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Sample records for induces adipocyte differentiation

  1. 10e12z CLA alters adipocyte differentiation and adipocyte cytokine expression and induces macrophage proliferation.

    PubMed

    Belda, Benjamin J; Thompson, Jerry T; Eser, Pinar O; Vanden Heuvel, John P

    2012-05-01

    The trans-10, cis-12 (10e12z) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer of CLA is responsible for loss of lipid storage or adipose tissue in vitro or in vivo. This isomer also induces inflammatory signaling in both mouse and human adipocytes in vitro. However, when these events occur and whether they are significant enough to affect other cell types are unclear. In these experiments, the 3T3-L1 cell line has been used to examine the interaction between inflammatory signaling and decreased differentiation or lipid storage induced by 10e12z CLA. In assays measuring both lipid accumulation and gene expression, differentiating 3T3-L1 cells exhibit concurrent induction of inflammatory signaling, as measured by cyclooxygenase-2 expression, and a decrease in adipocyte marker gene expression. Furthermore, in fully differentiated adipocytes, as identified in microarray assays and confirmed with real-time polymerase chain reaction, 10e12z CLA also significantly affected expression of both matrix metalloprotein-3 (MMP-3), collagen VI α 3 ColVI alpha 3 (VIα3) and the cytokine epiregulin, demonstrating that the effects of 10e12z broadly impact adipocyte function. In agreement with other experimental systems, 10e12z CLA inhibited RAW 264.7 cell proliferation; however, in response to adipocyte-conditioned media, 10e12z-CLA-treated adipocytes induced proliferation of this cell line, suggesting that the effect of 10e12z CLA is context dependent. These results are largely consistent with the known activation of the inflammatory mediator nuclear factor-κB in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo by 10e12z CLA treatment and demonstrate that adipose is an important target tissue of this isomer that impacts other cell types.

  2. Clozapine modifies the differentiation program of human adipocytes inducing browning

    PubMed Central

    Kristóf, E; Doan-Xuan, Q-M; Sárvári, A K; Klusóczki, Á; Fischer-Posovszky, P; Wabitsch, M; Bacso, Z; Bai, P; Balajthy, Z; Fésüs, L

    2016-01-01

    Administration of second-generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) often leads to weight gain and consequent cardio-metabolic side effects. We observed that clozapine but not six other antipsychotic drugs reprogrammed the gene expression pattern of differentiating human adipocytes ex vivo, leading to an elevated expression of the browning marker gene UCP1, more and smaller lipid droplets and more mitochondrial DNA than in the untreated white adipocytes. Laser scanning cytometry showed that up to 40% of the differentiating single primary and Simpson–Golabi–Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes had the characteristic morphological features of browning cells. Furthermore, clozapine significantly upregulated ELOVL3, CIDEA, CYC1, PGC1A and TBX1 genes but not ZIC1 suggesting induction of the beige-like and not the classical brown phenotype. When we tested whether browning induced by clozapine can be explained by its known pharmacological effect of antagonizing serotonin (5HT) receptors, it was found that browning cells expressed 5HT receptors 2A, 1D, 7 and the upregulation of browning markers was diminished in the presence of exogenous 5HT. Undifferentiated progenitors or completely differentiated beige or white adipocytes did not respond to clozapine administration. The clozapine-induced beige cells displayed increased basal and oligomycin-inhibited (proton leak) oxygen consumption, but these cells showed a lower response to cAMP stimulus as compared with control beige adipocytes indicating that they are less capable to respond to natural thermogenic anti-obesity cues. Our data altogether suggest that novel pharmacological stimulation of these masked beige adipocytes can be a future therapeutic target for the treatment of SGA-induced weight gain. PMID:27898069

  3. BMP-TAK1 (MAP3K7) Induces Adipocyte Differentiation Through PPARγ Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongchun; O'Keefe, Regis J; Jonason, Jennifer H

    2017-01-01

    BMPs have been shown to promote adipocyte differentiation through SMAD-dependent signaling. However, the role of TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in non-canonical BMP signaling in adipocyte differentiation remains unclear. Here, we show that TAK1 inhibition decreases lipid accumulation in C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) induced to differentiate into adipocytes. TAK1 knockdown by siRNA further confirms that TAK1 is required for adipocyte commitment of MSCs. Additionally, TAK1 knockdown inhibits adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, indicating that TAK1 is not only needed for adipocyte commitment, but also required for adipocyte terminal differentiation. Furthermore, TAK1 ablation specifically in adipocytes reduced high fat diet-induced weight gain and improved glucose tolerance. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that TAK1 is required for PPARγ transactivation and promotes PPARγ transcriptional activity synergistically with TAK1 binding protein 1 (TAB1). Collectively, our results demonstrate that TAK1 plays a critical role in BMP-mediated adipocyte differentiation. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 204-210, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Small Molecule-Induced Complement Factor D (Adipsin) Promotes Lipid Accumulation and Adipocyte Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Song, No-Joon; Kim, Suji; Jang, Byung-Hyun; Chang, Seo-Hyuk; Yun, Ui Jeong; Park, Ki-Moon; Waki, Hironori; Li, Dean Y; Tontonoz, Peter; Park, Kye Won

    2016-01-01

    Adipocytes are differentiated by various transcriptional cascades integrated on the master regulator, Pparγ. To discover new genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, preadipocytes were treated with three newly identified pro-adipogenic small molecules and GW7845 (a Pparγ agonist) for 24 hours and transcriptional profiling was analyzed. Four genes, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparγ), human complement factor D homolog (Cfd), Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 9 (Ccl9), and GIPC PDZ Domain Containing Family Member 2 (Gipc2) were induced by at least two different small molecules but not by GW7845. Cfd and Ccl9 expressions were specific to adipocytes and they were altered in obese mice. Small hairpin RNA (shRNA) mediated knockdown of Cfd in preadipocytes inhibited lipid accumulation and expression of adipocyte markers during adipocyte differentiation. Overexpression of Cfd promoted adipocyte differentiation, increased C3a production, and led to induction of C3a receptor (C3aR) target gene expression. Similarly, treatments with C3a or C3aR agonist (C4494) also promoted adipogenesis. C3aR knockdown suppressed adipogenesis and impaired the pro-adipogenic effects of Cfd, further suggesting the necessity for C3aR signaling in Cfd-mediated pro-adipogenic axis. Together, these data show the action of Cfd in adipogenesis and underscore the application of small molecules to identify genes in adipocytes.

  5. Small Molecule-Induced Complement Factor D (Adipsin) Promotes Lipid Accumulation and Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Byung-Hyun; Chang, Seo-Hyuk; Yun, Ui Jeong; Park, Ki-Moon; Waki, Hironori; Li, Dean Y.; Tontonoz, Peter; Park, Kye Won

    2016-01-01

    Adipocytes are differentiated by various transcriptional cascades integrated on the master regulator, Pparγ. To discover new genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, preadipocytes were treated with three newly identified pro-adipogenic small molecules and GW7845 (a Pparγ agonist) for 24 hours and transcriptional profiling was analyzed. Four genes, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (Pparγ), human complement factor D homolog (Cfd), Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 9 (Ccl9), and GIPC PDZ Domain Containing Family Member 2 (Gipc2) were induced by at least two different small molecules but not by GW7845. Cfd and Ccl9 expressions were specific to adipocytes and they were altered in obese mice. Small hairpin RNA (shRNA) mediated knockdown of Cfd in preadipocytes inhibited lipid accumulation and expression of adipocyte markers during adipocyte differentiation. Overexpression of Cfd promoted adipocyte differentiation, increased C3a production, and led to induction of C3a receptor (C3aR) target gene expression. Similarly, treatments with C3a or C3aR agonist (C4494) also promoted adipogenesis. C3aR knockdown suppressed adipogenesis and impaired the pro-adipogenic effects of Cfd, further suggesting the necessity for C3aR signaling in Cfd-mediated pro-adipogenic axis. Together, these data show the action of Cfd in adipogenesis and underscore the application of small molecules to identify genes in adipocytes. PMID:27611793

  6. A Triterpenoid Inhibited Hormone-Induced Adipocyte Differentiation and Alleviated Dexamethasone-Induced Insulin Resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ji-Huan; Ma, Jun-Zeng; Yang, Xing-Wei; Hu, Ying-Jie; Zhou, Juan; Fu, Lin-Chun; Tian, Ru-Hua; Liu, Shan; Xu, Gang; Shen, Xiao-Ling

    2015-06-01

    6α-Hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-on-28-oic acid (1), a natural triterpenoid, was found to possess the ability in a dose-dependent manner inhibiting hormone-induced adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and restoring glucose consuming ability in dexamethasone (DXM)-induced insulin resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Compound 1 was also found to ameliorate DXM-induced adipocyte dysfunction in lipolysis and adipokine secretion. Mechanistic studies revealed that 1 inhibited adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes via down-regulating hormone-stimulated gene transcription of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha which are key factors in lipogenesis, and restored DXM-impaired glucose consuming ability in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes via repairing insulin signaling pathway and activating down-stream signaling transduction by phosphorylation of signaling molecules PI3K/p85, Akt2 and AS160, thus leading to increased translocation of glucose transporter type 4 and transportation of glucose.

  7. Guggulsterone inhibits adipocyte differentiation and induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Baile, Clifton A

    2008-01-01

    To determine the effects of guggulsterone (GS), the active substance in guggulipid, on apoptosis, adipogenesis, and lipolysis using 3T3-L1 cells. For apoptosis and lipolysis experiments, mature adipocytes were treated with GS isomers. Viability, apoptosis, and caspase 3/7 activation were quantified using MTS, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), caspase-Glo 3/7 activity assay, respectively. The expression of cytochrome c was demonstrated by western blot. Lipolysis was quantified by measuring the release of glycerol. For adipogenesis experiments, postconfluent preadipocytes were incubated with GS isomers for up to 6 days during maturation. Adipogenesis was quantified by measuring lipid content using Nile Red dye. Western blot was also used to demonstrate the adipocyte-specific transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPARgamma2), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha), and C/EBPbeta. In mature adipocytes cis-GS decreased viability, whereas the trans-GS isomer had little effect. Both isomers caused dose-dependent increases in apoptosis and cis-GS was more effective than trans-GS in inducing apoptosis. cis- and trans-GS also increased caspase-3 activity and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. In maturing preadipocytes, both isomers were equally effective in reducing lipid content. The adipocyte-specific transcription factors PPARgamma2, C/EBPalpha, and C/EBPbeta were downregulated after treatment with cis-GS during the maturation period. Furthermore, cis-GS increased basal lipolysis of mature adipocytes, but trans-GS had no effect. These results indicate that GS isomers may exert antiobesity effects by inhibiting differentiation of preadipocytes, and by inducing apoptosis and promoting lipolysis of mature adipocytes. The cis-GS isomer was more potent than the trans-GS isomer in inducing apoptosis and lipolysis in mature adipocytes.

  8. Inhibitory effect of leptin on rosiglitazone-induced differentiation of primary adipocytes prepared from TallyHO/Jng mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Joo Young; Sung, Yoon-Young; Jung, Won Hoon; Kim, Hee-Youn; Park, Ji Seon; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong; Rhee, Sang Dal

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} In this study, we investigated the effects of leptin on adipocyte differentiation prepared from subcutaneous fat of TallyHo mice. {yields} Leptin inhibited the adipocytes differentiation at physiological concentration via inhibition of PPAR{gamma} expression. {yields} Inhibitors of ERK and STAT1 restored the leptin's inhibitory activity both in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: The effects of leptin on rosiglitazone-induced adipocyte differentiation were investigated in the primary adipocytes prepared from subcutaneous fat of TallyHO/Jng (TallyHO) mouse, a recently developed model animal for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The treatment of leptin inhibited the rosiglitazone-induced adipocyte differentiation with a decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) a key adipogenic transcription factor, both in mRNA and protein levels. Leptin (10 nM) was sufficient to inhibit the adipocyte differentiation, which seemed to come from increased expression of leptin receptor genes in the fat of TallyHO mice. The inhibition of adipogenesis by leptin was restored by the treatment of inhibitors for extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) (PD98059) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) (fludarabine). Furthermore, in vivo intraperitoneal administration of PD98059 and fludarabine increased the PPAR{gamma} expression in the subcutaneous fat of TallyHO mice. These data suggest that leptin could inhibit the PPAR{gamma} expression and adipocyte differentiation in its physiological concentration in TallyHO mice.

  9. The role of prolyl hydroxylase domain protein (PHD) during rosiglitazone-induced adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juyoung; Kwak, Hyun Jeong; Cha, Ji-Young; Jeong, Yun-Seung; Rhee, Sang Dahl; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong

    2014-01-31

    Rosiglitazone, a well known insulin sensitizer, stimulates adipocyte differentiation via the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Previous two-dimensional proteomics studies using C3H10T1/2 murine mesenchymal pluripotent stem cells revealed that prolyl hydroxylase domain protein (PHD) levels significantly increased during rosiglitazone-induced adipocyte differentiation (RIAD). In this study, we investigated the functional role played by PHD during RIAD. Three PHD isoforms (PHD1, 2, and 3) were found to be up-regulated in C3H10T1/2 cells during RIAD, whereas PHD knockdown and treatment with PHD inhibitors (dimethyloxalyl glycine or ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate) blocked RIAD. PHD inhibition was found to be associated with increases in the levels of anti-adipogenic proteins such as GATA-3, KLF-2, and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif (TAZ), with their reduced ubiquitination, suggesting that PHDs evoke the ubiquitination/proteasomal degradation of anti-adipogenic proteins. On the other hand, MG-132 (a proteasomal inhibitor) prevented the degradation of anti-adipogenic proteins and retarded RIAD. PPARγ antagonists (bisphenol A diglycidyl ether or GW9662) blunted the effects of rosiglitazone on PHD regulation. Furthermore, putative PPARγ binding sites were identified in the promoter region of PHDs by ChIP-PCR, implying that rosiglitazone may induce PHD up-regulation directly by PPARγ activation. Consistent with in vitro results, oral administration of rosiglitazone to ob/ob mice for 2 weeks increased adipose PHD levels and decreased anti-adipogenic protein levels by increasing their ubiquitination. These results suggest that rosiglitazone increases PHD expression in a PPARγ-dependent manner and that this leads to the commitment of anti-adipogenic proteins to the ubiquitination-proteasomal pathway and to the subsequent induction of adipocyte differentiation.

  10. Development of a rapid culture method to induce adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ninomiya, Yuichi; Sugahara-Yamashita, Yzumi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Tokuzawa, Yoshimi; Okazaki, Yasushi; Nishiyama, Masahiko

    2010-04-02

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from bone marrow are multipotent stem cells that can regenerate mesenchymal tissues such as adipose, bone or muscle. It is thought that hMSCs can be utilized as a cell resource for tissue engineering and as human models to study cell differentiation mechanisms, such as adipogenesis, osteoblastogenesis and so on. Since it takes 2-3 weeks for hMSCs to differentiate into adipocytes using conventional culture methods, the development of methods to induce faster differentiation into adipocytes is required. In this study we optimized the culture conditions for adipocyte induction to achieve a shorter cultivation time for the induction of adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow-derived hMSCs. Briefly, we used a cocktail of dexamethasone, insulin, methylisobutylxanthine (DIM) plus a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} agonist, rosiglitazone (DIMRo) as a new adipogenic differentiation medium. We successfully shortened the period of cultivation to 7-8 days from 2-3 weeks. We also found that rosiglitazone alone was unable to induce adipocyte differentiation from hMSCs in vitro. However, rosiglitazone appears to enhance hMSC adipogenesis in the presence of other hormones and/or compounds, such as DIM. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of TGF-{beta}1 on adipogenesis could be investigated using DIMRo-treated hMSCs. We conclude that our rapid new culture method is very useful in measuring the effect of molecules that affect adipogenesis in hMSCs.

  11. Development of a rapid culture method to induce adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Yuichi; Sugahara-Yamashita, Yzumi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Tokuzawa, Yoshimi; Okazaki, Yasushi; Nishiyama, Masahiko

    2010-04-02

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from bone marrow are multipotent stem cells that can regenerate mesenchymal tissues such as adipose, bone or muscle. It is thought that hMSCs can be utilized as a cell resource for tissue engineering and as human models to study cell differentiation mechanisms, such as adipogenesis, osteoblastogenesis and so on. Since it takes 2-3weeks for hMSCs to differentiate into adipocytes using conventional culture methods, the development of methods to induce faster differentiation into adipocytes is required. In this study we optimized the culture conditions for adipocyte induction to achieve a shorter cultivation time for the induction of adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow-derived hMSCs. Briefly, we used a cocktail of dexamethasone, insulin, methylisobutylxanthine (DIM) plus a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, rosiglitazone (DIMRo) as a new adipogenic differentiation medium. We successfully shortened the period of cultivation to 7-8days from 2-3weeks. We also found that rosiglitazone alone was unable to induce adipocyte differentiation from hMSCs in vitro. However, rosiglitazone appears to enhance hMSC adipogenesis in the presence of other hormones and/or compounds, such as DIM. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of TGF-beta1 on adipogenesis could be investigated using DIMRo-treated hMSCs. We conclude that our rapid new culture method is very useful in measuring the effect of molecules that affect adipogenesis in hMSCs. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The endocrine disruptor diethylstilbestrol induces adipocyte differentiation and promotes obesity in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Chan-Juan; Cheng, Xue-Jia; Xia, Hong-Fei Ma, Xu

    2012-08-15

    Epidemiology studies indicate that exposure to endocrine disruptors during developmental “window” contributes to adipogenesis and the development of obesity. Implication of endocrine disruptor such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) on adipose tissue development has been poorly investigated. Here we evaluated the effects of DES on adipocyte differentiation in vitro and in vivo, and explored potential mechanism involved in its action. DES induced 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, and activated the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and peroxisome proliferator-acivated receptor (PPAR) γ as well as its target genes required for adipogenesis in vitro. ER mediated the enhancement of DES-induced PPARγ activity. Moreover, DES perturbed key regulators of adipogenesis and lipogenic pathway in vivo. In utero exposure to low dose of DES significantly increased body weight, liver weight and fat mass in female offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60. In addition, serum triglyceride and glucose levels were also significantly elevated. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to DES may be expected to increase the incidence of obesity in a sex-dependent manner and can act as a potential chemical stressor for obesity and obesity-related disorders. -- Highlights: ► DES induced adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 cells. ► DES activated adipogenic critical regulators and markers in vitro and in vivo. ► Perinatal exposure to DES led to the obese phenotype in female offspring. ► DES might be a potential chemical stressor for obesity and obesity-related disorders.

  13. Chemically induced hypoxia promotes differential outcomes over preadipocyte- or adipocyte-macrophage communication.

    PubMed

    Avila-George, K; Ramos-Olivares, K; Vasquez-Munoz, K; Villanueva-Morales, V; Reyes-Farias, M; Quintero, P; Garcia, L; Garcia-Diaz, D F

    2017-07-01

    Expansion of white adipose tissue induce insufficient vascularization, driving hypoxia and low-grade inflammation. Resident preadipocytes are thought to be involved. We evaluated the effects of hypoxia over preadipocytes and adipocytes, to determine which cellular type impacts the most over macrophages activation. 3T3-L1 cells were either differentiated, or maintained undifferentiated. Each group was subjected to the presence or absence of chemical hypoxia (200 μM CoCl2) for 24 h. Conditioned media were used as treatment for murine RAW264.7 macrophages for 24 h. Gene expression of HIF-1α and TNF-α, and the release of several markers were assessed. It was observed that culture media from hypoxic preadipocytes induced greater expression of inflammatory markers and NO release than culture media from hypoxic adipocytes, by macrophages. Gene expression correlated closer with inflammatory markers release specially on macrophages treated with conditioned media from preadipocytes. Hence, the present work highlights the importance of preadipocytes on inflammatory conditions in vitro.

  14. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lasrich, Dorothee; Bartelt, Alexander; Grewal, Thomas; Heeren, Joerg

    2015-09-10

    Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG), in particular the PPARG2 isoform. Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 and Pparg. Interestingly, incubation of APOE-deficient hMSC-Tert adipocytes with conditioned media from APOE3-overexpressing adipocytes or APOE-containing Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) partially restored triglyceride accumulation, but were unable to induce adipocyte differentiation, as judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs lipid accumulation, which is associated with an inability to initiate differentiation. - Highlights: • Immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells were used to study adipocyte development. • Knockdown of endogenous APOE lead to impaired lipid accumulation and adipogenesis. • APOE supplementation partially restored lipid accumulation but not differentiation.

  15. Adipocyte induced arterial calcification is prevented with sodium thiosulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Neal X.; O’Neill, Kalisha; Akl, Nader Kassis; Moe, Sharon M.

    2014-06-20

    Highlights: • High phosphorus can induce calcification of adipocytes, even when fully differentiated. • Adipocytes can induce vascular calcification in an autocrine manner. • Sodium thiosulfate inhibits adipocyte calcification. - Abstract: Background: Calcification can occur in fat in multiple clinical conditions including in the dermis, breasts and in the abdomen in calciphylaxis. All of these are more common in patients with advanced kidney disease. Clinically, hyperphosphatemia and obesity are risk factors. Thus we tested the hypothesis that adipocytes can calcify in the presence of elevated phosphorus and/or that adipocytes exposed to phosphorus can induce vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. Methods: 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced into mature adipocytes and then treated with media containing high phosphorus. Calcification was assessed biochemically and PCR performed to determine the expression of genes for osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Adipocytes were also co-cultured with bovine VSMC to determine paracrine effects, and the efficacy of sodium thiosulfate was determined. Results: The results demonstrated that high phosphorus induced the calcification of differentiated adipocytes with increased expression of osteopontin, the osteoblast transcription factor Runx2 and decreased expression of adipocyte transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (CEBPα), indicating that high phosphorus led to a phenotypic switch of adipocytes to an osteoblast like phenotype. Sodium thiosulfate, dose dependently decreased adipocyte calcification and inhibited adipocyte induced increase of VSMC calcification. Co-culture studies demonstrated that adipocytes facilitated VSMC calcification partially mediated by changes of secretion of leptin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from adipocytes. Conclusion: High phosphorus induced calcification of mature adipocytes, and

  16. Effect of Wnt-1 inducible signaling pathway protein-2 (WISP-2/CCN5), a downstream protein of Wnt signaling, on adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Inadera, Hidekuni Shimomura, Akiko; Tachibana, Shinjiro

    2009-02-20

    Wnt signaling negatively regulates adipocyte differentiation, and ectopic expression of Wnt-1 in 3T3-L1 cells induces several downstream molecules of Wnt signaling, including Wnt-1 inducible signaling pathway protein (WISP)-2. In this study, we examined the role of WISP-2 in the process of adipocyte differentiation using an in vitro cell culture system. In the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, WISP-2 expression was observed in growing cells and declined thereafter. In the mitotic clonal expansion phase of adipocyte differentiation, WISP-2 expression was transiently down-regulated concurrently with up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein {delta} expression. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells in the differentiation medium with lithium, an activator of Wnt signaling, inhibited the differentiation process with concomitant induction of WISP-2. Treatment of differentiated cells with lithium induced de-differentiation as evidenced by profound reduction of peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor {gamma} expression and concomitant induction of WISP-2. However, de-differentiation of differentiated cells induced by tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} did not induce WISP-2 expression. To directly examine the effect of WISP-2 on adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were infected with a retrovirus carrying WISP-2. Although forced expression of WISP-2 inhibited preadipocyte proliferation, it had no effect on adipocyte differentiation. Thus, although WISP-2 is a downstream protein of Wnt signaling, the role of WISP-2 on adipocyte differentiation may be marginal, at least in this in vitro culture model.

