Science.gov

Sample records for induced vibrational cooling

  1. Flow-induced vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Blevins, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on dimensional analysis; ideal fluid models; vortex-induced vibration; galloping and flutter; instability of tube and cylinder arrays; vibrations induced by oscillating flow; vibration induced by turbulence and sound; damping of structures; sound induced by vortex shedding; vibrations of a pipe containing a fluid flow; indices. It covers the analysis of the vibrations of structures exposed to fluid flows; explores applications for offshore platforms and piping; wind-induced vibration of buildings, bridges, and towers; and acoustic and mechanical vibration of heat exchangers, power lines, and process ducting.

  2. Vibrational Cooling of Photoassociated Homonuclear Cold Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passagem, Henry; Ventura, Paulo; Tallant, Jonathan; Marcassa, Luis

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we produce vibrationally cold homonuclear Rb molecules using spontaneous optical pumping. The vibrationally cooled molecules are produced in three steps. In the first step, we use a photoassociation laser to produce molecules in high vibrational levels of the singlet ground state. Then in a second step, a 50 W broadband laser at 1071 nm, which bandwidth is about 2 nm, is used to transfer the molecules to lower vibrational levels via optical pumping through the excited state. This process transfers the molecules from vibrational levels around ν ~= 113 to a distribution of levels below ν = 35 . The molecules can be further cooled using a broadband light source near 685 nm. In order to obtain such broadband source, we have used a 5 mW superluminescent diode, which is amplified in a tapered amplifier using a double pass configuration. After the amplification, the spectrum is properly shaped and we end up with about 90 mW distributed in the 682-689 nm range. The final vibrational distribution is probed using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization with a pulsed dye laser near 670 nm operating at 4KHz. The results are presented and compared with theoretical simulations. This work was supported by Fapesp and INCT-IQ.

  3. Flow-Induced Vibration of a Reed in a Channel: Effect of Reed Shape on Convective Heat Transfer with Application to Electronic Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rips, Aaron; Shoele, Kourosh; Glezer, Ari; Mittal, Rajat

    2015-11-01

    Flow-induced vibration of a reed (a thin plate or flag) in a channel can improve heat transfer efficiency in forced convection applications, allowing for more heat transfer for the same fan power. Such systems have wide ranging applications in electronic and power cooling. We investigate the effect of 3D reed shape on heat transfer enhancement. To study 3D effects, we first use 2D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations of an optimized reed (in terms of mass and stiffness) to generate a prescribed reed motion. We then apply that motion to a pseudo 3D reed (i.e. infinitely stiff in the spanwise direction) and study the heat transfer enhancement in a 3D channel. This method allows us to explore a large parameter space exhaustively, and using this method, we examine the effect of several parameters, such as reed planform and spanwise gap, on the heat transfer enhancements for forced convection in a channel. Simulations indicate that these geometrical feature have a significant effect on the vortex dynamics in the wake as well as the heat transfer efficiency. This work was supported by grants from AFOSR, EPRI and NSF.

  4. Angular vibrations of cryogenically cooled double-crystal monochromators.

    PubMed

    Sergueev, I; Döhrmann, R; Horbach, J; Heuer, J

    2016-09-01

    The effect of angular vibrations of the crystals in cryogenically cooled monochromators on the beam performance has been studied theoretically and experimentally. A simple relation between amplitude of the vibrations and size of the focused beam is developed. It is shown that the double-crystal monochromator vibrations affect not only the image size but also the image position along the optical axis. Several methods to measure vibrations with the X-ray beam are explained and analyzed. The methods have been applied to systematically study angular crystal vibrations at monochromators installed at the PETRA III light source. Characteristic values of the amplitudes of angular vibrations for different monochromators are presented. PMID:27577762

  5. Flow-induced vibrations-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Au-Yang, M.K.; Chen, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: Acoustic resonance in heat exchanger tube bundles--Part 1. Physical nature of the phenomenon; Theoretical and experimental studies on heat exchanger U-bend tube bundle vibration characteristics; Experimental model analysis of metallic pipeline conveying fluid; Leakage flow-induced vibration of an eccentric tube-in-tube slip joint; and A study on the vibrations of pipelines caused by internal pulsating flows.

  6. SHAKE OUT WORKER DUMPING COOLED MOLDS ONTO THE VIBRATING CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SHAKE OUT WORKER DUMPING COOLED MOLDS ONTO THE VIBRATING CONVEYOR THAT TRANSPORTS SAND AND CASTINGS TO THE SEPARATION SCREEN. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Centerville Foundry, 101 Airport Road, Centreville, Bibb County, AL

  7. Single-molecule electronics: Cooling individual vibrational modes by the tunneling current.

    PubMed

    Lykkebo, Jacob; Romano, Giuseppe; Gagliardi, Alessio; Pecchia, Alessandro; Solomon, Gemma C

    2016-03-21

    Electronic devices composed of single molecules constitute the ultimate limit in the continued downscaling of electronic components. A key challenge for single-molecule electronics is to control the temperature of these junctions. Controlling heating and cooling effects in individual vibrational modes can, in principle, be utilized to increase stability of single-molecule junctions under bias, to pump energy into particular vibrational modes to perform current-induced reactions, or to increase the resolution in inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy by controlling the life-times of phonons in a molecule by suppressing absorption and external dissipation processes. Under bias the current and the molecule exchange energy, which typically results in heating of the molecule. However, the opposite process is also possible, where energy is extracted from the molecule by the tunneling current. Designing a molecular "heat sink" where a particular vibrational mode funnels heat out of the molecule and into the leads would be very desirable. It is even possible to imagine how the vibrational energy of the other vibrational modes could be funneled into the "cooling mode," given the right molecular design. Previous efforts to understand heating and cooling mechanisms in single molecule junctions have primarily been concerned with small models, where it is unclear which molecular systems they correspond to. In this paper, our focus is on suppressing heating and obtaining current-induced cooling in certain vibrational modes. Strategies for cooling vibrational modes in single-molecule junctions are presented, together with atomistic calculations based on those strategies. Cooling and reduced heating are observed for two different cooling schemes in calculations of atomistic single-molecule junctions. PMID:27004879

  8. Vibration-Induced Droplet Atomization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. K.; James, A.; Vukasinovic, B.; Glezer, A.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal management is critical to a number of technologies used in a microgravity environment and in Earth-based systems. Examples include electronic cooling, power generation systems, metal forming and extrusion, and HVAC (heating, venting, and air conditioning) systems. One technique that can deliver the large heat fluxes required for many of these technologies is two-phase heat transfer. This type of heat transfer is seen in the boiling or evaporation of a liquid and in the condensation of a vapor. Such processes provide very large heat fluxes with small temperature differences. Our research program is directed toward the development of a new, two-phase heat transfer cell for use in a microgravity environment. In this paper, we consider the main technology used in this cell, a novel technique for the atomization of a liquid called vibration-induced droplet atomization. In this process, a small liquid droplet is placed on a thin metal diaphragm that is made to vibrate by an attached piezoelectric transducer. The vibration induces capillary waves on the free surface of the droplet that grow in amplitude and then begin to eject small secondary droplets from the wave crests. In some situations, this ejection process develops so rapidly that the entire droplet seems to burst into a small cloud of atomized droplets that move away from the diaphragm at speeds of up to 50 cm/s. By incorporating this process into a heat transfer cell, the active atomization and transport of the small liquid droplets could provide a large heat flux capability for the device. Experimental results are presented that document the behavior of the diaphragm and the droplet during the course of a typical bursting event. In addition, a simple mathematical model is presented that qualitatively reproduces all of the essential features we have seen in a burst event. From these two investigations, we have shown that delayed droplet bursting results when the system passes through a resonance

  9. Vibrational Cooling in A Cold Ion Trap: Vibrationally Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Cold C60- Anions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xue B.; Woo, Hin-koon; Wang, Lai S.

    2005-08-01

    We demonstrate vibrational cooling of anions via collisions with a background gas in an ion trap attached to a cryogenically controlled cold head (10 ? 400 K). Photoelectron spectra of vibrationally cold C60- anions, produced by electrospray ionization and cooled in the cold ion trap, have been obtained. Relative to spectra taken at room temperature, vibrational hot bands are completely eliminated, yielding well resolved vibrational structures and a more accurate electron affinity for neutral C60. The electron affinity of C60 is measured to be 2.683 ? 0.008 eV. The cold spectra reveal complicated vibrational structures for the transition to the C60 ground state due to the Jahn-Teller effect in the ground state of C60-. Vibrational excitations in the two Ag modes and eight Hg modes are observed, providing ideal data to assess the vibronic couplings in C60-.

  10. Passive vibration isolation for SITELLE's closed cycle cooled cryostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baril, Marc; Benedict, Tom; Barrick, Gregory; Ho, Kevin

    2012-09-01

    The SITELLE Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer system being developed by l'Université Laval at ABB-Bomem will require two identical CCD detector systems. Our requirements for the cryogenic system for these cameras are: cooling to below 190 K, extremely low vibrational input from the cryogenic system (<1 mg RMS from 0-2 kHz), hands-off operation over long periods of time and low original capital outlay and continued operation cost. These constraints drove towards the selection of a Polycold PCC cooled system which exhibits relatively low vibrational noise and can efficiently achieve the required cooling power in our target temperature range. This paper will present work performed to passively mitigate high frequency vibrations imparted by the Polycold PCC cryo-head on the detector cryostat.

  11. Chaotic vortex induced vibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J.; Sheridan, J.; Leontini, J. S.; Lo Jacono, D.

    2014-12-15

    This study investigates the nature of the dynamic response of an elastically mounted cylinder immersed in a free stream. A novel method is utilized, where the motion of the body during a free vibration experiment is accurately recorded, and then a second experiment is conducted where the cylinder is externally forced to follow this recorded trajectory. Generally, the flow response during both experiments is identical. However, particular regimes exist where the flow response is significantly different. This is taken as evidence of chaos in these regimes.

  12. System and method of active vibration control for an electro-mechanically cooled device

    DOEpatents

    Lavietes, Anthony D.; Mauger, Joseph; Anderson, Eric H.

    2000-01-01

    A system and method of active vibration control of an electro-mechanically cooled device is disclosed. A cryogenic cooling system is located within an environment. The cooling system is characterized by a vibration transfer function, which requires vibration transfer function coefficients. A vibration controller generates the vibration transfer function coefficients in response to various triggering events. The environments may differ by mounting apparatus, by proximity to vibration generating devices, or by temperature. The triggering event may be powering on the cooling system, reaching an operating temperature, or a reset action. A counterbalance responds to a drive signal generated by the vibration controller, based on the vibration signal and the vibration transfer function, which adjusts vibrations. The method first places a cryogenic cooling system within a first environment and then generates a first set of vibration transfer function coefficients, for a vibration transfer function of the cooling system. Next, the cryogenic cooling system is placed within a second environment and a second set of vibration transfer function coefficients are generated. Then, a counterbalance is driven, based on the vibration transfer function, to reduce vibrations received by a vibration sensitive element.

  13. Vibrational excitation induces double reaction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kai; Leung, Lydie; Lim, Tingbin; Ning, Zhanyu; Polanyi, John C

    2014-12-23

    Electron-induced reaction at metal surfaces is currently the subject of extensive study. Here, we broaden the range of experimentation to a comparison of vibrational excitation with electronic excitation, for reaction of the same molecule at the same clean metal surface. In a previous study of electron-induced reaction by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we examined the dynamics of the concurrent breaking of the two C-I bonds of ortho-diiodobenzene physisorbed on Cu(110). The energy of the incident electron was near the electronic excitation threshold of E0=1.0 eV required to induce this single-electron process. STM has been employed in the present work to study the reaction dynamics at the substantially lower incident electron energies of 0.3 eV, well below the electronic excitation threshold. The observed increase in reaction rate with current was found to be fourth-order, indicative of multistep reagent vibrational excitation, in contrast to the first-order rate dependence found earlier for electronic excitation. The change in mode of excitation was accompanied by altered reaction dynamics, evidenced by a different pattern of binding of the chemisorbed products to the copper surface. We have modeled these altered reaction dynamics by exciting normal modes of vibration that distort the C-I bonds of the physisorbed reagent. Using the same ab initio ground potential-energy surface as in the prior work on electronic excitation, but with only vibrational excitation of the physisorbed reagent in the asymmetric stretch mode of C-I bonds, we obtained the observed alteration in reaction dynamics.

  14. Attenuation of cryocooler induced vibration in spaceborne infrared payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, A.; Twitto, A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancement of operational responsive space programs calls for a development of compact, reliable, low power and vibration free cryogenic cooling for sophisticated infrared payloads. The refrigeration in a typical closed cycle split Stirling linear cryocooler is achieved by a cyclic compression and expansion of a gaseous working agent due to a synchronized reciprocation of electro-dynamically and pneumatically actuated compressor and expander pistons. Attenuation of the cryocooler induced vibration usually relies on the concept of actively assisted momentum cancellation. In a typical dual-piston compressor this objective is achieved by actively synchronizing the motion of oppositely moving piston assemblies; a typical single-piston expander may be counterbalanced by a motorized counter-balancer. The above approach produces complexity, weight, size, high incurred costs and affects reliability. The authors analyze the case of passive attenuation the vibration export induced by the split Stirling linear cryocooler comprised of inline mounted single-piston compressor and expander. Placement of all the moving components onto a common axis results in a single axis consolidation of vibration export and enables use of single tuned dynamic absorber and low frequency vibration mount. From theoretical analysis and full-scale testing, the performance of such vibration protection arrangement is similar to known systems of active vibration cancellation.

  15. Controlling vibrational cooling with zero-width resonances: An adiabatic Floquet approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclerc, Arnaud; Viennot, David; Jolicard, Georges; Lefebvre, Roland; Atabek, Osman

    2016-10-01

    In molecular photodissociation, some specific combinations of laser parameters (wavelength and intensity) lead to unexpected zero-width resonances (ZWRs) with, in principle, infinite lifetimes. Their potential to induce basic quenching mechanisms has recently been devised in the laser control of vibrational cooling through filtration strategies [O. Atabek et al., Phys. Rev. A 87, 031403(R) (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.031403]. A full quantum adiabatic control theory based on the adiabatic Floquet Hamiltonian is developed to show how a laser pulse could be envelope-shaped and frequency-chirped so as to protect a given initial vibrational state against dissociation, taking advantage of its continuous transport on the corresponding ZWR all along the pulse duration. As compared with previous control scenarios that actually suffered from nonadiabatic contamination, drastically different and much more efficient filtration goals are achieved. A semiclassical analysis helps us to find and interpret a complete map of ZWRs in the laser parameter plane. In addition, the choice of a given ZWR path, among the complete series identified by the semiclassical approach, turns out to be crucial for the cooling scheme, targeting a single vibrational state population left at the end of the pulse, while all others have almost completely decayed. The illustrative example, which has the potential to be transposed to other diatomics, is Na2 prepared by photoassociation in vibrationally hot but translationally and rotationally cold states.

  16. Vibrational Relaxation of the Aqueous Proton in Acetonitrile: Ultrafast Cluster Cooling and Vibrational Predissociation.

    PubMed

    Ottosson, N; Liu, L; Bakker, H J

    2016-07-28

    We study the ultrafast O-H stretch vibrational relaxation dynamics of protonated water clusters embedded in a matrix of deuterated acetonitrile, using polarization-resolved mid-IR femtosecond spectroscopy. The clusters are produced by mixing triflic (trifluoromethanesulfonic) acid and H2O in molar ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3, thus varying the degree of hydration of the proton. At all hydration levels the excited O-H stretch vibration of the hydrated proton shows an ultrafast vibrational relaxation with a time constant T1 < 100 fs, leading to an ultrafast local heating of the protonated water cluster. This excess thermal energy, initially highly localized to the region of the excited proton, first re-distributes over the aqueous cluster and then dissipates into the surrounding acetonitrile matrix. For clusters with a triflic acid to H2O ratio of 1:3 these processes occur with time constants of 320 ± 20 fs and 1.4 ± 0.1 ps, respectively. The cooling of the clusters reveals a long-living, underlying transient absorption change with high anisotropy. We argue that this feature stems from the vibrational predissociation of a small fraction of the proton hydration structures, directly following the ultrafast infrared excitation. PMID:27333302

  17. Radiofrequency ablation with a vibrating catheter: A new method for electrode cooling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kaihong; Yamashita, Tetsui; Shingyochi, Shigeaki; Matsumoto, Kazuo; Ohta, Makoto

    2016-05-01

    A new electrode cooling system using a vibrating catheter is described for conditions of low blood flow when saline irrigation cannot be used. Vibrations of the catheter are hypothesized to disturb blood flow around the electrode, leading to increased convective cooling of the electrode. The aim of this study is to confirm the cooling effect of vibration and investigate the associated mechanisms. As methods, an in vitro system with polyvinyl alcohol-hydrogel (PVA-H) as ablated tissue and saline flow in an open channel was used to measure changes in electrode and tissue temperatures under vibration of 0-63 Hz and flow velocity of 0-0.1 m/s. Flow around the catheter was observed using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Results show that under conditions of no flow, electrode temperatures decreased with increasing vibration frequency, and in the absence of vibrations, electrode temperatures decreased with increasing flow velocity. In the presence of vibrations, electrode temperatures decreased under conditions of low flow velocity, but not under those of high flow velocity. PIV analyses showed disturbed flow around the vibrating catheter, and flow velocity around the catheter increased with higher-frequency vibrations. In conclusion, catheter vibration facilitated electrode cooling by increasing flow around the catheter, and cooling was proportional to vibration frequency.

  18. Bellows flow-induced vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tygielski, P. J.; Smyly, H. M.; Gerlach, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    The bellows flow excitation mechanism and results of comprehensive test program are summarized. The analytical model for predicting bellows flow induced stress is refined. The model includes the effects of an upstream elbow, arbitrary geometry, and multiple piles. A refined computer code for predicting flow induced stress is described which allows life prediction if a material S-N diagram is available.

  19. Combination of Ultrasonic Vibration and Cryogenic Cooling for Cutting Performance Improvement of Inconel 718 Turning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, S. Y.; Chung, C. T.; Cheng, Y. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop a thermo-elastic-plastic coupling model, based on a combination skill of ultrasonically assisted cutting and cryogenic cooling, under large deformation for Inconel 718 alloy machining process. The improvement extent on cutting performance and tool life promotion may be examined from this investigation. The critical value of the strain energy density of the workpiece will be utilized as the chip separation and the discontinuous chip segmentation criteria. The forced convection cooling and a hydrodynamic lubrication model will be considered and formulated in the model. Finite element method will be applied to create a complete numerical solution for this ultrasonic vibration cutting model. During the analysis, the cutting tool is incrementally advanced forward with superimposed ultrasonic vibration in a back and forth step-by-step manner, from an incipient stage of tool-workpiece engagement to a steady state of chip formation, a whole simulation of orthogonal cutting process under plane strain deformation is thus undertaken. High shear strength induces a fluctuation phenomenon of shear angle, high shear strain rate, variation of chip types and chip morphology, tool-chip contact length variation, the temperature distributions within the workpiece, chip and tool, periodic fluctuation in cutting forces can be determined from the developed model. A complete comparison of machining characteristics between some different combinations of ultrasonically assisted cutting and cryogenic cooling with conventional cutting operation can be acquired. Finally, the high-speed turning experiment for Inconel 718 alloy will be taken in the laboratory to validate the accuracy of the model, and the progressive flank wear, crater wear, notching and chipping of the tool edge can also be measured in the experiments.

  20. Vibrational and rotational cooling of electrons by water vapor. [in cometary ionospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cravens, T. E.; Korosmezey, A.

    1986-01-01

    The cooling of electrons by vibrational and rotational excitation of water molecules plays an important role in the thermal balance of electrons in cometary ionospheres. The energy-loss function for rotational excitation and deexcitation of H2O by electron impact is calculated theoretically. The rotational cooling rate is calculated using this loss function for a wide range of electron and neutral temperatures. The vibrational cooling rate is calculated using measured values of electron-impact vibrational excitation cross sections. Analytical formulas are provided for some of the cooling rates. The interaction of ions with H2O molecules is also discussed, and a formula is suggested for the momentum-transfer collision frequency.

  1. Flow-induced vibration -- 1996. PVP-Volume 328

    SciTech Connect

    Pettigrew, M.J.; Paidoussis, M.P.; Weaver, D.S.; Au-Yang, M.K.

    1996-12-01

    Although much progress has been made in the last three decades, flow-induced vibration is still the cause of many costly failures in nuclear power plants and process industries. Reasonable design guidelines have been developed to avoid flow-induced problems at the design stage of some areas. However, much work remains to be done in other areas such as two-phase flow-induced vibration, fretting-wear damage prediction, and acoustically induced piping vibration. Hopefully, this Symposium is a significant contribution to understanding vibration excitation mechanisms and to avoiding flow-induced vibration problems. Separate abstracts were prepared for all 45 papers in this volume.

  2. Induced Current Measurement of Rod Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, Charles A.

    2003-01-01

    The longitudinal normal modes of vibration of rods are similar to the modes seen in pipes open at both ends. A maximum of particle displacement exists at both ends and an integral number (n) of half wavelengths fit into the rod length. The frequencies fn of the normal modes is given by Eq. (1), where L is the rod length and V is the wave velocity: fn = nV/2L. Many methods have been used to measure the velocity of these waves. The Kundt's tube method commonly used in student labs will not be discussed here. A simpler related method has been described by Nicklin.2 Kluk3 measured velocities in a wide range of materials using a frequency counter and microphone to study sounds produced by impacts. Several earlier methods4,5 used phonograph cartridges complete with needles to detect vibrations in excited rods. A recent interesting experiment6 used wave-induced changes in magnetization produced in an iron rod by striking one end. The travel time, measured as the impulsive wave reflects back and forth, gave the wave velocity for the iron rod. In the method described here, a small magnet is attached to the rod with epoxy, and vibrations are detected using the current induced in a few loops of wire. The experiment is simple and yields very accurate velocity values.

  3. Stern-Gerlach Experiments on Mn@Sn12: Identification of a Paramagnetic Superatom and Vibrationally Induced Spin Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmann, Urban; Schäfer, Rolf

    2013-09-01

    Beam deflection experiments in inhomogeneous magnetic fields reveal a new limiting case of the magnetization distribution of isolated clusters. Endohedrally doped clusters are produced in a temperature controlled, cryogenically cooled laser ablation source. Temperature dependent experiments indicate a crucial contribution of molecular vibrations to the spin dynamics of Mn@Sn12. In its vibrational ground state the cluster behaves magnetically like a paramagnetic atom, with quantized spin states. However, excited molecular vibrations induce spin orientation in the magnetic field.

  4. Recycler Electron Cooling Project: Mechanical vibrations in the Pelletron and their effect on the beam

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakevich, Grigory M.; Burov, A.; Boffo, C.; Joireman, P.; Saewert, G.; Schmidt, C.W.; Shemyakin, A.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    The Fermilab's Recycler ring will employ an electron cooler to cool stored 8.9 GeV antiprotons [1]. The cooler is based on an electrostatic accelerator, Pelletron [2], working in an energy-recovery regime. A full-scale prototype of the cooler has been assembled and commissioned in a separate building [3]. The main goal of the experiments with the prototype was to demonstrate stable operation with a 3.5 MeV, 0.5 A DC electron beam while preserving a high beam quality in the cooling section. The quality is characterized, first of all, by a spread of electron velocities in the cooling section, which may be significantly affected by mechanical vibration of the Pelletron elements. This paper describes the results of vibration measurements in the Pelletron terminal and correlates them with the beam motion in the cooling section.

  5. [Scalp cooling for chemotherapy-induced alopecia].

    PubMed

    Komen, Marion M C; Smorenburg, Carolien H; van den Hurk, Corina J G; Nortier, J W R Hans

    2011-01-01

    Alopecia is a very common side effect of cytostatic therapy and is considered one of the most emotionally distressing effects. To prevent alopecia scalp cooling is currently used in some indications in medical oncology in 59 hospitals in the Netherlands. The success of scalp cooling depends on various factors such as type of chemotherapy, dose, infusion time, number of treatment cycles and combinations of drugs. In general, scalp cooling is well tolerated. The reported side-effects are headache, coldness, dizziness and sometimes claustrophobia. An increase in the risk of scalp metastases has not been demonstrated. Proceeding from the South Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Centre a national working group is put together in order to draw up a national guideline for chemotherapy-induced alopecia. PMID:22085565

  6. Relation of haemostatic function, neurovascular impairment, and vibration exposure in workers with different stages of vibration induced white finger.

    PubMed Central

    Bovenzi, M; Giansante, C; Fiorito, A; Calabrese, S

    1985-01-01

    Haemostatic function and neurovascular symptoms were investigated in 67 workers exposed to vibration and 46 comparable referents. Of these 65.6% of vibration workers complained of neurological disturbances (stages 0T, 0N of Taylor's classification for vibration induced white finger (VWF) and 20.9% suffered from Raynaud's phenomenon (stages 1-2-3). The severity of the staging symptoms showed a close relation with an index of vibration dose computed on the basis of vibration measurement and individual exposure time. Indices of platelet aggregation, both in vitro and in vivo, antithrombin III, fibrinogen and fibrinopeptide A levels were not different in the exposed workers compared with the referents. No relation was found between haemostatic parameters and the severity of VWF. Exposed workers responded to a cooling procedure with a more pronounced vasoconstriction in the digital vessels than the referents, as indicated by delayed recovery time of finger skin temperature after the cold test. These findings suggest that both in the early stages (0T, 0N) and in more severe stages of VWF (stages 1-2) cold induced hyperreactivity in the digital vessels and Raynaud's syndrome are vascular disorders of functional origin occurring without any prethrombotic alterations. PMID:3978045

  7. Vibration Monitoring Using Fiber Optic Sensors in a Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Cooled Nuclear Fuel Assembly.

    PubMed

    De Pauw, Ben; Lamberti, Alfredo; Ertveldt, Julien; Rezayat, Ali; van Tichelen, Katrien; Vanlanduit, Steve; Berghmans, Francis

    2016-04-21

    Excessive fuel assembly vibrations in nuclear reactor cores should be avoided in order not to compromise the lifetime of the assembly and in order to prevent the occurrence of safety hazards. This issue is particularly relevant to new reactor designs that use liquid metal coolants, such as, for example, a molten lead-bismuth eutectic. The flow of molten heavy metal around and through the fuel assembly may cause the latter to vibrate and hence suffer degradation as a result of, for example, fretting wear or mechanical fatigue. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of optical fiber sensors to measure the fuel assembly vibration in a lead-bismuth eutectic cooled installation which can be used as input to assess vibration-related safety hazards. We show that the vibration characteristics of the fuel pins in the fuel assembly can be experimentally determined with minimal intrusiveness and with high precision owing to the small dimensions and properties of the sensors. In particular, we were able to record local strain level differences of about 0.2 μϵ allowing us to reliably estimate the vibration amplitudes and modal parameters of the fuel assembly based on optical fiber sensor readings during different stages of the operation of the facility, including the onset of the coolant circulation and steady-state operation.

  8. Prediction of vibrations induced by underground railway traffic in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Liu, W. F.; Degrande, G.; Lombaert, G.; Liu, W. N.

    2008-02-01

    This paper examines the problem of subway induced vibrations on line 4 of Beijing metro, which is currently under construction and is planned to pass in close proximity of the Physics Laboratory of Beijing University. The laboratory has a lot of equipment that is very sensitive to traffic induced vibrations and future operation of metro line 4 is a matter of concern. Hence, it is important to study the influence of subway induced vibrations inside the laboratory and to propose a viable solution to mitigate the vibrations. In this paper, the tunnel north of Chengfulu station is modelled using a coupled periodic FE-BE model and the free-field response due to moving trains is predicted. In addition, vibration measurements have been performed on the site of the Physics Laboratory to estimate the existing vibration levels due to road traffic. The predicted and measured vibrations are superimposed to assess the vibrations due to the combined effect of road and railway traffic in the vicinity of the Physics Laboratory. Apart from the numerical investigations, vibration measurements have also been performed on a similar site at line 1 of Beijing metro to substantiate the estimated results on metro line 4. Finally, it is studied how the vibrations can be controlled using a floating slab track, which is widely used as an effective measure of vibration isolation in tunnels. The efficiency of a 7.9 Hz floating slab track as a vibration countermeasure is assessed in this paper. This study demonstrates the applicability of the numerical model for the relevant assessment of subway induced vibrations and its use to study the performance of different track structures in the tunnel.

  9. Mechanical characteristics of strained vibrating strings and a vibration-induced electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bivin, Yu. K.

    2012-11-01

    The mechanical characteristics of vibrating strings strained between rigid supports and a vibration-induced electric field are studied. Experiments are conducted with nylon, rubber, and metallic strings. Vibrations are excited by a pinch at different sites along the string. The motion of the string is filmed, and the attendant electric field is detected. Experimental data are analyzed under the assumption that the field is induced by unlike charges generated by the moving string. It is found that the field allows one to determine the time characteristics of the motion of the string and discriminate the types of its deformations. Young moduli observed under the static extension of thin nylon strings are compared with those calculated from the natural frequencies of vibration measured for differently strained strings. The mathematical pattern of the motion of the string is compared with the real situation.

  10. Flow-induced vibration -- 1994. PVP-Volume 273

    SciTech Connect

    Au-Yang, M.K.; Fujita, K.

    1994-01-01

    Flow-induced vibration is a subject of practical interest to many engineering disciplines, including the power generation, process, and petrochemical industries. In the nuclear industry, flow-induced vibration reaches a higher level of concern because of safety issues and the huge cost associated with down time and site repair. Not surprisingly, during the last 25 years a tremendous amount of effort has been spent in the study of flow-induced vibration phenomena related to nuclear plant components, notably nuclear steam generator tube banks and nuclear fuel bundles. Yet, in spite of this concentrated effort, the industry is still not free from flow-induced vibration-related problems. This explains why in this volume almost half of the papers address the issue of cross-flow induced vibration in tube bundles, with applications to the nuclear steam generator and nuclear fuel bundles in mind. Unlike 10 or 15 years ago, when flow-induced vibration studies almost always involved experimentation and empirical studies, the advent of high-speed computers has enabled numerical calculation and simulation of this complex phenomenon to take place. Separate abstracts were prepared for 27 papers in this volume.

  11. Mechanical signature analysis: Machinery vibration, flow-induced vibration, and acoustic noise analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, S.; Lu, K.H.; Au Yang, M.K.; Ungar, E.E.; Simonis, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 30 selections. Some of the titles are: A New Method in the Fault Diagnosis of Turbomachine and Its Application; Vibration Control of a Cylindrical Off-Shore Structure; Design Evaluation of Flow-Induced Vibrations for a Large Shell and Tube Type Nuclear Heat Exchanger; Simulation of Fluid-Structure Interaction Between a Drywell Penetration and a High Energy Line Break in a BWR.

  12. Concorde Noise-Induced Building Vibrations, Montgomery County, Maryland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayes, W. H.; Scholl, H. F.; Stephens, D. G.; Holliday, B. G.; Deloach, R.; Finley, T. D.; Holmes, H. K.; Lewis, R. B.; Lynch, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    A series of studies are reported to assess the noise induced building vibrations associated with Concorde operations. The levels of induced vibration and associated indoor/outdoor noise levels resulting from aircraft and nonaircraft events in selected homes, historic and other buildings near Dulles International Airport were recorded. The building response resulting from aircraft operations was found to be directly proportional to the overall sound pressure level and approximately independent of the aircraft type. The noise levels and, consequently, the response levels were observed to be higher for the Concorde operations than for the CTOL operations. Furthermore, the vibration could be closely reproduced by playing aircraft noise through a loudspeaker system located near the vibration measurement location. Nonaircraft events such as door closing were again observed to result in higher response levels than those induced by aircraft.

  13. Communication: Uncovering correlated vibrational cooling and electron transfer dynamics with multidimensional spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhenkun; Giokas, Paul G.; Cheshire, Thomas P.; Williams, Olivia F.; Dirkes, David J.; You, Wei; Moran, Andrew M.

    2016-09-01

    Analogues of 2D photon echo methods in which two population times are sampled have recently been used to expose heterogeneity in chemical kinetics. In this work, the two population times sampled for a transition metal complex are transformed into a 2D rate spectrum using the maximum entropy method. The 2D rate spectrum suggests heterogeneity in the vibrational cooling (VC) rate within the ensemble. In addition, a cross peak associated with VC and back electron transfer (BET) dynamics reveals correlation between the two processes. We hypothesize that an increase in the strength of solute-solvent interactions, which accelerates VC, drives the system toward the activationless regime of BET.

  14. Communication: Uncovering correlated vibrational cooling and electron transfer dynamics with multidimensional spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhenkun; Giokas, Paul G; Cheshire, Thomas P; Williams, Olivia F; Dirkes, David J; You, Wei; Moran, Andrew M

    2016-09-14

    Analogues of 2D photon echo methods in which two population times are sampled have recently been used to expose heterogeneity in chemical kinetics. In this work, the two population times sampled for a transition metal complex are transformed into a 2D rate spectrum using the maximum entropy method. The 2D rate spectrum suggests heterogeneity in the vibrational cooling (VC) rate within the ensemble. In addition, a cross peak associated with VC and back electron transfer (BET) dynamics reveals correlation between the two processes. We hypothesize that an increase in the strength of solute-solvent interactions, which accelerates VC, drives the system toward the activationless regime of BET. PMID:27634244

  15. Organ pipe resonance induced vibration in piping system

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.

    1996-12-01

    Acoustic-induced vibration is a fluid-structure interaction phenomenon. The feedback mechanism between the acoustic pressure pulsation and the structure movements determines the excited acoustic modes which, in turn, amplify the structure response when confidence frequency and mode shape matching occurs. The acoustic modes are not determined from the acoustic boundary conditions alone, structure feedback is as responsible for determining the acoustic modes and shaping the resulting forcing functions. Acoustic-induced piping vibration, when excited, does not attenuate much with distance. Pressure pulsation can be transmitted throughout the piping system and its branch connections. It is this property that makes vibration monitoring difficult, because vibration can surface at locations far away from the acoustic source when resonance occurs. For a large piping system with interconnected branches, the monitoring task can be formidable, particularly when there is no indication what the real source is. In organ pipe resonance induced vibration, the initiating acoustic source may be inconspicuous or unavoidable during operation. In these situations, the forcing function approach can offer an optimal tool for vibration assessment. The forcing function approach was used in the evaluation of a standby steam piping vibration problem. Monitoring locations and instrument specifications were determined from the acoustic eigenfunction profiles. Measured data confirmed the presence of coherent vibrations in the large bore piping. The developed forcing function permits design evaluation of the piping system, which leads to remedial actions and enables fatigue life determination, thus providing confidence to system operation. The forcing function approach is shown to be useful in finding potential vibration area and verifying the integrity of weak structure links. Application is to steam lines at BWR plants.

  16. Numerical and theoretical analysis of beam vibration induced acoustic streaming and the associated heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Qun

    The purpose of this research is to numerically and analytically investigate the acoustic streaming and the associated heat transfer, which are induced by a beam vibrating in either standing or traveling waveforms. Analytical results show that the beam vibrating in standing waveforms scatters the acoustic waves into the free space, which have a larger attenuation coefficient and longer propagating traveling wavelength than those of the plane wave. In contrast to a constant Reynolds stress in the plane wave, the Reynolds stress generated by such acoustic wave is expected to drive the free space streaming away from the anti-nodes and towards nodes of the standing wave vibration. The sonic and ultrasonic streamings within the channel between the vibrating beam and a parallel stationary beam are also investigated. The acoustic streaming is utilized to cool the stationary beam, which has either a heat source attached to it or subjected to a uniform heat flux. The sonic streaming is found to be mainly the boundary layer streaming dominating the whole channel while the ultrasonic streaming is clearly composed of two boundary layer streamings near both beams and a core region streaming, which is driven by the streaming velocity at the edge of the boundary layer near the vibrating beam. The standing wave vibration of the beam induces acoustic streaming in a series of counterclockwise eddies, which is directed away from the anti-nodes and towards the nodes. The magnitude of the sonic streaming is proportional to o2A 2 while that of the ultrasonic streaming is proportional to o 3/2A2. Numerical results show that the acoustic streaming induced by the beam vibrating in either standing or traveling waveforms has almost the same cooling efficiency for the heat source and the heat flux cases although the flow and temperature fields within the channel are different. The hysteresis of the ultrasonic streaming flow patterns associated with the change of the aspect ratio of the channel

  17. Flow-induced vibration of the SSME LOX posts

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cracking of liquid-oxygen (LOX) posts was observed in several evaluation tests. The design modification consists of attaching impingement shields to LOX posts in the upstream row. This has improved the vibration/fatigue problem of LOX posts. However, that modification results in an increased pressure drop that ultimately affects the lifetime of other components. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of the LOX post vibration problem including a review of relevant parameters, flow induced vibration mechanisms, and scoping calculation and experiment. 11 refs.

  18. Poiseuille flow-induced vibrations of two cylinders in tandem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jianzhong; Jiang, Renjie; Chen, Zhongli; Ku, Xiaoke

    2013-07-01

    Laminar flows past two tandem cylinders which are free to move transversely in a parallel-wall channel were studied numerically by the lattice Boltzmann method. With fixed Reynolds number Re=100, blockage ratio β=1/4 and structural damping ξ=0, the effect of streamwise separation between two cylinders at a range of S/D=[1.1, 10] on the motions of cylinders and fluids was studied for both mass ratios of m(*)=1 and m(*)=0.1. A variety of distinct vibration regimes involving periodic, quasi-periodic and non-periodic vibrations with corresponding flow patterns were observed. A detailed analysis of the vibration amplitudes, vibration frequencies and relative equilibrium positions for both mass ratios demonstrated that as S/D increases, the interaction of the two cylinders first enhances and then reduces. In the strong coupling regime, both cylinders oscillate periodically around the centerline of the channel with large vibration amplitudes and high vibration frequencies. By comparing with the case of an isolated cylinder, a further study indicated that the gap flow plays an important role in such a dynamic system, and the vortex cores formation behind the front cylinder causes the interaction of the cylinders decouple rapidly. Based on the present observations, such a dynamic model system can be considered as a novel type of vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) and is expected to find applications in fluid mixing and heat transfer.

  19. Scale modeling flow-induced vibrations of reactor components

    SciTech Connect

    Mulcahy, T M

    1982-06-01

    Similitude relationships currently employed in the design of flow-induced vibration scale-model tests of nuclear reactor components are reviewed. Emphasis is given to understanding the origins of the similitude parameters as a basis for discussion of the inevitable distortions which occur in design verification testing of entire reactor systems and in feature testing of individual component designs for the existence of detrimental flow-induced vibration mechanisms. Distortions of similitude parameters made in current test practice are enumerated and selected example tests are described. Also, limitations in the use of specific distortions in model designs are evaluated based on the current understanding of flow-induced vibration mechanisms and structural response.

  20. Flow-induced vibration 1995. PVP-Volume 298

    SciTech Connect

    Pettigrew, M.J.; Au-Yang, M.K.; Fujita, K.

    1995-12-01

    Flow-induced vibration is still the cause of many costly component failures in both nuclear power plants and process industries. Although much progress has been made in the last 30 years, much work remains to be done in such areas as two-phase flow-induced vibration and fretting-wear damage prediction. Many problems can now be avoided at the design stage, others are still elusive. Better understanding of fluid-structure interactions and appropriate design tools are required. The content of this volume is hopefully another significant step in this direction. The study of flow-induced vibration involves many disciplines, such as dynamics, fluid mechanics, experimental techniques, numerical analysis, and data processing. Most papers are concerned with either tube arrays or piping systems. Separate abstracts were prepared for most of the papers in the book.

  1. Flow-induced vibration of circular cylindrical structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the flow-induced vibration of circular cylinders in quiescent fluid, axial flow, and crossflow, and applications of the analytical methods and experimental data in design evaluation of various system components consisting of circular cylinders. The information is organized into five general topical areas: Introduction: Chapter 1 presents an overview of flow-induced vibration of circular cylinders. It includes examples of flow-induced vibration, various fluid force components, and nondimensional parameters as well as different excitation mechanisms. The general principles are applicable under different flow conditions. Quiescent Fluid: Fluid inertia and fluid damping are discussed in Chapters 2, 3 and 4. Various flow theories are applied in different situations. Axial Flow: Axial flow can cause subcritical vibration and instability. Chapter 5 summarizes the results for internal flow, while Chapter 6 considers external flow. Both theoretical results and experimental data are examined. Crossflow: Different excitation mechanisms can be dominant in different conditions for crossflow. Those include turbulent buffeting, acoustic resonance, vortex excitation, and dynamic instability. Design Considerations: Applications of the general methods of analysis in the design evaluation of system components are described and various techniques to avoid detrimental vibration are presented.

  2. Laser cooling of the vibrational motion of Na{sub 2} combining the effects of zero-width resonances and exceptional points

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, R.; Jaouadi, A.; Dulieu, O.; Atabek, O.

    2011-10-15

    We propose various scenarios for molecular vibrational cooling combining the effects of two kinds of resonance states occurring during the photodissociation of Na{sub 2} taken as an illustrative example. Such resonances result from an appropriate sampling of laser parameters (wavelength and intensity): (a) For particular choices of intensity and wavelength, two resonance energies can be brought to complete coalescence, with their positions and widths becoming equal and leading to a so-called exceptional point (EP) in the parameter plane. Advantage can be taken from such points for very selective laser-controlled vibrational transfer strategies. (b) For specific intensities, far beyond the perturbation regime, some resonances can have a zero width (infinite lifetime). They are referred to as a zero-width resonance (ZWR) and may be used for vibrational purification purposes. We show how appropriately shaped, experimentally reachable laser pulses, encircling EPs or inducing ZWRs, may be used for a thorough and comprehensive control aiming at population transfer or purification schemes, which, starting from an initial field-free vibrational distribution, ends up in the ground vibrational level.

  3. Drop motion induced by vertical vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Paolo; Quagliati, Damiano; Varagnolo, Silvia; Pierno, Matteo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Magaletti, Francesco; Massimo Casciola, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    We have studied the motion of liquid drops on an inclined plate subject to vertical vibrations. The liquids comprised distilled water and different aqueous solutions of glycerol, ethanol and isopropanol spanning the range 1-39 mm2 s-1 in kinematic viscosities and 40-72 mN m-1 in surface tension. At sufficiently low oscillating amplitudes, the drops are always pinned to the surface. Vibrating the plate above a certain amplitude yields sliding of the drop. Further increasing the oscillating amplitude drives the drop upward against gravity. In the case of the most hydrophilic aqueous solutions, this motion is not observed and the drop only slides downward. Images taken with a fast camera show that the drop profile evolves in a different way during sliding and climbing. In particular, the climbing drop experiences a much bigger variation in its profile during an oscillating period. Complementary numerical simulations of 2D drops based on a diffuse interface approach confirm the experimental findings. The overall qualitative behavior is reproduced suggesting that the contact line pinning due to contact angle hysteresis is not necessary to explain the drop climbing.

  4. Low Head, Vortex Induced Vibrations River Energy Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Bernitsas, Michael B.; Dritz, Tad

    2006-06-30

    Vortex Induced Vibrations Aquatic Clean Energy (VIVACE) is a novel, demonstrated approach to extracting energy from water currents. This invention is based on a phenomenon called Vortex Induced Vibrations (VIV), which was first observed by Leonardo da Vinci in 1504AD. He called it ‘Aeolian Tones.’ For decades, engineers have attempted to prevent this type of vibration from damaging structures, such as offshore platforms, nuclear fuel rods, cables, buildings, and bridges. The underlying concept of the VIVACE Converter is the following: Strengthen rather than spoil vortex shedding; enhance rather than suppress VIV; harness rather than mitigate VIV energy. By maximizing and utilizing this unique phenomenon, VIVACE takes this “problem” and successfully transforms it into a valuable resource for mankind.

  5. Evaluating vehicular-induced bridge vibrations for energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichenbach, Matthew; Fasl, Jeremiah; Samaras, Vasilis A.; Wood, Sharon; Helwig, Todd; Lindenberg, Richard

    2012-04-01

    Highway bridges are vital links in the transportation network in the United States. Identifying possible safety problems in the approximately 600,000 bridges across the country is generally accomplished through labor-intensive, visual inspections. Ongoing research sponsored by NIST seeks to improve inspection practices by providing real-time, continuous monitoring technology for steel bridges. A wireless sensor network with a service life of ten years that is powered by an integrated energy harvester is targeted. In order to achieve the target ten-year life for the monitoring system, novel approaches to energy harvesting for use in recharging batteries are investigated. Three main sources of energy are evaluated: (a) vibrational energy, (b) solar energy, and (c) wind energy. Assessing the energy produced from vehicular-induced vibrations and converted through electromagnetic induction is the focus of this paper. The goal of the study is to process acceleration data and analyze the vibrational response of steel bridges to moving truck loads. Through spectral analysis and harvester modeling, the feasibility of vibration-based energy harvesting for longterm monitoring can be assessed. The effects of bridge conditions, ambient temperature, truck traffic patterns, and harvester position on the power content of the vibrations are investigated. With sensor nodes continually recharged, the proposed real-time monitoring system will operate off the power grid, thus reducing life cycle costs and enhancing inspection practices for state DOTs. This paper will present the results of estimating the vibration energy of a steel bridge in Texas.

  6. Flow-induced vibration of circular cylindrical structures

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.S.

    1985-06-01

    This report summarizes the flow-induced vibration of circular cylinders in quiescent fluid, axial flow, and crossflow, and applications of the analytical methods and experimental data in design evaluation of various system components consisting of circular cylinders. 219 figs., 30 tabs. (JDB)

  7. Predicting Flow-Induced Vibrations In A Convoluted Hose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Stuart A.

    1994-01-01

    Composite model constructed from two less accurate models. Predicts approximately frequencies and modes of vibrations induced by flows of various fluids in convoluted hose. Based partly on spring-and-lumped-mass representation of dynamics involving springiness and mass of convolution of hose and density of fluid in hose.

  8. Flow-induced vibration of tubes in crossflow

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.S.; Zhu, S.; Cai, Y.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an unsteady-flow theory for flow-induced vibration of tubes in crossflow. It includes a general description of motion-dependent fluid forces, characteristics of fluid-force coefficients, and mathematical models. Detailed results are presented for the constrained mode in the life direction for various tube arrangements.

  9. Flow-Induced Vibration of AN EULER-BERNOULLI Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WANG, X. Q.; SO, R. M. C.; LIU, Y.

    2001-05-01

    Flow-induced vibration of a fixed-fixed elastic cylinder with a large aspect ratio (≈58) is considered. The structural vibration is modelled by the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, and the normal mode method is used to analyze the structural response. The flow field are resolved using a finite element method and the flow-induced forces are thereby calculated. Altogether two different cases are examined, one at resonance and another at off-resonance. Results thus obtained are compared with experimental measurements and a discrete-parameter model [a two-degree-of-freedom (2-d.o.f.) model] analysis. The comparison shows that, while the 2-d.o.f. model gives reasonable prediction of the mid-span vibration displacements for the resonant and off-resonant case, the present method yields the span-wise multi-mode response of the cylinder similar to that observed experimentally. Based on these results, a correction formula is derived to estimate the span-wise vibration from the 2-d.o.f. model result. Correlation results are also presented to show that fluid-structure interactions mainly affect the phase relation between the fluid forces and the corresponding vibration of the cylinder. Such influences have different effects along the cylinder span.

  10. ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS: Surface-induced evaporative cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Min; Yan, Bo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Yu-Zhu

    2009-10-01

    The effects of surface-induced evaporative cooling on an atom chip are investigated. The evolutions of temperature, number and phase-space density of the atom cloud are measured when the atom cloud is brought close to the surface. Rapid decrease of the temperature and number of the atoms is found when the atom-surface distance is < 100 μm. A gain of about a factor of five on the phase-space density is obtained. It is found that the efficiency of the surface-induced evaporative cooling depends on the atom-surface distance and the shape of the evaporative trap. When the atoms are moved very close to the surface, severe heating is observed, which dominates when the holding time is > 8 ms. It is important that the surface-induced evaporative cooling offers novel possibilities for the realization of a continuous condensation, where a spatially varying evaporative cooling is required.

  11. Dose-response patterns for vibration-induced white finger

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, M; Bovenzi, M; Nelson, C

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To investigate alternative relations between cumulative exposures to hand-transmitted vibration (taking account of vibration magnitude, lifetime exposure duration, and frequency of vibration) and the development of white finger (Raynaud's phenomenon). Methods: Three previous studies have been combined to provide a group of 1557 users of powered vibratory tools in seven occupational subgroups: stone grinders, stone carvers, quarry drillers, dockyard caulkers, dockyard boilermakers, dockyard painters, and forest workers. The estimated total operating duration in hours was thus obtained for each subject, for each tool, and for all tools combined. From the vibration magnitudes and exposure durations, seven alternative measurements of cumulative exposure were calculated for each subject, using expressions of the form: dose = ∑amiti, where ai is the acceleration magnitude on tool i, ti is the lifetime exposure duration for tool i, and m = 0, 1, 2, or 4. Results: For all seven alternative dose measures, an increase in dose was associated with a significant increase in the occurrence of vibration-induced white finger, after adjustment for age and smoking. However, dose measures with high powers of acceleration (m > 1) faired less well than measures in which the weighted or unweighted acceleration, and lifetime exposure duration, were given equal weight (m = 1). Dose determined solely by the lifetime exposure duration (without consideration of the vibration magnitude) gave better predictions than measures with m greater than unity. All measures of dose calculated from the unweighted acceleration gave better predictions than the equivalent dose measures using acceleration frequency-weighted according to current standards. Conclusions: Since the total duration of exposure does not discriminate between exposures accumulated over the day and those accumulated over years, a linear relation between vibration magnitude and exposure duration seems appropriate for predicting

  12. Fluid patterns and dynamics induced by vibrations in microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Jeff; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana

    Understanding the effects of vibrations is extremely important in microgravity environments where residual acceleration, or g-jitter, is easily generated by crew manoeuvring or machinery, and can have a significant impact on material processing systems and on-board experiments. Indeed, vibrations can dramatically affect fluid behaviour whether gravity is present or not, inducing instability in some cases while suppressing it in others. We will describe the results of investigations being conducted at the ESA affiliated Spanish User Support and Operations Centre (E-USOC) on the effect of vibrations on fluids interfaces, most notably with the forcing oriented parallel to the fluid surface. Pattern formation properties will be described in detail, and the importance of symmetry constraints and mean flows will be considered. Current exper-imental results are intriguing and have challenged existing assumptions in the field, particularly with regard to the parametric instability underlying subharmonic cross-waves. They suggest an intimate connection between Faraday waves, which are observed in vertically vibrated systems, and cross-waves, which are found in horizontally forced systems. Concurrent theoretical work, based on the analysis of reduced models, and on numerical simulations, will then be described. Finally, this research will be placed in a microgravity context and used to motivate the defini-tion of a proposed set of experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The experiments would be in the large-aspect-ratio-limit, requiring relatively high frequency but low amplitude vibrations, where comparatively little microgravity research has been done. The interest of such a microgravity experiment will be discussed, with emphasis on fluid management and the potential of vibrations to act as a kind of artificial gravity by orienting surfaces (or density contours) perpendicular to the axis of vibration.

  13. Vibration-induced mobility enhancement for a polymer transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Yuuki; Hiraki, Tomonori; Suenaga, Yuusuke; Hanasaki, Tomonori; Fujieda, Ichiro

    2012-02-01

    Charge transport in an organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) is controlled by many factors such as molecular packing in the semiconductor material and the contact property at the source/drain electrode. One approach utilizes an alignment layer to influence the molecular packing. Charge transport becomes anisotropic. However, additional processes are required to form such a structured layer. Solution processes offer more pathways in influencing the molecular packing. These include the use of solvent mixtures for adjusting the evaporation-induced flows, the temperature gradient in molten materials, drop-casting on tilted substrates, and other flow-induced processes. Common to these approaches is the fact that some forms of forces introduce directionality in semiconductor materials. Here, we propose to agitate organic molecules in a solution by applying ultrasound vibrations during the solvent evaporation. The vibration would translate and rotate the molecules and this might introduce ordering in the organic layer when the solvent evaporation is completed. In experiment, we fabricated bottom-contact polymer transistors by dispensing a poly(3- hexylthiophene)/1,2,4-trichlorobenzene solution on a substrate and subsequently drying it in a container immersed in an ultrasound bath. The average field effect mobility of the transistors prepared from a 0.1wt% solution with 30-min ultrasound vibration was 2.5 times higher than that of the control devices prepared without the vibration. We attribute this result to enhanced ordering of the P3HT molecules in the vibrated solution. Atomic-force microscope observation revealed longer polymer chains for the samples prepared with the vibration. We attribute this mobility enhancement to changes in molecular packing during the solvent evaporation.

  14. A numerical investigation of flow induced vibrations in a rocket engine manifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peugeot, John W.

    2011-12-01

    Flow induced vibrations are common in liquid rocket engine components and have been the subject of several recent studies within the Space Shuttle and Delta launch vehicle programs. Understanding how unsteady flow phenomena develop is important when investigating failures in existing hardware and in the design of new propulsion systems. In this study, a subsonic turbulent flow in a rocket engine manifold is analyzed using a compressible form of the viscous flow equations coupled with a hybrid RANS-DES turbulence model. It is found that vortex shedding and pressure perturbations within a manifold significantly influence the stability of shear layers and flow through exit cooling tubes. By adding a chamfer to the inlet of the cooling tubes, it was demonstrated that greater shear layer stability can be obtaIned at a given pressure ratio.

  15. Hydrogen bond donors accelerate vibrational cooling of hot purine derivatives in heavy water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuyuan; Chen, Jinquan; Kohler, Bern

    2013-08-01

    Natural nucleobases and many of their derivatives have ultrashort excited state lifetimes that make them excellent model systems for studying intermolecular energy flow from a hot solute molecule to the solvent. UV-pump/broadband-mid-IR-probe transient absorption spectra of canonical purine nucleobases and several xanthine derivatives were acquired in D2O and acetonitrile in the probe frequency range of 1500-1750 cm(-1). The spectra reveal that vibrationally hot ground state molecules created by ultrafast internal conversion return to thermal equilibrium in several picoseconds by dissipating their excess energy to solvent molecules. In acetonitrile solution, where hydrogen bonding is minimal, vibrational cooling (VC) occurs with the same time constant of 10 ± 3 ps for paraxanthine, theophylline, and caffeine within experimental uncertainty. In D2O, VC by these molecules occurs more rapidly and at different rates that are correlated with the number of N-D bonds. Hypoxanthine has a VC time constant of 3 ± 1 ps, while similar lifetimes of 2.3 ± 0.8 ps and 3.1 ± 0.3 ps are seen for 5'-adenosine monophosphate and 5'-guanosine monophosphate, respectively. All three molecules have at least two N-D bonds. Slightly slower VC time constants are measured for paraxanthine (4 ± 1 ps) and theophylline (5.1 ± 0.8 ps), dimethylated xanthines that have only one N-D bond. Caffeine, a trimethylated xanthine with no N-D bonds, has a VC time constant of 7.7 ± 0.9 ps, the longest ever observed for any nucleobase in aqueous solution. Hydrogen bond donation by solute molecules is proposed to enable rapid energy disposal to water via direct coupling of high frequency solute-solvent modes.

  16. Cooling-induced contraction in ovine airways smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, S M; Pilcher, C W; Williams, K I

    1999-02-01

    The mechanism of cold-induced bronchoconstriction is poorly understood. This prompted the present study whose aim was to determine the step-wise direct effect of cooling on smooth muscle of isolated ovine airways and analyse the role of calcium in the mechanisms involved. Isolated tracheal strips and bronchial segments were suspended in organ baths containing Krebs' solution for isometric tension recording. Tissue responses during stepwise cooling from 37 to 5 degrees C were examined. Cooling induced a rapid and reproducible contraction proportional to cooling temperature in ovine tracheal and bronchial preparations which was epithelium-independent. On readjustment to 37 degrees C the tone returned rapidly to basal level. Maximum contraction was achieved at a temperature of 5 degrees C for trachea and 15 degrees C for bronchiole. Cooling-induced contractions (CIC) was resistant to tetrodotoxin (1; 10 micrometer), and not affected by the muscarinic antagonist atropine (1 micrometer) or the alpha-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine (1 micrometer), or the histamine H1-antagonist mepyramine (1 micrometer) or indomethacin (1 micrometer). Ca2+ antagonists (nifedipine and verapamil) and Mn2+ raised tracheal but not bronchiolar tone and augmented CIC. Incubation in Ca2+-free, EGTA-containing Krebs' solution for 5 min had no effect on CIC, although it significantly reduced KCl-induced contraction by up to 75%. Cooling inhibited Ca2+ influx measured using 45Ca2+ uptake. Caffeine (100 micrometer) significantly inhibited CIC. The results show that cooling-induced contractions do not appear to involve activation of nerve endings, all surface reception systems or Ca2+ influx. However, CIC is mainly dependent on release of intracellular Ca2+. PMID:10072702

  17. Light-induced cooling of active medium of CW TEA CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azharonok, Viktor V.; Filatova, Irina I.; Shimanovich, Vladimir D.

    2003-10-01

    In the present paper a gas kinetic temperature change of active medium of high-power TEA CO2 laser that is conditioned by a self-influence of laser radiation on plasma parameters, is investigated. The active medium was pumped by a self-sustained transverse glow discharge. The gas kinetic temperature Tg of plasma has been deduced from the half-width of rotationally unresolved spectral bands of the (2+)N2. It is shown that the laser radiation propagation through the inverse medium causes a cooling of the active medium. The degree of the gas mixture cooling δTg~5K at W~2.2 W/2.2 W/cm3 and δTg~60 K at W~4.4 W/cm3. We suppose that the effect of the active medium cooling is connected with the change of a kinetic of V-T relaxation in asymmetrical mode of the active medium cooling is connected with the change of a kinetic of V-T relaxation in asymmetrical mode of the active medium cooling is connected with with the change of a kinetic of V-T relaxation in asymmetrical mode of vibrationally-excited CO2 molecule when the lasing takes place in the laser resonator. Analytical estimation of light-induced temperature change δT*g of fast-flow TEA CO2-laser active medium are compared with the experimental ones.

  18. Non-equilibrium effects evidenced by vibrational spectra during the coil-to-globule transition in poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) subjected to an ultrafast heating-cooling cycle.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sanket A; Kamath, Ganesh; Suthar, Kamlesh J; Mancini, Derrick C; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S

    2014-03-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with finite element calculations are used to explore the conformational dynamics of a thermo-sensitive oligomer, namely poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), subjected to an ultra-fast heating-cooling cycle. Finite element (FE) calculations were used to predict the temperature profile resulting from laser-induced heating of the polymer-aqueous system. The heating rate (∼0.6 K ps(-1)) deduced from FE calculations was used to heat an aqueous solution of PNIPAM consisting of 30 monomeric units (30-mer) from 285 K to 315 K. Non-equilibrium effects arising from the ultra-fast heating-cooling cycle results in a hysteresis during the coil-to-globule transition. The corresponding atomic scale conformations were characterized by monitoring the changes in the vibrational spectra, which provided a reliable metric to study the coil-to-globule transition in PNIPAM and vice-versa across the LCST. The vibrational spectra of bonds involving atoms from the oligomer backbone and the various side-groups (amide I, amide II, and the isopropyl group of PNIPAM) of the oligomers were analyzed to study the conformational changes in the oligomer corresponding to the observed hysteresis. The differences in the vibrational spectra calculated at various temperatures during heating and cooling cycles were used to understand the coil-to-globule and globule-to-coil transitions in the PNIPAM oligomer and identify the changes in the relative interactions between various atoms in the backbone and in the side groups of the oligomer with water. The shifts in the computed vibrational spectral peaks and the changes in the intensity of peaks for the different regions of PNIPAM, seen across the LCST during the heating cycle, are in good agreement with previous experimental studies. The changes in the radius of gyration (Rg) and vibrational spectra for amide I and amide II regions of PNIPAM suggest a clear coil-to-globule transition at ∼301 K during the

  19. Vibration Monitoring Using Fiber Optic Sensors in a Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Cooled Nuclear Fuel Assembly †

    PubMed Central

    De Pauw, Ben; Lamberti, Alfredo; Ertveldt, Julien; Rezayat, Ali; van Tichelen, Katrien; Vanlanduit, Steve; Berghmans, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Excessive fuel assembly vibrations in nuclear reactor cores should be avoided in order not to compromise the lifetime of the assembly and in order to prevent the occurrence of safety hazards. This issue is particularly relevant to new reactor designs that use liquid metal coolants, such as, for example, a molten lead-bismuth eutectic. The flow of molten heavy metal around and through the fuel assembly may cause the latter to vibrate and hence suffer degradation as a result of, for example, fretting wear or mechanical fatigue. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of optical fiber sensors to measure the fuel assembly vibration in a lead-bismuth eutectic cooled installation which can be used as input to assess vibration-related safety hazards. We show that the vibration characteristics of the fuel pins in the fuel assembly can be experimentally determined with minimal intrusiveness and with high precision owing to the small dimensions and properties of the sensors. In particular, we were able to record local strain level differences of about 0.2 μϵ allowing us to reliably estimate the vibration amplitudes and modal parameters of the fuel assembly based on optical fiber sensor readings during different stages of the operation of the facility, including the onset of the coolant circulation and steady-state operation. PMID:27110782

  20. Waveform analysis in mitigation of blast-induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldas, G. G. U.; Ecevitoglu, B.

    2008-10-01

    To mitigate the blast-induced ground vibrations, we proposed a new methodology quite different from conventional methods which do not take into account the mechanics of seismic waves. Contrary to conventional methods, the proposed methodology does not consider any blast-parameters such as explosive types and amounts, blast-geometry, blast-hole design, hole-depth/diameter, etc., except time-delays. The methodology aims to employ the most suitable time-delays among blast-hole groupings to minimize destructive interference of the surface waves at the location of blast-induced vibrations. The crucial point of the proposed methodology is the use of a pilot-blast signal which takes account of the seismic properties of all complex geology between the blast and the target locations. Therefore, it does not require any geological model or assumption. The methodology has been implemented at a Turkish Coal Company's Lignite Mine. Blasting induced ground vibrations at this mine could be minimized to a ratio of 1/8.

  1. Prediction of induced vibrations for a passenger - car ferry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crudu, L.; Neculet, O.; Marcu, O.

    2016-08-01

    In order to evaluate the ship hull global vibrations, propeller excitation must be properly considered being mandatory to know enough accurate the magnitude of the induced hull pressure impulses. During the preliminary design stages, the pressures induced on the aft part of the ship by the operating propeller can be evaluated based on the guidelines given by the international standards or by the provisions of the Classification Societies. These approximate formulas are taking into account the wake field which, unfortunately, can be only estimated unless experimental towing tank tests are carried out. Another possibility is the numerical evaluation with different Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. However, CFD methods are not always easy to be used requiring an accurate description of the hull forms in the aft part of the ship. The present research underlines these aspects during the preliminary prediction of propeller induced vibrations for a double-ended passenger-car ferry propelled by two azimuth fixed pitch thrusters placed at both ends of the ship. The evaluation of the global forced vibration is performed considering the 3D global Finite Element (FE) model, with NX Nastran for Windows. Based on the presented results, the paper provides reliable information to be used during the preliminary design stages.

  2. Experimental validation of a numerical model for subway induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Degrande, G.; Lombaert, G.

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents the experimental validation of a coupled periodic finite element-boundary element model for the prediction of subway induced vibrations. The model fully accounts for the dynamic interaction between the train, the track, the tunnel and the soil. The periodicity or invariance of the tunnel and the soil in the longitudinal direction is exploited using the Floquet transformation, which allows for an efficient formulation in the frequency-wavenumber domain. A general analytical formulation is used to compute the response of three-dimensional invariant or periodic media that are excited by moving loads. The numerical model is validated by means of several experiments that have been performed at a site in Regent's Park on the Bakerloo line of London Underground. Vibration measurements have been performed on the axle boxes of the train, on the rail, the tunnel invert and the tunnel wall, and in the free field, both at the surface and at a depth of 15 m. Prior to these vibration measurements, the dynamic soil characteristics and the track characteristics have been determined. The Bakerloo line tunnel of London Underground has been modelled using the coupled periodic finite element-boundary element approach and free field vibrations due to the passage of a train at different speeds have been predicted and compared to the measurements. The correspondence between the predicted and measured response in the tunnel is reasonably good, although some differences are observed in the free field. The discrepancies are explained on the basis of various uncertainties involved in the problem. The variation in the response with train speed is similar for the measurements as well as the predictions. This study demonstrates the applicability of the coupled periodic finite element-boundary element model to make realistic predictions of the vibrations from underground railways.

  3. Laser-induced vibration of a thin soap film.

    PubMed

    Emile, Olivier; Emile, Janine

    2014-09-21

    We report on the vibration of a thin soap film based on the optical radiation pressure force. The modulated low power laser induces a counter gravity flow in a vertical free-standing draining film. The thickness of the soap film is then higher in the upper region than in the lower region of the film. Moreover, the lifetime of the film is dramatically increased by a factor of 2. Since the laser beam only acts mechanically on the film interfaces, such a film can be employed in an optofluidic diaphragm pump, the interfaces behaving like a vibrating membrane and the liquid in-between being the fluid to be pumped. Such a pump could then be used in delicate micro-equipment, in chips where temperature variations are detrimental and even in biological systems. PMID:25017934

  4. Laser-induced vibration of a thin soap film.

    PubMed

    Emile, Olivier; Emile, Janine

    2014-09-21

    We report on the vibration of a thin soap film based on the optical radiation pressure force. The modulated low power laser induces a counter gravity flow in a vertical free-standing draining film. The thickness of the soap film is then higher in the upper region than in the lower region of the film. Moreover, the lifetime of the film is dramatically increased by a factor of 2. Since the laser beam only acts mechanically on the film interfaces, such a film can be employed in an optofluidic diaphragm pump, the interfaces behaving like a vibrating membrane and the liquid in-between being the fluid to be pumped. Such a pump could then be used in delicate micro-equipment, in chips where temperature variations are detrimental and even in biological systems.

  5. Current-induced runaway vibrations in dehydrogenated graphene nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Rasmus Bjerregaard; Lü, Jing-Tao; Hedegård, Per

    2016-01-01

    Summary We employ a semi-classical Langevin approach to study current-induced atomic dynamics in a partially dehydrogenated armchair graphene nanoribbon. All parameters are obtained from density functional theory. The dehydrogenated carbon dimers behave as effective impurities, whose motion decouples from the rest of carbon atoms. The electrical current can couple the dimer motion in a coherent fashion. The coupling, which is mediated by nonconservative and pseudo-magnetic current-induced forces, change the atomic dynamics, and thereby show their signature in this simple system. We study the atomic dynamics and current-induced vibrational instabilities using a simplified eigen-mode analysis. Our study illustrates how armchair nanoribbons can serve as a possible testbed for probing the current-induced forces. PMID:26925354

  6. Current-induced runaway vibrations in dehydrogenated graphene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Rasmus Bjerregaard; Lü, Jing-Tao; Hedegård, Per; Brandbyge, Mads

    2016-01-01

    We employ a semi-classical Langevin approach to study current-induced atomic dynamics in a partially dehydrogenated armchair graphene nanoribbon. All parameters are obtained from density functional theory. The dehydrogenated carbon dimers behave as effective impurities, whose motion decouples from the rest of carbon atoms. The electrical current can couple the dimer motion in a coherent fashion. The coupling, which is mediated by nonconservative and pseudo-magnetic current-induced forces, change the atomic dynamics, and thereby show their signature in this simple system. We study the atomic dynamics and current-induced vibrational instabilities using a simplified eigen-mode analysis. Our study illustrates how armchair nanoribbons can serve as a possible testbed for probing the current-induced forces. PMID:26925354

  7. Cross flow induced vibrations in staggered arrays of cylindrical structures

    SciTech Connect

    Marn, J.

    1991-12-31

    Flow induced vibrations cause by instability is the subject of this investigation. The bulk of the work performed is theoretical in nature, the comparison with some of existing experimental data is given for each of four models described. First model encompasses the effects of prescribed motion on the cylinder. Such circumstances occur in the case of vortex shedding initiated instability. The reduced velocity within the cylinder array is low and there is no coupling between the adjacent cylinders. Second model assumes certain form of vibration and corresponding behavior of the perturbed velocity field in temporal and one of spatial coordinates thus transforming partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations and takes into account the motion of the neighboring cylinder. This corresponds to fluid elastic controlled instabilities. The resulting equations are solved analytically. The model is used for better understanding of the equations of cylinder motion as well as for quick estimates of threshold of instability. Third model relaxes an assumption about the form of vibration in spatial direction and uses the vorticity formulation of equation of fluid motion to account for fluid-solid interaction. This model analysis is of two phase (air-water mixture) flow. The void fraction distribution is found to be the single most decisive factor to determine the onset of instability for such a domain. In conclusion, two distinct mechanism were found to be responsible for flow induced vibration caused instabilities, (1) outside source controlled periodic excitation (such as vortex shedding) -- described by the first model and (2) fluid elastic forces -- described by second, third and fourth models. For the values of reduced velocity below 0.7 first model is proposed, for the values above 0.7, the rest.

