic reticulum stress. Double stranded RNA-activated protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is a major transducer of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response and directly phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2α, resulting in translational attenuation. However, the physiological effect of PERK on congestive heart failure development is unknown. To study the effect of PERK on ventricular structure and function, we generated inducible cardiac-specific PERK knockout mice. Under unstressed conditions, cardiac PERK knockout had no effect on left ventricular mass, or its ratio to body weight, cardiomyocyte size, fibrosis, or left ventricular function. However, in response to chronic transverse aortic constriction, PERK knockout mice exhibited decreased ejection fraction, increased left ventricular fibrosis, enhanced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and exacerbated lung remodeling in comparison with wild-type mice. PERK knockout also dramatically attenuated cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase expression in response to aortic constriction. Our findings suggest that PERK is required to protect the heart from pressure overload-induced congestive heart failure.

  17. Minimizing mapping-induced OPD errors when testing aspheric mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Hudyma, R. M., LLNL

    1998-03-16

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection systems are designed with mild aspheres so that the mirrors can be tested at the center of curvature without null optics. The elimination of the null optics improves the fundamental accuracy of the test. However, this test configuration is not stiginatic, and the rays from the test wavefront and reference wavefront will not trace the same optical path through the viewing system. Effectively, the test and reference wavefront are sheared in the exit pupil of the viewing system. This shear leads to an OPD contribution from the viewing system that we label the mapping error. For visible light metrology, this induced OPD error can be a significant fraction of the EUV wavelength. The origin of this OPD error is demonstrated using simple ray optics. Examples are presented illustrating the nature and magnitude of this error for off-axis aspheric sections. Methods for mininiizing this OPD error are suggested.

  18. Suppression of Mitochondrial Biogenesis through Toll-Like Receptor 4–Dependent Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling in Endotoxin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joshua A.; Stallons, L. Jay; Collier, Justin B.; Chavin, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Although disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis and biogenesis (MB) is a widely accepted pathophysiologic feature of sepsis-