  17. The increasingly complex regulation of adipocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Poulos, Sylvia P; Dodson, Michael V; Culver, Melinda F

    2015-01-01

    Adipose (AD) tissue development and function relies on the ability of adipocytes to proliferate and differentiate into lipid-containing cells that also have endocrine function. Research suggests that certain conditions can induce AD tissue stem cells to differentiate into various cell types and that the microenvironment of the cell, including the extracellular matrix (ECM), is essential in maintaining cell and tissue function. This review provides an overview of factors involved in the proliferation and differentiation of adipocytes. A brief review of the numerous factors that influence PPARγ, the transcription factor thought to be the master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, provides context of established pathways that regulate adipogenesis. Thought provoking findings from research with hypoxia that is supported by earlier research that vascular development is related to adipogenesis are reviewed. Finally, our understanding of the critical role of the ECM and environment in adipogenesis is discussed and compared with studies that suggest that adipocytes may dedifferentiate and can convert into other cell types. PMID:26645953

  18. Trans, trans-farnesol as a mevalonate-derived inducer of murine 3T3-F442A pre-adipocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Torabi, Sheida

    2015-01-01

    Based on our finding that depletion of mevalonate-derived metabolites inhibits adipocyte differentiation, we hypothesize that trans, trans-farnesol (farnesol), a mevalonate-derived sesquiterpene, induces adipocyte differentiation. Farnesol dose-dependently (25–75 μmol/L) increased intracellular triglyceride content of murine 3T3-F442A pre-adipocytes measured by AdipoRed™ Assay and Oil Red-O staining. Concomitantly, farnesol dose-dependently increased glucose uptake and glucose transport protein 4 (GLUT4) expression without affecting cell viability. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot showed that farnesol increased the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation, and the mRNA levels of PPARγ-regulated fatty acid-binding protein 4 and adiponectin; in contrast, farnesol downregulated Pref-1 gene, a marker of pre-adipocytes. GW9662 (10 µmol/L), an antagonist of PPARγ, reversed the effects of farnesol on cellular lipid content, suggesting that PPARγ signaling pathway may mediate the farnesol effect. Farnesol (25–75 μmol/L) did not affect the mRNA level of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway. Farnesol may be the mevalonate-derived inducer of adipocyte differentiation and potentially an insulin sensitizer via activation of PPARγ and upregulation of glucose uptake. PMID:26660152

  19. A novel role for the Wnt inhibitor APCDD1 in adipocyte differentiation: Implications for diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Yiew, Nicole K H; Chatterjee, Tapan K; Tang, Yao Liang; Pellenberg, Rod; Stansfield, Brian K; Bagi, Zsolt; Fulton, David J; Stepp, David W; Chen, Weiqin; Patel, Vijay; Kamath, Vinayak M; Litwin, Sheldon E; Hui, David Y; Rudich, Steven M; Kim, Ha Won; Weintraub, Neal L

    2017-04-14

    Impaired adipogenic differentiation during diet-induced obesity (DIO) promotes adipocyte hypertrophy and inflammation, thereby contributing to metabolic disease. Adenomatosis polyposis coli down-regulated 1 (APCDD1) has recently been identified as an inhibitor of Wnt signaling, a key regulator of adipogenic differentiation. Here we report a novel role for APCDD1 in adipogenic differentiation via repression of Wnt signaling and an epigenetic linkage between miR-130 and APCDD1 in DIO. APCDD1 expression was significantly up-regulated in mature adipocytes compared with undifferentiated preadipocytes in both human and mouse subcutaneous adipose tissues. siRNA-based silencing of APCDD1 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes markedly increased the expression of Wnt signaling proteins (Wnt3a, Wnt5a, Wnt10b, LRP5, and β-catenin) and inhibited the expression of adipocyte differentiation markers (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ)) and lipid droplet accumulation, whereas adenovirus-mediated overexpression of APCDD1 enhanced adipogenic differentiation. Notably, DIO mice exhibited reduced APCDD1 expression and increased Wnt expression in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues and impaired adipogenic differentiation in vitro Mechanistically, we found that miR-130, whose expression is up-regulated in adipose tissues of DIO mice, could directly target the 3'-untranslated region of the APCDD1 gene. Furthermore, transfection of an miR-130 inhibitor in preadipocytes enhanced, whereas an miR-130 mimic blunted, adipogenic differentiation, suggesting that miR-130 contributes to impaired adipogenic differentiation during DIO by repressing APCDD1 expression. Finally, human subcutaneous adipose tissues isolated from obese individuals exhibited reduced expression of APCDD1, C/EBPα, and PPARγ compared with those from non-obese subjects. Taken together, these novel findings suggest that APCDD1 positively regulates adipogenic

  20. Factor for adipocyte differentiation 158 gene disruption prevents the body weight gain and insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Nozaki, Yuriko; Nishizuka, Makoto; Ikawa, Masahito; Osada, Shigehiro; Imagawa, Masayoshi

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the molecular mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, we previously isolated a novel gene, factor for adipocyte differentiation (fad) 158, whose expression was induced during the earliest stages of adipogenesis, and its product was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. We found that the knockdown of fad158 expression prevented the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes. In addition, over-expression of fad158 promoted the differentiation of NIH-3T3 cells, which do not usually differentiate into adipocytes. Although these findings strongly suggest that fad158 has a crucial role in regulating adipocyte differentiation, the physiological role of the gene is still unclear. In this study, we generated mice in which fad158 expression was deleted. The fad158-deficient mice did not show remarkable changes in body weight or the weight of white adipose tissue on a chow diet, but had significantly lower body weights and fat mass than wild-type mice when fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, although the disruption of fad158 did not influence insulin sensitivity on the chow diet, it improved insulin resistance induced by the high-fat diet. These results indicate that fad158 is a key factor in the development of obesity and insulin resistance caused by a high-fat diet.

  1. MicroRNA-143 regulates adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Esau, Christine; Kang, Xiaolin; Peralta, Eigen; Hanson, Elaine; Marcusson, Eric G; Ravichandran, Lingamanaidu V; Sun, Yingqing; Koo, Seongjoon; Perera, Ranjan J; Jain, Ravi; Dean, Nicholas M; Freier, Susan M; Bennett, C Frank; Lollo, Bridget; Griffey, Richard

    2004-12-10

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously expressed 20-24 nucleotide RNAs thought to repress protein translation through binding to a target mRNA (1-3). Only a few of the more than 250 predicted human miRNAs have been assigned any biological function. In an effort to uncover miRNAs important during adipocyte differentiation, antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting 86 human miRNAs were transfected into cultured human pre-adipocytes, and their ability to modulate adipocyte differentiation was evaluated. Expression of 254 miRNAs in differentiating adipocytes was also examined on a miRNA microarray. Here we report that the combination of expression data and functional assay results identified a role for miR-143 in adipocyte differentiation. miR-143 levels increased in differentiating adipocytes, and inhibition of miR-143 effectively inhibited adipocyte differentiation. In addition, protein levels of the proposed miR-143 target ERK5 (4) were higher in ASO-treated adipocytes. These results demonstrate that miR-143 is involved in adipocyte differentiation and may act through target gene ERK5.

  2. Adipocyte induced arterial calcification is prevented with sodium thiosulfate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Neal X; O'Neill, Kalisha; Akl, Nader Kassis; Moe, Sharon M

    2014-06-20

    Calcification can occur in fat in multiple clinical conditions including in the dermis, breasts and in the abdomen in calciphylaxis. All of these are more common in patients with advanced kidney disease. Clinically, hyperphosphatemia and obesity are risk factors. Thus we tested the hypothesis that adipocytes can calcify in the presence of elevated phosphorus and/or that adipocytes exposed to phosphorus can induce vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced into mature adipocytes and then treated with media containing high phosphorus. Calcification was assessed biochemically and PCR performed to determine the expression of genes for osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Adipocytes were also co-cultured with bovine VSMC to determine paracrine effects, and the efficacy of sodium thiosulfate was determined. The results demonstrated that high phosphorus induced the calcification of differentiated adipocytes with increased expression of osteopontin, the osteoblast transcription factor Runx2 and decreased expression of adipocyte transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (CEBPα), indicating that high phosphorus led to a phenotypic switch of adipocytes to an osteoblast like phenotype. Sodium thiosulfate, dose dependently decreased adipocyte calcification and inhibited adipocyte induced increase of VSMC calcification. Co-culture studies demonstrated that adipocytes facilitated VSMC calcification partially mediated by changes of secretion of leptin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from adipocytes. High phosphorus induced calcification of mature adipocytes, and adipocytes exposed to elevated phosphorus can induce calcification of VSMC in a paracrine manner. Sodium thiosulfate inhibited this calcification and decreased the secretin of leptin and VEGF from adipocytes. These results suggest that adipocyte exposure to elevated phosphorus may be a

  3. PPARγ agonists induce adipocyte differentiation by modulating the expression of Lipin-1, which acts as a PPARγ phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jina; Lee, Yu-Jin; Kim, Jung Min; Lee, So Young; Bae, Myung-Ae; Ahn, Jin Hee; Han, Dong Cho; Kwon, Byoung-Mog

    2016-12-01

    PPARγ agonists induced obesity in animal models as a side effect. Microarray experiments reveal that PPARγ agonist upregulates the expression of lipin-1 and this upregulation is correlated with the activity of the agonists. Lipin-1 induced by PPARγ agonists decreased the levels of PPARγ and ERK1/2 phosphorylation through direct interaction with these proteins in 3T3-L1 cells. In PPARγ agonist-treated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, the knockdown of lipin-1 expression by small interfering RNA inhibited the adipogenesis that was induced by PPARγ agonists. In contrast, PPARγ2 expression was increased, and lipid droplets were accumulated in lipin-1-overexpressing 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Rosiglitazone (RGZ), a strong PPARγ agonist, synergistically promoted PPARγ dephosphorylation and adipogenesis in lipin-1-overexpressing 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Therefore, lipin-1 has dual functions as a transcriptional cofactor and phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP) in the differentiation of preadipocyte cells induced by strong PPARγ agonists. In addition, the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells was markedly upregulated by diacylglycerol (DAG), which was produced by lipin-1. Therefore, lipin-1 induction by PPARγ agonists might be an important factor in understanding the biological mechanism of the agonists' adverse effects, and this information may be valuable in the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) therapeutics with reduced adverse effects and greater tolerability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Platyphylloside Isolated From Betula platyphylla Inhibit Adipocyte Differentiation and Induce Lipolysis Via Regulating Adipokines Including PPARγ in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mina; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Obesity causes or aggravates many health problems, both independently and in association with several pathological disorders, including Type II diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, we screened small compounds isolated from natural products for the development of anti-obesity drugs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-adipogenic activities of platyphylloside, diarylheptanoid isolated from Betula platyphylla, which was selected based on the screening using 3T3-L1 cells. To evaluate the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation and lipolysis, lipid contents of BPP on were measured using Oil Red O staining in 3T3-L1 cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels of various adipokines were measured by Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting analysis, respectively. Platyphylloside showed significant inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed adipocyte differentiation even in the presence of troglitazone, a PPARγ agonist. Platyphylloside might suppress adipocyte differentiation through PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP1-induced adipogenesis, which is synergistically associated with downstream adipocyte-specific gene promoters such as aP2, FAS, SCD-1, LPL, and Adiponectin. In addition, platyphylloside affected lipolysis by down-regulating perilipin and HSL and up-regulating TNFα. Taken together, the results reveal that platyphylloside has anti-adipogenic activity and highlight its potential in the prevention and treatment of obesity. The extract of B. platyphylla bark and its isolate, BPP, had anti-adipogenic activity in 3T3-L1 cells via suppression of adipocyte differentiation from preadipocytes.Treatment with BPP significantly down-regulated the expression of PPARγ, C/EBP, C/EBPβ, C/EBPδ, SREBP1c, SCD-1, FAS, aP2 and LPL.BPP induced a lipolytic response in mature adipocytes via up-regulation krof TNFá and down-regulation of HSL, perilipin, PPARγ, PDE3B, and Gia1.BPP is a novel

  5. DNA microarray analysis of genes differentially expressed in adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chunyan; Xiao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Erdi; Liu, Weihua; Yi, Xiaoqing; Chang, Ming

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, the human liposarcoma cell line SW872 was used to identify global changes in gene expression profiles occurring during adipogenesis. We further explored some of the genes expressed during the late phase of adipocyte differentiation. These genes may play a major role in promoting excessive proliferation and accumulation of lipid droplets, which contribute to the development of obesity. By using microarray-based technology, we examined differential gene expression in early differentiated adipocytes and late differentiated adipocytes. Validated genes exhibited a greater than or equal to 10-fold increase in the late phase of adipocyte differentiation by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Compared with undifferentiated preadipocytes, we found that 763 genes were increased in early differentiated adipocytes, and 667 genes were increased in later differentiated adipocytes. Furthermore, 21 genes were found being expressed 10-fold higher in the late phase of adipocyte differentiation. The results were in accordance with the RTPCR test, which validated 11 genes, namely, CIDEC, PID1, LYRM1, ADD1, PPAR?2, ANGPTL4, ADIPOQ, ACOX1, FIP1L1, MAP3K2 and PEX14. Most of these genes were found being expressed in the later phase of adipocyte differentiation involved in obesity-related diseases. The findings may help to better understand the mechanism of obesity and related diseases.

  6. Src family kinases suppress differentiation of brown adipocytes and browning of white adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Usui, Mai; Uno, Masaharu; Nishida, Eisuke

    2016-04-01

    Brown adipocytes and beige adipocytes can expend energy, generate heat, and increase whole-body energy expenditure. The detailed mechanisms of adipogenesis and thermogenesis of these cells are still obscure. Here, we show that Src family kinases (SFKs) regulate both brown adipogenesis and browning of white adipocytes. To identify factors involved in brown adipogenesis, we first examined the effect of several chemical inhibitors on the differentiation of brown preadipocytes isolated from mouse brown adipose tissue (BAT) and found that treatment with PP2, the specific inhibitor of SFKs, promoted the differentiation. Another inhibitor of SFKs, PP1, also promoted the brown adipogenesis, whereas an inactive analogue of PP2, PP3, did not. Moreover, over-expression of C-terminal Src kinase (CSK), the negative regulator of SFKs, also promoted brown adipogenesis. Next, we examined the effect of inhibition of SFKs on the differentiation of white preadipocytes isolated from white adipose tissue (WAT). Our results showed that either PP2 treatment or CSK-over-expression generated Ucp1-positive beige adipocytes, thus inducing browning of white adipocytes. Finally, our analysis showed that the expression levels and activity of SFKs in WAT were much higher than in BAT. These results taken together suggest that SFKs regulate differentiation and browning of fat cells in vivo. © 2016 The Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Persistent organic pollutants alter DNA methylation during human adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    van den Dungen, Myrthe W; Murk, Albertinka J; Kok, Dieuwertje E; Steegenga, Wilma T

    2017-04-01

    Ubiquitous persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can accumulate in humans where they might influence differentiation of adipocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DNA methylation is one of the underlying mechanisms by which POPs affect adipocyte differentiation, and to what extent DNA methylation can be related to gene transcription. Adipocyte differentiation was induced in two human cell models with continuous exposure to different POPs throughout differentiation. From the seven tested POPs, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) decreased lipid accumulation, while tributyltin (TBT) increased lipid accumulation. In human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), TCDD and TBT induced opposite gene expression profiles, whereas after PFOS exposure gene expression remained relatively stable. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis showed that all three POPs affected DNA methylation patterns in adipogenic and other genes, possibly related to the phenotypic outcome, but without concomitant gene expression changes. Differential methylation was predominantly detected in intergenic regions, where the biological relevance of alterations in DNA methylation is unclear. This study demonstrates that POPs, at environmentally relevant levels, are able to induce differential DNA methylation in human differentiating adipocytes. Copyright © 2017 Wageningen University. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Follistatin promotes adipocyte differentiation, browning, and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Braga, Melissa; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Vergnes, Laurent; Pervin, Shehla; Grijalva, Victor; Stout, David; David, John; Li, Xinmin; Tomasian, Venina; Reid, Christopher B; Norris, Keith C; Devaskar, Sherin U; Reue, Karen; Singh, Rajan

    2014-03-01

    Follistatin (Fst) functions to bind and neutralize the activity of members of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. Fst has a well-established role in skeletal muscle, but we detected significant Fst expression levels in interscapular brown and subcutaneous white adipose tissue, and further investigated its role in adipocyte biology. Fst expression was induced during adipogenic differentiation of mouse brown preadipocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as well as in cold-induced brown adipose tissue from mice. In differentiated MEFs from Fst KO mice, the induction of brown adipocyte proteins including uncoupling protein 1, PR domain containing 16, and PPAR gamma coactivator-1α was attenuated, but could be rescued by treatment with recombinant FST. Furthermore, Fst enhanced thermogenic gene expression in differentiated mouse brown adipocytes and MEF cultures from both WT and Fst KO groups, suggesting that Fst produced by adipocytes may act in a paracrine manner. Our microarray gene expression profiling of WT and Fst KO MEFs during adipogenic differentiation identified several genes implicated in lipid and energy metabolism that were significantly downregulated in Fst KO MEFs. Furthermore, Fst treatment significantly increases cellular respiration in Fst-deficient cells. Our results implicate a novel role of Fst in the induction of brown adipocyte character and regulation of energy metabolism.

  9. Follistatin promotes adipocyte differentiation, browning, and energy metabolism[S

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Melissa; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Vergnes, Laurent; Pervin, Shehla; Grijalva, Victor; Stout, David; David, John; Li, Xinmin; Tomasian, Venina; Reid, Christopher B.; Norris, Keith C.; Devaskar, Sherin U.; Reue, Karen; Singh, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Follistatin (Fst) functions to bind and neutralize the activity of members of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. Fst has a well-established role in skeletal muscle, but we detected significant Fst expression levels in interscapular brown and subcutaneous white adipose tissue, and further investigated its role in adipocyte biology. Fst expression was induced during adipogenic differentiation of mouse brown preadipocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as well as in cold-induced brown adipose tissue from mice. In differentiated MEFs from Fst KO mice, the induction of brown adipocyte proteins including uncoupling protein 1, PR domain containing 16, and PPAR gamma coactivator-1α was attenuated, but could be rescued by treatment with recombinant FST. Furthermore, Fst enhanced thermogenic gene expression in differentiated mouse brown adipocytes and MEF cultures from both WT and Fst KO groups, suggesting that Fst produced by adipocytes may act in a paracrine manner. Our microarray gene expression profiling of WT and Fst KO MEFs during adipogenic differentiation identified several genes implicated in lipid and energy metabolism that were significantly downregulated in Fst KO MEFs. Furthermore, Fst treatment significantly increases cellular respiration in Fst-deficient cells. Our results implicate a novel role of Fst in the induction of brown adipocyte character and regulation of energy metabolism. PMID:24443561

  10. Functional Human Beige Adipocytes from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Guénantin, Anne-Claire; Briand, Nolwenn; Capel, Emilie; Dumont, Florent; Morichon, Romain; Provost, Claire; Stillitano, Francesca; Jeziorowska, Dorota; Siffroi, Jean-Pierre; Hajjar, Roger J; Fève, Bruno; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Collas, Philippe; Capeau, Jacqueline; Vigouroux, Corinne

    2017-03-07

    Activation of thermogenic beige adipocytes has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic target in obesity and diabetes. Relevant human models for beige adipocyte differentiation are essential to implement such therapeutic strategies. We report a straightforward and efficient protocol to generate functional human beige adipocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Without overexpression of exogenous adipogenic genes, our method recapitulates an adipogenic developmental pathway through successive mesodermal and adipogenic progenitor stages. hiPSC-derived adipocytes are insulin-sensitive and display beige-specific markers and functional properties including upregulation of thermogenic genes, increased mitochondrial content and increased oxygen consumption upon activation with cAMP analogues. Engraftment of hiPSC-derived adipocytes in mice produces well-organized and vascularized adipose tissue, capable of β-adrenergic-responsive glucose uptake. Our model of human beige adipocyte development provides a new and scalable tool for disease modeling and therapeutic screening.

  11. Glycine suppresses TNF-α-induced activation of NF-κB in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Blancas-Flores, Gerardo; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J; García-Macedo, Rebeca; Almanza-Pérez, Julio C; Flores-Sáenz, José L; Román-Ramos, Rubén; Ventura-Gallegos, José L; Kumate, Jesús; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Cruz, Miguel

    2012-08-15

    Glycine strongly reduces the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increases the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Recently, glycine has been shown to decrease the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory adipokines in monosodium glutamate-induced obese (MSG/Ob) mice. It has been postulated that these effects may be explained by a reduction in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. NF-κB is a transcription factor, which is crucial to the inflammatory response. Hasegawa et al. (2011 and 2012) recently reported a glycine-dependent reduction in NF-κB levels. Here, we have investigated the role of glycine in the regulation of NF-κB in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The results revealed that pretreatment with glycine interfered with the activation of NF-κB, which has been shown to be stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Glycine alone stimulated NF-κB activation in an unusual way such that the inhibitor κB-β (IκB-β) degradation was more significant than that of the inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α) and led to NF-κB complexes comprised of p50 and p65 subunits; IκB-ε degradation did not affect by glycine. These findings suggest that glycine could be used as an alternative treatment for chronic inflammation, which is a hallmark of obesity and other comorbidities, and is characterized by an elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Platyphylloside Isolated From Betula platyphylla Inhibit Adipocyte Differentiation and Induce Lipolysis Via Regulating Adipokines Including PPARγ in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mina; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity causes or aggravates many health problems, both independently and in association with several pathological disorders, including Type II diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, we screened small compounds isolated from natural products for the development of anti-obesity drugs. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-adipogenic activities of platyphylloside, diarylheptanoid isolated from Betula platyphylla, which was selected based on the screening using 3T3-L1 cells. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation and lipolysis, lipid contents of BPP on were measured using Oil Red O staining in 3T3-L1 cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels of various adipokines were measured by Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting analysis, respectively. Results: Platyphylloside showed significant inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed adipocyte differentiation even in the presence of troglitazone, a PPARγ agonist. Platyphylloside might suppress adipocyte differentiation through PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP1-induced adipogenesis, which is synergistically associated with downstream adipocyte-specific gene promoters such as aP2, FAS, SCD-1, LPL, and Adiponectin. In addition, platyphylloside affected lipolysis by down-regulating perilipin and HSL and up-regulating TNFα. Conclusion: Taken together, the results reveal that platyphylloside has anti-adipogenic activity and highlight its potential in the prevention and treatment of obesity. SUMMARY The extract of B. platyphylla bark and its isolate, BPP, had anti-adipogenic activity in 3T3-L1 cells via suppression of adipocyte differentiation from preadipocytes.Treatment with BPP significantly down-regulated the expression of PPARγ, C/EBP, C/EBPβ, C/EBPδ, SREBP1c, SCD-1, FAS, aP2 and LPL.BPP induced a lipolytic response in mature adipocytes via up-regulation krof TNFá and down

  13. Organization of nuclear architecture during adipocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Charó, Nancy L.; Rodríguez Ceschan, María I.; Galigniana, Natalia M.; Toneatto, Judith; Piwien-Pilipuk, Graciela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obesity is a serious health problem worldwide since it is a major risk factor for chronic diseases such as type II diabetes. Obesity is the result of hyperplasia (associated with increased adipogenesis) and hypertrophy (associated with decreased adipogenesis) of the adipose tissue. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the process of adipocyte differentiation is relevant to delineate new therapeutic strategies for treatment of obesity. As in all differentiation processes, temporal patterns of transcription are exquisitely controlled, allowing the acquisition and maintenance of the adipocyte phenotype. The genome is spatially organized; therefore decoding local features of the chromatin language alone does not suffice to understand how cell type-specific gene expression patterns are generated. Elucidating how nuclear architecture is built during the process of adipogenesis is thus an indispensable step to gain insight in how gene expression is regulated to achieve the adipocyte phenotype. Here we will summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the organization of nuclear architecture as progenitor cells differentiate in adipocytes, and the questions that still remained to be answered. PMID:27416359

  14. Concomitant beige adipocyte differentiation upon induction of mesenchymal stem cells into brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yung-Li; Lin, Shih-Pei; Hsieh, Patrick C H; Hung, Shih-Chieh

    2016-09-16

    The accumulation of fat, which results in obesity, is related to many metabolic disorders. Besides white and brown adipose tissue, beige adipose tissue has recently been recognized as a new type of accumulated fat. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to differentiate into brown adipocytes. Through analyzing levels of mRNA and protein markers associated with beige adipocyte, we found concomitant beige adipocyte differentiation upon induction of MSCs into brown adipocytes in a defined medium containing triiodothyronine, insulin, dexamethasone, and indomethacin. Moreover, we found that protein kinase A (PKA) modulators regulated MSC differentiation into brown or beige adipocytes. Activation of PKA by isobutylmethylxanthine or forskolin increased brown adipocyte differentiation and reduced beige adipocyte differentiation, while inactivation of PKA by KT-5720 or SC-3010 or the knockdown of PKA downstream cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) decreased brown adipocyte differentiation and increased beige adipocyte differentiation. We also showed that increased brown adipocyte differentiation was accompanied by an increase in mitochondrial mass. In conclusion, we propose a model of beige/brown co-differentiation in MSCs and develop a method for controlling this differentiation via PKA modulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential impact of adipokines derived from primary adipocytes of wild-type versus streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats on glucose and fatty acid metabolism in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Palanivel, Rengasamy; Vu, Vivian; Park, Min; Fang, Xiangping; Sweeney, Gary

    2008-12-01

    The causal relationship between obesity and cardiovascular disease is extensively acknowledged; however, the exact mechanisms linking obesity and heart failure remain unclear. Here, we investigated the influence of adipokines derived from primary adipocytes on glucose and fatty acid uptake and metabolism in isolated primary cardiomyocytes. Either co-culture of these cell types or incubation with adipocyte-conditioned medium significantly increased glucose uptake in cardiomyocytes. When streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were used as a source of adipocytes, there was a lower ability to elicit glucose uptake in cardiomyocytes which corresponded with lower Akt and AMPK phosphorylation. The profile of glucose metabolism also differed with oxidation being favored upon co-culture with wild-type adipocytes whereas lactate production was strongly induced by adipocytes from diabetic rats. Examination of fatty acid uptake revealed that stimulation only occurred in response to adipokines secreted by wild-type rat adipocytes. Importantly, oxidation of fatty acids by cardiomyocytes was decreased by adipokines derived from diabetic rat adipocytes. Analysis of adipokine profiles in diabetic rat adipocyte-conditioned medium demonstrated the most significant decreases in adiponectin and leptin with increased IL6 expression. Taken together, these data suggest that the profile of adipokines secreted by adipocytes from diabetic rats have a deleterious influence on cardiomyocyte metabolism which may be of relevance in the pathophysiology of heart failure.

  16. A commercial formulation of glyphosate inhibits proliferation and differentiation to adipocytes and induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Martini, Claudia N; Gabrielli, Matías; Vila, María del C

    2012-09-01

    Glyphosate-based herbicides are extensively used for weed control all over the world. Therefore, it is important to investigate the putative toxic effects of these formulations which include not only glyphosate itself but also surfactants that may also be toxic. 3T3-L1 fibroblasts are a useful tool to study adipocyte differentiation, this cell line can be induced to differentiate by addition of a differentiation mixture containing insulin, dexamethasone and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. We used this cell line to investigate the effect of a commercial formulation of glyphosate (GF) on proliferation, survival and differentiation. It was found that treatment of exponentially growing cells with GF for 48h inhibited proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with GF dilution 1:2000 during 24 or 48h inhibited proliferation and increased cell death, as evaluated by trypan blue-exclusion, in a time-dependent manner. We showed that treatment of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts with GF increased caspase-3 like activity and annexin-V positive cells as evaluated by flow cytometric analysis, which are both indicative of induction of apoptosis. It was also found that after the removal of GF, remaining cells were able to restore proliferation. On the other hand, GF treatment severely inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts to adipocytes. According to our results, a glyphosate-based herbicide inhibits proliferation and differentiation in this mammalian cell line and induces apoptosis suggesting GF-mediated cellular damage. Thus, GF is a potential risk factor for human health and the environment.