  8. Vibration-induced white finger among selected underground rock drillers in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Brubaker, R L; Mackenzie, C J; Hutton, S G

    1986-08-01

    Ninety-five rock drillers who used pneumatic hand-held drills were interviewed and tested. Thirty-seven were excluded because of factors predisposing to the appearance of white fingers other than exposure to industrial hand-drill vibration. Forty-five percent of the remaining 58 drillers suffered from periodic attacks of Raynaud's phenomenon. Symptoms were present in 25% of the drillers exposed for 1-5 years and in 80% of those exposed for greater than or equal to 16 years. Nine percent of the cases were classified as severe. The median latency for the onset of the blanching symptoms was 7.5 years. The prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon was 4% among a reference group of 56 miners not exposed to hand vibration and corrected for possible predisposing factors. Objective evidence indicated delayed finger rewarming after a combination of digital ischemia and cooling in 75% of the drillers with blanching symptoms and 18% of the referents without symptoms. There was evidence of an increased frequency of vibration-induced white finger among current cigarette smokers. Weighted 4-h equivalent acceleration levels measured from the handles of 26 jack-leg and 13 stoper drills from the same mines as the miners ranged from 15 to 32 m/s2. These levels exceed recommended guidelines of the International Organization for Standardization.

  9. Flow-induced vibration and instability of some nuclear-reactor-system components. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    The high-velocity coolant flowing through a reactor system component is a source of energy that can induce component vibration and instability. In fact, many reactor components have suffered from excessive vibration and/or dynamic instability. The potential for detrimental flow-induced vibration makes it necessary that design engineers give detailed considerations to the flow-induced vibration problems. Flow-induced-vibration studies have been performed in many countries. Significant progress has been made in understanding the different phenomena and development of design guidelines to avoid damaging vibration. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the recent progress in several selected areas, to discuss some new results and to indentify future research needs. Specifically, the following areas will be presented: examples of flow-induced-vibration problems in reactor components; excitation mechanisms and component response characteristics; instability mechanisms and stability criteria; design considerations; and future research needs.

  10. The excited-state structure, vibrations, lifetimes, and nonradiative dynamics of jet-cooled 1-methylcytosine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trachsel, Maria A.; Wiedmer, Timo; Blaser, Susan; Frey, Hans-Martin; Li, Quansong; Ruiz-Barragan, Sergi; Blancafort, Lluís; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated the S0 → S1 UV vibronic spectrum and time-resolved S1 state dynamics of jet-cooled amino-keto 1-methylcytosine (1MCyt) using two-color resonant two-photon ionization, UV/UV holeburning and depletion spectroscopies, as well as nanosecond and picosecond time-resolved pump/delayed ionization measurements. The experimental study is complemented with spin-component-scaled second-order coupled-cluster and multistate complete active space second order perturbation ab initio calculations. Above the weak electronic origin of 1MCyt at 31 852 cm-1 about 20 intense vibronic bands are observed. These are interpreted as methyl group torsional transitions coupled to out-of-plane ring vibrations, in agreement with the methyl group rotation and out-of-plane distortions upon 1ππ∗ excitation predicted by the calculations. The methyl torsion and ν1 ' (butterfly) vibrations are strongly coupled, in the S1 state. The S0 → S1 vibronic spectrum breaks off at a vibrational excess energy Eexc ˜ 500 cm-1, indicating that a barrier in front of the ethylene-type S1⇝S0 conical intersection is exceeded, which is calculated to lie at Eexc = 366 cm-1. The S1⇝S0 internal conversion rate constant increases from kIC = 2 ṡ 109 s-1 near the S1(v = 0) level to 1 ṡ 1011 s-1 at Eexc = 516 cm-1. The 1ππ∗ state of 1MCyt also relaxes into the lower-lying triplet T1 (3ππ∗) state by intersystem crossing (ISC); the calculated spin-orbit coupling (SOC) value is 2.4 cm-1. The ISC rate constant is 10-100 times lower than kIC; it increases from kISC = 2 ṡ 108 s-1 near S1(v = 0) to kISC = 2 ṡ 109 s-1 at Eexc = 516 cm-1. The T1 state energy is determined from the onset of the time-delayed photoionization efficiency curve as 25 600 ± 500 cm-1. The T2 (3nπ∗) state lies >1500 cm-1 above S1(v = 0), so S1⇝T2 ISC cannot occur, despite the large SOC parameter of 10.6 cm-1. An upper limit to the adiabatic ionization energy of 1MCyt is determined as 8.41 ± 0.02 e

  11. Complex muscle vibration patterns to induce gait-like lower-limb movements: proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Duclos, Cyril; Kemlin, Claire; Lazert, David; Gagnon, Dany; Dyer, Joseph-Omer; Forget, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Muscle vibrations can induce motor responses and illusions of complex movements. However, inducing gait-like cyclical movements and illusions requires the application of multiple fast alternating vibrations to lower-limb muscles. The objectives were (1) to test the feasibility of delivering complex vibrations in a time-organized manner and (2) to illustrate the possibility of inducing alternate gait-in-place-like movements using these vibrations. Patterns of vibration, produced by 12 vibrators applied bilaterally on the flexor and extensor muscle groups of the lower limbs, were based on normal gait kinematics. We tested 1 s and 2 s cycle patterns of vibration. Vibrator responses were assessed using auto- and crosscorrelations and frequency analyses based on accelerometry measurements, and compared between patterns. High auto- (>0.8) and crosscorrelation (>0.6) coefficients demonstrated a good response by the vibrators to the control signal. Vibrations induced cyclical, low-amplitude stepping-in-place movements that mimicked alternate walking movements with both legs, with 1 s and 2 s cycle durations, in one nondisabled participant and one participant with American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale B spinal cord injury standing, relaxed, with body-weight support. Electromechanical vibrators can deliver complex cyclical vibrations and trigger gait-like lower-limb movements. These results warrant the application of these vibration patterns on individuals with sensorimotor impairments to test their potential in gait rehabilitation.

  12. Flow induced vibrations in arrays of irregularly spaced cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taub, Gordon; Michelin, Sébastien

    2014-11-01

    Historically the main industrial applications of cylinder arrays in cross flows favored regular arrangements of cylinders. For this reason, most past studies of Flow Induced Vibrations (FIV) in large cylinder arrays have focused on such arrangements. Recently there has been some interest in generating renewable energy using FIV of bluff bodies. In such applications it will likely be beneficial to enhance, rather than suppress FIV. It is not known a priori if regular or irregularly spaced arrays are most adequate for this type of application. In this study, wind tunnel experiments were conducted on one regularly spaced array and four different irregularly spaced arrays of cylinders in a cross flow. Each arrangement of cylinders was examined under eight different orientations to a cross flow ranging between 10 m/s and 17 m/s. The average amplitude of vibration of the cylinders was found to highly depend on arrangement and orientation. The typical amplitude of vibration of the rods in the irregular arrangements were found to be an order of magnitude larger than that of the regular array. A simple model was proposed in order to predict if a given arrangement was likely to produce large oscillations, and the validity of the model was examined. This research was supported by a Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant within the 7th European Community Framework Program (Grant PIRG08-GA-2010-276762).

  13. Laser-controlled vibrational heating and cooling of oriented H+2 molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederhausen, Thomas; Thumm, Uwe; Martín, Fernando

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the control of the vibrational dynamics in the hydrogen molecular ion H+2 using strong femto-second infrared control-laser pulses. For our three-dimensional calculations, we use infrared laser pulses of 800 nm wavelength, 6 fs pulse duration and a peak intensity between 1012 and 1015 W cm-2. For laser electric fields aligned along the molecular axis, we numerically solve the full vibronic Schrödinger equation and compare our results with a model calculation that only includes the nuclear motion on the two lowest coupled adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential curves. The initial vibrational wave packet is launched with the ionization of the parent H2 molecule in the pump pulse. Precise timing between pump- and control-laser pulses allows for the direct manipulation of the final bound vibrational-state composition and dissociation dynamics of the ion. We show that significant enhancement of the occupation of particular stationary vibrational-state contributions can be achieved for laser intensities below the onset of strong ionization (≈1014 W cm-2). In addition, we find that this vibrational selectivity strongly depends on the delay time but not on the intensity of the control pulse. The relative stationary vibrational-state contributions and the shape of the vibrating wave packet depend sensitively on the control-pulse delay time, and the overall amplitude of the final vibrational wave packet depends on the intensity of the control pulse.

  14. Excited-state structure, vibrations, and nonradiative relaxation of jet-cooled 5-fluorocytosine.

    PubMed

    Lobsiger, Simon; Trachsel, Maria A; Den, Takuya; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2014-03-20

    The S0 → S1 vibronic spectrum and S1 state nonradiative relaxation of jet-cooled keto-amino 5-fluorocytosine (5FCyt) are investigated by two-color resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy at 0.3 and 0.05 cm(–1) resolution. The 0(0)(0) rotational band contour is polarized in-plane, implying that the electronic transition is (1)ππ*. The electronic transition dipole moment orientation and the changes of rotational constants agree closely with the SCS-CC2 calculated values for the (1)ππ* (S1) transition of 5FCyt. The spectral region from 0 to 300 cm(–1) is dominated by overtone and combination bands of the out-of-plane ν1′ (boat), ν2′ (butterfly), and ν3′ (HN–C6H twist) vibrations, implying that the pyrimidinone frame is distorted out-of-plane by the (1)ππ* excitation, in agreement with SCS-CC2 calculations. The number of vibronic bands rises strongly around +350 cm(–1); this is attributed to the (1)ππ* state barrier to planarity that corresponds to the central maximum of the double-minimum out-of-plane vibrational potentials along the ν1′, ν2′, and ν3′ coordinates, which gives rise to a high density of vibronic excitations. At +1200 cm(–1), rapid nonradiative relaxation (k(nr) ≥ 10(12) s(–1)) sets in, which we interpret as the height of the (1)ππ* state barrier in front of the lowest S1/S0 conical intersection. This barrier in 5FCyt is 3 times higher than that in cytosine. The lifetimes of the ν′ = 0, 2ν1′, 2ν2′, 2ν1′ + 2ν2′, 4ν2′, and 2ν1′ + 4ν2′ levels are determined from Lorentzian widths fitted to the rotational band contours and are τ ≥ 75 ps for ν′ = 0, decreasing to τ ≥ 55 ps at the 2ν1′ + 4ν2′ level at +234 cm(–1). These gas-phase lifetimes are twice those of S1 state cytosine and 10–100 times those of the other canonical nucleobases in the gas phase. On the other hand, the 5FCyt gas-phase lifetime is close to the 73 ps lifetime in room-temperature solvents. This lack of

  15. Harbor seal vibrissa morphology suppresses vortex-induced vibrations.

    PubMed

    Hanke, Wolf; Witte, Matthias; Miersch, Lars; Brede, Martin; Oeffner, Johannes; Michael, Mark; Hanke, Frederike; Leder, Alfred; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2010-08-01

    Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) often live in dark and turbid waters, where their mystacial vibrissae, or whiskers, play an important role in orientation. Besides detecting and discriminating objects by direct touch, harbor seals use their whiskers to analyze water movements, for example those generated by prey fish or by conspecifics. Even the weak water movements left behind by objects that have passed by earlier can be sensed and followed accurately (hydrodynamic trail following). While scanning the water for these hydrodynamic signals at a swimming speed in the order of meters per second, the seal keeps its long and flexible whiskers in an abducted position, largely perpendicular to the swimming direction. Remarkably, the whiskers of harbor seals possess a specialized undulated surface structure, the function of which was, up to now, unknown. Here, we show that this structure effectively changes the vortex street behind the whiskers and reduces the vibrations that would otherwise be induced by the shedding of vortices from the whiskers (vortex-induced vibrations). Using force measurements, flow measurements and numerical simulations, we find that the dynamic forces on harbor seal whiskers are, by at least an order of magnitude, lower than those on sea lion (Zalophus californianus) whiskers, which do not share the undulated structure. The results are discussed in the light of pinniped sensory biology and potential biomimetic applications. PMID:20639428

  16. Measurement and modeling of detached plasma cooling via ro-vibrational excitation of H 2 neutrals in PISCES-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollmann, E. M.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Yan, Z.

    2007-06-01

    Measurements of the spatial decay of H2 vibrational, rotational, and kinetic temperatures Tvib, Trot, and Tkin down the side port of the PISCES-A vacuum chamber, together with Monte-Carlo modeling, is used to obtain the accommodation probabilities for energy loss to the cold chamber walls during H2 + surface collisions. These accommodation probabilities are used to calculate the steady-state rate at which H2 carries energy away from the plasma column. The power loss due to heating of H2 neutrals is found to be quite significant, being only 2 × weaker than radiation cooling in the higher neutral pressure (detached) discharges. The H2 vibrational temperature Tvib is found to be the most important neutral channel for carrying energy out of the plasma - more important than either kinetic temperature Tkin or rotational temperature Trot.

  17. Jet-Cooled Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of T-Butoxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Neil J.; Cheng, Lan; Stanton, John F.; Miller, Terry A.; Liu, Jinjun

    2015-06-01

    The vibrational structures of the tilde A ^2A_1 and tilde X ^2E states of t-butoxy were obtained in jet-cooled laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and dispersed fluorescence (DF) spectroscopic measurements. The observed transitions are assigned based on vibrational frequencies calculated using Complete Active Space Self-Consistent Field (CASSCF) method and the predicted Franck-Condon factors. The spin-orbit (SO) splitting was measured to be 35(5) cm-1 for the lowest vibrational level of the ground (tilde X ^2E) state and increases with increasing vibrational quantum number of the CO stretch mode. Vibronic analysis of the DF spectra suggests that Jahn-Teller (JT)-active modes of the ground-state t-butoxy radical are similar to those of methoxy and would be the same if methyl groups were replaced by hydrogen atoms. Coupled-cluster calculations show that electron delocalization, introduced by the substitution of hydrogens with methyl groups, reduces the electronic contribution of the SO splittings by only around ten percent, and a calculation on the vibronic levels based on quasidiabatic model Hamiltonian clearly attributes the relatively small SO splitting of the tilde X ^2E state of t-butoxy mainly to stronger reduction of orbital angular momentum by the JT-active modes when compared to methoxy. The rotational and fine structure of the LIF transition to the first CO stretch overtone level of the tilde A^2A_1 state has been simulated using a spectroscopic model first proposed for methoxy, yielding an accurate determination of the rotational constants of both tilde A and tilde X states.

  18. Prevalence of vibration-induced white finger and assessment of vibration exposure among travertine workers in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bovenzi, M; Franzinelli, A; Strambi, F

    1988-01-01

    Among 76 stonedrillers and stonecutters/chippers working in the Rapolano travertine quarries (Tuscany, Italy), 27 subjects (35.5%) were affected with vibration-induced white finger (VWF). The median latent period for VWF was ten years (range 0.1-26 years). A VWF prevalence of 8% was found among 60 comparable controls (P less than 0.0001). Vibration measurements showed that the frequency-weighted accelerations for two rock-drills and two small chipping hammers ranged from 19.7 to 36.4 m/s2. Weighted accelerations between 2.4 and 4.1 m/s2 were measured on the handles of a vertical grinder and a hand cutter. Vibration data, daily exposure time and total duration of exposure period were used to calculate two indicators of vibration dose such as the four-hour, energy-equivalent, frequency-weighted acceleration (m/s2) and the vibration exposure level (dB). A significant association between the vibration exposure level and the severity of VWF stages was observed among the travertine operators. The dose-effect relationship proposed by ISO 5349 was not suitable for the data of the present study because it overestimates the risk due to hand-transmitted vibration in the travertine workers. Finally, the results of a cold test indicated that the rewarming time of fingertips to room temperature was more prolonged in the operators with VWF than in those without VWF and in the controls. PMID:3198281

  19. Cool-temperature-induced chlorosis in rice plants.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, R; Kanno, A; Sato, T; Kameya, T

    1996-01-01

    We have established an experimental system for mimicking the phenomenon of cool-temperature-induced chlorosis (CTIC) in rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). Rice seedlings were initially grown in darkness under cool-temperature conditions and then exposed to light and warm conditions to follow the expression of CTIC. Induction of CTIC in the sensitive cultivar (cv Surjamukhi) was bimodally dependent on the temperatures experienced during the initial growth in darkness. CTIC was maximally induced between 15 and 17 degrees C. A positive correlation was demonstrated between induction of CTIC and the growth activity of shoots during growth in darkness. Electrophoretic and immunoblot analysis revealed that accumulation of NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase in plastids was also bimodally dependent on the temperatures during the growth in darkness with minimum accumulation between 15 and 17 degrees C, suggesting that the reduction of NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase accumulation in plastids might be closely linked to a disturbance in transformations of plastids to etioplasts during the dark growth under the critical temperatures and thereby to the CTIC phenomenon. This was corroborated by electron microscopic observations. These results suggest that growth is one of the determining factors for the expression of CTIC phenotype in rice under cool temperature. PMID:8819872

  20. Vibration exposure and vibration-induced white finger due to chain saw operation.

    PubMed

    Futatsuka, M; Ueno, T

    1985-04-01

    A longitudinal study was undertaken to evaluate changes in the prevalence of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) during the period 1956 to 1980 among a population of Japanese state forestry workers. The vibration levels in the measurements occasionally exceeded the 30-minute line proposed by the Draft International Standard ISO/DIS 5349 in one-third octave bands mainly centered on 160 Hz, with 500 Hz in vertical, 400 Hz in sideways, and 250 Hz in back-and-forth sawing operations. The peak prevalence rate was 62.6%, found in the cohort beginning in 1958-1959. Beginning with the 1968-1969 cohort, the prevalence decreased significantly. During the study period, prevalence rates were approximately 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, and 40% after 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, and 12 years of exposure, respectively. The incidence rate increased gradually after 1960 and the peak value was reached in 1966. The peak value of the incidence rate by duration of exposure was about the same (8% to 10%) in the 1958, 1962, and 1966 cohorts; however, in later groups, the incidence rate decreased in the earlier stages of the exposure periods. The latent interval for the development of VWF was 6.4 +/- 3.7 years (6,000 to 7,000 hours) on average, with a 90% range of one to 14 years (700 to 16,000 hours). Of 452 study subjects with VWF (prevalence rate, 33.5%), 13.5% recovered within the exposure periods, 12.2% recovered within one year after the cessation of exposure, and 74.3% still had VWF more than two years after exposure had ended.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Measurement Of Flow Induced Vibration Of Reactor Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmaraju, N.; Meher, K. K.; Rao, A. Rama

    The effect of flow-induced vibration on class I components in the reactor is a very important design factor for its qualifications worthy of loading inside the core. In this regard, a clear definition of the flow excitation and the dynamic characteristics of the component are the two primary inputs required to make an estimation of vibration severity. Though there are general guidelines available, more often it has been seen that they only help in arriving at a first approximation. There are many instances wherein a component has failed to perform as per design in spite of sufficient margin provided in the calculations. There are also instances wherein some components have failed even after successful testing under close to simulated flow condition. The paper deals with qualification procedure followed to flow test an in core component in an out of pile facility. The adopted procedure is considered to be a best approach especially in this field where in there are many gray areas.

  2. Light-induced vibration in the hearing organ.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tianying; He, Wenxuan; Li, Yizeng; Grosh, Karl; Fridberger, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The exceptional sensitivity of mammalian hearing organs is attributed to an active process, where force produced by sensory cells boost sound-induced vibrations, making soft sounds audible. This process is thought to be local, with each section of the hearing organ capable of amplifying sound-evoked movement, and nearly instantaneous, since amplification can work for sounds at frequencies up to 100 kHz in some species. To test these fundamental precepts, we developed a method for focally stimulating the living hearing organ with light. Light pulses caused intense and highly damped mechanical responses followed by traveling waves that developed with considerable delay. The delayed response was identical to movements evoked by click-like sounds. This shows that the active process is neither local nor instantaneous, but requires mechanical waves traveling from the cochlear base toward its apex. A physiologically-based mathematical model shows that such waves engage the active process, enhancing hearing sensitivity.

  3. Stall-Induced Vibrations of the AVATAR Rotor Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stettner, M.; Reijerkerk, M. J.; Lünenschloß, A.; Riziotis, V.; Croce, A.; Sartori, L.; Riva, R.; Peeringa, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    In the course of the AVATAR project, partner predictions for key load components in storm/idle conditions separated in two groups. One group showed large loading due to edgewise instability, the other group damped edgewise oscillation and lower load levels. To identify the cause for this separation, the impact of structural and aerodynamic modeling options on damping of stall-induced vibrations is investigated for two simplified operating conditions of a single AVATAR blade. The choice of the dynamic stall model is found to be the primary driver, and is therefore most likely also the reason for previously observed differences in AVATAR storm load predictions. Differences in structural dynamics, mode shapes, structural and dynamic twist, as well as wake model are only secondary in terms of impact on damping. Resolution suffered from failure of system identification methods to extract reliable damping values from various non-linear response simulations.

  4. Expansion of radiative cooling of the laser induced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Sy-Bor; Mao, Xianglei; Liu, Chunyi; Greif, Ralph; Russo,Richard

    2006-05-05

    To study the expansion and cooling process of the laser induced plasma generated by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation, experiments have been conducted which measure the position of the external shockwaves and the temperature of the vapor plumes. The positions of external shockwaves were determined by a femtosecond laser time-resolved imaging system. Vapor plume temperature was determined from spectroscopic measurements of the plasma emission lines. A model which considers the mass, momentum, and energy conservation of the region affected by the laser energy was developed. It shows good agreement to the experimental data.

  5. Hybrid isolation of micro vibrations induced by reaction wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dae-Oen; Park, Geeyong; Han, Jae-Hung

    2016-02-01

    As the technology for precision satellite payloads continues to advance, the requirements for the pointing stability of the satellites are becoming extremely high. In many situations, even small amplitude disturbances generated by the onboard components may cause serious degradation in the performance of high precision payloads. In such situations, vibration isolators can be installed to reduce the vibration transmission. In this work, a hybrid vibration isolator comprising passive and active components is proposed to provide an effective solution to the vibration problems caused by the reaction wheel disturbances. Firstly, mathematical modeling and experimental study of a single axis vibration isolator having high damping and high roll-off rate for the high frequency region and active components that enhance isolation performance for narrow frequency bands are presented. This concept is then extended to multi-axis by forming Stewart platform and the performance is experimentally verified. The tests on a flexible testbed show effective vibration isolation by the proposed vibration isolator.

  6. Phase modulation for reduced vibration sensitivity in laser-cooled clocks in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klipstein, W.; Dick, G.; Jefferts, S.; Walls, F.

    2001-01-01

    The standard interrogation technique in atomic beam clocks is square-wave frequency modulation (SWFM), which suffers a first order sensitivity to vibrations as changes in the transit time of the atoms translates to perceived frequency errors. Square-wave phase modulation (SWPM) interrogation eliminates sensitivity to this noise.

  7. Vibrational predissociation and vibrationally induced isomerization of 3-aminophenol-ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Heid, Cornelia G.; Merrill, Wyatt G.; Case, Amanda S. Crim, F. Fleming

    2015-01-07

    We investigate the vibrational predissociation dynamics of the hydrogen-bonded 3-aminophenol-ammonia cluster (3-AP-NH{sub 3}) in the OH and NH stretching regions. Vibrational excitation provides enough energy to dissociate the cluster into its constituent 3-AP and NH{sub 3} monomers, and we detect the 3-AP fragments via (1 + 1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI). The distribution of vibrational states of the 3-AP fragment suggests the presence of two distinct dissociation pathways. The first dissociation channel produces a broad, unstructured feature in the REMPI-action spectrum after excitation of any of the OH or NH stretching vibrations, pointing to a nearly statistical dissociation pathway with extensive coupling among the vibrations in the cluster during the vibrational predissociation. The second dissociation channel produces distinct, resolved features on top of the broad feature but only following excitation of the OH or symmetric NH{sub 3} stretch in the cluster. This striking mode-specificity is consistent with strong coupling of these two modes to the dissociation coordinate (the O–H⋯N bond). The presence of clearly resolved transitions to the electronic origin and to the 10a{sup 2} + 10b{sup 2} state of the cis-3-AP isomer shows that vibrational excitation is driving the isomerization of the trans-3-AP-NH{sub 3} isomer to the cis-3-AP-NH{sub 3} isomer in the course of the dissociation.

  8. Characterization of Train-Induced Vibration and its Effect on Fecal Corticosterone Metabolites in Mice.

    PubMed

    Atanasov, Nicholas A; Sargent, Jennifer L; Parmigiani, John P; Palme, Rupert; Diggs, Helen E

    2015-11-01

    Excessive environmental vibrations can have deleterious effects on animal health and experimental results, but they remain poorly understood in the animal laboratory setting. The aims of this study were to characterize train-associated vibration in a rodent vivarium and to assess the effects of this vibration on the reproductive success and fecal corticosterone metabolite levels of mice. An instrumented cage, featuring a high-sensitivity microphone and accelerometer, was used to characterize the vibrations and sound in a vivarium that is near an active railroad. The vibrations caused by the passing trains are 3 times larger in amplitude than are the ambient facility vibrations, whereas most of the associated sound was below the audible range for mice. Mice housed in the room closest to the railroad tracks had pregnancy rates that were 50% to 60% lower than those of mice of the same strains but bred in other parts of the facility. To verify the effect of the train vibrations, we used a custom-built electromagnetic shaker to simulate the train-induced vibrations in a controlled environment. Fecal pellets were collected from male and female mice that were exposed to the simulated vibrations and from unexposed control animals. Analysis of the fecal samples revealed that vibrations similar to those produced by a passing train can increase the levels of fecal corticosterone metabolites in female mice. These increases warrant attention to the effects of vibration on mice and, consequently, on reproduction and experimental outcomes.

  9. Characterization of Train-Induced Vibration and its Effect on Fecal Corticosterone Metabolites in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Atanasov, Nicholas A; Sargent, Jennifer L; Parmigiani, John P; Palme, Rupert; Diggs, Helen E

    2015-01-01

    Excessive environmental vibrations can have deleterious effects on animal health and experimental results, but they remain poorly understood in the animal laboratory setting. The aims of this study were to characterize train-associated vibration in a rodent vivarium and to assess the effects of this vibration on the reproductive success and fecal corticosterone metabolite levels of mice. An instrumented cage, featuring a high-sensitivity microphone and accelerometer, was used to characterize the vibrations and sound in a vivarium that is near an active railroad. The vibrations caused by the passing trains are 3 times larger in amplitude than are the ambient facility vibrations, whereas most of the associated sound was below the audible range for mice. Mice housed in the room closest to the railroad tracks had pregnancy rates that were 50% to 60% lower than those of mice of the same strains but bred in other parts of the facility. To verify the effect of the train vibrations, we used a custom-built electromagnetic shaker to simulate the train-induced vibrations in a controlled environment. Fecal pellets were collected from male and female mice that were exposed to the simulated vibrations and from unexposed control animals. Analysis of the fecal samples revealed that vibrations similar to those produced by a passing train can increase the levels of fecal corticosterone metabolites in female mice. These increases warrant attention to the effects of vibration on mice and, consequently, on reproduction and experimental outcomes. PMID:26632783

  10. Characterization of Train-Induced Vibration and its Effect on Fecal Corticosterone Metabolites in Mice.

    PubMed

    Atanasov, Nicholas A; Sargent, Jennifer L; Parmigiani, John P; Palme, Rupert; Diggs, Helen E

    2015-11-01

    Excessive environmental vibrations can have deleterious effects on animal health and experimental results, but they remain poorly understood in the animal laboratory setting. The aims of this study were to characterize train-associated vibration in a rodent vivarium and to assess the effects of this vibration on the reproductive success and fecal corticosterone metabolite levels of mice. An instrumented cage, featuring a high-sensitivity microphone and accelerometer, was used to characterize the vibrations and sound in a vivarium that is near an active railroad. The vibrations caused by the passing trains are 3 times larger in amplitude than are the ambient facility vibrations, whereas most of the associated sound was below the audible range for mice. Mice housed in the room closest to the railroad tracks had pregnancy rates that were 50% to 60% lower than those of mice of the same strains but bred in other parts of the facility. To verify the effect of the train vibrations, we used a custom-built electromagnetic shaker to simulate the train-induced vibrations in a controlled environment. Fecal pellets were collected from male and female mice that were exposed to the simulated vibrations and from unexposed control animals. Analysis of the fecal samples revealed that vibrations similar to those produced by a passing train can increase the levels of fecal corticosterone metabolites in female mice. These increases warrant attention to the effects of vibration on mice and, consequently, on reproduction and experimental outcomes. PMID:26632783

  11. MIMO adaptive control of thruster-firing-induced vibration of satellites using multifunctional platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kougen; Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N.

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the concept, control strategy, and simulations of suppressing the thruster-firing-induced vibration of satellites. First, a satellite vibration reduction concept of utilizing the UHM multifunctional platform is discussed, and the structural configurations of the platform as well as the combination of the platform and a satellite are described. A satellite-like frame with the platform is analyzed, and the predominant modes of the frame are determined. A MIMO adaptive control scheme is then developed to suppress the frame vibration, and a convergence factor vector concept is introduced to ease the multi-channel convergence rate control. This controller is adjusted based on the vibration information of the frame and drives the platform to isolate the vibration transmission from the firing thruster to the satellite structure. The entire system has ten actuators: four piezoelectric stack actuators and six piezoelectric patch actuators. Eleven vibration components of the frame and platform are controlled. Nine components are in the frame for the satellite vibration suppression, and two are in the top-device plate of the platform for the thruster vibration suppression. Finally, simulations are performed to suppress the vibration of the frame for three platform positions to simulate the misalignment correction of the satellite thrust vector. The results demonstrate that the entire frame vibration at its dominant frequency decreases to 7-10% of its uncontrolled value in the three platform positions, and the thruster vibration decreases to 7.5% of its uncontrolled value.

  12. Vibration induced white-feet: Overview and field study of vibration exposure and reported symptoms in workers

    PubMed Central

    Eger, Tammy; Thompson, Aaron; Leduc, Mallorie; Krajnak, Kristine; Goggins, Katie; Godwin, Alison; House, Ron

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Workers who stand on platforms or equipment that vibrate are exposed to foot-transmitted vibration (FTV). Exposure to FTV can lead to vibration white feet/toes resulting in blanching of the toes, and tingling and numbness in the feet and toes. OBJECTIVES The objectives are 1) to review the current state of knowledge of the health risks associated with foot-transmitted vibration (FTV), and 2) to identify the characteristics of FTV and discuss the associated risk of vibration-induced injury. PARTICIPANTS Workers who operated locomotives (n = 3), bolting platforms (n = 10), jumbo drills (n = 7), raise drilling platforms (n = 4), and crushers (n = 3), participated. METHODS A tri-axial accelerometer was used to measure FTV in accordance with ISO 2631-1 guidelines. Frequency-weighted root-mean-square acceleration and the dominant frequency are reported. Participants were also asked to report pain/ache/discomfort in the hands and/or feet. RESULTS Reports of pain/discomfort/ache were highest in raise platform workers and jumbo drill operators who were exposed to FTV in the 40 Hz and 28 Hz range respectively. Reports of discomfort/ache/pain were lowest in the locomotive and crusher operators who were exposed to FTV below 10 Hz. These findings are consistent with animal studies that have shown vascular and neural damage in exposed appendages occurs at frequencies above 40 Hz. CONCLUSIONS Operators exposed to FTV at 40 Hz appear to be at greater risk of experiencing vibration induced injury. Future research is required to document the characteristics of FTV and epidemiological evidence is required to link exposure with injury. PMID:24004754

  13. Correlation between vibration-induced white finger and symptoms of upper and lower extremities in vibration syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, H; Akamatsu, Y; Miyao, M; Kondo, T; Furuta, M; Yamada, S; Harada, N; Miyake, S; Hosokawa, M

    1988-01-01

    The correlation was investigated between the frequency of attacks of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) and numbness or coldness of the fingers and legs in patients with vibration syndrome. Some 1687 patients with vibration syndrome were examined and of these 342 chain-saw operators and 277 rock-drill operators had no disease other than vibration syndrome. Then subjects were matched by age and period of treatment within three years. In the last analysis, 20 in the VWF "almost everyday" group or in the "never" group, and 40 in the "occasionally" group were selected from the chain-saw operators, and from the rock-drill operators 32 in the VWF "everyday" or the "never" group and 64 in the "occasionally" group. The present study showed that, with the frequency of VWF attacks, patients had a higher prevalence of coldness not only in the fingers but also in the legs. These findings suggest a correlation between the severity of circulatory disturbances of the upper extremities and that of the lower ones in patients with vibration syndrome. Further studies on circulatory disturbances in the leg are required.

  14. Development of Design Criteria for Fluid Induced Structural Vibrations in Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Uvan Catton; Vijay K. Dhir; Deepanjan Mitra; Omar Alquaddoomi; Pierangelo Adinolfi

    2004-04-06

    Flow-induced vibration in heat exchangers has been a major cause of concern in the nuclear industry for several decades. Many incidents of failure of heat exchangers due to apparent flow-induced vibration have been reported through the USNRC incident reporting system. Almost all heat exchangers have to deal with this problem during their operation. The phenomenon has been studied since the 1970s and the database of experimental studies on flow-induced vibration is constantly updated with new findings and improved design criteria for heat exchangers.

  15. Topographic analysis of the skull vibration-induced nystagmus test with piezoelectric accelerometers and force sensors.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Georges; Lion, Alexis; Perrin, Philippe; Ouedraogo, Evariste; Schmerber, Sébastien

    2016-03-23

    Vibration-induced nystagmus is elicited by skull or posterior cervical muscle stimulations in patients with vestibular diseases. Skull vibrations delivered by the skull vibration-induced nystagmus test are known to stimulate the inner ear structures directly. This study aimed to measure the vibration transfer at different cranium locations and posterior cervical regions to contribute toward stimulus topographic optimization (experiment 1) and to determine the force applied on the skull with a hand-held vibrator to study the test reproducibility and provide recommendations for good clinical practices (experiment 2). In experiment 1, a 100 Hz hand-held vibrator was applied on the skull (vertex, mastoids) and posterior cervical muscles in 11 healthy participants. Vibration transfer was measured by piezoelectric sensors. In experiment 2, the vibrator was applied 30 times by two experimenters with dominant and nondominant hands on a mannequin equipped to measure the force. Experiment 1 showed that after unilateral mastoid vibratory stimulation, the signal transfer was higher when recorded on the contralateral mastoid than on the vertex or posterior cervical muscles (P<0.001). No difference was observed between the different vibratory locations when vibration transfer was measured on vertex and posterior cervical muscles. Experiment 2 showed that the force applied to the mannequin varied according to the experimenters and the handedness, higher forces being observed with the most experienced experimenter and with the dominant hand (10.3 ± 1.0 and 7.8 ± 2.9 N, respectively). The variation ranged from 9.8 to 29.4% within the same experimenter. Bone transcranial vibration transfer is more efficient from one mastoid to the other mastoid than other anatomical sites. The mastoid is therefore the optimal site for skull vibration-induced nystagmus test in patients with unilateral vestibular lesions and enables a stronger stimulation of the healthy side. In clinical practice

  16. Topographic analysis of the skull vibration-induced nystagmus test with piezoelectric accelerometers and force sensors.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Georges; Lion, Alexis; Perrin, Philippe; Ouedraogo, Evariste; Schmerber, Sébastien

    2016-03-23

    Vibration-induced nystagmus is elicited by skull or posterior cervical muscle stimulations in patients with vestibular diseases. Skull vibrations delivered by the skull vibration-induced nystagmus test are known to stimulate the inner ear structures directly. This study aimed to measure the vibration transfer at different cranium locations and posterior cervical regions to contribute toward stimulus topographic optimization (experiment 1) and to determine the force applied on the skull with a hand-held vibrator to study the test reproducibility and provide recommendations for good clinical practices (experiment 2). In experiment 1, a 100 Hz hand-held vibrator was applied on the skull (vertex, mastoids) and posterior cervical muscles in 11 healthy participants. Vibration transfer was measured by piezoelectric sensors. In experiment 2, the vibrator was applied 30 times by two experimenters with dominant and nondominant hands on a mannequin equipped to measure the force. Experiment 1 showed that after unilateral mastoid vibratory stimulation, the signal transfer was higher when recorded on the contralateral mastoid than on the vertex or posterior cervical muscles (P<0.001). No difference was observed between the different vibratory locations when vibration transfer was measured on vertex and posterior cervical muscles. Experiment 2 showed that the force applied to the mannequin varied according to the experimenters and the handedness, higher forces being observed with the most experienced experimenter and with the dominant hand (10.3 ± 1.0 and 7.8 ± 2.9 N, respectively). The variation ranged from 9.8 to 29.4% within the same experimenter. Bone transcranial vibration transfer is more efficient from one mastoid to the other mastoid than other anatomical sites. The mastoid is therefore the optimal site for skull vibration-induced nystagmus test in patients with unilateral vestibular lesions and enables a stronger stimulation of the healthy side. In clinical practice

  17. Fatigue failure in metal bellows due to flow-induced vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, C. M.; Fargo, C. G.

    1969-01-01

    To prevent fatigue due to flow-induced vibrations in metal bellows connected to ducts carrying liquid hydrogen, a study was made which shows that the flexure lines are in general a function of the vibration coupling between the fluid and bellows structure, and the nature of the external environment.

  18. Harbor Seal Vibrissa Morphology Reduces Vortex-Induced Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beem, Heather; Dahl, Jason; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Studies show that harbor seals are adept at tracking small movements in the water, such as those left in the wake of fish, by using their highly sensitive whiskers to detect fluid structures, even without auditory or visual cues. The present work investigates the intriguing claim that the unique morphology of the harbor seal whisker suppresses Vortex Induced Vibrations (VIV). This implies that the geometry is specialized to reduce the background noise caused by the whisker's own wake in the detection of the upstream target. Forces on a rigid whisker model (scale: 50x) being towed steadily down a water tank while experiencing imposed oscillations are measured. A range of frequencies and amplitudes are tested, the hydrodynamic lift coefficient in phase with velocity (CL,v) is calculated for each, and values are combined in a contour plot. The region of positive CL,v peaks at an amplitude ratio of 0.1, indicating that the whisker's undulatory, asymmetric structure considerably reduces (but does not entirely suppress) regions where the structure experiences VIV in comparison with a standard cylinder, whose peak reaches an amplitude ratio of 0.8.

  19. Light-induced basilar membrane vibrations in the sensitive cochlea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosh, Karl; Ren, Tianying; He, Wenxuan; Fridberger, Anders; Li, Yizeng; Nankali, Amir

    2015-12-01

    The exceptional sensitivity of mammalian hearing organ is attributed to an outer hair cell-mediated active process, where forces produced by sensory cells boost sound-induced vibrations, making soft sounds audible. This process is thought to be local, with each section of the hearing organ capable of amplifying sound-evoked movement, and nearly instantaneous, since amplification can work for sounds at frequencies up to 100 kHz in some species. To test these precepts, we developed a method for focally stimulating the living hearing organ with light. Light pulses caused intense and highly damped mechanical responses followed by traveling waves that developed with considerable delay. The delayed response was identical to movements evoked by click-like sounds. A physiologically based mathematical model shows that such waves engage the active process, enhancing hearing sensitivity. The experiments and the theoretical analysis show that the active process is neither local nor instantaneous, but requires mechanical waves traveling from the cochlear base toward its apex.

  20. Suppressing molecular vibrations in organic semiconductors by inducing strain

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Takayoshi; Häusermann, Roger; Tsurumi, Junto; Soeda, Junshi; Okada, Yugo; Yamashita, Yu; Akamatsu, Norihisa; Shishido, Atsushi; Mitsui, Chikahiko; Okamoto, Toshihiro; Yanagisawa, Susumu; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Takeya, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Organic molecular semiconductors are solution processable, enabling the growth of large-area single-crystal semiconductors. Improving the performance of organic semiconductor devices by increasing the charge mobility is an ongoing quest, which calls for novel molecular and material design, and improved processing conditions. Here we show a method to increase the charge mobility in organic single-crystal field-effect transistors, by taking advantage of the inherent softness of organic semiconductors. We compress the crystal lattice uniaxially by bending the flexible devices, leading to an improved charge transport. The mobility increases from 9.7 to 16.5 cm2 V−1 s−1 by 70% under 3% strain. In-depth analysis indicates that compressing the crystal structure directly restricts the vibration of the molecules, thus suppresses dynamic disorder, a unique mechanism in organic semiconductors. Since strain can be easily induced during the fabrication process, we expect our method to be exploited to build high-performance organic devices. PMID:27040501

  1. Tangential acceleration feedback control of friction induced vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Jyayasi; Chatterjee, S.

    2016-09-01

    Tangential control action is studied on a phenomenological mass-on-belt model exhibiting friction-induced self-excited vibration attributed to the low-velocity drooping characteristics of friction which is also known as Stribeck effect. The friction phenomenon is modelled by the exponential model. Linear stability analysis is carried out near the equilibrium point and local stability boundary is delineated in the plane of control parameters. The system is observed to undergo a Hopf bifurcation as the eigenvalues determined from the linear stability analysis are found to cross the imaginary axis transversally from RHS s-plane to LHS s-plane or vice-versa as one varies the control parameters, namely non-dimensional belt velocity and the control gain. A nonlinear stability analysis by the method of Averaging reveals the subcritical nature of the Hopf bifurcation. Thus, a global stability boundary is constructed so that any choice of control parameters from the globally stable region leads to a stable equilibrium. Numerical simulations in a MATLAB SIMULINK model and bifurcation diagrams obtained in AUTO validate these analytically obtained results. Pole crossover design is implemented to optimize the filter parameters with an independent choice of belt velocity and control gain. The efficacy of this optimization (based on numerical results) in the delicate low velocity region is also enclosed.

  2. Regimes of flow induced vibration for tandem, tethered cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, Gary; Stremler, Mark

    2015-11-01

    In the wake of a bluff body, there are a number of dynamic response regimes that exist for a trailing bluff body depending on spacing, structural restoring forces, and the mass-damping parameter m* ζ . For tandem cylinders with low values of m* ζ , two such regimes of motion are Gap Flow Switching and Wake Induced Vibration. In this study, we consider the dynamics of a single degree-of-freedom rigid cylinder in the wake of another in these regimes for a variety of center-to-center cylinder spacings (3-5 diameters) and Reynolds numbers (4,000-11,000). The system consists of a trailing cylinder constrained to a circular arc around a fixed leading cylinder, which, for small angle displacements, bears a close resemblance to the transversely oscillating cylinders found more commonly in existing literature. From experiments on this system, we compare and contrast the dynamic response within these two regimes. Our results show sustained oscillations in the absence of a structural restoring force in all cases, providing experimental support for the wake stiffness assumption, which is based on the mean lift toward the center line of flow.

  3. Suppressing molecular vibrations in organic semiconductors by inducing strain.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Takayoshi; Häusermann, Roger; Tsurumi, Junto; Soeda, Junshi; Okada, Yugo; Yamashita, Yu; Akamatsu, Norihisa; Shishido, Atsushi; Mitsui, Chikahiko; Okamoto, Toshihiro; Yanagisawa, Susumu; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Takeya, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Organic molecular semiconductors are solution processable, enabling the growth of large-area single-crystal semiconductors. Improving the performance of organic semiconductor devices by increasing the charge mobility is an ongoing quest, which calls for novel molecular and material design, and improved processing conditions. Here we show a method to increase the charge mobility in organic single-crystal field-effect transistors, by taking advantage of the inherent softness of organic semiconductors. We compress the crystal lattice uniaxially by bending the flexible devices, leading to an improved charge transport. The mobility increases from 9.7 to 16.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) by 70% under 3% strain. In-depth analysis indicates that compressing the crystal structure directly restricts the vibration of the molecules, thus suppresses dynamic disorder, a unique mechanism in organic semiconductors. Since strain can be easily induced during the fabrication process, we expect our method to be exploited to build high-performance organic devices.

  4. Achilles tendon vibration-induced changes in plantar flexor corticospinal excitability.

    PubMed

    Lapole, Thomas; Temesi, John; Gimenez, Philippe; Arnal, Pierrick J; Millet, Guillaume Y; Petitjean, Michel

    2015-02-01

    Daily Achilles tendon vibration has been shown to increase muscle force, likely via corticospinal neural adaptations. The aim of the present study was to determine the extent by which corticospinal excitability is influenced during direct Achilles tendon vibration. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were elicited in the soleus (SOL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and tibialis anterior (TA) by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortical area of the leg with and without Achilles tendon vibration at various frequencies (50, 80 and 110 Hz). Contralateral homologues were also investigated. SOL and GM MEP amplitude significantly increased by 226 ± 188 and 66 ± 39%, respectively, during Achilles tendon vibration, without any difference between the tested frequencies. No MEP changes were reported for TA or contralateral homologues. Increased SOL and GM MEP amplitude suggests increased vibration-induced corticospinal excitability independent of vibration frequency.

  5. Interactions among friction, wear, and system stiffness. Part 2. Vibrations induced by dry friction

    SciTech Connect

    Aronov, V.; D'Souza, A.F.; Kalpakjian, S.; Shareef, I.

    1983-01-01

    Different types of vibrations induced by dry friction are investigated by means of a model apparatus described in Part 1. The structural model is obtained from the measurement of the modal frequencies and damping ratios of three degrees of freedom. The oscillations in the normal and frictional forces, as well as the slider vibrations, have been measured and analyzed. As the normal load is increased, four different regions of vibrations are observed corresponding to the four friction regimes discussed in a companion paper. Small oscillations are encountered at low values of the normal load and they are possibly caused by random surface irregularities. The vibration characteristics are changed when transition occurs from steady state friction. When the normal load is further increased, self-excited periodic vibrations are produced. The spectra of the oscillations are related to the modal frequencies. Self-excited vibrations are analyzed on the basis of the experimental data. 12 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  6. The use of scalp cooling for chemotherapy-induced hair loss.

    PubMed

    Young, Annie; Arif, Azra

    Chemotherapy-induced hair loss is a common and distressing side effect of cancer therapy and is one of the major unmet challenges in cancer management. Scalp cooling can prevent chemotherapy-induced hair loss in some cancer patients with solid tumours receiving certain chemotherapy regimens. Recent evidence indicates that this technique does not increase the risk of scalp metastasis. A reduction in post-chemotherapy infusion duration of scalp cooling and the advancement in cool cap technology may assist clinicians in promoting scalp cooling to cancer patients. This article discusses recent research, scalp cooling guidelines, products available and implications for nurses and their organisations in providing scalp cooling. It also considers recent advancements in identifying genes associated with chemotherapy-induced hair loss and international research collaborations including a registry and a 'chemotherapy-induced hair loss action group'--all striving to improve the patient experience of chemotherapy-induced hair loss.

  7. Study on thermally induced vibration of flexible boom in various thermal environments of vacuum chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Changduk; Oh, Kyung-Won; Park, Hyun-Bum; Sugiyama, Y.

    2005-02-01

    In order to simulate the thermally-induced vibration phenomenon of the flexible thin boom structure of the spacecraft such as the thin solar panel and the flexible cantilever with the attached tip mass in space, the thermally-induced vibration including thermal flutter of the flexible thin boom with the concentrated tip mass was experimentally investigated at various thermal environments using a heat lamp and both vacuum and air condition using the vacuum chamber. In this experimental study, divergence speed, natural frequency and thermal strains of the thermally-induced vibration were comparatively evaluated at various thermal environment conditions. Finally the thermally-induced vibration of the flexible boom structure of the earth orbit satellite in solar radiation environment from the earth eclipse region including umbra and penumbra was simulated using the vacuum chamber and power control of the heating lamp.

  8. The meninges contribute to the conditioned taste avoidance induced by neural cooling in male rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Chambers, Kathleen C

    2002-08-21

    After consumption of a novel sucrose solution, temporary cooling of neural areas that mediate conditioned taste avoidance can itself induce conditioned avoidance to the sucrose. It has been suggested that this effect is either a result of inactivation of neurons in these areas or of cooling the meninges. In a series of studies, we demonstrated that cooling the outer layer of the meninges, the dura mater, does not contribute to the conditioned taste avoidance induced by cooling any of these areas. The present experiments were designed to determine whether the inner layers of the meninges are involved. If they are involved, then one would expect that cooling locations in the brain that do not mediate conditioned taste avoidance, such as the caudate putamen (CP), would induce conditioned taste avoidance as long as the meninges were cooled as well. One also would expect that cooling neural tissue without cooling the meninges would reduce the strength of the conditioned taste avoidance. Experiment 1 established that the temperature of the neural tissue and meninges around the cold probes implanted in the CP were cooled to temperatures that have been shown to block synaptic transmission. Experiment 2 demonstrated that cooling the caudate putamen and overlying cortex and meninges induced conditioned taste avoidance. In experiment 3, a circle of meninges was cut away so that the caudate putamen and overlying cortex could be cooled without cooling the meninges. The strength of the conditioned taste avoidance was substantially reduced, but it was not entirely eliminated. These data support the hypothesis that cooling the meninges contributes to the conditioned taste avoidance induced by neural cooling. They also allow the possibility that neural inactivation produces physiological changes that can induce conditioned taste avoidance.

  9. Acoustically-coupled flow-induced vibration of a computational vocal fold model

    PubMed Central

    Daily, David Jesse; Thomson, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    The flow-induced vibration of synthetic vocal fold models has been previously observed to be acoustically-coupled with upstream flow supply tubes. This phenomenon was investigated using a finite element model that included flow–structure–acoustic interactions. The length of the upstream duct was varied to explore the coupling between model vibration and subglottal acoustics. Incompressible and slightly compressible flow models were tested. The slightly compressible model exhibited acoustic coupling between fluid and solid domains in a manner consistent with experimental observations, whereas the incompressible model did not, showing the slightly compressible approach to be suitable for simulating acoustically-coupled vocal fold model flow-induced vibration. PMID:23585700

  10. Isomer selective infrared spectroscopy of supersonically cooled cis- and trans-N-phenylamides in the region from the amide band to NH stretching vibration.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Mitsuhiko; Saikawa, Jiro; Ishizuki, Hideki; Taira, Takunori; Fujii, Masaaki

    2009-08-01

    We measured the infrared (IR) spectra of supersonically cooled N-phenylformamide (formanilide) and N-phenylacetamide (acetanilide) in the amide band and X-H stretch vibration regions by using IR-UV depletion spectroscopy combined with a newly developed mid-IR light source based on difference frequency generation in ZnGeP(2). The two rotational isomers, cis- and trans- of the amide group were separately monitored to record the IR spectra. Both of the conformers showed similar features in the amide I and II regions, while major differences of the isomers appeared in the amide III vibration region. The IR spectrum of trans-acetanilide closely resembles that of trans-formanilide, except for vibrations of the methyl group; that is, substitution of the formyl hydrogen to a methyl group has only a minor effect on the amide vibrations. PMID:19606319

  11. Fretting wear behaviors of a dual-cooled nuclear fuel rod under a simulated rod vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Kyu; Kang, Heung-Seok; Yoon, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Kang-Hee

    2012-06-06

    Recently, a dual-cooled fuel (i.e., annular fuel) that is compatible with current operating PWR plants has been proposed in order to realize both a considerable amount of power uprating and an increase of safety margins. As the design concept should be compatible with current operating PWR plants, however, it shows a narrow gap between the fuel rods when compared with current solid nuclear fuel arrays and needs to modify the spacer grid shapes and their positions. In this study, fretting wear tests have been performed to evaluate the wear resistance of a dual-cooled fuel by using a proposed spring and dimple of spacer grids that have a cantilever type and hemispherical shape, respectively. As a result, the wear volume of the spring specimen gradually increases as the contact condition is changed from a certain gap, just contact to positive force. However, in the dimple specimen, just contact condition shows a large wear volume. In addition, a circular rod motion at upper region of contact surface is gradually increased and its diametric size depends on the wear depth increase. Based on the test results, the fretting wear resistance of the proposed spring and dimple is analyzed by comparing the wear measurement results and rod motion in detail.

  12. Fretting wear behaviors of a dual-cooled nuclear fuel rod under a simulated rod vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Kyu; Kang, Heung-Seok; Yoon, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Kang-Hee

    2012-06-01

    Recently, a dual-cooled fuel (i.e., annular fuel) that is compatible with current operating PWR plants has been proposed in order to realize both a considerable amount of power uprating and an increase of safety margins. As the design concept should be compatible with current operating PWR plants, however, it shows a narrow gap between the fuel rods when compared with current solid nuclear fuel arrays and needs to modify the spacer grid shapes and their positions. In this study, fretting wear tests have been performed to evaluate the wear resistance of a dual-cooled fuel by using a proposed spring and dimple of spacer grids that have a cantilever type and hemispherical shape, respectively. As a result, the wear volume of the spring specimen gradually increases as the contact condition is changed from a certain gap, just contact to positive force. However, in the dimple specimen, just contact condition shows a large wear volume. In addition, a circular rod motion at upper region of contact surface is gradually increased and its diametric size depends on the wear depth increase. Based on the test results, the fretting wear resistance of the proposed spring and dimple is analyzed by comparing the wear measurement results and rod motion in detail.

  13. Analysis of the flow-induced vibrations of viscoelastically supported rectangular plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Junhong; Siegmund, Thomas; Mongeau, Luc

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model for the flow-induced vibration of viscoelastically supported rectangular plates. In particular, the influence of the dynamic mechanical properties of the elements supporting the plate was investigated. The case of a homogeneous rectangular plate supported along all four edges by a complex viscoelastic element was treated. The Rayleigh-Ritz method was used applying beam functions as the trial functions. This approach ensured a fast convergence rate, which is advantageous for vibration analysis of high order modes. The flow-induced vibration of the plate was calculated using the Corcos model for the surface pressure loading. The results suggest that there is an optimal support stiffness that minimizes the flow-induced vibration response of the plate.

  14. Exposure-response relationship for vibration-induced white finger among forestry workers.

    PubMed

    Bovenzi, M; Franzinelli, A; Mancini, R; Cannava, M G; Maiorano, M; Ceccarelli, F

    1996-02-01

    The relation between the occurrence of white finger and vibration exposure was investigated in a group of 222 forestry workers using chain saws. The forestry workers and 195 controls never exposed to hand-transmitted vibration were interviewed by occupational health physicians. The diagnosis of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) was made on the basis of subjective symptoms of finger blanching and the results of a cold test with plethysmographic measurement of finger systolic blood pressure. Vibration was measured on a representative sample of AV and non-AV chain saws. Daily vibration exposure was assessed in terms of 8 h energy-equivalent frequency-weighted acceleration [A(8)]. A lifetime vibration dose was estimated for each of the forestry workers. The overall prevalence of VWF among the forestry workers was 23.4%. Raynaud's phenomenon was discovered in 2.6% of the controls. In the forestry workers, the risk of VWF showed positive increments with each increment of vibration dose, suggesting a monotonic dose-response relationship. The responsiveness to cold in the digital arteries of the forestry workers was also found to increase with increasing vibration dose. The estimated relation between VWF and vibration exposure showed that the expected occurrence of VWF increased in approximately linear proportion to either A(8) (with exposure duration unchanged) or the number of years of exposure (with equivalent acceleration unchanged). In this study of VWF among forestry workers the estimated exposure-response relation showed that if the magnitude of vibration acceleration is doubled, the total duration of exposure should be halved to produce an equivalent effect. On the basis of the assessment of vibration exposure, the estimated risk for VWF in the study population was found to be lower than that predicted by the International Standard ISO 5349. The results of this study tend to support the vibration exposure levels currently under discussion within the European

  15. Physics behind vortex-induced vibration reduction using an oblique trailing edge hydrofoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobeiri, Amirreza; Avellan, Francois; Farhat, Mohamed

    2010-11-01

    The issue of vortex-induced vibration based on the phenomenon of vortex shedding behind a bluff body is a major problem in hydraulic machinery. Resulting fluctuating forces may lead to excessive vibrations and premature cracks. It is well known that a hydrofoil with an oblique trailing edge reduces vibration as compared to that with a blunt trailing edge. However physics behind this is not fully understood. The purpose of the present work is to conduct an experimental investigation of vortex shedding dynamics in the wake of an oblique trailing edge hydrofoil to understand the phenomena and the reasons for vibration reduction. This could help optimize the trailing edge shape and diminish the induced vibration. A velocity survey in the hydrofoil wake is performed via Laser-Doppler and Particle Image velocimetry using the Proper-Orthogonal-Decomposition technique for post-processing. In addition, flow induced vibration measurements and high speed visualization are performed. The high-speed videos clearly demonstrate alternate shedding of the vortices transforming into nearly simultaneous shedding at the hydrofoil trailing edge. As a result, partial cancellation is observed for upper and lower vortices, accompanied by the thickening of the lower vortex core that is believed to be the primary reason of the vibration reduction.

  16. Whole-body vibration-induced muscular reflex: Is it a stretch-induced reflex?

    PubMed Central

    Cakar, Halil Ibrahim; Cidem, Muharrem; Sebik, Oguz; Yilmaz, Gizem; Karamehmetoglu, Safak Sahir; Kara, Sadik; Karacan, Ilhan; Türker, Kemal Sıtkı

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Whole-body vibration (WBV) can induce reflex responses in muscles. A number of studies have reported that the physiological mechanisms underlying this type of reflex activity can be explained by reference to a stretch-induced reflex. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to test whether the WBV-induced muscular reflex (WBV-IMR) can be explained as a stretch-induced reflex. [Subjects and Methods] The present study assessed 20 healthy males using surface electrodes placed on their right soleus muscle. The latency of the tendon reflex (T-reflex) as a stretch-induced reflex was compared with the reflex latency of the WBV-IMR. In addition, simulations were performed at 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 Hz to determine the stretch frequency of the muscle during WBV. [Results] WBV-IMR latency (40.5 ± 0.8 ms; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 39.0–41.9 ms) was significantly longer than T-reflex latency (34.6 ± 0.5 ms; 95% CI: 33.6–35.5 ms) and the mean difference was 6.2 ms (95% CI of the difference: 4.7–7.7 ms). The simulations performed in the present study demonstrated that the frequency of the stretch signal would be twice the frequency of the vibration. [Conclusion] These findings do not support the notion that WBV-IMR can be explained by reference to a stretch-induced reflex. PMID:26310784

  17. Vibration-induced changes in EMG during human locomotion.

    PubMed

    Verschueren, Sabine M P; Swinnen, Stephan P; Desloovere, Kaat; Duysens, Jacques

    2003-03-01

    The present study was set up to examine the contribution of Ia afferent input in the generation of electromyographic (EMG) activity. Subjects walked blindfolded along a walkway while tendon vibration was applied continuously to a leg muscle. The effects of vibration were measured on mean EMG activity in stance and swing phase. The results show that vibration of the quadriceps femoris (Q) at the knee and of biceps femoris (BF) at the knee enhanced the EMG activity of these muscles and this occurred mainly in the stance phase of walking. These results suggest involvement of Ia afferent input of Q and BF in EMG activation during stance. In contrast, vibration of muscles at the ankle and hip had no significant effect on burst amplitude. Additionally, the onset time of tibialis anterior was measured to look at timing of phase transitions. Only vibration of quadriceps femoris resulted in an earlier onset of tibialis anterior within the gait cycle, suggesting involvement of these Ia afferents in the triggering of phase transitions. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest involvement of Ia afferent input in the control of muscle activity during locomotion in humans. A limited role in timing of phase transitions is proposed as well. PMID:12626612

  18. State-to-state vibrational kinetics of H2 and H_2^+ in a post-shock cooling gas with primordial composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, C. M.; Mizzi, G.; Bruno, D.; Esposito, F.; Galli, D.; Palla, F.; Longo, S.

    2016-04-01

    The radiative cooling of shocked gas with primordial chemical composition is an important process relevant to the formation of the first stars and structures, as well as taking place also in high-velocity cloud collisions and supernovae explosions. Among the different processes that need to be considered, the formation kinetics and cooling of molecular hydrogen are of prime interest, since they provide the only way to lower the gas temperature to values well below ˜104 K. In previous works, the internal energy level structure of H2 and its cation has been treated in the approximation of ro-vibrational ground state at low densities, or trying to describe the dynamics using some arbitrary v > 0 H2 level that is considered representative of the excited vibrational manifold. In this study, we compute the vibrationally resolved kinetics for the time-dependent chemical and thermal evolution of the post-shock gas in a medium of primordial composition. The calculated non-equilibrium distributions are used to evaluate effects on the cooling function of the gas and on the cooling time. Finally, we discuss the dependence of the results to different initial values of the shock velocity and redshift.

  19. Noise-Induced Building Vibrations Caused by Concorde and Conventional Aircraft Operations at Dulles and Kennedy International Airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayes, W. H.; Stephens, D. G.; Holmes, H. K.; Lewis, R. B.; Holliday, B. G.; Ward, D. W.; Deloach, R.; Cawthorn, J. M.; Finley, T. D.; Lynch, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor noise levels resulting from aircraft flyovers and certain nonaircraft events were recorded, as were the associated vibration levels in the walls, windows, and floors at building test sites. In addition, limited subjective tests were conducted to examine the human detection and annoyance thresholds for building vibration and rattle caused by aircraft noise. Representative peak levels of aircraft noise-induced building vibrations are reported and comparisons are made with structural damage criteria and with vibration levels induced by common domestic events. In addition, results of a pilot study are reported which indicate the human detection threshold for noise-induced floor vibrations.

  20. Experimental investigations on flow induced vibration of an externally excited flexible plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, Ashish; Darpe, Ashish K.; Singh, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    Flow-induced vibration of a harmonically actuated flexible plate in the wake of an upstream bluff body is experimentally investigated. The experiments are performed in an open-ended wind tunnel. A flexible plate trailing a bluff body is under fluid induced excitation due to the flowing fluid. The additional external excitation to the trailing plate is applied using an electro-magnetic exciter. The frequency and amplitude of the external harmonic excitation are selected as variable parameters in the experiments and their effect on the plate vibration and is investigated. To know the nature of acoustic pressure wave generated from the vibrating system, near-field acoustic pressure is also measured. A laser vibrometer, a pressure microphone and a high-speed camera are employed to measure the plate vibration, pressure signal, and instantaneous images of the plate motion respectively. The results obtained indicate that the dynamics of the plate is influenced by both the flow-induced excitation and external harmonic excitation. When frequency of the two excitations is close enough, a large vibration level and a high tonal sound pressure are observed. At higher amplitude of external excitation, the frequency component corresponding to the flow-induced excitation is found to reduce significantly in the frequency spectrum of the vibration signal. It is observed that, for certain range of excitation frequency, the plate vibration first reduces, reaches a minimum value and then increases with increase in the level of external excitation. A fair qualitative agreement of the experimental results with numerical simulation result of the past study has been noted. In addition to the experiments, the role of phase difference between the flow-induced excitation generated from the front obstacle and externally applied harmonic excitation is investigated through numerical simulations. The result obtained reveals that the final steady state vibration of the coupled system is

  1. Field measurements and analyses of environmental vibrations induced by high-speed Maglev.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Zhi-Lu; Chen, Suwen; Xu, You-Lin

    2016-10-15

    Maglev, offers competitive journey-times compared to the railway and subway systems in markets for which distance between the stations is 100-1600km owing to its high acceleration and speed; however, such systems may have excessive vibration. Field measurements of Maglev train-induced vibrations were therefore performed on the world's first commercial Maglev line in Shanghai, China. Seven test sections along the line were selected according to the operating conditions, covering speeds from 150 to 430km/h. Acceleration responses of bridge pier and nearby ground were measured in three directions and analyzed in both the time and frequency domain. The effects of Maglev train speed on vibrations of the bridge pier and ground were studied in terms of their peak accelerations. Attenuation of ground vibration was investigated up to 30m from the track centerline. Effects of guideway configuration were also analyzed based on the measurements through two different test sections with same train speed of 300km/h. The results showed that peak accelerations exhibited a strong correlation with both train speed and distance off the track. Guideway configuration had a significant effect on transverse vibration, but a weak impact on vertical and longitudinal vibrations of both bridge pier and ground. Statistics indicated that, contrary to the commonly accepted theory and experience, vertical vibration is not always dominant: transverse and longitudinal vibrations should also be considered, particularly near turns in the track. Moreover, measurements of ground vibration induced by traditional high-speed railway train were carried out with the same testing devices in Bengbu in the Anhui Province. Results showed that the Maglev train generates significantly different vibration signatures as compared to the traditional high-speed train. The results obtained from this paper can provide good insights on the impact of Maglev system on the urban environment and the quality of human life

  2. Active Control of Panel Vibrations Induced by a Boundary Layer Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Pao-Liu

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, active and passive control of sound and vibration in aeroelastic structures have received a great deal of attention due to many potential applications to aerospace and other industries. There exists a great deal of research work done in this area. Recent advances in the control of sound and vibration can be found in the several conference proceedings. In this report we will summarize our research findings supported by the NASA grant NAG-1-1175. The problems of active and passive control of sound and vibration has been investigated by many researchers for a number of years. However, few of the articles are concerned with the sound and vibration with flow-structure interaction. Experimental and numerical studies on the coupling between panel vibration and acoustic radiation due to flow excitation have been done by Maestrello and his associates at NASA/Langley Research Center. Since the coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations is formidable, an analytical solution to the full problem seems impossible. For this reason, we have to simplify the problem to that of the nonlinear panel vibration induced by a uniform flow or a boundary-layer flow with a given wall pressure distribution. Based on this simplified model, we have been able to study the control and stabilization of the nonlinear panel vibration, which have not been treated satisfactorily by other authors. The vibration suppression will clearly reduce the sound radiation power from the panel. The major research findings will be presented in the next three sections. In Section II we shall describe our results on the boundary control of nonlinear panel vibration, with or without flow excitation. Section III is concerned with active control of the vibration and sound radiation from a nonlinear elastic panel. A detailed description of our work on the parametric vibrational control of nonlinear elastic panel will be presented in Section IV. This paper will be submitted to the Journal

  3. Active control of panel vibrations induced by a boundary layer flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Pao-Liu

    1995-01-01

    The problems of active and passive control of sound and vibration has been investigated by many researchers for a number of years. However, few of the articles are concerned with the sound and vibration with flow-structure interaction. Experimental and numerical studies on the coupling between panel vibration and acoustic radiation due to flow excitation have been done by Maestrello and his associates at NASA/Langley Research Center. Since the coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations is formidable, an analytical solution to the full problem seems impossible. For this reason, we have to simplify the problem to that of the nonlinear panel vibration induced by a uniform flow or a boundary-layer flow with a given wall pressure distribution. Based on this simplified model, we have been able to consider the control and stabilization of the nonlinear panel vibration, which have not been treated satisfactorily by other authors. Although the sound radiation has not been included, the vibration suppression will clearly reduce the sound radiation power from the panel. The major research findings are presented in three sections. In section two we describe results on the boundary control of nonlinear panel vibration, with or without flow excitation. Sections three and four are concerned with some analytical and numerical results in the optimal control of the linear and nonlinear panel vibrations, respectively, excited by the flow pressure fluctuations. Finally, in section five, we draw some conclusions from research findings.

  4. Incorporating a disturbance observer with direct velocity feedback for control of human-induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyawako, Donald; Reynolds, Paul; Hudson, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Feedback control strategies are desirable for disturbance rejection of human-induced vibrations in civil engineering structures as human walking forces cannot easily be measured. In relation to human-induced vibration control studies, most past researches have focused on floors and footbridges and the widely used linear controller implemented in the trials has been the direct velocity feedback (DVF) scheme. With appropriate compensation to enhance its robustness, it has been shown to be effective at damping out the problematic modes of vibration of the structures in which the active vibration control systems have been implemented. The work presented here introduces a disturbance observer (DOB) that is used with an outer-loop DVF controller. Results of analytical studies presented in this work based on the dynamic properties of a walkway bridge structure demonstrate the potential of this approach for enhancing the vibration mitigation performance offered by a purely DVF controller. For example, estimates of controlled frequency response functions indicate improved attenuation of vibration around the dominant frequency of the walkway bridge structure as well as at higher resonant frequencies. Controlled responses from three synthesized walking excitation forces on a walkway bridge structure model show that the inclusion of the disturbance observer with an outer loop DVF has potential to improve on the vibration mitigation performance by about 3.5% at resonance and 6-10% off-resonance. These are realised with hard constraints being imposed on the low frequency actuator displacements.

  5. [Morphological structure of suprarenal glands in experimental vibration-induced pathology].

    PubMed

    Kapanadze, N A; Abzianidze, E N; Sumbadze, Ts M; Korkiia, I I; Amiranidze, M V

    2009-01-01

    Technical progress has caused development of vibration-induced pathology, which is determined by harmful factors or environmental effects. The harmful factors include physical factors--noise, mechanical vibrations, low temperature, high humidity of the air and incorrect lighting. The aim of our study was the investigation of morphological changes in suprarenal glands under condition of vibration-induced pathology. The experiment was conducted on 20 grown-up white male rats weighting 180-200 g. The animals were daily under an hour vibration during 2 months. The vibration frequency was modulated by means of a general vibration. After an experiment, animals were decapitated in condition of general anesthesia. The experiment revealed important changes in the morphological structure of suprarenal glands. The vibration pathology causes following changes: vessels' and sinusoid capillaries' uneven widening, develop the infiltrate cells, bleeding areas, necrosis and other changes. Based on above-stated it is supposed that technical progress and introduction of new technologies is one of the risk factors, which can cause neurohumoral disorders.

  6. Simulation of scalp cooling by external devices for prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Pliskow, Bradley; Mitra, Kunal; Kaya, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    Hypothermia of the scalp tissue during chemotherapy treatment (scalp cooling) has been shown to reduce or prevent chemotherapy-induced hair loss. In this study, numerical models are developed to investigate the interaction between different types of external scalp cooling devices and the human scalp tissue. This work focuses on improving methods of modeling scalp cooling devices as it relates specifically to the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia. First, the cooling power needed for any type of device to achieve therapeutic levels of scalp hypothermia is investigated. Subsequently, two types of scalp cooling devices are simulated: a pre-cooled/frozen cap design and a liquid-cooled cap design. For an average patient, simulations show that 38.5W of heat must be extracted from the scalp tissue for this therapy in order to cool the hair follicle to 22°C. In practice, the cooling power must be greater than this amount to account for thermal losses of the device. Simulations show that pre-cooled and liquid-cooled cap designs result in different tissue temperatures over the course of the procedure. However, it is the temperature of the coolant that largely determines the resulting tissue temperature. Simulations confirm that the thermal resistance of the hair/air layer has a large impact on the resulting tissue temperatures. The results should be correlated with experimental data as an effort to determine the optimal parameter choices for this model.

  7. Numerical Analysis of Flow-Induced Vibrations in Closed Side Branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KníŽat, Branislav; Troják, Michal

    2011-12-01

    Vibrations occuring in closed side branches connected to a main pipe are a frequent problem during pipeline system operation. At the design stage of pipeline systems, this problem is sometimes overlooked or underestimated which can later lead to the shortening of the systems life cycle or may even cause injury. The aim of this paper is a numerical analysis of the start of self-induced vibrations on the edge of a closed side branch. Calculation conditions and obtained results are presented within.

  8. Texture-induced vibrations in the forearm during tactile exploration

    PubMed Central

    Delhaye, Benoit; Hayward, Vincent; Lefèvre, Philippe; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    Humans can detect and discriminate between fine variations of surface roughness using active touch. It is hitherto believed that roughness perception is mediated mostly by cutaneous and subcutaneous afferents located in the fingertips. However, recent findings have shown that following abolishment of cutaneous afferences resulting from trauma or pharmacological intervention, the ability of subjects to discriminate between textures roughness was not significantly altered. These findings suggest that the somatosensory system is able to collect textural information from other sources than fingertip afference. It follows that signals resulting of the interaction of a finger with a rough surface must be transmitted to stimulate receptor populations in regions far away from the contact. This transmission was characterized by measuring in the wrist vibrations originating at the fingertip and thus propagating through the finger, the hand and the wrist during active exploration of textured surfaces. The spectral analysis of the vibrations taking place in the forearm tissues revealed regularities that were correlated with the scanned surface and the speed of exploration. In the case of periodic textures, the vibration signal contained a fundamental frequency component corresponding to the finger velocity divided by the spatial period of the stimulus. This regularity was found for a wide range of textural length scales and scanning velocities. For non-periodic textures, the spectrum of the vibration did not contain obvious features that would enable discrimination between the different stimuli. However, for both periodic and non-periodic stimuli, the intensity of the vibrations could be related to the microgeometry of the scanned surfaces. PMID:22783177

  9. Conformational analysis of quinine and its pseudo enantiomer quinidine: a combined jet-cooled spectroscopy and vibrational circular dichroism study.

    PubMed

    Sen, Ananya; Bouchet, Aude; Lepère, Valeria; Le Barbu-Debus, Katia; Scuderi, D; Piuzzi, F; Zehnacker-Rentien, A

    2012-08-16

    Laser-desorbed quinine and quinidine have been studied in the gas phase by combining supersonic expansion with laser spectroscopy, namely, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI), and IR-UV double resonance experiments. Density funtional theory (DFT) calculations have been done in conjunction with the experimental work. The first electronic transition of quinine and quinidine is of π-π* nature, and the studied molecules weakly fluoresce in the gas phase, in contrast to what was observed in solution (Qin, W. W.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. C2009, 113, 11790). The two pseudo enantiomers quinine and quinidine show limited differences in the gas phase; their main conformation is of open type as it is in solution. However, vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) experiments in solution show that additional conformers exist in condensed phase for quinidine, which are not observed for quinine. This difference in behavior between the two pseudo enantiomers is discussed.

  10. Investigations and results concerning railway-induced ground-borne vibrations in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degen, K. G.; Behr, W.; Grütz, H.-P.

    2006-06-01

    Besides noise reduction, ground-borne vibrations induced by railways are another important environmental issue associated with the construction of new or the reconstruction of existing railway lines that had to be tackled during the last decade. Annoyance can occur, particularly for lines in urban areas at small distances to neighbouring houses or lines in shallow depth tunnels under buildings. The ground-borne vibrations can be perceived by the inhabitants via the floor vibrations, as well as via the air-borne noise radiated inside the building by the vibrating building structures (secondary noise). At present, legal specifications for judging railway-induced ground-borne vibrations do not exist in Germany. In order to review common practices, an experimental psycho-physical laboratory study was performed. To estimate the annoyance of railway-induced vibrations, the mean vibration energy of a train pass-by seems much more significant and related to the annoyance than the commonly used RMS value according to the German standard DIN 4150-2. The minimum difference in vibration that can be felt by people was found at a signal difference of 25%. This paper will review results of a project performed in cooperation with the engineering office Obermeyer in Munich and the Technical University of Munich [A. Said, D. Fleischer, H. Kilcher, H. Fastl, H.-P. Grütz, Zur Bewertung von Erschütterungsimmissionen aus dem Schienenverkehr, Zeitschrift fuer Lärmbekämpfung, Vol. 48(6), Springer VDI Verlag, Düsseldorf, 2001.] and will link them to further demands on research and on development of suitable guiding principles and legislative regulations.

  11. Tyre induced vibrations of the car-trailer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beregi, S.; Takács, D.; Stépán, G.

    2016-02-01

    The lateral and yaw dynamics of the car-trailer combination are analysed by means of a single track model. The equations of motion are derived rigorously by means of the Appell-Gibbs equations for constant longitudinal velocity of the vehicle. The tyres are described with the help of the so-called delayed tyre model, which is based on a brush model with pure rolling contact. The lateral forces and aligning torques of the tyre/road interaction are calculated via the instantaneous lateral deformations in the contact patches. The linear stability analysis of the rectilinear motion is performed via the analytically determined characteristic function of the system. Stability charts are constructed with respect to the vehicle longitudinal velocity and the payload position on the trailer. Self-excited lateral vibrations are detected with different vibration modes at low and at high longitudinal speeds of the vehicle. The effects of the tyre parameters are also investigated.

  12. Energy harvesting by means of flow-induced vibrations on aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daochun; Wu, Yining; Da Ronch, Andrea; Xiang, Jinwu

    2016-10-01

    This paper reviews the design, implementation, and demonstration of energy harvesting devices that exploit flow-induced vibrations as the main source of energy. Starting with a presentation of various concepts of energy harvesters that are designed to benefit from a general class of flow-induced vibrations, specific attention is then given at those technologies that may offer, today or in the near future, a potential benefit to extend the operational capabilities and to monitor critical parameters of unmanned aerial vehicles. Various phenomena characterized by flow-induced vibrations are discussed, including limit cycle oscillations of plates and wing sections, vortex-induced and galloping oscillations of bluff bodies, vortex-induced vibrations of downstream structures, and atmospheric turbulence and gusts. It was found that linear or linearized modeling approaches are commonly employed to support the design phase of energy harvesters. As a result, highly nonlinear and coupled phenomena that characterize flow-induced vibrations are neglected in the design process. The Authors encourage a shift in the current design paradigm: considering coupled nonlinear phenomena, and adequate modeling tools to support their analysis, from a design limitation to a design opportunity. Special emphasis is placed on identifying designs and implementations applicable to aircraft configurations. Application fields of flow-induced vibrations-based energy harvesters are discussed including power supply for wireless sensor networks and simultaneous energy harvest and control. A large body of work on energy harvesters is included in this review journal. Whereas most of the references claim direct applications to unmanned aerial vehicles, it is apparent that, in most of the cases presented, the working principles and characteristics of the energy harvesters are incompatible with any aerospace applications. Finally, the challenges that hold back the integration of energy harvesting

  13. Investigation into piston-slap-induced vibration for engine condition simulation and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Z.; Chen, J.

    2005-04-01

    Piston slap is a common impact phenomenon existing in the reciprocating engine. It is also a major cause of the complex transient vibration response related to the impact excitation inside the engine. In order to correlate the piston-slap impact with the slap-induced vibration and consequently find out an effective approach for the engine dynamic behaviour simulation and working condition monitoring, an in-depth investigation from theoretical modelling to experimental verification is made in this paper. Firstly, the piston-slap phenomenon inside the reciprocating engine is briefly discussed from the viewpoint of engine mechanics. Based upon this, a nonlinear model is developed to simulate the slap-induced vibration response. Using numerical integration procedure, the slap-induced vibration response and its correlation with the inner-cylinder piston-slap impact are reasonably evaluated. Guided by the simulating results and, by introducing a fast wavelet-packet decomposition and reconstruction algorithm, a specially designed experiment is made to practically measure and extract the slap-induced impact message inside the 6190Z LC diesel engine. Comparison between the simulation and practically measured and reconstructed engine vibration signals verifies the effectiveness and practicality of this approach for more detailed academic research and engineering application.

  14. Concorde noise-induced building vibrations John F. Kennedy International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayes, W. H.; Deloach, R.; Stephens, D. G.; Cawthorn, J. M.; Holmes, H. K.; Lewis, R. B.; Holliday, B. G.; Ward, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    The outdoor and indoor noise levels resulting from aircraft flyovers and certain nonaircraft events were recorded at six home sites along with the associated vibration levels in the walls, windows, and floors of these test homes. Limited subjective tests conducted to examine the human detection and annoyance thresholds for building vibration and rattle caused by aircraft noise showed that both vibration and rattle were detected subjectively in several houses for some operations of both the Concorde and subsonic aircraft. Preliminary results indicate that the relationship between window vibration and aircraft noise is: (1) linear, with vibration levels being accurately predicted from OASPL levels measured near the window; (2) consistent from flyover to flyover for a given aircraft type under approach conditions; (3) no different for Concorde than for other conventional jet transports (in the case of window vibrations induced under approach power conditions); and (4) relatively high levels of window vibration measured during Concorde operations are due more to higher OASPL levels than to unique Concorde source characteristics.

  15. Reducing Operator-Induced Machine Vibration Using a Complex Pole/zero Prefilter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    INGRAM, G. A.; FRANCHEK, M. A.; CHIU, G. T.-C.

    2002-02-01

    A systematic prefilter design process for reducing operator-induced rigid body vibrations of rubber tire mounted machines is presented. The contribution of this work is the development of a systematic prefilter design process and interpretation of the results. The class of heavy equipment considered in this work are those machines having rigid body main frame vibrations dominated by linear dynamics. The reduction in machine vibrations is accomplished through the design of prefilters that reduce the machine resonant frequencies from the operator commands. The machine information required for the design process includes the bandwidth of the electro-hydraulic (E/H) valves and rigid body resonant frequencies of the machine mainframe. The prespecified performance in the design process is the desired attenuation of machine resonant frequencies which is related to the acceptable level of machine vibration. The design methodology has been applied to a telescopic boom lift to illustrate the procedure and the effectiveness of the design.

  16. Scale-model characterization of flow-induced vibrational response of FFTF reactor internals

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J. A.; Mahoney, J. J.

    1980-10-01

    Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed for flow-induced vibrational characteristics under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup as an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program. The Hydraulic Core Mockup was an 0.285 geometric scale model of the Fast Test Reactor internals designed to simulate prototype vibrational and hydraulic characteristics. Using water to simulate sodium coolant, vibrational characteristics were measured and determined for selected model components over the scaled flow range of 36 to 110%. Additionally, in-situ shaker tests were conducted on selected Hydraulic Core Mockup outlet plenum components to establish modal characteristics. Most components exhibited resonant response at all test flow rates; however, the measured dynamic response was neither abnormal nor anomalously flow-rate dependent, and the predicted prototype components' response were deemed acceptable.

  17. Experimental investigation of the flow-induced vibration of hydrofoils in cavitating flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoyu; Wu, Qin; Huang, Biao; Gao, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the correlation between fluid induced vibration and unsteady cavitation behaviours. Experimental results are presented for a modified NACA66 hydrofoil, which is fixed at α=8°. The high-speed camera is synchronized with a single point Laser Doppler Vibrometer to analyze the transient cavitating flow structures and the corresponding structural vibration characteristics. The results showed that, with the decreasing of the cavitation number, the cavitating flows in a water tunnel display several types of cavitation patterns, such as incipient cavitation, sheet cavitation and cloud cavitation. The cavity shedding frequency reduces with the decrease of the cavitation number. As for the cloud cavitation regime, the trend of the vibration velocity goes up with the growth of the attached cavity, accompanied with small amplitude fluctuations. Then the collapse and shedding of the large-scale cloud cavities leads to substantial increase of the vibration velocity fluctuations.

  18. Tactile perception of skin and skin cream by friction induced vibrations.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuyang; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-11-01

    Skin cream smooths, softens, and moistens skin by altering surface roughness and tribological properties of skin. Sliding generates vibrations that activate mechanoreceptors located in skin. The brain interprets tactile information to identify skin feel. Understanding the tactile sensing mechanisms of skin with and without cream treatment is important to numerous applications including cosmetics, textiles, and robotics sensors. In this study, frequency spectra of friction force and friction induced vibration signals were carried out to investigate tactile perception by an artificial finger sliding on skin. The influence of normal load, velocity, and cream treatment time were studied. Coherence between friction force and vibration signals were found. The amplitude of vibration decreased after cream treatment, leading to smoother perception. Increasing normal load or velocity between contacting surfaces generated a smoother perception with cream treatment, but rougher perception without treatment. As cream treatment time increases, skin becomes smoother. The related mechanisms are discussed.

  19. Tactile perception of skin and skin cream by friction induced vibrations.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuyang; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-11-01

    Skin cream smooths, softens, and moistens skin by altering surface roughness and tribological properties of skin. Sliding generates vibrations that activate mechanoreceptors located in skin. The brain interprets tactile information to identify skin feel. Understanding the tactile sensing mechanisms of skin with and without cream treatment is important to numerous applications including cosmetics, textiles, and robotics sensors. In this study, frequency spectra of friction force and friction induced vibration signals were carried out to investigate tactile perception by an artificial finger sliding on skin. The influence of normal load, velocity, and cream treatment time were studied. Coherence between friction force and vibration signals were found. The amplitude of vibration decreased after cream treatment, leading to smoother perception. Increasing normal load or velocity between contacting surfaces generated a smoother perception with cream treatment, but rougher perception without treatment. As cream treatment time increases, skin becomes smoother. The related mechanisms are discussed. PMID:27474814

  20. Whole-body vibration induces pain and lumbar spinal inflammation responses in the rat that vary with the vibration profile.

    PubMed

    Zeeman, Martha E; Kartha, Sonia; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2016-08-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is linked epidemiologically to neck and back pain in humans, and to forepaw mechanical allodynia and cervical neuroinflammation in a rodent model of WBV, but the response of the low back and lumbar spine to WBV is unknown. A rat model of WBV was used to determine the effect of different WBV exposures on hind paw behavioral sensitivity and neuroinflammation in the lumbar spinal cord. Rats were exposed to 30 min of WBV at either 8 or 15 Hz on days 0 and 7, with the lumbar spinal cord assayed using immunohistochemistry at day 14. Behavioral sensitivity was measured using mechanical stimulation of the hind paws to determine the onset, persistence, and/or recovery of allodynia. Both WBV exposures induce mechanical allodynia 1 day following WBV, but only the 8 Hz WBV induces a sustained decrease in the withdrawal threshold through day 14. Similarly, increased activation of microglia, macrophages, and astrocytes in the superficial dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord is only evident after the painful 8 Hz WBV. Moreover, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-phosphorylation is most robust in neurons and astrocytes of the dorsal horn, with the most ERK phosphorylation occurring in the 8 Hz group. These findings indicate that a WBV exposure that induces persistent pain also induces a host of neuroimmune cellular activation responses that are also sustained. This work indicates there is an injury-dependent response that is based on the vibration parameters, providing a potentially useful platform for studying mechanisms of painful spinal injuries. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1439-1446, 2016.

  1. Whole-body vibration induces pain and lumbar spinal inflammation responses in the rat that vary with the vibration profile.

    PubMed

    Zeeman, Martha E; Kartha, Sonia; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2016-08-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is linked epidemiologically to neck and back pain in humans, and to forepaw mechanical allodynia and cervical neuroinflammation in a rodent model of WBV, but the response of the low back and lumbar spine to WBV is unknown. A rat model of WBV was used to determine the effect of different WBV exposures on hind paw behavioral sensitivity and neuroinflammation in the lumbar spinal cord. Rats were exposed to 30 min of WBV at either 8 or 15 Hz on days 0 and 7, with the lumbar spinal cord assayed using immunohistochemistry at day 14. Behavioral sensitivity was measured using mechanical stimulation of the hind paws to determine the onset, persistence, and/or recovery of allodynia. Both WBV exposures induce mechanical allodynia 1 day following WBV, but only the 8 Hz WBV induces a sustained decrease in the withdrawal threshold through day 14. Similarly, increased activation of microglia, macrophages, and astrocytes in the superficial dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord is only evident after the painful 8 Hz WBV. Moreover, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-phosphorylation is most robust in neurons and astrocytes of the dorsal horn, with the most ERK phosphorylation occurring in the 8 Hz group. These findings indicate that a WBV exposure that induces persistent pain also induces a host of neuroimmune cellular activation responses that are also sustained. This work indicates there is an injury-dependent response that is based on the vibration parameters, providing a potentially useful platform for studying mechanisms of painful spinal injuries. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1439-1446, 2016. PMID:27571442

  2. Laser-induced fluorescence, dispersed fluorescence and lifetime measurements of jet-cooled chloro-substituted benzyl radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamatani, Satoshi; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Kawai, Akio; Shibuya, Kazuhiko

    2002-07-01

    We measured the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and dispersed fluorescence (DF) spectra of jet-cooled α-, o- and m-chlorobenzyl radicals after they were generated by the 193 nm photolysis of the corresponding parent molecules. The vibronically resolved spectra were obtained to analyze their D1-D0 transitions. The fluorescence lifetimes of α-, o-, m- and p-chlorobenzyls in the zeroth vibrational levels of the D1 states were measured to estimate the oscillator strengths of a series of benzyl derivatives. It was found that the α-substitution is inefficient to break the `accidental forbiddenness' of the D1-D0 transition of benzyl, while the ring-substitution enhances the oscillator strength by 50%.

  3. Measurement of ground and nearby building vibration and noise induced by trains in a metro depot.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chao; Wang, Yimin; Wang, Peng; Guo, Jixing

    2015-12-01

    Metro depots are where subway trains are parked and where maintenance is carried out. They usually occupy the largest ground areas in metro projects. Due to land utilization problems, Chinese cities have begun to develop over-track buildings above metro depots for people's life and work. The frequently moving trains, when going into and out of metro depots, can cause excessive vibration and noise to over-track buildings and adversely affect the living quality of the building occupants. Considering the current need of reliable experimental data for the construction of metro depots, field measurements of vibration and noise on the ground and inside a nearby 3-story building subjected to moving subway trains were conducted in a metro depot at Guangzhou, China. The amplitudes and frequency contents of velocity levels were quantified and compared. The composite A-weighted equivalent sound levels and maximum sound levels were captured. The predicted models for vibration and noise of metro depot were proposed based on existing models and verified. It was found that the vertical vibrations were significantly greater than the horizontal vibrations on the ground and inside the building near the testing line. While at the throat area, the horizontal vibrations near the curved track were remarkably greater than the vertical vibrations. The attenuation of the vibrations with frequencies above 50 Hz was larger than the ones below 50 Hz, and the frequencies of vibration transmitting to adjacent buildings were mainly within 10-50 Hz. The largest equivalent sound level generated in the throat area was smaller than the testing line one, but the instantaneous maximum sound level induced by wheels squeal, contact between wheels and rail joints as well as turnout was close to or even greater than the testing line one. The predicted models gave a first estimation for design and assessment of newly built metro depots. PMID:26254076

  4. Measurement of ground and nearby building vibration and noise induced by trains in a metro depot.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chao; Wang, Yimin; Wang, Peng; Guo, Jixing

    2015-12-01

    Metro depots are where subway trains are parked and where maintenance is carried out. They usually occupy the largest ground areas in metro projects. Due to land utilization problems, Chinese cities have begun to develop over-track buildings above metro depots for people's life and work. The frequently moving trains, when going into and out of metro depots, can cause excessive vibration and noise to over-track buildings and adversely affect the living quality of the building occupants. Considering the current need of reliable experimental data for the construction of metro depots, field measurements of vibration and noise on the ground and inside a nearby 3-story building subjected to moving subway trains were conducted in a metro depot at Guangzhou, China. The amplitudes and frequency contents of velocity levels were quantified and compared. The composite A-weighted equivalent sound levels and maximum sound levels were captured. The predicted models for vibration and noise of metro depot were proposed based on existing models and verified. It was found that the vertical vibrations were significantly greater than the horizontal vibrations on the ground and inside the building near the testing line. While at the throat area, the horizontal vibrations near the curved track were remarkably greater than the vertical vibrations. The attenuation of the vibrations with frequencies above 50 Hz was larger than the ones below 50 Hz, and the frequencies of vibration transmitting to adjacent buildings were mainly within 10-50 Hz. The largest equivalent sound level generated in the throat area was smaller than the testing line one, but the instantaneous maximum sound level induced by wheels squeal, contact between wheels and rail joints as well as turnout was close to or even greater than the testing line one. The predicted models gave a first estimation for design and assessment of newly built metro depots.

  5. Vibration-induced elastic deformation of Fabry-Perot cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Lisheng; Hall, John L.; Ye Jun; Yang Tao; Zang Erjun; Li Tianchu

    2006-11-15

    We perform a detailed numerical analysis of Fabry-Perot cavities used for state-of-the-art laser stabilization. Elastic deformation of Fabry-Perot cavities with various shapes and mounting methods is quantitatively analyzed using finite-element analysis. We show that with a suitable choice of mounting schemes it is feasible to minimize the susceptibility of the resonator length to vibrational perturbations. This investigation offers detailed information on stable optical cavities that may benefit the development of ultrastable optical local oscillators in optical atomic clocks and precision measurements probing the fundamental laws of physics.

  6. Mechanical vibrations induced resonant breakdown of the Coulomb blockade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogosov, A. G.; Budantsev, M. V.; Shevyrin, A. A.; Plotnikov, A. E.; Bakarov, A. K.; Toropov, A. I.

    2011-12-01

    Influence of forced mechanical vibrations of a suspended single-electron transistor on electron tunneling through the quantum dot limited by the Coulomb blockade is investigated. It is shown that mechanical oscillations of the quantum dot lead to the Coulomb blockade breakdown, shown in sharp resonant peaks in the transistor conductance dependence on the excitation frequency at values corresponding to the mechanical oscillations eigen modes. The observed effect is presumably connected with oscillations of the mutual electrical capacitances between the quantum dot and surrounding electrodes.

  7. Dissociative ionization of liquid water induced by vibrational overtone excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Natzle, W.C.

    1983-03-01

    Photochemistry of vibrationally activated ground electronic state liquid water to produce H/sup +/ and OH/sup -/ ions has been initiated by pulsed, single-photon excitation of overtone and combination transitions. Transient conductivity measurements were used to determine quantum yields as a function of photon energy, isotopic composition, and temperature. The equilibrium relaxation rate following perturbation by the vibrationally activated reaction was also measured as a function of temperature reaction and isotopic composition. In H/sub 2/O, the quantum yield at 283 +- 1 K varies from 2 x 10/sup -9/ to 4 x 10/sup -5/ for wave numbers between 7605 and 18140 cm/sup -1/. In D/sub 2/O, the dependence of quantum yield on wavelength has the same qualitative shape as for H/sub 2/O, but is shifted to lower quantum yields. The position of a minimum in the quantum yield versus hydrogen mole fraction curve is consistent with a lower quantum yield for excitation of HOD in D/sub 2/O than for excitation of D/sub 2/O. The ionic recombination distance of 5.8 +- 0.5 A is constant within experimental error with temperature in H/sub 2/O and with isotopic composition at 25 +- 1/sup 0/C.

  8. Building vibrations induced by noise from rotorcraft and propeller aircraft flyovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Hubbard, Harvey H.

    1992-01-01

    Noise and building vibrations were measured for a series of helicopter and propeller-driven aircraft flyovers at WFF during May 1978. The building response data are compared with similar data acquired earlier at sites near Dulles and Kennedy Airports for operation of commercial jet transports, including the Concorde supersonic transport. Results show that noise-induced vibration levels in windows and walls are directly proportional to sound pressure level and that for a given noise level, the acceleration levels induced by a helicopter or a propeller-driven aircraft flyover cannot be distinguished from the acceleration levels induced by a commercial jet transport flyover. Noise-induced building acceleration levels were found to be lower than those levels which might be expected to cause structural damage and were also lower than some acceleration levels induced by such common domestic events as closing windows and doors.

  9. Vibration serviceability of footbridges under human-induced excitation: a literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Živanović, S.; Pavic, A.; Reynolds, P.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing strength of new structural materials and longer spans of new footbridges, accompanied with aesthetic requirements for greater slenderness, are resulting in more lively footbridge structures. In the past few years this issue attracted great public attention. The excessive lateral sway motion caused by crowd walking across the infamous Millennium Bridge in London is the prime example of the vibration serviceability problem of footbridges. In principle, consideration of footbridge vibration serviceability requires a characterisation of the vibration source, path and receiver. This paper is the most comprehensive review published to date of about 200 references which deal with these three key issues. The literature survey identified humans as the most important source of vibration for footbridges. However, modelling of the crowd-induced dynamic force is not clearly defined yet, despite some serious attempts to tackle this issue in the last few years. The vibration path is the mass, damping and stiffness of the footbridge. Of these, damping is the most uncertain but extremely important parameter as the resonant behaviour tends to govern vibration serviceability of footbridges. A typical receiver of footbridge vibrations is a pedestrian who is quite often the source of vibrations as well. Many scales for rating the human perception of vibrations have been found in the published literature. However, few are applicable to footbridges because a receiver is not stationary but is actually moving across the vibrating structure. During footbridge vibration, especially under crowd load, it seems that some form of human-structure interaction occurs. The problem of influence of walking people on footbridge vibration properties, such as the natural frequency and damping is not well understood, let alone quantified. Finally, there is not a single national or international design guidance which covers all aspects of the problem comprehensively and some form of their

  10. Observed three-dimensional structure of ocean cooling induced by Pacific tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guihua; Wu, Lingwei; Johnson, Nathaniel C.; Ling, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    Sea surface cooling along tropical cyclone (TC) tracks has been well observed, but a complete understanding of the full three-dimensional structure of upper ocean TC-induced cooling is still needed. In this study, observed ocean temperature profiles derived from Argo floats and TC statistics from 1996 to 2012 are used to determine the three-dimensional structure of TC-induced cooling over the northwest Pacific. The average TC-induced sea surface temperature change derived from Argo reaches -1.4°C, which agrees well with satellite-derived estimates. The Argo profiles further reveal that this cooling can extend to a depth of ~30 m and can persist for about 20 days. The time scale of cooling recovery is somewhat longer in subsurface layers between a depth of ~10-15 m. Over the ocean domain where the mixed layer is shallower (deeper), the cooling is stronger (weaker), shallower (deeper), and more (less) persistent. The effect of initial MLD on the cooling derived from Argo observations may be only half of the idealized piecewise continuous model of tropical cyclone. These findings have implications for the total upper ocean heat content change induced by northwest Pacific TCs.

  11. Application of coupled analysis methods for prediction of blast-induced dominant vibration frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haibo; Li, Xiaofeng; Li, Jianchun; Xia, Xiang; Wang, Xiaowei

    2016-03-01

    Blast-induced dominant vibration frequency (DVF) involves a complex, nonlinear and small sample system considering rock properties, blasting parameters and topography. In this study, a combination of grey relational analysis and dimensional analysis procedures for prediction of dominant vibration frequency are presented. Six factors are selected from extensive effect factor sequences based on grey relational analysis, and then a novel blast-induced dominant vibration frequency prediction is obtained by dimensional analysis. In addition, the prediction is simplified by sensitivity analysis with 195 experimental blast records. Validation is carried out for the proposed formula based on the site test database of the firstperiod blasting excavation in the Guangdong Lufeng Nuclear Power Plant (GLNPP). The results show the proposed approach has a higher fitting degree and smaller mean error when compared with traditional predictions.

  12. Nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy of water structures utilizing laser-induced phase transition phenomena in liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yui, Hiroharu; Sawada, Tsuguo

    2003-01-01

    Anomalous enhancement of the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of water molecules in the OH stretching vibrational region is observed when a laser-induced phase transition from liquid to plasma takes place in liquid water. The SRS is emitted before the phase transition and has a duration of several tens of picoseconds full width at half maximum. From the spectroscopic analysis of the SRS, it is suggested that the excess electrons, which are generated in a few picoseconds before the phase transition, play an important role in the transient SRS enhancement through the change of the nonlinear polarizability induced around the electrons in liquid water. Several applications of the enhanced vibrational spectra in the OH stretching vibrational region to the spectroscopic analyses of local water structures in various environments are also described.

  13. A distributed fiber vibration sensor utilizing dispersion induced walk-off effect in a unidirectional Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingming; Jin, Chao; Bao, Yuan; Li, Zhaohui; Li, Jianping; Lu, Chao; Yang, Liang; Li, Guifang

    2014-02-10

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel ultra-long range and sensitive distributed fiber vibration sensor. Only one unidirectional Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is employed in this scheme as the sensing element. In this sensor structure, we utilize chromatic dispersion-induced walk-off effect between the vibration signals sensed by two distributed feedback (DFB) lasers at different wavelengths to locate the vibration position. Vibration signals with frequencies up to 9 MHz can be detected and the spatial resolution of 31 m is achieved over 320 km of the standard single mode fiber. Monitoring multiple vibration sources can also be realized using this scheme.

  14. Light-induced vibration characteristics of free-standing carbon nanotube films fabricated by vacuum filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junying; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Xin; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Jie

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we fabricated carbon nanotube (CNT) films with different thickness by vacuum filtration method, and the films were separated from Mixed Cellulose Ester membranes with burn-off process. The thickness of CNT films with different concentrations of CNTs 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, and 200 mg are 10.36 μm, 20.90 μm, 30.19 μm, and 39.98 μm respectively. The CNT bundles are homogeneously distributed and entangled with each other, and still maintain 2D continuous network structures after burn-off process. The optical absorptivity of the films is between 84% and 99% at wavelengths ranging from 400 nm to 2500 nm. Vibration characteristics were measured with the Fabry-Perot (F-P) interferometer vibration measurement system. CNT films vibrate only under the xenon light irradiating perpendicularly to the surface. Vibration recorded by Fabry-Perot interferometer is considered to be caused by the time-dependent thermal moment, which is due to the temperature differences of two sides of CNT films. The vibration frequency spectrums between 0.1 ˜ 0.5 Hz were obtained by the Fast Fourier Transform spectra from time domain to frequency domain, and showed a linear relationship with films thickness, which is in accordance with theoretical model of thermal induced vibration.

  15. Light-induced vibration characteristics of free-standing carbon nanotube films fabricated by vacuum filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Junying; Zhu, Yong Wang, Ning; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Xin

    2014-07-14

    In this paper, we fabricated carbon nanotube (CNT) films with different thickness by vacuum filtration method, and the films were separated from Mixed Cellulose Ester membranes with burn-off process. The thickness of CNT films with different concentrations of CNTs 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, and 200 mg are 10.36 μm, 20.90 μm, 30.19 μm, and 39.98 μm respectively. The CNT bundles are homogeneously distributed and entangled with each other, and still maintain 2D continuous network structures after burn-off process. The optical absorptivity of the films is between 84% and 99% at wavelengths ranging from 400 nm to 2500 nm. Vibration characteristics were measured with the Fabry-Perot (F-P) interferometer vibration measurement system. CNT films vibrate only under the xenon light irradiating perpendicularly to the surface. Vibration recorded by Fabry-Perot interferometer is considered to be caused by the time-dependent thermal moment, which is due to the temperature differences of two sides of CNT films. The vibration frequency spectrums between 0.1 ∼ 0.5 Hz were obtained by the Fast Fourier Transform spectra from time domain to frequency domain, and showed a linear relationship with films thickness, which is in accordance with theoretical model of thermal induced vibration.

  16. Poiseuille flow-induced vibrations of two tandem circular cylinders with different mass ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ren-Jie; Lin, Jian-Zhong

    2016-06-01

    Flow-induced vibrations of two tandem circular cylinders with different mass ratios confined between two parallel walls are numerically studied via a lattice Boltzmann method. With fixed Reynolds number Re = 100 and blockage ratio β = 1/4, the effects of mass ratio m* = [0.0625, 16] and streamwise separation between two cylinders S/D = [1.125, 10] on the cylinder motions and vortex wake modes are investigated. A variety of distinct cylinder motion regimes involving the symmetric periodic vibration, biased quasi-periodic vibration, beating vibration, and steady regimes, with the corresponding wake structures, e.g., two rows of alternately rotating vortices, a single row of same-sign vortices, and steady wake, are observed. For each current case, the cylinder motion type is exclusive and in the binary oscillation regime, both cylinders always vibrate at a common primary frequency. The lighter cylinder usually oscillates at a larger amplitude than the heavier one, while the heavier cylinder undergoes larger lift force than the lighter one. The lift force and cylinder displacement always behave as an out-of-phase state. In the gap-interference region, large-amplitude oscillations could be produced extensively and in the wake-interference region, the cylinder motions and fluid flows are mainly dependent on the upstream cylinder. When the separation is large enough, both cylinders behave as two isolated ones. The mechanisms for the excitations of cylinder vibrations have also been analysed.

  17. Vibration-induced field fluctuations in a superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, J. W.; Bohnet, J. G.; Sawyer, B. C.; Uys, H.; Biercuk, M. J.; Bollinger, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Superconducting magnets enable precise control of nuclear and electron spins, and are used in experiments that explore biological and condensed-matter systems, and fundamental atomic particles. In high-precision applications, a common view is that slow (<1 Hz ) drift of the homogeneous magnetic-field limits control and measurement precision. We report on previously undocumented higher-frequency field noise (10-200 Hz) that limits the coherence time of Be+9 electron-spin qubits in the 4.46 -T field of a superconducting magnet. We measure a spin-echo T2 coherence time of ˜6 ms for the Be+9 electron-spin resonance at 124 GHz , limited by part-per-billion fractional fluctuations in the magnet's homogeneous field. Vibration isolation of the magnet improved T2 to ˜50 ms.

  18. Droplet Manipulation Using Acoustic Streaming Induced by a Vibrating Membrane.

    PubMed

    Phan, Hoang Van; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian

    2016-06-01

    We present a simple method for on-demand manipulation of aqueous droplets in oil. With numerical simulations and experiments, we show that a vibrating membrane can produce acoustic streaming. By making use of this vortical flow, we manage to repulse the droplets away from the membrane edges. Then, by simply aligning the membrane at 45° to the flow, the droplets can be forced to follow the membrane's boundaries, thus steering them across streamlines and even between different oil types. We also characterize the repulsion and steering effect with various excitation voltages at different water and oil flow rates. The maximum steering frequency we have achieved is 165 Hz. The system is extremely robust and reliable: the same membrane can be reused after many days and with different oils and/or surfactants at the same operating frequency. PMID:27119623

  19. Droplet Manipulation Using Acoustic Streaming Induced by a Vibrating Membrane.

    PubMed

    Phan, Hoang Van; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian

    2016-06-01

    We present a simple method for on-demand manipulation of aqueous droplets in oil. With numerical simulations and experiments, we show that a vibrating membrane can produce acoustic streaming. By making use of this vortical flow, we manage to repulse the droplets away from the membrane edges. Then, by simply aligning the membrane at 45° to the flow, the droplets can be forced to follow the membrane's boundaries, thus steering them across streamlines and even between different oil types. We also characterize the repulsion and steering effect with various excitation voltages at different water and oil flow rates. The maximum steering frequency we have achieved is 165 Hz. The system is extremely robust and reliable: the same membrane can be reused after many days and with different oils and/or surfactants at the same operating frequency.

  20. Acoustically Induced Vibration of Structures: Reverberant Vs. Direct Acoustic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; O'Connell, Michael R.; Tsoi, Wan B.

    2009-01-01

    Large reverberant chambers have been used for several decades in the aerospace industry to test larger structures such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify and to detect faults in the design and fabrication of spacecraft and satellites. In the past decade some companies have begun using direct near field acoustic testing, employing speakers, for qualifying larger structures. A limited test data set obtained from recent acoustic tests of the same hardware exposed to both direct and reverberant acoustic field testing has indicated some differences in the resulting structural responses. In reverberant acoustic testing, higher vibration responses were observed at lower frequencies when compared with the direct acoustic testing. In the case of direct near field acoustic testing higher vibration responses appeared to occur at higher frequencies as well. In reverberant chamber testing and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes of the reverberant chamber or the speakers and spacecraft parallel surfaces can strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware. In this paper data from recent acoustic testing of flight hardware, that yielded evidence of acoustic standing wave coupling with structural responses, are discussed in some detail. Convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave/structural coupling phenomenon will be discussed, citing observations from acoustic testing of a simple aluminum plate. The implications of such acoustic coupling to testing of sensitive flight hardware will be discussed. The results discussed in this paper reveal issues with over or under testing of flight hardware that could pose unanticipated structural and flight qualification issues. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the structural modal coupling with standing acoustic waves that has been observed in both methods of acoustic testing. This study will assist the community to choose an appropriate testing method and test setup in

  1. A Numerical Study on the Screening of Blast-Induced Waves for Reducing Ground Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Dohyun; Jeon, Byungkyu; Jeon, Seokwon

    2009-06-01

    Blasting is often a necessary part of mining and construction operations, and is the most cost-effective way to break rock, but blasting generates both noise and ground vibration. In urban areas, noise and vibration have an environmental impact, and cause structural damage to nearby structures. Various wave-screening methods have been used for many years to reduce blast-induced ground vibration. However, these methods have not been quantitatively studied for their reduction effect of ground vibration. The present study focused on the quantitative assessment of the effectiveness in vibration reduction of line-drilling as a screening method using a numerical method. Two numerical methods were used to analyze the reduction effect toward ground vibration, namely, the “distinct element method” and the “non-linear hydrocode.” The distinct element method, by particle flow code in two dimensions (PFC 2D), was used for two-dimensional parametric analyses, and some cases of two-dimensional analyses were analyzed three-dimensionally using AUTODYN 3D, the program of the non-linear hydrocode. To analyze the screening effectiveness of line-drilling, parametric analyses were carried out under various conditions, with the spacing, diameter of drill holes, distance between the blasthole and line-drilling, and the number of rows of drill holes, including their arrangement, used as parameters. The screening effectiveness was assessed via a comparison of the vibration amplitude between cases both with and without screening. Also, the frequency distribution of ground motion of the two cases was investigated through fast Fourier transform (FFT), with the differences also examined. From our study, it was concluded that line-drilling as a screening method of blast-induced waves was considerably effective under certain design conditions. The design details for field application have also been proposed.

  2. Effect of Angle on Flow-Induced Vibrations of Pinniped Vibrissae

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Christin T.; Eberhardt, William C.; Calhoun, Benton H.; Mann, Kenneth A.; Mann, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Two types of vibrissal surface structures, undulated and smooth, exist among pinnipeds. Most Phocidae have vibrissae with undulated surfaces, while Otariidae, Odobenidae, and a few phocid species possess vibrissae with smooth surfaces. Variations in cross-sectional profile and orientation of the vibrissae also exist between pinniped species. These factors may influence the way that the vibrissae behave when exposed to water flow. This study investigated the effect that vibrissal surface structure and orientation have on flow-induced vibrations of pinniped vibrissae. Laser vibrometry was used to record vibrations along the whisker shaft from the undulated vibrissae of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) and the smooth vibrissae of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Vibrations along the whisker shaft were measured in a flume tank, at three orientations (0°, 45°, 90°) to the water flow. The results show that vibration frequency and velocity ranges were similar for both undulated and smooth vibrissae. Angle of orientation, rather than surface structure, had the greatest effect on flow-induced vibrations. Vibration velocity was up to 60 times higher when the wide, flat aspect of the whisker faced into the flow (90°), compared to when the thin edge faced into the flow (0°). Vibration frequency was also dependent on angle of orientation. Peak frequencies were measured up to 270 Hz and were highest at the 0° orientation for all whiskers. Furthermore, CT scanning was used to quantify the three-dimensional structure of pinniped vibrissae that may influence flow interactions. The CT data provide evidence that all vibrissae are flattened in cross-section to some extent and that differences exist in the orientation of this profile with respect to the major curvature of the hair shaft. These data support the hypothesis that a compressed cross-sectional profile may play a key role in reducing self-noise of the

  3. Regarding "A new method for predicting nonlinear structural vibrations induced by ground impact loading" [Journal of Sound and Vibration, 331/9 (2012) 2129-2140

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartmell, Matthew P.

    2016-09-01

    The Editor wishes to make the reader aware that the paper "A new method for predicting nonlinear structural vibrations induced by ground impact loading" by Jun Liu, Yu Zhang, Bin Yun, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 331 (2012) 2129-2140, did not contain a direct citation of the fundamental and original work in this field by Dr. Mark Svinkin. The Editor regrets that this omission was not noted at the time that the above paper was accepted and published.

  4. Phospholipase A2 induced airway hyperreactivity to cooling and acetylcholine in rat trachea: pharmacological modulation.

    PubMed Central

    Chand, N.; Diamantis, W.; Mahoney, T. P.; Sofia, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    1. Rat isolated tracheal smooth muscle preparations respond to phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and phospholipase C (PLC) with contractile responses of highly variable magnitudes. Rat tracheae exposed to PLA2 or PLC for a period of 10-30 min, exhibit airway hyperreactivity (AH) to cooling (10 degrees C), i.e., respond with strong contractile responses. Phospholipase D neither contracted rat tracheae nor induced AH to cooling. 2. PLA2-induced AH to cooling was dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+ in the physiological solution. 3. Verapamil, azelastine, diltiazem and TMB-8 (each 10 microM) significantly attenuated PLA2-induced AH. This effect was not shared by nifedipine (10 microM). 4. Bepridil (10 microM), a Ca2+ and calmodulin antagonist, also significantly attenuated AH induced by PLA2. 5. Indomethacin (a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor), AA-861 (a selective 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor), FPL 55712 (a leukotriene receptor antagonist), methysergide (a 5-hydroxytryptamine D-receptor antagonist) and pyrilamine (a histamine H1-receptor antagonist) exerted little or no effect on PLA2-induced AH to cooling. 6. Atropine significantly attenuated PLA2-induced AH suggesting the participation of acetylcholine. 7. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (an antioxidant; 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor) and BW 755C (an antioxidant; a dual inhibitor of cyclo-oxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase) significantly attenuated PLA2-induced AH to cooling. 8. In conclusion, these data show that PLA2 (an enzyme involved in the synthesis of Paf-acether, prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, diacylglycerol, superoxide free radicals and lipid peroxides, etc.) induces AH to cooling and acetylcholine in rat trachea. The induction of AH to cooling is dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+ and is significantly attenuated by verapamil, diltiazem, bepridil, atropine and azelastine (an antiallergic/antiasthmatic drug). PMID:3207972

  5. Concorde noise-induced building vibrations for Sully Plantation, Chantilly, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayes, W. H.; Scholl, H. F.; Stephens, D. G.; Holliday, B. G.; Deloach, R.; Holmes, H. K.; Lewis, R. B.; Lynch, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    A study to assess the noise-induced building vibrations associated with Concorde operations is presented. The approach is to record the levels of induced vibrations and associated indoor/outdoor noise levels in selected homes, historic and other buildings near Dulles and Kennedy International Airports. Presented is a small, representative sample of data recorded at Sully Plantation, Chantilly, Virginia during the period of May 20 through May 28, 1976. Recorded data provide relationships between the vibration levels of walls, floors, windows, and the noise associated with Concorde operations (2 landings and 3 takeoffs), other aircraft, nonaircraft sources, and normal household activities. Results suggest that building vibrations resulting from aircraft operations were proportional to the overall sound pressure levels and relatively insensitive to spectral differences associated with the different types of aircraft. Furthermore, the maximum levels of vibratory response resulting from Concorde operations were higher than those associated with conventional aircraft. The vibrations of nonaircraft events were observed in some cases to exceed the levels resulting from aircraft operations. These nonaircraft events are currently being analyzed in greater detail.

  6. Shellside flow-induced tube vibration in typical heat exchanger configurations: Overview of a research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halle, H.; Chenoweth, J. M.; Wambsganss, M. W.

    A comprehensive research program is being conducted to develop the necessary criteria to assist designers and operators of shell-and-tube heat exchangers to avoid detrimental flow-induced tube vibration. This paper presents an overview of the insights gained from shellside water-flow testing on a horizontal, industrial-sized test exchanger that can be configured in many ways using interchangeable tube bundles and replaceable nozzles. Nearly 50 different configurations have been tested representing various combinations of triangular, square, rotated-triangular, and rotated-square tubefield layouts; odd and even numbers of crosspasses; and both single- and double-segmental baffles with different cut sizes and orientations. The results are generally consistent with analytical relationships that predict tube vibration response by the combined reinforcing effect of the vibration mode shape and flow velocity distribution. An understanding of the vibration and instability performance is facilitated by recognizing that the excitation is induced by three separate, though sometimes interacting, flow conditions. These are the crossflows that generate classic fluidelastic instabilities in the interior of the tube bundle, the entrance and exit bundle flow from and into the shell nozzles, and the localized high velocity bypass and leakage stream flows. The implications to design and/or possible field remedies to avoid vibration problems are discussed.

  7. A study on waviness induced vibration of ball bearings based on signal coherence theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wentao; Zhang, Yun; Feng, Zhi-Jing; Zhao, Jing-Shan; Wang, Dongfeng

    2014-11-01

    This paper focuses on the effects of waviness on vibration of ball bearings. An experimental analysis method is developed by adopting signal coherence theory of multiple-inputs/single-output (MISO) system. The inputs are waviness excitations of the inner and outer races, and the output is vibration response of the outer ring. Waviness excitation signals are first derived from the manufacturing deviations, and found to be strongly coherent in low frequency range. Virtual input signals are then introduced by the method of orthogonalization. In both cases of vibration acceleration and speed responses, the cumulated virtual input-output coherence function verifies that the first peak region of vibration spectrum is mainly induced by the waviness excitations. In order to distinguish the contributions of the inner and outer races, coherence functions of the virtual inputs with real inputs are calculated, and the results indicate that the outer race waviness contributes more to vibration than the inner race waviness does in the example. Further, a multi-body dynamic model is constructed and employed to frequency response analyses. It is discovered that the waviness induced spectral peak frequency is close to the natural frequency of bearing.

  8. Whole-body vibration training induces hypertrophy of the human patellar tendon.

    PubMed

    Rieder, F; Wiesinger, H-P; Kösters, A; Müller, E; Seynnes, O R

    2016-08-01

    Animal studies suggest that regular exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) induces an anabolic response in bone and tendon. However, the effects of this type of intervention on human tendon properties and its influence on the muscle-tendon unit function have never been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of WBV training on the patellar tendon mechanical, material and morphological properties, the quadriceps muscle architecture and the knee extension torque-angle relationship. Fifty-five subjects were randomized into either a vibration, an active control, or an inactive control group. The active control subjects performed isometric squats on a vibration platform without vibration. Muscle and tendon properties were measured using ultrasonography and dynamometry. Vibration training induced an increase in proximal (6.3%) and mean (3.8%) tendon cross-sectional area, without any appreciable change in tendon stiffness and modulus or in muscle architectural parameters. Isometric torque at a knee angle of 90° increased in active controls (6.7%) only and the torque-angle relation remained globally unchanged in all groups. The present protocol did not appreciably alter knee extension torque production or the musculo-tendinous parameters underpinning this function. Nonetheless, this study shows for the first time that WBV elicits tendon hypertrophy in humans. PMID:26173589

  9. Study on flow-induced vibration of cage type control valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Shan; Wang, Chao; Tang, Yulin; Dong, De

    2013-07-01

    In cage type control valve, sleeve throttling window is used to set flow characteristic curve, which is widely applied in engineering. The internal structure of the cage-type valve is complicated, so the flow field inside the valve is unsteady complex flow. There are a large number of vortexes in the valve chamber, which are the main excitation source that induced control valve vibration. Through-flow structure of the control valve changes in different openings, which leads to the variation of the jet direction when the fluid flows through the throttling window, and in medium and small opening, the situation is more complicated. In this paper, high-frequency pulsating dynamic pressure of the fluid inside the valve has been measured, in order to monitor the internal flow field of the valve. Meanwhile, threedimensional numerical simulation has been carried out to analyze the internal flow field of the valve, and main causes of different vibrations have been found and several ways to weaken the vibration are proposed, which is significant for vibration reduction research of control valve. For the flow-induced vibration in the complex flow channel, the research has great theoretical significance.

  10. Nature and occurrence of cooling-induced cracking in volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, John; Meredith, Philip G.; Gudmundssom, Agust

    2015-04-01

    Several hypotheses have been proposed regarding the role of thermo-mechanical contraction in producing cracks and joints in volcanic rocks. Nevertheless, most studies of thermally-induced cracking to date have focused on the generation of cracks formed during heating. In this latter case, the cracks are formed under an overall compressional regime. By contrast, cooling cracks are formed under an overall tensile regime. Therefore, both the nature and mechanism of crack formation during cooling are hypothesised to be different from those for crack formation during heating. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether cooling simply reactivates pre-existing cracks, induces the growth of new cracks, or both. We present results from experiments based on a new method for testing ideas on cooling-induced cracking. Cored samples of volcanic rock (basaltic to dacitic in composition) were heated at varying rates to different maximum temperatures inside a tube furnace. In the highest temperature experiments samples of both rocks were raised to the liquidus temperature appropriate to their composition, forcing melt interaction and crack annealing. We present in-situ seismic velocity and acoustic emission data, which were recorded throughout each heating and cooling cycle. It is found consistently that the rate of acoustic emission is much higher during cooling than during heating. In addition, acoustic emission events produced on cooling tend to be significantly higher in energy than those produced during heating. We therefore suggest that cracks formed during cooling are significantly larger than those formed during heating. Thin-section and crack morphology analysis of our cyclically heated samples provide further evidence of contrasting fracture morphologies. These new data are important for assessing the contribution of cooling-induced damage within volcanic structures and layers such as sills and lava flows. Our observations may also help to constrain evolving ideas regarding

  11. Noise-induced hearing loss in relation to vibration-induced white finger in chain-saw workers.

    PubMed

    Miyakita, T; Miura, H; Futatsuka, M

    1987-02-01

    From the viewpoint of the etiologies of noise-induced permanent threshold shift (NIPTS) and vibration-induced white finger (VWF), the association between VWF and hearing loss was examined among 499 chain-saw workers who underwent a compulsory health examination for vibration syndrome. They were classified by age, duration of noise and vibration exposure, and the severity of VWF. The severity of VWF was evaluated according to the following criteria: no prior history; VWF history, but symptoms had disappeared; VWF present but appearing rarely; frequent appearance of VWF (more than 20 times per winter season). In three age groups (ie, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 years) with 5-9 years of exposure, the chainsaw workers with VWF had a significantly greater hearing loss at higher frequencies than those without VWF. However, in the 10- to 14-year exposure groups, a significant difference was not found between the VWF and non-VWF groups, except that the 50- to 59-year age groups showed a significant difference in mean age. It was suggested that interindividual differences in susceptibility to noise and vibration may be the reason for the synergistic effects of noise and vibration.

  12. Cryo Cooler Induced Micro-Vibration Disturbances to the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrich, Nick; Zimbelman, Darrell; Turczyn, Mark; Sills, Joel; Voorhees, Carl; Clapp, Brian; Brumfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) Cryo Cooler (MCC) system, a description of the micro-vibration characterization testing performed, and a discussion of the simulated performance. The NCC is a reverse Brayton cycle system that employs micro turbo-machinery to provide cooling to the NICMOS instrument. Extensive testing was conducted to quantify the expected on-orbit disturbances caused by the micro turbo-machinery and provide input to a flexible-body dynamic simulation to demonstrate compliance with the HST 7 milli-arcsecond root mean square jitter requirement.

  13. [Enhancing stimulated Raman scattering of water and heavy water lattice vibration by laser induced plasma].

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiao-Ning; Men, Zhi-Wei; Zhou, Mi; Sun, Cheng-Lin; Li, Zuo-Wei; Wang, Yi-Ding; Li, Zhan-Long

    2013-08-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering was studied in water and heavy water using pulse laser at the wavelength of 532nm, not only obtaining the stimulated Raman of O-H and O-D stretching vibration, but also obtaining the stimulated Raman lattice vibration. When the laser energy was 130 mJ, the low frequency Stokes and anti-Stokes 313 cm(-1) line of water could be observed; When the laser energy was 160 mJ, the low frequnecy Stokes and anti-Stokes 280 cm(-1) line of heavy water could be observed. The results were explained by physics mechanism of laser induced plasma.

  14. Sliding mode control of wind-induced vibrations using fuzzy sliding surface and gain adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thenozhi, Suresh; Yu, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Although fuzzy/adaptive sliding mode control can reduce the chattering problem in structural vibration control applications, they require the equivalent control and the upper bounds of the system uncertainties. In this paper, we used fuzzy logic to approximate the standard sliding surface and designed a dead-zone adaptive law for tuning the switching gain of the sliding mode control. The stability of the proposed controller is established using Lyapunov stability theory. A six-storey building prototype equipped with an active mass damper has been used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller towards the wind-induced vibrations.

  15. Magnetically induced rotor vibration in dual-stator permanent magnet motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Bang; Wang, Shiyu; Wang, Yaoyao; Zhao, Zhifu; Xiu, Jie

    2015-07-01

    Magnetically induced vibration is a major concern in permanent magnet (PM) motors, which is especially true for dual-stator motors. This work develops a two-dimensional model of the rotor by using energy method, and employs this model to examine the rigid- and elastic-body vibrations induced by the inner stator tooth passage force and that by the outer. The analytical results imply that there exist three typical vibration modes. Their presence or absence depends on the combination of magnet/slot, force's frequency and amplitude, the relative position between two stators, and other structural parameters. The combination and relative position affect these modes via altering the force phase. The predicted results are verified by magnetic force wave analysis by finite element method (FEM) and comparison with the existing results. Potential directions are also given with the anticipation of bringing forth more interesting and useful findings. As an engineering application, the magnetically induced vibration can be first reduced via the combination and then a suitable relative position.

  16. Vasodilatation in human skin induced by low-amplitude high-frequency vibration.

    PubMed

    Skoglund, C R

    1989-08-01

    Vasomotor effects in human skin induced by vibration of low amplitude (10-25 microns) and high frequency (150-250 Hz) have been studied by using skin temperature changes as an approximative measure of variations in skin blood flow. In all tested areas of the body surface, including the face, low-amplitude high-frequency vibration regularly induces vasodilatation. The spatial distribution of the temperature changes induced from different sites of stimulation was studied by infrared thermography. The latencies of the temperature changes, determined by thermistor recordings, were found to vary with site of stimulation and stimulus parameters. The increase in temperature to a given stimulus is greater the lower the prevalent skin temperature, i.e. the increase in blood flow is larger the greater the initial vasomotor tone. The results are in accordance with the view that the vasodilatation is due to a reflex inhibition of pre-existent vasomotor tone in the skin by the afferent inflow from vibration-sensitive mechanoreceptors. High-amplitude vibration (100-200 microns), performed in a few comparative experiments, caused vasoconstriction.

  17. Do the Amazon and Orinoco freshwater plumes really matter for hurricane-induced ocean surface cooling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, O.; Jouanno, J.; Durand, F.

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies suggested that the plume of low-saline waters formed by the discharge of the Amazon and Orinoco rivers could favor Atlantic Tropical Cyclone (TC) intensification by weakening the cool wake and its impact on the hurricane growth potential. The main objective of this study is to quantify the effects of the Amazon-Orinoco river discharges in modulating the amplitude of TC-induced cooling in the western Tropical Atlantic. Our approach is based on the analysis of TC cool wake statistics obtained from an ocean regional numerical simulation with ¼º horizontal resolution over the 1998-2012 period, forced with realistic TC winds. In both model and observations, the amplitude of TC-induced cooling in plume waters (0.3-0.4ºC) is reduced significantly by around 50-60% compared to the cooling in open ocean waters out of the plume (0.6-0.7ºC). A twin simulation without river runoff shows that TC-induced cooling over the plume region (defined from the reference experiment) is almost unchanged (˜0.03ºC) despite strong differences in salinity stratification and the absence of barrier layers. This argues for a weaker than thought cooling inhibition effect of salinity stratification and barrier layers in this region. Indeed, results suggest that haline stratification and barrier layers caused by the river runoff may explain only ˜10% of the cooling difference between plume waters and open ocean waters. Instead, the analysis of the background oceanic conditions suggests that the regional distribution of the thermal stratification is the main factor controlling the amplitude of cooling in the plume region.

  18. Concorde noise-induced building vibrations: International Airport Dulles. [studies by Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayes, W. H.; Scholl, H. F.; Stephens, D. G.; Holliday, B. G.; Deloach, R.; Finley, T. D.; Holmes, H. K.; Lewis, R. B.; Lynch, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted to assess the noise-induced building vibrations associated with Concorde operations. The vibration levels of windows, walls, and floors were measured along with the associated noise levels of Concorde, subsonic aircraft and some nonaircraft events. Test sites included Sully Plantation which is adjacent to Dulles International Airport and three residential homes located in Montgomery County, Maryland. The measured vibration response levels due to Concorde operations were found to be: (1) higher than the levels due to other aircraft, (2) less than the levels due to certain household events which involve direct impulsive loading such as door and window closing, (3) less than criteria levels for building damage, and (4) comparable to levels which are perceptible to people.

  19. Simulation of vibration-induced effect on plasma current measurement using a fiber optic current sensor.

    PubMed

    Descamps, Frédéric; Aerssens, Matthieu; Gusarov, Andrei; Mégret, Patrice; Massaut, Vincent; Wuilpart, Marc

    2014-06-16

    An accurate measurement of the plasma current is of paramount importance for controlling the plasma magnetic equilibrium in tokamaks. Fiber optic current sensor (FOCS) technology is expected to be implemented to perform this task in ITER. However, during ITER operation, the vessel and the sensing fiber will be subject to vibrations and thus to time-dependent parasitic birefringence, which may significantly compromise the FOCS performance. In this paper we investigate the effects of vibrations on the plasma current measurement accuracy under ITER-relevant conditions. The simulation results show that in the case of a FOCS reflection scheme including a spun fiber and a Faraday mirror, the error induced by the vibrations is acceptable regarding the ITER current diagnostics requirements.

  20. Fatigue behavior of flexhoses and bellows due to flow-induced vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, P. V.; Thornhill, L.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis and results developed in a fresh approach to calculate flow induced vibration response of a flexible flow passage are summarized. The vibration results are further examined in the frequency domain to obtain dominant frequency information. A cumulative damage analysis due to cyclic strains is performed to obtain the number of cycles to failure for a metallic bellows of particular specifications under a variety of operational conditions. Sample plots of time and frequency domain responses are included. The complex listing of a computer program is provided. The program successively executes each of the analyses needed to calculate the vibration response, the frequency response, the cyclic strains and the number of cycles to failure. The program prompts the user for necessary input information. Sample data from the program is provided. The fatigue life results obtained by the computer model lie within an acceptable range of previously measured available data.

  1. Further evidence of a relation between noise-induced permanent threshold shift and vibration-induced digital vasospasms.

    PubMed

    Pyykkö, I; Starck, J; Pekkarinen, J

    1986-01-01

    The relation between noise-induced permanent threshold shift (NIPTS) and vibration-induced dysfunction in the digital circulation was examined in a longitudinal survey among forest workers. The survey was based on annual examinations done between 1972 and 1983. Thirty-two forest workers with digital vasospasms were compared with referents matched for age, exposure, and use of ear protectors. No significant differences between the groups were observed at 1,000 or 2,000 Hz. The forest workers with digital vasospasms had significantly greater NIPTS at 4,000 and 8,000 Hz than the symptom-free referents. During the follow-up period, the gap in NIPTS between the two groups did not increase. Vibration measurements from chain saws manufactured in different years indicated that chain saws manufactured after 1970 had a tenfold reduction in vibration, whereas the reduction in noise levels was only slight. The results suggest that vibration-induced activation of the autonomic nervous system, which is thought to elicit digital vasospasms, may also contribute to the development of NIPTS.

  2. Origin of laser-induced internal cooling of Yb3+ -doped systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Joaquin R.; Mendioroz, A.; Balda, Rolindes; Voda, M.; Al-Saleh, M.; Garcia-Adeva, A. J.; Adam, Jean-Luc; Lucas, Jacques

    2002-04-01

    Laser induced internal cooling has been investigated in a new fluorochloride glass (CNBZn) and a fluoride glass (BIG) doped with 2.1x1020 Yb3+ ions/cm3 and in a Kpb2Cl5 crystal doped with 5x1019 Yb3+ by using collinear photothermal deflection and conventional laser excitation spectroscopies under high photon irradiances. The cooling efficiency for CNBZn glass which is approximately 2% relative to the absorbed laser power at 1010 nm and 300 K falls about 20% at 77 K. The cooling efficiency for BIG glass was only approximately 6% at room temperature. For the Yb3+ doped Kpb2Cl5 crystal we have shown internal laser cooling with a cooling efficiency of about 0.2% at room temperature. This is the third ytterbium-doped crystal, after Kgd(WO4) (Ref.10) and YAG (Ref.11), in which anti-Stokes laser-induced internal cooling has been demonstrated. The observed temperature dependence of the cooling process can be explained by a simple model accounting for the photon-ion- photon interaction.

  3. On variable length induced vibrations of a vertical string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandilo, Sajad H.; van Horssen, Wim T.

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the free lateral responses of vertically translating media with variable length, velocity and tension, subject to general initial conditions. The translating media are modeled as taut strings with fixed boundaries. The problem can be used as a simple model to describe the lateral vibrations of an elevator cable, for which the length changes linearly in time, or for which the length changes harmonically about a constant mean length. In this paper an initial-boundary value problem for a linear, axially moving string equation is formulated. In the given model a rigid body is attached to the lower end of the string, and the suspension of this rigid body against the guide rails is assumed to be rigid. For linearly length variations it is assumed that the axial velocity of the string is small compared to nominal wave velocity and the string mass is small compared to car mass, and for the harmonically length variations small oscillation amplitudes are assumed and it is also assumed that the string mass is small compared to the total mass of the string and the car. A multiple-timescales perturbation method is used to construct formal asymptotic approximations of the solutions to show the complicated dynamical behavior of the string. For the linearly varying length analytic approximations of the exact solution are compared with numerical solution. For the harmonically varying length it will be shown that Galerkin's truncation method cannot be applied in all cases to obtain approximations valid on long timescales.

  4. Vibration amplitude and induced temperature limitation of high power air-borne ultrasonic transducers.

    PubMed

    Saffar, Saber; Abdullah, Amir

    2014-01-01

    The acoustic impedances of matching layers, their internal loss and vibration amplitude are the most important and influential parameters in the performance of high power airborne ultrasonic transducers. In this paper, the optimum acoustic impedances of the transducer matching layers were determined by using a genetic algorithm, the powerful tool for optimizating domain. The analytical results showed that the vibration amplitude increases significantly for low acoustic impedance matching layers. This enhancement is maximum and approximately 200 times higher for the last matching layer where it has the same interface with the air than the vibration amplitude of the source, lead zirconate titanate-pizo electric while transferring the 1 kW is desirable. This large amplitude increases both mechanical failure and temperature of the matching layers due to the internal loss of the matching layers. It has analytically shown that the temperature in last matching layer with having the maximum vibration amplitude is high enough to melt or burn the matching layers. To verify suggested approach, the effect of the amplitude of vibration on the induced temperature has been investigated experimentally. The experimental results displayed good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  5. Evaporative cooling over the Tibetan Plateau induced by vegetation growth.

    PubMed

    Shen, Miaogen; Piao, Shilong; Jeong, Su-Jong; Zhou, Liming; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Ciais, Philippe; Chen, Deliang; Huang, Mengtian; Jin, Chun-Sil; Li, Laurent Z X; Li, Yue; Myneni, Ranga B; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Gengxin; Zhang, Yangjian; Yao, Tandong

    2015-07-28

    In the Arctic, climate warming enhances vegetation activity by extending the length of the growing season and intensifying maximum rates of productivity. In turn, increased vegetation productivity reduces albedo, which causes a positive feedback on temperature. Over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), regional vegetation greening has also been observed in response to recent warming. Here, we show that in contrast to arctic regions, increased growing season vegetation activity over the TP may have attenuated surface warming. This negative feedback on growing season vegetation temperature is attributed to enhanced evapotranspiration (ET). The extra energy available at the surface, which results from lower albedo, is efficiently dissipated by evaporative cooling. The net effect is a decrease in daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range, which is supported by statistical analyses of in situ observations and by decomposition of the surface energy budget. A daytime cooling effect from increased vegetation activity is also modeled from a set of regional weather research and forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model simulations, but with a magnitude smaller than observed, likely because the WRF model simulates a weaker ET enhancement. Our results suggest that actions to restore native grasslands in degraded areas, roughly one-third of the plateau, will both facilitate a sustainable ecological development in this region and have local climate cobenefits. More accurate simulations of the biophysical coupling between the land surface and the atmosphere are needed to help understand regional climate change over the TP, and possible larger scale feedbacks between climate in the TP and the Asian monsoon system.

  6. Development of Design Criteria for Fluid Induced Structural Vibration in Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Catton, Ivan; Dhir, Vijay K.; Alquaddoomi, O.S.; Mitra, Deepanjan; Adinolfi, Pierangelo

    2004-03-26

    OAK-B135 Flow-induced vibration in heat exchangers has been a major cause of concern in the nuclear industry for several decades. Many incidents of failure of heat exchangers due to apparent flow-induced vibration have been reported through the USNRC incident reporting system. Almost all heat exchangers have to deal with this problem during their operation. The phenomenon has been studied since the 1970s and the database of experimental studies on flow-induced vibration is constantly updated with new findings and improved design criteria for heat exchangers. In the nuclear industry, steam generators are often affected by this problem. However, flow-induced vibration is not limited to nuclear power plants, but to any type of heat exchanger used in many industrial applications such as chemical processing, refrigeration and air conditioning. Specifically, shell and tube type heat exchangers experience flow-induced vibration due to the high velocity flow over the tube banks. Flow-induced vibration in these heat exchangers leads to equipment breakdown and hence expensive repair and process shutdown. The goal of this research is to provide accurate measurements that can help modelers to validate their models using the measured experimental parameters and thereby develop better design criteria for avoiding fluid-elastic instability in heat exchangers. The research is divided between two primary experimental efforts, the first conducted using water alone (single phase) and the second using a mixture of air or steam and water as the working fluid (two phase). The outline of this report is as follows: After the introduction to fluid-elastic instability, the experimental apparatus constructed to conduct the experiments is described in Chapter 2 along with the measurement procedures. Chapter 3 presents results obtained on the tube array and the flow loop, as well as techniques used in data processing. The project performance is described and evaluated in Chapter 4 followed by

  7. Concorde noise-induced building vibrations, Sully Plantation - Report no. 2, Chantilly, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Noise-induced building vibrations associated with Concorde operations were studied. The approach is to record the levels of induced vibrations and associated indoor/outdoor noise levels in selected homes, historic and other buildings near Dulles International Airport. Representative data are presented which were recorded at Sully Plantation, Chantilly, Virginia during the periods of May 20 through May 28, 1976, and June 14 through June 17, 1976. Recorded data provide relationships between the vibration levels of windows, walls, floors, and the noise associated with Concorde operations, other aircraft, and nonaircraft events. The results presented are drawn from the combined May-June data base which is considerably larger than the May data base covered. The levels of window, wall and floor vibratory response resulting from Concorde operations are higher than the vibratory levels associated with conventional aircraft. Furthermore, the vibratory responses of the windows are considerably higher than those of the walls and floors. The window response is higher for aircraft than recorded nonaircraft events and exhibits a linear response relationship with the overall sound pressure level. For a given sound pressure level, the Concorde may cause more vibration than a conventional aircraft due to spectral or other differences. However, the responses associated with Concorde appear to be much more dependent upon sound pressure level than spectral or other characteristics of the noise.

  8. Low frequency vibration induced streaming in a Hele-Shaw cell

    SciTech Connect

    Costalonga, M.; Brunet, P.; Peerhossaini, H.

    2015-01-15

    When an acoustic wave propagates in a fluid, it can generate a second order flow whose characteristic time is much longer than the period of the wave. Within a range of frequency between ten and several hundred Hz, a relatively simple and versatile way to generate streaming flow is to put a vibrating object in the fluid. The flow develops vortices in the viscous boundary layer located in the vicinity of the source of vibrations, leading in turn to an outer irrotational streaming called Rayleigh streaming. Because the flow originates from non-linear time-irreversible terms of the Navier-Stokes equation, this phenomenon can be used to generate efficient mixing at low Reynolds number, for instance in confined geometries. Here, we report on an experimental study of such streaming flow induced by a vibrating beam in a Hele-Shaw cell of 2 mm span using long exposure flow visualization and particle-image velocimetry measurements. Our study focuses especially on the effects of forcing frequency and amplitude on flow dynamics. It is shown that some features of this flow can be predicted by simple scaling arguments and that this vibration-induced streaming facilitates the generation of vortices.