  17. Involvement of JNK/NFκB Signaling Pathways in the Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Modulation of Aquaglyceroporin Expression in 3T3-L1 Cells Differentiated into Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chiadak, Jeanne Durendale; Arsenijevic, Tatjana; Gregoire, Francoise; Bolaky, Nargis; Delforge, Valerie; Perret, Jason; Delporte, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Aquaglyceroporins, belonging to the family of aquaporins (AQPs), are integral plasma membrane proteins permeable to water and glycerol that have emerged as key players in obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression profile of AQPs in undifferentiated and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells and to investigate the changes in expression of aquaglyceroporins in 3T3-L1 cells differentiated into adipocytes and subjected to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mimicking inflammation occurring during obesity. Furthermore, the study aimed at identifying the signaling cascade involved in the regulation of aquaglyceroporins expression upon LPS stimulation. 3T3-L1 cells were grown as undifferentiated cells (UDC; preadipocytes) or cells differentiated into adipocytes (DC, adipocytes). DC were incubated in the presence or absence of LPS with or without inhibitors of various protein kinases. AQPs mRNA expression levels were measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). AQP1, AQP2, AQP3, AQP9 and AQP11 mRNA were expressed in both UDC and DC, whereas AQP4, AQP7 and AQP8 mRNA were expressed only in DC. In DC, LPS up-regulated AQP3 mRNA levels (p < 0.05) compared to control; these effects were inhibited by CLI095, SP600125 and BAY11-7082 (p < 0.05). LPS decreased both AQP7 and AQP11 mRNA levels (p < 0.01) in DC as compared to control; this decrease was inhibited by CLI095 and BAY11-7082 (p < 0.05) and additionally by SP00125 for AQP7 (p < 0.05). SB203580 had no effect on LPS-induced AQP3, AQP7 and AQP11 mRNA levels modulations. In conclusion, our results clearly show that many AQPs are expressed in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, in DCs, LPS led to decreased AQP7 and AQP11 mRNA levels but to increased AQP3 mRNA levels, resulting from the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-induced activation of JNK and/or NFκB pathway. PMID:27763558

  18. Effects of Parabens on Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Parabens are a group of alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid that include methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, and benzylparaben. Paraben esters and their salts are widely used as preservatives in cosmetics, toiletries, food, and pharmaceuticals. Humans are exposed to parabens through the use of such products from dermal contact, ingestion, and inhalation. However, research on the effects of parabens on health is limited, and the effects of parabens on adipogenesis have not been systematically studied. Here, we report that (1) parabens promote adipogenesis (or adipocyte differentiation) in murine 3T3-L1 cells, as revealed by adipocyte morphology, lipid accumulation, and mRNA expression of adipocyte-specific markers; (2) the adipogenic potency of parabens is increased with increasing length of the linear alkyl chain in the following potency ranking order: methyl- < ethyl- < propyl- < butylparaben. The extension of the linear alkyl chain with an aromatic ring in benzylparaben further augments the adipogenic ability, whereas 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, the common metabolite of all parabens, and the structurally related benzoic acid (without the OH group) are inactive in promoting 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation; (3) parabens activate glucocorticoid receptor and/or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes; however, no direct binding to, or modulation of, the ligand binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor by parabens was detected by glucocorticoid receptor competitor assays; and lastly, (4) parabens, butyl- and benzylparaben in particular, also promote adipose conversion of human adipose–derived multipotent stromal cells. Our results suggest that parabens may contribute to obesity epidemic, and the role of parabens in adipogenesis in vivo needs to be examined further. PMID:22956630

  19. Effects of parabens on adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pan; Chen, Xin; Whitener, Rick J; Boder, Eric T; Jones, Jeremy O; Porollo, Aleksey; Chen, Jiangang; Zhao, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Parabens are a group of alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid that include methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, and benzylparaben. Paraben esters and their salts are widely used as preservatives in cosmetics, toiletries, food, and pharmaceuticals. Humans are exposed to parabens through the use of such products from dermal contact, ingestion, and inhalation. However, research on the effects of parabens on health is limited, and the effects of parabens on adipogenesis have not been systematically studied. Here, we report that (1) parabens promote adipogenesis (or adipocyte differentiation) in murine 3T3-L1 cells, as revealed by adipocyte morphology, lipid accumulation, and mRNA expression of adipocyte-specific markers; (2) the adipogenic potency of parabens is increased with increasing length of the linear alkyl chain in the following potency ranking order: methyl- < ethyl- < propyl- < butylparaben. The extension of the linear alkyl chain with an aromatic ring in benzylparaben further augments the adipogenic ability, whereas 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, the common metabolite of all parabens, and the structurally related benzoic acid (without the OH group) are inactive in promoting 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation; (3) parabens activate glucocorticoid receptor and/or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes; however, no direct binding to, or modulation of, the ligand binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor by parabens was detected by glucocorticoid receptor competitor assays; and lastly, (4) parabens, butyl- and benzylparaben in particular, also promote adipose conversion of human adipose-derived multipotent stromal cells. Our results suggest that parabens may contribute to obesity epidemic, and the role of parabens in adipogenesis in vivo needs to be examined further.

  20. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1b is a novel negative regulator of white adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Wu, Hao; Yu, Weihua; Liu, Jiangzheng; Peng, Jie; Liao, Nai; Zhang, Jieling; Zhang, Xiaodi; Hai, Chunxu

    2017-09-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1b (HNF1b) is a transcription factor belonging to the HNF family. We aimed to investigate the role of HNF1b in white adipocyte differentiation. The expression of HNF1b was reduced in white adipose tissue (WAT) of both diet-induced and genetic obese mice and decreased during the process of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Downregulation of HNF1b enhanced 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation and upregulation of HNF1b inhibited this process. Upregulation of HNF1b inhibited peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and its target gene expression, while downregulation of HNF1b increased those genes expression. Overexpression of PPARγ suppressed HNF1b upregulation-induced inhibition of adipocyte differentiation. HNF1b can directly bind with the promoter of PPARγ in 3T3-L1 cells, which was decreased after adipogenic differentiation. HNF1b promoted apoptotic and autophagic cell death in early differentiated adipocytes through regulation of cell cycle progress and cell death-related factors, and thus inhibited the process of mitotic clonal expansion (MCE). HNF1b acted as an antioxidant regulator through regulating various antioxidant enzymes via binding with antioxidant response element. Oxidant treatment suppressed HNF1b upregulation-induced inhibition of adipocyte differentiation. Overall, our results suggest that HNF1b is a novel negative regulator of adipocyte differentiation through regulation of PPARγ signaling, MCE and redox state.

  1. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Induces Human Adipocyte Delipidation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. Mark; Boysen, Maria Sandberg; Chung, Soonkyu; Fabiyi, Olowatoyin; Morrison, Ron F.; Mandrup, Susanne; McIntosh, Michael K.

    2005-01-01

    Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduces body fat in animals and some humans. Here we show that trans-10, cis-12 CLA, but not cis-9, trans-11 CLA, when added to cultures of stromal vascular cells containing newly differentiated human adipocytes, caused a time-dependent decrease in triglyceride content, insulin-stimulated glucose and fatty acid uptake, incorporation into lipid, and oxidation compared with controls. In parallel, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and many of its downstream targets were diminished by trans-10, cis-12 CLA, whereas leptin gene expression was increased. Prior to changes in gene expression and metabolism, trans-10, cis-12 CLA caused a robust and sustained activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase (MEK/ERK) signaling. Furthermore, the trans-10, cis-12 CLA-mediated activation of MEK/ERK could be attenuated by pretreatment with U0126 and pertussis toxin. In parallel, pretreatment with U0126 blocked the ability of trans-10, cis-12 CLA to alter gene expression and attenuate glucose and fatty acid uptake of the cultures. Intriguingly, the induction by CLA of MEK/ERK signaling was linked to hypersecretion of adipocytokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-8. Collectively, these data demonstrate for the first time that trans-10, cis-12 CLA decreases the triglyceride content of newly differentiated human adipocytes by inducing MEK/ERK signaling through the autocrine/paracrine actions of interleukins-6 and 8. PMID:15067015

  2. Forming functional fat: a growing understanding of adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Cristancho, Ana G; Lazar, Mitchell A

    2011-09-28

    Adipose tissue, which is primarily composed of adipocytes, is crucial for maintaining energy and metabolic homeostasis. Adipogenesis is thought to occur in two stages: commitment of mesenchymal stem cells to a preadipocyte fate and terminal differentiation. Cell shape and extracellular matrix remodelling have recently been found to regulate preadipocyte commitment and competency by modulating WNT and RHO-family GTPase signalling cascades. Adipogenic stimuli induce terminal differentiation in committed preadipocytes through the epigenomic activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). The coordination of PPARγ with CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) transcription factors maintains adipocyte gene expression. Improving our understanding of these mechanisms may allow us to identify therapeutic targets against metabolic diseases that are rapidly becoming epidemic globally.

  3. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBPα and PPARγ. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis.

  4. Differential effects of fibroblast growth factor and tumor promoters on the initiation and maintenance of adipocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) has been shown to inhibit the differentiation of myogenic and adipogenic cell lines without inducing a proliferative response. We have previously shown that agents capable of activating protein kinase C (PKC), such as FGF and the phorbol ester tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), inhibit the differentiation of the adipogenic cell line TA1, as measured by the rapid loss of adipocyte-specific RNAs. We report here that the treatment of fully differentiated TA1 adipocytes with FGF at 10 ng/ml induces the reversal of adipocyte differentiation, even in cells where PKC activity has been down-regulated by TPA pretreatment. In contrast, TPA or lower concentrations of FGF (1 ng/ml), both effective inducers of c-fos RNA in adipocytes, fail to reverse adipocyte differentiation. The adipocytes, however, will extinguish differentiation-specific functions in response to TPA by the addition of a calcium ionophore. Therefore, we propose that there are two FGF-sensitive pathways in TA1 cells: one responsible for the initiation of differentiation (TPA sensitive) and another required for maintenance of the adipose phenotype (TPA insensitive). These results suggest that activation of two distinct signaling pathways--one PKC and calcium dependent, the other FGF activated but PKC independent--are capable of inhibiting the biochemical events responsible for the maintenance of adipocyte differentiation. PMID:2507555

  5. Regulation of adipocyte differentiation and gene expression-crosstalk between TGFβ and wnt signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hang; Ward, Meliza G; Adeola, Olayiwola; Ajuwon, Kolapo M

    2013-09-01

    Obesity results in reduced differentiation potential of adipocytes leading to adipose tissue insulin resistance. Elevated proinflammatory cytokines from adipose tissue in obesity, such as TNFα have been implicated in the reduced adipocyte differentiation. Other mediators of reduced adipocyte differentiation include TGFβ and wnt proteins. Although some overlap exists in the signaling cascades of the wnt and TGFβ pathways it is unknown if TGFβ or wnt proteins reciprocally induce the expression of each other to maximize their biological effects in adipocytes. Therefore, we investigated the possible involvement of TGFβ signaling in wnt induced gene expression and vice versa in 3T3-L1 adipocyte. Effect of TGFβ and Wnt pathways on differentiation was studied in preadipocytes induced to differentiate in the presence of Wnt3a or TGFβ1 and their inhibitors (FZ8-CRD and SB431542, respectively). Regulation of intracellular signaling and gene expression was also studied in mature adipocytes. Our results show that both TGFβ1 and Wnt3a lead to increased accumulation of β-catenin, phosphorylation of AKT and p44/42 MAPK. However, differences were found in the pattern of gene expression induced by the two proteins suggesting that distinct, but complex, signaling pathways are activated by TGFβ and wnt proteins to independently regulate adipocyte function.

  6. Soluble soy protein peptic hydrolysate stimulates adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Ayaka; Nagaoka, Satoshi

    2013-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the potential health benefit effects of soybean proteins on obesity-associated metabolic disorders have not been fully clarified. In this study, we investigated the effects of soluble soybean protein peptic hydrolysate (SPH) on adipocyte differentiation by using 3T3-L1 murine preadipocytes. The addition of SPH increased lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. SPH increased the mRNA expression levels of an adipogenic marker gene and decreased that of a preadipocyte marker gene, suggesting that SPH promotes adipocyte differentiation. SPH induced antidiabetic and antiatherogenic adiponectin mRNA expression and secretion. Moreover, SPH increased the mRNA expression levels of insulin-responsive glucose transporter 4 and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. The expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation, during adipocyte differentiation were up-regulated in 3T3-L1 cells treated with SPH, and lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation induced by SPH was inhibited in the presence of a PPARγ antagonist. However, SPH did not exhibit PPARγ ligand activity. These findings indicate that SPH stimulates adipocyte differentiation, at least in part, via the up-regulation of PPARγ expression levels. These effects of SPH might be important for the health benefit effects of soybean proteins on obesity-associated metabolic disorders. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Rosiglitazone in Obesity-Impaired Wound Healing Depend on Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Pfeilschifter, Josef; Frank, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Combined diabetes-obesity syndromes severely impair regeneration of acute skin wounds in mouse models. This study assessed the contribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue to exacerbated wound inflammatory conditions. Genetically obese (ob/ob) mice showed an increased expression of positive transcriptional effectors of adipocyte differentiation such as Krüppel-like factor (KLF)-5 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ and an associated expression of leptin and fatty acid-binding protein (FABP)-4, but also CXCL2 in isolated subcutaneous fat. This observation in obese mice is in keeping with differentially elevated levels of KLF-5, PPAR-γ, leptin, FABP-4 and CXCL2 in in vitro-differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Notably, CXCL2 expression restrictively appeared upon cytokine (IL-1β/TNF-α) stimulation only in mature, but not immature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Of importance, the critical regulator of adipocyte maturation, PPAR-γ, was merely expressed in the final phase of in-vitro induced adipocyte differentiation from 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. Consistently, the PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone suppressed cytokine-induced CXCL2 release from mature adipocytes, but not from early 3T3-L1 adipocyte stages. The inhibitory effect of PPAR-γ activation on CXCL2 release appeared to be a general anti-inflammatory effect in mature adipocytes, as cytokine-induced cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2 was simultaneously repressed by rosiglitazone. In accordance with these findings, oral administration of rosiglitazone to wounded obese mice significantly changed subcutaneous adipocyte morphology, reduced wound CXCL2 and Cox-2 expression and improved tissue regeneration. Thus, our data suggest that PPAR-γ might provide a target to suppress inflammatory signals from mature adipocytes, which add to the prolonged wound inflammation observed in diabetes-obesity conditions. PMID:27992530

  8. Epidermal Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates adipocyte differentiation via secretion of adipogenic factors

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Giacomo; Proserpio, Valentina; Lichtenberger, Beate Maria; Natsuga, Ken; Sinclair, Rodney; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Watt, Fiona M.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the hair follicle growth cycle and oscillation in the thickness of the underlying adipocyte layer are synchronized. Although factors secreted by adipocytes are known to regulate the hair growth cycle, it is unclear whether the epidermis can regulate adipogenesis. We show that inhibition of epidermal Wnt/β-catenin signaling reduced adipocyte differentiation in developing and adult mouse dermis. Conversely, ectopic activation of epidermal Wnt signaling promoted adipocyte differentiation and hair growth. When the Wnt pathway was activated in the embryonic epidermis, there was a dramatic and premature increase in adipocytes in the absence of hair follicle formation, demonstrating that Wnt activation, rather than mature hair follicles, is required for adipocyte generation. Epidermal and dermal gene expression profiling identified keratinocyte-derived adipogenic factors that are induced by β-catenin activation. Wnt/β-catenin signaling-dependent secreted factors from keratinocytes promoted adipocyte differentiation in vitro, and we identified ligands for the bone morphogenetic protein and insulin pathways as proadipogenic factors. Our results indicate epidermal Wnt/β-catenin as a critical initiator of a signaling cascade that induces adipogenesis and highlight the role of epidermal Wnt signaling in synchronizing adipocyte differentiation with the hair growth cycle. PMID:24706781

  9. Differentiation of white and brown adipocytes from human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youn-Kyoung; Cowan, Chad A

    2014-01-01

    Given the rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity and related metabolic diseases, research to better understand adipose tissue biology and physiology has garnered considerable attention. Adipose has been studied using both cell culture systems and model organisms. However, the mechanisms of adipocyte regulation are not comprehensively understood, as currently available in vitro or in vivo systems do not fully recapitulate human metabolic processes. Human primary adipocytes are difficult to culture and expand, and current cell systems have limitations such as cell line-to-cell line variability for adipocyte differentiation, decreased proliferation, and differentiation potential upon continued passaging. To overcome these limitations, we developed and established an efficient and robust adipocyte differentiation protocol using human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and inducible expression of key adipogenic transcriptional regulators. Here, we provide a simple and stepwise protocol for programming hPSCs into mature white or brown adipocytes. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ATF3 represses PPARγ expression and inhibits adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Min-Kyung; Jung, Myeong Ho

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • ATF3 decrease the expression of PPARγ and its target gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • ATF3 represses the promoter activity of PPARγ2 gene. • ATF/CRE (−1537/−1530) is critical for ATF3-mediated downregulation of PPARγ. • ATF3 binds to the promoter region containing the ATF/CRE. • ER stress inhibits adipocyte differentiation through downregulation of PPARγ by ATF3. - Abstract: Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-adaptive transcription factor that mediates cellular stress response signaling. We previously reported that ATF3 represses CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) expression and inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. In this study, we explored potential role of ATF3 in negatively regulating peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). ATF3 decreased the expression of PPARγ and its target gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ATF3 also repressed the activity of −2.6 Kb promoter of mouse PPARγ2. Overexpression of PPARγ significantly prevented the ATF3-mediated inhibition of 3T3-L1 differentiation. Transfection studies with 5′ deleted-reporters showed that ATF3 repressed the activity of −2037 bp promoter, whereas it did not affect the activity of −1458 bp promoter, suggesting that ATF3 responsive element is located between the −2037 and −1458. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that ATF3 binds to ATF/CRE site (5′-TGACGTTT-3′) between −1537 and −1530. Mutation of the ATF/CRE site abrogated ATF3-mediated transrepression of the PPARγ2 promoter. Treatment with thapsigargin, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer, increased ATF3 expression, whereas it decreased PPARγ expression. ATF3 knockdown significantly blocked the thapsigargin-mediated downregulation of PPARγ expression. Furthermore, overexpression of PPARγ prevented inhibition of 3T3-L1 differentiation by thapsigargin. Collectively, these results suggest that ATF3-mediated

  11. The effect of dehydroleucodine in adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Stefancin, Chad; Villaverde, Nicole; Priestap, Horacio A; Tonn, Carlos E; Lopez, Luis A; Barbieri, Manuel A

    2011-12-05

    Dehydroleucodine (DhL) is a sesquiterpene lactone of the guaianolide group with gastric cytoprotective activity. Recent studies have also demonstrated that DhL inhibits the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. In this study we examined the effect of DhL in the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The addition of DhL significantly inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes along with a significant decrease in the accumulation of lipid content by a dramatic downregulation of the expression of adipogenic-specific transcriptional factors PPARγ and C-EBPα. However, phosphorylation of AMPKα, Erk1/2 and Akt1 was not inhibited by DhL treatment. Interestingly, we also found that 11,13-dihydrodehydroleucodine, a derivative of DhL with inactivated α-methylene-γ-lactone function, also inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that DhL has an important inhibitory effect in cellular pathways regulating adipocyte differentiation by modulating the PPARγ expression, which is known to play a pivotal role during adipogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of dehydroleucodine in adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Stefancin, Chad; Villaverde, Nicole; Priestap, Horacio A.; Tonn, Carlos E.; Lopez, Luis A.; Barbieri, Manuel A.

    2012-01-01

    Dehydroleucodine (DhL) is a sesquiterpene lactone of the guaianolide group with gastric citoprotective activity. Recent studies have also demonstrated that DhL inhibits the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. In this study we examined the effect of DhL in the differentiation 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The addition of DhL significantly inhibited the differentiation 3T3-L1 preadipocytes along with significant decrease in the accumulation of lipid content by a dramatic down regulation of the expression of adipogenic-specific transcriptional factors PPARγ and C-EBPα. However, phosphorylation of AMPKα, Erk1/2 and Akt1 was not inhibited by DhL treatment. Interestingly, we also found that 11,13-dihydro-dehydroleucodine, a derivative of DhL with inactivated α-methylene-γ-lactone function, also inhibited the differentiation 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Taken together, these data suggest DhL has an important inhibitory effect in cellular pathways regulating adipocyte differentiation by modulating the PPARγ expression, which is known to play a pivotal role during adipogenesis. PMID:21963454

  13. Fat intake leads to differential response of rat adipocytes to glucose, insulin and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Diaz, Diego F; Campion, Javier; Arellano, Arianna V; Milagro, Fermin I; Moreno-Aliaga, Maria J; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2012-04-01

    Antioxidant-based treatments have emerged as novel and interesting approaches to counteract fat accumulation in obesity and associated metabolic disturbances. Adipocytes from rats that were fed on chow or high-fat diet (HFD) for 50 d were isolated (primary adipocytes) and incubated (72 h) on low (LG; 5.6 mmol/L) or high (HG; 25 mmol/L) glucose levels, in the presence or absence of 1.6 nmol/L insulin and 200 μmol/L vitamin C (VC). Adipocytes from HFD-fed animals presented lower insulin-induced glucose uptake, lower lactate and glycerol release, and lower insulin-induced secretion of some adipokines as compared with controls. HG treatment restored the blunted response to insulin regarding apelin secretion in adipocytes from HFD-fed rats. VC treatment inhibited the levels of nearly all variables, irrespective of the adipocytes' dietary origin. The HG treatment reduced adipocyte viability, and VC protected from this toxic effect, although more drastically in control adipocytes. Summing up, in vivo chow or HFD intake determines a differential response to insulin and glucose treatments that appears to be dependent on the insulin-resistance status of the adipocytes, while VC modifies some responses from adipocytes independently of the previous dietary intake of the animals.

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis promotes 3T3 cell differentiation into adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Petyaev, Ivan M; Zigangirova, Nailya A; Kapotina, Lydia N; Fedina, Elena D; Kyle, Nigel H

    2014-01-01

    There is experimental and clinical evidence showing that some viral and bacterial pathogens are linked to the accumulation of excessive body fat and obesity. The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of C. trachomatis to propagate in the pre-adipocyte cell line and induce its differentiation into fat cells. 3T3 L1 pre-adipocytes or McCoy cells were plated and infected with C. trachomatis. The cell monolayers were further studied by immunofluorescent and quantitative RT-PCR methods. C. trachomatis can efficiently propagate in 3T3 L1 cells, a mouse pre-adipocyte cell line. The morphological characteristics of chlamydial growth revealed in 3T3 L1 cells with the monoclonal chlamydial MOMP-specific antibody resembled those seen in McCoy cells, a classic cell line used for chlamydial research. The number of chlamydial 16S rRNA copies detectable in the lysates of McCoy and 3T3 cells infected with C. trachomatis was almost identical, suggesting similar efficiency of pathogen propagation in both cell lines. Moreover, there was a significant increase in aP2 mRNA transcript levels as well as moderate induction of SCD-1 mRNA in the total RNA extracted from the infected 3T3 L1 cells 48 h following the pathogen inoculation. The increased expression of the adipogenic markers was also accompanied by lipid droplet accumulation in the C. trachomatis infected 3T3 L1 cells, suggesting their transformation into differentiated adipocytes. The direct effect of the pathogen on fat cell progenitors observed in this work may explain abnormal fat deposition at the sites of chronic inflammation caused by C. trachomatis.

  15. Methyltransferase and demethylase profiling studies during brown adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Son, Min Jeong; Kim, Won Kon; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Anna; Lee, Da Som; Han, Baek Soo; Lee, Sang Chul; Bae, Kwang-Hee

    2016-07-01

    Although brown adipose tissue is important with regard to energy balance, the molecular mechanism of brown adipocyte differentiation has not been extensively studied. Specifically, regulation factors at the level of protein modification are largely unknown. In this study, we examine the changes in the expression level of enzymes which are involved in protein lysine methylation during brown adipocyte differentiation. Several enzymes, in this case SUV420H2, PRDM9, MLL3 and JHDM1D, were found to be up-regulated. On the other hand, Set7/9 was significantly down-regulated. In the case of SUV420H2, the expression level increased sharply during brown adipocyte differentiation, whereas the expression of SUV420H2 was marginally enhanced during the white adipocyte differentiation. The knock-down of SUV420H2 caused the suppression of brown adipocyte differentiation, as compared to a scrambled control. These results suggest that SUV420H2, a methyltransferase, is involved in brown adipocyte differentiation, and that the methylation of protein lysine is important in brown adipocyte differentiation. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 388-393].

  16. Methyltransferase and demethylase profiling studies during brown adipocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Son, Min Jeong; Kim, Won Kon; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Anna; Lee, Da Som; Han, Baek Soo; Lee, Sang Chul; Bae, Kwang-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Although brown adipose tissue is important with regard to energy balance, the molecular mechanism of brown adipocyte differentiation has not been extensively studied. Specifically, regulation factors at the level of protein modification are largely unknown. In this study, we examine the changes in the expression level of enzymes which are involved in protein lysine methylation during brown adipocyte differentiation. Several enzymes, in this case SUV420H2, PRDM9, MLL3 and JHDM1D, were found to be up-regulated. On the other hand, Set7/9 was significantly down-regulated. In the case of SUV420H2, the expression level increased sharply during brown adipocyte differentiation, whereas the expression of SUV420H2 was marginally enhanced during the white adipocyte differentiation. The knock-down of SUV420H2 caused the suppression of brown adipocyte differentiation, as compared to a scrambled control. These results suggest that SUV420H2, a methyltransferase, is involved in brown adipocyte differentiation, and that the methylation of protein lysine is important in brown adipocyte differentiation. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(7): 388-393] PMID:27157542

  17. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate enhances the expression of genes related to insulin sensitivity and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes at an early stage of differentiation.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Naoko; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Kameji, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Masaya; Goda, Toshinao

    2009-10-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is thought to enhance insulin sensitivity in adipocytes, although doses used in in vitro experiments have been shown to promote apoptosis. To explore the effects of EGCG on insulin sensitivity in adipocytes, the expression of genes related to insulin sensitivity and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were measured in response to low doses of EGCG. Increasing concentrations of low-dose EGCG were administered for 8 d to differentiating 3T3 adipocytes, either at days 0-8 (early stage) or at days 8-16 (late stage). Fat accumulation and cell activity were measured by Oil Red O staining and 1-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan assay, respectively. The expression of genes related to insulin sensitivity and adipocyte differentiation was measured by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Fat accumulation and cell activity in 3T3-L1 cells at the early and late stages were reduced at EGCG concentrations > or = 50 microM. However, EGCG doses of 5-10 microM reduced fat accumulation and induced the expression of genes related to insulin sensitivity (including Fabp4, Cd36, Lpl, Pck1, Acox1, Lypla3, and Ucp2) and adipocyte differentiation (Pparg1, Pparg2, Cebps, and Ppargc1a). These increases were only seen at the early, and not late, stages of differentiation. These data indicate that low doses of EGCG, despite reducing triacylglycerol accumulation, induce the expression of genes related to insulin sensitivity in the early stage of differentiation.