  9. Effect of angle of attack on an optimized vortex induced vibrated energy harvester: A numerical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Md. Rejaul; Chowdhury, M. Arshad Zahangir; Goswami, Anjan

    2016-07-01

    A two-dimensional numerical study of flow induced vibration is reported in this paper to investigate flow over a semi-cricular D-shaped bluff body oriented at different angles-of-attack to determine an optimized design for energy harvesting. Bluff body structure governs fluid streamlines; therefore obtaining a suitable range of "lock in frequency" for energy harvesting purpose is dependent on refining and optimizing bluff body's shape and structure. A cantilever based novel energy harvester design incorporates the suitable angle-of-attack for optimized performance. This optimization was done by performing computations for 30°, 60° and 90° angles-of-attack. The frequency of vibration of the body was calculated at different Reynolds Number. A Fast Fourier Transformation yielded frequency of vortex shedding. From the wake velocity profile, lift oscillation and frequency of vortex shedding is estimated. Strouhal numbers of the body were analyzed at different angles-of-attack. A higher synchronized bandwidth of shedding frequencies is an indication of an optimized harvester design at different Reynolds number. The `D' shaped bluff bodies (with angle of attack of 30°,60° and 90°) are more suitable than that of cylindrical shaped bluff bodies. The research clearly stated that, bluff bodies shape has a prominent influence on vortex induced vibration and semicircular bluff body gives the highest vibration or energy under stated conditions.

  10. Evaporative cooling over the Tibetan Plateau induced by vegetation growth

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Miaogen; Piao, Shilong; Jeong, Su-Jong; Zhou, Liming; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Ciais, Philippe; Chen, Deliang; Huang, Mengtian; Jin, Chun-Sil; Li, Laurent Z. X.; Li, Yue; Myneni, Ranga B.; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Gengxin; Zhang, Yangjian; Yao, Tandong

    2015-01-01

    In the Arctic, climate warming enhances vegetation activity by extending the length of the growing season and intensifying maximum rates of productivity. In turn, increased vegetation productivity reduces albedo, which causes a positive feedback on temperature. Over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), regional vegetation greening has also been observed in response to recent warming. Here, we show that in contrast to arctic regions, increased growing season vegetation activity over the TP may have attenuated surface warming. This negative feedback on growing season vegetation temperature is attributed to enhanced evapotranspiration (ET). The extra energy available at the surface, which results from lower albedo, is efficiently dissipated by evaporative cooling. The net effect is a decrease in daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range, which is supported by statistical analyses of in situ observations and by decomposition of the surface energy budget. A daytime cooling effect from increased vegetation activity is also modeled from a set of regional weather research and forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model simulations, but with a magnitude smaller than observed, likely because the WRF model simulates a weaker ET enhancement. Our results suggest that actions to restore native grasslands in degraded areas, roughly one-third of the plateau, will both facilitate a sustainable ecological development in this region and have local climate cobenefits. More accurate simulations of the biophysical coupling between the land surface and the atmosphere are needed to help understand regional climate change over the TP, and possible larger scale feedbacks between climate in the TP and the Asian monsoon system. PMID:26170316

  11. Soft Computing Approach to Evaluate and Predict Blast-Induced Ground Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Manoj

    2010-05-01

    Drilling and blasting is still one of the major economical operations to excavate a rock mass. The consumption of explosive has been increased many folds in recent years. These explosives are mainly used for the exploitation of minerals in mining industry or the removal of undesirable rockmass for community development. The amount of chemical energy converted into mechanical energy to fragment and displace the rockmass is minimal. Only 20 to 30% of this explosive energy is utilized for the actual fragmentation and displacement of rockmass and rest of the energy is wasted in undesirable ill effects, like, ground vibration, air over pressure, fly rock, back break, noise, etc. Ground vibration induced due to blasting is very crucial and critical as compared to other ill effects due to involvement of public residing in the close vicinity of mining sites, regulating and ground vibration standards setting agencies together with mine owners and environmentalists and ecologists. Also, with the emphasis shifting towards eco-friendly, sustainable and geo-environmental activities, the field of ground vibration have now become an important and imperative parameter for safe and smooth running of any mining and civil project. The ground vibration is a wave motion, spreading outward from the blast like ripples spreading outwards due to impact of a stone dropped into a pond of water. As the vibration passes through the surface structures, it induces vibrations in those structures also. Sometimes, due to high ground vibration level, dwellings may get damaged and there is always confrontation between mine management and the people residing in the surroundings of the mine area. There is number of vibration predictors available suggested by different researchers. All the predictors estimate the PPV based on mainly two parameters (maximum charge used per delay and distance between blast face to monitoring point). However, few predictors considered attenuation/damping factor too. For

  12. Acute exposure to vibration is an apoptosis-inducing stimulus in the vocal fold epithelium.

    PubMed

    Novaleski, Carolyn K; Kimball, Emily E; Mizuta, Masanobu; Rousseau, Bernard

    2016-10-01

    Clinical voice disorders pose significant communication-related challenges to patients. The purpose of this study was to quantify the rate of apoptosis and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) signaling in vocal fold epithelial cells in response to increasing time-doses and cycle-doses of vibration. 20 New Zealand white breeder rabbits were randomized to three groups of time-doses of vibration exposure (30, 60, 120min) or a control group (120min of vocal fold adduction and abduction). Estimated cycle-doses of vocal fold vibration were extrapolated based on mean fundamental frequency. Laryngeal tissue specimens were evaluated for apoptosis and gene transcript and protein levels of TNF-α. Results revealed that terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining was significantly higher after 120min of vibration compared to the control. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed no significant effect of time-dose on the mean area of epithelial cell nuclei. Extrapolated cycle-doses of vibration exposure were closely related to experimental time-dose conditions, although no significant correlations were observed with TUNEL staining or mean area of epithelial cell nuclei. TUNEL staining was positively correlated with TNF-α protein expression. Our findings suggest that apoptosis can be induced in the vocal fold epithelium after 120min of modal intensity phonation. In contrast, shorter durations of vibration exposure do not result in apoptosis signaling. However, morphological features of apoptosis are not observed using TEM. Future studies are necessary to examine the contribution of abnormal apoptosis to vocal fold diseases. PMID:27577014

  13. Hybrid predictions of railway induced ground vibration using a combination of experimental measurements and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, K. A.; Verbraken, H.; Degrande, G.; Lombaert, G.

    2016-07-01

    Along with the rapid expansion of urban rail networks comes the need for accurate predictions of railway induced vibration levels at grade and in buildings. Current computational methods for making predictions of railway induced ground vibration rely on simplifying modelling assumptions and require detailed parameter inputs, which lead to high levels of uncertainty. It is possible to mitigate against these issues using a combination of field measurements and state-of-the-art numerical methods, known as a hybrid model. In this paper, two hybrid models are developed, based on the use of separate source and propagation terms that are quantified using in situ measurements or modelling results. These models are implemented using term definitions proposed by the Federal Railroad Administration and assessed using the specific illustration of a surface railway. It is shown that the limitations of numerical and empirical methods can be addressed in a hybrid procedure without compromising prediction accuracy.

  14. Determination of the effects of wind-induced vibration on cylindrical beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artusa, E. A.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the analysis was to determine the critical length to diameter ratio (L/Do) of a hollow, cylindrical beam subjected to wind-induced vibration. The sizes of beams ranged from 4 to 24 inches and were composed of ASTM grade A and grade B and American Petroleum Institute grade X42 steels. Calculations used maximum steady-state wind speeds of 130 mph associated with hurricane conditions possible at the Kennedy Space Center. The study examined the effect that different end support and load conditions have on the natural frequencies of the beams. Finally, methods of changing the frequency of the wind-induced vibration were examined. The conclusions drawn were that the greatest possible L/Do is achieved using welded supports and limiting the maximum applied axial and bending loads to less than 50 percent.

  15. Fatigue life assessment of top tensioned risers under vortex-induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaomin; Guo, Haiyan; Meng, Fanshun

    2010-03-01

    The fatigue life of top tensioned risers under vortex-induced vibrations (VIVs) with consideration of the effect of internal flowing fluid on the riser is analyzed in the time domain. The long-term stress histories of the riser under VIVs are calculated and the mean stresses, the number of stress cycles and amplitudes are determined by the rainflow counting method. The Palmgren-Miner rule for cumulative damage theory with a specified S-N curve is used to estimate the fatigue life of the riser. The corresponding numerical programs numerical simulation of vortex-induced vibrations (NSVIV) which can be used to calculate the VIV response and fatigue life of the riser are compiled. Finally the influences of the riser’s parameters such as flexural rigidity, top tension and internal flow velocity on the fatigue life of the riser are analyzed in detail and some conclusions are drawn.

  16. Non-linear system identification in flow-induced vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Spanos, P.D.; Zeldin, B.A.; Lu, R.

    1996-12-31

    The paper introduces a method of identification of non-linear systems encountered in marine engineering applications. The non-linearity is accounted for by a combination of linear subsystems and known zero-memory non-linear transformations; an equivalent linear multi-input-single-output (MISO) system is developed for the identification problem. The unknown transfer functions of the MISO system are identified by assembling a system of linear equations in the frequency domain. This system is solved by performing the Cholesky decomposition of a related matrix. It is shown that the proposed identification method can be interpreted as a {open_quotes}Gram-Schmidt{close_quotes} type of orthogonal decomposition of the input-output quantities of the equivalent MISO system. A numerical example involving the identification of unknown parameters of flow (ocean wave) induced forces on offshore structures elucidates the applicability of the proposed method.

  17. A follow up study of vibration induced white finger in compensation claimants

    PubMed Central

    Bovenzi, M; Della, V; Negro, C

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To follow up vibration induced white finger (VWF) in a selected group of 73 vibration exposed workers who claimed unsuccessfully for VWF compensation at a first examination. Methods: The VWF claimants were sent to our unit by the National Insurance Institute. The basic compensatory criteria included a positive history of VWF and abnormal cold response of the digital arteries. Following the first unsuccessful examination, over a mean time period of 4.1 (range 1–11) years the National Insurance Institute requested a second examination for all 73 claimants and a third examination for 29. During the follow up period, all subjects continued to work with vibratory tools. Results: There were 14 new cases who reported white finger during the follow up period. In the new VWF cases, finger blanching attacks became visible after about 3.5 years since the first examination. All incident cases of anamnestic VWF showed an abnormal cold response in the digital arteries and obtained compensation according to the basic compensatory criteria. In the entire sample of VWF claimants, there was a discrepancy between positive history of VWF symptoms at medical interview (55%) and abnormal cold provocation outcomes (19%). Digital arterial hyperresponsiveness to cold was associated with both VWF symptoms and the duration of vibration exposure since the first examination. Over the follow up period, a significant increase in the vasoconstrictor response to cold was observed in the vibration exposed workers with no symptoms of finger whiteness. Abnormal cold response was not associated with either age or smoking habit. Conclusions: Cold test measuring finger systolic blood pressure may be considered a useful laboratory method to confirm objectively VWF symptoms and to disclose abnormal cold induced vasoconstrictor response in vibration exposed workers with a negative history of VWF. Medical interview outcomes should be interpreted with caution in medicolegal situations involving VWF

  18. Investigation of the Flow-Induced Vibration in the E2 Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillo, Luciano

    2001-01-01

    An investigation of flow induced vibration due to coupling between the fluid flow and the propellants lines (LOX and RP-1) was performed. Various flow rate conditions were studied to check whether flow induced vibration was possible due to vortex shedding in both valves and pipe lines. Resonance test was conducted for all segments of the LOX-feedline for the preburner under test. In addition, critical values of frequency and velocity are calculated using a mass damping model. A simple chart characterizing the relation between frequency and velocity is developed for each component; i.e. propellant lines, valves and flow meters. It was found that flow induced vibration occurs for various segments with flow rates of 113 lb/s, 275 lb/s and 40 lb/s. Even more interesting using critical conditions for buckling, it was found that the valve or pipe may collapse for a flow rate of 275 lb/s and valve height of 10% of pipe diameter. Furthermore, two models for the acoustic pressure acting on the segments particularly for the valve are proposed.

  19. Investigation of the Flow-Induced Vibration in the E2 Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillo, Luciano

    2001-01-01

    An investigation of flow induced vibration due to coupling between the fluid flow and the propellants lines (LOX and RP-1) was performed. Various flow rate conditions were studied to check whether flow induced vibration was possible due to vortex shedding in both valves and pipe lines. Resonances test was conducted for all segments of the LOX-feedline for the preburner under test. In addition, critical values of frequency and velocity are calculated using a mass damping model. A simple chart characterizing the relation between frequency and velocity is developed for each component; i.e. propellant lines, valves and flow meters. It was found that flow induced vibration occurs for various segments with flow rates of 113 1b/s, 275 lb/s and 40 lb/s. Even more interesting using critical conditions for buckling, it was found that the valve or pipe may collapse for a flow rate of 275 lb/s and valve height of 10% of pipe diameter. Furthermore, two models for the acoustic pressure acting on the segments particularly for the valve are proposed.

  20. Long-term daily vibration exposure alters current perception threshold (CPT) sensitivity and myelinated axons in a rat-tail model of vibration-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Krajnak, Kristine; Raju, Sandya G; Miller, G Roger; Johnson, Claud; Waugh, Stacey; Kashon, Michael L; Riley, Danny A

    2016-01-01

    Repeated exposure to hand-transmitted vibration through the use of powered hand tools may result in pain and progressive reductions in tactile sensitivity. The goal of the present study was to use an established animal model of vibration-induced injury to characterize changes in sensory nerve function and cellular mechanisms associated with these alterations. Sensory nerve function was assessed weekly using the current perception threshold test and tail-flick analgesia test in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 28 d of tail vibration. After 28 d of exposure, Aβ fiber sensitivity was reduced. This reduction in sensitivity was partly attributed to structural disruption of myelin. In addition, the decrease in sensitivity was also associated with a reduction in myelin basic protein and 2',3'- cyclic nucleotide phosphodiasterase (CNPase) staining in tail nerves, and an increase in circulating calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) concentrations. Changes in Aβ fiber sensitivity and CGRP concentrations may serve as early markers of vibration-induced injury in peripheral nerves. It is conceivable that these markers may be utilized to monitor sensorineural alterations in workers exposed to vibration to potentially prevent additional injury. PMID:26852665

  1. Long-term daily vibration exposure alters current perception threshold (CPT) sensitivity and myelinated axons in a rat-tail model of vibration-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Krajnak, Kristine; Raju, Sandya G; Miller, G Roger; Johnson, Claud; Waugh, Stacey; Kashon, Michael L; Riley, Danny A

    2016-01-01

    Repeated exposure to hand-transmitted vibration through the use of powered hand tools may result in pain and progressive reductions in tactile sensitivity. The goal of the present study was to use an established animal model of vibration-induced injury to characterize changes in sensory nerve function and cellular mechanisms associated with these alterations. Sensory nerve function was assessed weekly using the current perception threshold test and tail-flick analgesia test in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 28 d of tail vibration. After 28 d of exposure, Aβ fiber sensitivity was reduced. This reduction in sensitivity was partly attributed to structural disruption of myelin. In addition, the decrease in sensitivity was also associated with a reduction in myelin basic protein and 2',3'- cyclic nucleotide phosphodiasterase (CNPase) staining in tail nerves, and an increase in circulating calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) concentrations. Changes in Aβ fiber sensitivity and CGRP concentrations may serve as early markers of vibration-induced injury in peripheral nerves. It is conceivable that these markers may be utilized to monitor sensorineural alterations in workers exposed to vibration to potentially prevent additional injury.

  2. US LMFBR (Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor): flow induced vibration program (1977-1986): A summary and overview

    SciTech Connect

    Wambsganss, M.W.; Chen, S.S.; Mulcahy, T.M.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.

    1986-09-01

    This paper summarizes the activities and accomplishments under the US LMFBR Flow Induced Vibration Program for the period 1977-1986. Since 1977 represents the date of the last IAEA IWGFR Specialists Meeting on LMFBR Flow Induced Vibration, this paper thus provides an update to the results presented at that meeting. This period also represents a period of substantial change for the US LMFBR program. A major reactor project, the FFTF, was completed and a second major project, the CRBR plant, was terminated. This change adversely impacted the US flow induced vibration program. Nevertheless, base technology activities have continued. In this paper, research in the following areas is summarized: Vibration characteristics and scaling, Turbulent buffeting and vortex shedding, Fluidelastic instabilities of tube bundles in crossflow, and Instabilities induced by leakage flows.

  3. Collision--induced absorption in dense atmospheres of cool stars

    SciTech Connect

    Borysow, Aleksandra; Joergensen, Uffe Graae

    1999-04-01

    In the atmosphere of the Sun the major interaction between the matter and the radiation is through light absorption by ions (predominantly the negative ion of hydrogen atoms), neutral atoms and a small amount of polar molecules. The majority of stars in the universe are, however, cooler and denser than our Sun, and for a large fraction of these, the above absorption processes are very weak. Here, collision-induced absorption (CIA) becomes the dominant opacity source. The radiation is absorbed during very short mutual passages ('collisions') of two non-polar molecules (and/or atoms), while their electric charge distributions are temporarily distorted which gives rise to a transient dipole moment. We present here a review of the present-day knowledge about the impact of collision-induced absorption processes on the structure and the spectrum of such stars.

  4. Novel magnetically induced membrane vibration (MMV) for fouling control in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Bilad, Muhammad R; Mezohegyi, Gergo; Declerck, Priscilla; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2012-01-01

    Conventional submerged membrane bioreactors (MBRs) rely on the coarse bubbles aeration to generate shear at the liquid-membrane interface to limit membrane fouling. Unfortunately, it is a very energy consuming method, still often resulting in a rapid decrease of membrane permeability and consequently in higher expenses. In this paper, the feasibility of a novel magnetically induced membrane vibration (MMV) system was studied in a lab-scale MBR treating synthetic wastewater. The effects on membrane fouling of applied electrical power of different operation strategies, of membrane flux and of the presence of multiple membranes on one vibrating engine on membrane fouling were investigated. The filtration performance was evaluated by determining the filtration resistance profiles and critical flux. The results showed clear advantages of the vibrating system over conventional MBR processes by ensuring higher fluxes at lower fouling rates. Intermittent vibration was found a promising strategy for both efficient fouling control and significant energy saving. The optimised MMV system is presumed to lead to significant energy and cost reduction in up-scaled MBR operations.

  5. Vortex-induced vibrations of pipes conveying fluid in the subcritical and supercritical regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, H. L.; Wang, L.; Qian, Q.; Ni, Q.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, the vortex-induced vibrations of a hinged-hinged pipe conveying fluid are examined, by considering the internal fluid velocities ranging from the subcritical to the supercritical regions. The nonlinear coupled equations of motion are discretized by employing a four-mode Galerkin method. Based on numerical simulations, diagrams of the displacement amplitude versus the external fluid reduced velocity are constructed for pipes transporting subcritical and supercritical fluid flows. It is shown that when the internal fluid velocity is in the subcritical region, the pipe is always vibrating periodically around the pre-buckling configuration and that with increasing external fluid reduced velocity the peak amplitude of the pipe increases first and then decreases, with jumping phenomenon between the upper and lower response branches. When the internal fluid velocity is in the supercritical region, however, the pipe displays various dynamical behaviors around the post-buckling configuration such as inverse period-doubling bifurcations, periodic and chaotic motions. Moreover, the bifurcation diagrams for vibration amplitude of the pipe with varying internal fluid velocities are constructed for each of the lowest four modes of the pipe in the lock-in conditions. The results show that there is a significant difference between the vibrations of the pipe around the pre-buckling configuration and those around the post-buckling configuration.

  6. Vortex-induced vibrations of a flexible cylinder at large inclination angle.

    PubMed

    Bourguet, Rémi; Triantafyllou, Michael S

    2015-01-28

    The free vibrations of a flexible circular cylinder inclined at 80° within a uniform current are investigated by means of direct numerical simulation, at Reynolds number 500 based on the body diameter and inflow velocity. In spite of the large inclination angle, the cylinder exhibits regular in-line and cross-flow vibrations excited by the flow through the lock-in mechanism, i.e. synchronization of body motion and vortex formation. A profound reconfiguration of the wake is observed compared with the stationary body case. The vortex-induced vibrations are found to occur under parallel, but also oblique vortex shedding where the spanwise wavenumbers of the wake and structural response coincide. The shedding angle and frequency increase with the spanwise wavenumber. The cylinder vibrations and fluid forces present a persistent spanwise asymmetry which relates to the asymmetry of the local current relative to the body axis, owing to its in-line bending. In particular, the asymmetrical trend of flow-body energy transfer results in a monotonic orientation of the structural waves. Clockwise and counter-clockwise figure eight orbits of the body alternate along the span, but the latter are found to be more favourable to structure excitation. Additional simulations at normal incidence highlight a dramatic deviation from the independence principle, which states that the system behaviour is essentially driven by the normal component of the inflow velocity.

  7. Influence of subglottic stenosis on the flow-induced vibration of a computational vocal fold model

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Simeon L.; Thomson, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of subglottic stenosis on vocal fold vibration is investigated. An idealized stenosis is defined, parameterized, and incorporated into a two-dimensional, fully-coupled finite element model of the vocal folds and laryngeal airway. Flow-induced responses of the vocal fold model to varying severities of stenosis are compared. The model vibration was not appreciably affected by stenosis severities of up to 60% occlusion. Model vibration was altered by stenosis severities of 90% or greater, evidenced by decreased superior model displacement, glottal width amplitude, and flow rate amplitude. Predictions of vibration frequency and maximum flow declination rate were also altered by high stenosis severities. The observed changes became more pronounced with increasing stenosis severity and inlet pressure, and the trends correlated well with flow resistance calculations. Flow visualization was used to characterize subglottal flow patterns in the space between the stenosis and the vocal folds. Underlying mechanisms for the observed changes, possible implications for human voice production, and suggestions for future work are discussed. PMID:23503699

  8. Influence of subglottic stenosis on the flow-induced vibration of a computational vocal fold model.

    PubMed

    Smith, Simeon L; Thomson, Scott L

    2013-04-01

    The effect of subglottic stenosis on vocal fold vibration is investigated. An idealized stenosis is defined, parameterized, and incorporated into a two-dimensional, fully-coupled finite element model of the vocal folds and laryngeal airway. Flow-induced responses of the vocal fold model to varying severities of stenosis are compared. The model vibration was not appreciably affected by stenosis severities of up to 60% occlusion. Model vibration was altered by stenosis severities of 90% or greater, evidenced by decreased superior model displacement, glottal width amplitude, and flow rate amplitude. Predictions of vibration frequency and maximum flow declination rate were also altered by high stenosis severities. The observed changes became more pronounced with increasing stenosis severity and inlet pressure, and the trends correlated well with flow resistance calculations. Flow visualization was used to characterize subglottal flow patterns in the space between the stenosis and the vocal folds. Underlying mechanisms for the observed changes, possible implications for human voice production, and suggestions for future work are discussed.

  9. Influence of subglottic stenosis on the flow-induced vibration of a computational vocal fold model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Simeon L.; Thomson, Scott L.

    2013-04-01

    The effect of subglottic stenosis on vocal fold vibration is investigated. An idealized stenosis is defined, parameterized, and incorporated into a two-dimensional, fully coupled finite element model of the vocal folds and laryngeal airway. Flow-induced responses of the vocal fold model to varying severities of stenosis are compared. The model vibration was not appreciably affected by stenosis severities of up to 60% occlusion. Model vibration was altered by stenosis severities of 90% or greater, evidenced by decreased superior model displacement, glottal width amplitude, and flow rate amplitude. Predictions of vibration frequency and maximum flow declination rate were also altered by high stenosis severities. The observed changes became more pronounced with increasing stenosis severity and inlet pressure, and the trends correlated well with flow resistance calculations. Flow visualization was used to characterize subglottal flow patterns in the space between the stenosis and the vocal folds. Underlying mechanisms for the observed changes, possible implications for human voice production, and suggestions for future work are discussed.

  10. Predictions of Experimentally Observed Stochastic Ground Vibrations Induced by Blasting

    PubMed Central

    Kostić, Srđan; Perc, Matjaž; Vasović, Nebojša; Trajković, Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we investigate the blast induced ground motion recorded at the limestone quarry “Suva Vrela” near Kosjerić, which is located in the western part of Serbia. We examine the recorded signals by means of surrogate data methods and a determinism test, in order to determine whether the recorded ground velocity is stochastic or deterministic in nature. Longitudinal, transversal and the vertical ground motion component are analyzed at three monitoring points that are located at different distances from the blasting source. The analysis reveals that the recordings belong to a class of stationary linear stochastic processes with Gaussian inputs, which could be distorted by a monotonic, instantaneous, time-independent nonlinear function. Low determinism factors obtained with the determinism test further confirm the stochastic nature of the recordings. Guided by the outcome of time series analysis, we propose an improved prediction model for the peak particle velocity based on a neural network. We show that, while conventional predictors fail to provide acceptable prediction accuracy, the neural network model with four main blast parameters as input, namely total charge, maximum charge per delay, distance from the blasting source to the measuring point, and hole depth, delivers significantly more accurate predictions that may be applicable on site. We also perform a sensitivity analysis, which reveals that the distance from the blasting source has the strongest influence on the final value of the peak particle velocity. This is in full agreement with previous observations and theory, thus additionally validating our methodology and main conclusions. PMID:24358140

  11. Collision-induced vibrational absorption in molecular hydrogens

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, S.P.

    1993-05-01

    Collision induced absorption (CIA) spectra of the first overtone bands of H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, and HD have been recorded for gas densities up to 500 amagat at 77-300 K. Analyses of these spectra reveal that (1) contrary to the observations in the fundamental bands, the contribution of the isotropic overlap interaction to the first overtone bands is negligible, (2) the squares of the matrix elements B{sub 32}(R)/ea{sub o} [= {lambda}{sub 32} exp(-(R-{sigma})/{rho}{sub 32}) + 3 (R/a{sub o}){sup -4}] where the subscripts 3 and 2 represent L and {lambda}, respectively, account for the absorption intensity of the bands and (3) the mixed term, 2,3 {lambda}{sub 32} exp (-(R-{sigma})/{rho}{sub 32}) <{vert_bar}Q{vert_bar}> <{alpha}> (R/a){sup -4}, gives a negative contribution. In the CIA spectra of H{sub 2} in its second overtone region recorded at 77, 201 and 298 K for gas densities up to 1000 amagat, a dip in the Q branch with characteristic Q{sub p} and Q{sub R} components has been observed. The analysis of the absorption profiles reveals, in addition to the previously known effects, the occurrence of the triple-collision transitions of H{sub 2} of the type Q{sub 1}(J) + Q{sub 1}(J) + Q{sub 1}(J) for the first time. From the profile analysis the absorption coefficient of these transitions is obtained.

  12. Effects of hydration levels on the bandwidth of microwave resonant absorption induced by confined acoustic vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tzu-Ming; Chen, Hung-Pin; Yeh, Shih-Chia; Wu, Chih-Yu; Wang, Chung-Hsiung; Luo, Tang-Nian; Chen, Yi-Jan; Liu, Shen-Iuan; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2009-10-01

    We found the hydration levels on the capsid surface of viruses can affect the bandwidth of microwave resonant absorption (MRA) induced by the confined acoustic vibrations (CAV). By decreasing the pH value of solution down to 5.2 or inactivating the capsid proteins, we enhanced the surface hydrophilicity and increased the magnitude of surface potentials. Both of these surface manipulations raised the surface affinity to water molecules and narrowed the bandwidths of CAV-induced MRA. Our results validate the viscoelastic transition of hydration shells.

  13. Impact of Typhoon-induced sea surface cooling on the track of next Typhoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Y.; Horiguchi, M.; Kodera, K.; Tachibana, Y.; Yamazaki, K.

    2015-12-01

    Typhoons (TCs) MATMO, HALONG, and NAKRI (2014), which caused Japan catastrophic disaster, landed the western part of Japan. The TCs came to Japan one after another during late July to early August 2014. The tracks of these TCs were similar, i.e., the TCs followed the western edge of the subtropical northwestern Pacific high (SNPH). However, the tracks gradually reached to Japan, which were associated with weakening the westward expansion of the SNPH. It was found that the changes in westward expansion of the SNPH were associated with TC-induced sea surface cooling of previous Typhoon. It has previously been reported that TC-induced sea surface cooling is mainly caused by Ekman upwelling and vertical turbulent mixing. The TCs MATMO, HALONG, and NAKRI passed around the Philippines, and induced sea surface cooling of this area. The sea surface temperatures of this area are important for Pacific-Japan pattern, which was associated with the westward expansion of the SNPH. Consequently, previous Typhoon induced sea surface cooling around the Philippines, which weakening the westward expansion of the SNPH. Then, the tracks of next Typhoon were changed, and gradually reached to Japan.

  14. Free and friction-induced in-plane vibration of annular disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzou, Kevin Ihwa

    1998-12-01

    Vibration and noise from disk brakes negatively affect passenger comfort and perceptions of quality in both the automotive and aircraft industries. With regulatory pressure for stopping distance and the emphasis on smaller and lighter components, new brakes not only have to meet design and performance requirements, but must minimize vibration as well. Although materials and geometries vary from application to application, disk brakes generally consist of rotating annular disk(s) subjected to in-plane friction which dissipates the kinetic energy of the vehicle. During this process, friction-induced vibration of the disk(s) occurs, resulting in brake noise. Although sound radiation results from a disk's out-of-plane vibration, substantial in-plane motions must also be present due to the in-plane friction. This in-plane vibration can play a key role in the dynamics of the friction interface and hence, in brake noise and vibration. In this thesis, experimental and analytical methods are used to study the in-plane vibration of annular disks with a view toward understanding disk brake vibration. The issues that are addressed and the major findings include: (1) Characterization of in-plane modes in annular disks. For automotive rotors and thick annular disks, in-plane modes of vibration have frequencies that are both comparable to low-order bending modes and within the measured range for brake squeal. Despite the large in-plane friction force provided by disk brakes, no existing model includes in-plane disk motion with in-plane friction. A three-dimensional vibration model is used to determine frequencies and mode shapes for an annular disk subject to two boundary conditions: all surfaces traction-free, and all free except for a constrained inner edge. (2) Identification of frequency clusters. Using experimental and analytical methods, the frequencies for families of in-plane modes are found to converge to a common value with increasing disk thickness to the limit of the

  15. Factors influencing the effectiveness of scalp cooling in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia.

    PubMed

    Komen, Manon M C; Smorenburg, Carolien H; van den Hurk, Corina J G; Nortier, Johan W R

    2013-01-01

    The success of scalp cooling in preventing or reducing chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is highly variable between patients and chemotherapy regimens. The outcome of hair preservation is often unpredictable and depends on various factors. Methods. We performed a structured search of literature published from 1970 to February 2012 for articles that reported on factors influencing the effectiveness of scalp cooling to prevent CIA in patients with cancer. Results. The literature search identified 192 reports, of which 32 studies were considered relevant. Randomized studies on scalp cooling are scarce and there is little information on the determinants of the result. The effectiveness of scalp cooling for hair preservation depends on dose and type of chemotherapy, with less favorable results at higher doses. Temperature seems to be an important determinant. Various studies suggest that a subcutaneous scalp temperature less than 22 °C is required for hair preservation. Conclusions. The effectiveness of scalp cooling for hair preservation varies by chemotherapy type and dose, and probably by the degree and duration of cooling. PMID:23650021

  16. Visual and oculomotor responses induced by neck vibration in normal subjects and labyrinthine-defective patients.

    PubMed

    Popov, K E; Lekhel, H; Faldon, M; Bronstein, A M; Gresty, M A

    1999-10-01

    Three-dimensional scleral search coil eye movement recordings were obtained in five normal subjects and four patients with absent vestibular function, during unilateral vibration of the neck in the supine position. The purpose of the experiments was to investigate any role played by eye movements in the illusion that a small fixation target, viewed in an otherwise dark room, moves when vibration is applied to the neck (propriogyral illusion). Vibration was applied to the right dorsal neck muscles in three visual conditions: total darkness, fixating a light-emitting diode (LED) in an otherwise totally dark room and LED fixation in the normally lit room. Normal subjects reported that during vibration, with LED fixation in an otherwise dark room, the target appeared to move predominantly leftwards and patients reported a predominantly downward movement. Eye movements were consistently elicited in all subjects. In normal subjects there was a slow-phase eye movement predominantly to the right, interrupted by nystagmic quick phases in the opposite direction, whereas in the patients slow phases were predominantly upward with quick phases downward. Eye movements were larger in the dark but the velocity of the initial slow-phase component (<200 ms) did not change with visual conditions. Mean latencies of the eye movements were typically 80 ms but in individual trials could be as short as 40- 60 ms. The eye movements were considerably larger in the patients (e.g. mean cumulative slow-phase displacement in the dark 12 degrees vs 2 degrees; maximum velocity ca. 5 degrees /s vs 1 degrees /s). These results indicate that the propriogyral illusion is secondary to vibration-induced eye movements, presumably mediated by the cervico-ocular reflex (COR). The difference in direction of the illusion and eye movements in the patients may be related to a predominant enhancement of the vertical COR, secondary to the prominent exposure to vertical retinal slippage experienced by these

  17. Competitive reaction pathways in vibrationally induced photodissociation of H2SO4.

    PubMed

    Yosa Reyes, Juvenal; Nagy, Tibor; Meuwly, Markus

    2014-09-14

    Vibrationally induced photodissociation of sulfuric acid into H2O + SO3 is investigated based on reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Multisurface adiabatic reactive MD simulations allow us to follow both, H-transfer and water elimination after excitation of the ν9 OH-stretching mode. Analysis of several thousand trajectories finds that the H2O and SO3 fragments have distinct final state distributions with respect to translational, rotational, and vibrational degrees of freedom. Rotational distributions peak at quantum numbers j ≤ 5 for water and j ≈ 60 for SO3. The final state distributions should be useful in identifying products in forthcoming experiments. Based on the MD trajectories, a kinetic scheme has been developed which is able to explain most of the trajectory data and suggests that IVR is very rapid. Typical lifetimes of the excited complex range from several 10 picoseconds to hundreds of nanoseconds, depending on the excitation level. Including temperature and pressure profiles characteristic for the stratosphere in the kinetic model shows that excitations higher than ν9 = 4 can significantly contribute to the photolysis rate. This extends and specifies earlier work in that multi-level modeling is required to understand the significance of vibrationally induced decomposition pathways of sulfuric acid in the middle atmosphere. PMID:25072517

  18. Nonlinear characteristics analysis of vortex-induced vibration for a three-dimensional flexible tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhipeng; Jiang, Naibin; Zang, Fenggang; Zhang, Yixiong; Huang, Xuan; Wu, Wanjun

    2016-05-01

    Vortex-induced vibration of a three-dimensional flexible tube is one of the key problems to be considered in many engineering situations. This paper aims to investigate the nonlinear dynamic behaviors and response characteristics of a three-dimensional tube under turbulent flow. The three-dimensional unsteady, viscous, incompressible Navier-Stokes equation and LES turbulence model are solved with the finite volume approach, and the dynamic equilibrium equations are discretized by the finite element theory. A three-dimensional fully coupled numerical model for vortex-induced vibration of flexible tube is proposed. The model realized the fluid-structure interaction with solving the fluid flow and the structure vibration simultaneously. Based on this model, Response regimes, trajectory, phase difference, fluid force coefficient and vortex shedding frequency are obtained. The nonlinear phenomena of lock-in, phase-switch are captured successfully. Meanwhile, the limit cycle, bifurcation of lift coefficient and displacement are analyzed using phase portrait and Poincare section. The results reveal that, a quasi-upper branch occurs in the present fluid-flexible tube coupling system with high mass-damping and low mass ratio. There is no bifurcation of lift coefficient and lateral displacement occurred in the three-dimensional flexible tube submitted to uniform turbulent flow.

  19. Irrigation Induced Surface Cooling in the Context of Modern and Increased Greenhouse Gas Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Puma, Michael J.; Krakauer, Nir Y.

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that expected warming trends from increased greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing have been locally masked by irrigation induced cooling, and it is uncertain how the magnitude of this irrigation masking effect will change in the future. Using an irrigation dataset integrated into a global general circulation model, we investigate the equilibrium magnitude of irrigation induced cooling under modern (Year 2000) and increased (A1B Scenario, Year 2050) GHG forcing, using modern irrigation rates in both scenarios. For the modern scenario, the cooling is largest over North America, India, the Middle East, and East Asia. Under increased GHG forcing, this cooling effect largely disappears over North America, remains relatively unchanged over India, and intensifies over parts of China and the Middle East. For North America, irrigation significantly increases precipitation under modern GHG forcing; this precipitation enhancement largely disappears under A1B forcing, reducing total latent heat fluxes and the overall irrigation cooling effect. Over India, irrigation rates are high enough to keep pace with increased evaporative demand from the increased GHG forcing and the magnitude of the cooling is maintained. Over China, GHG forcing reduces precipitation and shifts the region to a drier evaporative regime, leading to a relatively increased impact of additional water from irrigation on the surface energy balance. Irrigation enhances precipitation in the Middle East under increased GHG forcing, increasing total latent heat fluxes and enhancing the irrigation cooling effect. Ultimately, the extent to which irrigation will continue to compensate for the warming from increased GHG forcing will primarily depend on changes in the background evaporative regime, secondary irrigation effects (e.g. clouds, precipitation), and the ability of societies to maintain (or increase) current irrigation rates.

  20. Seminal plasma proteins inhibit in vitro- and cooling-induced capacitation in boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Vadnais, Melissa L; Roberts, Kenneth P

    2010-01-01

    Dilute boar seminal plasma (SP) has been shown to inhibit in vitro capacitation and cooling-induced capacitation-like changes in boar spermatozoa, as assessed by the ability of the spermatozoa to undergo an ionophore-induced acrosome reaction. We hypothesised that the protein component of SP is responsible for this effect. To test this hypothesis, varying concentrations of total SP protein or SP proteins fractionated by heparin binding were assayed for their ability to inhibit in vitro capacitation, as well as cooling- and cryopreservation-induced capacitation-like changes. In vitro capacitation and cooling-induced capacitation-like changes were prevented by 10% whole SP, as well as by total proteins extracted from SP at concentrations greater than 500 microg mL(-1). No amount of SP protein was able to prevent cryopreservation-induced capacitation-like changes. Total SP proteins were fractionated based on their heparin-binding properties and the heparin-binding fraction was shown to possess capacitation inhibitory activity at concentrations as low as 250 microg mL(-1). The proteins in the heparin-binding fraction were subjected to mass spectrometry and identified. The predominant proteins were three members of the spermadhesin families, namely AQN-3, AQN-1 and AWN, and SP protein pB1. We conclude that one or more of these heparin-binding SP proteins is able to inhibit in vitro capacitation and cooling-induced capacitation-like changes, but not cryopreservation-induced capacitation-like changes, in boar spermatozoa. PMID:20591323

  1. Modeling and control of flow-induced vibrations of a flexible hydrofoil in viscous flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caverly, Ryan James; Li, Chenyang; Chae, Eun Jung; Forbes, James Richard; Young, Yin Lu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a reduced-order model (ROM) of the flow-induced vibrations of a flexible cantilevered hydrofoil is developed and used to design an active feedback controller. The ROM is developed using data from high-fidelity viscous fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations and includes nonlinear terms to accurately capture the effect of lock-in. An active linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller is designed based on a linearization of the ROM and is implemented in simulation with the ROM and the high-fidelity viscous FSI model. A controller saturation method is also presented that ensures that the control force applied to the system remains within a prescribed range. Simulation results demonstrate that the LQG controller successfully suppresses vibrations in both the ROM and viscous FSI simulations using a reasonable amount of control force.

  2. Low Mass-Damping Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Single Cylinder at Moderate Reynolds Number.

    PubMed

    Jus, Y; Longatte, E; Chassaing, J-C; Sagaut, P

    2014-10-01

    The feasibility and accuracy of large eddy simulation is investigated for the case of three-dimensional unsteady flows past an elastically mounted cylinder at moderate Reynolds number. Although these flow problems are unconfined, complex wake flow patterns may be observed depending on the elastic properties of the structure. An iterative procedure is used to solve the structural dynamic equation to be coupled with the Navier-Stokes system formulated in a pseudo-Eulerian way. A moving mesh method is involved to deform the computational domain according to the motion of the fluid structure interface. Numerical simulations of vortex-induced vibrations are performed for a freely vibrating cylinder at Reynolds number 3900 in the subcritical regime under two low mass-damping conditions. A detailed physical analysis is provided for a wide range of reduced velocities, and the typical three-branch response of the amplitude behavior usually reported in the experiments is exhibited and reproduced by numerical simulation.

  3. Flow-induced vibration of the SSME Lox posts: additional issues. [Space shuttle main engine

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.S.

    1984-12-01

    A mathematical model is presented for flow-induced vibration of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) liquid oxygen (LOX) posts. The definition of the critical flow velocity is addressed, and detuning of the vibrations of the LOX posts is discussed. Nonuniform flow distributions in the axial and transverse directions are examined briefly, followed by upstream turbulence. The dependence of response upon post location is addressed briefly. Scruton's number, a mass-damping parameter, is defined and its value for the SSME LOX posts is given. Also discussed are the interaction of turbulent buffeting and fluidelastic instability, post arrangement, and swirlers around the posts. The differences are discussed between the quasi-static, the analytical, and the general analytical mathematical models. (LEW)

  4. Chemical reactions of water molecules on Ru(0001) induced by selective excitation of vibrational modes

    SciTech Connect

    Mugarza, Aitor; Shimizu, Tomoko K.; Ogletree, D. Frank; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-05-07

    Tunneling electrons in a scanning tunneling microscope were used to excite specific vibrational quantum states of adsorbed water and hydroxyl molecules on a Ru(0 0 0 1) surface. The excited molecules relaxed by transfer of energy to lower energy modes, resulting in diffusion, dissociation, desorption, and surface-tip transfer processes. Diffusion of H{sub 2}O molecules could be induced by excitation of the O-H stretch vibration mode at 445 meV. Isolated molecules required excitation of one single quantum while molecules bonded to a C atom required at least two quanta. Dissociation of single H{sub 2}O molecules into H and OH required electron energies of 1 eV or higher while dissociation of OH required at least 2 eV electrons. In contrast, water molecules forming part of a cluster could be dissociated with electron energies of 0.5 eV.

  5. Coupled analysis of multi-impact energy harvesting from low-frequency wind induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jin; Zhang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Energy need from off-grid locations has been critical for effective real-time monitoring and control to ensure structural safety and reliability. To harvest energy from ambient environments, the piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting system has been proven very efficient to convert high frequency vibrations into usable electrical energy. However, due to the low frequency nature of the vibrations of civil infrastructures, such as those induced from vehicle impacts, wind, and waves, the application of a traditional piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting system is greatly restrained since the output power drops dramatically with the reduction of vibration frequencies. This paper focuses on the coupled analysis of a proposed piezoelectric multi-impact wind-energy-harvesting device that can effectively up-convert low frequency wind-induced vibrations into high frequency ones. The device consists of an H-shape beam and four bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beams. The H-shape beam, which can be easily triggered to vibrate at a low wind speed, is originated from the first Tacoma Narrows Bridge, which failed at wind speeds of 18.8 m s-1 in 1940. The multi-impact mechanism between the H-shape beam and the bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beams is incorporated to improve the harvesting performance at lower frequencies. During the multi-impact process, a series of sequential impacts between the H-shape beam and the cantilever beams can trigger high frequency vibrations of the cantilever beams and result in high output power with a considerably high efficiency. In the coupled analysis, the coupled structural, aerodynamic, and electrical equations are solved to obtain the dynamic response and the power output of the proposed harvesting device. A parametric study for several parameters in the coupled analysis framework is carried out including the external resistance, wind speed, and the configuration of the H-shape beam. The average harvested power for the piezoelectric cantilever

  6. Cooling mechanisms of the planetary thermospheres: the key role of O atom vibrational excitation of CO2 and NO.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ramesh D; Roble, Raymond G

    2002-10-18

    Cooling due to infrared emissions from O atom excited CO2 and NO is a critically important process in the thermal budget of the terrestrial thermosphere. Increasing CO2 density due to human activity makes the role of its emission particularly worthy of quantitative evaluation. Furthermore, the O atom excited 15 microns CO2 emission has a unique role in the lower thermosphere of Venus where it is the only significant cooling mechanism; it is also an important process in the Martian thermosphere. The experimental and theoretical status of these rate coefficients is reviewed and the unsatisfactory current state of knowledge is pointed out.

  7. Numerical and experimental investigation of natural flow-induced vibrations of flexible hydrofoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Eun Jung; Akcabay, Deniz Tolga; Lelong, Alexandra; Astolfi, Jacques Andre; Young, Yin Lu

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this work is to present combined numerical and experimental studies of natural flow-induced vibrations of flexible hydrofoils. The focus is on identifying the dependence of the foil's vibration frequencies and damping characteristics on the inflow velocity, angle of attack, and solid-to-fluid added mass ratio. Experimental results are shown for a cantilevered polyacetate (POM) hydrofoil tested in the cavitation tunnel at the French Naval Academy Research Institute (IRENav). The foil is observed to primarily behave as a chordwise rigid body and undergoes spanwise bending and twisting deformations, and the flow is observed to be effectively two-dimensional (2D) because of the strong lift retention at the free tip caused by a small gap with a thickness less than the wall boundary layer. Hence, the viscous fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model is formulated by coupling a 2D unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) model with a two degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) model representing the spanwise tip bending and twisting deformations. Good agreements were observed between viscous FSI predictions and experimental measurements of natural flow-induced vibrations in fully turbulent and attached flow conditions. The foil vibrations were found to be dominated by the natural frequencies in absence of large scale vortex shedding due to flow separation. The natural frequencies and fluid damping coefficients were found to vary with velocity, angle of attack, and solid-to-fluid added mass ratio. In addition, the numerical results showed that the in-water to in-air natural frequency ratios decreased rapidly, and the fluid damping coefficients increased rapidly, as the solid-to-fluid added mass ratio decreases. Uncoupled mode (UM) linear potential theory was found to significantly over-predict the fluid damping for cases of lightweight flexible hydrofoils, and this over-prediction increased with higher velocity and lower solid-to-fluid added mass ratio.

  8. Raynaud's phenomenon among men and women with noise-induced hearing loss in relation to vibration exposure.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Hans; Burström, Lage; Nilsson, Tohr

    2014-01-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon is characterized by constriction in blood supply to the fingers causing finger blanching, of white fingers (WF) and is triggered by cold. Earlier studies found that workers using vibrating hand-held tools and who had vibration-induced white fingers (VWF) had an increased risk for hearing loss compared with workers without VWF. This study examined the occurrence of Raynaud's phenomenon among men and women with noise-induced hearing loss in relation to vibration exposure. All 342 participants had a confirmed noise-induced hearing loss medico legally accepted as work-related by AFA Insurance. Each subject answered a questionnaire concerning their health status and the kinds of exposures they had at the time when their hearing loss was first discovered. The questionnaire covered types of exposures, discomforts in the hands or fingers, diseases and medications affecting the blood circulation, the use of alcohol and tobacco and for women, the use of hormones and whether they had been pregnant. The participation rate was 41% (n = 133) with 38% (n = 94) for men and 50% (n = 39) for women. 84 men and 36 women specified if they had Raynaud's phenomenon and also if they had used hand-held vibrating machines. Nearly 41% of them had used hand-held vibrating machines and 18% had used vibrating machines at least 2 h each workday. There were 23 men/6 women with Raynaud's phenomenon. 37% reported WF among those participants who were exposed to hand-arm vibration (HAV) and 15% among those not exposed to HAV. Among the participants with hearing loss with daily use of vibrating hand-held tools more than twice as many reports WF compared with participants that did not use vibrating hand-held tools. This could be interpreted as Raynaud's phenomenon could be associated with an increased risk for noise-induced hearing loss. However, the low participation rate limits the generalization of the results from this study.

  9. Venus pancake dome formation: Morphologic effects of a cooling-induced variable viscosity during emplacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Zuber, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    The distinctive steep-sided 'pancake' domes discovered in the Magellan images of Venus have morphologies that suggest formation by a single continuous emplacement of a high viscosity magma. A resemblance of the venusian domes to much smaller terrestrial rhyolite and dacite volcanic domes has prompted some authors to suggest that the domes on Venus also have high silica compositions and thus, high viscosities. However, viscosity is a function of crystallinity as well as silica content in a magma, and thus increases as a result of magmatic cooling. To investigate the effect of a cooling-induced viscosity increase on dome morphology, we have modeled the domes as radial viscous gravity currents that cool during emplacement. Various aspects of the investigation are discussed.

  10. Laser induced rovibrational cooling of the linear polyatomic ion C{sub 2}H{sub 2}{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Deb, Nabanita; Heazlewood, Brianna R.; Rennick, Christopher J.; Softley, Timothy P.

    2014-04-28

    The laser-induced blackbody-assisted rotational cooling of a linear polyatomic ion, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}{sup +}, in its {sup 2}Π ground electronic state in the presence of the blackbody radiation field at 300 K and 77 K is investigated theoretically using a rate-equations model. Although pure rotational transitions are forbidden in this non-polar species, the ν{sub 5} cis-bending mode is infrared active and the (1-0) band of this mode strongly overlaps the 300 K blackbody spectrum. Hence the lifetimes of state-selected rotational levels are found to be short compared to the typical timescale of ion trapping experiments. The ν{sub 5} (1-0) transition is split by the Renner-Teller coupling of vibrational and electronic angular momentum, and by the spin-orbit coupling, into six principal components and these effects are included in the calculations. In this paper, a rotational-cooling scheme is proposed that involves simultaneous pumping of a set of closely spaced Q-branch transitions on the {sup 2}Δ{sub 5/2} − {sup 2}Π{sub 3/2} band together with two Q-branch lines in the {sup 2}Σ{sup +} − {sup 2}Π{sub 1/2} band. It is shown that this should lead to >70% of total population in the lowest rotational level at 300 K and over 99% at 77 K. In principle, the multiple Q-branch lines could be pumped with just two broad-band (∼Δν = 0.4–3 cm{sup −1}) infrared lasers.

  11. Vibration-induced extra torque during electrically-evoked contractions of the human calf muscles

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    beneficial for many therapeutic interventions and vibration-based exercise programs. The command for the vibration-induced extra torques presumably activates spinal motoneurons following the size principle, which is a desirable feature for stimulation paradigms. PMID:20537167

  12. Ice water submersion for rapid cooling in severe drug-induced hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Laskowski, Larissa K.; Landry, Adaira; Vassallo, Susi U.; Hoffman, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Context The optimal method of cooling hyperthermic patients is controversial. Although controlled data support ice water submersion, many authorities recommend a mist and fan technique. We report two patients with drug-induced hyperthermia, to demonstrate the rapid cooing rates of ice water submersion. Case details Case 1. A 27-year-old man presented with a sympathomimetic toxic syndrome and a core temperature of 41.4°C after ingesting 4-fluoroamphetamine. He was submerged in ice water and his core temperature fell to 38°C within 18 minutes (a mean cooling rate of 0.18°C/min). His vital signs stabilized, his mental status improved and he left on hospital day 2. Case 2. A 32-year-old man with a sympathomimetic toxic syndrome after cocaine use was transported in a body bag and arrived with a core temperature of 44.4°C. He was intubated, sedated with IV benzodiazepines, and submerged in ice water. After 20 minutes his temperature fell to 38.8°C (a cooling rate of 0.28°C/min). He was extubated the following day, and discharged on day 10. Discussion In these two cases, cooling rates exceeded those reported for mist and fan technique. Since the priority in hyperthermia is rapid cooling, clinical data need to be collected to reaffirm the optimal approach. PMID:25695144

  13. Mechanism of vibration-induced repulsion force on a particle in a viscous fluid cell.

    PubMed

    Saadatmand, Mehrrad; Kawaji, Masahiro

    2013-08-01

    Space platforms such as the Space Shuttle and International Space Station have been considered an ideal environment for production of protein and semiconductor crystals of superior quality due to the negligible gravity-induced convection. Although it was believed that under microgravity environment diffusive mass transport would dominate the growth of the crystals, some related experiments have not shown satisfactory results possibly due to the movement of the growing crystals in fluid cells caused by small vibrations present in the space platforms called g-jitter. In ground-based experiments, there have been clear observations of attraction and repulsion of a solid particle with respect to a nearby wall of the fluid cell due to small vibrations. The present work is a numerical investigation on the physical mechanisms responsible for the repulsion force, which has been predicted to increase with the cell vibration frequency and amplitude, as well as the fluid viscosity. Moreover, the simulations have revealed that the repulsion force occurs mostly due to the increased pressure in the narrow gap between the particle and the nearest wall. PMID:24032936

  14. Mechanism of vibration-induced repulsion force on a particle in a viscous fluid cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadatmand, Mehrrad; Kawaji, Masahiro

    2013-08-01

    Space platforms such as the Space Shuttle and International Space Station have been considered an ideal environment for production of protein and semiconductor crystals of superior quality due to the negligible gravity-induced convection. Although it was believed that under microgravity environment diffusive mass transport would dominate the growth of the crystals, some related experiments have not shown satisfactory results possibly due to the movement of the growing crystals in fluid cells caused by small vibrations present in the space platforms called g-jitter. In ground-based experiments, there have been clear observations of attraction and repulsion of a solid particle with respect to a nearby wall of the fluid cell due to small vibrations. The present work is a numerical investigation on the physical mechanisms responsible for the repulsion force, which has been predicted to increase with the cell vibration frequency and amplitude, as well as the fluid viscosity. Moreover, the simulations have revealed that the repulsion force occurs mostly due to the increased pressure in the narrow gap between the particle and the nearest wall.

  15. Strong nonlinearity of mesoscopic vibrational modes induced by electron-phonon coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovtsev, Kirill; Dykman, M. I.

    We show that the electron-phonon coupling can lead to a strong nonlinearity of vibrational modes in semiconductor nano- and micro-resonators. For typical mode frequencies, the electron distribution adiabatically follows lattice strain. Therefore strain leads to redistribution of the electron density over the valleys of the conduction band. It also leads to the onset of a spatial charge. The parameter that controls the distribution is the ratio of the deformation potential to the electron chemical potential or temperature. It is ~102 for many semiconductors of interest even when they are heavily doped. Therefore the change of the electron distribution is strongly nonlinear in the strain. As a consequence, the stress induced by the electron-phonon coupling is also strongly nonlinear. We have found the vibration nonlinearity parameters for n-doped Si and calculated the amplitude dependence of the frequencies of several low-lying Si resonator modes with account taken of their spatial structure. The results are compared with the recent experimental data that shows strong effect of doping on the vibration nonlinearity.

  16. Studies of collision-induced emission in the fundamental vibration-rotation band of H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caledonia, G. E.; Krech, R. H.; Wilkerson, T.; Taylor, R. L.; Birnbaum, G.

    Measurements are presented of the collision induced emission (CIE) from the fundamental vibration-rotation band of H2 taken over the temperature range of 900-3000 K. The spectral shape and strength of this IR band centered about 2.4 microns has been measured behind reflected shocks in mixtures of H2/Ar. The observed radiation at elevated temperatures is found to be dominantly in the Q branch. The results, compared with theory, show that radiation at elevated temperatures is primarily the result of an induced dipole moment in H2 induced by the overlap between the H2 and Ar electron clouds during collision. The strength of this interaction has been evaluated by an analysis of the measured temperature dependence of the absolute bandstrengths.

  17. Laser induced fluorescence and resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy of jet-cooled 1-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung Haeng; Huh, Hyun; Kim, Hyung Min; Kim, Choong Ik; Kim, Nam Joon; Kim, Seong Keun

    2005-01-01

    We carried out laser induced fluorescence and resonance enhanced two-color two-photon ionization spectroscopy of jet-cooled 1-hydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (1-HAQ). The 0-0 band transition to the lowest electronically excited state was found to be at 461.98 nm (21 646 cm-1). A well-resolved vibronic structure was observed up to 1100 cm-1 above the 0-0 band, followed by a rather broad absorption band in the higher frequency region. Dispersed fluorescence spectra were also obtained. Single vibronic level emissions from the 0-0 band showed Stokes-shifted emission spectra. The peak at 2940 cm-1 to the red of the origin in the emission spectra was assigned as the OH stretching vibration in the ground state, whose combination bands with the C=O bending and stretching vibrations were also seen in the emission spectra. In contrast to the excitation spectrum, no significant vibronic activity was found for low frequency fundamental vibrations of the ground state in the emission spectrum. The spectral features of the fluorescence excitation and emission spectra indicate that a significant change takes place in the intramolecular hydrogen bonding structure upon transition to the excited state, such as often seen in the excited state proton (or hydrogen) transfer. We suggest that the electronically excited state of interest has a double minimum potential of the 9,10-quinone and the 1,10-quinone forms, the latter of which, the proton-transferred form of 1-HAQ, is lower in energy. On the other hand, ab initio calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level predicted that the electronic ground state has a single minimum potential distorted along the reaction coordinate of tautomerization. The 9,10-quinone form of 1-HAQ is the lowest energy structure in the ground state, with the 1,10-quinone form lying ˜5000 cm-1 above it. The intramolecular hydrogen bond of the 9,10-quinone was found to be unusually strong, with an estimated bond energy of ˜13 kcal/mol (˜4500 cm-1), probably due to

  18. Wind tunnel balance system for determination of wind-induced vibrations of a rigid shuttle model in the launch configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A wind tunnel balance system was designed to determine the wind-induced vibrations of a space shuttle model. The balance utilizes a flexible sting mounting in conjunction with a geometrically scaled rigid model. Bending and torsional displacements are determined through strain-gauge-instrumented spring bar mechanisms. The natural frequency of the string-model system can be varied continuously throughout the expected scaled frequency range of the shuttle vehicle while a test is in progress by the use of moveable riders on the spring bar mechanism. Through the use of a frequency analyzer, the output can be used to determine troublesome vibrational frequencies. A dimensional analysis of the wind-induced vibration problem is also presented which suggests a test procedure. In addition a computer program for analytical studies of the forced vibration problem is presented.

  19. Vibration-induced Kondo tunneling through metal-organic complexes with even electron occupation number.

    PubMed

    Kikoin, K; Kiselev, M N; Wegewijs, M R

    2006-05-01

    We investigate transport through a mononuclear transition-metal complex with strong tunnel coupling to two electrodes. The ground state of this molecule is a singlet, while the first excited state is a triplet. We show that a modulation of the tunnel-barrier due to a molecular distortion which couples to the tunneling induces a Kondo-effect, provided the discrete vibrational energy compensates the singlet-triplet gap. We discuss the single-phonon and two-phonon-assisted cotunneling and possible experimental realization of the theory.

  20. Comparative assessment of different treatment modalities in miners with vibration- and noise-induced disease

    SciTech Connect

    Velskaya, M.L.; Nekhorosheva, M.A.; Konovalova, S.I.; Kukhtina, G.V.; Gonchar, I.G.; Terentyeva, D.P.; Grishchenko, L.A.; Soboleva, N.P.; Kharitonov, S.A.; Priklonskiy, I.V.

    1985-02-01

    A group of 71 miners with vibration sickness and noise-induced pathology were managed either by standard methods, or in combination with acupuncture and/or hyperbaric oxygenation for a comparative assessment of the effectiveness of the different therapeutic approaches. Analysis of subjective factors as well as standard physiological parameters (EKG, rheoencephalography, peripheral rheography, EEG, neuropsychological tests) demonstrate that both acupuncture and hyperbaric oxygenation are effective modalities in the majority of the subjects. Nevertheless, the lack of improvement in certain criteria, or even what could be regarded as adverse sequelae, suggest that the use of hyperbaric oxygenation in the management of such disorders be approached with considerable care.

  1. Temporal Behavior of Radiation-Pressure-Induced Vibrations of an Optical Microcavity Phonon Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmon, Tal; Rokhsari, Hossein; Yang, Lan; Kippenberg, Tobias J.; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2005-06-01

    We analyze experimentally and theoretically mechanical oscillation within an optical cavity stimulated by the pressure of circulating optical radiation. The resulting radio frequency cavity vibrations (phonon mode) cause modulation of the incident, continuous-wave (cw) input pump beam. Furthermore, with increasing cw pump power, an evolution from sinusoidal modulation to random oscillations is observed in the pump power coupled from the resonator. The temporal evolution with pump power is studied, and agreement was found with theory. In addition to applications in quantum optomechanics, the present work suggests that radiation-pressure-induced effects can establish a practical limit for the miniaturization of optical silica microcavities.

  2. The influence of source-receiver interaction on the numerical prediction of railway induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulier, P.; Lombaert, G.; Degrande, G.

    2014-06-01

    The numerical prediction of vibrations in buildings due to railway traffic is a complicated problem where wave propagation in the soil couples the source (railway tunnel or track) and the receiver (building). This through-soil coupling is often neglected in state-of-the-art numerical models in order to reduce the computational cost. In this paper, the effect of this simplifying assumption on the accuracy of numerical predictions is investigated. A coupled finite element-boundary element methodology is employed to analyze the interaction between a building and a railway tunnel at depth or a ballasted track at the surface of a homogeneous halfspace, respectively. Three different soil types are considered. It is demonstrated that the dynamic axle loads can be calculated with reasonable accuracy using an uncoupled strategy in which through-soil coupling is disregarded. If the transfer functions from source to receiver are considered, however, large local variations in terms of vibration insertion gain are induced by source-receiver interaction, reaching up to 10 dB and higher, although the overall wave field is only moderately affected. A global quantification of the significance of through-soil coupling is made, based on the mean vibrational energy entering a building. This approach allows assessing the common assumption in seismic engineering that source-receiver interaction can be neglected if the distance between source and receiver is sufficiently large compared to the wavelength of waves in the soil. It is observed that the interaction between a source at depth and a receiver mainly affects the power flow distribution if the distance between source and receiver is smaller than the dilatational wavelength in the soil. Interaction effects for a railway track at grade are observed if the source-receiver distance is smaller than six Rayleigh wavelengths. A similar trend is revealed if the passage of a freight train is considered. The overall influence of dynamic

  3. On rail vehicle vibrations induced by track unevenness: Analysis of the excitation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheli, F.; Corradi, R.

    2011-07-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the vibrations induced on the carbody of a rail vehicle by track unevenness. Attention is focused on the excitation mechanism of the carbody vibration modes, which has a strong influence on the vehicle's comfort. At first the problem is investigated through a simple three-degree-of-freedom analytical model, and the phenomenon of the critical velocities is analysed, pointing out how both rigid and flexible carbody vibration modes can be excited to a different extent, depending on the vehicle speed, and how they combine to produce the final carbody accelerations. Then the dynamic response of a real vehicle running on irregular track is simulated through a more detailed multibody model, suitable for quantitatively reproducing its dynamic behaviour in the 0-25 Hz frequency range. The 68 degrees-of-freedom of this model correspond to 35 rigid vibration modes of the vehicle components (carbody, bogie frames and wheelsets), plus the 33 carbody flexible modes which fall into the frequency-range of interest. In the last part of the paper, the obtained numerical results are compared to the experimental data collected during on-line tests, showing how the adopted numerical model accurately simulates the dynamic behaviour of the real vehicle at the different velocities, with very good agreement. The results presented in the paper demonstrate that the excitation of the flexible modes may have a decisive effect on carbody accelerations and that introducing carbody flexibility in the vehicle model turns out to be unavoidable for properly predicting a rail vehicle comfort performance.

  4. Three-dimensional vibration-induced vestibulo-ocular reflex identifies vertical semicircular canal dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Aw, Swee Tin; Aw, Grace Elizabeth; Todd, Michael John; Bradshaw, Andrew Philip; Halmagyi, Gabor Michael

    2011-10-01

    Vertical semicircular canal dehiscence (VSCD) due to superior canal dehiscence (SCD) or posterior canal dehiscence (PCD) of the temporal bone causes vestibular and cochlear hypersensitivity to sound. This study aimed to characterize the vibration-induced vestibulo-ocular reflex (ViVOR) in VSCD. ViVORs in one PCD and 17 SCD patients, confirmed by CT imaging reformatted in semicircular canal planes, were measured with dual-search coils as binocular three-dimensional eye rotations induced by skull vibrations from a bone oscillator (B71-10 ohms) at 7 ms, 500 Hz, 135-dB peak-force level (re: 1 μN). The ViVOR eye rotation axes were computed by vector analysis and referenced to known semicircular canal planes. Onset latency of the ViVOR was 11 ms. ViVOR from VSCD was up to nine times greater than normal. The ViVOR's torsional rotation was always contraversive-torsional (the eye's upper pole rotated away from the stimulated ear), i.e. its direction was clockwise from a left and counterclockwise from a right VSCD, thereby lateralizing the side of the VSCD. The ViVORs vertical component distinguishes PCD from SCD, being downwards in PCD and upwards in SCD. In unilateral VSCD, the ViVOR eye rotation axis aligned closest to the dehiscent vertical semicircular canal axis from either ipsilateral or contralateral mastoid vibrations. However, in bilateral VSCDs, the ViVOR eye rotation axis lateralized to the ipsilateral dehiscent vertical semicircular canal axis. ViVOR was evoked in ossicular chain dysfunction, even when air-conducted click vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) was absent or markedly reduced. Hence, ViVOR could be a useful measurement to identify unilateral or bilateral VSCD even in the presence of ossicular chain dysfunction.

  5. Tunable far-IR laser spectroscopy of jet-cooled carbon clusters: the nu 2 bending vibration of C3.

    PubMed

    Schmuttenmaer, C A; Cohen, R C; Pugliano, N; Heath, J R; Cooksy, A L; Busarow, K L; Saykally, R J

    1990-08-24

    Seven rovibrational transitions of the (01(1)0) <-- (00(0)0) fundamental bending band of C3 have been measured with high precision with the use of a tunable far-infrared laser spectrometer. The C3 molecules were produced by laser vaporization of a graphite rod and cooled in a supersonic expansion. The astrophysically important nu 2 fundamental frequency is determined to be 63.416529(40) cm-1. These measurements provide the basis for studies of C3 in the interstellar medium with far-infrared astronomy.

  6. BVI induced vibration and noise alleviation by active and passive approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li

    This dissertation describes the development of a comprehensive aeroelastic/aeroacoustic simulation capability for the modeling of vibration and noise in rotorcraft induced by blade-vortex interaction (BVI). Subsequently this capability is applied to study vibration and noise reduction, using active and passive control approaches. The active approach employed is the actively controlled partial span trailing edge flaps (ACF), implemented in single and dual, servo and plain flap configurations. The passive approach is based on varying the sweep and anhedral on the tip of the rotor. Two different modern helicopters are chosen as the baseline for the implementation of ACF approach, one resembling a four-bladed MBB BO-105 hingeless rotor and the other similar to a five-bladed MD-900 bearingless rotor. The structural model is based on a finite element approach capable of simulating composite helicopter blades with swept tips, and representing multiple load paths at the blade root which is a characteristic of bearingless rotors. An unsteady compressible aerodynamic model based on a rational function approximation (RFA) approach is combined with a free wake analysis which has been enhanced by improving the wake analysis resolution and modeling a dual vortex structure. These enhancements are important for capturing BVI effects. A method for predicting compressible unsteady blade surface pressure distribution on rotor blades has been developed, which is required by the acoustic analysis. A modified version of helicopter noise code WOPWOP with provisions for blade flexibility has been combined with the aeroelastic analysis to predict the BVI noise. Several variants of the higher harmonic control (HHC) algorithm have been applied for the active noise control, as well as the simultaneous vibration and noise control. Active control of BVI noise is accomplished using feedback from an onboard microphone. The simulation has been extensively validated against experimental data and

  7. Viscosity measurement based on the tapping-induced free vibration of sessile droplets using MEMS-based piezoresistive cantilevers.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh-Vinh; Nguyen, Minh-Dung; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2015-09-21

    We report a simple technique to measure the free vibration of microlitre-sized droplets using an array of thirteen MEMS-based piezoresistive cantilevers and demonstrate its application for the measurement of viscosity. Because the damping of the free vibration of a liquid droplet is known to be affected by the viscosity of the liquid, measuring the vibration of a droplet allows the viscosity to be estimated from a dilute sample volume. However, conventional methods to measure the droplet vibration require sophisticated apparatuses, which hinder the development of a portable viscometer. Here, we show that MEMS-based piezoresistive cantilevers can be an excellent tool to measure the vibration of a sessile droplet due to the high sensitivity and simplicity of the readout scheme. Using the cantilever array, we analyse the normal force distribution on the contact area of a sessile droplet in the static state and during the vibration. Next, we show that the viscosity (from ~1-30 mPa s) can be estimated within an error of less than 10% from the attenuation rate of the cantilever output during the tapping-induced vibration of small droplets (~2.4 μL). In addition to the advantage of the small sample volume, the proposed viscometer has simple operation and readout schemes, which are desirable for many applications, including point-of-care testing and drug development.

  8. Viscosity measurement based on the tapping-induced free vibration of sessile droplets using MEMS-based piezoresistive cantilevers.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh-Vinh; Nguyen, Minh-Dung; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2015-09-21

    We report a simple technique to measure the free vibration of microlitre-sized droplets using an array of thirteen MEMS-based piezoresistive cantilevers and demonstrate its application for the measurement of viscosity. Because the damping of the free vibration of a liquid droplet is known to be affected by the viscosity of the liquid, measuring the vibration of a droplet allows the viscosity to be estimated from a dilute sample volume. However, conventional methods to measure the droplet vibration require sophisticated apparatuses, which hinder the development of a portable viscometer. Here, we show that MEMS-based piezoresistive cantilevers can be an excellent tool to measure the vibration of a sessile droplet due to the high sensitivity and simplicity of the readout scheme. Using the cantilever array, we analyse the normal force distribution on the contact area of a sessile droplet in the static state and during the vibration. Next, we show that the viscosity (from ~1-30 mPa s) can be estimated within an error of less than 10% from the attenuation rate of the cantilever output during the tapping-induced vibration of small droplets (~2.4 μL). In addition to the advantage of the small sample volume, the proposed viscometer has simple operation and readout schemes, which are desirable for many applications, including point-of-care testing and drug development. PMID:26224295

  9. Ameliorative effect of Phytocee™ Cool against carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Joshua Allan; Ayyappan, Usha Parackal Thachappully; Sasidharan, Suja Rani; Mutyala, Sridhar; Goudar, Krishnagouda Shankargouda; Agarwal, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antioxidants from natural sources have a major role in reversing the effects of oxidative stress and promoting health, growth and productivity in animals. Objective: This study was undertaken to investigate the possible antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects of Phytocee™ Cool on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative stress and liver damage in rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were pretreated with Phytocee™ Cool for 10 days and were challenged with CCl4 (1:1 v/v) in olive oil on the 10th day. After 24 h of CCl4 administration blood was collected and markers of hepatocellular damage aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were evaluated. Rats were sacrificed and oxidative stress in liver was estimated using malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. Results: CCl4 caused a significant increase in serum AST, ALT, hepatic MDA and GSH levels, whereas the SOD and catalase activities were decreased. Phytocee™ Cool pretreatment attenuated the MDA, AST ALT levels and increased the activities of SOD and catalase. Conclusion: Phytocee™ Cool demonstrated antioxidant potential and hepatoprotective effects and plausibly be used in the amelioration of oxidative stress. PMID:25276070

  10. Computational and experimental study of flow-induced vibration of the SSME main injector post

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) liquid-oxygen (LOX) posts are subjected to high-velocity turbulent flow from the transfer ducts. In a preliminary assessment of the vibration problem, it was determined that the two potential excitation mechanisms for LOX post vibration are fluidelastic instability and turbulent buffeting. A fundamental study is being conducted to understand the problem and to develop techniques to avoid detrimental vibrational effects with the objective of improving engine life. This paper summarizes the results of an analytical model for fluidelastic instability and test results for turbulent buffeting of a tube array in crossflow. A general theory of fluidelastic instability for a tube array in crossflow is presented. Various techniques to obtain the motion-dependent fluid-force coefficients are discussed and the general instability characteristics are summarized. The theory is also used to evaluate the results of other mathematical models for crossflow-induced instability. The fluid excitation forces acting on a tube array are presented as a function of Reynolds number, incoming flow conditions, and tube location in an array. The experimental data show the general characteristics of flow across a tube array. As the flow passes through each row of tubes, the fluid is subjected to resistance, the effect of which is to convert some of the fluid pressure energy to turbulent energy. In the first few rows, the transformation of energy occurs in a somewhat orderly manner. As the flow reaches the interior tubes, unsteadiness of the flow increases and, usually, a randomness of the flow and its pressure fluctuation exists in the flow field.

  11. Vibration-induced disruption of retrograde axoplasmic transport in peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ji-Geng; Matloub, Hani S; Sanger, James R; Zhang, Lin-Ling; Riley, Danny A

    2005-10-01

    Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) results from excessive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration. Whether the peripheral nerve damage characteristic of HAVS is a direct result of vibration or is secondary to vascular insufficiency remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of vibration exposure on axoplasmic transport in peripheral nerves and soleus motor neurons. Sciatic nerves and motor neurons from rats following two 5-h periods of vibration exposure demonstrated disruption in retrograde transport compared to normal. After 10 days of vibration (5 h/day), axoplasmic transport failed to recover within 24-48 h in most rats. This study demonstrates that disrupted axoplasmic transport is an early consequence of short-term vibration exposure. The effects of vibration on axoplasmic transport also appear to be cumulative. This study provides a new biological way to evaluate measures to prevent early vibration injury.

  12. Cold-induced vasoconstriction may persist long after cooling ends: an evaluation of multiple cryotherapy units

    PubMed Central

    Khoshnevis, Sepideh; Craik, Natalie K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Localized cooling is widely used in treating soft tissue injuries by modulating swelling, pain, and inflammation. One of the primary outcomes of localized cooling is vasoconstriction within the underlying skin. It is thought that in some instances, cryotherapy may be causative of tissue necrosis and neuropathy via cold-induced ischaemia leading to nonfreezing cold injury (NFCI). The purpose of this study is to quantify the magnitude and persistence of vasoconstriction associated with cryotherapy. Methods Data are presented from testing with four different FDA approved cryotherapy devices. Blood perfusion and skin temperature were measured at multiple anatomical sites during baseline, active cooling, and passive rewarming periods. Results Local cutaneous blood perfusion was depressed in response to cooling the skin surface with all devices, including the DonJoy (DJO, p = 2.6 × 10−8), Polar Care 300 (PC300, p = 1.1 × 10−3), Polar Care 500 Lite (PC500L, p = 0.010), and DeRoyal T505 (DR505, p = 0.016). During the rewarming period, parasitic heat gain from the underlying tissues and the environment resulted in increased temperatures of the skin and pad for all devices, but blood perfusion did not change significantly, DJO (n.s.), PC300 (n.s.), PC500L (n.s.), and DR505 (n.s.). Conclusions The results demonstrate that cryotherapy can create a deep state of vasoconstriction in the local area of treatment. In the absence of independent stimulation, the condition of reduced blood flow persists long after cooling is stopped and local temperatures have rewarmed towards the normal range, indicating that the maintenance of vasoconstriction is not directly dependent on the continuing existence of a cold state. The depressed blood flow may dispose tissue to NFCI. PMID:24562697

  13. Hummingbird feather sounds are produced by aeroelastic flutter, not vortex-induced vibration.

    PubMed

    Clark, Christopher J; Elias, Damian O; Prum, Richard O

    2013-09-15

    Males in the 'bee' hummingbird clade produce distinctive, species-specific sounds with fluttering tail feathers during courtship displays. Flutter may be the result of vortex shedding or aeroelastic interactions. We investigated the underlying mechanics of flutter and sound production of a series of different feathers in a wind tunnel. All feathers tested were capable of fluttering at frequencies varying from 0.3 to 10 kHz. At low airspeeds (Uair) feather flutter was highly damped, but at a threshold airspeed (U*) the feathers abruptly entered a limit-cycle vibration and produced sound. Loudness increased with airspeed in most but not all feathers. Reduced frequency of flutter varied by an order of magnitude, and declined with increasing Uair in all feathers. This, along with the presence of strong harmonics, multiple modes of flutter and several other non-linear effects indicates that flutter is not simply a vortex-induced vibration, and that the accompanying sounds are not vortex whistles. Flutter is instead aeroelastic, in which structural (inertial/elastic) properties of the feather interact variably with aerodynamic forces, producing diverse acoustic results.

  14. Assessment of vibration induced white finger: reliability and validity of two tests.

    PubMed

    Hack, M; Boillat, M A; Schweizer, C; Lob, M

    1986-04-01

    The reliability and validity of two tests (cold water and reactive hyperaemia) designed to confirm a patient's history of vibration induced white finger were studied. The cold water test is a measure of digital rewarming after hand immersion in cold water. Reactive hyperaemia consists of measuring digital rewarming after cold water immersion plus temporary ischaemia imposed on the hand. For ten weeks, ten healthy male volunteers were submitted once a week to both tests to study their reliability. The results showed a strong inter and intraindividual scattering. The mean value for the whole group, however, did not differ significantly from one week to the next. Fifty two subjects exposed to hand/arm vibration were submitted to both tests to estimate their validity. They were classified, according to their medical history, into three groups: A = no symptoms, B = tingling or numbess, or both, C = Raynaud's phenomenon. Both tests agreed with the clinical staging. For reactive hyperaemia, however, the differences between the groups were statistically significant only when the test was performed at 10 degrees C. These tests are more useful to study a group than an individual case. Time has no significant effect on the mean result of a group.

  15. Solvent induced conformational fluctuation of alanine dipeptide studied by using vibrational probes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Kaicong; Du, Fenfen; Liu, Jia; Su, Tingting

    2015-02-25

    The solvation effect on the three dimensional structure and the vibrational feature of alanine dipeptide (ALAD) was evaluated by applying the implicit solvents from polarizable continuum solvent model (PCM) through ab initio calculations, by using molecular dynamic (MD) simulations with explicit solvents, and by combining these two approaches. The implicit solvent induced potential energy fluctuations of ALAD in CHCl3, DMSO and H2O are revealed by means of ab initio calculations, and a global view of conformational and solvation environmental dependence of amide I frequencies is achieved. The results from MD simulations with explicit solvents show that ALAD trends to form PPII, αL, αR, and C5 in water, PPII and C5 in DMSO, and C5 in CHCl3, ordered by population, and the demonstration of the solvated structure, the solute-solvent interaction and hydrogen bonding is therefore enhanced. Representative ALAD-solvent clusters were sampled from MD trajectories and undergone ab initio calculations. The explicit solvents reveal the hydrogen bonding between ALAD and solvents, and the correlation between amide I frequencies and the CO bond length is built. The implicit solvents applied to the ALAD-solvent clusters further compensate the solvation effect from the bulk, and thus enlarge the degree of structural distortion and the amide I frequency red shift. The combination of explicit solvent in the first hydration shell and implicit solvent in the bulk is helpful for our understanding about the conformational fluctuation of solvated polypeptides through vibrational probes.

  16. Influence of some vehicle and track parameters on the environmental vibrations induced by railway traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouroussis, G.; Verlinden, O.; Conti, C.

    2012-04-01

    A study is performed on the influence of some typical railway vehicle and track parameters on the level of ground vibrations induced in the neighbourhood. The results are obtained from a previously validated simulation framework considering in a first step the vehicle/track subsystem and, in a second step, the response of the soil to the forces resulting from the first analysis. The vehicle is reduced to a simple vertical 3-dof model, corresponding to the superposition of the wheelset, the bogie and the car body. The rail is modelled as a succession of beam elements elastically supported by the sleepers, lying themselves on a flexible foundation representing the ballast and the subgrade. The connection between the wheels and the rails is realised through a non-linear Hertzian contact. The soil motion is obtained from a finite/infinite element model. The investigated vehicle parameters are its type (urban, high speed, freight, etc.) and its speed. For the track, the rail flexural stiffness, the railpad stiffness, the spacing between sleepers and the rail and sleeper masses are considered. In all cases, the parameter value range is defined from a bibliographic browsing. At the end, the paper proposes a table summarising the influence of each studied parameter on three indicators: the vehicle acceleration, the rail velocity and the soil velocity. It namely turns out that the vehicle has a serious influence on the vibration level and should be considered in prediction models.

  17. Vortex-Induced Vibration (VIV) Reduction Properties of Seal Whisker-Like Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hans, Hendrik; Miao, Jianmin; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Biological studies have shown that harbor seal whiskers are capable of reducing Vortex-Induced Vibrations (VIV). As the whiskers have convoluted geometry, it is necessary to evaluate the parameters that define their VIV reduction properties. Whisker-Like Geometries (WLGs) consisting of all but one feature on the true whisker geometry are designed. Comparison of VIV on these WLGs with VIV on circular and elliptical cylinders at Re = 500 is performed. Three-dimensional simulations of flow past these geometries, which are allowed to freely vibrate in crossflow, are performed with the Implicit Large Eddy Simulation as the turbulence model. The results indicate that the existence of axial undulations is the most dominant feature that affects the VIV reduction. The smallest VIV is observed on WLGs with dual-axial undulations and the largest VIV is observed on the circular cylinder. Variations in the features of the WLGs result in noticeable changes in their VIV. The circular cylinder is observed to response as a steady system while the WLGs with dual-axial undulations are observed to respond as a chaotic system. The response of WLGs with single-axial undulations is found to depend on their detailed features. I would like to acknowledge the support and funding from National Research Foundation (NRF) through CENSAM of Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology and Nanyang Technological University.

  18. Exact analytical solution of shear-induced flexural vibration of functionally graded piezoelectric beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Parashar, Sandeep Kumar

    2016-05-01

    The priority of this paper is to obtain the exact analytical solution for free flexural vibration of FGPM beam actuated using the d15 effect. In piezoelectric actuators, the potential use of d15 effect has been of particular interest for engineering applications since shear piezoelectric coefficient d15 is much higher than the other piezoelectric coupling constants d31 and d33. The applications of shear actuators are to induce and control the flexural vibrations of beams and plates. In this study, a modified Timoshenko beam theory is used where electric potential is assumed to vary sinusoidaly along the thickness direction. The material properties are assumed to be graded across the thickness in accordance with power law distribution. Hamilton`s principle is employed to obtain the equations of motion along with the associated boundary conditions for FGPM beams. Exact analytical solution is derived thus obtained equations of motion. Results for clamped-clamped and clamped-free boundary conditions are presented. The presented result and method shell serve as benchmark for comparing the results obtained from the other approximate methods.

  19. Electronic, structural and vibrational induced effects upon ionization of 2-quinolinone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellili, A.; Pan, Y.; Al Mogren, M. M.; Lau, K. C.; Hochlaf, M.

    2016-07-01

    Using first principle methodologies, we characterize the lowest electronic states of 2-quinolinone+ cation. The ground state of this ion is of X˜2A″ nature. We deduce the adiabatic ionization energy of 2-quinolinone to be equal 8.249 eV using the explicitly correlated coupled cluster level and where zero point vibrational energy, core-valence and scalar relativistic effects are taken into account. We examine also the ionization induced structural changes and vibrational shifts and analyze the electron density differences between the neutral and ionic species. These data show that the formation of 2-quinolinone+X˜2A″ from 2-quinolinone affects strongly the HNCO group, whereas the carbon skeletal is perturbed when the upper electronic cationic states are populated. The comparison to 2-pyridone allows the elucidation of the effect of benzene ring fused with this heterocyclic ring. Since quinolones and pyridones are both model systems of DNA bases, these findings might help in understanding the charge redistribution in these biological entities upon ionization.

  20. Interactions between friction-induced vibration and wear. Final report, May 15, 1982-May 15, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    D'Souza, A.F.; Aronov, V.; Kalpakjian, S.; Shareef, I.; Dweib, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    The interactions among friction, wear, and system dynamics have been investigated for dry sliding contact between a steel pin and a cast iron disk. The system was equipped with force and displacement transducers to measure the contact forces and the displacements in three directions. As the normal load increased, four different regimes were observed, the steady state friction regime, the nonlinear friction regime, transient friction regime, and the self-excited vibration regime. The last regime is characterized by periodic oscillations of the slider and high wear rate. The experimental setup was modified for further detailed study of this regime. The recorded wave forms showed that the oscillations consist of a fundamental harmonic with a frequency close to the system natural frequency in torsion and its second harmonic. A mathematical model was developed for the system including the coupling between the different degrees of freedom and a nonlinear contact stiffness, and the model was analyzed using triple input describing functions to include the constant, fundamental, and second harmonics. The model showed the existence of limit cycling at a frequency close to the torsional frequency of the system with amplitudes close to those observed experimentally. The results of this study enhance our understanding of friction induced vibrations and interactions which give rise to instability.

  1. Electronic, structural and vibrational induced effects upon ionization of 2-quinolinone.

    PubMed

    Bellili, A; Pan, Y; Al Mogren, M M; Lau, K C; Hochlaf, M

    2016-07-01

    Using first principle methodologies, we characterize the lowest electronic states of 2-quinolinone(+) cation. The ground state of this ion is of X˜(2)A(″) nature. We deduce the adiabatic ionization energy of 2-quinolinone to be equal 8.249eV using the explicitly correlated coupled cluster level and where zero point vibrational energy, core-valence and scalar relativistic effects are taken into account. We examine also the ionization induced structural changes and vibrational shifts and analyze the electron density differences between the neutral and ionic species. These data show that the formation of 2-quinolinone(+)X˜(2)A(″) from 2-quinolinone affects strongly the HNCO group, whereas the carbon skeletal is perturbed when the upper electronic cationic states are populated. The comparison to 2-pyridone allows the elucidation of the effect of benzene ring fused with this heterocyclic ring. Since quinolones and pyridones are both model systems of DNA bases, these findings might help in understanding the charge redistribution in these biological entities upon ionization. PMID:27060413

  2. Illusory movements induced by tendon vibration in right- and left-handed people.

    PubMed

    Tidoni, Emmanuele; Fusco, Gabriele; Leonardis, Daniele; Frisoli, Antonio; Bergamasco, Massimo; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-02-01

    Frequency-specific vibratory stimulation of peripheral tendons induces an illusion of limb movement that may be useful for restoring proprioceptive information in people with sensorimotor disability. This potential application may be limited by inter- and intra-subject variability in the susceptibility to such an illusion, which may depend on a variety of factors. To explore the influence of stimulation parameters and participants' handedness on the movement illusion, we vibrated the right and left tendon of the biceps brachii in a group of right- and left-handed people with five stimulation frequencies (from 40 to 120 Hz in step of 20 Hz). We found that all participants reported the expected illusion of elbow extension, especially after 40 and 60 Hz. Left-handers exhibited less variability in reporting the illusion compared to right-handers across the different stimulation frequencies. Moreover, the stimulation of the non-dominant arm elicited a more vivid illusion with faster onset relative to the stimulation of the dominant arm, an effect that was independent from participants' handedness. Overall, our data show that stimulation frequency, handedness and arm dominance influence the tendon vibration movement illusion. The results are discussed in reference to their relevance in linking motor awareness, improving current devices for motor ability recovery after brain or spinal damage and developing prosthetics and virtual embodiment systems.

  3. An experimental investigation of vortex-induced vibration with nonlinear restoring forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackowski, A. W.; Williamson, C. H. K.

    2013-08-01

    We experimentally examine the amplitude of a bluff body undergoing vortex-induced vibration (VIV) supported by linear and various nonlinear structural forces. This investigation is made possible by our Cyber-Physical Fluid Dynamics force-feedback technique; using it, we can impose arbitrary nonlinear restoring forces on a circular cylinder in our water channel. For the range of nonlinearities examined, detailed analysis allows one to understand and predict the response of the nonlinear structural system using knowledge of a standard, linear VIV system. We also present a case study examining the potential of nonlinear springs to aid in a VIV-based energy harvesting device. Appropriate choices of the spring's nonlinearity allow the hypothetical energy harvester to operate at high performance over a much larger range of Reynolds number than a standard system.

  4. Harvesting microalgal biomass using a magnetically induced membrane vibration (MMV) system: filtration performance and energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Bilad, M R; Discart, V; Vandamme, D; Foubert, I; Muylaert, K; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2013-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of submerged microfiltration to harvest both a marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and a Chlorella vulgaris in a recently developed magnetically induced membrane vibrating (MMV) system. We assess the filtration performance by conducting the improved flux step method (IFM), fed-batch concentration filtrations and membrane fouling autopsy using two lab-made membranes with different porosity. The full-scale energy consumption was also estimated. Overall results suggest that the MMV offers a good fouling control and the process was proven to be economically attractive. By combining the membrane filtration (15× concentration) with centrifugation to reach a final concentration of 25% w/v, the energy consumption to harvest P. tricornutum and C. vulgaris was, respectively, as low as 0.84 and 0.77kWh/m(3), corresponding to 1.46 and 1.39 kWh/kg of the harvested biomass.

  5. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with laser irradiation resonant with vibrational transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatrian, Ani; Dagdigian, Paul J.

    2010-05-01

    An investigation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of polymers, both in bulk form and spin coated on Si wafers, with laser irradiation in the mid-infrared spectral region is presented. Of particular interest is whether the LIBS signals are enhanced when the laser wavelength is resonant with a fundamental vibrational transition of the polymer. Significant increases in the LIBS signals were observed for irradiation on hydride stretch fundamental transitions, and the magnitude of the enhancement showed a strong dependence on the mode excited. The role of the substrate was investigated by comparison of results for bulk and spin-coated samples. The polymers investigated were Nylon 12 and poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene).

  6. CFD simulation of flow-induced vibration of an elastically supported airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šidlof, Petr

    2016-03-01

    Flow-induced vibration of lifting or control surfaces in aircraft may lead to catastrophic consequences. Under certain circumstances, the interaction between the airflow and the elastic structure may lead to instability with energy transferred from the airflow to the structure and with exponentially increasing amplitudes of the structure. In the current work, a CFD simulation of an elastically supported NACA0015 airfoil with two degrees of freedom (pitch and plunge) coupled with 2D incompressible airflow is presented. The geometry of the airfoil, mass, moment of inertia, location of the centroid, linear and torsional stiffness was matched to properties of a physical airfoil model used for wind-tunnel measurements. The simulations were run within the OpenFOAM computational package. The results of the CFD simulations were compared with the experimental data.

  7. Flow-induced vibration for light water reactors. Progress report, October 1980-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, M.R.

    1981-09-01

    Flow-Induced Vibration for Light Water Reactors (FIV for LWRs) is a four-year program designed to improve the FIV performance of light water reactors through the development of design criteria, analytical models for predicting behavior of components, general scaling laws to improve the accuracy of reduced-scale tests, and the identification of high FIV risk areas. The program is managed by the General Electric Nuclear Power Systems Engineering Department and has three major contributors: General Electric Nuclear Power Systems Engineering Department (NPSED), General Electric Corporate Research and Development (CR and D) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The program commenced December 1, 1976. This progress report summarizes the accomplishments achieved during the period from October 1980 to December 1980.

  8. Flow-induced vibration for light-water reactors. Progress report, April-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, M. R.

    1981-10-01

    Flow-Induced Vibration for Light Water Reactors (FIV for LWRs) is a program designed to improve the FIV performance of light water reactors through the development of design criteria, analytical models for predicting behavior of components, and general scaling laws to improve the accuracy of reduced-scale tests, and through the identification of high FIV risk areas. The program is managed by the General Electric Nuclear Power Systems Engineering Department and has three major contributors: General Electric Nuclear Power Systems Engineering Department (NPSED), General Electric Corporate Research and Development (CR and D) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The program commenced December 1, 1976. This progress report summarizes the accomplishments achieved during the period from April 1981 to June 1981.

  9. Flow-induced vibration for light water reactors. Final progress report, July 1981-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, M.R.

    1981-11-01

    Flow-Induced Vibration for Light Water Reactors (FIV for LWRs) is a program designed to improve the FIV performance of light water reactors through the development of design criteria, analytical models for predicting behavior of components, and general scaling laws to improve the accuracy of reduced-scale tests, and through the identification of high FIV risk areas. The program is managed by the General Electric Nuclear Power Systems Engineering Department and has three major contributors: General Electric Nuclear Power Systems Engineering Department (NPSED), General Electric Corporate Research and Development (CR and D) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The program commenced December 1, 1976. This progress report summarizes the accomplishments achieved during the final period from July 1981 to September 1981. This is the last quarterly progress report to be issued for this program.

  10. Suppression of two-dimensional vortex-induced vibration with active velocity feedback controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, B.; Srinil, N.

    2016-09-01

    Vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) establish key design parameters for offshore and subsea structures subject to current flows. Understanding and predicting VIV phenomena have been improved in recent years. Further, there is a need to determine how to effectively and economically mitigate VIV effects. In this study, linear and nonlinear velocity feedback controllers are applied to actively suppress the combined cross-flow and in-line VIV of an elastically-mounted rigid circular cylinder. The strongly coupled fluid-structure interactions are numerically modelled and investigated using a calibrated reduced-order wake oscillator derived from the vortex strength concept. The importance of structural geometrical nonlinearities is studied which highlights the model ability in matching experimental results. The effectiveness of linear vs nonlinear controllers are analysed with regard to the control direction, gain and power. Parametric studies are carried out which allow us to choose the linear vs nonlinear control, depending on the target controlled amplitudes and associated power requirements.

  11. Analysis of vibration induced error in turbulence velocity measurements from an aircraft wing tip boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akkari, S. H.; Frost, W.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of rolling motion of a wing on the magnitude of error induced due to the wing vibration when measuring atmospheric turbulence with a wind probe mounted on the wing tip was investigated. The wing considered had characteristics similar to that of a B-57 Cambera aircraft, and Von Karman's cross spectrum function was used to estimate the cross-correlation of atmospheric turbulence. Although the error calculated was found to be less than that calculated when only elastic bendings and vertical motions of the wing are considered, it is still relatively large in the frequency's range close to the natural frequencies of the wing. Therefore, it is concluded that accelerometers mounted on the wing tip are needed to correct for this error, or the atmospheric velocity data must be appropriately filtered.

  12. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, A.; Abdelkefi, A.; Hajj, M. R.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Akhtar, I.; Nuhait, A. O.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of harvesting energy from a circular cylinder undergoing vortex-induced vibrations is investigated. The energy is harvested by attaching a piezoelectric transducer to the transverse degree of freedom. Numerical simulations are performed for Reynolds numbers (Re) in the range 96≤Re≤118, which covers the pre-synchronization, synchronization, and post-synchronization regimes. Load resistances (R) in the range 500 Ω≤R≤5 MΩ are considered. The results show that the load resistance has a significant effect on the oscillation amplitude, lift coefficient, voltage output, and harvested power. The results also show that the synchronization region widens when the load resistance increases. It is also found that there is an optimum value of the load resistance for which the harvested power is maximum. This optimum value does not correspond to the case of largest oscillations, which points to the need for a coupled analysis as performed here.

  13. Cool Temperature-Induced Chlorosis in Rice Plants (II. Effects of Cool Temperature on the Expression of Plastid-Encoded Genes during Shoot Growth in Darkness).

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, R.; Kanno, A.; Kameya, T.

    1996-01-01

    It has been proposed that cool temperature-induced chlorosis (CTIC) in Indica cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.) is caused by cell growth and plastid development being impeded at cool temperatures. Since it is well known that the overall rate of transcription of plastid-encoded genes changes dramatically during the early phases of plastid development, in this study we focused on the patterns of expression of these genes. Northern blot analysis revealed that the level of 16S rRNA is decreased in a CTIC-sensitive rice cultivar grown at a cool temperature. The expression of the gene for the [beta] subunit of plasmid RNA polymerase (rpoB) was shown to be somewhat disturbed, particularly in terms of its resuppression under cool conditions. The level of transcripts or proteins of plastid-encoded photosynthetic genes was also decreased in a CTIC-sensitive cultivar at a cool temperature. These results suggest that the temperature-dependent inhibition of the onset of gene expression encoding the transcription/translation apparatus may be primarily involved in the mechanism causing CTIC. PMID:12226412

  14. Molecular dissociation and shock-induced cooling in fluid nitrogen at high densities and temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radousky, H. B.; Nellis, W. J.; Ross, M.; Hamilton, D. C.; Mitchell, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    Radiative temperatures and electrical conductivities were measured for fluid nitrogen compressed dynamically to pressures of 18-90 GPa, temperatures of 4000-14,000 K, and densities of 2-3 g/cu cm. The data show a continuous phase transition above 30 GPa shock pressure and confirm that (delta-P/delta-T)v is less than 0, as indicated previously by Hugoniot equation-of-state experiments. The first observation of shock-induced cooling is also reported. The data are interpreted in terms of molecular dissociation, and the concentration of dissociated molecules is calculated as a function of density and temperature.

  15. Atom-membrane cooling and entanglement using cavity electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Genes, Claudiu; Ritsch, Helmut; Drewsen, Michael; Dantan, Aurelien

    2011-11-15

    We investigate a hybrid optomechanical system composed of a micromechanical oscillator as a movable membrane and an atomic three-level ensemble within an optical cavity. We show that a suitably tailored cavity field response via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the atomic medium allows for strong coupling of the membrane's mechanical oscillations to the collective atomic ground-state spin. This facilitates ground-state cooling of the membrane motion, quantum state mapping, and robust atom-membrane entanglement even for cavity widths larger than the mechanical resonance frequency.

  16. Empirical evidence for a recent slowdown in irrigation-induced cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Bonfils, C; Lobell, D

    2007-01-19

    Understanding the influence of past land use changes on climate is needed to improve regional projections of future climate change and inform debates about the tradeoffs associated with land use decisions. The effects of rapid expansion of irrigated area in the 20th century has remained unclear relative to other land use changes, such as urbanization, that affected a similar total land area. Using spatial and temporal variations in temperature and irrigation extent observed in California, we show that irrigation expansion has had a large cooling effect on summertime average daily daytime temperatures (-0.15 to -0.25 C.decade{sup -1}), which corresponds to a cooling estimated at -2.0 - -3.3 C since the introduction of irrigation practice. Irrigation has negligible effects on nighttime temperatures, leading to a net cooling effect of irrigation on climate (-0.06 to -0.19 C.decade{sup -1}). Stabilization of irrigated area has occurred in California since 1980 and is expected in the near future for most irrigated regions. The suppression of past human-induced greenhouse warming by increased irrigation is therefore likely to slow in the future, and a potential decrease in irrigation may even contribute to a more rapid warming. Changes in irrigation alone are not expected to influence broadscale temperatures, but they may introduce large uncertainties in climate projections for irrigated agricultural regions, which provide roughly 40% of global food production.

  17. Empirical evidence for a recent slowdown in irrigation-induced cooling.

    PubMed

    Bonfils, Céline; Lobell, David

    2007-08-21

    Understanding the influence of past land use changes on climate is needed to improve regional projections of future climate change and inform debates about the tradeoffs associated with land use decisions. The effects of rapid expansion of irrigated area in the 20th century has remained unclear relative to other land use changes, such as urbanization, that affected a similar total land area. Using spatial and temporal variations in temperature and irrigation extent observed in California, we show that irrigation expansion has had a large cooling effect on summertime average daily daytime temperatures (-0.14 degrees C to -0.25 degrees C per decade), which corresponds to an estimated cooling of -1.8 degrees C to -3.2 degrees C since the introduction of irrigation practices. Irrigation has negligible effects on nighttime temperatures, leading to a net cooling effect of irrigation on climate (-0.06 degrees C to -0.19 degrees C per decade). Stabilization of irrigated area has occurred in California since 1980 and is expected in the near future for many irrigated regions. The suppression of past human-induced greenhouse warming by increased irrigation is therefore likely to slow in the future, and a potential decrease in irrigation may even contribute to a more rapid warming. Changes in irrigation alone are not expected to influence broad-scale temperatures, but they may introduce large uncertainties in climate projections for irrigated agricultural regions, which provide approximately 40% of global food production.

  18. Oximetry: a new non-invasive method to detect metabolic effects induced by a local application of mechanical vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felici, A.; Trombetta, C.; Abundo, P.; Foti, C.; Rosato, N.

    2012-10-01

    Mechanical vibrations application is increasingly common in clinical practice due to the effectiveness induced by these stimuli on the human body. Local vibration (LV) application allows to apply and act only where needed, focusing the treatment on the selected body segment. An experimental device for LV application was used to generate the vibrations. The aim of this study was to detect and analyze the metabolic effects induced by LV on the brachial bicep muscle by means of an oximeter. This device monitors tissue and muscle oxygenation using NIRS (Near Infrared Spectroscopy) and is able to determine the concentration of haemoglobin and oxygen saturation in the tissue. In a preliminary stage we also investigated the effects induced by LV application, by measuring blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation and temperature. These data confirmed that the effects induced by LV application are actually localized. The results of the measurements obtained using the oximeter during the vibration application, have shown a variation of the concentrations. In particular an increase of oxygenate haemoglobin was shown, probably caused by an increased muscle activity and/or a rise in local temperature detected during the application.

  19. Decision tree: A very useful tool in analysing flow-induced vibration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R. Ajith; Sugumaran, V.; Gowda, B. H. L.; Sohn, C. H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of flow-induced oscillations of a square section cylinder under interference conditions using a data-mining tool called 'decision tree'. The interference effects were studied at some specific relative positions identified. Experiments have been carried out for various relative dimensions or size ratios ( b/ B) of the test cylinder and the interfering cylinder with values of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0. It has been found that the parameters reduced velocity ( U/ fB), relative position ( L/ B, T/ B) and size ratio ( b/ B) influence the flow-induced oscillation of the cylinder quite significantly. In practical situations, very often, critical combinations of these parameters leading to objectionable vibratory amplitudes may occur and, hence, they need to be identified and eliminated. It is here the application of 'decision tree' found to be significantly helpful. Hence, in this paper, emphasis is laid on the effectiveness of 'decision tree' in analysing the flow-induced vibration data and consequently arriving at the safest as well as the critical conditions. The results show that, for safer design conditions, reduced velocity should be lower than a threshold value. It has been also found that relative position is playing only a lesser significant role when compared to reduced velocity and size ratio. The results further show that critical conditions are very likely to occur at high reduced velocities, for size ratios greater than one.

  20. Vibrotactile temporary threshold shifts induced by hand-transmitted vibration during underwater work.

    PubMed

    Maeda, S; Yonekawa, Y; Kanada, K; Takahashi, Y; Griffin, M J

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the temporary threshold shifts (TTS) of fingertip vibratory sensation produced by hand-transmitted vibration in an underwater work environment. The hand-transmitted vibration was applied with a pneumatic tool to the right hand of four experienced male SCUBA divers. The threshold of 125 Hz vibratory sensation was measured at the tip of the right forefinger before and after vibration exposure in the atmosphere and underwater. Vibration exposure at a 4 m depth produced greater TTS than in the atmosphere. The recovery time of TTS after vibration exposure in an underwater were affected by the underwater pressure.

  1. Concorde noise-induced building vibrations: John F. Kennedy International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayes, W. H.; Stephens, D. G.; Deloach, R.; Cawthorn, J. M.; Holmes, H. K.; Lewis, R. B.; Holliday, B. G.; Ward, D. W.; Miller, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor noise levels resulting from aircraft flyovers and certain nonaircraft events were recorded at eight homesites and a school along with the associated vibration levels in the walls, windows, and floors at these test sites. Limited subjective tests were conducted to examine the human detection and annoyance thresholds for building vibration and rattle caused by aircraft noise. Both vibration and rattle were detected subjectively in several houses for some operations of both the Concorde and subsonic aircraft. Seated subjects more readily detected floor vibrations than wall or window vibrations. Aircraft noise generally caused more window vibrations than common nonaircraft events such as walking and closing doors. Nonaircraft events and aircraft flyovers resulted in comparable wall vibration levels, while floor vibrations were generally greater for nonaircraft events than for aircraft flyovers. The relationship between structural vibration and aircraft noise is linear, with vibration levels being accurately predicted from overall sound pressure levels (OASPL) measured near the structure. Relatively high levels of structural vibration measured during Concorde operations are due more to higher OASPL levels than to unique Concorde-source characteristics.

  2. Amplitude control of the track-induced self-excited vibration for a maglev system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Danfeng; Li, Jie; Zhang, Kun

    2014-09-01

    The Electromagnet Suspension (EMS) maglev train uses controlled electromagnetic forces to achieve suspension, and self-excited vibration may occur due to the flexibility of the track. In this article, the harmonic balance method is applied to investigate the amplitude of the self-excited vibration, and it is found that the amplitude of the vibration depends on the voltage of the power supplier. Based on this observation, a vibration amplitude control method, which controls the amplitude of the vibration by adjusting the voltage of the power supplier, is proposed to attenuate the vibration. A PI controller is designed to control the amplitude of the vibration at a given level. The effectiveness of this method shows a good prospect for its application to commercial maglev systems.

  3. Strong anisotropy of momentum-relaxation time induced by intermolecular vibrations of single-crystal organic semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko; Hirose, Kenji

    2013-11-01

    We present a theoretical study of the relationships between intermolecular vibrations and anisotropic transport properties of pentacene and rubrene single-crystal organic semiconductors. Using our wave-packet approach based on the Kubo formula beyond the effective-mass approximation with the assumption of an isotropic momentum-relaxation time, we find that the intermolecular vibrations induce a strong anisotropic momentum-relaxation time but moderate the anisotropy of carrier mobility much more than that of the effective mass. This clarifies the mechanism behind the deviation of the anisotropic ratio of mobility from that of effective mass observed in angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy experiments.

  4. Vibrational relaxation dynamics of I35Cl(B, v') induced by low-temperature collisions with He atoms.

    PubMed

    Darr, Joshua P; Loomis, Richard A

    2005-09-21

    Using laser-induced fluorescence and two-laser, pump-probe spectroscopy, collision-induced vibrational relaxation is observed to compete with the dissociation of electronically excited ICl in a helium carrier gas expansion. By thoroughly characterizing the expansion properties, we observe that collisions of ICl(B, v'= 3) molecules with He atoms in the expansion induce vibrational relaxation of the initially prepared dihalogen down to rotor states in the next lower ICl(B,v'= 2) level on timescales that compete with the rate for non-adiabatic transfer from the B state to the Z1 state. The resulting ICl(B,v'= 2,j') product rotational distribution, along with the analogous ICl(B,v'= 1,j') distribution formed by collisional relaxation of molecules in the long-lived ICl(B,v'= 2) level are compared to ICl(B,v'= 2,j') products formed by vibrational predissociation of He...ICl complexes prepared in different intermolecular vibrational levels within the He + ICl(B,v'= 3) potential. No evidence is observed for resonance-enhanced collisional cross sections, even at the low temperatures achieved, T < 1.0 K.

  5. Flow-induced vein-wall vibration in an arteriovenous graft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.-W.; Fischer, P. F.; Loth, F.; Royston, T. J.; Grogan, J. K.; Bassiouny, H. S.

    2005-08-01

    The hemodynamic environment of an arteriovenous (AV) graft differs from that of arterial grafts because mean flow rates are typically 10 times greater. This increased flow rate can create a weakly turbulent state, which alters the biomechanical environment greatly and may play a role in AV graft failure. A canine animal study was conducted to simulate the hemodynamic environment of a human AV graft. In vivo measurements were obtained for vein-wall vibration (VWV), graft geometry, and blood flow rate. In order to investigate the complex flow structure at the venous anastomosis of an AV graft, which is thought to induce these vibrations, a computational fluid dynamics study was conducted by direct numerical simulation under pulsatile flow and geometry conditions based on the animal study. The simulation technique employs the spectral element method, which is a high-order discretization ideally suited to the simulation of transitional flows in complex domains. The minimum and maximum Reynolds numbers entering the graft, based on average velocities, were 875 and 1235, respectively. While velocity and pressure fluctuations are clearly present in the numerical simulations, their magnitude and frequency do not correlate well with the in vivo VWV measurements. Potential reasons for this discrepancy are threefold. First, a quiescent inflow condition was used in the present computations; a more realistic inflow condition might alter the velocity fluctuations significantly. Second, simulations were conducted with a rigid geometry; compliance may play an important role in flow stability within an AV graft. Third, the flow split between the graft and vein inlet may also play an important role in the stability of the flow structures.

  6. Whole body vibration induces forepaw and hind paw behavioral sensitivity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Baig, Hassam A; Guarino, Benjamin B; Lipschutz, Daniel; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2013-11-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been linked to neck and back pain, but the biomechanical and physiological mechanisms responsible for its development and maintenance are unknown. A rodent model of WBV was developed in which rats were exposed to different WBV paradigms, either daily for 7 consecutive days (repeated WBV) or two single exposures at Day 0 and 7 (intermittent WBV). Each WBV session lasted for 30 min and was imposed at a frequency of 15 Hz and RMS platform acceleration of 0.56 ± 0.07 g. Changes in the withdrawal response of the forepaw and hind paw were measured, and were used to characterize the onset and maintenance of behavioral sensitivity. Accelerations and displacements of the rat and deformations in the cervical and lumbar spines were measured during WBV to provide mechanical context for the exposures. A decrease in withdrawal threshold was induced at 1 day after the first exposure in both the hind paw and forepaw. Repeated WBV exhibited a sustained reduction in withdrawal threshold in both paws and intermittent WBV induced a sustained response only in the forepaw. Cervical deformations were significantly elevated which may explain the more robust forepaw response. Findings suggest that a WBV exposure leads to behavioral sensitivity.

  7. Modeling and simulation of vortex induced vibration on the subsea riser/pipeline (GRP pipe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja Adli, Raja Nor Fauziah bt; Ibrahim, Idris

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the research work conducted to investigate the dynamics characteristics of the offshore riser pipeline due to vortex flow and to develop a model that could predict its vortex induced responses. Glass-fiber reinforced plastic (GRP) pipe is used for this study which has smaller density from the steel. A two-dimensional finite element computational method is implemented to describe the dynamic behavior of the riser. The governing equation of motion was based on Hamilton's principle, consists of the strain energy due to bending and axial deformation, kinetic energy due to both riser and internal fluid movement and also external force from currents and waves. A direct integration method namely Newmark integration scheme is proposed to solve the equation of motion. A MATLAB program code was developed to obtain the simulation results. The natural frequency and damping ratio are presented for each mode. Dynamic response of riser is shown in time-domain and the numerical results are discussed. Several parameter effects are used to investigate dynamic responses and the results show an agreement with the theory. Vortex shedding phenomenon also has been discussed in this paper. As a conclusion, the simulation results have successfully shown the vortex induced vibration responses for GRP pipeline.

  8. Wind- and Rain-Induced Vibrations Impose Different Selection Pressures on Multimodal Signaling.

    PubMed

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Ryan, Michael J; Wilson, Preston S

    2016-09-01

    The world is a noisy place, and animals have evolved a myriad of strategies to communicate in it. Animal communication signals are, however, often multimodal; their components can be processed by multiple sensory systems, and noise can thus affect signal components across different modalities. We studied the effect of environmental noise on multimodal communication in the túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus). Males communicate with rivals using airborne sounds combined with call-induced water ripples. We tested males under control as well as noisy conditions in which we mimicked rain- and wind-induced vibrations on the water surface. Males responded more strongly to a multimodal playback in which sound and ripples were combined, compared to a unimodal sound-only playback, but only in the absence of rain and wind. Under windy conditions, males decreased their response to the multimodal playback, suggesting that wind noise interferes with the detection of rival ripples. Under rainy conditions, males increased their response, irrespective of signal playback, suggesting that different noise sources can have different impacts on communication. Our findings show that noise in an additional sensory channel can affect multimodal signal perception and thereby drive signal evolution, but not always in the expected direction. PMID:27501086

  9. "Beating speckles" via electrically-induced vibrations of Au nanorods embedded in sol-gel.

    PubMed

    Ritenberg, Margarita; Beilis, Edith; Ilovitsh, Asaf; Barkai, Zehava; Shahmoon, Asaf; Richter, Shachar; Zalevsky, Zeev; Jelinek, Raz

    2014-01-01

    Generation of macroscopic phenomena through manipulating nano-scale properties of materials is among the most fundamental goals of nanotechnology research. We demonstrate cooperative "speckle beats" induced through electric-field modulation of gold (Au) nanorods embedded in a transparent sol-gel host. Specifically, we show that placing the Au nanorod/sol-gel matrix in an alternating current (AC) field gives rise to dramatic modulation of incident light scattered from the material. The speckle light patterns take form of "beats", for which the amplitude and frequency are directly correlated with the voltage and frequency, respectively, of the applied AC field. The data indicate that the speckle beats arise from localized vibrations of the gel-embedded Au nanorods, induced through the interactions between the AC field and the electrostatically-charged nanorods. This phenomenon opens the way for new means of investigating nanoparticles in constrained environments. Applications in electro-optical devices, such as optical modulators, movable lenses, and others are also envisaged. PMID:24413086

  10. Wind- and Rain-Induced Vibrations Impose Different Selection Pressures on Multimodal Signaling.

    PubMed

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Ryan, Michael J; Wilson, Preston S

    2016-09-01

    The world is a noisy place, and animals have evolved a myriad of strategies to communicate in it. Animal communication signals are, however, often multimodal; their components can be processed by multiple sensory systems, and noise can thus affect signal components across different modalities. We studied the effect of environmental noise on multimodal communication in the túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus). Males communicate with rivals using airborne sounds combined with call-induced water ripples. We tested males under control as well as noisy conditions in which we mimicked rain- and wind-induced vibrations on the water surface. Males responded more strongly to a multimodal playback in which sound and ripples were combined, compared to a unimodal sound-only playback, but only in the absence of rain and wind. Under windy conditions, males decreased their response to the multimodal playback, suggesting that wind noise interferes with the detection of rival ripples. Under rainy conditions, males increased their response, irrespective of signal playback, suggesting that different noise sources can have different impacts on communication. Our findings show that noise in an additional sensory channel can affect multimodal signal perception and thereby drive signal evolution, but not always in the expected direction.

  11. Buzz pollination in eight bumblebee-pollinated Pedicularis species: does it involve vibration-induced triboelectric charging of pollen grains?

    PubMed Central

    Corbet, Sarah A.; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Buzz pollination involves explosive pollen release in response to vibration, usually by bees. The mechanism of pollen release is poorly understood, and it is not clear which component of vibration (acceleration, frequency, displacement or velocity) is critical; the role of buzz frequency has been particularly controversial. This study proposes a novel hypothesis that explosive pollen release results from vibration-induced triboelectric charging. If it does, pollen release is expected to depend on achievement of a critical threshold velocity. Methods Eight sympatric buzz-pollinated species of Pedicularis that share bumblebee pollinator species were studied, giving a rare opportunity to compare sonication behaviour of a shared pollinator on different plant species. Key Results Reconsidering previous experimental studies, it is argued that they establish the critical role of the velocity component of vibration in pollen release, and that when displacement is constrained by body size bees can achieve the critical velocity by adjusting frequency. It was shown that workers of Bombus friseanus assorted themselves among Pedicularis species by body size, and that bees adjusted their buzz/wingbeat frequency ratio, which is taken as an index of the velocity component, to a value that corresponds with the galea length and pollen grain volume of each species of Pedicularis. Conclusions Sonication behaviour of B. friseanus differs among Pedicularis species, not only because worker bees assort themselves among plant species by body size, but also because bees of a given size adjust the buzz frequency to achieve a vibration velocity corresponding to the floral traits of each plant species. These findings, and the floral traits that characterize these and other buzz-pollinated species, are compatible with the hypothesis of vibration-induced triboelectric charging of pollen grains. PMID:25274550

  12. Dipole moments of HDO in highly excited vibrational states measured by Stark induced photofragment quantum beat spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Theulé, Patrice; Callegari, Andrea; Rizzo, Thomas R; Muenter, John S

    2005-03-22

    We report here a measurement of electric dipole moments in highly vibrationally excited HDO molecules. We use photofragment yield detected quantum beat spectroscopy to determine electric field induced splittings of the J=1 rotational levels of HDO excited with 4, 5, and 8 quanta of vibration in the OH stretching mode. The splittings allow us to deduce mua and mub, the projections of dipole moment onto the molecular rotation inertial axes. We compare the measured HDO dipole moment components with the results of quantitative calculations based on Morse oscillator wave functions and an ab initio dipole moment surface. The vibrational dependence of the dipole moment components reflect both structural and electronic changes in HDO upon vibrational excitation; principally the vibrational dependence of the O-H bond length and bond angle, and the resulting change in orientation of the principal inertial coordinate system. The dipole moment data also provide a sensitive test of theoretical dipole moment and potential energy surfaces, particularly for molecular configurations far from equilibrium.

  13. Concorde noise-induced building vibrations, John F. Kennedy International Airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayes, W. H.; Deloach, R.; Stephens, D. G.; Cawthorn, J. M.; Holmes, H. K.; Lewis, R. B.; Holliday, B. G.; Miller, W. T.; Ward, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    The outdoor/indoor noise levels and associated vibration levels resulting from aircraft and nonaircraft events were recorded at eight homesites and a school. In addition, limited subjective tests were conducted to examine the human detection/annoyance thresholds for building vibration and rattle caused by aircraft noise. Presented herein are the majority of the window and wall vibration data recorded during Concorde and subsonic aircraft overflights.

  14. Clinical interest of postural and vestibulo-ocular reflex changes induced by cervical muscles and skull vibration in compensated unilateral vestibular lesion patients.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Georges; Lion, Alexis; Gauchard, Gérome C; Herpin, Guillaume; Magnusson, Måns; Perrin, Philippe P

    2013-01-01

    Skull vibration induces nystagmus in unilateral vestibular lesion (UVL) patients. Vibration of skull, posterior cervical muscles or inferior limb muscles alters posture in recent UVL patients. This study aimed to investigate the postural effect of vibration in chronic compensated UVL patients. Vibration was applied successively to vertex, each mastoid, each side of posterior cervical muscles and of triceps surae in 12 UVL patients and 9 healthy subjects. Eye movements were recorded with videonystagmography. Postural control was evaluated in eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions. Sway area, sway path, anteroposterior and medio-lateral sways were recorded.A vibration induced nystagmus (VIN) beating toward the healthy side was obtained for each UVL patient during mastoid vibration. In EO, only sway path was higher in UVL group during vibration of mastoids and posterior cervical muscles.The EO postural impairments of UVL patients could be related to the eye movements or VIN, leading to visual perturbations, or to a proprioceptive error signal, providing an erroneous representation of head position. The vibration-induced sway was too small to be clinically useful. Vestibulo-ocular reflex observed with videonystagmography during mastoid vibration seems more relevant to reveal chronic UVL than vestibulo-spinal reflex observed with posturography.

  15. Evaluation of human response to structural vibrations induced by sonic booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, Louis C.; Czech, J.

    1992-01-01

    The topic is addressed of building vibration response to sonic boom and the evaluation of the associated human response to this vibration. An attempt is made to reexamine some of the issues addressed previously and to offer fresh insight that may assist in reassessing the potential impact of sonic boom over populated areas. Human response to vibration is reviewed first and a new human vibration response criterion curve is developed as a function of frequency. The difference between response to steady state versus impulsive vibration is addressed and a 'vibration exposure' or 'vibration energy' descriptor is suggested as one possible way to evaluate duration effects on response to transient vibration from sonic booms. New data on the acoustic signature of rattling objects are presented along with a review of existing data on the occurrence of rattle. Structural response to sonic boom is reviewed and a new descriptor, 'Acceleration Exposure Level' is suggested which can be easily determined from the Fourier Spectrum of a sonic boom. A preliminary assessment of potential impact from sonic booms is provided in terms of human response to vibration and detection of rattle based on a synthesis of the preceding material.

  16. Empirical evidence for a recent slowdown in irrigation-induced cooling

    PubMed Central

    Bonfils, Céline; Lobell, David

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the influence of past land use changes on climate is needed to improve regional projections of future climate change and inform debates about the tradeoffs associated with land use decisions. The effects of rapid expansion of irrigated area in the 20th century has remained unclear relative to other land use changes, such as urbanization, that affected a similar total land area. Using spatial and temporal variations in temperature and irrigation extent observed in California, we show that irrigation expansion has had a large cooling effect on summertime average daily daytime temperatures (−0.14°C to −0.25°C per decade), which corresponds to an estimated cooling of −1.8°C to −3.2°C since the introduction of irrigation practices. Irrigation has negligible effects on nighttime temperatures, leading to a net cooling effect of irrigation on climate (−0.06°C to −0.19°C per decade). Stabilization of irrigated area has occurred in California since 1980 and is expected in the near future for many irrigated regions. The suppression of past human-induced greenhouse warming by increased irrigation is therefore likely to slow in the future, and a potential decrease in irrigation may even contribute to a more rapid warming. Changes in irrigation alone are not expected to influence broad-scale temperatures, but they may introduce large uncertainties in climate projections for irrigated agricultural regions, which provide ≈40% of global food production. PMID:17698963

  17. Use of a laser-induced fluorescence thermal imaging system for film cooling heat transfer measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Chyu, M.K.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a novel approach based on fluorescence imaging of thermographic phosphor that enables the simultaneous determination of both local film effectiveness and local heat transfer on a film-cooled surface. The film cooling model demonstrated consists of a single row of three discrete holes on a flat plate. The transient temperature measurement relies on the temperature-sensitive fluorescent properties of europium-doped lanthanum oxysulfide (La{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu{sup +3}) thermographic phosphor. A series of full-field surface temperatures, mainstream temperatures, and coolant film temperatures were acquired during the heating of a test surface. These temperatures are used to calculate the heat transfer coefficients and the film effectiveness simultaneously. Because of the superior spatial resolution capability for the heat transfer data reduced from these temperature frames, the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging system, the present study observes the detailed heat transfer characteristics over a film-protected surface. The trend of the results agrees with those obtained using other conventional thermal methods, as well as the liquid crystal imaging technique. One major advantage of this technique is the capability to record a large number of temperature frames over a given testing period. This offers multiple-sample consistency.

  18. Wall-Thickness Dependence of Cooling-Induced Deformation of Polystyrene Spherical Shells

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, T.; Kobayashi, N.; Goto, K.; Yasuda, M.; Fujima, Y.

    2003-05-15

    Experiments on the wall-thickness dependence of the cooling-induced deformation (CID) of polystyrene (PS) spherical shells were carried out. For the experiments, the PS shells were fabricated by the density-matched emulsion method using the hand-shaken microencapsulation technique. The number-averaged and weight-averaged molecular weights of the PS were M{sub n} 1.1 x 10{sup 5} and M{sub w} = 4.0 x 10{sup 5}, respectively. The diameter of the PS shells was {approx}400-550 {mu}m. To investigate the wall-thickness dependence of the CID, the wall thickness of the PS shells was varied between 5 and 60 {mu}m. In the experiments, the PS shells were cooled by using liquid nitrogen, and their images were captured at 0 and -190 deg. C. For the investigation of the CID, two shapes of each shell that were measured at 0 and -190 deg. C were compared. The thinner PS shells showed larger CID. The maximum deformation was almost 1% of the outer radius when the shell aspect ratio (outer radius)/(wall thickness) was higher than 20. The repeatability of the CID was studied, and the results implied that residual stress in the PS shells had an influence on the CID.

  19. Use of a laser-induced fluorescence thermal imaging system for film cooling heat transfer measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Chyu, M.K.

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes a novel approach based on fluorescence imaging of thermographic phosphor that enables the simultaneous determination of both local film effectiveness and local heat transfer on a film-cooled surface. The film cooling model demonstrated consists of a single row of three discrete holes on a flat plate. The transient temperature measurement relies on the temperature-sensitive fluorescent properties of europium-doped lanthanum oxysulfide (La{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:EU{sup 3+}) thermographic phosphor. A series of full-field surface temperatures, mainstream temperatures, and coolant film temperatures were acquired during the heating of a test surface. These temperatures are used to calculate the heat transfer coefficients and the film effectiveness simultaneously. Because of the superior spatial resolution capability for the heat transfer data reduced from these temperature frames, the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging system, the present study observes the detailed heat transfer characteristics over a film-protected surface. The trend of the results agrees with those obtained using other conventional thermal methods, as well as the liquid crystal imaging technique. One major advantage of this technique is the capability to record a large number of temperature frames over a given testing period. This offers multiple-sample consistency.

  20. Corrosion-induced Whole Effluent Toxicity from a cooling tower: A toxicity reduction evaluation case study

    SciTech Connect

    Fort, D.J.; Stover, E.L.; Talley, J.M.; Copenhaver, M.B.

    1996-11-01

    As the result of Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) test failures with Daphnia pulex, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) required an industrial facility discharging approximately 5 million gallons per day (MGD) of recirculating cooling water obtained from a large freshwater river to conduct a Toxicity Reduction Evaluation (TRE) program. Under the terms of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit, the facility was required to conduct 48-hour acute toxicity tests with D. pulex and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow). Although effluent toxicity to D. pulex was consistently observed, no toxicity was induced to the fathead minnow during the TRE program. The situation was further complicated by the fact that the recirculating cooling water was discharged back into the same river. The objectives of the TRE program were to investigate the causes of toxicity, locate potential sources of the suspected toxicant(s), and identify practicable toxicity reduction methodologies to be used. The TRE program approach and results from the associated studies are presented in this report, including a successful remedy for the WET problem.

  1. Rate parameters for coupled vibration-dissociation in a generalized SSH approximation. [Schwarz, Slawsky, and Herzfeld

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.P.; Huo, W.M.; Park, C.

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical study of vibrational excitations and dissociations of nitrogen undergoing a nonequilibrium relaxation process upon heating and cooling is reported. The rate coefficients for collisional induced vibrational transitions and transitions from a bound vibrational state into a dissociative state have been calculated using an extension of the theory originally proposed by Schwarz (SSH) et al. (1952). High-lying vibrational states and dissociative states were explicitly included but rotational energy transfer was neglected. The transition probabilities calculated from the SSH theory were fed into the master equation, which was integrated numerically to determine the population distribution of the vibrational states as well as bulk thermodynamic properties. The results show that: (1) the transition rates have a minimum near the middle of the bound vibrational levels, causing a bottleneck in the vibrational relaxation and dissociation rates; (2) high vibrational states are always in equilibrium with the dissociative state; (3) for the heating case, only the low vibrational states relax according to the Landau-Teller theory; (4) for the cooling case, vibrational relaxation cannot be described by a rate equation; (5) Park's (1985, 1988) two-temperature model is approximately valid; and (6) the average vibrational energy removed in dissociation is about 30 percent of the dissociation energy. 29 references.

  2. Investigation on flow and mixing characteristics of supersonic mixing layer induced by forced vibration of cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Tan, Jianguo; Lv, Liang

    2015-12-01

    The mixing process has been an important issue for the design of supersonic combustion ramjet engine, and the mixing efficiency plays a crucial role in the improvement of the combustion efficiency. In the present study, nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering (NPLS), particle image velocimetry (PIV) and large eddy simulation (LES) are employed to investigate the flow and mixing characteristics of supersonic mixing layer under different forced vibration conditions. The indexes of fractal dimension, mixing layer thickness, momentum thickness and scalar mixing level are applied to describe the mixing process. Results show that different from the development and evolution of supersonic mixing layer without vibration, the flow under forced vibration is more likely to present the characteristics of three-dimensionality. The laminar flow region of mixing layer under forced vibration is greatly shortened and the scales of rolled up Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices become larger, which promote the mixing process remarkably. The fractal dimension distribution reveals that comparing with the flow without vibration, the turbulent fluctuation of supersonic mixing layer under forced vibration is more intense. Besides, the distribution of mixing layer thickness, momentum thickness and scalar mixing level are strongly influenced by forced vibration. Especially, when the forcing frequency is 4000 Hz, the mixing layer thickness and momentum thickness are 0.0391 m and 0.0222 m at the far field of 0.16 m, 83% and 131% higher than that without vibration at the same position, respectively.

  3. Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Flexibly-Mounted Cyber-Physical Rectangular Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoue, Kyohei; Strom, Benjamin; Song, Arnold; Breuer, Kenneth

    2013-11-01

    We have developed a cyber-physical system to explore the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) behavior of a flat plate mounted on a virtual spring damper support. The plate is allowed to oscillate about its mid-chord and the measured angular position, velocity, and torque are used as inputs to a feedback control system that provides a restoring torque and can simulate a wide range of structural dynamic behavior. A series of experiments were carried out using different sized plates, and over a range of freestream velocities, equilibrium angles of attack, and simulated stiffness and damping. We observe a synchronization phenomenon over a wide range of parameter space, wherein the plate oscillates at moderate to large amplitude with a frequency dictated by the natural structural frequency of the system. Additionally, the existence of bistable states is reflected in the hysteretic response of the system. The cyber-physical damping extracts energy from the flow and the efficiency of this harvesting mechanism is characterized over a range of dimensionless stiffness and damping parameters. This research is funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR).

  4. Compression and pressure-induced amorphization of Co(OH)2 characterized by infrared vibrational spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Jeffrey H.; Kruger, Michael B.; Jeanloz, Raymond

    1994-02-01

    The infrared-active (A2u) O-H vibration of Co(OH)2 decreases in frequency under hydrostatic compression to 51 GPa at 290 K. Similarly, the bond anharmonicity, determined from the ν1-->ν2 absorption-band difference, increases by more than a factor of 2 between 0 and 20 GPa. Both changes are attributed to an increase in the O-H bond length due to enhanced hydrogen bonding under pressure. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the fundamental absorption band increases abruptly by ~100 cm-1 at 11.2 (+/-0.3) GPa, and continues to increase at a rate of ~3.3 cm-1/GPa up to 36 GPa. Above 36 (+/-2) GPa and below the onset of amorphization, the FWHM changes at a slower rate, 0.8 (+/-0.1) cm-1/GPa. The abrupt change in FWHM is reversible on decompression, and is interpreted in terms of a pressure-induced crystal-to-glass transition exhibiting a small hysteresis compared to similar compounds. The rapid variation in FWHM above the transition pressure suggests that the amorphous structure is continuously modified between 11.3 and 36 GPa.

  5. Experimental investigation on vortex-induced vibration of steel catenary riser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yu-ting; Mao, Hai-ying; Guo, Hai-yan; Liu, Qing-hai; Li, Xiao-min

    2015-10-01

    Steel catenary riser (SCR) is the transmission device between the seabed and the floating production facilities. As developments move into deeper water, the fatigue life of the riser can become critical to the whole production system, especially due to the vortex-induced vibration (VIV), which is the key factor to operational longevity. As a result, experimental investigation about VIV of the riser was performed in a large plane pool which is 60 m long, 36 m wide and 6.5 m deep. Experiments were developed to study the influence of current speed and seabed on VIV of SCR. The results show that amplitudes of strain and response frequencies increase with the current speed both in cross-flow (CF) and in-line (IL). When the current speed is high, multi-mode response is observed in the VIV motion. The amplitudes of strain in IL direction are not much smaller than those in CF direction. The seabed has influence on the response frequencies of riser and the positions of damage for riser.

  6. Dynamic characteristics of a cable-stayed bridge measured from traffic-induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun-Che; Chen, Chern-Hwa

    2012-09-01

    This paper studies the dynamic characteristics of the Kao-Ping-Hsi cable-stayed bridge under daily traffic conditions. Experimental data were measured from a structural monitoring system, and system-identification techniques, such as the random decrement (RD) technique and Ibrahim time-domain (ITD) method, were adopted. The first five modes of the bridge were identified for their natural frequencies and damping ratios under different traffic loading conditions, in terms of root-mean-square (RMS) deck velocities. The magnitude of the torsion mode of the Kao-Ping-Hsi cable-stayed bridge is found to be one order-of-magnitude less than the transfer mode, and two orders-of-magnitude less than the vertical modes. Out results indicated that vibrations induced by traffic flow can be used as an indicator to monitor the health of the bridge due to their insensitivity to the natural frequencies of the cable-stayed bridge. Furthermore, the damping ratios may be used as a more sensitive indicator to describe the condition of the bridge.

  7. Fast optical cooling of nanomechanical cantilever with the dynamical Zeeman effect.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Qi; Zhang, Shuo; Zou, Jin-Hua; Chen, Liang; Yang, Wen; Li, Yong; Feng, Mang

    2013-12-01

    We propose an efficient optical electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) cooling scheme for a cantilever with a nitrogen-vacancy center attached in a non-uniform magnetic field using dynamical Zeeman effect. In our scheme, the Zeeman effect combined with the quantum interference effect enhances the desired cooling transition and suppresses the undesired heating transitions. As a result, the cantilever can be cooled down to nearly the vibrational ground state under realistic experimental conditions within a short time. This efficient optical EIT cooling scheme can be reduced to the typical EIT cooling scheme under special conditions. PMID:24514521

  8. Fast optical cooling of nanomechanical cantilever with the dynamical Zeeman effect.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Qi; Zhang, Shuo; Zou, Jin-Hua; Chen, Liang; Yang, Wen; Li, Yong; Feng, Mang

    2013-12-01

    We propose an efficient optical electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) cooling scheme for a cantilever with a nitrogen-vacancy center attached in a non-uniform magnetic field using dynamical Zeeman effect. In our scheme, the Zeeman effect combined with the quantum interference effect enhances the desired cooling transition and suppresses the undesired heating transitions. As a result, the cantilever can be cooled down to nearly the vibrational ground state under realistic experimental conditions within a short time. This efficient optical EIT cooling scheme can be reduced to the typical EIT cooling scheme under special conditions.

  9. Flow-induced noise and vibration analysis of a piping elbow with/without a guide vane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Yong'ou; Ouyang, Huajiang; Guo, Tao

    2014-12-01

    The effect of a guide vane installed at the elbow on flow-induced noise and vibration is investigated in the range of Reynolds numbers from 1.70×105 to 6.81×105, and the position of guide vane is determined by publications. The turbulent flow in the piping elbow is simulated with large eddy simulation (LES). Following this, a hybrid method of combining LES and Lighthill's acoustic analogy theory is used to simulate the hydrodynamic noise and sound sources are solved as volume sources in code Actran. In addition, the flow-induced vibration of the piping elbow is investigated based on a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) code. The LES results indicate that the range of vortex zone in the elbow without the guide vane is larger than the case with the guide vane, and the guide vane is effective in reducing flow-induced noise and vibration in the 90° piping elbow at different Reynolds numbers.

  10. Embedding human annoyance rate models in wireless smart sensors for assessing the influence of subway train-induced ambient vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Huaping; Kim, Robin E.; Spencer, Billie F., Jr.

    2016-10-01

    The operation of subway trains induces ambient vibrations, which may cause annoyance and other adverse effects on humans, eventually leading to physical, physiological, and psychological problems. In this paper, the human annoyance rate (HAR) models, used to assess the human comfort under the subway train-induced ambient vibrations, were deduced and the calibration curves for 5 typical use circumstances were addressed. An autonomous measurement system, based on the Imote2, wireless smart sensor (WSS) platform, plus the SHM-H, high-sensitivity accelerometer board, was developed for the HAR assessment. The calibration curves were digitized and embedded in the computational core of the WSS unit. Experimental validation was conducted, using the developed system on a large underground reinforced concrete frame structure adjoining the subway station. The ambient acceleration of both basement floors was measured; the embedded computation was implemented and the HAR assessment results were wirelessly transmitted to the central server, all by the WSS unit. The HAR distributions of the testing areas were identified, and the extent to which both basements will be influenced by the close-up subway-train’s operation, in term of the 5 typical use circumstances, were quantitatively assessed. The potential of the WSS-based autonomous system for the fast environment impact assessment of the subway train-induced ambient vibration was well demonstrated.

  11. Development of the magnetic force-induced dual vibration energy harvester using a unimorph cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umaba, M.; Nakamachi, E.; Morita, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a high frequency piezoelectric energy harvester converted from the human low vibrated motion energy was newly developed. This hybrid energy harvester consists of the unimorph piezoelectric cantilever, the pendulum and a pair of permanent magnets. One magnet was attached at the edge of cantilever, and the counterpart magnet at the edge of pendulum. The mechanical energy provided through the human walking motion, which is a typical ubiquitous existence of vibration, is converted to the electric energy via the piezoelectric unimorph cantilever vibration. At first, we studied the energy convert mechanism and analyze the performance of novel energy harvester, where the resonance free vibration of unimorph piezoelectric cantilever generated a high electric power. Next, we equipped the counterpart permanent magnet at the edge of pendulum, which vibrates with a very low frequency caused by the human walking. Then the counterpart magnet was set at the edge of unimorph piezoelectric cantilever, which vibrated with a high frequency. This low-to-high frequency convert "dual vibration system" can be characterized as an enhanced energy harvester. We examined and obtained average values of voltage and power in this system, as 8.31 mV and 0.33 μW. Those results show the possibility to apply for the energy harvester in the portable and implantable Bio-MEMS devices.

  12. Relationship between sound radiation from sound-induced and force-excited vibration: Analysis using an infinite elastic plate model.

    PubMed

    Yairi, Motoki; Sakagami, Kimihiro; Nishibara, Kosuke; Okuzono, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    Although sound radiation from sound-induced vibration and from force-excited vibration of solid structures are similar phenomena in terms of radiating from vibrating structures, the general relationship between them has not been explicitly studied to date. In particular, airborne sound transmission through walls and sound radiation from structurally vibrating surfaces in buildings are treated as different issues in architectural acoustics. In this paper, a fundamental relationship is elucidated through the use of a simple model. The transmission coefficient for random-incidence sound and the radiated sound power under point force excitation of an infinite elastic plate are both analyzed. Exact and approximate solutions are derived for the two problems, and the relationship between them is theoretically discussed. A conversion function that relates the transmission coefficient and radiated sound power is obtained in a simple closed form through the approximate solutions. The exact solutions are also related by the same conversion function. It is composed of the specific impedance and the wavenumber, and is independent of any elastic plate parameters. The sound radiation due to random-incidence sound and point force excitation are similar phenomena, and the only difference is the gradient of those characteristics with respect to the frequency.

  13. Relationship between sound radiation from sound-induced and force-excited vibration: Analysis using an infinite elastic plate model.

    PubMed

    Yairi, Motoki; Sakagami, Kimihiro; Nishibara, Kosuke; Okuzono, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    Although sound radiation from sound-induced vibration and from force-excited vibration of solid structures are similar phenomena in terms of radiating from vibrating structures, the general relationship between them has not been explicitly studied to date. In particular, airborne sound transmission through walls and sound radiation from structurally vibrating surfaces in buildings are treated as different issues in architectural acoustics. In this paper, a fundamental relationship is elucidated through the use of a simple model. The transmission coefficient for random-incidence sound and the radiated sound power under point force excitation of an infinite elastic plate are both analyzed. Exact and approximate solutions are derived for the two problems, and the relationship between them is theoretically discussed. A conversion function that relates the transmission coefficient and radiated sound power is obtained in a simple closed form through the approximate solutions. The exact solutions are also related by the same conversion function. It is composed of the specific impedance and the wavenumber, and is independent of any elastic plate parameters. The sound radiation due to random-incidence sound and point force excitation are similar phenomena, and the only difference is the gradient of those characteristics with respect to the frequency. PMID:27475169

  14. Time-resolved imaging of laser-induced vibrational wave packets in neutral and ionic states of iodomethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakar, Y.; Kaderiya, B.; Zohrabi, M.; Pearson, W. L.; Ziaee, F.; Kananka Raju, P.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Rolles, D.; Rudenko, A.

    2016-05-01

    Light-driven vibrational wave packets play an important role in molecular imaging and coherent control applications. Here we present the results of a pump-probe experiment characterizing laser-induced vibrational wave packets in both, neutral and ionic states of CH3 I (iodomethane), one of the prototypical polyatomic systems. Measuring yields and kinetic energies of all ionic fragments as a function of the time delay between two 25 fs, 800 nm pump and probe pulses, we map vibrational motion of the molecule, and identify the states involved by channel-resolved Fourier spectroscopy. In the Coulomb explosion channels we observe features with ~ 130 fs periodicity resulting from C-I symmetric stretch (ν3 mode) of the electronically excited cationic state. However the Fourier transform of the low-energy I+ ion yield produced by the dissociative ionization of CH3 I reveals the signatures of the same vibrational mode in the ground electronic states of both, neutral and cation, reflected in 65-70 fs oscillations. We observe the degeneration of the oscillatory structures from the cationic states within ~ 2 ps and discuss most likely reasons for this behavior. Supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U. S. DOE. K. R. P. and W. L. P. supported by NSF Award No. IIA-143049.