  18. Ethanolic extracts of Brazilian red propolis promote adipocyte differentiation through PPARγ activation.

    PubMed

    Iio, Akio; Ohguchi, Kenji; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Maruyama, Hiroe; Araki, Yoko; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Ito, Masafumi

    2010-10-01

    The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of ethanolic extracts of red propolis (EERP) on adipogenesis and evaluate the molecular basis for their anti-obesity effects. We tested whether EERP alone could induce differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, regulate the expression of adipocyte-specific genes and reverse inhibitory effects of TNF-α on their differentiation. Next, we performed a luciferase reporter gene assay to test whether EERP could enhance transcriptional activities of PPARγ and adiponectin promoter activities. EERP strongly induced differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes, and enhanced the PPARγ transcriptional activity and adiponectin promoter activity. In addition, EERP attenuated the inhibitory effect of TNF-α on adipocyte differentiation and adiponectin production in mature adipocytes. The present study indicates that EERP enhance differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in part by its potency of PPARγ activation and are capable of reversing inhibitory effects of TNF-α on adipocyte differentiation and adiponectin expression. These results suggest the value of EERP as a diet supplement for prevention and treatment of obesity and obesity-associated disorders. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Participation of TNF-α in Inhibitory Effects of Adipocytes on Osteoblast Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Abuna, Robrigo P F; De Oliveira, Fabiola S; Santos, Thiago De S; Guerra, Thais R; Rosa, Adalberto L; Beloti, Marcio M

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) are attractive tools for cell-based therapies to repair bone tissue. In this study, we investigated the osteogenic and adipogenic potential of BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs as well as the effect of crosstalk between osteoblasts and adipocytes on cell phenotype expression. Rat BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs were cultured either in growth, osteogenic, or adipogenic medium to evaluate osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Additionally, osteoblasts and adipocytes were indirectly co-cultured to investigate the effect of adipocytes on osteoblast differentiation and vice versa. BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs exhibit osteogenic and adipogenic potential under non-differentiation-inducing conditions. When exposed to osteogenic medium, BM-MSCs exhibited higher expression of bone markers compared with AT-MSCs. Conversely, under adipogenic conditions, AT-MSCs displayed higher expression of adipose tissue markers compared with BM-MSCs. The presence of adipocytes as indirect co-culture repressed the expression of the osteoblast phenotype, whereas osteoblasts did not exert remarkable effect on adipocytes. The inhibitory effect of adipocytes on osteoblasts was due to the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in culture medium by adipocytes. Indeed, the addition of exogenous TNF-α in culture medium repressed the differentiation of BM-MSCs into osteoblasts mimicking the indirect co-culture effect. In conclusion, our study showed that BM-MSCs are more osteogenic while AT-MSCs are more adipogenic. Additionally, we demonstrated the key role of TNF-α secreted by adipocytes on the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. Thus, we postulate that the higher osteogenic potential of BM-MSCs makes them the first choice for inducing bone repair in cell-based therapies.

  20. Insulin and chromium picolinate induce translocation of CD36 to the plasma membrane through different signaling pathways in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and with a differential functionality of the CD36.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiqun; Van Oort, Masja M; Yao, Minghui; Van der Horst, Dick J; Rodenburg, Kees W

    2011-09-01

    Chromium picolinate (CrPic) has been indicated to activate glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) trafficking to the plasma membrane (PM) to enhance glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In skeletal and heart muscle cells, insulin directs the intracellular trafficking of the fatty acid translocase/CD36 to induce the uptake of cellular long-chain fatty acid (LCFA). The current study describes the effects of CrPic and insulin on the translocation of CD36 from intracellular storage pools to the PM in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in comparison with that of GLUT4. Immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblotting revealed that both CD36 and GLUT4 were expressed and primarily located intracellularly in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Upon insulin or CrPic stimulation, PM expression of CD36 increased in a similar manner as that for GLUT4; the CrPic-stimulated PM expression was less strong than that of insulin. The increase in PM localization for these two proteins by insulin paralleled LCFA ([1-(14)C]palmitate) or [(3)H]deoxyglucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The induction of the PM expression of GLUT4, but not CD36, or substrate uptake by insulin and CrPic appears to be additive in adipocytes. Furthermore, wortmannin completely inhibited the insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4 or CD36 and prevented the increased uptake of glucose or LCFA in these cells. Taken together, for the first time, these findings suggest that both insulin and CrPic induce CD36 translocation to the PM in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and that their translocation-inducing effects are not additive. The signaling pathway inducing the translocations is different, apparently resulting in a differential activity of CD36.

  1. Aloe-emodin inhibits adipocyte differentiation and maturation during in vitro human mesenchymal stem cell adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Subash-Babu, Pandurangan; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of Aloe-emodin (AE) on the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation during 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-induced adipocyte differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). AE treatment (5, 10, and 20 µM) of preadipocyte cells resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase and triglyceride levels as well as an increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity and attenuated lipid accumulation compared with untreated differentiated adipocytes. Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we studied the mRNA expression levels of resistin, adiponectin, aP(2), lipoprotein lipase, PPARγ, and tumor necrosis factor-α in hMSCs undergoing adipocyte differentiation; treatment with AE decreased the expression of these adipogenic genes and decreased adipocyte differentiation. In addition, AE suppresses the differentiation of hMSCs into adipocytes by downregulating PPARγ and C/EBPα expressions. AE significantly inhibited hMSCs proliferation and preadipocyte differentiation within the first 2 days of treatment, indicating that the antiadipogenic effect.

  2. Differentiation of preadipocytes and mature adipocytes requires PSMB8

    PubMed Central

    Arimochi, Hideki; Sasaki, Yuki; Kitamura, Akiko; Yasutomo, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The differentiation of adipocytes is tightly regulated by a variety of intrinsic molecules and also by extrinsic molecules produced by adjacent cells. Dysfunction of adipocyte differentiation causes lipodystrophy, which impairs glucose and lipid homeostasis. Although dysfunction of immunoproteasomes causes partial lipodystrophy, the detailed molecular mechanisms remain to be determined. Here, we demonstrate that Psmb8, a catalytic subunit for immunoproteasomes, directly regulates the differentiation of preadipocytes and additionally the differentiation of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes. Psmb8−/− mice exhibited slower weight gain than wild-type mice, and this was accompanied by reduced adipose tissue volume and smaller size of mature adipocytes compared with controls. Blockade of Psmb8 activity in 3T3-L1 cells disturbed the differentiation to mature adipocytes. Psmb8−/− mice had fewer preadipocyte precursors, fewer preadipocytes and a reduced ability to differentiate preadipocytes toward mature adipocytes. Our data demonstrate that Psmb8-mediated immunoproteasome activity is a direct regulator of the differentiation of preadipocytes and their ultimate maturation. PMID:27225296

  3. Study of the proinflammatory role of human differentiated omental adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Bassols, Judit; Ortega, Francisco J; Moreno-Navarrete, José M; Peral, Belén; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, Jose-Manuel

    2009-08-15

    Infiltration of monocyte-derived macrophages into adipose tissue has been associated with tissue and systemic inflammation. It has been suggested that macrophage infiltration affects fat expansion through a paracrine action on adipocyte differentiation. Our working hypothesis is that factors released by monocytes/macrophages may also affect mature adipocyte biology. Human differentiated omental adipocytes were incubated with LPS and conditioned media obtained from human macrophage-like cell line THP-1, previously activated or not with LPS. We show that LPS greatly increased the secretion levels of pro-inflammatory adipokines including IL-6, IL-8, GRO, and MCP-1. Macrophage-conditioned medium also upregulated IL-6, IL-8, GRO, and MCP-1 mRNA expression and protein levels and led to the novo secretion of ICAM-1, IL-1 beta, IP-10, MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, VEGF, and TNFalpha. Human differentiated adipocytes treated by macrophage-conditioned medium displayed marked reduction of adipocyte function as assessed by decreased phosphorylation levels of ERK1, ERK2, and p38 alpha and reduced gene expression of lipogenic markers including PPAR-gamma and fatty acid synthase. These data show that macrophage-secreted factors not only inhibit the formation of mature adipocytes but alter their function, suggesting that human differentiated omental adipocytes might also contribute to systemic chronic low-grade inflammation associated with human obesity.

  4. Using a 3D Culture System to Differentiate Visceral Adipocytes In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Emont, Margo P; Yu, Hui; Jun, Heejin; Hong, Xiaowei; Maganti, Nenita; Stegemann, Jan P; Wu, Jun

    2015-12-01

    It has long been recognized that body fat distribution and regional adiposity play a major role in the control of metabolic homeostasis. However, the ability to study and compare the cell autonomous regulation and response of adipocytes from different fat depots has been hampered by the difficulty of inducing preadipocytes isolated from the visceral depot to differentiate into mature adipocytes in culture. Here, we present an easily created 3-dimensional (3D) culture system that can be used to differentiate preadipocytes from the visceral depot as robustly as those from the sc depot. The cells differentiated in these 3D collagen gels are mature adipocytes that retain depot-specific characteristics, as determined by imaging, gene expression, and functional assays. This 3D culture system therefore allows for study of the development and function of adipocytes from both depots in vitro and may ultimately lead to a greater understanding of site-specific functional differences of adipose tissues to metabolic dysregulation.

  5. Characterization of lipid metabolism in insulin-sensitive adipocytes differentiated from immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Prawitt, Janne; Niemeier, Andreas; Kassem, Moustapha; Beisiegel, Ulrike; Heeren, Joerg

    2008-02-15

    There is a great demand for cell models to study human adipocyte function. Here we describe the adipogenic differentiation of a telomerase-immortalized human mesenchymal stem cell line (hMSC-Tert) that maintains numerous features of terminally differentiated adipocytes even after prolonged withdrawal of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonist rosiglitazone. Differentiated hMSC-Tert developed the characteristic monolocular phenotype of mature adipocytes. The expression of adipocyte specific markers was highly increased during differentiation. Most importantly, the presence of the PPAR{gamma} agonist rosiglitazone was not required for the stable expression of lipoprotein lipase, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein and perilipin on mRNA and protein levels. Adiponectin expression was post-transcriptionally down-regulated in the absence of rosiglitazone. Insulin sensitivity as measured by insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and S6 ribosomal protein was also independent of rosiglitazone. In addition to commonly used adipogenic markers, we investigated further PPAR{gamma}-stimulated proteins with a role in lipid metabolism. We observed an increase of lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR, LRP1) and apolipoprotein E expression during differentiation. Despite this increased expression, the receptor-mediated endocytosis of lipoproteins was decreased in differentiated adipocytes, suggesting that these proteins may have an additional function in adipose tissue beyond lipoprotein uptake.

  6. Characterization of lipid metabolism in insulin-sensitive adipocytes differentiated from immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Prawitt, Janne; Niemeier, Andreas; Kassem, Moustapha; Beisiegel, Ulrike; Heeren, Joerg

    2008-02-15

    There is a great demand for cell models to study human adipocyte function. Here we describe the adipogenic differentiation of a telomerase-immortalized human mesenchymal stem cell line (hMSC-Tert) that maintains numerous features of terminally differentiated adipocytes even after prolonged withdrawal of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonist rosiglitazone. Differentiated hMSC-Tert developed the characteristic monolocular phenotype of mature adipocytes. The expression of adipocyte specific markers was highly increased during differentiation. Most importantly, the presence of the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone was not required for the stable expression of lipoprotein lipase, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein and perilipin on mRNA and protein levels. Adiponectin expression was post-transcriptionally down-regulated in the absence of rosiglitazone. Insulin sensitivity as measured by insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and S6 ribosomal protein was also independent of rosiglitazone. In addition to commonly used adipogenic markers, we investigated further PPARgamma-stimulated proteins with a role in lipid metabolism. We observed an increase of lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR, LRP1) and apolipoprotein E expression during differentiation. Despite this increased expression, the receptor-mediated endocytosis of lipoproteins was decreased in differentiated adipocytes, suggesting that these proteins may have an additional function in adipose tissue beyond lipoprotein uptake.

  7. A study of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shunming; Cheng, Gong; Zhu, Huolan; Guan, Gongchang

    2015-01-01

    With the use of the microarray technique, genes expressed in the late phase of adipocyte differentiation were investigated. These genes play an important role in stimulating adipocyte growth and lipid droplet formation. Therefore, they contribute a great deal to the onset of obesity. With the use of SW872 adipocytes and the microarray technique, genes related to adipocyte differentiation were tested and compared with undifferentiated preadipocytes 14 days after induction. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for confirmation. More than 21,329 transcriptors were expressed and determined, of which 1326 increased and 687 decreased undifferentiated adipocytes. Among them, 21 were highly expressed by more than 10-fold. With RT-PCR, 12 were confirmed, including apelin, CIDEC, PID1, LYRM1, ADD1, PPARγ2, ANGPTL4, ADIPOQ, ACOX1, FIP1L1, MAP3K2 and PEX14. Furthermore, genes involved in lipid metabolism, signal transduction, DNA replication, redox status and transcription factors were determined as well. Novel genes involved in adipogenesis (e.g., apelin) were detected. A variety of genes were discovered and validated with RT-PCR at the late phase of adipocyte differentiation. This may help us better understand the onset of obesity and the potential role of adipocytes in other organs.

  8. Echinacea purpurea root extract enhances the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Mi; Choi, Kyeong-Mi; Lee, Youn-Sun; Kim, Wonkyun; Shin, Kyong-Oh; Oh, Seikwan; Jung, Jae-Chul; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Lee, Yong-Moon; Hong, Jin Tae; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Yoo, Hwan-Soo

    2014-06-01

    Echinacea purpurea has been shown to have anti-diabetic activities; for example, it activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and increases insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Adipogenesis has been used to study the insulin signaling pathway and to screen anti-diabetic compounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of an ethanol extract of E. purpurea (EEEP) and its constituents on the insulin-induced adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. When adipocyte differentiation was induced with insulin plus 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and dexamethasone, the accumulation of lipid droplets and the cellular triglyceride content were significantly increased by EEEP. The expressions of PPARγ and C/EBPα in adipocytes treated with EEEP were gradually increased as compared with control cells. Fat accumulation and triglyceride content of adipocytes treated with dodeca-2(E),4(E)-dienoic acid isobutylamide were significantly increased as compared with control cells. The expressions of PPARγ and C/EBPα in adipocytes treated with dodeca-2(E),4(E)-dienoic acid isobutylamide were significantly higher than in control cells. These results suggest EEEP promotes the adipogenesis that is partially induced by insulin and that dodeca-2(E),4(E)-dienoic acid isobutylamide appears to be responsible for EEEP-enhanced adipocyte differentiation.

  9. Retinoblastoma protein functions as a molecular switch determining white versus brown adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jacob B; Jørgensen, Claus; Petersen, Rasmus K; Hallenborg, Philip; De Matteis, Rita; Bøye, Hans A; Petrovic, Natasa; Enerbäck, Sven; Nedergaard, Jan; Cinti, Saverio; te Riele, Hein; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2004-03-23

    Adipocyte precursor cells give raise to two major cell populations with different physiological roles: white and brown adipocytes. Here we demonstrate that the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) regulates white vs. brown adipocyte differentiation. Functional inactivation of pRB in wild-type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) and white preadipocytes by expression of simian virus 40 large T antigen results in the expression of the brown fat-specific uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) in the adipose state. Retinoblastoma gene-deficient (Rb-/-) MEFs and stem cells, but not the corresponding wild-type cells, differentiate into adipocytes with a gene expression pattern and mitochondria content resembling brown adipose tissue. pRB-deficient MEFs exhibit an increased expression of the Forkhead transcription factor Foxc2 and its target gene cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit RIalpha, resulting in increased cAMP sensitivity. Suppression of cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity in Rb(-/-)MEFs blocked the brown adipocyte-like gene expression pattern without affecting differentiation per se. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that pRB is present in the nuclei of white but not brown adipocyte precursor cells at a developmental stage where both cell types begin to accumulate lipid and brown adipocytes express UCP-1. Furthermore, pRB rapidly undergoes phosphorylation upon cold-induced neodifferentiation and up-regulation of UCP-1 expression in brown adipose tissue. Finally, down-regulation of pRB expression accompanies transdifferentiation of white into brown adipocytes in response to beta3-adrenergic receptor agonist treatment. We propose that pRB acts as a molecular switch determining white vs. brown adipogenesis, suggesting a previously uncharacterized function of this key cell cycle regulator in adipocyte lineage commitment and differentiation.

  10. The mechanism of white and brown adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Hironori

    2013-04-01

    Obesity gives vent to many diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, being considered as the main causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome can well be understood by studying the molecular mechanisms that control the development and function of adipose tissue. In human body, exist two types of adipose tissue, the white and the brown one, which are reported to play various roles in energy homeostasis. The major and most efficient storage of energy occurs in the form of triglycerides in white adipose tissue while brown adipose tissue actively participates in both basal and inducible energy consumption in the form of thermogenesis. Recent years have observed a rapid and greater interest towards developmental plasticity and therapeutic potential of stromal cells those isolated from adipose tissue. The adipocyte differentiation involves a couple of regulators in the white or brown adipogenesis. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ actively participates in regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and also acts as main regulator of both white and brown adipogenesis. This review based on our recent research, seeks to highlight the adipocyte differentiation.

  11. The adipokine Chemerin induces lipolysis and adipogenesis in bovine intramuscular adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Kun-Lin; Li, Hui-Xia; Zhou, Guang-Hong

    2016-07-01

    The adipokine Chemerin is reported to regulate adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis in vivo and in 3T3-L1 cells. Our team is focused on the role of Chemerin in metabolism and intramuscular adipocyte differentiation because intramuscular fat is the basic material for the formation of marbling in livestock and poultry meat. In this study, bovine intramuscular mature adipocytes were cultured in medium with Chemerin, and the process of lipolysis of mature adipocytes and the adipogenesis of de-differentiated preadipocytes were investigated. The results showed that Chemerin induced significant lipolytic metabolism in intramuscular mature adipocytes, indicated by increased levels of glycerol, FFA, and up-regulated expression of the lipolysis critical factors HSL, LPL, and leptin. Meanwhile, the expressions of adipogenic key factors PPARγ, C/EBPα, and A-FABP were decreased by Chemerin during lipolysis or dedifferentiation in mature adipocytes. The de-differentiated preadipocytes could re-differentiate into mature adipocytes. Intriguingly, the formation of cells' lipid droplets was promoted by Chemerin during preadipocyte differentiation. In addition, mRNA and protein expressions of PPARγ, C/EBPα, and A-FABP were up-regulated by Chemerin during preadipocytes differentiation. These results suggest that Chemerin promotes lipolysis in mature adipocytes and induces adipogenesis during preadipocyte re-differentiation, further indicating a dual role for Chemerin in the deposition of intramuscular fat in ruminant animals.

  12. Isoform-specific regulation of adipocyte differentiation by Akt/protein kinase B{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Sung-Ji; Kim, Eun-Kyoung; Tucker, David F.; Kim, Chi Dae; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Bae, Sun Sik

    2008-06-20

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway tightly regulates adipose cell differentiation. Here we show that loss of Akt1/PKB{alpha} in primary mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) cells results in a defect of adipocyte differentiation. Adipocyte differentiation in vitro and ex vivo was restored in cells lacking both Akt1/PKB{alpha} and Akt2/PKB{beta} by ectopic expression of Akt1/PKB{alpha} but not Akt2/PKB{beta}. Akt1/PKB{alpha} was found to be the major regulator of phosphorylation and nuclear export of FoxO1, whose presence in the nucleus strongly attenuates adipocyte differentiation. Differentiation-induced cell division was significantly abrogated in Akt1/PKB{alpha}-deficient cells, but was restored after forced expression of Akt1/PKB{alpha}. Moreover, expression of p27{sup Kip1}, an inhibitor of the cell cycle, was down regulated in an Akt1/PKB{alpha}-specific manner during adipocyte differentiation. Based on these data, we suggest that the Akt1/PKB{alpha} isoform plays a major role in adipocyte differentiation by regulating FoxO1 and p27{sup Kip1}.

  13. Effect of TNF-Alpha on Caveolin-1 Expression and Insulin Signaling During Adipocyte Differentiation and in Mature Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Ortega, Sara; Varela-Guruceaga, Maider; Algarabel, Miriam; Ignacio Milagro, Fermín; Alfredo Martínez, J; de Miguel, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-mediated chronic low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is the central component of adipocyte caveolae and has an essential role in the regulation of insulin signaling. The effects of TNF-α on Cav-1 expression and insulin signaling during adipocyte differentiation and in mature adipocytes were studied. 3T3-L1 cells were differentiated (21 days) in the presence TNF-α (10 ng/mL) and mature adipocytes were also treated with TNF-α for 48 hours. Cav-1 and insulin receptor (IR) gene methylation were determined as well as Cav-1, IR, PKB/AKT-2 and Glut-4 expression and activation by real time RT-PCR and western blot. Baseline and insulin-induced glucose uptake was measured by the 2-[C14]-deoxyglucose uptake assay. TNF-α slowed down the differentiation program, hindering the expression of some insulin signaling intermediates without fully eliminating insulin-mediated glucose uptake. In mature adipocytes, TNF-α did not compromise lipid-storage capacity, but downregulated the expression of the insulin signaling intermediates, totally blocking insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Insulin sensitivity correlated with the level of activated phospho-Cav-1 in both situations, strongly suggesting the direct contribution of Cav-1 to the maintenance of this physiological response. Cav-1 activation by phosphorylation seems to be essential for the maintenance of an active and insulin-sensitive glucose uptake. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Vestigial-like 3 is an inhibitor of adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Daniel S; Pan, Calvin; Lusis, Aldons J; Tontonoz, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Adipose differentiation is a complex process controlled by a network of transcription factors and co-regulators. We compared the global gene expression patterns of adipogenic and nonadipogenic clones of 3T3-F442A preadipocytes and identified the transcriptional cofactor, vestigial-like 3 (Vgll3), as an inhibitor of adipogenesis. Vgll3 expression is down-regulated during terminal adipocyte differentiation in vitro and negatively correlates with weight and total fat mass in vivo. Furthermore, enforced Vgll3 expression inhibits the differentiation of preadipocytes in vitro, whereas shRNA-mediated knockdown of Vgll3 expression promotes differentiation. Expression of Vgll3 promoted the expression of genes associated with bone and chondrocyte formation, suggesting that Vgll3 participates in the decision of mesenchymal cells to proceed down the adipocyte, bone, or cartilage lineages. The elucidation of factors involved in specification of the adipocyte phenotype may aid in the identification of new strategies for the treatment of metabolic disease.

  15. PPARγ ligand production is tightly linked to clonal expansion during initiation of adipocyte differentiation[S

    PubMed Central

    Hallenborg, Philip; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Feddersen, Søren; Sundekilde, Ulrik; Hansen, Jacob B.; Blagoev, Blagoy; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Adipocyte differentiation is orchestrated by the ligand-activated nuclear receptor PPARγ. Endogenous ligands comprise oxidized derivatives of arachidonic acid and structurally similar PUFAs. Although expression of PPARγ peaks in mature adipocytes, ligands are produced primarily at the onset of differentiation. Concomitant with agonist production, murine fibroblasts undergo two rounds of mitosis referred to as mitotic clonal expansion. Here we show that mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in either of two cell cycle inhibitors, the transcription factor p53 or its target gene encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, exhibit increased adipogenic potential. The antiadipogenic effect of p53 relied on its transcriptional activity and p21 expression but was circumvented by administration of an exogenous PPARγ agonist suggesting a linkage between cell cycling and PPARγ ligand production. Indeed, cell cycle inhibitory compounds decreased PPARγ ligand production in differentiating 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, these inhibitors abolished the release of arachidonic acid induced by the hormonal cocktail initiating adipogenesis. Collectively, our results suggest that murine fibroblasts require clonal expansion for PPARγ ligand production at the onset of adipocyte differentiation. PMID:25312885

  16. Amelioration of Mitochondrial Dysfunction-Induced Insulin Resistance in Differentiated 3T3-L1 Adipocytes via Inhibition of NF-κB Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hafizi Abu Bakar, Mohamad; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji; Kai, Cheng Kian; Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Yaakob, Harisun

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways is among the inflammatory mechanism involved in the development of insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissues derived from obese animal and human subjects. Nevertheless, little is known about the roles of NF-κB pathways in regulating mitochondrial function of the adipose tissues. In the present study, we sought to investigate the direct effects of celastrol (potent NF-κB inhibitor) upon mitochondrial dysfunction-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Celastrol ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction by altering mitochondrial fusion and fission in adipocytes. The levels of oxidative DNA damage, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation were down-regulated. Further, the morphology and quantification of intracellular lipid droplets revealed the decrease of intracellular lipid accumulation with reduced lipolysis. Moreover, massive production of the pro-inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were markedly depleted. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activity was restored with the enhancement of insulin signaling pathways. This study signified that the treatments modulated towards knockdown of NF-κB transcription factor may counteract these metabolic insults exacerbated in our model of synergy between mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NF-κB inhibition modulates mitochondrial dysfunction induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:25474091

  17. Amelioration of mitochondrial dysfunction-induced insulin resistance in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes via inhibition of NF-κB pathways.