  15. Low Frequency Vibrations Induce Malformations in Two Aquatic Species in a Frequency-, Waveform-, and Direction-Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, Laura N.; Stevenson, Claire; Levin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Environmental toxicants such as industrial wastes, air particulates from machinery and transportation vehicles, and pesticide run-offs, as well as many chemicals, have been widely studied for their effects on human and wildlife populations. Yet other potentially harmful environmental pollutants such as electromagnetic pulses, noise and vibrations have remained incompletely understood. Because developing embryos undergo complex morphological changes that can be affected detrimentally by alterations in physical forces, they may be particularly susceptible to exposure to these types of pollutants. We investigated the effects of low frequency vibrations on early embryonic development of two aquatic species, Xenopus laevis (frogs) and Danio rerio (zebrafish), specifically focusing on the effects of varying frequencies, waveforms, and applied direction. We observed treatment-specific effects on the incidence of neural tube defects, left-right patterning defects and abnormal tail morphogenesis in Xenopus tadpoles. Additionally, we found that low frequency vibrations altered left-right patterning and tail morphogenesis, but did not induce neural tube defects, in zebrafish. The results of this study support the conclusion that low frequency vibrations are toxic to aquatic vertebrates, with detrimental effects observed in two important model species with very different embryonic architectures. PMID:23251546

  16. Vibration-induced Wenzel-Cassie wetting transition on microstructured hydrophobic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wei; Jia, Zhi-Hai; He, Ji-Chang; Cai, Tai-Min; Wang, Gang

    2014-05-01

    Wetting transitions were studied with vertically vibrated droplet on various polydimethylsiloxane surfaces with square array of pillars. Our experiments show that the increase of the pillar spacing, at each given frequency, leads to a decrease of the critical amplitude (which is required to achieve a Wenzel to Cassie transition). The physical mechanism of Wenzel-Cassie transition by vibration is presented. Compared with other studies of wetting transition by vibration, we demonstrate that Wenzel-Cassie transition comes up when R(θ)fn2Acr2≈const (where fn is the resonance frequency, Acr is the threshold amplitude, and R(θ) is the initial radius of the droplet).

  17. Laser-induced fluorescence and dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy of jet-cooled 1-phenylpropargyl radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Neil J.; Nakajima, Masakazu; Gibson, Bligh A.; Schmidt, Timothy W.; Kable, Scott H.

    2009-04-01

    The D1(A2″)-D0(A2″) electronic transition of the resonance-stabilized 1-phenylpropargyl radicalooled discharge of 3-phenyl-1-propyne, has been investigated in detail by laser-induced fluorescence excitation and dispersed single vibronic level fluorescence (SVLF) spectroscopy. The transition is dominated by the origin band at 21 007 cm-1, with weaker Franck-Condon activity observed in a' fundamentals and even overtones and combinations of a″ symmetry. Ab initio and density functional theory calculations of the D0 and D1 geometries and frequencies were performed to support and guide the experimental assignments throughout. Analysis of SVLF spectra from 16 D1 vibronic levels has led to the assignment of 15 fundamental frequencies in the excited state and 19 fundamental frequencies in the ground state; assignments for many more normal modes not probed directly by fluorescence spectroscopy are also suggested. Duschinsky mixing, in which the excited state normal modes are rotated with respect to the ground state modes, is prevalent throughout, in vibrations of both a' and a″ symmetry.

  18. Disk/Shaft Vibration Induced by Bearing Clearance Effects: Analysis and Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, George T.; Wu, Fangsheng

    1996-01-01

    This study presents an investigation of the dynamics of a rotor system with bearing clearance. Of particular interest is the influence of such effects on coupled disk/shaft vibration. Experimental results for a rotor system with a flexible disk are presented and compared to predictions from a simulation model. Some insights and conclusions are obtained with regard to the conditions under which such vibration may be significant.

  19. On the physical origins of interaction-induced vibrational (hyper)polarizabilities.

    PubMed

    Zaleśny, Robert; Garcia-Borràs, Marc; Góra, Robert W; Medved', Miroslav; Luis, Josep M

    2016-08-10

    This paper presents the results of a pioneering exploration of the physical origins of vibrational contributions to the interaction-induced electric properties of molecular complexes. In order to analyze the excess nuclear relaxation (hyper)polarizabilities, a new scheme was proposed which relies on the computationally efficient Bishop-Hasan-Kirtman method for determining the nuclear relaxation contributions to electric properties. The extension presented herein is general and can be used with any interaction-energy partitioning method. As an example, in this study we employed the variational-perturbational interaction-energy decomposition scheme (at the MP2/aug-cc-pVQZ level) and the extended transition state method by employing three exchange-correlation functionals (BLYP, LC-BLYP, and LC-BLYP-dDsC) to study the excess properties of the HCN dimer. It was observed that the first-order electrostatic contribution to the excess nuclear relaxation polarizability cancels with the negative exchange repulsion term out to a large extent, resulting in a positive value of Δα(nr) due to the contributions from the delocalization and the dispersion terms. In the case of the excess nuclear relaxation first hyperpolarizability, the pattern of interaction contributions is very similar to that for Δα(nr), both in terms of their sign as well as relative magnitude. Finally, our results show that the LC-BLYP and LC-BLYP-dDsC functionals, which yield smaller values of the orbital relaxation term than BLYP, are more successful in predicting excess properties. PMID:27465257

  20. Experimental investigation of vortex-induced vibration of long marine risers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trim, A. D.; Braaten, H.; Lie, H.; Tognarelli, M. A.

    2005-11-01

    There is considerable disparity between predictions of marine riser vortex-induced vibration (VIV) fatigue damage, and often the agreement between computer models and observed VIV-related damage is inaccurate by orders of magnitude. Resulting problems for deepwater riser design are the need for large safety factors on fatigue damage predictions and the use of expensive vortex-suppression devices (e.g. helical strakes). Understanding is especially limited for long risers, which may be excited in multiple and higher modes. Norwegian Deepwater Programme (NDP)—a group of oilfield licensees in Norway—has commissioned experiments on riser models over a range of scales and current conditions in order to improve the ability to predict VIV. Recently, testing of a model with an L/D (length-to-diameter ratio) of 1400 was conducted at Marintek's Ocean Basin in Trondheim. The riser was tested without VIV suppression and with various strake arrangements. Testing was performed on an innovative test rig that could simulate uniform and linearly sheared currents, with a composite fibre model that featured a dense array of high-quality instrumentation. In-line and cross-flow responses were considered important with respect to fatigue. Indeed, this study reinforces recently published results that in-line fatigue damage is as severe as cross-flow fatigue damage. However, industry analysis approaches generally ignore in-line damage due to VIV. The findings also indicate that the response character of a bare riser can be quite distinct from that of a riser partially or fully covered with helical strakes. In addition, while helical strakes of different types can be effective in mitigating VIV fatigue of long risers, their performance is dependent on their geometry. Finally, the results suggest that a key consideration in VIV fatigue design is the length of suppression coverage and the nature of the flow to which the bare section of the riser is exposed.

  1. An investigation of vibration-induced protein desorption mechanism using a micromachined membrane and PZT plate.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Po Ying; Le, Yevgeniya; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Chiao, Mu

    2008-10-01

    A micromachined vibrating membrane is used to remove adsorbed proteins on a surface. A lead zirconate titanate (PZT) composite (3 x 1 x 0.5 mm) is attached to a silicon membrane (2,000 x 500 x 3 microm) and vibrates in a flexural plate wave (FPW) mode with wavelength of 4,000/3 microm at a resonant frequency of 308 kHz. The surface charge on the membrane and fluid shear stress contribute in minimizing the protein adsorption on the SiO(2) surface. In vitro characterization shows that 57 +/- 10% of the adsorbed bovine serum albumin (BSA), 47 +/- 13% of the immunoglobulin G (IgG), and 55.3~59.2 +/- 8% of the proteins from blood plasma are effectively removed from the vibrating surface. A simulation study of the vibration-frequency spectrum and vibrating amplitude distribution matches well with the experimental data. Potentially, a microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based vibrating membrane could be the tool to minimize biofouling of in vivo MEMS devices. PMID:18427993

  2. Local cooling, plasma reheating and thermal pinching induced by single aerosol droplets injected into an inductively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, George C.-Y.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2016-07-01

    The injection of a single micrometer-sized droplet into an analytical inductively coupled plasma (ICP) perturbs the plasma and involves three sequential effects: local cooling, thermal pinching and plasma reheating. Time-resolved two-dimensional monochromatic imaging of the load-coil region of an ICP was used to monitor this sequence of plasma perturbations. When a microdroplet enters the plasma, it acts as a local heat sink and cools the nearby plasma region. The cooling effect is considered local, although the cooling volume can be large and extends 6 mm from the physical location of the vaporizing droplet. The liberated hydrogen, from decomposition of water, causes a thermal pinch effect by increasing the thermal conductivity of the bulk plasma and accelerating heat loss at the plasma periphery. As a response to the heat loss, the plasma shrinks in size, which increases its power density. Plasma shrinkage starts around the same time when the microdroplet enters the plasma and lasts at least 2 ms after the droplet leaves the load-coil region. Once the vaporizing droplet passes through a particular plasma volume, that volume is reheated to an even higher temperature than under steady-state conditions. Because of the opposing effects of plasma cooling and reheating, the plasma conditions are different upstream (downward) and downstream (upward) from a vaporizing droplet - cooling dominates the downstream region whereas reheating controls in the upstream domain. The boundary between the local cooling and reheating zones is sharp and is only ~ 1 mm thick. The reheating effect persists a relatively long time in the plasma, at least up to 4 ms after the droplet moves out of the load-coil region. The restoration of plasma equilibrium after the perturbation induced by microdroplet injection is slow. Microdroplet injection also induces a momentary change in plasma impedance, and the impedance change was found to correlate qualitatively with the different stages of plasma

  3. Influence of light-induced conical intersection on the photodissociation dynamics of D2(+) starting from individual vibrational levels.

    PubMed

    Halász, Gábor J; Csehi, András; Vibók, Ágnes; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

    2014-12-26

    Previous works have shown that dressing of diatomic molecules by standing or by running laser waves gives rise to the appearance of so-called light-induced conical intersections (LICIs). Because of the strong nonadiabatic couplings, the existence of such LICIs may significantly change the dynamical properties of a molecular system. In our former paper (J. Phys. Chem. A 2013, 117, 8528), the photodissociation dynamics of the D(2)(+) molecule were studied in the LICI framework starting the initial vibrational nuclear wave packet from the superposition of all the vibrational states initially produced by ionizing D(2). The present work complements our previous investigation by letting the initial nuclear wave packets start from different individual vibrational levels of D(2)(+), in particular, above the energy of the LICI. The kinetic energy release spectra, the total dissociation probabilities, and the angular distributions of the photofragments are calculated and discussed. An interesting phenomenon has been found in the spectra of the photofragments. Applying the light-induced adiabatic picture supported by LICI, explanations are given for the unexpected structure of the spectra.

  4. Desorption of low-volatility compounds induced by dynamic friction between microdroplets and an ultrasonically vibrating blade.

    PubMed

    Usmanov, D T; Hiraoka, K; Wada, H; Morita, S; Nonami, H

    2016-02-21

    Friction plays an important role in desorption and/or ionization of nonvolatile compounds in mass spectrometry, e.g., sonic spray, easy ambient sonic-spray ionization, solvent-assisted inlet ionization, desorption electrospray, etc. In our previous work, desorption of low molecular weight compounds induced by solid/solid dynamic friction was studied. The objective of this work was to investigate desorption of low-volatility compounds induced by liquid/solid friction. Water/methanol (1/1) microdroplets with ∼30 μm in diameter were generated by using a piezoelectric microdroplet generator. They were injected to analytes deposited on the flat surface of a blade vibrating ultrasonically with the frequency of 40 kHz. Neutral molecules desorbed from the blade were ionized by a helium dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), generating strong signals for samples including drugs, explosives, and insecticides. These signals were not detected when either the blade vibrator or the piezoelectric microdroplet generator was off. In contrast, for ionic compounds such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoro-methylsulfonyl)imide, p-chlorobenzyl pyridinium chloride, and rhodamine B, strong ion signals were obtained when the vibrator and droplet generator were on, but DBD was off. Sub-nanogram limits of detection were attained for low-volatility compounds. PMID:26779570

  5. The Modeling of Vibration Damping in SMA Wires

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, D R; Kloucek, P; Seidman, T I

    2003-09-16

    Through a mathematical and computational model of the physical behavior of shape memory alloy wires, this study shows that localized heating and cooling of such materials provides an effective means of damping vibrational energy. The thermally induced pseudo-elastic behavior of a shape memory wire is modeled using a continuum thermodynamic model and solved computationally as described by the authors in [23]. Computational experiments confirm that up to 80% of an initial shock of vibrational energy can be eliminated at the onset of a thermally-induced phase transformation through the use of spatially-distributed transformation regions along the length of a shape memory alloy wire.

  6. A massive, cooling-flow-induced starburst in the core of a luminous cluster of galaxies.

    PubMed

    McDonald, M; Bayliss, M; Benson, B A; Foley, R J; Ruel, J; Sullivan, P; Veilleux, S; Aird, K A; Ashby, M L N; Bautz, M; Bazin, G; Bleem, L E; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cho, H M; Clocchiatti, A; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; de Haan, T; Desai, S; Dobbs, M A; Dudley, J P; Egami, E; Forman, W R; Garmire, G P; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Halverson, N W; Harrington, N L; High, F W; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hoover, S; Hrubes, J D; Jones, C; Joy, M; Keisler, R; Knox, L; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Liu, J; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Mantz, A; Marrone, D P; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Miller, E D; Mocanu, L; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Murray, S S; Natoli, T; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Rawle, T D; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Rex, M; Ruhl, J E; Saliwanchik, B R; Saro, A; Sayre, J T; Schaffer, K K; Shaw, L; Shirokoff, E; Simcoe, R; Song, J; Spieler, H G; Stalder, B; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Stubbs, C W; Suhada, R; van Engelen, A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vikhlinin, A; Williamson, R; Zahn, O; Zenteno, A

    2012-08-16

    In the cores of some clusters of galaxies the hot intracluster plasma is dense enough that it should cool radiatively in the cluster's lifetime, leading to continuous 'cooling flows' of gas sinking towards the cluster centre, yet no such cooling flow has been observed. The low observed star-formation rates and cool gas masses for these 'cool-core' clusters suggest that much of the cooling must be offset by feedback to prevent the formation of a runaway cooling flow. Here we report X-ray, optical and infrared observations of the galaxy cluster SPT-CLJ2344-4243 (ref. 11) at redshift z = 0.596. These observations reveal an exceptionally luminous (8.2 × 10(45) erg s(-1)) galaxy cluster that hosts an extremely strong cooling flow (around 3,820 solar masses a year). Further, the central galaxy in this cluster appears to be experiencing a massive starburst (formation of around 740 solar masses a year), which suggests that the feedback source responsible for preventing runaway cooling in nearby cool-core clusters may not yet be fully established in SPT-CLJ2344-4243. This large star-formation rate implies that a significant fraction of the stars in the central galaxy of this cluster may form through accretion of the intracluster medium, rather than (as is currently thought) assembling entirely via mergers.

  7. Vibrationally induced inversion of photoelectron forward-backward asymmetry in chiral molecule photoionization by circularly polarized light

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Gustavo A.; Nahon, Laurent; Daly, Steven; Powis, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Electron–nuclei coupling accompanying excitation and relaxation processes is a fascinating phenomenon in molecular dynamics. A striking and unexpected example of such coupling is presented here in the context of photoelectron circular dichroism measurements on randomly oriented, chiral methyloxirane molecules, unaffected by any continuum resonance. Here, we report that the forward-backward asymmetry in the electron angular distribution, with respect to the photon axis, which is associated with photoelectron circular dichroism can surprisingly reverse direction according to the ion vibrational mode excited. This vibrational dependence represents a clear breakdown of the usual Franck–Condon assumption, ascribed to the enhanced sensitivity of photoelectron circular dichroism (compared with other observables like cross-sections or the conventional anisotropy parameter-β) to the scattering phase off the chiral molecular potential, inducing a dependence on the nuclear geometry sampled in the photoionization process. Important consequences for the interpretation of such dichroism measurements within analytical contexts are discussed. PMID:23828557

  8. The effect of two degrees of freedom on vortex-induced vibration at low mass and damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauvtis, N.; Williamson, C. H. K.

    2004-06-01

    Although there are a great many papers dedicated to the problem of a cylinder vibrating transverse to a fluid flow (Y-motion), there are almost no papers on the more practical case of vortex-induced vibration in two degrees of freedom (X,Y motion) where the mass and natural frequencies are precisely the same in both X- and Y-directions. We have designed the present pendulum apparatus to achieve both of these criteria. Even down to the low mass ratios, where m(* {=} 6) , it is remarkable that the freedom to oscillate in-line with the flow affects the transverse vibration surprisingly little. The same response branches, peak amplitudes, and vortex wake modes are found for both Y-only and X,Y motion. There is, however, a dramatic change in the fluid structure interactions when mass ratios are reduced below m(* {=} 6) . A new amplitude response branch with significant streamwise motion appears, in what we call the ‘super-upper’ branch, yielding massive amplitudes of 3 diameters peak-to-peak (A(*_Y) {˜} 1.5). We discover a corresponding periodic vortex wake mode, comprising a triplet of vortices being formed in each half-cycle, in what we define as a ‘2T’ mode. We qualitatively interpret the principal vortex dynamics and vortex forces which yield a positive rate of energy transfer (dot{e}_V) causing the body vibration, using the following simple equation: [dot{e}_V = 2 {Gamma}^* U^*_V skew3dot{Y}] where Gamma(*) is vortex strength, U(*_V) is the speed downstream of the dominant near-wake vorticity, and skew3dot{Y} is the transverse velocity of the body. This simple approach suggests that the massive amplitude of vibration for the 2T mode is principally attributed to the energy transfer from the ‘third’ vortex of each triplet, which is not present in the lower-amplitude 2P mode. We also find two low-speed streamwise vibration modes, which is not unexpected, since they correspond to the first and second excitation modes of vibration for flexible cantilevers

  9. The Acute Effect of Local Vibration As a Recovery Modality from Exercise-Induced Increased Muscle Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Pournot, Hervé; Tindel, Jérémy; Testa, Rodolphe; Mathevon, Laure; Lapole, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Exercise involving eccentric muscle contractions is known to decrease range of motion and increase passive muscle stiffness. This study aimed at using ultrasound shear wave elastography to investigate acute changes in biceps brachii passive stiffness following intense barbell curl exercise involving both concentric and eccentric contractions. The effect of local vibration (LV) as a recovery modality from exercise-induced increased stiffness was further investigated. Eleven subjects performed 4 bouts of 10 bilateral barbell curl movements at 70% of the one-rep maximal flexion force. An arm-to-arm comparison model was then used with one arm randomly assigned to the passive recovery condition and the other arm assigned to the LV recovery condition (10 min of 55-Hz vibration frequency and 0.9-mm amplitude). Biceps brachii shear elastic modulus measurements were performed prior to exercise (PRE), immediately after exercise (POST-EX) and 5 min after the recovery period (POST-REC). Biceps brachii shear elastic modulus was significantly increased at POST-EX (+53 ± 48%; p < 0.001) and POST-REC (+31 ± 46%; p = 0.025) when compared to PRE. No differences were found between passive and LV recovery (p = 0.210). LV as a recovery strategy from exercise-induced increased muscle stiffness was not beneficial, probably due to an insufficient mechanical action of vibrations. Key points Bouts of barbell curl exercise induce an immediate increased passive stiffness of the biceps brachii muscle, as evidenced by greater shear elastic modulus measured by supersonic shear imaging. The administration of a vibratory massage did not reduce this acute exercise-induced increased stiffness. PMID:26957937

  10. Airway cooling and rewarming. The second reaction sequence in exercise-induced asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, I A; McFadden, E R

    1992-01-01

    To determine if a relationship exists among the magnitude and rate of airway rewarming, and the severity of bronchial obstruction in thermally induced asthma, we had seven subjects perform three- to four-point stimulus response curves with isocapnic hyperventilation of frigid air with and without pretreatment with inhaled norepinephrine. The latter was employed to alter the heat supplied to the airway walls by producing vasoconstriction. 1-s forced expiratory volume (FEV1) was measured before and 5 min after the cessation of each bout of hyperpnea and before and after norepinephrine. On a separate day, the subjects repeated the above challenges while the temperatures of the airstream in the intrathoracic airways were measured. Prenorepinephrine, FEV1 progressively decreased in a stimulus response fashion as ventilation rose, while norepinephrine shifted this curve to the right. As the level of ventilation increased, the size of the temperature difference between the cooling of hyperpnea and the rewarming of recovery followed suit, and their magnitude was linearly related to the severity of bronchial narrowing. Reducing the mucosal blood supply of the airways with norepinephrine limited rewarming and attenuated the obstructive response. These data demonstrate that the airway narrowing that develops following hyperpnea and the magnitude of the thermal differences are related, and that alterations in blood supply directly affect bronchial heat flux and influence obstruction. PMID:1522227

  11. A framework for advanced methods of control of human-induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Paul

    2012-04-01

    The vibration serviceability of civil engineering structures under human dynamic excitation is becoming ever more critical with the design and redevelopment of structures with reduced mass, stiffness and damping. A large number of problems have been reported in floors, footbridges, sports stadia, staircases and other structures. Unfortunately, the range of options available to fix such problems are very limited and are primarily limited to structural modification or the implementation of passive vibration control measures, such as tuned mass dampers. This paper presents the initial development of a new framework for advanced methods of control of humaninduced vibrations in civil engineering structures. This framework includes both existing passive methods of vibration control and more advanced active, semi-active and hybrid control techniques, which may be further developed as practical solutions for these problems. Through the use of this framework, rational decisions as to the most appropriate technologies for particular human vibration problems may be made and pursued further. This framework is also intended to be used in the design of new civil engineering structures, where advanced control technologies may be used both to increase the achievable slenderness and to reduce the amount of construction materials used and hence their embodied energy. This will be an ever more important consideration with the current drive for structures with reduced environmental impact.

  12. Electron-vibration coupling induced renormalization in the photoemission spectrum of diamondoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gali, Adam; Demján, Tamás; Vörös, Márton; Thiering, Gergő; Cannuccia, Elena; Marini, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The development of theories and methods devoted to the accurate calculation of the electronic quasi-particle states and levels of molecules, clusters and solids is of prime importance to interpret the experimental data. These quantum systems are often modelled by using the Born-Oppenheimer approximation where the coupling between the electrons and vibrational modes is not fully taken into account, and the electrons are treated as pure quasi-particles. Here, we show that in small diamond cages, called diamondoids, the electron-vibration coupling leads to the breakdown of the electron quasi-particle picture. More importantly, we demonstrate that the strong electron-vibration coupling is essential to properly describe the overall lineshape of the experimental photoemission spectrum. This cannot be obtained by methods within Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Moreover, we deduce a link between the vibronic states found by our many-body perturbation theory approach and the well-known Jahn-Teller effect.

  13. Electron–vibration coupling induced renormalization in the photoemission spectrum of diamondoids

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Adam; Demján, Tamás; Vörös, Márton; Thiering, Gergő; Cannuccia, Elena; Marini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The development of theories and methods devoted to the accurate calculation of the electronic quasi-particle states and levels of molecules, clusters and solids is of prime importance to interpret the experimental data. These quantum systems are often modelled by using the Born–Oppenheimer approximation where the coupling between the electrons and vibrational modes is not fully taken into account, and the electrons are treated as pure quasi-particles. Here, we show that in small diamond cages, called diamondoids, the electron–vibration coupling leads to the breakdown of the electron quasi-particle picture. More importantly, we demonstrate that the strong electron–vibration coupling is essential to properly describe the overall lineshape of the experimental photoemission spectrum. This cannot be obtained by methods within Born–Oppenheimer approximation. Moreover, we deduce a link between the vibronic states found by our many-body perturbation theory approach and the well-known Jahn–Teller effect. PMID:27103340

  14. Electron-vibration coupling induced renormalization in the photoemission spectrum of diamondoids.

    PubMed

    Gali, Adam; Demján, Tamás; Vörös, Márton; Thiering, Gergő; Cannuccia, Elena; Marini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The development of theories and methods devoted to the accurate calculation of the electronic quasi-particle states and levels of molecules, clusters and solids is of prime importance to interpret the experimental data. These quantum systems are often modelled by using the Born-Oppenheimer approximation where the coupling between the electrons and vibrational modes is not fully taken into account, and the electrons are treated as pure quasi-particles. Here, we show that in small diamond cages, called diamondoids, the electron-vibration coupling leads to the breakdown of the electron quasi-particle picture. More importantly, we demonstrate that the strong electron-vibration coupling is essential to properly describe the overall lineshape of the experimental photoemission spectrum. This cannot be obtained by methods within Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Moreover, we deduce a link between the vibronic states found by our many-body perturbation theory approach and the well-known Jahn-Teller effect. PMID:27103340

  15. A case report of vibration-induced hand comorbidities in a postwoman

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prolonged exposure to hand-transmitted vibration is associated with an increased occurrence of symptoms and signs of disorders in the vascular, neurological and osteoarticular systems of the upper limbs. However, the available epidemiological evidence is derived from studies on high vibration levels caused by vibratory tools, whereas little is known about possible upper limb disorders caused by chronic exposure to low vibration levels emitted by fixed sources. Case presentation We present the case of a postwoman who delivered mail for 15 years using a low-powered motorcycle. The woman was in good health until 2002, when she was diagnosed with bilateral Raynaud's phenomenon. In March 2003 a bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome was electromyographically diagnosed; surgical treatment was ineffective. Further examinations in 2005 highlighted the presence of chronic tendonitis (right middle finger flexor). Risk assessment From 1987, for 15 years, our patient rode her motorcycle for 4 h/day, carrying a load of 20-30 kg. For about a quarter of the time she drove over country roads. Using the information collected about the tasks carried out every day by the postwoman and some measurements performed on both handles of the motorcycle, as well as on both iron parts of the handlebars, we reconstructed the woman's previous exposure to hand-arm vibration. 8-hour energy-equivalent frequency weighted acceleration was about 2.4 m/s2. The lifetime dose was 1.5 × 109(m2/s4)hd. Conclusions The particular set of comorbidities presented by our patient suggests a common pathophysiological basis for all the diseases. Considering the level of exposure to vibrations and the lack of specific knowledge on the effects of vibration in women, we hypothesize an association between the work exposure and the onset of the diseases. PMID:21320318

  16. Avoiding leakage flow-induced vibration by a tube-in-tube slip joint

    SciTech Connect

    Mulcahy, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    Parameters and operating conditions (a stability map) were determined for which a specific slip-joint design did not cause self-excited lateral vibration of the two cantilevered, telescoping tubes forming the joint. The joint design featured a localized annular constriction. Flowrate, modal damping, tube engagement length, and eccentric positioning were among the parameters tested. Interestingly, all self-excited vibrations could be avoided by following a simple design rule: place constrictions only at the downstream end of the annular region between the tubes. Also, overall modal damping decreased with increased flowrate, at least initially, for upstream constrictions while the damping increased for downstream constrictions.

  17. Avoiding leakage flow-induced vibration by a tube-in-tube slip joint

    SciTech Connect

    Mulcahy, T.M.

    1984-10-01

    Parameters and operating conditions (a stability map) were determined for which a specific slip-joint design did not cause self-excited lateral vibration of the two cantilevered, telescoping tubes forming the joint. The joint design featured a localized annular constriction. Flowrate, modal damping, tube engagement length, and eccentric positioning were among the parameters tested. Interestingly, all self-excited vibrations could be avoided by following a simple design rule: place constrictions only at the downstream end of the annular region between the tubes. Also, overall modal damping decreased with increased flowrate, at least initially, for upstream constrictions while the damping increased for downstream constrictions.

  18. Strong localization induced by one clamped point in thin plate vibrations.

    PubMed

    Filoche, Marcel; Mayboroda, Svitlana

    2009-12-18

    We discover a strong localization of flexural (bi-Laplacian) waves in rigid thin plates. We show that clamping just one point inside such a plate not only perturbs its spectral properties, but essentially divides the plate into two independently vibrating regions. This effect progressively appears when increasing the plate eccentricity. Such a localization is qualitatively and quantitatively different from the results known for the Laplacian waves in domains of irregular boundary. It would allow us to control the confinement of mechanical vibrations in rigid plates and of eddies in the slow Stokes flow. PMID:20366256

  19. Experimental investigation of flow-induced vibration on isolated and tandem circular cylinders fitted with strakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkischko, I.; Meneghini, J. R.

    2010-05-01

    The effect of varying the geometric parameters of helical strakes on vortex-induced vibration (VIV) is investigated in this paper. The degree of oscillation attenuation or even suppression is analysed for isolated circular cylinder cases. How a cylinder fitted with strakes behaves when immersed in the wake of another cylinder in tandem arrangement is also investigated and these results are compared to those with a single straked cylinder. The experimental tests are conducted at a circulating water channel facility and the cylindrical models are mounted on a low-damping air bearing elastic base with one degree-of-freedom, restricted to oscillate in the transverse direction to the channel flow. Three strake pitches (p) and heights (h) are tested: p=5, 10, 15d, and h=0.1, 0.2, 0.25d. The mass ratio is 1.8 for all models. The Reynolds number range is from 1000 to 10 000, and the reduced velocity varies up to 21. The cases with h=0.1d strakes reduce the amplitude response when compared to the isolated plain cylinder, however the oscillation still persists. On the other hand, the cases with h=0.2, 0.25d strakes almost completely suppress VIV. Spanwise vorticity fields, obtained through stereoscopic digital particle image velocimetry (SDPIV), show an alternating vortex wake for the p=10d and h=0.1d straked cylinder. The p=10d and h=0.2d cylinder wake has separated shear layers with constant width and no roll-up close to the body. The strakes do not increase the magnitude of the out-of-plane velocity compared to the isolated plain cylinder. However, they deflect the flow in the out-of-plane direction in a controlled way, which can prevent the vortex shedding correlation along the span. In order to investigate the wake interference effect on the strake efficiency, an experimental arrangement with two cylinders in tandem is employed. The centre-to-centre distance for the tandem arrangement varies from 2 to 6. When the downstream p=10d and h=0.2d cylinder is immersed in the

  20. Vortex-induced vibrations of a flexibly-mounted inclined cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Anil; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2013-11-01

    The majority of studies on vortex-induced vibrations of a flexibly-mounted rigid cylinder are for the cases where the flow direction is perpendicular to the long axis of the structure. However, in many engineering applications, such as cable stays in bridges and mooring lines of floating offshore wind turbines, the flow direction may not be perpendicular to the structure. To understand the vortex shedding behind a fixed inclined cylinder, the Independence Principle (IP) has been used. The IP assumes that an inclined cylinder behaves similarly to a normal-incidence case, if only the component of the free stream velocity normal to the cylinder axis is considered. The IP neglects the effect of the axial component of the flow, which seems reasonable for small angles of inclination, but not for large angles. In the present study, a series of experiments have been conducted on a flexibly-mounted rigid cylinder placed inclined to the oncoming flow with various angles of inclination (0°<θ<75°) in a range of Reynolds numbers from 500 to 4000 to investigate how the angle of inclination affects VIV. A rigid cylinder was mounted on springs, and air bearings were used to reduce the structural damping of the system. The system was placed in the test-section of a recirculating water tunnel and the crossflow displacements were measured at each flow velocity. Even at high angles of inclination, large-amplitude oscillations were observed. As the angle of inclination was increased, the lock-in range (the range of reduced flow velocities for which the cylinder oscillates with a large amplitude) started at a higher reduced velocity. When only the normal component of the oncoming flow was considered, the onset of lock-in was observed to be at the same normalized flow velocity for all angles of inclination except for 75°. However, the width of the lock-in region, its pattern, the maximum amplitude of oscillations and its corresponding normalized reduced velocity were not following

  1. Characterizing the effects of amplitude, frequency and limb position on vibration induced movement illusions: Implications in sensory-motor rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Jonathon S.; Dawson, Michael R.; Carey, Jason P.; Hebert, Jacqueline S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Strategic vibration of musculotendinous regions of a limb elicits illusionary sensations of movement. As a rehabilitation technique, this ‘kinesthetic illusion’ has demonstrated beneficial results for numerous sensory-motor disorders. However, literature shows little consistency in the vibration parameters or body positioning used, and their effects have yet to be comprehensively investigated. OBJECTIVE To characterize the effects of the vibration amplitude, frequency, and limb position on the kinesthetic illusion. METHODS Movement illusions were induced in 12 participants’ biceps and triceps. The effect of amplitude (0.1 to 0.5 mm), frequency (70 to 110 Hz), and two limb positions were quantified on the strength of illusion (SOI), range of motion (ROM) and velocity. RESULTS Amplitude significantly affected the illusionary SOI, ROM and velocity in the biceps and triceps (p < 0.05). Increasing amplitude resulted in an increase of all three output variables. Limb position showed an effect on illusionary velocity in the biceps as well as ROM and velocity in the triceps (p < 0.05). Frequency demonstrated no statistical effect. CONCLUSIONS Amplitude demonstrated the most profound impact on the kinesthetic illusion in the experimental ranges tested. This work may help guide clinicians and researchers in selecting appropriate vibratory parameters and body positions to consistently elicit and manipulate the kinesthetic illusion. PMID:25425585

  2. On the Proper Estimation of the Confidence Interval for the Design Formula of Blast-Induced Vibrations with Site Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, W. M.; Yuen, Ka-Veng

    2015-01-01

    Blast-induced ground vibration has received much engineering and public attention. The vibration is often represented by the peak particle velocity (PPV) and the empirical approach is employed to describe the relationship between the PPV and the scaled distance. Different statistical methods are often used to obtain the confidence level of the prediction. With a known scaled distance, the amount of explosives in a planned blast can then be determined by a blast engineer when the PPV limit and the confidence level of the vibration magnitude are specified. This paper shows that these current approaches do not incorporate the posterior uncertainty of the fitting coefficients. In order to resolve this problem, a Bayesian method is proposed to derive the site-specific fitting coefficients based on a small amount of data collected at an early stage of a blasting project. More importantly, uncertainty of both the fitting coefficients and the design formula can be quantified. Data collected from a site formation project in Hong Kong is used to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. It is shown that the proposed method resolves the underestimation problem in one of the conventional approaches. The proposed approach can be easily conducted using spreadsheet calculation without the need for any additional tools, so it will be particularly welcome by practicing engineers.

  3. Thermally and vibrationally induced conformational isomerizations, infrared spectra, and photochemistry of gallic acid in low-temperature matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Justino, Licínia L. G.; Reva, Igor; Fausto, Rui

    2016-07-01

    Near-infrared (near-IR) narrowband selective vibrational excitation and annealing of gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) isolated in cryogenic matrices were used to induce interconversions between its most stable conformers. The isomerizations were probed by infrared spectroscopy. An extensive set of quantum chemical calculations, carried out at the DFT(B3LYP)/6-311++G(d,p) level of approximation, was used to undertake a detailed analysis of the ground state potential energy surface of the molecule. This investigation of the molecule conformational space allowed extracting mechanistic insights into the observed annealing- or near-IR-induced isomerization processes. The infrared spectra of the two most stable conformers of gallic acid in N2, Xe, and Ar matrices were fully assigned. Finally, the UV-induced photochemistry of the matrix isolated compound was investigated.

  4. Thermally and vibrationally induced conformational isomerizations, infrared spectra, and photochemistry of gallic acid in low-temperature matrices.

    PubMed

    Justino, Licínia L G; Reva, Igor; Fausto, Rui

    2016-07-01

    Near-infrared (near-IR) narrowband selective vibrational excitation and annealing of gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) isolated in cryogenic matrices were used to induce interconversions between its most stable conformers. The isomerizations were probed by infrared spectroscopy. An extensive set of quantum chemical calculations, carried out at the DFT(B3LYP)/6-311++G(d,p) level of approximation, was used to undertake a detailed analysis of the ground state potential energy surface of the molecule. This investigation of the molecule conformational space allowed extracting mechanistic insights into the observed annealing- or near-IR-induced isomerization processes. The infrared spectra of the two most stable conformers of gallic acid in N2, Xe, and Ar matrices were fully assigned. Finally, the UV-induced photochemistry of the matrix isolated compound was investigated. PMID:27394105

  5. Thermally and vibrationally induced conformational isomerizations, infrared spectra, and photochemistry of gallic acid in low-temperature matrices.

    PubMed

    Justino, Licínia L G; Reva, Igor; Fausto, Rui

    2016-07-01

    Near-infrared (near-IR) narrowband selective vibrational excitation and annealing of gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) isolated in cryogenic matrices were used to induce interconversions between its most stable conformers. The isomerizations were probed by infrared spectroscopy. An extensive set of quantum chemical calculations, carried out at the DFT(B3LYP)/6-311++G(d,p) level of approximation, was used to undertake a detailed analysis of the ground state potential energy surface of the molecule. This investigation of the molecule conformational space allowed extracting mechanistic insights into the observed annealing- or near-IR-induced isomerization processes. The infrared spectra of the two most stable conformers of gallic acid in N2, Xe, and Ar matrices were fully assigned. Finally, the UV-induced photochemistry of the matrix isolated compound was investigated.

  6. Generation of laser-induced plasma in supercritical water and vibrational spectroscopic study of accompanying stimulated Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yui, Hiroharu; Tomai, Takaaki; Sawada, Masayoshi; Terashima, Kazuo

    2011-08-01

    We have formed a laser-induced plasma (LIP) in supercritical water (SCW) and studied associated molecular vibrations using spectroscopic methods. The accompanying forward and backward stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of water molecules showed anisotropic behavior at supercritical conditions (>647 K and >22.1 MPa). The Raman shift of the backward SRS indicated that attractive interactions between water molecules and excess electrons generated by the LIP were dominant in the SCW. The backward SRS spectrum provided a microscopic view of the hydration environment around an excess electron, which is useful for controlling electron-driven chemical reactions and materials processing in SCW.

  7. Generation of laser-induced plasma in supercritical water and vibrational spectroscopic study of accompanying stimulated Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Yui, Hiroharu; Tomai, Takaaki; Sawada, Masayoshi; Terashima, Kazuo

    2011-08-29

    We have formed a laser-induced plasma (LIP) in supercritical water (SCW) and studied associated molecular vibrations using spectroscopic methods. The accompanying forward and backward stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of water molecules showed anisotropic behavior at supercritical conditions (>647 K and >22.1 MPa). The Raman shift of the backward SRS indicated that attractive interactions between water molecules and excess electrons generated by the LIP were dominant in the SCW. The backward SRS spectrum provided a microscopic view of the hydration environment around an excess electron, which is useful for controlling electron-driven chemical reactions and materials processing in SCW.

  8. Thermally Induced Vibrations of the Hubble Space Telescope's Solar Array 3 in a Test Simulated Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Early, Derrick A.; Haile, William B.; Turczyn, Mark T.; Griffin, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) conducted a disturbance verification test on a flight Solar Array 3 (SA3) for the Hubble Space Telescope using the ESA Large Space Simulator (LSS) in Noordwijk, the Netherlands. The LSS cyclically illuminated the SA3 to simulate orbital temperature changes in a vacuum environment. Data acquisition systems measured signals from force transducers and accelerometers resulting from thermally induced vibrations of the SAI The LSS with its seismic mass boundary provided an excellent background environment for this test. This paper discusses the analysis performed on the measured transient SA3 responses and provides a summary of the results.

  9. Influence of numerical model decisions on the flow-induced vibration of a computational vocal fold model

    PubMed Central

    Shurtz, Timothy E.; Thomson, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    Computational vocal fold models are often used to study the physics of voice production. In this paper the sensitivity of predicted vocal fold flow-induced vibration and resulting airflow patterns to several modeling selections is explored. The location of contact lines used to prevent mesh collapse and assumptions of symmetry were found to influence airflow patterns. However, these variables had relatively little effect on the vibratory response of the vocal fold model itself. Model motion was very sensitive to Poisson’s ratio. The importance of these parameter sensitivities in the context of vocal fold modeling is discussed. PMID:23794762

  10. A Gaussian model for predicting the effect of unsteady windspeed on the vortex-induced vibration response of structural members

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, C.Y.; Vandiver, J.K.

    1995-12-31

    In a previous study the authors have shown that the expected duration of visit by the windspeed to the critical velocity interval of a structural member is an important time scale in determining the ultimate fatigue damage of the member due to vortex-induced vibration in naturally time varying winds. In this paper, a Gaussian windspeed assumption is introduced in which the expected duration of visit can be expressed explicitly in terms of simple wind statistics. This assumption is verified with high sampling rate maritime wind data. The wind statistics necessary for calculation of the expected duration of visit are extracted from the raw wind data.

  11. Coupling system dynamics and contact behaviour: Modelling bearings subjected to environmental induced vibrations and ‘false brinelling’ degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massi, Francesco; Rocchi, J.; Culla, A.; Berthier, Y.

    2010-05-01

    During the last decades the increase in power of mechanical systems and the demand for increasing service life leads mechanical components of a system to work in extreme conditions. Moreover, actual mechanical systems include surfaces in sliding contact that are subjected to wear if exposed to high vibration. In fact, the vibration of components in contact results in large oscillations of the local contact stresses, due to the local deformation of the components at the contact interfaces. To approach correctly tribological problems, the coupling between the scale of the mechanism (system dynamics) and the scale of the contact needs to be accounted for. This paper presents an analysis concerning the influence of the vibrations induced by aircraft engines on the contact stresses of rolling bearings of the bleed system valves. To study the wear, resulting from false brinelling at the contact surfaces between balls and races of the bearings, it is then necessary to determine the forces due to the system vibrations and acting at the bearing connections with the structure. In order to perform a numerical transient analysis of the system dynamics a nonlinear simplified model of the valve (mechanism scale) is developed. The model is validated by comparing the numerical results with experimental tests. The time behaviour of the global forces on the bearings, and the respective displacements between the contact surfaces, are then used as inputs for a finite element model of the bearings (contact scale). The model is used to calculate and analyze the behaviour in time of the local contact constraints between race and balls. This analysis, developed in the framework of a European project, is an example of the proposed general approach to contact problems, by coupling the analysis of the mechanism and contact scales.

  12. Evaluation of human response to structural vibration induced by sonic boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, L. C.; Czech, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the topic of building vibration response to sonic boom and the evaluation of the associated human response to this vibration. The paper reexamines some of the issues addressed in the previous extensive coverage of the topic, primarily by NASA, and attempts to offer a fresh viewpoint for some of the problems that may assist in reassessing the potential impact of sonic boom over populated areas. The topics addressed are: (1) human response to vibration; (2) criteria for, and acoustic signature of rattle; (3) structural response to shaped booms, including definition of two new descriptors for assessing the structural response to sonic boom; and (4) a detailed review of the previous NASA/FAA Sonic Boom Test Program involving structural response measurements at Edwards AFB and an initial estimate of structural response to sonic booms from possible high speed civil transport configurations. Finally, these estimated vibration responses are shown to be substantially greater than the human response and rattle criteria developed earlier.

  13. A new mathematical model to simulate AVA cold-induced vasodilation reaction to local cooling.

    PubMed

    Rida, Mohamad; Karaki, Wafaa; Ghaddar, Nesreen; Ghali, Kamel; Hoballah, Jamal

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to integrate a new mathematical model with a bioheat model, based on physiology and first principles, to predict thermoregulatory arterio-venous anastomoses (AVA) and cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) reaction to local cooling. The transient energy balance equations of body segments constrained by thermoregulatory controls were solved numerically to predict segmental core and skin temperatures, and arterial blood flow for given metabolic rate and environmental conditions. Two similar AVA-CIVD mechanisms were incorporated. The first was activated during drop in local skin temperature (<32 °C). The second mechanism was activated at a minimum finger skin temperature, T(CIVD, min), where the AVA flow is dilated and constricted once the skin temperature reached a maximum value. The value of T(CIVD,min) was determined empirically from values reported in literature for hand immersions in cold fluid. When compared with published data, the model predicted accurately the onset time of CIVD at 25 min and T(CIVD,min) at 10 °C for hand exposure to still air at 0 °C. Good agreement was also obtained between predicted finger skin temperature and experimentally published values for repeated immersion in cold water at environmental conditions of 30, 25, and 20 °C. The CIVD thermal response was found related to core body temperature, finger skin temperature, and initial finger sensible heat loss rate upon exposure to cold fluid. The model captured central and local stimulations of the CIVD and accommodated observed variability reported in literature of onset time of CIVD reaction and T(CIVD,min).

  14. Measurements of ground motion and magnet vibrations at the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V.

    1996-09-01

    This article presents results of ground motion and magnet vibrations measurements at the Advanced Photon Source. The experiments were done over a wide, frequency range (0-05-100 Hz) with the use of SM-3KV-type seismic probes from the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russia). Spectral power densities of vertical and horizontal motions of the APS hall floor and quadrupoles on regular supports were obtained. Also investigated were magnet vibrations induced by designed cooling water flow and spectral characteristics of spatial correlation of the quadrupole vibrations at different sectors of the ring. The influence of personnel activity in the hall and traffic under the ring on the slow motion of storage ring elements were observed. Amplitudes of vibrations at the APS are compared with results of seismic measurements at some other accelerators.

  15. Postponement of incipient collapse due to work-induced heat stress by limited cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blockley, W. V.

    1973-01-01

    Four subjects completed five treadmill training sessions under comfortable to cool conditions and were calibrated to find an optimum combination of speed and grade on the treadmill which would produce a metabolic rate of 2000 Btu-hr. Dressed in an Apollo liquid cooling garment, each man underwent a total of four experiments in which the rate of heat extraction from the liquid cooling garment was adjusted to an amount which would cause a storage within the body of 1000 Btu/hr. Physiological measurements included skin temperature at 9 locations, rectal and ear canal probes, and heart rate. The increases in tolerance time for the various subjects and the various methods of emergency cooling, ranged from a low of six minutes to a high of 48 minutes, or from 8 to 102% of the baseline tolerance times. The largest gains were achieved in a subject whose tolerance endpoint was atypical, and whose baseline heat tolerance was unsually low.

  16. Vortex-induced vibrations of two cylinders in tandem arrangement in the proximity-wake interference region.

    PubMed

    Borazjani, Iman; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2009-01-01

    We investigate numerically vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of two identical two-dimensional elastically mounted cylinders in tandem in the proximity-wake interference regime at Reynolds number Re = 200 for systems having both one (transverse vibrations) and two (transverse and in-line) degrees of freedom (1-DOF and 2-DOF, respectively). For the 1-DOF system the computed results are in good qualitative agreement with available experiments at higher Reynolds numbers. Similar to these experiments our simulations reveal: (1) larger amplitudes of motion and a wider lock-in region for the tandem arrangement when compared with an isolated cylinder; (2) that at low reduced velocities the vibration amplitude of the front cylinder exceeds that of the rear cylinder; and (3) that above a threshold reduced velocity, large-amplitude VIV are excited for the rear cylinder with amplitudes significantly larger than those of the front cylinder. By analysing the simulated flow patterns we identify the VIV excitation mechanisms that lead to such complex responses and elucidate the near-wake vorticity dynamics and vortex-shedding modes excited in each case. We show that at low reduced velocities vortex shedding provides the initial excitation mechanism, which gives rise to a vertical separation between the two cylinders. When this vertical separation exceeds one cylinder diameter, however, a significant portion of the incoming flow is able to pass through the gap between the two cylinders and the gap-flow mechanism starts to dominate the VIV dynamics. The gap flow is able to periodically force either the top or the bottom shear layer of the front cylinder into the gap region, setting off a series of very complex vortex-to-vortex and vortex-to-cylinder interactions, which induces pressure gradients that result in a large oscillatory force in phase with the vortex shedding and lead to the experimentally observed larger vibration amplitudes. When the vortex shedding is the dominant

  17. Vibration control in accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Montag, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the vast majority of accelerator applications, ground vibration amplitudes are well below tolerable magnet jitter amplitudes. In these cases, it is necessary and sufficient to design a rigid magnet support structure that does not amplify ground vibration. Since accelerator beam lines are typically installed at an elevation of 1-2m above ground level, special care has to be taken in order to avoid designing a support structure that acts like an inverted pendulum with a low resonance frequency, resulting in untolerable lateral vibration amplitudes of the accelerator components when excited by either ambient ground motion or vibration sources within the accelerator itself, such as cooling water pumps or helium flow in superconducting magnets. In cases where ground motion amplitudes already exceed the required jiter tolerances, for instance in future linear colliders, passive vibration damping or active stabilization may be considered.

  18. Asymmetric airflow and vibration induced by the Coanda effect in a symmetric model of the vocal folds.

    PubMed

    Tao, Chao; Zhang, Yu; Hottinger, Daniel G; Jiang, Jack J

    2007-10-01

    A model constructed from Navier-Stokes equations and a two-mass vocal fold description is proposed in this study. The composite model not only has the capability to describe the aerodynamics in a vibratory glottis but also can be used to study the vocal fold vibration under the driving of the complex airflow in the glottis. Numerical simulations show that this model can predict self-oscillations of the coupled glottal aerodynamics and vocal fold system. The Coanda effect could occur in the vibratory glottis even though the vocal folds have left-right symmetric prephonatory shape and tissue properties. The Coanda effect causes the asymmetric flow in the glottis and the difference in the driving force on the left and right vocal folds. The different pressures applied to the left and right vocal folds induce their displacement asymmetry. By using various lung pressures (0.6-2.0 kPa) to drive the composite model, it was found that the asymmetry of the vocal fold displacement is increased from 1.87% to 11.2%. These simulation results provide numerical evidence for the presence of asymmetric flow in the vibratory glottis; moreover, they indicate that glottal aerodynamics is an important factor in inducing the asymmetric vibration of the vocal folds. PMID:17902863

  19. Three-dimensional computation for flow-induced vibrations of an upstream circular cylinder in two tandem circular cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Norio

    2014-07-01

    It is well known from a lot of experimental data that fluid forces acting on two tandem circular cylinders are quite different from those acting on a single circular cylinder. Therefore, we first present numerical results for fluid forces acting on two tandem circular cylinders, which are mounted at various spacings in a smooth flow, and second we present numerical results for flow-induced vibrations of the upstream circular cylinder in the tandem arrangement. The two circular cylinders are arranged at close spacing in a flow field. The upstream circular cylinder is elastically placed by damper-spring systems and moves in both the in-line and cross-flow directions. In such models, each circular cylinder is assumed as a rigid body. On the other hand, we do not introduce a turbulent model such as the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) or Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models into the numerical scheme to compute the fluid flow. Our numerical procedure to capture the flow-induced vibration phenomena of the upstream circular cylinder is treated as a fluid-structure interaction problem in which the ideas of weak coupling is taken into consideration.

  20. Colour-tunable fluorescence of single molecules based on the vibration induced emission of phenazine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Sun, Lu; Zheng, Zhiwen; Su, Jianhua; Tian, He

    2015-03-14

    Due to the vibration of the phenazine unit, compound S1 exhibits dual fluorescence in solution but one peak in the solid state. Based on this novel phenomenon and combined with the intramolecular energy transfer (IET) effect, a colour-tunable luminescence, even near white emission from a single molecule could be achieved in two different ways: controlling the polarity of the solvent and the aggregation index. PMID:25679456

  1. Turbulence-induced resonance vibrations cause pollen release in wind-pollinated Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae).

    PubMed

    Timerman, David; Greene, David F; Urzay, Javier; Ackerman, Josef D

    2014-12-01

    In wind pollination, the release of pollen from anthers into airflows determines the quantity and timing of pollen available for pollination. Despite the ecological and evolutionary importance of pollen release, wind-stamen interactions are poorly understood, as are the specific forces that deliver pollen grains into airflows. We present empirical evidence that atmospheric turbulence acts directly on stamens in the cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated weed, Plantago lanceolata, causing resonant vibrations that release episodic bursts of pollen grains. In laboratory experiments, we show that stamens have mechanical properties corresponding to theoretically predicted ranges for turbulence-driven resonant vibrations. The mechanical excitation of stamens at their characteristic resonance frequency caused them to resonate, shedding pollen vigorously. The characteristic natural frequency of the stamens increased over time with each shedding episode due to the reduction in anther mass, which increased the mechanical energy required to trigger subsequent episodes. Field observations of a natural population under turbulent wind conditions were consistent with these laboratory results and demonstrated that pollen is released from resonating stamens excited by small eddies whose turnover periods are similar to the characteristic resonance frequency measured in the laboratory. Turbulence-driven vibration of stamens at resonance may be a primary mechanism for pollen shedding in wind-pollinated angiosperms. The capacity to release pollen in wind can be viewed as a primary factor distinguishing animal- from wind-pollinated plants, and selection on traits such as the damping ratio and flexural rigidity may be of consequence in evolutionary transitions between pollination systems.

  2. A three-dimensional tunnel model for calculation of train-induced ground vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, J. A.; Hunt, H. E. M.

    2006-07-01

    The frequency range of interest for ground vibration from underground urban railways is approximately 20 to 100 Hz. For typical soils, the wavelengths of ground vibration in this frequency range are of the order of the spacing of train axles, the tunnel diameter and the distance from the tunnel to nearby building foundations. For accurate modelling, the interactions between these entities therefore have to be taken into account. This paper describes an analytical three-dimensional model for the dynamics of a deep underground railway tunnel of circular cross-section. The tunnel is conceptualised as an infinitely long, thin cylindrical shell surrounded by soil of infinite radial extent. The soil is modelled by means of the wave equations for an elastic continuum. The coupled problem is solved in the frequency domain by Fourier decomposition into ring modes circumferentially and a Fourier transform into the wavenumber domain longitudinally. Numerical results for the tunnel and soil responses due to a normal point load applied to the tunnel invert are presented. The tunnel model is suitable for use in combination with track models to calculate the ground vibration due to excitation by running trains and to evaluate different track configurations.

  3. Conformational Changes of Trialanine in Water Induced by Vibrational Relaxation of the Amide I Mode.

    PubMed

    Bastida, Adolfo; Zúñiga, José; Requena, Alberto; Miguel, Beatriz; Candela, María Emilia; Soler, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-21

    Most of the protein-based diseases are caused by anomalies in the functionality and stability of these molecules. Experimental and theoretical studies of the conformational dynamics of proteins are becoming in this respect essential to understand the origin of these anomalies. However, a description of the conformational dynamics of proteins based on mechano-energetic principles still remains elusive because of the intrinsic high flexibility of the peptide chains, the participation of weak noncovalent interactions, and the role of the ubiquitous water solvent. In this work, the conformational dynamics of trialanine dissolved in water (D2O) is investigated through Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations combined with instantaneous normal modes (INMs) analysis both at equilibrium and after the vibrational excitation of the C-terminal amide I mode. The conformational equilibrium between α and pPII conformers is found to be altered by the intramolecular relaxation of the amide I mode as a consequence of the different relaxation pathways of each conformer which modify the amount of vibrational energy stored in the torsional motions of the tripeptide, so the α → pPII and pPII → α conversion rates are increased differently. The selectivity of the process comes from the shifts of the vibrational frequencies with the conformational changes that modify the resonance conditions driving the intramolecular energy flows.

  4. Reduction of EEG artefacts induced by vibration in the MR-environment.

    PubMed

    Rothlübbers, Sven; Relvas, Vânia; Leal, Alberto; Figueiredo, Patrícia

    2013-01-01

    The EEG acquired simultaneously with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is distorted by a number of artefacts related to the presence of strong magnetic fields. In order to allow for a useful interpretation of the EEG data, it is necessary to reduce these artefacts. For the two most prominent artefacts, associated with magnetic field gradient switching and the heart beat, reduction methods have been developed and applied successfully. Due to their repetitive nature, such artefacts can be reduced by subtraction of the respective template retrieved by averaging across cycles. In this paper, we investigate additional artefacts related to the MR environment and propose a method for the reduction of the vibration artefact caused by the cryo-cooler compression pumps system. Data were collected from the EEG cap placed on an MR head phantom, in order to characterise the MR environment related artefacts. Since the vibration artefact was found to be repetitive, a template subtraction method was developed for its reduction, and this was then adjusted to meet the specific requirements of patient data. The developed methodology successfully reduced the vibration artefact by about 90% in five EEG-fMRI datasets collected from two epilepsy patients.

  5. Turbulence-induced resonance vibrations cause pollen release in wind-pollinated Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Timerman, David; Greene, David F.; Urzay, Javier; Ackerman, Josef D.

    2014-01-01

    In wind pollination, the release of pollen from anthers into airflows determines the quantity and timing of pollen available for pollination. Despite the ecological and evolutionary importance of pollen release, wind–stamen interactions are poorly understood, as are the specific forces that deliver pollen grains into airflows. We present empirical evidence that atmospheric turbulence acts directly on stamens in the cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated weed, Plantago lanceolata, causing resonant vibrations that release episodic bursts of pollen grains. In laboratory experiments, we show that stamens have mechanical properties corresponding to theoretically predicted ranges for turbulence-driven resonant vibrations. The mechanical excitation of stamens at their characteristic resonance frequency caused them to resonate, shedding pollen vigorously. The characteristic natural frequency of the stamens increased over time with each shedding episode due to the reduction in anther mass, which increased the mechanical energy required to trigger subsequent episodes. Field observations of a natural population under turbulent wind conditions were consistent with these laboratory results and demonstrated that pollen is released from resonating stamens excited by small eddies whose turnover periods are similar to the characteristic resonance frequency measured in the laboratory. Turbulence-driven vibration of stamens at resonance may be a primary mechanism for pollen shedding in wind-pollinated angiosperms. The capacity to release pollen in wind can be viewed as a primary factor distinguishing animal- from wind-pollinated plants, and selection on traits such as the damping ratio and flexural rigidity may be of consequence in evolutionary transitions between pollination systems. PMID:25297315

  6. Vibration-induced dynamical weakening of pyroclastic flows: Insights from rotating drum experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, Jose Manuel; Soria-Hoyo, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Pyroclastic flows are characterized by their high mobility, which is often attributed to gas fluidization of the usually fine and/or low-density particles. However, the physical mechanism that might drive sustained fluidization of pyroclastic flows over extraordinarily long runout distances is elusive. In this letter it is proposed that a powerful mechanism to weaken the frictional resistance of pyroclastic flows would arise from the prolonged and intense mechanical vibrations that commonly accompany these dense gravitational fluid-particle flows. The behavior of fine powders in a slowly rotating drum subjected to vibrations suggests that fluid-particle relative oscillations in granular beds can effectively promote the pore gas pressure at reduced shear rates. Dynamical weakening, as caused by the enhancement of pore fluid pressure, may be an important mechanism in any geophysical process that involves vibrations of granular beds in a viscous fluid. This is particularly relevant for granular flows involving large amounts of fine and/or light particles such as pyroclastic density currents.

  7. Universal response spectrum procedure for predicting walking-induced floor vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownjohn, James; Racic, Vitomir; Chen, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Floor vibrations caused by people walking are an important serviceability problem both for human occupants and vibration-sensitive equipment. Present design methodologies available for prediction of vibration response due to footfall loading are complex and suffer from division between low and high frequency floors. In order to simplify the design process and to avoid the problem of floor classification, this paper presents a methodology for predicting vibration response metrics due to pedestrian footfalls for any floor type having natural frequency in the range 1-20 Hz. Using a response spectrum approach, a database of 852 weight-normalised vertical ground reaction force (GRF) time histories recorded for more than 60 individuals walking on an instrumented treadmill was used to calculate response metrics. Chosen metrics were peak values of 1 s peak root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration and peak envelope one-third octave velocities. These were evaluated by weight-normalising the GRFs and applying to unit-mass single degree of freedom oscillators having natural frequencies in the range 1-20 Hz and damping ratios in the range 0.5-5%. Moreover, to account for effect of mode shape and duration of crossing (i.e. duration of dynamic loading), the recorded GRFs were applied for three most typical mode shapes and floor spans from 5 m to 40 m. The resulting peak values as functions of frequency i.e. spectra are condensed to statistical representations for chosen probability of being exceeded over a wide range of applications. RMS (acceleration) spectra show strong peaks corresponding to the first harmonic of pacing rate followed by clear minima at approximately 3.5 Hz, a second much smaller peak corresponding to the second harmonic and a steady decline with increasing frequency beginning around 5 Hz. One-third octave spectra show asymptotic trends with frequency, span and damping. A comprehensive validation exercise focusing on the acceleration RMS spectra was based on a

  8. Spectroscopic probes of vibrationally excited molecules at chemically significant energies

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, T.R.

    1992-03-01

    These experiments apply multiple-laser spectroscopic techniques to investigate the bond energies, potential surface topologies, and dissociation dynamics of highly vibrationally excited molecules. Infrared-optical double resonance pumping of light atom stretch vibrations in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and HN{sub 3} prepares reactant molecules in single rovibrational states above the unimolecular dissociation threshold on the ground potential surface, and laser induced fluorescence detection of the OH or NH fragments monitors the partitioning of energy into individual product quantum states. Product energy partitioning data from H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dissociation provide a stringent test of statistical theories as well as potential energy surface calculations. Ongoing work on HN{sub 3} seeks to determine the height of the barrier to dissociation on the singlet potential energy surface. Our most recently developed spectroscopic scheme allows the measurement of high vibrational overtone spectra of jet-cooled molecules. This approach uses CO{sub 2} laser infrared multiphoton dissociation followed by laser induced fluorescence product detection to measure weak vibrational overtone transitions in low pressure environments. Application of this scheme to record the {Delta}V{sub OH}=4 and {Delta}V{sub OH}=5 transitions of CH{sub 3}OH cooled in a supersonic free-jet demonstrates both its feasibility and its utility for simplifying high vibrational overtone spectra.

  9. Core flows and heat transfer induced by inhomogeneous cooling with sub- and supercritical convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, W.; Hori, K.; Wicht, J.

    2016-02-01

    The amount and spatial pattern of heat extracted from cores of terrestrial planets is ultimately controlled by the thermal structure of the lower rocky mantle. Using the most common model to tackle this problem, a rapidly rotating and differentially cooled spherical shell containing an incompressible and viscous liquid is numerically investigated. To gain the physical basics, we consider a simple, equatorial symmetric perturbation of the CMB heat flux shaped as a spherical harmonic Y11 . The thermodynamic properties of the induced flows mainly depend on the degree of nonlinearity parametrised by a horizontal Rayleigh number Rah =q∗ Ra , where q∗ is the relative CMB heat flux anomaly amplitude and Ra is the Rayleigh number which controls radial buoyancy-driven convection. Depending on Rah we identify and characterise three distinctive flow regimes through their spatial patterns, heat transport and flow speed scalings: in the linear conductive regime the radial inward flow is found to be phase shifted 90° eastwards from the maximal heat flux as predicted by a linear quasi-geostrophic model for rapidly rotating spherical systems. The advective regime is characterised by an increased Rah where nonlinearities become significant, but is still subcritical to radial convection. There the upwelling is dispersed and the downwelling is compressed by the thermal advection into a spiralling jet-like structure. As Rah becomes large enough for the radial convection to set in, the jet remains identifiable on time-average and significantly alters the global heat budget in the convective regime. Our results suggest, that the boundary forcing not only introduces a net horizontal heat transport but also suppresses the convection locally to such an extent, that the net Nusselt number is reduced by up to 50%, even though the mean CMB heat flux is conserved. This also implies that a planetary core will remain hotter under a non-homogeneous CMB heat flux and is less well mixed. A

  10. Vibration damping method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Redmond, J.M.; Barney, P.S.; Parker, G.G.; Smith, D.A.

    1999-06-22

    The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof. 38 figs.

  11. Vibration damping method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Redmond, James M.; Barney, Patrick S.; Parker, Gordon G.; Smith, David A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof.

  12. Acoustical Convective Cooling Or Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Eugene H.; Robey, Judith L.

    1988-01-01

    Small, efficient ultrasonic device circulates fluid. Vibrating at ultrasonic frequency, piezoelectric driver sets up vortexes transfering heat to or from object in space. Used on Earth to apply localized or concentrated cooling to individual electronic components or other small parts.

  13. Laser-induced rotation and cooling of a trapped microgyroscope in vacuum

    PubMed Central

    Arita, Yoshihiko; Mazilu, Michael; Dholakia, Kishan

    2013-01-01

    Quantum state preparation of mesoscopic objects is a powerful playground for the elucidation of many physical principles. The field of cavity optomechanics aims to create these states through laser cooling and by minimizing state decoherence. Here we demonstrate simultaneous optical trapping and rotation of a birefringent microparticle in vacuum using a circularly polarized trapping laser beam—a microgyroscope. We show stable rotation rates up to 5 MHz. Coupling between the rotational and translational degrees of freedom of the trapped microgyroscope leads to the observation of positional stabilization in effect cooling the particle to 40 K. We attribute this cooling to the interaction between the gyroscopic directional stabilization and the optical trapping field. PMID:23982323

  14. Experimental investigation of film cooling flow induced by shaped holes on a turbine blade.

    PubMed

    Barthet, S; Bario, F

    2001-05-01

    The present study is the second half of a piece of work carried out in collaboration with SNECMA. It investigates shaped hole film cooling, numerically and experimentally. The aim of this paper is the experimental analysis of shaped hole film cooling on a large scale turbine blade (1.4 m chord). The test section is a large scale turbine inlet guide vane cascade. The test airfoil is equipped with a row of nine 50 degrees sloped shaped holes. They are located on the suction side at 20% of the curvilinear length of the blade from the stagnation point. The inlet film cooling hole diameter is 12 mm. The jet flow is heated to 55 degrees C above the crossflow temperature. Velocity and temperature field measurements have been done to obtain mean and fluctuating values. The results are compared to those obtained by Béral on the same experimental apparatus and in the same test conditions, for a row of cylindrical holes.

  15. Oxygen isotopes in western Australian coral reveal Pinatubo aerosol-induced cooling in the Western Pacific Warm Pool

    SciTech Connect

    Gagan, M.K.; Chivas, A.R.

    1995-05-01

    The authors report a 12 year record study of oxygen 18 isotope signals in a coral (Ningaloo Reef), which is situated so as to give an ideal measure of the sea-surface temperature variation of the local Leeuwin Current. This record consists of nearly weekly readings from 1981 to 1993, and brackets the period following the June 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. Extended study shows a strong correlation of sea-surface temperature on this coral with changes in the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP), with a lag of 2.5 years. A distinct cooling signal was seen in the inferred sea-surface temperatures from coral measurements, in 1992 and 1993, which suggests the WPWP was cooled roughly 0.5{degrees}C by aerosol induced effects.

  16. Investigating Premature Ignition of Thruster Pressure Cartridges by Vibration-Induced Electrostatic Discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Stephen S.; Saulsberry, Regor

    2010-01-01

    Pyrotechnic thruster pressure cartridges (TPCs) are used for aeroshell separation on a new NASA crew launch vehicle. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) during TPC acceptance testing indicated that internal assemblies moved during shock and vibration testing due to an internal bond anomaly. This caused concerns that the launch environment might produce the same movement and release propellant grains that might be prematurely ignited through impact or through electrostatic discharge (ESD) as grains vibrated against internal surfaces. Since a new lot could not be fabricated in time, a determination had to be made as to whether the lot was acceptable to fly. This paper discusses the ESD evaluation and a separate paper addresses the impact problem. A challenge to straight forward assessment existed due to the unavailability of triboelectric data characterizing the static charging characteristics of the propellants within the TPC. The approach examined the physical limitations for charge buildup within the TPC system geometry and evaluated it for discharge under simulated vibrations used to qualify components for launch. A facsimile TPC was fabricated using SS 301 for the case and surrogate worst case materials for the propellants based on triboelectric data. System discharge behavior was evaluated by applying high voltage to the point of discharge in air and by placing worst case charge accumulations within the facsimile TPC and forcing discharge. The facsimile TPC contained simulated propellant grains and lycopodium, a well characterized indicator for static discharge in dust explosions, and was subjected to accelerations equivalent to the maximum accelerations possible during launch. The magnitude of charge generated within the facsimile TPC system was demonstrated to lie in a range of 100 to 10,000 times smaller than the spark energies measured to ignite propellant grains in industry standard discharge tests. The test apparatus, methodology, and results are described in

  17. Glutamine and Asparagine Side Chain Hyperconjugation-Induced Structurally Sensitive Vibrations.

    PubMed

    Punihaole, David; Hong, Zhenmin; Jakubek, Ryan S; Dahlburg, Elizabeth M; Geib, Steven; Asher, Sanford A

    2015-10-15

    We identified vibrational spectral marker bands that sensitively report on the side chain structures of glutamine (Gln) and asparagine (Asn). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the Amide III(P) (AmIII(P)) vibrations of Gln and Asn depend cosinusoidally on their side chain OCCC dihedral angles (the χ3 and χ2 angles of Gln and Asn, respectively). We use UV resonance Raman (UVRR) and visible Raman spectroscopy to experimentally correlate the AmIII(P) Raman band frequency to the primary amide OCCC dihedral angle. The AmIII(P) structural sensitivity derives from the Gln (Asn) Cβ-Cγ (Cα-Cβ) stretching component of the vibration. The Cβ-Cγ (Cα-Cβ) bond length inversely correlates with the AmIII(P) band frequency. As the Cβ-Cγ (Cα-Cβ) bond length decreases, its stretching force constant increases, which results in an upshift in the AmIII(P) frequency. The Cβ-Cγ (Cα-Cβ) bond length dependence on the χ3 (χ2) dihedral angle results from hyperconjugation between the Cδ═Oϵ (Cγ═Oδ) π* and Cβ-Cγ (Cα-Cβ) σ orbitals. Using a Protein Data Bank library, we show that the χ3 and χ2 dihedral angles of Gln and Asn depend on the peptide backbone Ramachandran angles. We demonstrate that the inhomogeneously broadened AmIII(P) band line shapes can be used to calculate the χ3 and χ2 angle distributions of peptides. The spectral correlations determined in this study enable important new insights into protein structure in solution, and in Gln- and Asn-rich amyloid-like fibrils and prions. PMID:26392216

  18. Two-Dimensional Patterning of Inorganic Particles in Resin Using Ultrasound-Induced Plate Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuziuti, Toru; Masuda, Yoshitake; Yasui, Kyuichi; Kato, Kazumi

    2011-08-01

    The fabrication of a two-dimensional millimeter-sized pattern of micrometer-sized titanium dioxide particles in UV-reactive acrylic resin using 1.93 MHz ultrasound is demonstrated. A mixture of particles and resin is set in a thin layer between square glass plates of which one plate is irradiated with ultrasound. Both vibration normal to the plate and the wave propagating in the mixture form standing waves to provide a two-dimensional pattern of the particles. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis of the UV-hardened pattern indicate that the titanium dioxide particles are embedded in the resin.

  19. Flow Induced Vibration and Glottal Aerodynamics in a Three-Dimensional Laryngeal Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xudong; Xue, Qian; Mittal, Rajat; Bielamowicz, Steven

    2009-11-01

    Three-dimensional effects associated with phonation remain unclear due to the lack of capability of simulating 3D fluid-tissue interaction in the past. To advance the state-of-the-art in this arena, an immersed-boundary method based flow solver coupled with a finite-element solid dynamics solver is employed to conduct high-fidelity direct-numerical simulations of phonation in a 3D model of the human larynx. Three-dimensional vibration patterns are captured along with turbulence effects and three-dimensional vortex structures in the glottal jet. Results from these simulations are presented.

  20. Radiofrequency catheter ablation: different cooled and noncooled electrode systems induce specific lesion geometries and adverse effects profiles.

    PubMed

    Dorwarth, Uwe; Fiek, Michael; Remp, Thomas; Reithmann, Cristopher; Dugas, Martin; Steinbeck, Gerhard; Hoffmann, Ellen

    2003-07-01

    The success and safety of standard catheter radiofrequency ablation may be limited for ablation of atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare different cooled and noncooled catheter systems in terms of their specific lesion geometry, incidence of impedance rise, and crater and coagulum formation to facilitate appropriate catheter selection for special indications. The study investigated myocardial lesion generation of three cooled catheter systems (7 Fr, 4-mm tip): two saline irrigation catheters with a showerhead-type electrode tip (sprinkler) and a porous metal tip and an internally cooled catheter. Noncooled catheters (7 Fr) had a large tip electrode (8 mm) and a standard tip electrode (4 mm). RF energy was delivered on isolated porcine myocardium superfused with heparinized pig blood (37 degrees C) at power settings of 10-40 W. Both irrigated systems were characterized by a large lesion depth (8.1 +/- 1.6 mm) and a large lesion diameter (13.8 +/- 1.6 mm). In comparison, internally cooled lesions showed a similar lesion depth (8.0 +/- 1.0 mm), but a significantly smaller lesion diameter (12.3 +/- 1.2 mm,P = 0.04). Large tip lesions had a similar lesion diameter (14.5 +/- 1.6 mm), but a significantly smaller lesion depth (6.3 +/- 1.0 mm,P = 0.002) compared to irrigated lesions. However, lesion volume was not significantly different between the three cooled and the large tip catheter. To induce maximum lesion size, power requirements were three times higher for the irrigation systems and two times higher for the internally cooled and the large tip catheter compared to the standard catheter. Impedance rise was rarest with irrigated and large tip ablation. In case of impedance rise crater formation was a frequent observation (61-93%). Irrigated catheters prevented coagulum formation most effectively. Irrigated rather than internally cooled ablation appears to be most adequate for the induction of deep and

  1. Calculation of vibrational branching ratios and hyperfine structure of 24Mg19F and its suitability for laser cooling and magneto-optical trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liang; Yin, Yanning; Wei, Bin; Xia, Yong; Yin, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    More recently, laser cooling of the diatomic radical magnesium monofluoride (24Mg19F ) is being experimentally preformed [Appl. Phys. Express 8, 092701 (2015), 10.7567/APEX.8.092701 and Opt. Express 22, 28645 (2014), 10.1364/OE.22.028645] and was also studied theoretically [Phys. Rev. A 91, 042511 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.042511]. However, some important problems still remain unsolved, so, in our paper, we perform further theoretical study for the feasibility of laser cooling and trapping the 24Mg19F molecule. At first, the highly diagonal Franck-Condon factors of the main transitions are verified by the closed-form approximation, Morse approximation, and Rydberg-Klein-Rees inversion methods, respectively. Afterwards, we investigate the lower X 2Σ1/2 + hyperfine manifolds using a quantum effective Hamiltonian approach and obtain the zero-field hyperfine spectrum with an accuracy of less than 30 kHz ˜5 μ K compared with the experimental results, and then find out that one cooling beam and one or two repumping beams with their first-order sidebands are enough to implement an efficient laser slowing and cooling of 24Mg19F . Meanwhile, we also calculate the accurate hyperfine structure magnetic g factors of the rotational state (X 2Σ1/2 +,N =1 ) and briefly discuss the influence of the external fields on the hyperfine structure of 24Mg19F as well as its possibility of preparing three-dimensional magneto-optical trapping. Finally we give an explanation for the difference between the Stark and Zeeman effects from the perspective of parity and time reversal symmetry. Our study shows that, besides appropriate excitation wavelengths, the short lifetime for the first excited state A 2Π1 /2 , and lighter mass, the 24Mg19F radical could be a good candidate molecule amenable to laser cooling and magneto-optical trapping.

  2. Computational study of flow-induced vibration of a reed in a channel and effect on convective heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoele, Kourosh; Mittal, Rajat

    2014-12-01

    The flow-induced fluttering motion of a flexible reed inside a heated channel is modeled numerically and used to investigate the relationship between the aeroelastic vibration of the reed and heat-transfer enhancement. An immersed boundary method is developed to solve the coupled flow-structure-thermal problem, and the simulations show that the vibrating reed significantly increases the mean heat flux through the channel, as well as the thermal performance, quantified in terms of the thermal enhancement factor. The effect of reed material properties on vibratory dynamics and heat transfer is studied. Changes in material properties produce a rich variety of vibratory behavior, and the thermal performance is found to depend more strongly on the reed inertia than its bending stiffness. The effects of both the Reynolds number and channel confinement are examined and it is found that the thermal performance is maximized when the reed creates large modulations in the boundary layer of the channel, while at the same time avoiding the creation of strong vortices.

  3. Flow-induced vibration and instability of embedded double-walled carbon nanotubes based on a modified couple stress theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Liao-Liang; Wang, Yue-Sheng

    2011-03-01

    Vibration and instability of fluid-conveying double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) are investigated in this paper based on the modified couple stress theory and the Timoshenko beam theory. The microstructure-dependent Timoshenko beam model, which contains a material length scale parameter and can take the size effect into account, is employed. The Poisson's ratio effect is also included in this model. The surrounding elastic medium is described as the Winkler model characterized by the spring. The higher-order governing equations and boundary conditions are derived by using Hamilton's principle. The differential quadrature (DQ) method is employed to discretize the governing equations, which are then solved to obtain the resonant frequencies of fluid-conveying DWNTs with different boundary conditions. A detailed parametric study is conducted to study the influences of length scale parameter, Poisson's ratio, spring constant, aspect ratio of the DWNTs, velocity of the fluid and end supports on the vibration and flow-induced instability of DWNTs. Results show that the imaginary component of the frequency and the critical flow velocity of the fluid-conveying DWNTs increase with increase in the length scale parameter.

  4. Cooling-induced SUMOylation of EXOSC10 down-regulates ribosome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bastide, Amandine; Peretti, Diego; Roobol, Anne; Roobol, Jo; Mallucci, Giovanna R.; Smales, C. Mark; Willis, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    The RNA exosome is essential for 3′ processing of functional RNA species and degradation of aberrant RNAs in eukaryotic cells. Recent reports have defined the substrates of the exosome catalytic domains and solved the multimeric structure of the exosome complex. However, regulation of exosome activity remains poorly characterized, especially in response to physiological stress. Following the observation that cooling of mammalian cells results in a reduction in 40S:60S ribosomal subunit ratio, we uncover regulation of the nuclear exosome as a result of reduced temperature. Using human cells and an in vivo model system allowing whole-body cooling, we observe reduced EXOSC10 (hRrp6, Pm/Scl-100) expression in the cold. In parallel, both models of cooling increase global SUMOylation, leading to the identification of specific conjugation of SUMO1 to EXOSC10, a process that is increased by cooling. Furthermore, we define the major SUMOylation sites in EXOSC10 by mutagenesis and show that overexpression of SUMO1 alone is sufficient to suppress EXOSC10 abundance. Reducing EXOSC10 expression by RNAi in human cells correlates with the 3′ preribosomal RNA processing defects seen in the cold as well as reducing the 40S:60S ratio, a previously uncharacterized consequence of EXOSC10 suppression. Together, this work illustrates that EXOSC10 can be modified by SUMOylation and identifies a physiological stress where this regulation is prevalent both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26857222

  5. Interactions between surface cooling and LBNP-induced central hypovolemia. [Lower Body Negative Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raven, P. B.; Saito, M.; Gaffney, F. A.; Schutte, J.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes a study carried out to determine the extent to which whole body surface cooling (WBSC) modifies the effects of the central hypovolemia produced by lower body negative pressure (LBNP) at normal skin temperatures. It is shown that WBSC produces a central displacement of cutaneous venous volume resulting in an increase in stroke volume.

  6. Cooling-induced SUMOylation of EXOSC10 down-regulates ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Knight, John R P; Bastide, Amandine; Peretti, Diego; Roobol, Anne; Roobol, Jo; Mallucci, Giovanna R; Smales, C Mark; Willis, Anne E

    2016-04-01

    The RNA exosome is essential for 3' processing of functional RNA species and degradation of aberrant RNAs in eukaryotic cells. Recent reports have defined the substrates of the exosome catalytic domains and solved the multimeric structure of the exosome complex. However, regulation of exosome activity remains poorly characterized, especially in response to physiological stress. Following the observation that cooling of mammalian cells results in a reduction in 40S:60S ribosomal subunit ratio, we uncover regulation of the nuclear exosome as a result of reduced temperature. Using human cells and an in vivo model system allowing whole-body cooling, we observe reduced EXOSC10 (hRrp6, Pm/Scl-100) expression in the cold. In parallel, both models of cooling increase global SUMOylation, leading to the identification of specific conjugation of SUMO1 to EXOSC10, a process that is increased by cooling. Furthermore, we define the major SUMOylation sites in EXOSC10 by mutagenesis and show that overexpression of SUMO1 alone is sufficient to suppress EXOSC10 abundance. Reducing EXOSC10 expression by RNAi in human cells correlates with the 3' preribosomal RNA processing defects seen in the cold as well as reducing the 40S:60S ratio, a previously uncharacterized consequence of EXOSC10 suppression. Together, this work illustrates that EXOSC10 can be modified by SUMOylation and identifies a physiological stress where this regulation is prevalent both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26857222

  7. Incorporation of cooling-induced crystallization into a 2-dimensional axisymmetric conduit heat flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heptinstall, David; Bouvet de Maisonneuve, Caroline; Neuberg, Jurgen; Taisne, Benoit; Collinson, Amy

    2016-04-01

    Heat flow models can bring new insights into the thermal and rheological evolution of volcanic 3 systems. We shall investigate the thermal processes and timescales in a crystallizing, static 4 magma column, with a heat flow model of Soufriere Hills Volcano (SHV), Montserrat. The latent heat of crystallization is initially computed with MELTS, as a function of pressure and temperature for an andesitic melt (SHV groundmass starting composition). Three fractional crystallization simulations are performed; two with initial pressures of 34MPa (runs 1 & 2) and one of 25MPa (run 3). Decompression rate was varied between 0.1MPa/° C (runs 1 & 3) and 0.2MPa/° C (run 2). Natural and experimental matrix glass compositions are accurately reproduced by all MELTS runs. The cumulative latent heat released for runs 1, 2 and 3 differs by less than 9% (8.69E5 J/kg*K, 9.32E5 J/kg*K, and 9.49E5 J/kg*K respectively). The 2D axisymmetric conductive cooling simulations consider a 30m-diameter conduit that extends from the surface to a depth of 1500m (34MPa). The temporal evolution of temperature is closely tracked at depths of 10m, 750m and 1400m in the centre of the conduit, at the conduit walls, and 20m from the walls into the host rock. Following initial cooling by 7-15oC at 10m depth inside the conduit, the magma temperature rebounds through latent heat release by 32-35oC over 85-123 days to a maximum temperature of 1002-1005oC. At 10m depth, it takes 4.1-9.2 years for the magma column to cool by 108-131oC and crystallize to 75wt%, at which point it cannot be easily remobilized. It takes 11-31.5 years to reach the same crystallinity at 750-1400m depth. We find a wide range in cooling timescales, particularly at depths of 750m or greater, attributed to the initial run pressure and the dominant latent heat producing crystallizing phase, Albite-rich Plagioclase Feldspar. Run 1 is shown to cool fastest and run 3 cool the slowest, with surface emissivity having the strongest cooling

  8. Vibration manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, C.

    1971-01-01

    Guidelines of the methods and applications used in vibration technology at the MSFC are presented. The purpose of the guidelines is to provide a practical tool for coordination and understanding between industry and government groups concerned with vibration of systems and equipments. Topics covered include measuring, reducing, analyzing, and methods for obtaining simulated environments and formulating vibration specifications. Methods for vibration and shock testing, theoretical aspects of data processing, vibration response analysis, and techniques of designing for vibration are also presented.

  9. A model for computing vibration induced stresses of electronic components in a general flexible mounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Gustavo H. C.; Paupitz Gonçalves, Paulo J.

    2013-09-01

    This paper develops a novel full analytic model for vibration analysis of solid-state electronic components. The model is just as accurate as finite element models and numerically light enough to permit for quick design trade-offs and statistical analysis. The paper shows the development of the model, comparison to finite elements and an application to a common engineering problem. A gull-wing flat pack component was selected as the benchmark test case, although the presented methodology is applicable to a wide range of component packages. Results showed very good agreement between the presented method and finite elements and demonstrated the usefulness of the method in how to use standard test data for a general application. The properties E, G, A, I, J and κ need not be constants; they may all be functions of s.

  10. Vibration-induced inelastic effects in the electron transport through multisite molecular bridges.

    PubMed

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A; Kuklja, Maija M

    2009-09-21

    We theoretically analyzed inelastic effects in the electron transport through molecular junctions originating from electron-vibron interactions. The molecular bridge was simulated by a periodical chain of identical hydrogenlike atoms with the nearest neighbors interaction thus providing a set of energy states for the electron tunneling. To avoid difficulties inevitably arising when advanced computational techniques are employed to study inelastic electron transport through multilevel bridges, we propose and develop a semiphenomenological approach. The latter is based on Buttiker's dephasing model within the scattering matrix formalism. We apply the proposed approach to describe features associated with electron energy transfer to vibrational phonons that appear in the second derivative of the current in the junction with respect to the bias voltage. In the particular case of a single level bridge our results agree with those obtained by proper calculations carried out within the nonequilibrium Green's functions method indicating the usefulness of the suggested approach.

  11. 2.5D Finite/infinite Element Approach for Simulating Train-Induced Ground Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. B.; Hung, H. H.; Kao, J. C.

    2010-05-01

    The 2.5D finite/infinite element approach for simulating the ground vibrations by surface or underground moving trains will be briefly summarized in this paper. By assuming the soils to be uniform along the direction of the railway, only a two-dimensional profile of the soil perpendicular to the railway need be considered in the modeling. Besides the two in-plane degrees of freedom (DOFs) per node conventionally used for plane strain elements, an extra DOF is introduced to account for the out-of-plane wave transmission. The profile of the half-space is divided into a near field and a semi-infinite far field. The near field containing the train loads and irregular structures is simulated by the finite elements, while the far field covering the soils with infinite boundary by the infinite elements, by which due account is taken of the radiation effects for the moving loads. Enhanced by the automated mesh expansion procedure proposed previously by the writers, the far field impedances for all the lower frequencies are generated repetitively from the mesh created for the highest frequency considered. Finally, incorporated with a proposed load generation mechanism that takes the rail irregularity and dynamic properties of trains into account, an illustrative case study was performed. This paper investigates the vibration isolation effect of the elastic foundation that separates the concrete slab track from the underlying soil or tunnel structure. In addition, the advantage of the 2.5D approach was clearly demonstrated in that the three-dimensional wave propagation effect can be virtually captured using a two-dimensional finite/infinite element mesh. Compared with the conventional 3D approach, the present approach appears to be simple, efficient and generally accurate.

  12. Explosion-induced stress changes estimated from vibrating-wire stressmeter measurements near the Mighty Epic event, Nevada Test Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, William L.; Kibler, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Explosion-induced compressive stress increases near an underground nuclear explosion are believed to contribute significantly to the containment of high-pressure gases within the explosion-produced cavity. These induced compressive stresses are predicted by computer calculations, but have never been adequately confirmed by field measurements, owing primarily to the unique difficulties of obtaining such field data. Vibrating-wire stressmeter measurements made near the Mighty Epic nuclear detonation, however, qualitatively indicate that within 150 meters of the working point, permanent compressive stress increases of several megapascals were present 15 weeks after the event. Additionally, stress-change magnitudes interpreted from the stressmeter data between the 75- and 260-meter range from the working point compare favorably with calculational predictions of the stress changes believed to be present shortly after detonation of the event. The measurements and calculations differ, however, with regard to the pattern of stress change radial and transverse to the explosion source. For the range of the field measurements from the working point, computer models predict the largest compressive-stress increase to be radial to the explosion source, while the field data indicate the transverse component of. stress change to be the most compressive. The significance of time-dependent modification of the initial explosion-induced stress distribution is, however, uncertain with regard to the comparison of the field measurements and theoretical predictions.

  13. Determination of the most effective cooling temperature for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia

    PubMed Central

    EKWALL, EVA M.; NYGREN, LISA M.L.; GUSTAFSSON, ANDERS O.; SORBE, BENGT G.

    2013-01-01

    Computer-controlled scalp cooling to prevent alopecia is currently available for patients undergoing chemo-therapy. Previous studies have suggested that the temperature should be <22°C at a depth of 1–2 mm in the scalp to prevent alopecia. However, the optimal pre-set temperature of the coolant medium to achieve this temperature requires further investigation. A pre-study was conducted to investigate which pre-set coolant temperature of 3 and 8°C was the most effective in achieving a scalp temperature of <22°C. The temperature variations at different sites of the scalp and variations within and among the participants at baseline and during the cooling procedure were also evaluated. A randomized main study was then performed to compare the efficacy and side effects of the two temperature levels during paclitaxel/carboplatin chemotherapy. A group of 5 healthy female volunteers participated in a series of scalp temperature measurements during cooling with 3 and 8°C of the coolant medium. In the randomized main study, a total of 47 patients were included, of whom 43 were evaluable after the first cycle. A pre-set temperature of 3°C tended to be the most efficient in achieving a hair follicle temperature of <22°C. The top of the head was less responsive to scalp cooling. There were no significant differences in the prevention of alopecia between the two temperatures in the main study. However, headache and a feeling of coldness were more common in the 3°C group. A coolant temperature of 3°C was more effective in achieving a subcutaneous temperature of <22°C. However, this finding was not reflected by a significant difference in the prevention of alopecia in this study, although a higher incidence of side effects was associated with a lower temperature level. PMID:24649294

  14. Convection induced by radiative cooling of a layer of participating medium

    SciTech Connect

    Prasanna, Swaminathan; Venkateshan, S. P.

    2014-05-15

    Simulations and experiments have been conducted to study the effect of radiative cooling on natural convection in a horizontal layer of a participating medium enclosed between isothermal opaque wall and radiatively transparent wall and exposed to a cold background. The study is of relevance to a nocturnal boundary layer under clear and calm conditions. The focus of the study is to capture the onset of convection caused by radiative cooling. The experiments have been designed to mimic the atmospheric radiative boundary conditions, and hence decoupling convection and radiation boundary conditions. Planck number Pl and optical thickness of the layer τ{sub H} are the two important parameters that govern the interaction between radiation and convection. The radiation-convection coupling is a strong function of length scale. Convection sets up within first few seconds for all the experiments. Strong plume like convection is observed for the experimental conditions used in the present study. Both simulations and experiments confirm that radiative cooling increases substantially with decrease in emissivity of the bottom wall. Radiative cooling is strongly influenced by the nongray nature of the participating medium, especially when strong emission from the medium escapes to space, in the window region of the atmosphere. Accurate representation of radiative properties is critical. Linear stability analysis of onset of convection indicates that radiation stabilizes convection as Pl decreases. The observations are similar to the case of Rayleigh Bénard convection in a radiating gas. However, for both experimental and numerical conditions, the observed Rayleigh numbers are much greater than the critical Rayleigh number. To conclude, the role of radiation is to drive and sustain convection in the unstable layer.

  15. Exaggerated haemodynamic and neural responses to involuntary contractions induced by whole-body vibration in normotensive obese versus lean women.

    PubMed

    Dipla, Konstantina; Kousoula, Dimitra; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Kyparos, Antonios; Gerodimos, Vassilis; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2016-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? In obesity, the exaggerated blood pressure response to voluntary exercise is linked to hypertension, yet the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. We examined whether involuntary contractions elicit greater haemodynamic responses and altered neural control of blood pressure in normotensive obese versus lean women. What is the main finding and its importance? During involuntary contractions induced by whole-body vibration, there were augmented blood pressure and spontaneous baroreflex responses in obese compared with lean women. This finding is suggestive of an overactive mechanoreflex in the exercise-induced hypertensive response in obesity. Passive contractions did not elicit differential heart rate responses in obese compared with lean women, implying other mechanisms for the blunted heart rate response reported during voluntary exercise in obesity. In obesity, the exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise is linked to hypertension, yet the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether involuntary mechanical oscillations, induced by whole-body vibration (WBV), elicit greater haemodynamic responses and altered neural control of BP in obese versus lean women. Twenty-two normotensive, premenopausal women (12 lean and 10 obese) randomly underwent a passive WBV (25 Hz) and a control protocol (similar posture without WVB). Beat-by-beat BP, heart rate, stroke volume, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, parasympathetic output (evaluated by heart rate variability) and spontaneous baroreceptor sensitivity (sBRS) were assessed. We found that during WBV, obese women exhibited an augmented systolic BP response compared with lean women that was correlated with body fat percentage (r = 0.77; P < 0.05). The exaggerated BP rise was driven mainly by the greater increase in cardiac output index in obese versus lean women, associated with a greater stroke volume index in obese women

  16. Quantitative measurement of naphthalene in low-pressure flames by jet-cooled laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wartel, M.; Pauwels, J.-F.; Desgroux, P.; Mercier, X.

    2010-09-01

    We have recently developed a new laser based set-up (Jet-Cooled Laser-Induced Fluorescence) for the analysis of aromatic compounds generated in flames. This method relies on the extraction of the species from the flame via a thin microprobe and their direct analysis inside a supersonic free jet by Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF). Under the supersonic conditions of the jet, the vibronic spectra of the molecules become structured as the possibility of electronic transitions is reduced, allowing their selective detection by LIF. In addition, due to the very low quenching efficiency inside the jet, LIF signals can be directly related to the population of the probed species and easily calibrated into absolute concentrations. All of the work presented here has been carried out for naphthalene, which is an important PAH involved in soot formation mechanisms. The calibration procedure is described in detail. We also report a detailed study of the quantitative features of the technique, in particular cooling efficiencies and collision rates as well as some additional potential factors that could bias the quantitative aspect of the method. Finally, the possibilities of the technique for the measurement of PAH within flames in the presence of soot particles along with its accuracy and reproducibility are demonstrated by recording naphthalene mole fractions profiles in several rich CH4/O2/N2 flames. A detection limit of the order of a ppb is demonstrated under flame conditions with and without the presence of soot particles.

  17. MEMS Device Being Developed for Active Cooling and Temperature Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2001-01-01

    High-capacity cooling options remain limited for many small-scale applications such as microelectronic components, miniature sensors, and microsystems. A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) is currently under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center to meet this need. It uses a thermodynamic cycle to provide cooling or heating directly to a thermally loaded surface. The device can be used strictly in the cooling mode, or it can be switched between cooling and heating modes in milliseconds for precise temperature control. Fabrication and assembly are accomplished by wet etching and wafer bonding techniques routinely used in the semiconductor processing industry. Benefits of the MEMS cooler include scalability to fractions of a millimeter, modularity for increased capacity and staging to low temperatures, simple interfaces and limited failure modes, and minimal induced vibration.

  18. Triaxial modulation of the acceleration induced in the lower extremity during whole-body vibration training: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cook, David P; Mileva, Katya N; James, Darren C; Zaidell, Lisa N; Goss, Victor G; Bowtell, Joanna L

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to quantify vibration transmissibility through the lower extremity during exercise on a whole-body vibration (WBV) platform. Six healthy adults completed 20 trials of 30-second static squat exercise at 30 or 40 degrees of knee flexion angle on a WBV platform working at combinations of 5 frequencies (VF: 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 Hz) and 2 amplitudes (VA: low, 1.5 mm or high, 3 mm). Accelerations induced by the platform were recorded simultaneously at the shank and the thigh using triaxial accelerometers positioned at the segmental center of mass. Root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration amplitude and transmission ratios between the platform and the leg segments were calculated and compared between the experimental conditions. An alpha level of 0.05 was set to establish significance. Shank vertical acceleration was greatest at the lower VF (p = 0.028), higher VA (p = 0.028), and deeper squat (p = 0.048). Thigh vertical acceleration was not affected by depth of squat (p = 0.25), but it was greatest at higher VA (p = 0.046) and lower VF (p = 0.028). Medial-lateral shank acceleration was greatest at higher VF and deeper squat (both p = 0.046) and at higher VA (p = 0.028). Medial-lateral thigh acceleration was positively related to both VF (p = 0.046) and VA (p = 0.028) but was not affected by knee angle (p = 0.46). Anterior-posterior shank acceleration was higher at deeper squat (p = 0.046) and at lower VF and higher VA (both p = 0.028). Anterior-posterior thigh acceleration was related positively to the VA (p = 0.028), inversely to the VF (p = 0.028), and not dependent on knee angle (p = 0.75). Identification of specific vibration parameters and posture, which underpin WBV training efficacy, will enable coaches and athletes to design WBV training programs to specifically target shank or thigh muscles for enhanced performance.

  19. Prediction of flow induced sound and vibration of periodically stiffened plates.

    PubMed

    Maxit, Laurent; Denis, Vivien

    2013-01-01

    Stiffened structures excited by the turbulent boundary layer (TBL) occur very frequently in engineering applications; for instance, in the wings of airplanes or the pressure hulls of submarines. To improve knowledge of the interaction between stiffened structures and TBL, this paper deals with the modeling of infinite periodically stiffened plates excited by TBL. The mathematical formulation of the problem is well-established in the literature. The originality of the present work relies on the use of a wavenumber-point reciprocity technique for evaluating the response of the plate to convected harmonic pressure waves. It follows a methodology for estimating the vibro-acoustic response of the plate excited by the TBL from the wall pressure spectrum and its displacements in the wavenumber space due to point excitations located at the receiving positions. The computing process can be reduced to the numerical integration of an analytical expression in the case of a periodically stiffened plate. An application to a naval test case highlights the effect of Bloch-Floquet waves on the vibrations of the plate and its radiated pressure in the fluid.

  20. Nonlinear vibration and radiation from a panel with transition to chaos induced by acoustic waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio; Frendi, Abdelkader; Brown, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamic response of an aircraft panel forced at resonance and off-resonance by plane acoustic waves at normal incidence is investigated experimentally and numerically. Linear, nonlinear (period doubling) and chaotic responses are obtained by increasing the sound pressure level of the excitation. The response time history is sensitive to the input level and to the frequency of excitation. The change in response behavior is due to a change in input conditions, triggered either naturally or by modulation of the bandwidth of the incident waves. Off-resonance, bifurcation is diffused and difficult to maintain, thus the panel response drifts into a linear behavior. The acoustic pressure emanated by the panel is either linear or nonlinear as is the vibration response. The nonlinear effects accumulate during the propagation with distance. Results are also obtained on the control of the panel response using damping tape on aluminum panel and using a graphite epoxy panel having the same size and weight. Good agreement is obtained between the experimental and numerical results.

  1. Investigation of vibration-induced artifact in clinical diffusion-weighted imaging of pediatric subjects.

    PubMed

    Berl, Madison M; Walker, Lindsay; Modi, Pooja; Irfanoglu, M Okan; Sarlls, Joelle E; Nayak, Amritha; Pierpaoli, Carlo

    2015-12-01

    It has been reported that mechanical vibrations of the magnetic resonance imaging scanner could produce spurious signal dropouts in diffusion-weighted images resulting in artifactual anisotropy in certain regions of the brain with red appearance in the Directionally Encoded Color maps. We performed a review of the frequency of this artifact across pediatric studies, noting differences by scanner manufacturer, acquisition protocol, as well as weight and position of the subject. We also evaluated the ability of automated and quantitative methods to detect this artifact. We found that the artifact may be present in over 50% of data in certain protocols and is not limited to one scanner manufacturer. While a specific scanner had the highest incidence, low body weight and positioning were also associated with appearance of the artifact for both scanner types evaluated, making children potentially more susceptible than adults. Visual inspection remains the best method for artifact identification. Software for automated detection showed very low sensitivity (10%). The artifact may present inconsistently in longitudinal studies. We discuss a published case report that has been widely cited and used as evidence to set policy about diagnostic criteria for determining vegetative state. That report attributed longitudinal changes in anisotropy to white matter plasticity without considering the possibility that the changes were caused by this artifact. Our study underscores the need to check for the presence of this artifact in clinical studies, analyzes circumstances for when it may be more likely to occur, and suggests simple strategies to identify and potentially avoid its effects.

  2. An analytical model for train-induced ground vibrations from railways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlström, A.; Boström, A.

    2006-04-01

    To investigate ground vibrations from railways an analytical approach is taken. The ground is modelled as a stratified half-space with linearly viscoelastic layers. On top of the ground a rectangular embankment is placed, supporting the rails and the sleepers. The rails are modelled as Euler-Bernoulli beams where the propagating forces (wheel loads) are acting and the sleepers are modelled with an anisotropic Kirchhoff plate. The solution is based on Fourier transforms in time and along the track. In the transverse direction the fields in the embankment are developed in Fourier series and in the half-space with Fourier transforms. The resulting numerical scheme is very efficient, permitting displacement fields far outside the track to be calculated. Numerical examples are given for an X2 train that operates at the site Ledsgard in Sweden. The displacements are simulated at 70 and 200 km/h and are compared with the displacements from simpler models. The simulations are also validated against measurements, with very good agreement. At 70 km/h the track displacements agree almost exactly and at 200 km/h the displacements are a very good approximation of the measurement.

  3. Hydrogen bonding induced enhancement of Fermi resonances: ultrafast vibrational energy flow dynamics in aniline-d₅.

    PubMed

    Costard, Rene; Greve, Christian; Fidder, Henk; Nibbering, Erik T J

    2015-02-12

    With hydrogen bonding of the amino group of aniline-d5 we can identify the roles of Fermi enhanced combination and overtone states in intramolecular vibrational re-distribution (IVR) pathways for N-H stretching excitations. Using linear Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, ultrafast one- and two-color IR-pump-IR-probe spectroscopy, and femtosecond two-dimensional IR spectroscopy, we can identify the primary accepting modes for N-H stretching excitations. In particular, a key role is played by the δ(NH2) bending degree of freedom, either via its δ = 2 overtone state or via a combination state with the ν(C═C) ring stretching mode. No significant transient population in these Fermi enhanced combination/overtone states can be observed, a consequence of similar decay rates of these Fermi enhanced combination/overtone states and of the N-H stretching states. A similar magnitude of the transient response of the two fingerprint modes regardless of direct excitation of the Fermi enhanced combination/overtone levels or of the N-H stretching states suggests an underlying coupling mechanism facilitating common IVR pathways. This mechanism is expected to be of general importance for other organic compounds with hydrogen-bonded amino groups, including DNA bases.

  4. Nonlinear vibration induced by the water-film whirl and whip in a sliding bearing rotor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Liming; Luo, Yongyao; Wang, Zhengwei; Kitauchi, Seishiro; Miyagawa, Kazuyoshi

    2016-03-01

    Many industrial applications and experiments have shown that sliding bearings often experience fluid film whip due to nonlinear fluid film forces which can cause rotor-stator rub-impact failures. The oil-film whips have attracted many studies while the water-film whips in the water lubricated sliding bearing have been little researched with the mechanism still an open problem. The dynamic fluid film forces in a water sliding bearing are investigated numerically with rotational, whirling and squeezing motions of the journal using a nonlinear model to identify the relationships between the three motions. Rotor speed-up and slow-down experiments are then conducted with the rotor system supported by a water lubricated sliding bearing to induce the water-film whirl/whip and verify the relationship. The experimental results show that the vibrations of the journal alternated between increasing and decreasing rather than continuously increasing as the rotational speed increased to twice the first critical speed, which can be explained well by the nonlinear model. The radial growth rate of the whirl motion greatly affects the whirl frequency of the journal and is responsible for the frequency lock in the water-film whip. Further analysis shows that increasing the lubricating water flow rate changes the water-film whirl/whip characteristics, reduces the first critical speed, advances the time when significant water-film whirling motion occurs, and also increases the vibration amplitude at the bearing center which may lead to the rotor-stator rub-impact. The study gives the insight into the water-film whirl and whip in the water lubricated sliding bearing.

  5. Will water act as a photocatalyst for cluster phase chemical reactions? Vibrational overtone-induced dehydration reaction of methanediol

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Zeb C.; Takahashi, Kaito; Skodje, Rex T.; Vaida, Veronica

    2012-04-28

    The possibility of water catalysis in the vibrational overtone-induced dehydration reaction of methanediol is investigated using ab initio dynamical simulations of small methanediol-water clusters. Quantum chemistry calculations employing clusters with one or two water molecules reveal that the barrier to dehydration is lowered by over 20 kcal/mol because of hydrogen-bonding at the transition state. Nevertheless, the simulations of the reaction dynamics following OH-stretch excitation show little catalytic effect of water and, in some cases, even show an anticatalytic effect. The quantum yield for the dehydration reaction exhibits a delayed threshold effect where reaction does not occur until the photon energy is far above the barrier energy. Unlike thermally induced reactions, it is argued that competition between reaction and the irreversible dissipation of photon energy may be expected to raise the dynamical threshold for the reaction above the transition state energy. It is concluded that quantum chemistry calculations showing barrier lowering are not sufficient to infer water catalysis in photochemical reactions, which instead require dynamical modeling.

  6. Sea-ice and North Atlantic climate response to CO2-induced warming and cooling conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, Larissa; Tausnev, Nickolai; Hansen, James

    Using a global climate model coupled with an ocean and a sea-ice model, we compare the effects of doubling CO2 and halving CO2 on sea-ice cover and connections with the atmosphere and ocean. An overall warming in the 2 × CO2 experiment causes reduction of sea-ice extent by 15%, with maximum decrease in summer and autumn, consistent with observed seasonal sea-ice changes. The intensification of the Northern Hemisphere circulation is reflected in the positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO), associated with higher-than-normal surface pressure south of about 50° N and lower-than-normal surface pressure over the high northern latitudes. Strengthening the polar cell causes enhancement of westerlies around the Arctic perimeter during winter. Cooling, in the 0.5 × CO2 experiment, leads to thicker and more extensive sea ice. In the Southern Hemisphere, the increase in ice-covered area (28%) dominates the ice-thickness increase (5%) due to open ocean to the north. In the Northern Hemisphere, sea-ice cover increases by only 8% due to the enclosed land/sea configuration, but sea ice becomes much thicker (108%). Substantial weakening of the polar cell due to increase in sea-level pressure over polar latitudes leads to a negative trend of the winter AO index. The model reproduces large year-to-year variability under both cooling and warming conditions.

  7. Impact of environmentally induced fluctuations on quantum mechanically mixed electronic and vibrational pigment states in photosynthetic energy transfer and 2D electronic spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Fujihashi, Yuta; Ishizaki, Akihito; Fleming, Graham R.

    2015-06-07

    Recently, nuclear vibrational contribution signatures in two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy have attracted considerable interest, in particular as regards interpretation of the oscillatory transients observed in light-harvesting complexes. These transients have dephasing times that persist for much longer than theoretically predicted electronic coherence lifetime. As a plausible explanation for this long-lived spectral beating in 2D electronic spectra, quantum-mechanically mixed electronic and vibrational states (vibronic excitons) were proposed by Christensson et al. [J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 7449 (2012)] and have since been explored. In this work, we address a dimer which produces little beating of electronic origin in the absence of vibronic contributions, and examine the impact of protein-induced fluctuations upon electronic-vibrational quantum mixtures by calculating the electronic energy transfer dynamics and 2D electronic spectra in a numerically accurate manner. It is found that, at cryogenic temperatures, the electronic-vibrational quantum mixtures are rather robust, even under the influence of the fluctuations and despite the small Huang-Rhys factors of the Franck-Condon active vibrational modes. This results in long-lasting beating behavior of vibrational origin in the 2D electronic spectra. At physiological temperatures, however, the fluctuations eradicate the mixing, and hence, the beating in the 2D spectra disappears. Further, it is demonstrated that such electronic-vibrational quantum mixtures do not necessarily play a significant role in electronic energy transfer dynamics, despite contributing to the enhancement of long-lived quantum beating in 2D electronic spectra, contrary to speculations in recent publications.

  8. Mechanics of flow-induced sound and vibration. Volume 1 General concepts and elementary source. Volume 2 - Complex flow-structure interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, W. K.

    Physical and mathematical analyses of the vibration and sound induced by different types of fluid flow are presented in a comprehensive introduction intended primarily for practicing engineers. The elementary concepts are explained, and chapters are devoted to the theory of sound and its generation by flow; shear-layer instabilities, flow tones, and jet noise; dipole sound from cylinders; the fundamentals of flow-induced vibration and noise; bubble dynamics and cavitation; hydrodynamically induced cavitation and bubble noise; turbulent wall-pressure fluctuations; structural response to turbulent wall flow and random sound; noise radiation from pipe and duct systems; noncavitating lifting sections; and noise from rotating machinery. Graphs, diagrams, drawings, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  9. Vortex-induced noise and vibration in flow past several flat plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chan Mun

    A model formulation for the problem of vortex impingement on a pair of elastic tandem cylinders is presented. The parametric relations among a variety of fluid dynamic and structural dynamic properties are illustrated. The noise field essentially responds at the cylinder response frequency and the sound pressure level is generally increased by the vibration of the cylinders. The interaction of an array of vortices is also considered and the results indicate that four vortices are required for the possibility of the chaotic motion and the broadband noise. The vortex shedding off an inclined flat plane is modelled using the discrete vortex method along with the Lamb vortex model. The model tested for the rolling-up of a vortex sheet behind the elliptically loaded wing demonstrates that the smooth rollup is achieved inside the core region of the vortex sheet. The subsequent application of the model to the vortex shedding problem shows that the computed results such as the kinematics of the wake development, the fluid loading and the Strouhal number are in fair agreement with previous experimental measurements. The noise field exhibits a broadband character with the peak occurring at the vortex shedding frequency. A numerical conformal mapping technique is developed to transform multiple flat plates into the same number of circular cylinders. Employing the multiple body mapping method, the flow past a series of flat plates is investigated. The calculated results indicate that the presence of a downstream body in the wake of another body produces a feedback effect upstream which, in turn, has a significant effect on the upstream flow. In the case of vortex shedding, the presence of a downstream splitter plate in the center of the wake of an inclined plate appears to suppress the regular, periodic vortex shedding process. The addition of more inclined plates appears to reduce the Strouhal frequency which is the frequency at which the noise field responds.

  10. Extensive Measurements of Vibration-Induced Permanent Electric Dipole Moments of Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, Shoko; Sasada, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    A methane molecule (CH_4) has a permanent electric dipole moment (PEDM) in the excited state of the triply-degenerate vibrational modes. The rotational dependence of the PEDM was reported in the 2νb{3} band. However, in the νb{3} band, it was only determined on the P(7) E transition which fortunately lies in the tunable range of a 3.4 μm He-Ne laser. We have developed a mid-infrared broadband sub-Doppler resolution spectrometer consisting of a difference-frequency-generation source and an optical frequency comb linked to International Atomic Time. This spectrometer enables us to measure the Stark effects of 20 transitions in the νb{3} band of methane from 87.7 to 92.8 THz (2927˜3095 wn). The observed linewidth is 0.5 MHz, and the frequency scale is absolutely calibrated. The figure depicts the Stark modulation spectrum of the P(4) E transition. The applied DC electric field was 3.5 kV/cm. We determined Stark coefficients with a relative uncertainty of 1 %. Our goal is to reveal the rotational dependence of the PEDM. For this end, we yield molecular constants which reproduce the transition frequencies by a least-square method and determine the mixing of the wave functions. M. Mizushima and P. Venkateswarlu, J. Chem. Phys. 21, 705 (1953) K. Uehara, K. Sakurai and K. Shimoda, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 26, 1018 (1969) H. Sasada, K. Suzumura and C. Ishibashi, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 9027 (1996)

  11. Snapshots of Proton Accommodation at a Microscopic Water Surface: Understanding the Vibrational Spectral Signatures of the Charge Defect in Cryogenically Cooled H(+)(H2O)(n=2-28) Clusters.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Joseph A; Wolke, Conrad T; Johnson, Mark A; Odbadrakh, Tuguldur T; Jordan, Kenneth D; Kathmann, Shawn M; Xantheas, Sotiris S

    2015-09-10

    We review the role that gas-phase, size-selected protonated water clusters, H(+)(H2O)n, have played in unraveling the microscopic mechanics responsible for the spectroscopic behavior of the excess proton in bulk water. Because the larger (n ≥ 10) assemblies are formed with three-dimensional cage morphologies that more closely mimic the bulk environment, we report the spectra of cryogenically cooled (10 K) clusters over the size range 2 ≤ n ≤ 28, over which the structures evolve from two-dimensional arrangements to cages at around n = 10. The clusters that feature a complete second solvation shell around a surface-embedded hydronium ion yield spectral signatures of the proton defect similar to those observed in dilute acids. The origins of the large observed shifts in the proton vibrational signature upon cluster growth were explored with two types of theoretical analyses. First, we calculate the cubic and semidiagonal quartic force constants and use these in vibrational perturbation theory calculations to establish the couplings responsible for the large anharmonic red shifts. We then investigate how the extended electronic wave functions that are responsible for the shapes of the potential surfaces depend on the nature of the H-bonded networks surrounding the charge defect. These considerations indicate that, in addition to the sizable anharmonic couplings, the position of the OH stretch most associated with the excess proton can be traced to large increases in the electric fields exerted on the embedded hydronium ion upon formation of the first and second solvation shells. The correlation between the underlying local structure and the observed spectral features is quantified using a model based on Badger's rule as well as via the examination of the electric fields obtained from electronic structure calculations. PMID:26158593

  12. Snapshots of Proton Accommodation at a Microscopic Water Surface: Understanding the Vibrational Spectral Signatures of the Charge Defect in Cryogenically Cooled H(+)(H2O)(n=2-28) Clusters.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Joseph A; Wolke, Conrad T; Johnson, Mark A; Odbadrakh, Tuguldur T; Jordan, Kenneth D; Kathmann, Shawn M; Xantheas, Sotiris S

    2015-09-10

    We review the role that gas-phase, size-selected protonated water clusters, H(+)(H2O)n, have played in unraveling the microscopic mechanics responsible for the spectroscopic behavior of the excess proton in bulk water. Because the larger (n ≥ 10) assemblies are formed with three-dimensional cage morphologies that more closely mimic the bulk environment, we report the spectra of cryogenically cooled (10 K) clusters over the size range 2 ≤ n ≤ 28, over which the structures evolve from two-dimensional arrangements to cages at around n = 10. The clusters that feature a complete second solvation shell around a surface-embedded hydronium ion yield spectral signatures of the proton defect similar to those observed in dilute acids. The origins of the large observed shifts in the proton vibrational signature upon cluster growth were explored with two types of theoretical analyses. First, we calculate the cubic and semidiagonal quartic force constants and use these in vibrational perturbation theory calculations to establish the couplings responsible for the large anharmonic red shifts. We then investigate how the extended electronic wave functions that are responsible for the shapes of the potential surfaces depend on the nature of the H-bonded networks surrounding the charge defect. These considerations indicate that, in addition to the sizable anharmonic couplings, the position of the OH stretch most associated with the excess proton can be traced to large increases in the electric fields exerted on the embedded hydronium ion upon formation of the first and second solvation shells. The correlation between the underlying local structure and the observed spectral features is quantified using a model based on Badger's rule as well as via the examination of the electric fields obtained from electronic structure calculations.

  13. Thermal-induced wavefront aberration in sapphire-cooled Nd:glass slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tingrui; Huang, Wenfa; Wang, Jiangfeng; Lu, Xinghua; Li, Xuechun

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate for the first time a sapphire-cooled Nd:glass composite assembly based on optical bonding of two thin sapphire plates to a Nd:glass slab for efficient heat removal. The distributions of temperature, stress, depolarization loss, and wavefront aberration were obtained by finite element analysis. The simulation results were verified experimentally. Although the heat generation rate was 4.5 W/cm3, the temperature increase was within 5.7 °C at the center of the sapphire surface, and the whole wavefront aberration was 1.21 λ ( λ = 1053 nm). This demonstration opens up a viable path toward novel repetition rate Nd:glass laser amplifier designs with efficient double-sided room-temperature heat sinking on both sides of the slab.

  14. Evidence of CO2-induced progressive cooling of the middle atmosphere derived from radio observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taubenheim, J.; Cossart, G. V.; Entzian, G.

    1989-01-01

    Reflection heights of low frequency radio waves in midlatitude summer, which are closely associated with the neutral atmosphere isobaric level of 0.0052 hPa, exhibit a statistically significant downgoing trend from 1962 to 1987. This indicates a systematic decrease of air pressure at 80 km height by 10.3 plus or minus 4.9 percent over this period, to be regarded as a sufficient evidence of a true signal of progressive cooling of the middle atmosphere, expected with the growing content of CO2 and other greenhouse bases in the atmosphere. It is quantitatively consistent with a temperature decrease at the stratopause by about 4 K, as predicted by the recent model of interactive greenhouse and ozone processes of Brasseur and de Rudder (1987).

  15. Dark matter merging induced turbulence as an efficient engine for gas cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Joaquin; Jimenez, Raul; Martí, Jose

    2012-02-01

    We have performed a cosmological numerical simulation of primordial baryonic gas collapsing on to a 3 × 107 M⊙ dark matter (DM) halo. We show that the large scale baryonic accretion process and the merger of few ˜ 106 M⊙ DM haloes, triggered by the gravitational potential of the biggest halo, are enough to create supersonic (?) shocks and develop a turbulent environment. In this scenario, the post-shocked regions are able to produce both H2 and deuterated H2 molecules very efficiently, reaching maximum abundances of ? and nHD˜ few × 10-6 nH, enough to cool the gas below 100 K in some regions. The kinetic energy spectrum of the turbulent primordial gas is close to a Burgers spectrum, ?, which could favour the formation of low-mass primordial stars. The solenoidal-to-total kinetic energy ratio is 0.65 ≲Rk≲ 0.7 for a wide range of wavenumbers; this value is close to the Rk≈ 2/3 natural equipartition energy value of a random turbulent flow. In this way, turbulence and molecular cooling seem to work together in order to produce potential star formation regions of cold dense gas in primordial environments. We conclude that both the mergers and the collapse process on to the main DM halo provide enough energy to develop supersonic turbulence which favours the molecular coolant formation: this mechanism, which could be universal and the main route towards the formation of the first galaxies, is able to create potential star-forming regions at high redshift.

  16. Twenty Years of Laser Cooling of Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemova, Galina; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-06-01

    Laser induced cooling of solids or optical refrigeration is an area of optical science investigating interaction of light with condensed matter. This addresses a very important practical issue: design and construction all optical solid-state cryocoolers, which are compact devices, free from mechanical vibrations, moving parts, or fluids. They are based on reliable diode pump technology and in the most part free from electromagnetic interference in the cooled area. The optical cryocooler has a broad range of applications such as in the development of biomedical sensing, magnetometers for geophysical sensors and other sensors, satellite instrumentations where compactness and the lack of vibration are key parameters. The operation of these devices is based on anti-Stokes fluorescence also known as luminescence upconversion, in which light quanta in the red tail of the absorption spectrum are absorbed in a material from a pump laser and by adding thermal energy, blue-shifted photons are spontaneously emitted. Laser cooling of solids can be realized in rare-earth doped low phonon energy glasses and crystals as well as in direct band gap semiconductors. Both of these areas are very interesting and important and are discussed in this article.

  17. Nonlinear analysis of wind-induced vibration of high-speed railway catenary and its influence on pantograph-catenary interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Hongrui; Lu, Xiaobing; Zhang, Jing

    2016-06-01

    The wind-induced vibration of the high-speed catenary and the dynamic behaviour of the pantograph-catenary under stochastic wind field are firstly analysed. The catenary model is established based on nonlinear cable and truss elements, which can fully describe the nonlinearity of each wire and the initial configuration. The model of the aerodynamic forces acting on the messenger/contact wire is deduced by considering the effect of the vertical and horizontal fluctuating winds. The vertical and horizontal fluctuating winds are simulated by employing the Davenport and Panofsky spectrums, respectively. The aerodynamic coefficients of the contact/messenger wire are calculated through computational fluid dynamics. The wind-induced vibration response of catenary is analysed with different wind speeds and angles. Its frequency-domain characteristics are discussed using Auto Regression model. Finally, a pantograph model is introduced and the contact force of the pantograph-catenary under stochastic wind is studied. The results show that both the wind speed and the attack angle exert a significant effect on the wind-induced vibration. The existence of the groove on the contact wire cross-section leads to a significant change of the aerodynamic coefficient, which affects largely the aerodynamic forces applied on the catenary wires, as well as the vibration response. The vibration frequency with high spectral power mainly concentrates on the predominant frequency of the fluctuating wind and the natural frequency of catenary. The increase in the wind speed results in a significant deterioration of the current collection. The numerical example shows that a relatively stable current collection can be ensured when the wind flows at the relatively horizontal direction.

  18. Selective excitation of vibrational states by shaping of light-induced potentials

    PubMed

    Sola; Chang; Santamaria; Malinovsky; Krause

    2000-11-13

    In this Letter we describe a method for population transfer using intense, ultrafast laser pulses. The selectivity is accomplished by careful shaping of light-induced potentials (LIPs). Creation and control of the LIPs is accomplished by choosing pairs of pulses with proper frequency detunings and time delays. As an example, selective population transfer is demonstrated for a three-state model of the sodium dimer.

  19. Laser cooling via excitation of localized electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emin, David

    2007-07-01

    Under appropriate conditions, absorption of light by a solid can initiate a process by which it is cooled. In particular, energy is extracted from a material when its absorption of a photon is followed by emission of a photon of higher energy. This up-conversion requires some of the solid’s electrons to garner energy from atomic vibrations. Here, two schemes for laser cooling via localized electronic states are addressed. The first scheme utilizes the ground state and an excited state of a localized center. In this two-level scheme, the cooling process is initiated with photon absorption in the extreme low-energy tail of a localized state’s vibrationally broadened absorption spectrum. The subsequent atomic relaxation transfers energy of especially large vibratory atomic strains into electrical energy that is then extracted via photon emission. The second scheme involves the ground state and two excited states of a localized center. Cooling is facilitated when (i) the photoexcitation of an electron from its ground state to the lower excited level is followed by (ii) electron-phonon-induced promotion to the uppermost level and the subsequent (iii) return of the electron to its ground state with emission of a photon of higher energy than that of the absorbed photon. However, competing relaxation processes contribute to heating. The net cooling power per unit volume is maximized for both schemes, thereby determining characteristics of localized electronic systems that foster optical cooling. The cooling power per unit volume is greatest at high temperatures and falls rapidly as the thermal energy is reduced below each system’s luminescence Stokes shift. Moreover, cooling via the three-level scheme is most effective when (i) the energy separation between excited states is smaller than the thermal energy and (ii) the degeneracy of the highest-lying excited state is much larger than that of the center’s middle level. These restrictive conditions appear to be

  20. Photodetachment-photoelectron spectroscopy of jet-cooled chrysene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschurl, Martin; Boesl, Ulrich

    2006-03-01

    Jet-cooled chrysene anions have been produced by attachment of slow laser-induced photoelectrons. The molecules have been studied by photodetachment-photoelectron spectroscopy using various wavelengths of the detachment laser. The adiabatic electron affinity of chrysene was directly determined to be 0.32 +/- 0.01 eV. In the S0 state of neutral chrysene two different vibrational modes are visible. Both are assigned to breathing modes of the aromatic ring system. In addition, the first excited triplet state is observed and a singlet triplet energy gap of 2.64 +/- 0.01 eV has been determined. In this state it was also possible to resolve a vibrational mode. At 355 nm an anion resonance was found that ended up in vibrationally highly excited neutral chrysene. As an explanation a special relaxation pathway is suggested.

  1. Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of the Scalp Cooling System To Reduce the Likelihood of Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-02-12

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the scalp cooling system to reduce the likelihood of chemotherapy-induced alopecia into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the scalp cooling system to reduce the likelihood of chemotherapy-induced alopecia's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. PMID:26878740

  2. Stress-anneal-induced magnetic anisotropy in highly textured Fe-Ga and Fe-Al magnetostrictive strips for bending-mode vibrational energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung Jin; Na, Suok-Min; Raghunath, Ganesh; Flatau, Alison B.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetostrictive Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys are promising materials for use in bending-mode vibrational energy harvesters. For this study, 50.8 mm × 5.0 mm × 0.5 mm strips of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al were cut from 0.50-mm thick rolled sheet. An atmospheric anneal was used to develop a Goss texture through an abnormal grain growth process. The anneal lead to large (011) grains that covered over 90% of sample surface area. The resulting highly-textured Fe-Ga and Fe-Al strips exhibited saturation magnetostriction values (λsat = λ∥ - λ⊥) of ˜280 ppm and ˜130 ppm, respectively. To maximize 90° rotation of magnetic moments during bending of the strips, we employed compressive stress annealing (SA). Samples were heated to 500°C, and a 100-150 MPa compressive stress was applied while at 500°C for 30 minutes and while being cooled. The effectiveness of the SA on magnetic moment rotation was inferred by comparing post-SA magnetostriction with the maximum possible yield of rotated magnetic moments, which is achieved when λ∥ = λsat and λ⊥ = 0. The uniformity of the SA along the sample length and the impact of the SA on sensing/energy harvesting performance were then assessed by comparing pre- and post-SA bending-stress-induced changes in magnetization at five different locations along the samples. The SA process with a 150 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Ga actuation along the sample length from 170 to 225 ppm (from ˜60% to within ˜80% of λsat). The corresponding sensing/energy harvesting performance improved by as much as a factor of eight in the best sample, however the improvement was not at all uniform along the sample length. The SA process with a 100 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Al actuation along the sample length from 60 to 73 ppm (from ˜46% to ˜56% of λsat, indicating only a marginally effective SA and suggesting the need for modification of the SA protocol. In spite of this, the SA was effective at improving the sensing/energy harvesting

  3. Electron beam exposure mechanisms in hydrogen silsesquioxane investigated by vibrational spectroscopy and in-situ electron beam induced desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Olynick, D.L.; Cord, B.; Schipotinin, A.; Ogletree, D.F.; Schuck, P.J.

    2009-11-13

    Hydrogen Silsesquioxane (HSQ) is used as a high-resolution resist with resolution down below 10nm half-pitch. This material or materials with related functionalities could have widespread impact in nanolithography and nanoscience applications if the exposure mechanism was understood and instabilities controlled. Here we have directly investigated the exposure mechanism using vibrational spectroscopy (both Raman and Fourier transform Infrared) and electron beam desorption spectrocscopy (EBDS). In the non-networked HSQ system, silicon atoms sit at the corners of a cubic structure. Each silicon is bonded to a hydrogen atom and bridges 3 oxygen atoms (formula: HSiO3/2). For the first time, we have shown, via changes in the Si-H2 peak at ~;;2200 cm -1 in the Raman spectra and the release of SiHx products in EBID, that electron-bam exposed materials crosslinks via a redistribution reaction. In addition, we observe the release of significantly more H2 than SiH2 during EBID, which is indicative of additional reaction mechanisms. Additionally, we compare the behavior of HSQ in response to both thermal and electron-beam induced reactions.

  4. A numerical study of the flow-induced vibration characteristics of a voice-producing element for laryngectomized patients.

    PubMed

    Thomson, S L; Tack, J W; Verkerke, G J

    2007-01-01

    A computational model for exploring the design of a voice-producing voice prosthesis, or voice-producing element (VPE), is presented. The VPE is intended for use by laryngectomized patients who cannot benefit from current speech rehabilitation techniques. Previous experiments have focused on the design of a double-membrane voice generator as a VPE. For optimization studies, a numerical model has been developed. The numerical model introduced incorporates the finite element (FE) method to solve for the flow-induced vibrations of the VPE system, including airflow coupled with a mass-loaded membrane. The FE model includes distinct but coupled fluid and solid domains. The flow solver is governed by the incompressible, laminar, unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The solid solver allows for large deformation, large strain, and collision. It is first shown that the model satisfactorily represents previously published experimental results in terms of frequency and flow rate, enabling the model for use as a design tool. The model is then used to study the influence of geometric scaling, membrane thickness, membrane stiffness, and slightly convergent or divergent channel geometry on the model response. It is shown that physiological allowable changes in the latter three device parameters alone will not be sufficient to generate the desired reduction in fundamental frequency. However, their effects are quantified and it is shown that membrane stiffness and included angle should be considered in future designs. PMID:17662296

  5. Force limited vibration testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharton, Terry D.

    1991-01-01

    A new method of conducting lab vibration tests of spacecraft equipment was developed to more closely simulate the vibration environment experienced when the spacecraft is launched on a rocket. The improved tests are tailored to identify equipment design and workmanship problems without inducing artificial failures that would not have occurred at launch. These new, less destructive types of vibration tests are essential to JPL's protoflight test approach in which lab testing is conducted using the flight equipment, often one of a kind, to save time and money. In conventional vibration tests, only the input vibratory motion is specified; the feedback, or reaction force, between the test item and the vibration machine is ignored. Most test failures occur when the test item goes into resonance, and the reaction force becomes very large. It has long been recognized that the large reaction force is a test artifact which does not occur with the lightweight, flexible mounting structures characteristic of spacecraft and space vehicles. In new vibration tests, both the motion and the force provided to the test item by the vibration machine are controlled, so that the vibration ride experienced by the test item is as in flight.

  6. Stimulated radiative laser cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muys, P.

    2008-04-01

    Building a refrigerator based on the conversion of heat into optical energy is an ongoing engineering challenge. Under well-defined conditions, spontaneous anti-Stokes fluorescence of a dopant material in a host matrix is capable of lowering the host temperature. The fluorescence is conveying away a part of the thermal energy stored in the vibrational oscillations of the host lattice. In particular, applying this principle to the cooling of (solid-state) lasers opens up many potential device applications, especially in the domain of high-power lasers. In this paper, an alternative optical cooling scheme is outlined, leading to the radiative cooling of solid-state lasers. It is based on converting the thermal energy stored in the host into optical energy by means of a stimulated nonlinear process, rather than a spontaneous process. This should lead to better cooling efficiencies and a higher potential of applying the principle for device applications.

  7. Crystallization kinetics of alkali feldspars in cooling and decompression-induced crystallization experiments in trachytic melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzilli, Fabio; Carroll, Michael R.

    2013-10-01

    Cooling and decompression experiments have been carried out on trachytic melts in order to investigate crystallization kinetics of alkali feldspar, the effect of the degree of undercooling ( ΔT = T liquidus - T experimental) and time on nucleation and crystal growth process. This experimental work gives us new data about crystallization kinetics of trachytic melts, and it that will be useful to better understand the natural system of Campi Flegrei volcanoes. Experiments have been conducted using cold seal pressure vessel apparatus, at pressure between 30 and 200 MPa, temperature between 750 and 855 °C, time between 7,200 and 57,600 s and redox condition close to the NNO +0.8 buffer. These conditions are ideal to reproducing pre- and syn-eruptive conditions of the Campi Flegrei volcanoes, where the "conditions" pertain to the complete range of pressures, temperatures and time at which the experiments were performed. Alkali feldspar is the main phase present in this trachyte, and its abundance can strongly vary with small changes in pressure, temperature and water content in the melt, implying appreciable variations in the textures and in the crystallization kinetics. The obtained results show that crystallization kinetics are strictly related to ΔT, time, final pressure, superheating (- ΔT) and water content in the melt. ΔT is the driving force of the crystallization, and it has a strong influence on nucleation and growth processes. In fact, the growth process dominates crystallization at small ΔT, whereas the nucleation dominates crystallization at large ΔT. Time also is an important variable during crystallization process, because long experiment durations involve more nucleation events of alkali feldspar than short experiment durations. This is an important aspect to understand magma evolution in the magma chamber and in the conduit, which in turn has strong effects on magma rheology.

  8. Cooling Induced Instability of the Atlantic Overturning Circulation as a Cause for Rapid Climate Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorr, G.; Lohmann, G.; Prange, M.; Barker, S.; Laepple, T.

    2009-04-01

    Although there is considerable debate about differences between the modern and the glacial Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) it is commonly agreed that at peak glacial times the AMOC was characterised by a southward shift of the North Atlantic deep water (NADW) formation sites and a relatively shallow NADW-cell. Recently the Paleoclimate Modelling Inter-comparison Project (PMIP) has shown that state of the art coupled atmosphere-ocean circulation models can successfully reproduce such changes. Interestingly, the AMOC response to glacial conditions in the PMIP has revealed that a southward shift of the downward branch and a shoaling of the NADW overturning cell is accompanied by a reduced overturning. Here we present a conceptual approach using an interhemipheric box model of the Atlantic overturning circulation. We assume that a completely sea ice covered North Atlantic box would inhibit the formation of NADW by its insulating effect of surface heat fluxes at the ocean surface. Therefore we introduce a dependence of the overturning strength from the sea ice extent in the North Atlantic. This approach can be viewed as a loss of efficiency of the inter-hemispheric density gradient in driving the overturning with cooler climate conditions. Using this concept we show that the transition from a modern climate state to a colder climate forces the system into millennial-scale oscillations at a threshold. The oscillations are activated by a southward migration of the sea-ice cover in the North Atlantic. The southward migration of the sea ice margin also provides a positive feedback on a weakening of the overturning by climate cooling, which leads to the existence of multiple equilibria in an intermediate climate state. The stability behaviour in our model suggests that changes in the North Atlantic sea-ice cover may have played a dominant role for Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations by determining the available surface area for deep water formation and the

  9. On fatigue damage accumulation from in-line and cross-flow vortex-induced vibrations on risers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baarholm, G. S.; Larsen, C. M.; Lie, H.

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale model tests of a tensioned steel riser were performed at Hanøytangen outside Bergen, Norway in 1997. The length of the model was 90 m and the diameter was 3 cm. The information from these tests consists of measured bending strains, tension, flow speed and all relevant riser data. In this work, this information is reexamined in an attempt to improve our understanding of vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) for cases with very high order of responding modes. The aim is in particular to study the relative importance of in-line (IL) and cross-flow (CF) vibrations for fatigue damage accumulation. It is shown that fatigue damage is proportional to U (U is the flow velocity) when the modes are dominated by tension. When bending controls the modes, the fatigue damage is proportional to U. A linear SN-curve with slope parameter m=3 is used. The Hanøytangen riser fatigue damage goes as U7 for the lowest velocities and U4 for the highest current velocities. Based on the Hanøytangen data, it seems that the transition velocity between the tension and the bending-stiffness-dominated regions is at the current velocity that gives response at a mode number where a tensioned string and an untensioned beam have equal eigenfrequencies. IL response has a significant contribution to fatigue for cases dominated by the lowest modes. The reason is that IL oscillations will take place at double the frequency of those in CF. For a tension-controlled case, this corresponds to a mode with half the wavelength, while a bending-controlled case will tend to have a wavelength ratio of 2. Since the curvature for a given amplitude increases with the inverse modal wavelength squared, fatigue from IL tends to dominate for cases with tension-controlled modes (low current speed), while CF will dominate for bending-controlled modes (high current speed). This tendency is clearly seen in the experimental data for both CF and IL responses. Fatigue damage is calculated directly from the measured

  10. Pressure-induced variation of structural, elastic, vibrational, electronic, thermodynamic properties and hardness of Ruthenium Carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishna Pillai, Harikrishnan; Kulangara Madam, Ajith; Natarajan, Sathish; Chandra, Sharat; Mundachali Cheruvalath, Valsakumar

    2016-07-01

    Three of the five structures obtained from the evolutionary algorithm based structure search of Ruthenium Carbide systems in the stoichiometries RuC, Ru2C and Ru3C are relaxed at different pressures in the range 0-200 GPa and the pressure-induced variation of their structural, elastic, dynamical, electronic and thermodynamic properties as well as hardness is investigated in detail. No structural transition is present for these systems in this pressure range. RuC-Zinc blende is mechanically and dynamically unstable close to 100 GPa. RuC-Rhombohedral and Ru3C-Hexagonal retain mechanical and dynamical stability up to 200 GPa. For all three systems the electronic bands and density of states spread out with pressure and the band gap increases with pressure for the semiconducting RuC-Zinc blende. From the computed IR spectrum of RuC-Zinc blende at 50 GPa it is noted that the IR frequency increases with pressure. Using a semi-empirical model for hardness it is estimated that hardness of all three systems consistently increases with pressure. The hardness of RuC-Zinc blende increases towards the superhard regime up to the limiting pressure of its mechanical stability while that of RuC-Rhombohedral becomes 30 GPa at the pressure of 150 GPa.

  11. Controlled cooling during semen cryopreservation does not induce capacitation of spermatozoa from two portions of the boar ejaculate.

    PubMed

    Saravia, F; Hernández, M; Wallgren, M; Johannisson, A; Rodríguez-Martínez, H

    2007-12-01

    velocity differed between portions in S1 (p < 0.01), but remained similar, independently of the portion, thereafter (S2-S4). Both PMS and the total number of live spermatozoa remained similar between S1 and S3 while incubated in BTS for both ejaculate portions. Sperm mortality increased post-thaw (S4) in both portions but the degree of lipid disorder remained low in the live cells (1.28% for P1; 1.55% for P2). Exposure to mBO+, on the other hand, significantly increased membrane lipid disorder along cooling (S1-S3; p < 0.0001), increasing the percentages of dead spermatozoa, especially post-thaw (around 70%, both portions). PS-exteriorization (AV) was not evident along the cryopreservation process in control (BTS) samples and exposure to mBO+ only induced minor variations. The data showed that kinetics, PMS and PMI of boar spermatozoa suspended in BTS (S1), LEY (S2) or LEY plus glycerol (S3) were maintained during controlled cooling but were altered by thawing, showing more characteristics of cell injury than of sperm capacitation. The spermatozoa were able to capacitate but the bicarbonate challenge destabilized the plasma membrane during initial cooling and accelerated membrane changes post-thaw. We conclude that capacitation of boar spermatozoa does not occur during controlled cooling. PMID:17651408

  12. Effect of experimentally reduced distal sensation on postural response to hip abductor/ankle evertor muscle vibration.

    PubMed

    Glasser, S; Collings, R; Paton, J; Marsden, J

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed whether postural responses induced by vibratory perturbations of the hip abductors and ankle evertors, were modified when distal tactile sensation was experimentally reduced through cooling. Sixteen healthy subjects were investigated pre and post cooling. Subjects stood with their eyes closed with a stance width of 4 cm. A 2s vibratory stimulus was applied to the left or right hip abductor or ankle evertor muscle. The order of the site and side of the stimulation was randomised. The postural response to hip abductor and ankle evertor vibration was recorded using 3D motion analysis (Codamotion, Leicestershire). Medio-lateral centre of pressure motion was simultaneously recorded during quiet standing via a force plate (Kistler, UK). Pre-cooling people responded to unilateral ankle vibration with an ipsilateral translation and tilt of the pelvis, and an ipsilateral tilt of the trunk. People responded to unilateral hip vibration with a contralateral translation and tilt of the pelvis, and an ipsilateral tilt of the trunk. Following an experimental reduction in distal tactile sensation there was a significant reduction in the amplitude of pelvic tilt in response to ankle vibration (F(6.2)=P<0.05) and a significant increase in amplitude of pelvic tilt in response to hip vibration (F(5.2)=P<0.05). This suggests that the sensitivity to artificial stimulation of hip proprioception increases with distal cooling, possibly indicating a change in the gain/weighting placed upon sensory information from the hips.