    PubMed

    Bakar, Mohamad Hafizi Abu; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji; Kai, Cheng Kian; Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Yaakob, Harisun

    2014-12-02

    A growing body of evidence suggests that activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways is among the inflammatory mechanism involved in the development of insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissues derived from obese animal and human subjects. Nevertheless, little is known about the roles of NF-κB pathways in regulating mitochondrial function of the adipose tissues. In the present study, we sought to investigate the direct effects of celastrol (potent NF-κB inhibitor) upon mitochondrial dysfunction-induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Celastrol ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction by altering mitochondrial fusion and fission in adipocytes. The levels of oxidative DNA damage, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation were down-regulated. Further, the morphology and quantification of intracellular lipid droplets revealed the decrease of intracellular lipid accumulation with reduced lipolysis. Moreover, massive production of the pro-inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were markedly depleted. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activity was restored with the enhancement of insulin signaling pathways. This study signified that the treatments modulated towards knockdown of NF-κB transcription factor may counteract these metabolic insults exacerbated in our model of synergy between mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NF-κB inhibition modulates mitochondrial dysfunction induced insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  18. Honokiol enhances adipocyte differentiation by potentiating insulin signaling in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun-Sil; Cha, Byung-Yoon; Iida, Kagami; Sato, Masako; Lee, Young-Sil; Teruya, Toshiaki; Yonezawa, Takayuki; Nagai, Kazuo; Woo, Je-Tae

    2011-07-01

    Adipose tissue plays an essential role in energy homeostasis as a metabolic and endocrine organ. Accordingly, adipocytes are emerging as a major drug target for obesity and obesity-mediated metabolic syndrome. Dysfunction of enlarged adipocytes in obesity is involved in obesity-mediated metabolic syndrome. Adipocytokines, such as adiponectin released from small adipocytes, are able to prevent these disorders. In this study, we found that honokiol, an ingredient of Magnolia officinalis used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicines, enhanced adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Oil Red O staining showed that treatment with honokiol in the presence of insulin dose-dependently increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipoyctes although its activity was weak compared with rosiglitazone. During adipocyte differentiation, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2) mRNA and PPARγ target genes such as adipocyte protein 2 (aP2), adiponectin, and GLUT4 was induced by treatment with 10 μM honokiol. However, honokiol failed to show direct binding to the PPARγ ligand-binding domain in vitro. In preadipocytes, treatment with honokiol in the presence of insulin increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 protein and Akt protein, early insulin signaling pathways related to adipocyte differentiation, compared with insulin-only treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that honokiol promotes adipocyte differentiation through increased expression of PPARγ2 mRNA and potentiation of insulin signaling pathways such as the Ras/ERK1/2 and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways.

  19. Phytanic acid, a novel activator of uncoupling protein-1 gene transcription and brown adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Agatha; Barberá, Maria José; Iglesias, Roser; Giralt, Marta; Villarroya, Francesc

    2002-01-01

    Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid) is a phytol-derived branched-chain fatty acid present in dietary products. Phytanic acid increased uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) mRNA expression in brown adipocytes differentiated in culture. Phytanic acid induced the expression of the UCP1 gene promoter, which was enhanced by co-transfection with a retinoid X receptor (RXR) expression vector but not with other expression vectors driving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha, PPARgamma or a form of RXR devoid of ligand-dependent sensitivity. The effect of phytanic acid on the UCP1 gene required the 5' enhancer region of the gene and the effects of phytanic acid were mediated in an additive manner by three binding sites for RXR. Moreover, phytanic acid activates brown adipocyte differentiation: long-term exposure of brown preadipocytes to phytanic acid promoted the acquisition of the brown adipocyte morphology and caused a co-ordinate induction of the mRNAs for gene markers of brown adipocyte differentiation, such as UCP1, adipocyte lipid-binding protein aP2, lipoprotein lipase, the glucose transporter GLUT4 or subunit II of cytochrome c oxidase. In conclusion, phytanic acid is a natural product of phytol metabolism that activates brown adipocyte thermogenic function. It constitutes a potential nutritional signal linking dietary status to adaptive thermogenesis. PMID:11829740

  20. Cell line models for differentiation: preadipocytes and adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Sylvia P; Dodson, Michael V; Hausman, Gary J

    2010-10-01

    In vitro models have been invaluable in determining the mechanisms involved in adipocyte proliferation, differentiation, adipokine secretion and gene/protein expression. The cells presently available for research purposes all have unique advantages and disadvantages that one should be aware of when selecting cells. Established cell lines, such as 3T3-L1 cells, are easier and less costly to use than freshly isolated cells, even though freshly isolated cells allow for various comparisons such as the in vitro evaluation of different in vivo conditions that may not be possible using cell lines. Moreover, stem cells, transdifferentiated cells or dedifferentiated cells are relatively new cell models being evaluated for the study of adipocyte regulation and physiology. The focus of this brief review is to highlight similarities and differences in adipocyte models to aid in appropriate model selection and data interpretation for successful advancement of our understanding of adipocyte biology.

  1. Carbamazepine directly inhibits adipocyte differentiation through activation of the ERK 1/2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Turpin, E; Muscat, A; Vatier, C; Chetrite, G; Corruble, E; Moldes, M; Fève, B

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Carbamazepine (CBZ), known for its anti-epileptic, analgesic and mood-stabilizing properties, is also known to induce weight gain but the pathophysiology of this adverse effect is still largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that CBZ could have a direct effect on adipocyte development and metabolism. Experimental Research We studied the effects of CBZ on morphological biochemical and molecular markers of adipogenesis, using several pre-adipocyte murine cell lines (3T3-L1, 3T3-F442A and T37i cells) and primary cultures of human pre-adipocytes. To delineate the mechanisms underlying the effect of CBZ, clonal expansion of pre-adipocytes, pro-adipogenic transcription factors, glucose uptake and lipolysis were also examined. Key Results CBZ strongly inhibited pre-adipocyte differentiation and triglyceride accumulation in a time- and dose-dependent manner in all models. Pleiotropic mechanisms were at the basis of the inhibitory effects of CBZ on adipogenesis and cell lipid accumulation. They included suppression of both clonal expansion and major adipogenic transcription factors such as PPAR-γ and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α, activation of basal lipolysis and decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Conclusions and Implications The effect of CBZ on adipogenesis involves activation of the ERK1/2 pathway. Our results show that CBZ acts directly on pre-adipocytes and adipocytes to alter adipose tissue development and metabolism. PMID:22889231

  2. Intracellular VEGF regulates the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanqiu; Berendsen, Agnes D.; Jia, Shidong; Lotinun, Sutada; Baron, Roland; Ferrara, Napoleone; Olsen, Bjorn R.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporotic bones have reduced spongy bone mass, altered bone architecture, and increased marrow fat. Bone marrow stem cells from osteoporotic patients are more likely to differentiate into adipocytes than control cells, suggesting that adipocyte differentiation may play a role in osteoporosis. VEGF is highly expressed in osteoblastic precursor cells and is known to stimulate bone formation. Here we tested the hypothesis that VEGF is also an important regulator of cell fate, determining whether differentiation gives rise to osteoblasts or adipocytes. Mice with conditional VEGF deficiency in osteoblastic precursor cells exhibited an osteoporosis-like phenotype characterized by reduced bone mass and increased bone marrow fat. In addition, reduced VEGF expression in mesenchymal stem cells resulted in reduced osteoblast and increased adipocyte differentiation. Osteoblast differentiation was reduced when VEGF receptor 1 or 2 was knocked down but was unaffected by treatment with recombinant VEGF or neutralizing antibodies against VEGF. Our results suggested that VEGF controls differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells by regulating the transcription factors RUNX2 and PPARγ2 as well as through a reciprocal interaction with nuclear envelope proteins lamin A/C. Importantly, our data support a model whereby VEGF regulates differentiation through an intracrine mechanism that is distinct from the role of secreted VEGF and its receptors. PMID:22886301

  3. Rutin Stimulates Adipocyte Differentiation and Adiponectin Secretion in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Naowaboot, Jarinyaporn; Chung, Choon Hee; Choi, Ran

    2015-04-01

    Rutin is aflavonoid, which is found in many plants. It has been shown to reduce blood glucose and increase insulin levels in diabetic rats. In the present study, the authors aimed to elucidate the molecular basis for the observed antidiabetic activity using murine 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cultures. The treatment of differentiating 3T3-L1 cells with rutin at concentrations of 3, 10, 30 and 100 µM significantly increased lipid accumulation and mRNA expression of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein. Furthermore, rutin at concentrations of 10, 30 and 100 µM increased adiponectin mRNA expression together with stimulating the secretion of adiponectin in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. These results indicate that the stimulatory effect of rutin on adipocyte differentiation likely occurs through up-regulation of adipogenic transcription factors and downstream adipocyte-specific gene expression. Such effects of rutin on adiponectin secretion and adipocyte activity may account for, at least in part, the antidiabetic effects of consumption of food containing rutin.

  4. The expression and regulation of STATs during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Stephens, J M; Morrison, R F; Pilch, P F

    1996-05-03

    STATs (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) comprise a family of transcription factors that reside in the cytoplasm of resting cells. In response to a variety of stimuli, STATs become tyrosine-phosphorylated and translocate to the nucleus where they mediate transcriptional regulation. We have used the 3T3-L1 murine cell line to examine the expression of STAT proteins as a function of their differentiation into adipocytes. The expression of STATs 1, 3, and 5, but not of STAT 6, is markedly elevated in adipocytes as compared with their fibroblast precursors. Exposure of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) blocks their differentiation into adipocytes. Therefore, we examined STAT expression as a function of differentiation in the presence of this cytokine. The expression of STATs 1 and 5 is markedly attenuated in the presence of TNF alpha, whereas STAT 3 expression is unaffected by this treatment. Only STAT 1 is down-regulated by TNF alpha in fully differentiated cells. Thus, although the expression of STATs 1, 3, and 5 is markedly enhanced upon differentiation, only STAT 5 expression is tightly correlated with the adipocyte phenotype. These data suggest that STAT 5, and possibly STAT 1, could be potential inducers of tissue-specific genes, which contribute to the development and maintenance of the adipocyte phenotype.

  5. Diclofenac and triamcinolone acetonide impair tenocytic differentiation and promote adipocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tendinopathies are often empirically treated with oral/topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications and corticosteroid injections despite their unclear effects on tendon regeneration. Recent studies indicate that tendon progenitors exhibit stem cell-like properties, i.e., differentiation to osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes, in addition to tenocytes. Our present study aims at understanding the effects of triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac on tenocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Methods The murine fibroblast C3H10T1/2 cell line was induced to tenocytic differentiation by growth differentiation factor-7. Cell proliferation and differentiation with the exposure of different concentrations of triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac were measured by WST-1 assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, respectively. Results Cell proliferation was decreased in a concentration-dependent manner when exposed to triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac. In addition to tenocytic differentiation, adipocyte formation was observed, both at gene expression and microscopic level, when the cells were exposed to triamcinolone acetonide or high concentrations of diclofenac. Conclusions Our results indicate that triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac might alter mesenchymal stem cell differentiation in a nonfavorable way regarding tendon regeneration; therefore, these medications should be used with more caution clinically. PMID:24004657

  6. ReishiMax, mushroom based dietary supplement, inhibits adipocyte differentiation, stimulates glucose uptake and activates AMPK

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is a health hazard which is closely associated with various complications including insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and cancer. In spite of numerous preclinical and clinical interventions, the prevalence of obesity and its related disorders are on the rise demanding an urgent need for exploring novel therapeutic agents that can regulate adipogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated whether a dietary supplement ReishiMax (RM), containing triterpenes and polysaccharides extracted from medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum, affects adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. Methods 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes and treated with RM (0-300 μg/ml). Adipocyte differentiation/lipid uptake was evaluated by oil red O staining and triglyceride and glycerol concentrations were determined. Gene expression was evaluated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Glucose uptake was determined with [3H]-glucose. Results RM inhibited adipocyte differentiation through the suppresion of expression of adipogenic transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), sterol regulatory element binding element protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBP-α). RM also suppressed expression of enzymes and proteins responsible for lipid synthesis, transport and storage: fatty acid synthase (FAS), acyl-CoA synthetase-1 (ACS1), fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4), fatty acid transport protein-1 (FATP1) and perilipin. RM induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased glucose uptake by adipocytes. Conclusion Our study suggests that RM can control adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake. The health benefits of ReishiMax warrant further clinical studies. PMID:21929808

  7. Brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan L. Antioxidant Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and Induces Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activity and Anthelmintic Activities against Hymenolepis nana and Anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chia-Hua; Chan, Leong-Perng; Chou, Tzung-Han; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Yen, Chuan-Min; Chen, Pin-Ju; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Lin, Rong-Jyh

    2013-01-01

    Brazilein, a natural, biologically active compound from Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells. This study verifies the antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of brazilein in skin cancer cells and is the first time to elucidate the inhibition mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana, and reduction of spontaneous movement in Anisakis simplex. Brazilein exhibits an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to scavenge DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) free radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Brazilein inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), the master regulator of adipogenesis, suggesting that brazilein presents the antiobesity effects. The toxic effects of brazilein were evaluated in terms of cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and the activity of caspase-3 in BCC cells. The inhibition of the growth of skin cancer cells (A431, BCC, and SCC25) by brazilein is greater than that of human skin malignant melanoma (A375) cells, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7 cells), and noncancerous cells (HaCaT and BNLCL2 cells). The anthelmintic activities of brazilein against Hymenolepis nana are better than those of Anisakis simplex.

  8. Brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan L. Antioxidant Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and Induces Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activity and Anthelmintic Activities against Hymenolepis nana and Anisakis simplex

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chia-Hua; Chan, Leong-Perng; Chou, Tzung-Han; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Yen, Chuan-Min; Chen, Pin-Ju; Ding, Hsiou-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Brazilein, a natural, biologically active compound from Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells. This study verifies the antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of brazilein in skin cancer cells and is the first time to elucidate the inhibition mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana, and reduction of spontaneous movement in Anisakis simplex. Brazilein exhibits an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to scavenge DPPH• and ABTS•+ free radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Brazilein inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), the master regulator of adipogenesis, suggesting that brazilein presents the antiobesity effects. The toxic effects of brazilein were evaluated in terms of cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and the activity of caspase-3 in BCC cells. The inhibition of the growth of skin cancer cells (A431, BCC, and SCC25) by brazilein is greater than that of human skin malignant melanoma (A375) cells, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7 cells), and noncancerous cells (HaCaT and BNLCL2 cells). The anthelmintic activities of brazilein against Hymenolepis nana are better than those of Anisakis simplex. PMID:23554834

  9. Thioredoxin reductase 1 suppresses adipocyte differentiation and insulin responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiaoxiao; Giménez-Cassina, Alfredo; Petrus, Paul; Conrad, Marcus; Rydén, Mikael; Arnér, Elias S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1), encoded by Txnrd1, was suggested to modulate glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. Here we discovered that TrxR1 suppresses insulin responsiveness, anabolic metabolism and adipocyte differentiation. Immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking Txnrd1 (Txnrd1−/−) displayed increased metabolic flux, glycogen storage, lipogenesis and adipogenesis. This phenotype coincided with upregulated PPARγ expression, promotion of mitotic clonal expansion and downregulation of p27 and p53. Enhanced Akt activation also contributed to augmented adipogenesis and insulin sensitivity. Knockdown of TXNRD1 transcripts accelerated adipocyte differentiation also in human primary preadipocytes. Furthermore, TXNRD1 transcript levels in subcutaneous adipose tissue from 56 women were inversely associated with insulin sensitivity in vivo and lipogenesis in their isolated adipocytes. These results suggest that TrxR1 suppresses anabolic metabolism and adipogenesis by inhibition of intracellular signaling pathways downstream of insulin stimulation. PMID:27346647

  10. Differentiation of human adipose stromal cells in vitro into insulin-sensitive adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Huttala, Outi; Mysore, R; Sarkanen, J R; Heinonen, T; Olkkonen, V M; Ylikomi, T

    2016-10-01

    Adipose tissue-related diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes are worldwide epidemics. In order to develop adipose tissue cultures in vitro that mimic more faithfully the in vivo physiology, new well-characterized and publicly accepted differentiation methods of human adipose stem cells are needed. The aims of this study are (1) to improve the existing natural adipose tissue extract (ATE)-based induction method and (2) to study the effects of a differentiation method on insulin responsiveness of the resulting adipocytes. Different induction media were applied on human adipose stromal cell (hASC) monocultures to study the differentiation capacity of the induction media and the functionality of the differentiated adipocytes. Cells were differentiated for 14 days to assess triglyceride accumulation per cell and adipocyte-specific gene expression (PPARγ, adiponectin, AP2, leptin, Glut4, Prdm16, CIDEA, PGC1-α, RIP140, UCP and ADCY5). Insulin response was studied by measuring glucose uptake and inhibition of lipolysis after incubation with 100 or 500 nM insulin. The selected differentiation method included a 3-day induction with ATE, 6 days in serum-free medium supplemented with 1.15 μM insulin and 9.06 μM Troglitazone, followed by 4 days in a defined serum- and insulin-free stimulation medium. This protocol induced prominent general adipocyte gene expression, including markers for both brown and white adipocytes and triglyceride accumulation. Moreover, the cells were sensitive to insulin as observed from increased glucose uptake and inhibition of lipolysis. This differentiation protocol provides a promising approach for the induction of hASC adipogenesis to obtain functional and mature human adipocytes.

  11. FIZZ1-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation from adipocytes and its potential role in dermal fibrosis and lipoatrophy.

    PubMed

    Martins, Vanessa; Gonzalez De Los Santos, Francina; Wu, Zhe; Capelozzi, Vera; Phan, Sem H; Liu, Tianju

    2015-10-01

    Subcutaneous lipoatrophy characteristically accompanies dermal fibrosis with de novo emergence of myofibroblasts such as in systemic sclerosis or scleroderma. Recently dermal adipocytes were shown to have the capacity to differentiate to myofibroblasts in an animal model. Transforming growth factor β can induce this phenomenon in vitro; however its in vivo significance is unclear. Because found in inflammatory zone 1 (FIZZ1) is an inducer of myofibroblast differentiation but an inhibitor of adipocyte differentiation, we investigated its potential role in adipocyte transdifferentiation to myofibroblast in dermal fibrosis. FIZZ1 caused significant and rapid suppression of the expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in adipocytes, consistent with dedifferentiation with loss of lipid and Oil Red O staining. The suppression was accompanied subsequently with stimulation of α-smooth muscle actin and type I collagen expression, indicative of myofibroblast differentiation. In vivo FIZZ1 expression was significantly elevated in the murine bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis model, which was associated with significant reduction in adipocyte marker gene expression and subcutaneous lipoatrophy. Finally, FIZZ1 knockout mice exhibited significantly reduced bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis with greater preservation of the subcutaneous fat than wild-type mice. These findings suggested that the FIZZ1 induction of adipocyte transdifferentiation to myofibroblast might be a key pathogenic mechanism for the accumulation of myofibroblasts in dermal fibrosis.

  12. Adipocytes Differentiated In Vitro from Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells Lack Essential Free Fatty Acids Compared to Adult Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bojin, Florina Maria; Gruia, Alexandra Teodora; Cristea, Mirabela Iustina; Ordodi, Valentin Laurentiu; Paunescu, Virgil

    2012-01-01

    Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can be differentiated in vitro to become adipocyte-like cells with lipid vacuoles, similar to adipocytes derived from adult adipose tissue. Little is known regarding the composition of free fatty acids (FFAs) of the in vitro-differentiated adipocytes, or whether it resembles that of native adult adipocytes. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify FFA species in BMSC-derived adipocytes and compared them with FFAs found in adipocytes derived from adult adipose tissue. We found that adult adipocytes contained significant percentages of saturated and monounsaturated FFAs, including palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and oleic acid (C18:1); some polyunsaturated FFAs, such as linoleic acid (C18:2), a small percentage of arachidonic acid (C20:4), and very little linolenic acid (C18:3). In comparison, 80%–90% confluent BMSCs contained comparable percentages of palmitic and oleic acids, significantly more arachidonic and stearic acids, very little linoleic acid, and no linolenic acid. After differentiation, compared with adult adipocytes, BMSC-derived adipocytes contained a comparable percentage of palmitic acid, more stearic and arachidonic acids, less oleic acid, almost no linoleic acid, and no detectable linolenic acid. This composition was quite similar to that of undifferentiated BMSCs. The differentiation medium contained only palmitic and stearic acids, with traces of oleic acid; it did not contain the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, the composition of FFAs in BMSC-derived adipocytes was altered compared with adult adipocytes. BMSC-derived adipocytes had an altered composition of saturated and monounsaturated FFAs and lacked essential FFAs that may directly affect signaling related to their lipolysis/lipogenesis functions. PMID:22023262

  13. Adipocytes differentiated in vitro from rat mesenchymal stem cells lack essential free fatty acids compared to adult adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Bojin, Florina Maria; Gruia, Alexandra Teodora; Cristea, Mirabela Iustina; Ordodi, Valentin Laurentiu; Paunescu, Virgil; Mic, Felix Aurel

    2012-03-01

    Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can be differentiated in vitro to become adipocyte-like cells with lipid vacuoles, similar to adipocytes derived from adult adipose tissue. Little is known regarding the composition of free fatty acids (FFAs) of the in vitro-differentiated adipocytes, or whether it resembles that of native adult adipocytes. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify FFA species in BMSC-derived adipocytes and compared them with FFAs found in adipocytes derived from adult adipose tissue. We found that adult adipocytes contained significant percentages of saturated and monounsaturated FFAs, including palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and oleic acid (C18:1); some polyunsaturated FFAs, such as linoleic acid (C18:2), a small percentage of arachidonic acid (C20:4), and very little linolenic acid (C18:3). In comparison, 80%-90% confluent BMSCs contained comparable percentages of palmitic and oleic acids, significantly more arachidonic and stearic acids, very little linoleic acid, and no linolenic acid. After differentiation, compared with adult adipocytes, BMSC-derived adipocytes contained a comparable percentage of palmitic acid, more stearic and arachidonic acids, less oleic acid, almost no linoleic acid, and no detectable linolenic acid. This composition was quite similar to that of undifferentiated BMSCs. The differentiation medium contained only palmitic and stearic acids, with traces of oleic acid; it did not contain the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, the composition of FFAs in BMSC-derived adipocytes was altered compared with adult adipocytes. BMSC-derived adipocytes had an altered composition of saturated and monounsaturated FFAs and lacked essential FFAs that may directly affect signaling related to their lipolysis/lipogenesis functions.

  14. Metformin induces glucose uptake in human preadipocyte-derived adipocytes from various fat depots.

    PubMed

    Fischer, M; Timper, K; Radimerski, T; Dembinski, K; Frey, D M; Zulewski, H; Keller, U; Müller, B; Christ-Crain, M; Grisouard, J

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of metformin on basal and insulin-induced glucose uptake in subcutaneous and visceral preadipocyte-derived adipocytes from obese and non-obese patients, preadipocytes were obtained from subcutaneous and visceral fat depots during abdominal surgery. Differentiation efficiency was evaluated by measurement of intracellular triglyceride accumulation. Preadipocyte-derived adipocytes were treated with metformin (1 mM) for 24 h with or without the addition of insulin (100 nM) for 20 min and glucose uptake was measured. In cells from each donor, intracellular triglyceride accumulation was more abundant in subcutaneous preadipocyte-derived adipocytes than in visceral preadipocyte-derived adipocytes (p < 0.001). Insulin stimulated glucose uptake in subcutaneous preadipocyte-derived adipocytes from both non-obese and obese patients (p < 0.001 vs. basal). In visceral preadipocyte-derived adipocytes, insulin did not increase basal glucose uptake. In subcutaneous preadipocyte-derived adipocytes from non-obese and obese patients, metformin alone increased glucose uptake to 2.7 +/- 0.2 (p < 0.001) and 2.1 +/- 0.1 fold (p < 0.001) respectively. Metformin increased glucose uptake in visceral preadipocyte-derived adipocytes from non-obese (1.7 +/- 0.1 fold vs. basal, p < 0.001) and obese (2.0 +/- 0.2 fold vs. basal, p < 0.001) patients. Combined treatment with metformin and insulin increased glucose uptake in subcutaneous preadipocyte-derived adipocytes from both non-obese and obese patients (p < 0.001 vs. insulin alone). In preadipocyte-derived adipocytes glucose uptake is induced by metformin independent of the fat depot origin of the preadipocytes (subcutaneous or visceral) and the obesity state of the patients (non-obese or obese). In adipocytes, metformin seems to induce glucose uptake independent of insulin suggesting an alternative mechanism of action of this drug.

  15. Characterization of actions of octanoate on porcine preadipocytes and adipocytes differentiated in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Shunichi; Suzuki, Misae; Sembon, Shoichiro; Fuchimoto, Daiichiro; Onishi, Akira

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► Octanoate regulated gene expressions in a way distinct from rosiglitasone. ► Octanoate upregulatedPPRE and LXRE reporter activities. ► Octanoate may act on some PPARγ-target genes competitively with other ligands. - Abstract: Octanoate is used to induce adipogenic differentiation and/or lipid accumulation in preadipocytes of domestic animals. However, information on detailed actions of octanoate and the characteristics of octanoate-induced adipocytes is limited. The aim of this study was to examine these issues by comparing the outcomes of the effects of octanoate with those of rosiglitazone, which is a well-defined activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. The adipocytes that were differentiated with 5 mM of octanoate had dispersed and diversely sized lipid droplets compared to those that were differentiated with 1 μM of rosiglitazone. The gene expression levels of adiponectin, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, perilipin 1, and perilipin 4 were much higher in the adipocytes that were differentiated with rosiglitazone than in those differentiated with octanoate, while the gene expression levels of lipoprotein lipase and perilipin 2 were decreased in rosiglitazone-differentiated adipocytes compared to octanoate-differentiated adipocytes. However, the expressions of aP2 and CD36 genes were comparably induced. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that PPAR and liver-X-receptor activities were upregulated by octanoate more effectively than by rosiglitazone. Overall, these results suggested that the action of octanoate was complicated and may be dependent on the targeted genes and cellular status.

  16. Coprinus comatus Cap Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation via Regulation of PPARγ and Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sun-Hee; Kang, Suk Nam; Jeon, Beong-Sam; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Kim, Hong-Duck; Won, Chung-Kil; Kim, Gon-Sup; Cho, Jae-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of Coprinus comatus cap (CCC) on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the effects of CCC on the development of diet-induced obesity in rats. Here, we showed that the CCC has an inhibitory effect on the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, resulting in a significant decrease in lipid accumulation through the downregulation of several adipocyte specific-transcription factors, including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β, C/EBPδ, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Moreover, treatment with CCC during adipocyte differentiation induced a significant down-regulation of PPARγ and adipogenic target genes, including adipocyte protein 2, lipoprotein lipase, and adiponectin. Interestingly, the CCC treatment of the 3T3-L1 adipocytes suppressed the insulin-stimulated Akt and GSK3β phosphorylation, and these effects were stronger in the presence of an inhibitor of Akt phosphorylation, LY294002, suggesting that CCC inhibited adipocyte differentiation through the down-regulation of Akt signaling. In the animal study, CCC administration significantly reduced the body weight and adipose tissue weight of rats fed a high fat diet (HFD) and attenuated lipid accumulation in the adipose tissues of the HFD-induced obese rats. The size of the adipocyte in the epididymal fat of the CCC fed rats was significantly smaller than in the HFD rats. CCC treatment significantly reduced the total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the serum of HFD rats. These results strongly indicated that the CCC-mediated decrease in body weight was due to a reduction in adipose tissue mass. The expression level of PPARγ and phospho-Akt was significantly lower in the CCC-treated HFD rats than that in the HFD obesity rats. These results suggested that CCC inhibited adipocyte differentiation by the down-regulation of major transcription factor involved in the adipogenesis pathway including PPARγ through the regulation of the Akt pathway in 3T3

  17. PPARgamma in adipocyte differentiation and metabolism--novel insights from genome-wide studies.

    PubMed

    Siersbaek, Rasmus; Nielsen, Ronni; Mandrup, Susanne

    2010-08-04

    Adipocyte differentiation is controlled by a tightly regulated transcriptional cascade in which PPARgamma and members of the C/EBP family are key players. Here we review the roles of PPARgamma and C/EBPs in adipocyte differentiation with emphasis on the recently published genome-wide binding profiles for PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha. Interestingly, these analyses show that PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha binding sites are associated with most genes that are induced during adipogenesis suggesting direct activation of many more adipocyte genes than previously anticipated. Furthermore, an extensive overlap between the C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma cistromes indicate a hitherto unrecognized direct crosstalk between these transcription factors. As more genome-wide data emerge in the future, this crosstalk will likely be found to include several other adipogenic transcription factors. Copyright (c) 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Differentiation and characterization of human facial subcutaneous adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Su-Hyoun; Pappas, Apostolos

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with the loss of facial subcutaneous fat and with increased abdominal subcutaneous fat. Site specific differences in adipocyte phenotype and/or gene expression may play a role in these age-related changes. In this study, we isolated and characterized human facial preadipocytes and investigated distinct metabolic properties such as a differentiation pattern in relation to abdominal preadipocytes. Subcutaneous preadipocytes were isolated from human facial and abdominal skin and cultured in the presence of differentiation factors including rosiglitazone, a known peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist, isobutyl-methyl xanthine (IBMX) and insulin. Differentiation was characterized microscopically and by quantitative real-time PCR. Unexpected superior adipogenic capacity of facial preadipocytes was observed; more facial preadipocytes differentiated in response to rosiglitazone than abdominal preadipocytes and facial preadipocytes retained their ability to differentiate through passage 11 compared with passage 5 for abdominal preadipocytes. Experiments confirmed a reduced lipolysis response in facial versus abdominal adipocytes after exposure to isoproterenol, which was consistent with the reduced β2-adrenergic receptor expression by 60% in the facial cells. The expression of other lipid metabolic gene markers was similar in both facial and abdominal adipocytes with the exception of β3-adrenergic receptor which was only found in abdominal adipose tissue. Gene profiling, by microarray analysis, identified that several HOX genes are robustly reduced in facial adipocytes compared to abdominal adipocytes, suggesting different characteristics between the 2 fat depots. These differences may have implications for development of treatments for facial fat loss during aging. PMID:26167398

  19. Organotins Are Potent Activators of PPARγ and Adipocyte Differentiation in Bone Marrow Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yanik, Susan C.; Baker, Amelia H.; Mann, Koren K.; Schlezinger, Jennifer J.

    2011-01-01

    Adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow is potentially deleterious to both bone integrity and lymphopoiesis. Here, we examine the hypothesis that organotins, common environmental contaminants that are dual ligands for peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR) γ and its heterodimerization partner retinoid X receptor (RXR), are potent activators of bone marrow adipogenesis. A C57Bl/6-derived bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) line, BMS2, was treated with rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, bexarotene, an RXR agonist, or a series of organotins. Rosiglitazone and bexarotene potently activated adipocyte differentiation; however, bexarotene had a maximal efficacy of only 20% of that induced by rosiglitazone. Organotins (tributyltin [TBT], triphenyltin, and dibutyltin) also stimulated adipocyte differentiation (EC50 of 10–20nM) but with submaximal, structure-dependent efficacy. In coexposures, both bexarotene and TBT enhanced rosiglitazone-induced adipogenesis. To investigate the contribution of PPARγ to TBT-induced adipogenesis, we examined expression of PPARγ2, as well as its transcriptional target FABP4. TBT-induced PPARγ2 and FABP4 protein expression with an efficacy intermediate between rosiglitazone and bexarotene, similar to lipid accumulation. A PPARγ antagonist and PPARγ-specific small hairpin RNA suppressed TBT-induced differentiation, although to a lesser extent than rosiglitazone-induced differentiation, suggesting that TBT may engage alternate pathways. TBT and bexarotene, but not rosiglitazone, also induced the expression of TGM2 (an RXR target) and ABCA1 (a liver X receptor target). The results show that an environmental contaminant, acting with the same potency as a therapeutic drug, induces PPARγ-dependent adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow MSCs. Activation of multiple nuclear receptor pathways by organotins may have significant implications for bone physiology. PMID:21622945

  20. Organotins are potent activators of PPARγ and adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Susan C; Baker, Amelia H; Mann, Koren K; Schlezinger, Jennifer J

    2011-08-01

    Adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow is potentially deleterious to both bone integrity and lymphopoiesis. Here, we examine the hypothesis that organotins, common environmental contaminants that are dual ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ and its heterodimerization partner retinoid X receptor (RXR), are potent activators of bone marrow adipogenesis. A C57Bl/6-derived bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) line, BMS2, was treated with rosiglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, bexarotene, an RXR agonist, or a series of organotins. Rosiglitazone and bexarotene potently activated adipocyte differentiation; however, bexarotene had a maximal efficacy of only 20% of that induced by rosiglitazone. Organotins (tributyltin [TBT], triphenyltin, and dibutyltin) also stimulated adipocyte differentiation (EC₅₀ of 10-20 nM) but with submaximal, structure-dependent efficacy. In coexposures, both bexarotene and TBT enhanced rosiglitazone-induced adipogenesis. To investigate the contribution of PPARγ to TBT-induced adipogenesis, we examined expression of PPARγ2, as well as its transcriptional target FABP4. TBT-induced PPARγ2 and FABP4 protein expression with an efficacy intermediate between rosiglitazone and bexarotene, similar to lipid accumulation. A PPARγ antagonist and PPARγ-specific small hairpin RNA suppressed TBT-induced differentiation, although to a lesser extent than rosiglitazone-induced differentiation, suggesting that TBT may engage alternate pathways. TBT and bexarotene, but not rosiglitazone, also induced the expression of TGM2 (an RXR target) and ABCA1 (a liver X receptor target). The results show that an environmental contaminant, acting with the same potency as a therapeutic drug, induces PPARγ-dependent adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow MSCs. Activation of multiple nuclear receptor pathways by organotins may have significant implications for bone physiology.

  1. Chromium Propionate Enhances Adipogenic Differentiation of Bovine Intramuscular Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tokach, Rebecca J.; Ribeiro, Flavio R. B.; Chung, Ki Yong; Rounds, Whitney; Johnson, Bradley J.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro experiments were performed to determine the effects of increasing concentrations of chromium propionate (CrPro) on mRNA and protein abundance of different enzymes and receptors. Intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) preadipocytes and bovine satellite cells were isolated from the longissimus muscle to determine the effect of treatment on glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA and GLUT4 protein abundance. Preadipocyte cultures were treated with differentiation media plus either sodium propionate or different concentrations of CrPro for 96, 120, and 144 h before harvest. This study indicated that adipogenesis of the bovine IM adipocytes were more sensitive to the treatment of CrPro as compared to SC adipocytes. Enhancement of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and GLUT4 mRNA by CrPro treatment may enhance glucose uptake in IM adipocytes. CrPro decreased GLUT4 protein levels in muscle cell cultures suggesting that those cells have increased efficiency of glucose uptake due to exposure to increased levels of CrPro. In contrast, each of the two adipogenic lines had opposing responses to the CrPro. It appeared that CrPro had the most stimulative effect of GLUT4 response in the IM adipocytes as compared to SC adipocytes. These findings indicated opportunities to potentially augment marbling in beef cattle fed CrPro during the finishing phase. PMID:26664955

  2. Chromium Propionate Enhances Adipogenic Differentiation of Bovine Intramuscular Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Tokach, Rebecca J; Ribeiro, Flavio R B; Chung, Ki Yong; Rounds, Whitney; Johnson, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    In vitro experiments were performed to determine the effects of increasing concentrations of chromium propionate (CrPro) on mRNA and protein abundance of different enzymes and receptors. Intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) preadipocytes and bovine satellite cells were isolated from the longissimus muscle to determine the effect of treatment on glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA and GLUT4 protein abundance. Preadipocyte cultures were treated with differentiation media plus either sodium propionate or different concentrations of CrPro for 96, 120, and 144 h before harvest. This study indicated that adipogenesis of the bovine IM adipocytes were more sensitive to the treatment of CrPro as compared to SC adipocytes. Enhancement of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and GLUT4 mRNA by CrPro treatment may enhance glucose uptake in IM adipocytes. CrPro decreased GLUT4 protein levels in muscle cell cultures suggesting that those cells have increased efficiency of glucose uptake due to exposure to increased levels of CrPro. In contrast, each of the two adipogenic lines had opposing responses to the CrPro. It appeared that CrPro had the most stimulative effect of GLUT4 response in the IM adipocytes as compared to SC adipocytes. These findings indicated opportunities to potentially augment marbling in beef cattle fed CrPro during the finishing phase.

  3. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3/vitamin D receptor suppresses brown adipocyte differentiation and mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Carolyn J; Bae, Jiyoung; Esposito, Debora; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Hu, Pan; Chen, Jiangang; Zhao, Ling

    2015-09-01

    The vitamin D system plays a role in metabolism regulation. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) suppressed 3T3-L1 white adipocyte differentiation. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout mice showed increased energy expenditure, whereas mice with adipose-specific VDR over-expression showed decreased energy expenditure. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), now known to be present in adult humans, functions in non-shivering thermogenesis by uncoupling ATP synthesis from respiration and plays an important role in energy expenditure. However, the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3/VDR on brown adipocyte differentiation and mitochondrial respiration have not been reported. mRNA expression of VDR and the metabolizing enzymes 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) and 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) were examined in BAT of mice models of obesity and during brown adipocyte differentiation. The effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and VDR over-expression on brown adipocyte differentiation and functional outcomes were evaluated. No significant changes in mRNA of VDR and CYP27B1 were noted in both diet-induced obese (DIO) and ob/ob mice, whereas uncoupling protein 1 mRNA was downregulated in BAT of ob/ob, but not DIO mice when compared to the controls. In contrast, mRNA of VDR, CYP24A1, and CYP27B1 were downregulated during brown adipocyte differentiation in vitro. 1,25(OH)2D3 dose-dependently suppressed brown adipocyte differentiation, accompanied by suppressed isoproterenol-stimulated oxygen consumption rates (OCR), maximal OCR and OCR from proton leak. Consistently, over-expression of VDR also suppressed brown adipocyte differentiation. Further, both 1,25(OH)2D3 and VDR over-expression suppressed PPARγ transactivation in brown preadipocytes. Our results demonstrate the suppressive effects of 1,25(OH)2D3/VDR signaling on brown adipocyte differentiation and mitochondrial respiration. The role of 1,25(OH)2D3/VDR system in regulating BAT development and function in obesity warrant further investigation.

  4. Interferon gamma attenuates insulin signaling, lipid storage, and differentiation in human adipocytes via activation of the JAK/STAT pathway.

    PubMed

    McGillicuddy, Fiona C; Chiquoine, Elise H; Hinkle, Christine C; Kim, Roy J; Shah, Rachana; Roche, Helen M; Smyth, Emer M; Reilly, Muredach P

    2009-11-13

    Recent reports demonstrate T-cell infiltration of adipose tissue in early obesity. We hypothesized that interferon (IFN) gamma, a major T-cell inflammatory cytokine, would attenuate human adipocyte functions and sought to establish signaling mechanisms. Differentiated human adipocytes were treated with IFNgamma +/- pharmacological inhibitors prior to insulin stimulation. [(3)H]Glucose uptake and AKT phosphorylation were assessed as markers of insulin sensitivity. IFNgamma induced sustained loss of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in human adipocytes, coincident with reduced Akt phosphorylation and down-regulation of the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1, and GLUT4. Loss of adipocyte triglyceride storage was observed with IFNgamma co-incident with reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, adiponectin, perilipin, fatty acid synthase, and lipoprotein lipase. Treatment with IFNgamma also blocked differentiation of pre-adipocytes to the mature phenotype. IFNgamma-induced robust STAT1 phosphorylation and SOCS1 mRNA expression, with modest, transient STAT3 phosphorylation and SOCS3 induction. Preincubation with a non-selective JAK inhibitor restored glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation while completely reversing IFNgamma suppression of adipogenic mRNAs and adipocyte differentiation. Specific inhibition of JAK2 or JAK3 failed to block IFNgamma effects suggesting a predominant role for JAK1-STAT1. We demonstrate that IFNgamma attenuates insulin sensitivity and suppresses differentiation in human adipocytes, an effect most likely mediated via sustained JAK-STAT1 pathway activation.

  5. Interferon γ Attenuates Insulin Signaling, Lipid Storage, and Differentiation in Human Adipocytes via Activation of the JAK/STAT Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    McGillicuddy, Fiona C.; Chiquoine, Elise H.; Hinkle, Christine C.; Kim, Roy J.; Shah, Rachana; Roche, Helen M.; Smyth, Emer M.; Reilly, Muredach P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports demonstrate T-cell infiltration of adipose tissue in early obesity. We hypothesized that interferon (IFN) γ, a major T-cell inflammatory cytokine, would attenuate human adipocyte functions and sought to establish signaling mechanisms. Differentiated human adipocytes were treated with IFNγ ± pharmacological inhibitors prior to insulin stimulation. [3H]Glucose uptake and AKT phosphorylation were assessed as markers of insulin sensitivity. IFNγ induced sustained loss of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in human adipocytes, coincident with reduced Akt phosphorylation and down-regulation of the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1, and GLUT4. Loss of adipocyte triglyceride storage was observed with IFNγ co-incident with reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, adiponectin, perilipin, fatty acid synthase, and lipoprotein lipase. Treatment with IFNγ also blocked differentiation of pre-adipocytes to the mature phenotype. IFNγ-induced robust STAT1 phosphorylation and SOCS1 mRNA expression, with modest, transient STAT3 phosphorylation and SOCS3 induction. Preincubation with a non-selective JAK inhibitor restored glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation while completely reversing IFNγ suppression of adipogenic mRNAs and adipocyte differentiation. Specific inhibition of JAK2 or JAK3 failed to block IFNγ effects suggesting a predominant role for JAK1-STAT1. We demonstrate that IFNγ attenuates insulin sensitivity and suppresses differentiation in human adipocytes, an effect most likely mediated via sustained JAK-STAT1 pathway activation. PMID:19776010

  6. Stress of endoplasmic reticulum modulates differentiation and lipogenesis of human adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Koc, Michal; Mayerová, Veronika; Kračmerová, Jana; Mairal, Aline; Mališová, Lucia; Štich, Vladimír; Langin, Dominique; Rossmeislová, Lenka

    2015-05-08

    Background: Adipocytes are cells specialized for storage of neutral lipids. This storage capacity is dependent on lipogenesis and is diminished in obesity. The reason for the decline in lipogenic activity of adipocytes in obesity remains unknown. Recent data show that lipogenesis in liver is regulated by pathways initiated by endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Thus, we aimed at investigating the effect of ERS on lipogenesis in adipose cells. Methods: Preadipocytes were isolated from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from obese volunteers and in vitro differentiated into adipocytes. ERS was induced pharmacologically by thapsigargin (TG) or tunicamycin (TM). Activation of Unfolded Protein Response pathway (UPR) was monitored on the level of eIF2α phosphorylation and mRNA expression of downstream targets of UPR sensors. Adipogenic and lipogenic capacity was evaluated by Oil Red O staining, measurement of incorporation of radio-labelled glucose or acetic acid into lipids and mRNA analysis of adipogenic/lipogenic markers. Results: Exposition of adipocytes to high doses of TG (100 nM) and TM (1 μg/ml) for 1–24 h enhanced expression of several UPR markers (HSPA5, EDEM1, ATF4, XBP1s) and phosphorylation of eIF2α. This acute ERS substantially inhibited expression of lipogenic genes (DGAT2, FASN, SCD1) and glucose incorporation into lipids. Moreover, chronic exposure of preadipocytes to low dose of TG (2.5 nM) during the early phases of adipogenic conversion of preadipocytes impaired both, lipogenesis and adipogenesis. On the other hand, chronic low ERS had no apparent effect on lipogenesis in mature adipocytes. Conclusions: Acute ERS weakened a capacity of mature adipocytes to store lipids and chronic ERS diminished adipogenic potential of preadipocytes. - Highlights: • High intensity ERS inhibits lipogenic capacity of adipocytes. • ERS impairs adipogenesis when present in early stages of adipogenesis. • Lipogenesis in mature adipocytes is not

  7. Cirsium japonicum flavones enhance adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhiyong; Wu, Zhihua; Wu, Mingjiang

    2012-01-01

    Cirsium japonicum flavones have been demonstrated to possess anti-diabetic effects in diabetic rats, but the functional mechanism remains unknown. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays an important role in glucose and lipid homeostasis. In this study, we report the effects of Cirsium japonicum flavones (pectolinarin and 5,7-dihydroxy-6,4-dimethoxy flavone) on PPARγ activation, adipocyte differentiation, and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells. Reporter gene assays and Oil Red O staining showed that Cirsium japonicum flavones induced PPARγ activation and enhanced adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Cirsium japonicum flavones increased the expression of PPARγ target genes, such as adiponectin and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and enhanced the translocation of intracellular GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. In mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Cirsium japonicum flavones significantly enhanced the basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. The flavones-induced effects in 3T3-L1 cells were abolished by the PPARγ antagonist, GW9662, and by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, wortmannin. This study suggests that Cirsium japonicum flavones promote adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake by inducing PPARγ activation and then modulating the insulin signaling pathway in some way, which could benefit diabetes patients.

  8. CBMG, a novel derivative of mansonone G suppresses adipocyte differentiation via suppression of PPARγ activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Kyeong; Hairani, Rita; Jeong, Hana; Jeong, Mi Gyeong; Chavasiri, Warinthorn; Hwang, Eun Sook

    2017-08-01

    Mansorins and mansonones have been isolated from Mansonia gagei heartwoods, a traditional herbal medicine used to treat heart failure, and characterized to have anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, and anti-estrogenic activities. However, there is as yet no information on their effects on adipogenesis and lipid storage associated with heart disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of naturally occurring compounds on adipogenic differentiation and sought to develop more potent anti-adipogenic compound. We found that mansonone G (MG) suppressed adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, with a 40% decrease in lipid accumulation at 10 μM. MG derivatives including ether and ester analogues were then synthesized and assayed for their ability to suppress adipogenesis. A novel MG derivative, chlorobenzoyl MG (CBMG) most potently suppressed adipocyte differentiation with the decreased level of aP2 and adiponectin. Interestingly, CBMG treatment decreased the expression of CCAAT enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). Further analysis confirmed that CBMG suppressed both the expression and activity of PPARγ, a master regulator of adipogenesis, and subsequently led to decreases in transcription of C/EBPα, aP2, and adiponectin in adipogenesis, thereby attenuating adipocyte differentiation. Our results suggest that a novel MG derivative, CBMG may have beneficial applications in the control of obesity through the suppression of PPARγ-induced adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Interacting Effects of TSH and Insulin on Human Differentiated Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Felske, D; Gagnon, A; Sorisky, A

    2015-08-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism, characterized by an isolated rise in TSH serum levels with normal thyroid function, is a pro-inflammatory state associated with insulin resistance. Adipocytes express TSH receptors, but it is not known if TSH can directly inhibit insulin signaling. Using primary human differentiated adipocytes, we examined the effects of TSH on insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, and whether conventional PKC (cPKC) were involved. The effect of insulin on TSH-stimulated lipolysis was also investigated. TSH inhibited insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation in adipocytes by 54%. TSH activated cPKC, and Gö6976, a PKCα and -β1 inhibitor, prevented the inhibitory effect of TSH on the insulin response. Insulin reduced the ability of TSH to activate cPKC and to stimulate lipolysis.Our data reveal novel interactions between TSH and insulin. TSH inhibits insulin-stimulated Akt signaling in a cPKC-dependent fashion, whereas insulin blocks TSH-stimulated cPKC activity and lipolysis. TSH and insulin act on differentiated human adipocytes to modulate their respective intracellular signals. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Effects of fermented rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) on adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Micheline; Mazibuko, Sithandiwe E; Joubert, Elizabeth; de Beer, Dalene; Johnson, Rabia; Pheiffer, Carmen; Louw, Johan; Muller, Christo J F

    2014-01-15

    Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) contains a rich complement of polyphenols, including flavonoids, considered to be largely responsible for its health promoting effects, including combatting obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of fermented rooibos hot water soluble solids on in vitro adipocyte differentiation by using differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Hot water soluble solids were obtained when preparing an infusion of fermented rooibos at "cup-of-tea" strength. The major phenolic compounds (>5 mg/g) were isoorientin, orientin, quercetin-3-O-robinobioside and enolic phenylpyruvic acid-2-O-β-D-glucoside. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with 10 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml of the rooibos soluble solids inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation by 22% (p<0.01) and 15% (p<0.05), respectively. Inhibition of adipogenesis was accompanied by decreased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of PPARγ, PPARα, SREBF1 and FASN. Western blot analysis exhibited decreased PPARα, SREBF1 and AMPK protein expression. Impeded glycerol release into the culture medium was observed after rooibos treatment. None of the concentrations of rooibos hot water soluble solids was cytotoxic, in terms of ATP content. Interestingly, the higher concentration of hot water soluble solids increased ATP concentrations which were associated with increased basal glucose uptake. Decreased leptin secretion was observed after rooibos treatment. Our data show that hot water soluble solids from fermented rooibos inhibit adipogenesis and affect adipocyte metabolism, suggesting its potential in preventing obesity.

  11. RNA-binding protein PSPC1 promotes the differentiation-dependent nuclear export of adipocyte RNAs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiexin; Rajbhandari, Prashant; Damianov, Andrey; Han, Areum; Sallam, Tamer; Waki, Hironori; Villanueva, Claudio J; Lee, Stephen D; Nielsen, Ronni; Mandrup, Susanne; Reue, Karen; Young, Stephen G; Whitelegge, Julian; Saez, Enrique; Black, Douglas L; Tontonoz, Peter

    2017-03-01

    A highly orchestrated gene expression program establishes the properties that define mature adipocytes, but the contribution of posttranscriptional factors to the adipocyte phenotype is poorly understood. Here we have shown that the RNA-binding protein PSPC1, a component of the paraspeckle complex, promotes adipogenesis in vitro and is important for mature adipocyte function in vivo. Cross-linking and immunoprecipitation followed by RNA sequencing revealed that PSPC1 binds to intronic and 3'-untranslated regions of a number of adipocyte RNAs, including the RNA encoding the transcriptional regulator EBF1. Purification of the paraspeckle complex from adipocytes further showed that PSPC1 associates with the RNA export factor DDX3X in a differentiation-dependent manner. Remarkably, PSPC1 relocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during differentiation, coinciding with enhanced export of adipogenic RNAs. Mice lacking PSPC1 in fat displayed reduced lipid storage and adipose tissue mass and were resistant to diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance due to a compensatory increase in energy expenditure. These findings highlight a role for PSPC1-dependent RNA maturation in the posttranscriptional control of adipose development and function.

  12. Differentiation of human adipocytes at physiological oxygen levels results in increased adiponectin secretion and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Famulla, Susanne; Schlich, Raphaela; Sell, Henrike; Eckel, Jürgen

    2012-07-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) hypoxia occurs in obese humans and mice. Acute hypoxia in adipocytes causes dysregulation of adipokine secretion with an increase in inflammatory factors and diminished adiponectin release. O2 levels in humans range between 3 and 11% revealing that conventional in vitro culturing at ambient air and acute hypoxia treatment (1% O2) are performed under non-physiological conditions. In this study, we mimicked physiological conditions by differentiating human primary adipocytes under 10% or 5% O2 in comparison to 21% O2. Induction of differentiation markers was comparable between all three conditions. Adipokine release by adipocytes differentiated at lower oxygen levels was altered, with a marked upregulation of adiponectin, IL-6 and DPP4 secretion, and reduced leptin levels compared with adipocytes differentiated at 21% O2. Isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly elevated in adipocytes differentiated at 10% and 5% compared with 21% O2. This effect was accompanied by increased protein expression of β-1 and -2 adrenergic receptor, HSL and perilipin. Conditioned medium (CM) of adipocytes differentiated at the three different conditions was generated for stimulation of human skeletal muscle cells (SkMC) or smooth muscle cells (SMC). CM-induced insulin resistance in SkMC was comparable for the different CMs. However, the SMC proliferative effect of CM from adipocytes differentiated at 10% O2 was significantly reduced compared with 21% O2. This study demonstrates that oxygen levels during adipogenesis are important factors altering adipocyte functionality such as adipokine release, in particular adiponectin secretion, as well as the hormone-induced lipolytic pathway.