  13. Active vibration control of structures undergoing bending vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An active vibration control subassembly for a structure (such as a jet engine duct or a washing machine panel) undergoing bending vibrations caused by a source (such as the clothes agitator of the washing machine) independent of the subassembly. A piezoceramic actuator plate is vibratable by an applied electric AC signal. The plate is connected to the structure such that vibrations in the plate induced by the AC signal cause canceling bending vibrations in the structure and such that the plate is compressively pre-stressed along the structure when the structure is free of any bending vibrations. The compressive prestressing increases the amplitude of the canceling bending vibrations before the critical tensile stress level of the plate is reached. Preferably, a positive electric DC bias is also applied to the plate in its poling direction.

  14. Smoothing HCCI heat release with vaporization-cooling-induced thermal stratification using ethanol.

    SciTech Connect

    Dec, John E.; Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.

    2010-12-01

    Ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends are being widely considered as alternative fuels for light-duty automotive applications. At the same time, HCCI combustion has the potential to provide high efficiency and ultra-low exhaust emissions. However, the application of HCCI is typically limited to low and moderate loads because of unacceptably high heat-release rates (HRR) at higher fueling rates. This work investigates the potential of lowering the HCCI HRR at high loads by using partial fuel stratification to increase the in-cylinder thermal stratification. This strategy is based on ethanol's high heat of vaporization combined with its true single-stage ignition characteristics. Using partial fuel stratification, the strong fuel-vaporization cooling produces thermal stratification due to variations in the amount of fuel vaporization in different parts of the combustion chamber. The low sensitivity of the autoignition reactions to variations of the local fuel concentration allows the temperature variations to govern the combustion event. This results in a sequential autoignition event from leaner and hotter zones to richer and colder zones, lowering the overall combustion rate compared to operation with a uniform fuel/air mixture. The amount of partial fuel stratification was varied by adjusting the fraction of fuel injected late to produce stratification, and also by changing the timing of the late injection. The experiments show that a combination of 60-70% premixed charge and injection of 30-40 % of the fuel at 80{sup o}CA before TDC is effective for smoothing the HRR. With CA50 held fixed, this increases the burn duration by 55% and reduces the maximum pressure-rise rate by 40%. Combustion stability remains high but engine-out NO{sub x} has to be monitored carefully. For operation with strong reduction of the peak HRR, ISNO{sub x} rises to around 0.20 g/kWh for an IMEP{sub g} of 440 kPa. The single-cylinder HCCI research engine was operated naturally aspirated

  15. Numerical prediction of turbulence-induced steam generator tube vibration: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stuhmiller, J.H.

    1988-05-01

    This project investigates promising techniques for predicting turbulent buffeting of tubes leading to tube damage from wear given overall steam generator geometry and operating conditions. The specified overall steam generator operating conditions are used in a model for the steam generator inlet region to evaluate local measures of incoming turbulent flow such as velocity, pressure, turbulence intensity and spectra. A range of models differing in degree of completeness may be used to calculate the incoming flow turbulence. The simplest of the three models is to use a thermal-hydraulic code such as EPRI's ATHOS or PORTHOS code to calculate the steady state flow field (u, v, w and p). Crude, empirical estimates for turbulence intensities and spectra may be deduced from the steady flow results. The best approach, which is chosen for the present study, is Large Eddy Simulation (LES) which gives detailed transient flow results that are in essence a complete description of incoming turbulence. LES results for turbulent flow in the steam generator inlet region provide the necessary local flow conditions for input into tube structural dynamic simulations. This project uses transient thermal-hydraulic analysis of flow within the tube bank to determine the instantaneous, circumferentially integrated force on each tube as a function of position along its axis. The resulting force component time histories provide a complete description of the force imposed on a rigid tube due to the incoming flow turbulence. Tube motion under the action of flow induced forces is determined from models of structural dynamics. This project models one-dimensional motion of the multispan tube including finite tube support clearances and the resulting tube-support impact force. 25 refs., 99 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Critical temperature ranges of hypothermia-induced platelet activation: possible implications for cooling patients in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Straub, Andreas; Breuer, Melanie; Wendel, Hans P; Peter, Karlheinz; Dietz, Klaus; Ziemer, Gerhard

    2007-04-01

    Cooling of the patient is routinely applied in cardiac surgery to protect organs against ischemia. Hypothermia induces activation of platelets, but the effects of temperatures such as used during cardiac surgery are not well described. To investigate this in an in-vitro study heparinized whole blood was incubated at different temperatures (37 degrees C, 34.5 degrees C, 32 degrees C, 29.5 degrees C, 27 degrees C, 24.5 degrees C, 22 degrees C, 19.5 degrees C and 17 degrees C). The effect of these temperatures on aggregation, P-selectin expression, GP IIb/IIIa activation and platelet microparticle (PMP) formation of unstimulated and ADP-stimulated platelets of 36 subjects was evaluated in flow cytometry. A four-parametric logistic model was fitted to depict the temperature effect on platelet parameters. Lower temperatures increased aggregates, P-selectin expression, and GP IIb/IIIa activation. The number of PMPs decreases with hypothermia. Additional experiments revealed a slight influence of heparin on platelet P-selectin expression but excluded an effect of this anticoagulant on the other evaluated parameters. Threshold temperatures, which mark 5% changes of platelet parameters compared to values at 37 degrees C, were calculated. On ADP-stimulated platelets the thresholds for P-selectin expression and GP IIb/IIa activation are 34.0 degrees C and 36.4 degrees C, respectively, and lie in the temperature range routinely applied in cardiac surgery. Hypothermia-induced platelet activation may develop in most patients undergoing cardiac surgery, possibly resulting in thromboembolic events, coagulation defects, and proinflammatory leukocyte bridging by P-selectin bearing platelets and PMPs. These findings suggest that pharmacological protection of platelets against hypothermia-induced damage may be beneficial during cardiac surgery.

  17. A novel calibration and task guidance framework for motor imagery BCI via a tendon vibration induced sensation with kinesthesia illusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lin; Meng, Jianjun; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2015-02-01

    Objective. Lack of efficient calibration and task guidance in motor imagery (MI) based brain-computer interface (BCI) would result in the failure of communication or control, especially in patients, such as a stroke with motor impairment and intact sensation, locked-in state amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, in which the sources of data for calibration may worsen the subsequent decoding. In addition, enhancing the proprioceptive experience in MI might improve the BCI performance. Approach. In this work, we propose a new calibrating and task guidance methodology to further improve the MI BCI, exploiting the afferent nerve system through tendon vibration stimulation to induce a sensation with kinesthesia illusion. A total of 30 subjects’ experiments were carried out, and randomly divided into a control group (control-group) and calibration and task guidance group (CTG-group). Main results. Online experiments have shown that MI could be decoded by classifier calibrated solely using sensation data, with 8 of the 15 subjects in the CTG-Group above 80%, 3 above 95% and all above 65%. Offline chronological cross-validation analysis shows that it has reached a comparable performance with the traditional calibration method (F(1,14)=0.14,P=0.7176). In addition, the discrimination accuracy of MI in the CTG-Group is significantly 12.17% higher on average than that in the control-group (unpaired-T test, P = 0.0086), and illusory sensation indicates no significant difference (unpaired-T test, p = 0.3412). The finding of the existed similarity of the discriminative brain patterns and grand averaged ERD/ERS between imagined movement (actively induced) and illusory movement (passively evoked) also validates the proposed calibration and task guidance framework. Significance. The cognitive complexity of the illusory sensation task is much lower and more objective than that of MI. In addition, subjects’ kinesthetic experience mentally simulated during the MI task might be enhanced by

  18. Vibrational rainbows

    SciTech Connect

    Drolshagen, G.; Mayne, H.R.; Toennies, J.P.

    1981-07-01

    We extend the theory of inelastic rainbows to include vibrationally inelastic scattering, showing how the existence of vibrational rainbows can be deduced from collinear classical scattering theory. Exact close-coupling calculations are carried out for a breathing sphere potential, and rainbow structures are, in fact, observed. The location of the rainbows generally agrees well with the classical prediction. In addition, the sensitivity of the location of the rainbow to changes in the vibrational coupling has been investigated. It is shown that vibrational rainbows persist in the presence of anisotropy. Experimental results (R. David, M. Faubel, and J. P. Toennies, Chem. Phys. Lett. 18, 87 (1973)) are examined for evidence of vibrational rainbow structure, and it is shown that vibrational rainbow theory is not inconsistent with these results.

  19. Optical detection of argon gas flow based on vibration-induced change in photoluminescence of a semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube bundle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong-Seok; Kim, Woo-Jae; Strano, Michael S; Hanl, Jae-Hee

    2014-12-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that Ar gas flow can be optically detected using mechanical vibration of a semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundle as a platform. A change in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity was induced by out-of-focusing of the SWCNT bundle of interest due to vibration caused by the introduced gas stream, for which a gas flow control system was installed in an optical microscope. The PL intensity was found to change systemically with the Ar flow rates in a range of relatively large flow rate intervals [0.70 to 3.0 standard cubic liters per minute (SLM) with 0.1-0.5 SLM intervals] with a noticeable hysteresis. It was, however, difficult to obtain a detectable PL change in a range of very small flow rate intervals (0.67 to 0.70 SLM with a 0.01 SLM interval). The detailed results and underlying mechanism are discussed in detail.

  20. Piezoelectrically induced mechano-catalytic effect for degradation of dye wastewater through vibrating Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, He; Wu, Zheng; Jia, Yanmin; Li, Weijian; Zheng, Ren-Kui; Luo, Haosu

    2014-04-01

    Hydrothermally synthesized piezoelectric Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 fibers were used as a mechano-catalyzer to degrade acid orange 7 dye wastewater via the mechano-catalytic effect, which was achieved as a product of the piezoelectric effect and the electro-catalytic effect. When subjected to mechanical vibration, the Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 fibers bend, which in turn induces electric charges on the surfaces of the fibers via the piezoelectric effect. The piezoelectrically induced electric charges induce chemical degradation reactions in the dye wastewater through the electro-catalytic effect. A high mechano-catalytic degradation ratio of ˜80% was achieved for the acid orange 7 solutions (˜30 μmol/l). The piezoelectrically induced mechano-catalytic effect thus provides a highly efficient and reusable technology for dye wastewater degradation applications.

  1. Is cooling still cool?

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Ashwin; Tiruvoipati, Ravindranath; Botha, John

    2015-03-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia (TH), where patients are cooled to between 32°C and 36°C for a period of 12-24 hours and then gradually rewarmed, may reduce the risk of ischemic injury to cerebral tissue following a period of insufficient blood flow. This strategy of TH could improve mortality and neurological function in patients who have experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA). The necessity of TH in OOHCA was challenged in late 2013 by a fascinating and potentially practice changing publication, which found that targeting a temperature of 36°C had similar outcomes to cooling patients to 33°C. This article reviews the current literature and summarizes the uncertainties and questions raised when considering cooling of patients at risk of hypoxic brain injury. Irrespective of whether TH or targeted temperature management is deployed in patients at risk of hypoxic brain injury, it would seem that avoiding hyperpyrexia is important and that a more rigorous approach to neurological evaluation is mandated. PMID:25423577

  2. Passive containment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Stewart, William A.

    1991-01-01

    A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

  3. Electron cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  4. Detection of cooling-induced membrane changes in the response of boar sperm to capacitating conditions.

    PubMed

    Petrunkina, Anna M; Volker, Gabriele; Weitze, Karl-Fritz; Beyerbach, Martin; Töpfer-Petersen, Edda; Waberski, Dagmar

    2005-05-01

    There is a need for methods of rapid and sensitive sperm function assessment. As spermatozoa are not able to fertilize an oocyte before having undergone a series of complex physiological changes collectively called capacitation, it is logical to assess sperm function under fertilizing conditions in vitro. In this study, the responsiveness of sperm to capacitating conditions in vitro was monitored by changes in sperm response to ionophore and by changes in the amount of intracellular calcium ions in stored boar semen. Boar semen was diluted at 32 and 20 degrees C and stored for 24 and 72 h at 16 and 10 degrees C. Ionophore-induced changes and increased intracellular calcium ion content in boar spermatozoa were recorded by flow cytometry and found to progress as a function of time during incubation under capacitating conditions. All responsiveness parameters (increases in proportions of membrane-defective spermatozoa, acrosome-reacted spermatozoa, and cells with high intracellular calcium levels) were shown to be sensitive to subtle physiological changes occurring at low storage temperatures. The initial levels of sperm with a high calcium content were higher in semen stored at 10 degrees C, but the accumulation of internal calcium was lower than in semen stored at 16 degrees C. The loss of membrane integrity and increase in the proportion of acrosome-reacted cells were higher in semen stored at 10 degrees C. Dilution at 20 degrees C had no negative effect on membrane integrity or responsiveness to capacitating conditions. There was no significant difference between semen stored for 24 and 72 h in terms of membrane integrity, acrosome reaction, and intracellular calcium after capacitation treatment. However, dynamics of cell death and acrosome reaction in response to capacitating conditions were somewhat accelerated after 72 h storage, especially in semen stored at 10 degrees C. It can be concluded that the simultaneous use of the sperm membrane responsiveness and

  5. Stochastic Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.

  6. Vibrational dependence of pressure induced spectral linewidths and line shifts - Application of the infinite order sudden scattering approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S.

    1979-01-01

    The infinite order sudden (IOS) approximation to molecular rotation is applied to simplify the theory of linewidths and shifts in vibration-rotation spectra. This approximation is expected to be most accurate for hard, short-range collisions and is therefore complementary to Anderson theory which is best for weak, glancing collisions. The IOS approximation predicts identical linewidths and shifts for P- and R-branch transitions with the same line number. It also predicts zero line shifts for pure rotational spectra. The dependence of linewidths and shifts on vibrational band is seen to be due mainly to variation in diagonal vibrational matrix elements of the intermolecular potential. Calculations are performed for the 0-0, 0-1, and 0-2 bands of CO perturbed by He, using a theoretical interaction potential with no semiempirical or adjustable parameters; results are in satisfactory accord with experimental data.

  7. Experimental investigation of vibration-induced bulk solids transport and segregation. Quarterly report ending March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Rosato, A.D.; Dave, R.N.

    1996-09-01

    An experimental investigation of the motion of a single large sphere in a bed of dry granular material subjected to vertical vibration is presented. We have studied the rise time of the sphere as a function of vibration parameters, frequency and amplitude. While previous results report a decreasing rise time with increasing relative acceleration, we evidence the existence of a critical frequency where the rise time jumps to greater values before decreasing again. We also show that the rise time scales with the velocity amplitude of vibration and the transition corresponds approximately to a doubling of rise time. The results reported are over a rather narrow range of input accelerations, and generally involve gross phenomena of heaping and fluidization. Observations of the dynamic trajectory of the rising particle are also reported through the use of a novel non-intrusive particle tracking system. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Theoretical analysis of transurethral laser-induced thermo-therapy for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Evaluation of a water-cooled applicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturesson, C.; Andersson-Engels, S.

    1996-03-01

    A mathematical model for predicting the temperature rise in transurethral laser-induced thermo-therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia was developed. In the model an optical line source emitting light from an Nd:YAG laser isotropically was placed in the urethra. Water cooling of the urethral epithelium was modelled using a two-tube system. The relationship between the difference in outlet and inlet water temperatures and the highest tissue temperature level reached was theoretically investigated. It was found that the water temperature difference was linearly dependent on the steady-state maximum tissue temperature. The theoretical calculations suggest that the water-cooled applicator can be used to measure the maximum tissue temperature. With temperature control, the prostatic tissue temperature can be prevented from exceeding the boiling point of water, excluding tissue carbonization. The model was also used to evaluate the influence of a number of different parameters on the damaged tissue volume. Increasing the urethral lumen radius by a factor of two by means of inserting different sized tubes was found to augment the tissue volume raised to therapeutic temperatures by up to 50%. The calculations showed that cooling of the urethral epithelium can result in an increase in the damaged volume by 80% as compared to not applying any cooling. The temperature of the cooling water was found to influence the tissue temperature only to a small extent.

  9. Impact of storm-induced cooling of sea surface temperature on large turbulent eddies and vertical turbulent transport in the atmospheric boundary layer of Hurricane Isaac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Wang, Yuting; Chen, Shuyi S.; Curcic, Milan; Gao, Cen

    2016-01-01

    Roll vortices in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are important to oil operation and oil spill transport. This study investigates the impact of storm-induced sea surface temperature (SST) cooling on the roll vortices generated by the convective and dynamic instability in the ABL of Hurricane Isaac (2012) and the roll induced transport using hindcasting large eddy simulations (LESs) configured from the multiply nested Weather Research & Forecasting model. Two experiments are performed: one forced by the Unified Wave INterface - Coupled Model and the other with the SST replaced by the NCEP FNL analysis that does not include the storm-induced SST cooling. The simulations show that the roll vortices are the prevalent eddy circulations in the ABL of Isaac. The storm-induced SST cooling causes the ABL stability falls in a range that satisfies the empirical criterion of roll generation by dynamic instability, whereas the ABL stability without considering the storm-induced SST cooling meets the criterion of roll generation by convective instability. The ABL roll is skewed and the increase of convective instability enhances the skewness. Large convective instability leads to large vertical transport of heat and moisture; whereas the dominant dynamic instability results in large turbulent kinetic energy but relatively weak heat and moisture transport. This study suggests that failure to consider roll vortices or incorrect initiation of dynamic and convective instability of rolls in simulations may substantially affect the transport of momentum, energy, and pollutants in the ABL and the dispersion/advection of oil spill fume at the ocean surface.

  10. Short-term and long-term clinostat and vibration-induced biochemical changes in dwarf marigold stems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.

    1983-01-01

    Stems of 21-day dwarf marigold plants cultivated on the clinostat were compared with plants cultivated on vertical axis rotators ('vibrational controls') and stationary controls for long-term changes in cell wall composition. Stems of 21-day plants grown under stationary conditions and subsequently exposed to the clinostat for 24 hours were also analyzed. Among the long-term markers, calcium, lignin, and protein-bound hemicellulose (possibly cell wall glycoprotein) clearly differentiated the effects of vibration from those of the clinostat. Short-term differential responses included rate of ethylene production, nastic movement and peroxidase activity of the cell wall, but not of the protoplast.

  11. Noise-induced suppression of nonlinear distortions in a bistable system with biharmonic excitation in vibrational resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizhevsky, V. N.

    2015-09-01

    This paper is a report of the experimental evidence of suppression of vibrational higher-order harmonics in a bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser driven by two harmonic signals with very different frequencies in the phenomenon of vibrational resonance when an optimal amount of white, Gaussian noise is applied. A quantitative characterization of the suppression is given on the basis of the coefficient of nonlinear distortions. The behavior of the coefficient of nonlinear distortions is studied in wide ranges of the added noise intensity, the dc current, and the amplitude of the harmonic signals. The experimental results are compared with a numerical simulation of a Langevin model showing good agreement.

  12. Short-term and long-term clinostat and vibration-induced biochemical changes in dwarf Marigold stems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.

    Stems of 21-day dwarf Marigold plants cultivated on the clinostat were compared with plants cultivated on vertical axis rotators (``vibrational controls'') and stationary controls for long-term changes in cell wall composition. Stems of 21-day plants grown under stationary conditions and subsequently exposed to the clinostat for 24 hours were also analyzed. Among the long-term markers, calcium, lignin, and protein-bound hemicellulose (possibly cell wall glycoprotein) clearly differentiated the effects of vibration from those of the clinostat. Short-term differential responses included rate of ethylene production, nastic movement and peroxidase activity of the cell wall, but not of the protoplast.

  13. Vibrational Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    By homing in on the distribution patterns of electrons around an atom, a team of scientists team with Berkeley Lab's Molecular Foundry showed how certain vibrations from benzene thiol cause electrical charge to "slosh" onto a gold surface (left), while others do not (right). The vibrations that cause this "sloshing" behavior yield a stronger SERS signal.

  14. VIBRATION COMPACTION

    DOEpatents

    Hauth, J.J.

    1962-07-01

    A method of compacting a powder in a metal container is described including the steps of vibrating the container at above and below the resonant frequency and also sweeping the frequency of vibration across the resonant frequency several times thereby following the change in resonant frequency caused by compaction of the powder. (AEC)

  15. Vibrational spectra from atomic fluctuations in dynamics simulations. II. Solvent-induced frequency fluctuations at femtosecond time resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Matthias; Tavan, Paul

    2004-12-01

    The midinfrared (MIR) spectra of molecules in polar solvents exhibit inhomogeneously broadened bands whose spectral positions are shifted as compared to the gas phase. The shifts are caused by interactions with structured solvation shells and the broadenings by fluctuations of these interactions. The MIR spectra can be calculated from hybrid molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which treat the solute molecule by density functional theory and the solvent by molecular mechanics by the so-called instantaneous normal mode analysis (INMA) or by Fourier transforming the time correlation function (FTTCF) of the molecular dipole moment. In Paper I of this work [M. Schmitz and P. Tavan, J. Chem. Phys. 121, 12233 (2004)] we explored an alternative method based on generalized virial (GV) frequencies noting, however, that GV systematically underestimates frequencies. As shown by us these artifacts are caused by solvent-induced fluctuations of the (i) equilibrium geometry, (ii) force constants, and (iii) normal mode directions as well as by (iv) diagonal and (v) off-diagonal anharmonicities. Here we now show, by analyzing the time scales of fluctuations and sample MD trajectories of formaldehyde in the gas phase and in water, that all these sources of computational artifacts can be made visible by a Fourier analysis of the normal coordinates. Correspondingly, the error sources (i) and (iii)-(v) can be removed by bandpass filtering, as long as the spectral signatures of the respective effects are well separated from the fundamental band. Furthermore, the artifacts arising from effect (ii) can be strongly diminished by a time-resolved version of the GV approach (TF-GV). The TF-GV method then yields for each mode j a trajectory of the vibrational frequency ωj(t|τ) at a time resolution τ>τj, which is only limited by the corresponding oscillation time τj=2π/ωj and, thus, is in the femtosecond range. A correlation analysis of these trajectories clearly separates the

  16. A study on the effect of ultrasonic vibration in nanosecond laser machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Bongchul; Woo Kim, Gun; Yang, Minyang; Cho, Sung-Hak; Park, Jong-Kweon

    2012-12-01

    Laser machining has been used in various industrial manufacturing fields. However the surface finish of a machined surface becomes degraded by the recast layer that is created by the agglomeration of nanoparticles re-deposited on a work surface. In this study, ultrasonic vibration was applied to a nanosecond laser machining process in order to improve the quality of machined surface. A resonance type ultrasonic vibration module was designed to realize a unidirectional motion. To investigate the effects of ultrasonic vibration on the work surface, the morphological change of particles re-deposited on the machined area was observed in various process conditions. The results showed that the surface finish was improved by the near-field surface cooling enhancement induced by ultrasonic vibration. And it was found that such a vibration effect was remarkable in a repetitive machining process. From the chemical composition analysis of a machined surface, it was verified that the vibration can prevent the surface oxidation and the formation of recast layer. As a result, the ultrasonic vibration in ns-laser machining process was effective for improving both the physical and chemical quality of a machined surface.

  17. Vibrational Dynamics around the Conical Intersection Resulting from the tilde{A} → tilde{X} Laser Induced Fluorescence of the Methoxy (CH_3O) Radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagesh, Jayashree; Sibert, Edwin L. Sibert, III

    2011-06-01

    The results of a theoretical calculation of the spectra associated with the laser induced fluorescence tilde{A}^2A_1→ tilde{X}^2E of both the methoxy molecule and CH_2DO are presented and discussed. The form of the vibronic dipole moment is determined by symmetry and the corresponding dipole expansion coefficients are calculated using ab initio methods. The calculated spectra include states up to 3000 Cm-1 above the zero point energy. We describe how the various features of the spectrum are related to coordinate dependent terms in the dipole expansion as well as the spin-orbit couplings, Jahn-Teller couplings, and vibrational anharmonicities.

  18. Vibration-induced electrical noise in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator: Characterization, mitigation, and impact on qubit coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalra, Rachpon; Laucht, Arne; Dehollain, Juan Pablo; Bar, Daniel; Freer, Solomon; Simmons, Stephanie; Muhonen, Juha T.; Morello, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Cryogen-free low-temperature setups are becoming more prominent in experimental science due to their convenience and reliability, and concern about the increasing scarcity of helium as a natural resource. Despite not having any moving parts at the cold end, pulse tube cryocoolers introduce vibrations that can be detrimental to the experiments. We characterize the coupling of these vibrations to the electrical signal observed on cables installed in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator. The dominant electrical noise is in the 5-10 kHz range and its magnitude is found to be strongly temperature dependent. We test the performance of different cables designed to diagnose and tackle the noise, and find triboelectrics to be the dominant mechanism coupling the vibrations to the electrical signal. Flattening a semi-rigid cable or jacketing a flexible cable in order to restrict movement within the cable, successfully reduces the noise level by over an order of magnitude. Furthermore, we characterize the effect of the pulse tube vibrations on an electron spin qubit device in this setup. Coherence measurements are used to map out the spectrum of the noise experienced by the qubit, revealing spectral components matching the spectral signature of the pulse tube.

  19. Large low-frequency vibration attenuation induced by arrays of piezoelectric patches shunted with amplifier-resonator feedback circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Shengbing

    2016-01-01

    Periodic arrays of piezoelectric patches shunted by amplifier-resonator circuits are attached to a beam in order to gain large low-frequency attenuations in the propagation of flexural beam vibration. A numerical model based on the transfer matrix methodology and Bloch theory are built to predict the band gaps and attenuation factors as well as the transmission of vibration in the proposed smart metamaterials. Influences of circuital parameters on attenuation factors and the equivalent Young’s modulus are studied. It is found that the central frequency of attenuations is lower than the resonant frequency because of the negative equivalent elastic modulus of piezoelectric patches at frequencies lower than the resonance. Finite element simulations and vibration experiments are conducted on a 10 mm-thick aluminium alloy beam with six pairs of piezoelectric patches glued on it. Based on theoretical calculations, three sets of circuital parameters are chosen to gain large vibration transmission attenuations around the lowest three modal peaks. Significant attenuation is found in the experimental results, which is predicted in theoretical calculations and finite element simulations. A superlattice metamaterial specimen with a combination of three different sets of circuital parameters is also studied in order to gain wide attenuation frequency ranges.

  20. Vibration-induced electrical noise in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator: Characterization, mitigation, and impact on qubit coherence.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Rachpon; Laucht, Arne; Dehollain, Juan Pablo; Bar, Daniel; Freer, Solomon; Simmons, Stephanie; Muhonen, Juha T; Morello, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Cryogen-free low-temperature setups are becoming more prominent in experimental science due to their convenience and reliability, and concern about the increasing scarcity of helium as a natural resource. Despite not having any moving parts at the cold end, pulse tube cryocoolers introduce vibrations that can be detrimental to the experiments. We characterize the coupling of these vibrations to the electrical signal observed on cables installed in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator. The dominant electrical noise is in the 5-10 kHz range and its magnitude is found to be strongly temperature dependent. We test the performance of different cables designed to diagnose and tackle the noise, and find triboelectrics to be the dominant mechanism coupling the vibrations to the electrical signal. Flattening a semi-rigid cable or jacketing a flexible cable in order to restrict movement within the cable, successfully reduces the noise level by over an order of magnitude. Furthermore, we characterize the effect of the pulse tube vibrations on an electron spin qubit device in this setup. Coherence measurements are used to map out the spectrum of the noise experienced by the qubit, revealing spectral components matching the spectral signature of the pulse tube. PMID:27475569

  1. Quantification of uncertainty in the prediction of railway induced ground vibration due to the use of statistical track unevenness data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombaert, G.; Galvín, P.; François, S.; Degrande, G.

    2014-09-01

    Environmental vibrations due to railway traffic are predominantly due to dynamic axle loads caused by wheel and track unevenness and impact excitation by rail joints and wheel flats. Because of its irregular character, track unevenness is commonly processed statistically and represented by its power spectral density function or its root mean square (RMS) value in one-third octave bands. This statistical description does not uniquely define the track unevenness at a given site, however, and different track unevenness profiles matching the statistical description will lead to different predictions of dynamic axle loads and resulting ground vibration. This paper presents a methodology that allows quantifying the corresponding variability in ground vibration predictions. The procedure is derived assuming the geometry of the track and soil to be homogeneous along the track. The procedure is verified by means of Monte Carlo simulations and its usefulness for assessing the mismatch between predicted and measured ground vibrations is demonstrated in a case study. The results show that the response in time domain and its narrow band spectrum exhibit significant variability which is reduced when the running RMS value or the one-third octave band spectrum of the response is considered.

  2. Experimental study and model validation of selective spinal cord and brain hypothermia induced by a simple torso-cooling pad.

    PubMed

    Smith, K D

    2011-06-01

    In vivo experiments have been performed to test the effectiveness of a torso-cooling pad to reduce the temperature in the spinal cord and brain in rats. Coolant was circulated through the cooling pad to provide either mild or moderate cooling. Temperatures in the brain tissue, on the head surface, and on the spine and back surfaces were measured. During mild cooling, the temperature on the back surface was 22.82 +/- 2.43 degrees C compared to 29.34 +/- 1.94 degrees C on the spine surface. The temperature on the back surface during moderate cooling was 13.66 +/- 1.28 degrees C compared to 24.12 +/- 5.7 degrees C on the spine surface. Although the temperature in the brain tissue did not drastically deviate from its baseline value during cooling, there was a difference between the rectal and brain temperatures during cooling, which suggests mild hypothermia in the brain tissue. Using experimental data, theoretical models of the rat head and torso were developed to predict the regional temperatures and to validate the rat models. There was good agreement between the theoretical and experimental temperatures in the torso region. Differences between the predicted and measured temperatures in the brain are likely to be the result of imperfect mixing between the cold spinal fluid and the warm cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds the brain. PMID:22034738

  3. Whole-body vibration can reduce calciuria induced by high protein intakes and may counteract bone resorption: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, M; Leiper, J; Farajian, P; Heer, M

    2007-01-01

    Excess protein intake can adversely affect the bone via an increase in calcium excretion, while suitable mechanical loading promotes osteogenesis. We therefore investigated whether vibration exposure could alleviate the bone mineral losses associated with a metabolic acidosis. Ten healthy individuals aged 22 - 29 years (median = 25) underwent three 5-day study periods while monitoring their dietary intake. The study consisted of recording the participants' usual dietary intake for 5 consecutive days. Participants were then randomly divided into two groups, one of which received a protein supplement (2 g x kg(-1) body mass x day(-1); n = 5) and the other whole-body low-magnitude (3.5 g), low-frequency (30 Hz) mechanical vibration (WBV) delivered through a specially designed vibrating plate for 10 min each day (n = 5). Finally, for the third treatment period, all participants consumed the protein supplement added to their normal diet and were exposed to WBV exercise for 10 min per day. Daily urine samples were collected throughout the experimental periods to determine the excretion of calcium, phosphate, titratable acid, urea, and C-telopeptide. As expected, when the participants underwent the high protein intake, there was an increase in urinary excretion rates of calcium (P < 0.001), phosphate (P < 0.003), urea (P < 0.001), titratable acid (P < 0.001), and C-telopeptide (P < 0.05) compared with baseline values. However, high protein intake coupled with vibration stimulation resulted in a significant reduction in urinary calcium (P = 0.006), phosphate excretion (P = 0.021), and C-telopeptide (P < 0.05) compared with protein intake alone, but did not affect titratable acid and urea output. The participants showed no effect of WBV exercise alone on urinary excretion of calcium, phosphate, urea, titratable acid, or C-telopeptide. The results indicate that vibration stimulation can moderate the increase in bone resorption and reduction in bone formation caused by a

  4. Multi-mode traffic-induced vibrations in composite ladder-deck bridges under heavy moving vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camara, A.; Ruiz-Teran, A. M.

    2015-10-01

    Composite (steel-concrete) ladder-decks represent one of the most common solutions in road bridges nowadays. In these structures the Serviceability Limit State (SLS) of vibrations is traditionally ignored or roughly addressed by means of simple static deflection-based approaches, inherently assuming that the vibrations are controlled by the fundamental longitudinal mode. This work demonstrates that a wide range of high-order vibrational modes, involving the transverse flexure of the slab between longitudinal girders, govern the accelerations recorded in the deck and inside the vehicles. In addition, a new methodology for analysing the Vehicle-Bridge Interaction is proposed, including the approaching platforms, the transition slabs, and the bridge joints. The results suggest that the riding comfort for vehicle users is specially affected by direct effects on the wheels, like the road roughness and possible construction misalignments at the bridge joints, as well as low-frequency vibrations coming from the deck in short or slender bridges. The filtering effects resulting from the average of the response in time and in space when calculating the root mean square acceleration are also explored, and new design parameters are provided. In addition, several structural features (such as the depth and spacing of the longitudinal and transverse steel beams, the thickness of the concrete slab, and the stiffness of the cantilever cross beams at the diaphragm sections) have been studied, and a set of new design criteria has been established. It has been demonstrated that the transverse flexibility of the deck (specially influenced by the support conditions and the slab thickness) is critically important for the users' (pedestrians and vehicle passengers) comfort, as it controls the aforementioned high-order vibrational modes which govern the dynamic response.

  5. Vibrational energy transfer in high explosives: Nitromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, X.; Hill, J.R.; Dlott, D.D.

    1996-03-01

    Time resolved vibrational spectroscopy with picosecond tunable mid-infrared pulses is used to measure the rates and investigate the detailed mechanisms of multiphonon up-pumping and vibrational cooling in a condensed high explosive, nitromethane. Both processes occur on the 100 ps time scale under ambient conditions. The mechanisms involve sequential climbing or descending the ladder of molecular vibrations. Efficient intermolecular vibrational energy transfer from various molecules to the symmetric stretching excitation of NO2 is observed. The implications of these measurements for understanding shock initiation to detonation and the sensitivities of energetic materials to shock initiation are discussed briefly.

  6. Jet-cooled laser-induced dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy of NiC: Observation of low-lying Ω = 0+ state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukund, Sheo; Yarlagadda, Suresh; Bhattacharyya, Soumen; Nakhate, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Laser-induced dispersed fluorescence spectra of 58Ni12C molecules, produced in a free-jet apparatus, have been studied. A new low-lying Ω = 0+ state has been observed at Te = 5178 (6) cm-1. Based on previous ab initio calculations this state is plausibly assigned as 0+ spin-orbit component of the first excited Π state. The term energies of vibrational levels up to v = 10 for X1Σ+ ground and v = 3 for Ω = 0+ states have been determined. The harmonic and anharmonic wavenumbers respectively equal to 833 (4) and 6.7 (13) cm-1 for Ω = 0+ state have been measured.

  7. Quantum Theory of Atom Laser Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Zhang, Bai-Jun; Yang, Jing-Hai; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Wu, Yi-Heng; Wang, Qing-Cai; Wang, Yan; Ba, Nuo; Li, Jing-Wu

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, we study the laser cooling mechanisms with extended Schrodinger quantum wave equation, which can describe a particle in conservative and non-conservative force field. We prove the atom in laser field can be cooled with the theory, and predict that the atom cooling temperature T is directly proportional to the atom vibration frequency ω, which are in accordance with experiment results (A.D. Oconnell, et al. in Nature 464:697, 2010).

  8. Spectroscopic probes of vibrationally excited molecules at chemically significant energies. Progress report, August 15, 1991--August 14, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, T.R.

    1992-03-01

    These experiments apply multiple-laser spectroscopic techniques to investigate the bond energies, potential surface topologies, and dissociation dynamics of highly vibrationally excited molecules. Infrared-optical double resonance pumping of light atom stretch vibrations in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and HN{sub 3} prepares reactant molecules in single rovibrational states above the unimolecular dissociation threshold on the ground potential surface, and laser induced fluorescence detection of the OH or NH fragments monitors the partitioning of energy into individual product quantum states. Product energy partitioning data from H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dissociation provide a stringent test of statistical theories as well as potential energy surface calculations. Ongoing work on HN{sub 3} seeks to determine the height of the barrier to dissociation on the singlet potential energy surface. Our most recently developed spectroscopic scheme allows the measurement of high vibrational overtone spectra of jet-cooled molecules. This approach uses CO{sub 2} laser infrared multiphoton dissociation followed by laser induced fluorescence product detection to measure weak vibrational overtone transitions in low pressure environments. Application of this scheme to record the {Delta}V{sub OH}=4 and {Delta}V{sub OH}=5 transitions of CH{sub 3}OH cooled in a supersonic free-jet demonstrates both its feasibility and its utility for simplifying high vibrational overtone spectra.

  9. The vibrations of texture.

    PubMed

    BensmaIa, Sliman J; Hollins, Mark

    2003-01-01

    The Pacinian channel has been implicated in the perception of fine textures (Hollins et al., Somatosens Mot Res 18: 253-262, 2001a). In the present study, we investigate candidate codes for Pacinian-mediated roughness perception. We use a Hall effect transducer to record the vibrations elicited in the skin when a set of textured surfaces is passively presented to the index finger. The peak frequency of the vibrations is found to decrease systematically as spatial period increases. The power of the vibrations--weighted according to the spectral sensitivity of the Pacinian system--increases with spatial period for all but the coarsest surfaces. By varying the scanning velocity, we manipulate the temporal and intensive characteristics of the texture-induced vibrations and assess the effect of the manipulation on perceived roughness. We find that doubling the scanning velocity does not result in the substantial decrease in roughness predicted by a frequency theory of vibrotactile roughness perception. On the other hand, the effects of speed on roughness match those of speed on power. We propose that the roughness of a fine surface (spatial period<200 microm) is a function of the Pacinian-weighted power of the vibrations it elicits.

  10. Random Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messaro. Semma; Harrison, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Ares I Zonal Random vibration environments due to acoustic impingement and combustion processes are develop for liftoff, ascent and reentry. Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components are developed by enveloping the applicable zonal environments where each component is located. Random vibration tests will be conducted to assure that these components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments. Methodology: Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components were desired that would envelope all the applicable environments where each component was located. Applicable Ares I Vehicle drawings and design information needed to be assessed to determine the location(s) for each component on the Ares I Upper Stage. Design and test criteria needed to be developed by plotting and enveloping the applicable environments using Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet Software and documenting them in a report Using Microsoft Word Processing Software. Conclusion: Random vibration liftoff, ascent, and green run design & test criteria for the Upper Stage Pyrotechnic Components were developed by using Microsoft Excel to envelope zonal environments applicable to each component. Results were transferred from Excel into a report using Microsoft Word. After the report is reviewed and edited by my mentor it will be submitted for publication as an attachment to a memorandum. Pyrotechnic component designers will extract criteria from my report for incorporation into the design and test specifications for components. Eventually the hardware will be tested to the environments I developed to assure that the components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments.

  11. Analysis of Thermally Induced Changes in Fractured Rock Permeability during Eight Years of Heating and Cooling at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, J.; Freifeld, B.; Min, K.-B.; Elsworth, D.; Tsang, Y.

    2008-06-01

    We analyzed a data set of thermally induced changes in fractured rock permeability during a four-year heating (up to 200 C) and subsequent four-year cooling of a large volume, partially saturated and highly fractured volcanic tuff at the Yucca Mountain Drift Scale Test, in Nevada, USA. Permeability estimates were derived from about 700 pneumatic (air-injection) tests, taken periodically at 44 packed-off borehole intervals during the heating and cooling cycle from November 1997 through November 2005. We analyzed air-permeability data by numerical modeling of thermally induced stress and moisture movements and their impact on air permeability within the highly fractured rock. Our analysis shows that changes in air permeability during the initial four-year heating period, which were limited to about one order of magnitude, were caused by the combined effects of thermal-mechanically-induced stress on fracture aperture and thermal-hydrologically-induced changes in fracture moisture content. At the end of the subsequent four-year cooling period, air-permeability decreases (to as low as 0.2 of initial) and increases (to as high as 1.8 of initial) were observed. By comparison to the calculated thermo-hydro-elastic model results, we identified these remaining increases or decreases in air permeability as irreversible changes in intrinsic fracture permeability, consistent with either inelastic fracture shear dilation (where permeability increased) or inelastic fracture surface asperity shortening (where permeability decreased). In this paper, we discuss the possibility that such fracture asperity shortening and associated decrease in fracture permeability might be enhanced by dissolution of highly stressed surface asperities over years of elevated stress and temperature.

  12. Normal modes of 4-aminobenzonitrile (4-ABN). A comparison of PM3 calculations with experimental jet-cooled spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haiping; Joslin, Evelyn; Zain, Sharifuddin M.; Rzepa, Henry; Phillips, David

    1993-12-01

    The geometry and the normal modes of 4-aminobenzonitrile (4-ABN) in the ground and first excited states have been computed using PM3 formulation. These calculated results, together with previous vapour phase absorption and infrared studies, are used to examine the vibrational modes in the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) excitation and emission spectra of jet-cooled 4-ABN. The calculated vibrational frequencies of the normal modes show good agreement with experiment both for the electronic ground and the first excited states, but there is a relatively large discrepancy in the position of the electronic origin transition.

  13. Coherent vibrational climbing in carboxyhemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Ventalon, Cathie; Fraser, James M; Vos, Marten H; Alexandrou, Antigoni; Martin, Jean-Louis; Joffre, Manuel

    2004-09-01

    We demonstrate vibrational climbing in the CO stretch of carboxyhemoglobin pumped by midinfrared chirped ultrashort pulses. By use of spectrally resolved pump-probe measurements, we directly observed the induced absorption lines caused by excited vibrational populations up to v = 6. In some cases, we also observed stimulated emission, providing direct evidence of vibrational population inversion. This study provides important spectroscopic parameters on the CO stretch in the strong-field regime, such as transition frequencies and dephasing times up to the v = 6 to v = 7 vibrational transition. We measured equally spaced vibrational transitions, in agreement with the energy levels of a Morse potential up to v = 6. It is interesting that the integral of the differential absorption spectra was observed to deviate far from zero, in contrast to what one would expect from a simple one-dimensional Morse model assuming a linear dependence of dipole moment with bond length.

  14. Cooling wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenko, V.I.

    1995-07-01

    Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the interim repair period of blast furnaces. Scientists and engineers from the Ukraine studied this problem for several years, developing a new method of cooling the blast furnace shaft called the cooling wall. Traditional cast iron plates were replaced by a screen of steel tubes, with the area between the tubes filled with fireproof concrete. Before placing the newly developed furnace shaft into operation, considerable work was completed such as theoretical calculations, design, research of temperature fields and tension. Continual testing over many years confirms the value of this research in operating blast furnaces. The cooling wall works with water cooling as well as vapor cooling and is operating in 14 blast furnaces in the Ukraine and two in Russia, and has operated for as long as 14 years.

  15. Structural characterization of electron-induced proton transfer in the formic acid dimer anion, (HCOOH)2-, with vibrational and photoelectron spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Helen K; DeBlase, Andrew F; Leavitt, Christopher M; Su, Xiaoge; Jordan, Kenneth D; McCoy, Anne B; Johnson, Mark A

    2012-04-01

    The (HCOOH)(2) anion, formed by electron attachment to the formic acid dimer (FA(2)), is an archetypal system for exploring the mechanics of the electron-induced proton transfer motif that is purported to occur when neutral nucleic acid base-pairs accommodate an excess electron [K. Aflatooni, G. A. Gallup, and P. D. Burrow, J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 6205 (1998); J. H. Hendricks, S. A. Lyapustina, H. L. de Clercq, J. T. Snodgrass, and K. H. Bowen, J. Chem Phys. 104, 7788 (1996); C. Desfrancois, H. Abdoul-Carime, and J. P. Schermann, ibid. 104, 7792 (1996)]. The FA(2) anion and several of its H∕D isotopologues were isolated in the gas phase and characterized using Ar-tagged vibrational predissociation and electron autodetachment spectroscopies. The photoelectron spectrum of the FA(2) anion was also recorded using velocity-map imaging. The resulting spectroscopic information verifies the equilibrium FA(2)(-) geometry predicted by theory which features a symmetrical, double H-bonded bridge effectively linking together constituents that most closely resemble the formate ion and a dihydroxymethyl radical. The spectroscopic signatures of this ion were analyzed with the aid of calculated anharmonic vibrational band patterns. PMID:22482563

  16. Structural characterization of electron-induced proton transfer in the formic acid dimer anion, (HCOOH)2-, with vibrational and photoelectron spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Helen K; DeBlase, Andrew F; Leavitt, Christopher M; Su, Xiaoge; Jordan, Kenneth D; McCoy, Anne B; Johnson, Mark A

    2012-04-01

    The (HCOOH)(2) anion, formed by electron attachment to the formic acid dimer (FA(2)), is an archetypal system for exploring the mechanics of the electron-induced proton transfer motif that is purported to occur when neutral nucleic acid base-pairs accommodate an excess electron [K. Aflatooni, G. A. Gallup, and P. D. Burrow, J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 6205 (1998); J. H. Hendricks, S. A. Lyapustina, H. L. de Clercq, J. T. Snodgrass, and K. H. Bowen, J. Chem Phys. 104, 7788 (1996); C. Desfrancois, H. Abdoul-Carime, and J. P. Schermann, ibid. 104, 7792 (1996)]. The FA(2) anion and several of its H∕D isotopologues were isolated in the gas phase and characterized using Ar-tagged vibrational predissociation and electron autodetachment spectroscopies. The photoelectron spectrum of the FA(2) anion was also recorded using velocity-map imaging. The resulting spectroscopic information verifies the equilibrium FA(2)(-) geometry predicted by theory which features a symmetrical, double H-bonded bridge effectively linking together constituents that most closely resemble the formate ion and a dihydroxymethyl radical. The spectroscopic signatures of this ion were analyzed with the aid of calculated anharmonic vibrational band patterns.

  17. Changes in apparent body orientation and sensory localization induced by vibration of postural muscles - Vibratory myesthetic illusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; Levine, M. S.

    1979-01-01

    Human experiments are carried out which support the observation of Goodwin (1973) and Goodwin et al. (1972) that vibration of skeletal muscles can elicit illusory limb motion. These experiments extend the class of possible myesthetic illusions by showing that vibration of the appropriate muscles can produce illusory body motion in nearly any desired direction. Such illusory changes in posture occur only when visual information about body orientation is absent; these changes in apparent posture are sometimes accompanied by a slow-phase nystagmus that compensates for the direction of apparent body motion. During illusory body motion a stationary target light that is fixated will appear to move with the body at the same apparent velocity. However, this pattern of apparent body motion and conjoint visual - defined as propriogyral illusion - is suppressed if the subject is in a fully illuminated environment providing cues about true body orientation. Persuasive evidence is thus provided for the contribution of both muscle afferent and touch-pressure information to the supraspinal mechanisms that determine apparent orientation on the basis of ongoing patterns of interoceptive and exteroceptive activity.

  18. Communication: Creation of molecular vibrational motions via the rotation-vibration coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Chuan-Cun; Henriksen, Niels E.

    2015-06-14

    Building on recent advances in the rotational excitation of molecules, we show how the effect of rotation-vibration coupling can be switched on in a controlled manner and how this coupling unfolds in real time after a pure rotational excitation. We present the first examination of the vibrational motions which can be induced via the rotation-vibration coupling after a pulsed rotational excitation. A time-dependent quantum wave packet calculation for the HF molecule shows how a slow (compared to the vibrational period) rotational excitation leads to a smooth increase in the average bond length whereas a fast rotational excitation leads to a non-stationary vibrational motion. As a result, under field-free postpulse conditions, either a stretched stationary bond or a vibrating bond can be created due to the coupling between the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom. The latter corresponds to a laser-induced breakdown of the adiabatic approximation for rotation-vibration coupling.

  19. Communication: Creation of molecular vibrational motions via the rotation-vibration coupling.

    PubMed

    Shu, Chuan-Cun; Henriksen, Niels E

    2015-06-14

    Building on recent advances in the rotational excitation of molecules, we show how the effect of rotation-vibration coupling can be switched on in a controlled manner and how this coupling unfolds in real time after a pure rotational excitation. We present the first examination of the vibrational motions which can be induced via the rotation-vibration coupling after a pulsed rotational excitation. A time-dependent quantum wave packet calculation for the HF molecule shows how a slow (compared to the vibrational period) rotational excitation leads to a smooth increase in the average bond length whereas a fast rotational excitation leads to a non-stationary vibrational motion. As a result, under field-free postpulse conditions, either a stretched stationary bond or a vibrating bond can be created due to the coupling between the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom. The latter corresponds to a laser-induced breakdown of the adiabatic approximation for rotation-vibration coupling.

  20. Cool Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praeger, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    Amid climbing energy costs and tightening budgets, administrators at school districts, colleges and universities are looking for all avenues of potential savings while promoting sustainable communities. Cool metal roofing can save schools money and promote sustainable design at the same time. Cool metal roofing keeps the sun's heat from collecting…

  1. Active Suppression Of Vibrations On Aircraft Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio

    1995-01-01

    Method of active suppression of nonlinear and nonstationary vibrations developed to reduce sonic fatigue and interior noise in high-speed aircraft. Structure of aircraft exhibits periodic, chaotic, and random vibrations when forced by high-intensity sound from jet engines, shock waves, turbulence, and separated flows. Method of suppressing vibrations involves feedback control: Strain gauges or other sensors mounted in paths of propagation of vibrations on structure sense vibrations; outputs of sensors processed into control signal applied to actuator mounted on structure, inducing compensatory forces.

  2. A contact-area model for rail-pads connections in 2-D simulations: sensitivity analysis of train-induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, R.; Leonardi, G.; Jourdan, F.

    2013-09-01

    A numerical model to predict train-induced vibrations is presented. The dynamic computation considers mutual interactions in vehicle/track coupled systems by means of a finite and discrete elements method. The rail defects and the case of out-of-round wheels are considered. The dynamic interaction between the wheel-sets and the rail is accomplished by using the non-linear Hertzian model with hysteresis damping. A sensitivity analysis is done to evaluate the variables affecting more the maintenance costs. The rail-sleeper contact is assumed extended to an area-defined contact zone, rather than a single-point assumption which fits better real case studies. Experimental validations show how prediction fits well experimental data.

  3. Role of Efferent Sympathoadrenal Effects in Cooling-Induced Hemodynamic Perturbations in Rats: An Investigation by Spectrum Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yia-Ping; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Lin, Chen-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Yu-Chun; Lee, Po-Lei; Tung, Che-Se

    2015-10-31

    Cold stress may produce hemodynamic perturbations but the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Spectral analysis was used in this study to explore that sympathoadrenal activation could be involved in mechanisms of hemodynamic perturbations to cooling. Conscious rats after treatment with a control vehicle (saline) compared with withdrawal of sympathetic influences by ganglion blocker hexamethonium (HEX) or chemical sympathectomy guanethidine (GUA) were challenged by stressful cooling as acute immersing all four extremities in ice water (4 ± 2°C) for 10 min. Plasma nitric oxide (NO) and the appearance of Dichroitic notch (DN) were measured in comparison between treatment groups throughout the experimental course. Hemodynamic indices were telemetrically monitored, and variability of blood pressure and heart rate (BPV; HRV) were assessed over a range of frequencies: very-low frequency (VLF: 0.02-0.2 Hz), low frequency (LF: 0.2-0.6 Hz), high frequency (HF: 0.6-3 Hz), normalized (n)LF, nHF, ratio LF/HF of HRV (LF/HF(HRV)), and total power (TP: ≤3 Hz). Results showed that the concomitant reciprocal changes of spectral powers existed between frequencies of BPV and HRV to the stressful cooling (i.e. VLF(BPV) versus VLF(HRV), LF(BPV) versus LF(HRV), and nLF(BPV) versus nLF(HRV)) which contribute to the underlying mechanisms of sympathetic efferent influences and myogenic cardiovascular responsiveness. Furthermore, compared with the control vehicle in the stressful cooling, HEX restrained the increase of the pressor, tachycardia and VLF(BPV), except that VLF(HRV) was reduced. GUA abolished pressor, however, restrained the increase of the tachycardia, VLF(BPV) and LF(BPV). In addition, GUA reversed the downward tendency of nLF(BPV) into an upward tendency and attenuated both nLF(HRV) and LF/HF(HRV). DN was virtually undetectable after HEX management but was apparently noticeable after GUA management. Finally, the increase of plasma NO after cooling was diminished

  4. Role of Efferent Sympathoadrenal Effects in Cooling-Induced Hemodynamic Perturbations in Rats: An Investigation by Spectrum Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yia-Ping; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Lin, Chen-Cheng; Lin, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Yu-Chun; Lee, Po-Lei; Tung, Che-Se

    2015-10-31

    Cold stress may produce hemodynamic perturbations but the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Spectral analysis was used in this study to explore that sympathoadrenal activation could be involved in mechanisms of hemodynamic perturbations to cooling. Conscious rats after treatment with a control vehicle (saline) compared with withdrawal of sympathetic influences by ganglion blocker hexamethonium (HEX) or chemical sympathectomy guanethidine (GUA) were challenged by stressful cooling as acute immersing all four extremities in ice water (4 ± 2°C) for 10 min. Plasma nitric oxide (NO) and the appearance of Dichroitic notch (DN) were measured in comparison between treatment groups throughout the experimental course. Hemodynamic indices were telemetrically monitored, and variability of blood pressure and heart rate (BPV; HRV) were assessed over a range of frequencies: very-low frequency (VLF: 0.02-0.2 Hz), low frequency (LF: 0.2-0.6 Hz), high frequency (HF: 0.6-3 Hz), normalized (n)LF, nHF, ratio LF/HF of HRV (LF/HF(HRV)), and total power (TP: ≤3 Hz). Results showed that the concomitant reciprocal changes of spectral powers existed between frequencies of BPV and HRV to the stressful cooling (i.e. VLF(BPV) versus VLF(HRV), LF(BPV) versus LF(HRV), and nLF(BPV) versus nLF(HRV)) which contribute to the underlying mechanisms of sympathetic efferent influences and myogenic cardiovascular responsiveness. Furthermore, compared with the control vehicle in the stressful cooling, HEX restrained the increase of the pressor, tachycardia and VLF(BPV), except that VLF(HRV) was reduced. GUA abolished pressor, however, restrained the increase of the tachycardia, VLF(BPV) and LF(BPV). In addition, GUA reversed the downward tendency of nLF(BPV) into an upward tendency and attenuated both nLF(HRV) and LF/HF(HRV). DN was virtually undetectable after HEX management but was apparently noticeable after GUA management. Finally, the increase of plasma NO after cooling was diminished

  5. Analysis of Ground-vibration induced by the sediment disaster on Izu Oshima, Tokyo in October 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahara, Teruyoshi; Kinoshita, Atsuhiko; Mizutani, Tasuku; Ishizuka, Tadanori; Ishida, Tetsuya; Kaihara, Soichi; Asahara, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    October 2013, at the Mariana Islands, typhoon Wipha occurred. Wipha attacked Izu Ohshima of Japan and brought heavy rain. Izu Ohshima is part of Tokyo Metropolitan prefecture. Ohshima rain-gauge station of Japan Meteorological Agency showed 118.5 mm per hour and 824.0mm per 24hours. This 24 hour rainfall was about 2.5 times higher than the average rainfall for October (329.0mm / 24hour). And then, a lot of shallow landslides and debris flow has occurred. Thirty six people were killed and four people were missing by these sediment disaster. It is important to clarify that "When and where did disaster occur?". A lot of seismographs for volcano observation are installed in Izu Ohshima. And then, it is known that when sediment moved, ground-vibration occurred. We estimated time and location of disaster by analyzing ground-vibration in sediment moving. First, we estimated that the disaster occurred from 2:00 a.m. to 3:00 a.m. of October 16 by some newspaper reports. Second, we collected data of installed seismographs in Izu Ohshima and analyzed. And then, we caught that some wave data existed. These were different from earthquake data. We estimated that these showed ground-vibration data in sediment moving. Finally, we estimated hypocenter (location of sediment moving) by relationship between "distance between hypocenter and seismograph" and amplitude. Methods are as follows. Making envelope on basis of collected seismograph data and calculating maximum amplitude (y) Calculating amplitude (x) on basis of some assumed hypocenters Setting hypocenter (location of sediment moving) by minimum residual of y and x Comparing of set hypocenter and actual location of sediment moving. We found that distance of set hypocenter and actual location of sediment moving is close. Therefore, when sediment disaster occurs, by analyzing seismographs data, it may be possible to estimate that the location and timing of sediment moving. And, it may be possible to use as tools for people to

  6. Vibration analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention relates to monitoring circuitry for the real time detection of vibrations of a predetermined frequency and which are greater than a predetermined magnitude. The circuitry produces an instability signal in response to such detection. The circuitry is particularly adapted for detecting instabilities in rocket thrusters, but may find application with other machines such as expensive rotating machinery, or turbines. The monitoring circuitry identifies when vibration signals are present having a predetermined frequency of a multi-frequency vibration signal which has an RMS energy level greater than a predetermined magnitude. It generates an instability signal only if such a vibration signal is identified. The circuitry includes a delay circuit which responds with an alarm signal only if the instability signal continues for a predetermined time period. When used with a rocket thruster, the alarm signal may be used to cut off the thruster if such thruster is being used in flight. If the circuitry is monitoring tests of the thruster, it generates signals to change the thruster operation, for example, from pulse mode to continuous firing to determine if the instability of the thruster is sustained once it is detected.

  7. Experimental investigation of vibration-induced bulk solids transport and segregation. Final technical report, March 28, 1995--September 26, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Plasynski, S.; Rosato, A.D.; Dave, R.N.

    1997-01-12

    We report experiments on the rise time T of a single large sphere within a sinusoidally vibrated bed (amplitude a) of uniform particles (diameter d). At fixed acceleration, three distinct behavioral regimes are identified both from visual observations and from the typical increase of T with frequency f. Two convective regimes separated by a critical frequency are found, and for low a and high f, a {open_quotes}non-convective{close_quotes} regime. In the latter, the bed crystallizes and a size dependent rise is evidenced. The relevance of the non-dimensional parameter a/d is shown and a scaling law is deduced which has the form f {proportional_to} d{sup {minus}1/2}

  8. Effect of subglottic stenosis on the flow-induced vibration of a self-oscillating computational vocal fold model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Simeon L.; Thomson, Scott L.

    2010-11-01

    The subglottis plays an important role in voice production; however, in general the role of subglottal geometry in phonation is not well understood. This research focuses on studying how subglottic stenosis, or a narrowing of the airway below the vocal folds, affects the response of a self-oscillating computational vocal fold model. Methods are described for computational model development, including stenotic geometry definition from CT scan images, incorporation of the stenosis into a finite element fluid-structure interaction model, and parametric variation of the degree of stenosis severity. Results are presented for a normal (no stenosis) case and five cases of varying degrees of stenosis severity. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of vocal fold vibratory motion and of flow behavior for the six cases are made, including characterization of flow patterns in the subglottis, glottal width and flow rate time histories, vibration frequency, and airway resistance.

  9. Persistence of pain induced by startle and forehead cooling after sympathetic blockade in patients with complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, P; Finch, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: Stimuli arousing sympathetic activity can increase ratings of clinical pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Objective: To determine whether the increase in pain is mediated by peripheral sympathetic activity. Methods: The effect of sympathetic ganglion blockade on pain evoked by a startle stimulus and cooling the forehead was investigated in 36 CRPS patients. Results: Loss of vasoconstrictor reflexes and warming of the limb indicated that sympathetic blockade was effective in 26 cases. Before sympathetic blockade, pain increased in 12 of these 26 patients when they were startled. Pain increased in seven of the 12 patients and in another five cases when their forehead was cooled. As expected, pain that increased during sympathetic arousal generally subsided in patients with signs of sympathetic blockade. However, pain still increased in three of 12 of patients after the startle stimulus and in six of 12 of patients during forehead cooling, despite indisputable sympathetic blockade. Conclusions: These findings suggest that stimuli arousing sympathetic activity act by a central process to exacerbate pain in some patients, independent of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. This may account for the lack of effect of peripheral sympathetic blockade on pain in some CRPS patients. PMID:14707316

  10. Effect of vibration on dispersal of Cladosporium cladosporioides bioaerosols.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Uk

    2010-05-01

    The vibration of fungal cultures was evaluated to determine its potential effect on the dispersal of airborne fungal microorganisms suspected of being pathogens. An artificial vibration system, which simulates the actual environmental vibration of fungal structures, was designed and constructed for this purpose. Experiments featured the use of low-frequency vibrations similar to those induced by earthquakes. Within the range of conditions tested, the vibration of fungal cultures was found to affect the airflow-driven generation of bioaerosols.

  11. Cooled railplug

    DOEpatents

    Weldon, William F.

    1996-01-01

    The railplug is a plasma ignitor capable of injecting a high energy plasma jet into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine or continuous combustion system. An improved railplug is provided which has dual coaxial chambers (either internal or external to the center electrode) that provide for forced convective cooling of the electrodes using the normal pressure changes occurring in an internal combustion engine. This convective cooling reduces the temperature of the hot spot associated with the plasma initiation point, particularly in coaxial railplug configurations, and extends the useful life of the railplug. The convective cooling technique may also be employed in a railplug having parallel dual rails using dual, coaxial chambers.

  12. Development of a trans-rotational temperature diagnostic for vibrationally-excited carbon monoxide using single- photon laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiweke, Robert John

    2004-09-01

    A new trans-rotational temperature diagnostic with ±50K accuracy has been developed for use in nonequilibrium, low temperature, monatomic gases seeded with carbon monoxide (CO). The scheme utilizes single- photon laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of CO under vibrationally-excited conditions in which single-photon transitions from the CO X1Σ + ground electronic state to upper electronic A1Π or D'1Σ+ states become accessible to a tunable, narrowband ArF excimer laser at 193 nm. Two vibrationally excited environments in which the chemistry is well understood were used as a testbed; an optically-pumped 3% CO/Ar plasma at 100 torr and a 4% CO/He d.c. glow discharge at 8 torr. The LIF saturation limit was experimentally investigated and diagnostic advantages of either regime discussed. For the optically-pumped CO/Ar plasma, a spatially-averaged LIF temperature of 536 ± 103 K (2σ) was obtained from rotationally resolved X 1Σ+ (v' = 20) → D '1Σ+ (v' = 2) LIF excitation spectra. Temperature measurements pumping the X 1Σ+ (v' = 7) → A 1Π (v' = 1) 4th Positive (528 ± 51 K) were also found to compare well with line-of-sight Fourier Transform-InfraRed (FT-IR) emission measurements (536 ± 10 K). Spatially averaged FT- IR spectroscopy of the CO 1st overtone was used to verify that an adequate vibrational population (˜0.1%) existed within the positive column of the CO/He d.c. glow discharge. The A-X (7,1) transition was pumped and subsequent (8,1) emission at 200.8 nm collected. The resulting rotational spectral peaks were assigned and a subset used to determine a spatially averaged rotational temperature of 432 ± 44 K on the discharge centerline. This was found to be in good agreement with FT-IR spectroscopy measurements (395 ± 10 K). As a prelude to Planar-LIF (PLIF) temperature measurements, vibrationally-resolved emission from laser excitation of various rotational lines within the A-X and D'-X bands were used to investigate spectral interferences. This

  13. Good Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) sponsorship from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, assisted MetroLaser, of Irvine, California, in the development of a self-aligned laser vibrometer system. VibroMet, capable of measuring surface vibrations in a variety of industries, provides information on the structural integrity and acoustical characteristics of manufactured products. This low-cost, easy-to-use sensor performs vibration measurement from distances of up to three meters without the need for adjustment. The laser beam is simply pointed at the target and the system then uses a compact laser diode to illuminate the surface and to subsequently analyze the reflected light. The motion of the surface results in a Doppler shift that is measured with very high precision. VibroMet is considered one of the many behind-the-scenes tools that can be relied on to assure the quality, reliability and safety of everything from airplane panels to disk brakes

  14. Cool Vest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    ILC, Dover Division's lightweight cooling garment, called Cool Vest was designed to eliminate the harmful effects of heat stress; increases tolerance time in hot environments by almost 300 percent. Made of urethane-coated nylon used in Apollo, it works to keep the body cool, circulating chilled water throughout the lining by means of a small battery-powered pump. A pocket houses the pump, battery and the coolant which can be ice or a frozen gel, a valve control allows temperature regulation. One version is self-contained and portable for unrestrained movement, another has an umbilical line attached to an external source of coolant, such as standard tap water, when extended mobility is not required. It is reported from customers that the Cool Vest pays for itself in increased productivity in very high temperatures.

  15. Cool School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Suzanne

    1980-01-01

    The design for Floyd Elementary School in Miami (Florida) seeks to harness solar energy to provide at least 70 percent of the annual energy for cooling needs and 90 percent for hot water. (Author/MLF)

  16. Vibrational dynamics of ice in reverse micelles.

    PubMed

    Dokter, Adriaan M; Petersen, Christian; Woutersen, Sander; Bakker, Huib J

    2008-01-28

    The ultrafast vibrational dynamics of HDO:D(2)O ice at 180 K in anionic reverse micelles is studied by midinfrared femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. Solutions containing reverse micelles are cooled to low temperatures by a fast-freezing procedure. The heating dynamics of the micellar solutions is studied to characterize the micellar structure. Small reverse micelles with a water content up to approximately 150 water molecules contain an amorphous form of ice that shows remarkably different vibrational dynamics compared to bulk hexagonal ice. The micellar amorphous ice has a much longer vibrational lifetime than bulk hexagonal ice and micellar liquid water. The vibrational lifetime is observed to increase linearly from 0.7 to 4 ps with the resonance frequency ranging from 3100 to 3500 cm(-1). From the pump dependence of the vibrational relaxation the homogeneous linewidth of the amorphous ice is determined (55+/-5 cm(-1)).

  17. Vibrational dynamics of permanently densified GeO{sub 2} glasses: Densification-induced changes in the boson peak

    SciTech Connect

    Orsingher, L.; Fontana, A.; Gilioli, E.; Carini, G. Jr.; Carini, G.; Tripodo, G.; Unruh, T.; Buchenau, U.

    2010-03-28

    Vitreous GeO{sub 2}, one of the main prototypes of strong glasses, was densified at several pressures up to 6 GPa, achieving more than 20% of densification. The density dependence of the vibrational density of states and of the low temperature properties of these glasses was investigated by means of inelastic neutron scattering and calorimetric measurements. With increasing density, both the boson peak and the bump in c{sub p}/T{sup 3} versus T plot exhibit variations which are stronger than the elastic medium expectation. If one reduces the measured spectra to a common master curve, one finds that this is only possible for the densified samples; the first densification step has an additional effect, similar to other cases in the literature. Nevertheless, the existence of a master curve for the three densified samples proves that the total number of excess modes remains constant on further densification. The experimental data are discussed in the framework of different theoretical models.

  18. Whole-Body Vibration Partially Reverses Aging-Induced Increases in Visceral Adiposity and Hepatic Lipid Storage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Theo H.; Havinga, Rick; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Groen, Albert K.; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Bakker, Barbara M.; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2016-01-01

    At old age, humans generally have declining muscle mass and increased fat deposition, which can increase the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases. While regular physical activity postpones these age-related derangements, this is not always possible in the elderly because of disabilities or risk of injury. Whole-body vibration (WBV) training may be considered as an alternative to physical activity particularly in the frail population. To explore this possibility, we characterized whole-body and organ-specific metabolic processes in 6-month and 25-month old mice, over a period of 14 weeks of WBV versus sham training. WBV training tended to increase blood glucose turnover rates and stimulated hepatic glycogen utilization during fasting irrespective of age. WBV was effective in reducing white fat mass and hepatic triglyceride content only in old but not in young mice and these reductions were related to upregulation of hepatic mitochondrial uncoupling of metabolism (assessed by high-resolution respirometry) and increased expression of uncoupling protein 2. Because these changes occurred independent of changes in food intake and whole-body metabolic rate (assessed by indirect calorimetry), the liver-specific effects of WBV may be a primary mechanism to improve metabolic health during aging, rather than that it is a consequence of alterations in energy balance. PMID:26886917

  19. Raman scattering and photoluminescence investigations of N doped ZnO thin films: Local vibrational modes and induced ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Kajal; Tomar, Monika; Katiyar, R. S.; Gupta, Vinay

    2016-10-01

    N doped ZnO (ZnO:N) thin films are prepared by pulsed laser deposition in an oxygen environment using ZnO:N targets with varying nitrogen doping concentrations (1%-10%). The impact of nitrogen incorporation on the microstructural properties of prepared ZnO:N thin films has been studied using Raman scattering. The Raman shift of E2(high) mode towards lower frequencies indicate the substitution of N at O lattice sites (NO). A local vibrational mode corresponding to Zn-N was observed at 480.3 cm-1 in N doped ZnO thin films and highlights the increased strength of the Zn-N bond in the ZnO lattice. Photoluminescence studies reveal the dominant near band edge emission peak in the ultraviolet region and the absence of deep level emission due to defects. The ZnO:N thin films are found to possess room temperature ferromagnetism. N is found to play a significant role in arising ferromagnetism in ZnO and possess a solubility limit of 8% for uniform and homogeneous atomic substitution in ZnO. The present study confirms the promising application of N doped ZnO (ZnO:N) thin films for room temperature spintronics applications.

  20. Vibration-Induced Rectified Motion of a Piston in a Liquid-Filled Cylinder with Bellows to Mimic Gas Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torczynski, J. R.; Romero, L. A.; Clausen, J. R.; O'Hern, T. J.

    2014-11-01

    The motion of a piston within a cylinder is investigated. A spring suspends the piston against gravity. The cylinder is filled with a viscous liquid and has compressible bellows at the top and bottom to mimic gas regions. A fixed post with protrusions extends into a hole through the piston with opposing protrusions. The length of the gap formed by the protrusions depends on the piston's vertical position. The outer gap between the piston and the cylinder is extremely small. Hence, as the piston moves, the displaced liquid passes through the variable-length gap, and the liquid force on the piston depends on its position. When this system is subjected to vertical vibrations, this dependence can produce a nonzero net force. With bellows, this net force can become large enough for the piston to compress the spring. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.