  13. Differentiation of human adipocytes at physiological oxygen levels results in increased adiponectin secretion and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Famulla, Susanne; Schlich, Raphaela; Sell, Henrike; Eckel, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) hypoxia occurs in obese humans and mice. Acute hypoxia in adipocytes causes dysregulation of adipokine secretion with an increase in inflammatory factors and diminished adiponectin release. O2 levels in humans range between 3 and 11% revealing that conventional in vitro culturing at ambient air and acute hypoxia treatment (1% O2) are performed under non-physiological conditions. In this study, we mimicked physiological conditions by differentiating human primary adipocytes under 10% or 5% O2 in comparison to 21% O2. Induction of differentiation markers was comparable between all three conditions. Adipokine release by adipocytes differentiated at lower oxygen levels was altered, with a marked upregulation of adiponectin, IL-6 and DPP4 secretion, and reduced leptin levels compared with adipocytes differentiated at 21% O2. Isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly elevated in adipocytes differentiated at 10% and 5% compared with 21% O2. This effect was accompanied by increased protein expression of β-1 and -2 adrenergic receptor, HSL and perilipin. Conditioned medium (CM) of adipocytes differentiated at the three different conditions was generated for stimulation of human skeletal muscle cells (SkMC) or smooth muscle cells (SMC). CM-induced insulin resistance in SkMC was comparable for the different CMs. However, the SMC proliferative effect of CM from adipocytes differentiated at 10% O2 was significantly reduced compared with 21% O2. This study demonstrates that oxygen levels during adipogenesis are important factors altering adipocyte functionality such as adipokine release, in particular adiponectin secretion, as well as the hormone-induced lipolytic pathway. PMID:23700522

  14. Fat accumulation in differentiated brown adipocytes is linked with expression of Hox genes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Smita; Rajput, Yudhishthir S; Barui, Amit K; Sharma, Rajan; Datta, Tirtha K

    2016-03-01

    Homeobox (Hox) genes are involved in body plan of embryo along the anterior-posterior axis. Presence of several Hox genes in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) is indicative of involvement of Hox genes in adipogenesis. We propose that differentiation inducing agents viz. isobutyl-methyl-xanthine (IBMX), indomethacin, dexamethasone (DEX), triiodothyronine (T3) and insulin may regulate differentiation in brown adipose tissue through Hox genes. In vitro culture of brown fat stromalvascular fraction (SVF) in presence or absence of differentiation inducing agents was used for establishing relationship between fat accumulation in differentiated adipocytes and expression of Hox genes. Relative expression of Pref1, UCP1 and Hox genes was determined in different stages of adipogenesis. Presence or absence of IBMX, indomethacin and DEX during differentiation of proliferated pre-adipocytes resulted in marked differences in expression of Hox genes and lipid accumulation. In presence of these inducing agents, lipid accumulation as well as expression of HoxA1, HoxA5, HoxC4 &HoxC8 markedly enhanced. Irrespective of presence or absence of T3, insulin down regulates HoxA10. T3 results in over expression of HoxA5, HoxC4 and HoxC8 genes, whereas insulin up regulates expression of only HoxC8. Findings suggest that accumulation of fat in differentiated adipocytes is linked with expression of Hox genes.

  15. Plac8 is required for white adipocyte differentiation in vitro and cell number control in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Preitner, Maria; Berney, Xavier; Thorens, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Plac8 belongs to an evolutionary conserved family of proteins, mostly abundant in plants where they control fruit weight through regulation of cell number. In mice, Plac8 is expressed both in white and brown adipose tissues and we previously showed that Plac8(-/-) mice develop late-onset obesity, with abnormal brown fat differentiation and reduced thermogenic capacity. We also showed that in brown adipocytes, Plac8 is an upstream regulator of C/EBPβ expression. Here, we first assessed the role of Plac8 in white adipogenesis in vitro. We show that Plac8 is induced early after induction of 3T3-L1 adipocytes differentiation, a process that is prevented by Plac8 knockdown; similarly, embryonic fibroblasts obtained from Plac8 knockout mice failed to form adipocytes upon stimulation of differentiation. Knockdown of Plac8 in 3T3-L1 was associated with reduced expression of C/EBPβ, Krox20, and Klf4, early regulators of the white adipogenic program, and we show that Plac8 could transactivate the C/EBPβ promoter. In vivo, we show that absence of Plac8 led to increased white fat mass with enlarged adipocytes but reduced total number of adipocytes. Finally, even though Plac8(-/-) mice showed impaired thermogenesis due to brown fat dysfunction, this was not associated with changes in glycemia or plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride levels. Collectively, these data indicate that Plac8 is an upstream regulator of C/EBPβ required for adipogenesis in vitro. However, in vivo, Plac8 is dispensable for the differentiation of white adipocytes with preserved fat storage capacity but is required for normal fat cell number regulation.

  16. Downregulation of Runx2 by 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Induces the Transdifferentiation of Osteoblasts to Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Ha; Seong, Semun; Kim, Kabsun; Kim, Inyoung; Jeong, Byung-Chul; Kim, Nacksung

    2016-01-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) indirectly stimulates bone formation, but little is known about its direct effect on bone formation. In this study, we observed that 1,25(OH)2D3 enhances adipocyte differentiation, but inhibits osteoblast differentiation during osteogenesis. The positive role of 1,25(OH)2D3 in adipocyte differentiation was confirmed when murine osteoblasts were cultured in adipogenic medium. Additionally, 1,25(OH)2D3 enhanced the expression of adipocyte marker genes, but inhibited the expression of osteoblast marker genes in osteoblasts. The inhibition of osteoblast differentiation and promotion of adipocyte differentiation mediated by 1,25(OH)2D3 were compensated by Runx2 overexpression. Our results suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 induces the transdifferentiation of osteoblasts to adipocytes via Runx2 downregulation in osteoblasts. PMID:27213351

  17. Downregulation of Runx2 by 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D₃ Induces the Transdifferentiation of Osteoblasts to Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ha; Seong, Semun; Kim, Kabsun; Kim, Inyoung; Jeong, Byung-Chul; Kim, Nacksung

    2016-05-19

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (1,25(OH)₂D₃) indirectly stimulates bone formation, but little is known about its direct effect on bone formation. In this study, we observed that 1,25(OH)₂D₃ enhances adipocyte differentiation, but inhibits osteoblast differentiation during osteogenesis. The positive role of 1,25(OH)₂D₃ in adipocyte differentiation was confirmed when murine osteoblasts were cultured in adipogenic medium. Additionally, 1,25(OH)₂D₃ enhanced the expression of adipocyte marker genes, but inhibited the expression of osteoblast marker genes in osteoblasts. The inhibition of osteoblast differentiation and promotion of adipocyte differentiation mediated by 1,25(OH)₂D₃ were compensated by Runx2 overexpression. Our results suggest that 1,25(OH)₂D₃ induces the transdifferentiation of osteoblasts to adipocytes via Runx2 downregulation in osteoblasts.

  18. Design, synthesis and characterization of novel binary V(V)-Schiff base materials linked with insulin-mimetic vanadium-induced differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts to adipocytes. Structure-function correlations at the molecular level.

    PubMed

    Halevas, E; Tsave, O; Yavropoulou, M P; Hatzidimitriou, A; Yovos, J G; Psycharis, V; Gabriel, C; Salifoglou, A

    2015-06-01

    Among the various roles of vanadium in the regulation of intracellular signaling, energy metabolism and insulin mimesis, its exogenous activity stands as a contemporary challenge currently under investigation and a goal to pursue as a metallodrug against Diabetes mellitus II. In this regard, the lipogenic activity of vanadium linked to the development of well-defined anti-diabetic vanadodrugs has been investigated through: a) specifically designing and synthesizing Schiff base organic ligands L, bearing a variable number of terminal alcohols, b) a series of well-defined soluble binary V(V)-L compounds synthesized and physicochemically characterized, c) a study of their cytotoxic effect and establishment of adipogenic activity in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts toward mature adipocytes, and d) biomarker examination of a closely-linked molecular target involving or influenced by the specific V(V) forms, cumulatively delineating factors involved in potential pathways linked to V(V)-induced insulin-like activity. Collectively, the results a) project the importance of specific structural features in Schiff ligands bound to V(V), thereby influencing the emergence of its (a)toxicity and for the first time its insulin-like activity in pre-adipocyte differentiation, b) contribute to the discovery of molecular targets influenced by the specific vanadoforms seeking to induce glucose uptake, and c) indicate an interplay of V(V) structural speciation and cell-differentiation biological activity, thereby gaining insight into vanadium's potential as a future metallodrug in Diabetes mellitus.

  19. Coupling growth arrest and adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Ailhaud, G; Dani, C; Amri, E Z; Djian, P; Vannier, C; Doglio, A; Forest, C; Gaillard, D; Négrel, R; Grimaldi, P

    1989-01-01

    The complete differentiation program of preadipose cells can be divided into early and late events. The expression of early markers takes place at growth arrest (G1/S boundary), whereas that of late markers, leading to terminal differentiation, takes place after a limited number of mitoses of early marker-containing cells. Only terminal differentiation requires the presence of growth hormone and triiodothyronine and results in the formation of triacylglycerol-filled, nondividing cells. The events of adipose cell differentiation which take place in vitro allow a better understanding of the development of adipose tissue in vivo. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 5. PMID:2647477

  20. Interleukin-17A inhibits adipocyte differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells and regulates pro-inflammatory responses in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jennifer H; Shin, Dong Wook; Noh, Minsoo

    2009-06-15

    The immune system is closely linked to human metabolic diseases. Serum levels of IL-6 increase with obesity and insulin resistance. Not only does IL-6 decrease the insulin sensitivity of human cells such as adipocytes, but it also regulates the lineage commitment of naïve T cells into interleukin (IL)-17A-producing CD4(+) T (Th17) cells. Although IL-17A exerts a variety of effects on somatic tissues, its functional role in human adipocytes has not been identified. In this work, we show that IL-17A inhibits adipocyte differentiation in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs), while promoting lipolysis of differentiated adipocytes. We find that IL-17A increases both mRNA and protein secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 during adipocyte differentiation in hBM-MSCs. IL-17A up-regulates cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression and thereby increases the level of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) in differentiated adipocyes. The suppression of anti-adipogenic PGE(2) by COX inhibitors such as aspirin and NS-398 partially blocked the effect of IL-17A on adipocyte differentiation in hBM-MSCs. Therefore, IL-17A exhibits its inhibitory effect in part via the COX-2 induction in differentiated adipocytes. In addition, treatment with anti-IL-17A antibody neutralizes IL-17A-mediated effects on adipocyte differentiation and function. These results suggest that IL-17A plays a regulatory role in both the metabolic and inflammatory processes of human adipocytes, similar to other pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IFNgamma, and TNFalpha.

  1. Enhanced fatty acid oxidation in adipocytes and macrophages reduces lipid-induced triglyceride accumulation and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Malandrino, Maria Ida; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Calderon-Dominguez, María; Mir, Joan Francesc; Valcarcel, Lorea; Escoté, Xavier; Gómez-Serrano, María; Peral, Belén; Salvadó, Laia; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Casals, Núria; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Villarroya, Francesc; Vendrell, Joan J; Serra, Dolors; Herrero, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Lipid overload in obesity and type 2 diabetes is associated with adipocyte dysfunction, inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and decreased fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Here, we report that the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A), the rate-limiting enzyme in mitochondrial FAO, is higher in human adipose tissue macrophages than in adipocytes and that it is differentially expressed in visceral vs. subcutaneous adipose tissue in both an obese and a type 2 diabetes cohort. These observations led us to further investigate the potential role of CPT1A in adipocytes and macrophages. We expressed CPT1AM, a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A, in 3T3-L1 CARΔ1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages through adenoviral infection. Enhanced FAO in palmitate-incubated adipocytes and macrophages reduced triglyceride content and inflammation, improved insulin sensitivity in adipocytes, and reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress and ROS damage in macrophages. We conclude that increasing FAO in adipocytes and macrophages improves palmitate-induced derangements. This indicates that enhancing FAO in metabolically relevant cells such as adipocytes and macrophages may be a promising strategy for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pathologies such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Cyanidin-3-glucoside derived from black soybeans ameliorate type 2 diabetes through the induction of differentiation of preadipocytes into smaller and insulin-sensitive adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Toshiya; Inaguma, Tetsuya; Han, Junkyu; Villareal, Myra O; Isoda, Hiroko

    2015-08-01

    Black soybean is a health food has been reported to have antidiabetes effect. The onset of diabetes is closely associated with adipocyte differentiation, and at present, the effect of black soybean on adipocyte differentiation is unknown. Here, we investigated the antidiabetes effect of black soybean, and its anthocyanin cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G), on adipocyte differentiation. Orally administered black soybean seed coat extract (BSSCE) reduced the body and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight of db/db mice accompanied by a decrease in the size of adipocytes in WAT. Furthermore, 3T3-Ll cells treated with BSSCE and Cy3G were observed to differentiate into smaller adipocytes which correlated with increased PPARγ and C/EBPα gene expressions, increased adiponectin secretion, decreased tumor necrosis factor-α secretion, activation of insulin signalling and increased glucose uptake. C2C12 myotubes cultured with conditioned medium, obtained from 3T3-L1 adipocyte cultures treated with Cy3G, also showed significantly increased expression of PGC-1α, SIRT1 and UCP-3 genes. Here we report that BSSCE, as well as its active compound Cy3G, has antidiabetes effects on db/db mice by promoting adipocyte differentiation. This notion is supported by BSSCE and Cy3G inducing the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into smaller, insulin-sensitive adipocytes, and it induced the activation of skeletal muscle metabolism. This is the first report on the modulation effect of Cy3G on adipocyte differentiation.

  3. Identification and characterization of an immunophilin expressed during the clonal expansion phase of adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, W C; Li, T K; Bierer, B E; McKnight, S L

    1995-01-01

    Mouse 3T3-L1 cells differentiate into fat-laden adipocytes in response to a cocktail of adipogenic hormones. This conversion process occurs in two discrete steps. During an early clonal expansion phase, confluent 3T3-L1 cells proliferate and express the products of the beta and delta members of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors. The cells subsequently arrest mitotic growth, induce the expression of the alpha form of C/EBP, and acquire the morphology of fully differentiated adipocytes. Many of the genes induced during the terminal phase of adipocyte conversion are directly activated by C/EBP alpha, and gratuitous expression of this transcription factor is capable of catalyzing adipose conversion in a number of different cultured cell lines. The genetic program undertaken during the clonal expansion phase of 3T3-L1 differentiation, controlled in part by C/EBP beta and C/EBP delta, is less clearly understood. To study the molecular events occurring during clonal expansion, we have identified mRNAs that selectively accumulate during this phase of adipocyte conversion. One such mRNA encodes an immunophilin hereby designated FKBP51. In this report we provide the initial molecular characterization of FKBP51. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7479941

  4. Brown adipocytes postnatally arise through both differentiation from progenitors and conversion from white adipocytes in Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Nagaya, Kazuki; Tsubota, Ayumi; Kimura, Kazuhiro

    2017-10-05

    To investigate the postnatal development of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in Syrian hamsters, we histologically examined interscapular fat tissue from 5 to 16-day-old pups, focusing on how brown adipocytes arise. Interscapular fat of 5-day-old hamsters mainly consisted of white adipocytes containing large unilocular lipid droplets, as observed in typical white adipose tissue (WAT). On day 7, clusters of small, proliferative nonadipocytes with a strong immunoreactivity for Ki67 appeared near the edge of the interscapular fat tissue. The area of the Ki67-positive regions expanded to approximately 50% of the total tissue area by day 10. The interscapular fat showed the typical BAT feature by day 16. A brown adipocyte-specific marker, uncoupling protein 1 was clearly detected on day 10 and thereafter, while not detected on day 7. During conversion of interscapular fat from WAT to BAT, unilocular adipocytes completely and rapidly disappeared without obvious apoptosis. Dual immunofluorescence staining for Ki67 and monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), another selective marker for brown adipocytes, revealed that most of the proliferating cells were of the brown adipocyte lineage. Electron microscopic examination showed that some of the white adipocytes contained small lipid droplets in addition to the large droplet, and expressed MCT1 as do progenitor and mature brown adipocytes, implying a direct conversion from white to brown adipocytes. These results suggest that BAT of Syrian hamsters develops postnatally through two different pathways: the proliferation and differentiation of brown adipocyte progenitors, and the conversion of unilocular adipocytes to multilocular brown adipocytes. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  5. Exercise-inducible factors to activate lipolysis in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Sato, Koji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2013-07-15

    We examined the effects of exercise training on the levels of lipid droplet (LD)-associated and mitochondria-related proteins in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Furthermore, we assessed putative factors induced by exercise to activate lipolysis in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DIO Wistar male rats (age 20 wk) were divided into sedentary control (SED, n = 7) and exercise training (EX, n = 7) groups. EX animals were subjected to treadmill running (25 m/min, 1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 6 wk. Epididymal fat was dissected and used for protein analyses. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with media containing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), sodium-lactate, caffeine, AICAR, or SNAP (NO donor) for 6 h, or 1 mM H2O2 for 15 min, followed by incubation with normal media for up to 24 h total. Protein expression levels and lipolytic activities were biochemically assayed. Epididymal fat significantly decreased in EX animals compared with SED animals. Levels of cytochrome c oxidase (COx), perilipin, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) proteins in epididymal fat pads of EX animals were significantly increased compared with those in SED animals. In 3T3-L1 cells, glycerol or fatty acid release was significantly increased by all treatments. Lactate or SNAP significantly increased PGC-1α expression, and H2O2 significantly increased COx protein levels compared with controls. Expression of perilipin, HSL, ATGL, or comparative gene identification (CGI)-58 was significantly increased by all treatments. By increasing lipolytic activity in adipocytes, the exercise-inducible factors are attractive therapeutic effectors against LD-associated metabolic diseases.

  6. PPAR gamma mediates high-fat diet-induced adipocyte hypertrophy and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Kubota, N; Terauchi, Y; Miki, H; Tamemoto, H; Yamauchi, T; Komeda, K; Satoh, S; Nakano, R; Ishii, C; Sugiyama, T; Eto, K; Tsubamoto, Y; Okuno, A; Murakami, K; Sekihara, H; Hasegawa, G; Naito, M; Toyoshima, Y; Tanaka, S; Shiota, K; Kitamura, T; Fujita, T; Ezaki, O; Aizawa, S; Kadowaki, T

    1999-10-01

    Agonist-induced activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is known to cause adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity. The biological role of PPAR gamma was investigated by gene targeting. Homozygous PPAR gamma-deficient embryos died at 10.5-11.5 dpc due to placental dysfunction. Quite unexpectedly, heterozygous PPAR gamma-deficient mice were protected from the development of insulin resistance due to adipocyte hypertrophy under a high-fat diet. These phenotypes were abrogated by PPAR gamma agonist treatment. Heterozygous PPAR gamma-deficient mice showed overexpression and hypersecretion of leptin despite the smaller size of adipocytes and decreased fat mass, which may explain these phenotypes at least in part. This study reveals a hitherto unpredicted role for PPAR gamma in high-fat diet-induced obesity due to adipocyte hypertrophy and insulin resistance, which requires both alleles of PPAR gamma.

  7. Regulatory circuits controlling white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Jacob B.; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a major endocrine organ that exerts a profound influence on whole-body homoeostasis. Two types of adipose tissue exist in mammals: WAT (white adipose tissue) and BAT (brown adipose tissue). WAT stores energy and is the largest energy reserve in mammals, whereas BAT, expressing UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1), can dissipate energy through adaptive thermogenesis. In rodents, ample evidence supports BAT as an organ counteracting obesity, whereas less is known about the presence and significance of BAT in humans. Despite the different functions of white and brown adipocytes, knowledge of factors differentially influencing the formation of white and brown fat cells is sparse. Here we summarize recent progress in the molecular understanding of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation, including novel insights into transcriptional and signal transduction pathways. Since expression of UCP1 is the hallmark of BAT and a key factor determining energy expenditure, we also review conditions associated with enhanced energy expenditure and UCP1 expression in WAT that may provide information on processes involved in brown adipocyte differentiation. PMID:16898874

  8. Perfluorooctanoic acid binds to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and promotes adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Junpei; Yamane, Takumi; Oishi, Yuichi; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on adipose cells using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and found that PFOA increased adipocyte differentiation, triglyceride accumulation, and the mRNA level of factors related to adipocyte differentiation. In addition, PFOA bound to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ). These results suggest that PFOA promotes adipocyte differentiation as a PPAR γ ligand.

  9. Flow Cytometric Isolation and Differentiation of Adipogenic Progenitor Cells into Brown and Brite/Beige Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Steinbring, Jochen; Graja, Antonia; Jank, Anne-Marie; Schulz, Tim J

    2017-01-01

    Aside from mature adipocytes, adipose tissue harbors several distinct cell populations including immune cells, endothelial cells, and adipogenic progenitor cells (AdPCs). AdPCs represent the reservoir of regenerative cells that replenishes adipocytes during normal cellular turnover and during times of increased demand for triglyceride-storage capacity. The worldwide increase in pathologies associated with the metabolic syndrome, such as obesity and type-2 diabetes, has heightened public and scientific interest in adipose tissues and the cell biological processes of adipose tissue formation and function. Two distinct types of fat cells are known: White and brown adipocytes. Especially brown adipose tissue (BAT) has received considerable attention due to its unique capacity for thermogenic energy expenditure and potential role in the treatment of adiposity. Accordingly, the cold-induced conversion of white into brown-like adipocytes has become a feasible approach in humans and a study-subject in rodents to better understand the underlying molecular processes. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) provides a method to isolate AdPCs and other cell populations from adipose tissue by using antibodies detecting unique surface markers. We here describe an approach to isolate cells committed to the adipogenic lineage and summarize established protocols to differentiate FACS-purified primary AdPCs into UCP1-expressing brown adipocytes under in vitro conditions.

  10. [Screening of differentially expressed genes during adipocyte differentiation by suppression subtractive hybridization technique].

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiao-qing; Xiao, Yan-feng; Yin, Chun-yan; Xu, Er-di

    2012-05-01

    To screening differentially expressed genes related to adipocyte differentiation. Total RNA extracted from the preadipocyte cell line SW872 was taken as the Driver and the total RNA from the differentiated adipocytes SW872 as the Tester. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to isolate the cDNA fragments of differentially expressed genes. The products of SSH were inserted into pGM-T vector to establish the subtractive library. The library was amplified through E.coli transformation and positive clones of the transformants were screened. Positive clones were sequenced. Nucleic acid similarity was subsequently analyzed by comparing with the data from GenBank. There were 135 white clones in the cDNA library, 64 positive clones were chosen randomly and sequenced and similarity search revealed 34 genes which expressed differentially in adipocyte differentiation. The subtracted cDNA library for differentially expressed in adipocyte differentiation has been successfully constructed and the interesting candidate genes related to adipocyte differentiation have been identified.

  11. TMEM120A and B: Nuclear Envelope Transmembrane Proteins Important for Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Batrakou, Dzmitry G.; de las Heras, Jose I.; Czapiewski, Rafal; Mouras, Rabah; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work indicates that the nuclear envelope is a major signaling node for the cell that can influence tissue differentiation processes. Here we present two nuclear envelope trans-membrane proteins TMEM120A and TMEM120B that are paralogs encoded by the Tmem120A and Tmem120B genes. The TMEM120 proteins are expressed preferentially in fat and both are induced during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Knockdown of one or the other protein altered expression of several genes required for adipocyte differentiation, Gata3, Fasn, Glut4, while knockdown of both together additionally affected Pparg and Adipoq. The double knockdown also increased the strength of effects, reducing for example Glut4 levels by 95% compared to control 3T3-L1 cells upon pharmacologically induced differentiation. Accordingly, TMEM120A and B knockdown individually and together impacted on adipocyte differentiation/metabolism as measured by lipid accumulation through binding of Oil Red O and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy (CARS). The nuclear envelope is linked to several lipodystrophies through mutations in lamin A; however, lamin A is widely expressed. Thus it is possible that the TMEM120A and B fat-specific nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins may play a contributory role in the tissue-specific pathology of this disorder or in the wider problem of obesity. PMID:26024229

  12. The effects of perfluorinated chemicals on adipocyte differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Andrew M; Wood, Carmen R; Lin, Mimi T; Abbott, Barbara D

    2015-01-15

    The 3T3-L1 preadipocyte culture system has been used to examine numerous compounds that influence adipocyte differentiation or function. The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), used as surfactants in a variety of industrial applications, are of concern as environmental contaminants that are detected worldwide in human serum and animal tissues. This study was designed to evaluate the potential for PFAAs to affect adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation using mouse 3T3-L1 cells. Cells were treated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (5-100 µM), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (5-100 µM), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (50-300 µM), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) (40-250 µM), the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) PPARα agonist Wyeth-14,643 (WY-14,643), and the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone. The PPARγ agonist was included as a positive control as this pathway is critical to adipocyte differentiation. The PPARα agonist was included as the PFAA compounds are known activators of this pathway. Cells were assessed morphometrically and biochemically for number, size, and lipid content. RNA was extracted for qPCR analysis of 13 genes selected for their importance in adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism. There was a significant concentration-related increase in cell number and decreased cell size after exposure to PFOA, PFHxS, PFOS, and PFNA. All four PFAA treatments produced a concentration-related decrease in the calculated average area occupied by lipid per cell. However, total triglyceride levels per well increased with a concentration-related trend for all compounds, likely due to the increased cell number. Expression of mRNA for the selected genes was affected by all exposures and the specific impacts depended on the particular compound and concentration. Acox1 and Gapdh were upregulated by all six compounds. The strongest overall effect was a nearly 10-fold induction of Scd1 by PFHxS. The sulfonated PFAAs produced numerous

  13. Bioinformatics analysis on the differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts and adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoyuan; Jiang, He; Li, Xingnuan; Wu, Ping; Liu, Jianyun; Wang, Tao; Zhou, Xiaoou; Xiong, Jianjun; Li, Weidong

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to screen several differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) for two types of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation. Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) and dexamethasone were used to induce MSCs towards osteoblastic differentiation or adipocytic differentiation. The t-test in the Bioconductor bioinformatics software tool was used to screen DEGs and differentially expressed miRNAs in the two samples. Subsequent gene ontology (GO) and pathway analyses on the DEGs were performed using the GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases, respectively; potential target genes for the screened miRNAs were predicted using the TargetScan database. In addition, an interaction network between the DEGs and miRNAs was constructed. Numerous DEGs and miRNAs were screened during osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation of MSCs. Important pathways, such as glutathione metabolism, pathogenic Escherichia coli infection and Parkinson's disease, and GO terms, including cytoskeletal protein binding and phospholipase inhibitor activity, were enriched in the screened DEGs from MSCs undergoing osteogenic differentiation and adipocytic differentiation. miRNAs, including miRNA (miR)-382 and miR-203, and DEGs, including neuronal growth regulator 1 (NEGR1), phosphatidic acid phosphatase 2B (PPAP2B), platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA), interleukin 6 signal transducer (IL6ST) and sortilin 1 (SORT1), were demonstrated to be involved in osteoblastic differentiation. In addition, the downregulated miRNAs (including miR-495, miR-376a and miR-543), the upregulated miR-106a, the upregulated DEGs, including enabled homolog (ENAH), polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 and acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1, and the downregulated repulsive guidance molecule family member B and semaphorin SEMA7A were demonstrated to be involved in adipocytic differentiation. The results of the

  14. 3T3-L1 adipocytes display phenotypic characteristics of multiple adipocyte lineages.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shona; McGee, Sean L

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes are a widely used in vitro model of white adipocytes. In addition to classical white and brown adipocytes that are derived from different cell lineages, beige adipocytes have also been identified, which have characteristics of both white and brown adipocytes. Here we show that 3T3-L1 adipocytes display features of multiple adipocytes lineages. While the gene expression profile and basal bioenergetics of 3T3-L1 adipocytes was typical of white adipocytes, they responded acutely to catecholamines by increasing oxygen consumption in an UCP1-dependent manner, and by increasing the expression of genes enriched in brown but not beige adipocytes. Chronic exposure to catecholamines exacerbated this phenotype. However, a beige adipocyte differentiation procedure did not induce a beige adipocyte phenotype in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. These multiple lineage features should be considered when interpreting data from experiments utilizing 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  15. 3T3-L1 adipocytes display phenotypic characteristics of multiple adipocyte lineages

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shona; McGee, Sean L

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes are a widely used in vitro model of white adipocytes. In addition to classical white and brown adipocytes that are derived from different cell lineages, beige adipocytes have also been identified, which have characteristics of both white and brown adipocytes. Here we show that 3T3-L1 adipocytes display features of multiple adipocytes lineages. While the gene expression profile and basal bioenergetics of 3T3-L1 adipocytes was typical of white adipocytes, they responded acutely to catecholamines by increasing oxygen consumption in an UCP1-dependent manner, and by increasing the expression of genes enriched in brown but not beige adipocytes. Chronic exposure to catecholamines exacerbated this phenotype. However, a beige adipocyte differentiation procedure did not induce a beige adipocyte phenotype in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. These multiple lineage features should be considered when interpreting data from experiments utilizing 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:26451286

  16. Effects of insulin, triiodothyronine and fat soluble vitamins on adipocyte differentiation and LPL gene expression in the stromal-vascular cells of red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    PubMed

    Oku, Hiromi; Tokuda, Masaharu; Okumura, Takuji; Umino, Tetsuya

    2006-07-01

    Various kinds of hormones including insulin, triiodothyronine (T(3)) and fat-soluble vitamins have been proposed as mediators of adipocyte differentiation in mammals. To investigate the factors which are responsible for fish adipocyte differentiation, we developed a serum-free culture system of stromal-vascular cells of red sea bream adipose tissue and examined the effects of bovine insulin, T(3), and fat-soluble vitamins (all-trans retinoic acid, retinyl acetate and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)) on the differentiation-linked expression of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene. As assessed by the increase in LPL gene expression after 3 day cultivation, like in mammalian adipocytes, insulin enhanced the adipocyte differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner. During 2 week cultivation, bovine insulin promoted lipid accumulation in differentiating adipocytes concentration-dependently until the terminal differentiation. These results indicate that the differentiation of fish adipocytes is inducible by insulin alone. T(3) alone had no effect but enhanced the differentiation-linked LPL gene expression in the presence of insulin. Fat-soluble vitamins, unlike in mammalian adipocytes, did not show any significant effects. The method developed in this study should be of interest for the characterization of factors involved in fish adipocyte differentiation.

  17. Interaction of differentiated human adipocytes with macrophages leads to trogocytosis and selective IL-6 secretion

    PubMed Central

    Sárvári, A K; Doan-Xuan, Q-M; Bacsó, Z; Csomós, I; Balajthy, Z; Fésüs, L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity leads to adipose tissue inflammation that is characterized by increased release of proinflammatory molecules and the recruitment of activated immune cells. Although macrophages are present in the highest number among the immune cells in obese adipose tissue, not much is known about their direct interaction with adipocytes. We have introduced an ex vivo experimental system to characterize the cellular interactions and the profile of secreted cytokines in cocultures of macrophages and human adipocytes differentiated from either mesenchymal stem cells or a preadipocyte cell line. As observed by time-lapse microscopy, flow, and laser-scanning cytometry, macrophages phagocytosed bites of adipocytes (trogocytosis), which led to their de novo, phagocytosis and NF-κB-dependent synthesis, then release of interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. IL-6 secretion was not accompanied by secretion of other proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-8, except MCP-1. LPS-induced release of TNF-α, IL-8 and MCP-1 was decreased in the presence of the differentiated adipocytes but the IL-6 level did not subside suggesting that phagocytosis-dependent IL-6 secretion may have significant regulatory function in the inflamed adipose tissue. PMID:25611388

  18. Disruption of cell-matrix interactions by heparin enhances mesenchymal progenitor adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Weijun; Shitaye, Hailu; Friedman, Michael; Bennett, Christina N.; Miller, Joshua; MacDougald, Ormond A.; Hankenson, Kurt D.

    2008-11-01

    Differentiation of marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitors to either the osteoblast or adipocyte lineage is reciprocally regulated. Factors that promote osteoblastogenesis inhibit adipogenesis, while adipogenic factors are inhibitory to osteoblast differentiation. Heparin, a soluble glycosaminoglycan, inhibits bone formation in vivo and osteoblast cell differentiation and function in vitro, and has been shown to promote adipocyte differentiation. To elucidate the role that heparin plays in the adipogenic induction of murine mesenchymal progenitors, we studied immortalized marrow stromal cells (IM-MSC), the MSC cell line, ST2, and 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes. Heparin alone was not sufficient to induce adipogenesis, but enhanced the induction under a variety of adipogenic cocktails. This effect was both dose- and time-dependent. Heparin showed a positive effect at concentrations > 0. 1 {mu}g/ml when applied before day 3 during the induction course. Heparin's effect on adipogenesis was independent of cell proliferation, cell density, and extracellular lipid. This effect is likely related to the unique structure of heparin because another polyanionic glycosaminoglycan, dextran sulfate, did not promote adipogenic differentiation. Heparin treatment altered morphology and adhesion characteristics of progenitor cells, resulting in cell rounding and aggregation. As well, heparin counteracted the known inhibitory effect of fibronectin on adipogenesis and decreased basal focal adhesion kinase and paxillin phosphorylation. We conclude that heparin-mediated disruption of cell-matrix adhesion enhances adipogenic potential.

  19. Sulforaphane induces adipocyte browning and promotes glucose and lipid utilization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui Q.; Chen, Shi Y.; Wang, An S.; Yao, An J.; Fu, Jian F.; Zhao, Jin S.; Chen, Fen; Zou, Zu Q.; Shan, Yu J.; Bao, Yong P.

    2016-01-01

    1 Scope Obesity is closely related to the imbalance of white adipose tissue storing excess calories, and brown adipose tissue dissipating energy to produce heat in mammals. Recent studies revealed that acquisition of brown characteristics by white adipocytes, termed “browning,” may positively contribute to cellular bioenergetics and metabolism homeostasis. The goal was to investigate the putative effects of natural antioxidant sulforaphane (1‐isothiocyanate‐4‐methyl‐sulfonyl butane; SFN) on browning of white adipocytes. 2 Methods and results 3T3‐L1 mature white adipocytes were treated with SFN for 48 h, and then the mitochondrial content, function, and energy utilization were assessed. SFN was found to induce 3T3‐L1 adipocytes browning based on the increased mitochondrial content and activity of respiratory chain enzymes, whereas the mechanism involved the upregulation of nuclear factor E2‐related factor 2/sirtuin1/peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha signaling. SFN enhanced uncoupling protein 1 expression, a marker for brown adipocyte, leading to the decrease in cellular ATP. SFN also enhanced glucose uptake and oxidative utilization, lipolysis, and fatty acid oxidation in 3T3‐L1 adipocytes. 3 Conclusion SFN‐induced browning of white adipocytes enhanced the utilization of cellular fuel, and application of SFN is a promising strategy to combat obesity and obesity‐related metabolic disorder. PMID:27218607

  20. Sulforaphane induces adipocyte browning and promotes glucose and lipid utilization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui Q; Chen, Shi Y; Wang, An S; Yao, An J; Fu, Jian F; Zhao, Jin S; Chen, Fen; Zou, Zu Q; Zhang, Xiao H; Shan, Yu J; Bao, Yong P

    2016-10-01

    Obesity is closely related to the imbalance of white adipose tissue storing excess calories, and brown adipose tissue dissipating energy to produce heat in mammals. Recent studies revealed that acquisition of brown characteristics by white adipocytes, termed "browning," may positively contribute to cellular bioenergetics and metabolism homeostasis. The goal was to investigate the putative effects of natural antioxidant sulforaphane (1-isothiocyanate-4-methyl-sulfonyl butane; SFN) on browning of white adipocytes. 3T3-L1 mature white adipocytes were treated with SFN for 48 h, and then the mitochondrial content, function, and energy utilization were assessed. SFN was found to induce 3T3-L1 adipocytes browning based on the increased mitochondrial content and activity of respiratory chain enzymes, whereas the mechanism involved the upregulation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2/sirtuin1/peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha signaling. SFN enhanced uncoupling protein 1 expression, a marker for brown adipocyte, leading to the decrease in cellular ATP. SFN also enhanced glucose uptake and oxidative utilization, lipolysis, and fatty acid oxidation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. SFN-induced browning of white adipocytes enhanced the utilization of cellular fuel, and application of SFN is a promising strategy to combat obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorder. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Ursodeoxycholic Acid but Not Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Inhibits Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Subcutaneous Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mališová, Lucia; Kováčová, Zuzana; Koc, Michal; Kračmerová, Jana; Štich, Vladimír; Rossmeislová, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    Stress of endoplasmic reticulum (ERS) is one of the molecular triggers of adipocyte dysfunction and chronic low inflammation accompanying obesity. ERS can be alleviated by chemical chaperones from the family of bile acids (BAs). Thus, two BAs currently used to treat cholestasis, ursodeoxycholic and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA and TUDCA), could potentially lessen adverse metabolic effects of obesity. Nevertheless, BAs effects on human adipose cells are mostly unknown. They could regulate gene expression through pathways different from their chaperone function, namely through activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5, G-coupled receptor. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze effects of UDCA and TUDCA on human preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes derived from paired samples of two distinct subcutaneous adipose tissue depots, abdominal and gluteal. While TUDCA did not alter proliferation of cells from either depot, UDCA exerted strong anti-proliferative effect. In differentiated adipocytes, acute exposition to neither TUDCA nor UDCA was able to reduce effect of ERS stressor tunicamycin. However, exposure of cells to UDCA during whole differentiation process decreased expression of ERS markers. At the same time however, UDCA profoundly inhibited adipogenic conversion of cells. UDCA abolished expression of PPARγ and lipogenic enzymes already in the early phases of adipogenesis. This anti-adipogenic effect of UDCA was not dependent on FXR or TGR5 activation, but could be related to ability of UDCA to sustain the activation of ERK1/2 previously linked with PPARγ inactivation. Finally, neither BAs did lower expression of chemokines inducible by TLR4 pathway, when UDCA enhanced their expression in gluteal adipocytes. Therefore while TUDCA has neutral effect on human preadipocytes and adipocytes, the therapeutic use of UDCA different from treating cholestatic diseases should be considered with caution because UDCA alters functions of human adipose cells

  2. Differential adipogenic and inflammatory properties of small adipocytes in Zucker Obese and Lean rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Alice; Sonmez, Alper; Yee, Gail; Bazuine, Merlijn; Arroyo, Matilde; Sherman, Arthur; McLaughlin, Tracey; Reaven, Gerald; Cushman, Samuel; Tsao, Philip

    2010-10-01

    We recently reported that a preponderance of small adipose cells, decreased expression of cell differentiation markers, and enhanced inflammatory activity in human subcutaneous whole adipose tissue were associated with insulin resistance. To test the hypothesis that small adipocytes exhibited these differential properties, we characterised small adipocytes from epididymal adipose tissue of Zucker Obese (ZO) and Lean (ZL) rats. Rat epididymal fat pads were removed and adipocytes isolated by collagenase digestion. Small adipocytes were separated by sequential filtration through nylon meshes. Adipocytes were fixed in osmium tetroxide for cell size distribution analysis via Beckman Coulter Multisizer. Quantitative real-time PCR for cell differentiation and inflammatory genes was performed. Small adipocytes represented a markedly greater percentage of the total adipocyte population in ZO than ZL rats (58±4% vs. 12±3%, p<0.001). In ZO rats, small as compared with total adipocytes had 4-fold decreased adiponectin, and 4-fold increased visfatin and IL-6 levels. Comparison of small adipocytes in ZO versus ZL rats revealed 3-fold decreased adiponectin and PPARγ levels, and 2.5-fold increased IL-6. In conclusion, ZO rat adipose tissue harbours a large proportion of small adipocytes that manifest impaired cell differentiation and pro-inflammatory activity, two mechanisms by which small adipocytes may contribute to insulin resistance.

  3. Differential adipogenic and inflammatory properties of small adipocytes in Zucker Obese and Lean rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Alice; Sonmez, Alper; Yee, Gail; Bazuine, Merlijn; Arroyo, Matilde; Sherman, Arthur; McLaughlin, Tracey; Reaven, Gerald; Cushman, Samuel; Tsao, Philip

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported that a preponderance of small adipose cells, decreased expression of cell differentiation markers, and enhanced inflammatory activity in human subcutaneous whole adipose tissue were associated with insulin resistance. To test the hypothesis that small adipocytes exhibited these differential properties, we characterized small adipocytes from epididymal adipose tissue of Zucker Obese (ZO) and Lean (ZL) rats. Rat epididymal fat pads were removed and adipocytes isolated by collagenase digestion. Small adipocytes were separated by sequential filtration through nylon meshes. Adipocytes were fixed in osmium tetroxide for cell size distribution analysis via Beckman Coulter Multisizer. Quantitative real-time PCR for cell differentiation and inflammatory genes was performed. Small adipocytes represented a markedly greater percentage of the total adipocyte population in ZO than ZL rats (58±4% vs 12±3%, p<0.001). In ZO rats, small as compared to total adipocytes had 4-fold decreased adiponectin, and 4-fold increased visfatin and IL-6 levels. Comparison of small adipocytes in ZO versus ZL rats revealed 3-fold decreased adiponectin and PPARγ levels, and 2.5-fold increased IL-6. In conclusion, ZO rat adipose tissue harbors a large proportion of small adipocytes that manifest impaired cell differentiation and pro-inflammatory activity, two mechanisms by which small adipocytes may contribute to insulin resistance. PMID:20961992

  4. Glutamine synthetase desensitizes differentiated adipocytes to proinflammatory stimuli by raising intracellular glutamine levels.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Erika Mariana; Spera, Iolanda; Menga, Alessio; Infantino, Vittoria; Iacobazzi, Vito; Castegna, Alessandra

    2014-12-20

    The role of glutamine synthetase (GS) during adipocyte differentiation is unclear. Here, we assess the impact of GS on the adipocytic response to a proinflammatory challenge at different differentiation stages. GS expression at the late stages of differentiation desensitized mature adipocytes to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by increasing intracellular glutamine levels. Furthermore, LPS-activated mature adipocytes were unable to produce inflammatory mediators; LPS sensitivity was rescued following GS inhibition and the associated drop in intracellular glutamine levels. The ability of adipocytes to differentially respond to LPS during differentiation negatively correlates to GS expression and intracellular glutamine levels. Hence, modulation of intracellular glutamine levels by GS expression represents an endogenous mechanism through which mature adipocytes control the inflammatory response.

  5. Impacts of Alternative Splicing Events on the Differentiation of Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jung-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing was found to be a common phenomenon after the advent of whole transcriptome analyses or next generation sequencing. Over 90% of human genes were demonstrated to undergo at least one alternative splicing event. Alternative splicing is an effective mechanism to spatiotemporally expand protein diversity, which influences the cell fate and tissue development. The first focus of this review is to highlight recent studies, which demonstrated effects of alternative splicing on the differentiation of adipocytes. Moreover, use of evolving high-throughput approaches, such as transcriptome analyses (RNA sequencing), to profile adipogenic transcriptomes, is also addressed. PMID:26389882

  6. Vitisin A inhibits adipocyte differentiation through cell cycle arrest in 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soon-hee; Park, Hee-Sook; Lee, Myoung-su; Cho, Yong-Jin; Kim, Young-Sup; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Sung, Mi Jeong; Kim, Myung Sunny; Kwon, Dae Young

    2008-07-18

    Inhibition of adipocyte differentiation is one approach among the anti-obesity strategies. This study demonstrates that vitisin A, a resveratrol tetramer, inhibits adipocyte differentiation most effectively of 18 stilbenes tested. Fat accumulation and PPAR{gamma} expression were decreased by vitisin A in a dose-dependent manner. Vitisin A significantly inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and consequent differentiation within the first 2 days of treatment, indicating that the anti-adipogenic effect of vitisin A was derived from anti-proliferation. Based on cell cycle analysis, vitisin A blocked the cell cycle at the G1-S phase transition, causing cells to remain in the preadipocyte state. Vitisin A increased p21 expression, while the Rb phosphorylation level was reduced. Therefore, vitisin A seems to induce G1 arrest through p21- and consequent Rb-dependent suppression of transcription. On the other hand, ERK and Akt signaling pathways were not involved in the anti-mitotic regulation by vitisin A. Taken together, these results suggest that vitisin A inhibits adipocyte differentiation through preadipocyte cell cycle arrest.

  7. Transcriptomic Analyses of Adipocyte Differentiation From Human Mesenchymal Stromal-Cells (MSC).

    PubMed

    Casado-Díaz, Antonio; Anter, Jaouad; Müller, Sören; Winter, Peter; Quesada-Gómez, José Manuel; Dorado, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    Adipogenesis is a physiological process required for fat-tissue development, mainly involved in regulating the organism energetic-state. Abnormal distribution-changes and dysfunctions in such tissue are associated to different pathologies. Adipocytes are generated from progenitor cells, via a complex differentiating process not yet well understood. Therefore, we investigated differential mRNA and miRNA expression patterns of human mesenchymal stromal-cells (MSC) induced and not induced to differentiate into adipocytes by next (second)-generation sequencing. A total of 2,866 differentially expressed genes (101 encoding miRNA) were identified, with 705 (46 encoding miRNA) being upregulated in adipogenesis. They were related to different pathways, including PPARG, lipid, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, redox, membrane-organelle biosynthesis, and endocrine system. Downregulated genes were related to extracellular matrix and cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Analyses of mRNA-miRNA interaction showed that repressed miRNA-encoding genes can act downregulating PPARG-related genes; mostly the PPARG activator (PPARGC1A). Induced miRNA-encoding genes regulate downregulated genes related to TGFB1. These results shed new light to understand adipose-tissue differentiation and physiology, increasing our knowledge about pathologies like obesity, type-2 diabetes and osteoporosis. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 771-784, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Induction of adipocyte differentiation by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Tung, Emily W Y; Boudreau, Adèle; Wade, Michael G; Atlas, Ella

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants that were extensively used in commercial products. PBDEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that are both lipophilic and bioaccumulative. Effects of PBDEs on adipogenesis were studied in the 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell model in the presence and absence of a known adipogenic agent, dexamethasone (DEX). A PBDE mixture designed to mimic body burden of North Americans was tested, in addition to the technical mixture DE-71 and the individual congener BDE-47. The mixture, DE-71, and BDE-47 all induced adipocyte differentiation as assessed by markers for terminal differentiation [fatty acid binding protein 4 (aP2) and perilipin] and lipid accumulation. Characterization of the differentiation process in response to PBDEs indicated that adipogenesis induced by a minimally effective dose of DEX was enhanced by these PBDEs. Moreover, C/EBPα, PPARγ, and LXRα were induced late in the differentiation process. Taken together, these data indicate that adipocyte differentiation is induced by PBDEs; they act in the absence of glucocorticoid and enhance glucocorticoid-mediated adipogenesis.

  9. Induction of Adipocyte Differentiation by Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in 3T3-L1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Emily W. Y.; Boudreau, Adèle; Wade, Michael G.; Atlas, Ella

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants that were extensively used in commercial products. PBDEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that are both lipophilic and bioaccumulative. Effects of PBDEs on adipogenesis were studied in the 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell model in the presence and absence of a known adipogenic agent, dexamethasone (DEX). A PBDE mixture designed to mimic body burden of North Americans was tested, in addition to the technical mixture DE-71 and the individual congener BDE-47. The mixture, DE-71, and BDE-47 all induced adipocyte differentiation as assessed by markers for terminal differentiation [fatty acid binding protein 4 (aP2) and perilipin] and lipid accumulation. Characterization of the differentiation process in response to PBDEs indicated that adipogenesis induced by a minimally effective dose of DEX was enhanced by these PBDEs. Moreover, C/EBPα, PPARγ, and LXRα were induced late in the differentiation process. Taken together, these data indicate that adipocyte differentiation is induced by PBDEs; they act in the absence of glucocorticoid and enhance glucocorticoid-mediated adipogenesis. PMID:24722056

  10. Tocotrienol suppresses adipocyte differentiation and Akt phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Uto-Kondo, Harumi; Ohmori, Reiko; Kiyose, Chikako; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Saito, Hisako; Igarashi, Osamu; Kondo, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    In vivo studies show that alpha-tocotrienol and gamma-tocotrienol accumulate in adipose tissue. Furthermore, a recent study reports that the oral administration of gamma-tocotrienol from a tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil (TRF) decreases body fat levels in rats. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of TRF and its components on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, which differentiated into adipocytes in the presence of 1.8 micromol/L insulin. TRF suppressed the insulin-induced mRNA expression of adipocyte-specific genes such as PPARgamma, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) compared with the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes only in the presence of insulin. To confirm the suppressive effect of TRF, the major components of TRF, such as alpha-tocotrienol, gamma-tocotrienol, and alpha-tocopherol, were investigated. Alpha-tocotrienol and gamma-tocotrienol decreased the insulin-induced PPARgamma mRNA expression by 55 and 90%, respectively, compared with insulin, whereas alpha-tocopherol increased the mRNA expression. In addition, gamma-tocotrienol suppressed the insulin-induced aP2 and C/EBPalpha mRNA expression, triglyceride accumulation, and PPARgamma protein levels compared with insulin. The current results also revealed that gamma-tocotrienol inhibited the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in the insulin signaling pathway of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Thus, the antiadipogenic effect of TRF depends on alpha-tocotrienol and gamma-tocotrienol, and gamma-tocotrienol may be a more potent inhibitor of adipogenesis than alpha-tocotrienol. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that tocotrienol suppresses insulin-induced differentiation and Akt phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, tocotrienol could act as an antiadipogenic vitamin in the nutrient-mediated regulation of body

  11. Increasing cAMP levels of preadipocytes by cyanidin-3-glucoside treatment induces the formation of beige phenotypes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Toshiya; Villareal, Myra O; Motojima, Hideko; Isoda, Hiroko

    2017-02-01

    Obesity is a serious health problem and a major risk factor for the onset of several diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, stroke and cancer. The conversion of white adipocytes to brown-like adipocytes, also called beige or brite adipocytes, by pharmacological and dietary compounds has gained attention as an effective treatment for obesity. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G), a polyphenolic compound contained in black soybean, blueberry and grape, has several antiobesity effects. However, there are no reports on the role of Cy3G in the induction of differentiation of preadipocytes to beige adipocytes and corresponding phenotypes. Here, the formation of beige adipocyte phenotypes following treatment with Cy3G was evaluated using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Cy3G induced phenotypic changes to white adipocytes, such as increased multilocular lipid droplets and mitochondrial content. Additionally, the expression of mitochondrial genes (TFAM, SOD2, UCP-1 and UCP-2), UCP-1 protein and beige adipocyte markers (CITED1 and TBX1) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was increased by Cy3G. Furthermore, Cy3G promoted preadipocyte differentiation by up-regulating of C/EBPβ through the elevation of the intracellular cAMP levels. These results indicated that Cy3G elevates the intracellular cAMP levels, which induces beige adipocyte phenotypes. This is the first report on the effect of Cy3G on induction of differentiation of preadipocytes into beige adipocyte phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Differentiation of Pre-Adipocytes in Modelled Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coinu, R.; Postiglione, I.; Meloni, M. A.; Galleri, G.; Pippia, P.; Palumbo, G.

    2008-06-01

    It has been demonstrated that microgravity affects biological and biochemical functions of cells including: morphology, cytoskeleton and embryogenesis [1]; proliferation, reduction of DNA, protein synthesis and glucose transport [2]; signalling, reduction of EGF-dependant c-fos and c-jun expression [3]; gene expression, reduction of IL2 expression and release by activated T-cells [4]. Moreover it has be found that peroxisome proliferators activated receptor γ (PPARγ2), which is known to be important for adipocyte differentiation, adipsin, leptin, and glucose transporter-4, are highly expressed in response to modelled microgravity [5]. These findings prompted us to investigate the effects of microgravity on cellular differentiation rate using a well characterized model. Such model consists in murine pre-adipocyte cells (3T3-L1) properly stimulated with insulin, dexamethazone and isobuthylmethyl-xantine (DMI protocol). The adipogenic program is completed within a short time. The entire process requires coordinated and temporarily beated molecular events. Early events. Growth arrest at confluence; Clonal expansion (this process involves synchronous entry of cells into S phase of the cell cycle, leading to one or two rounds of mitosis); Early expression of C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ. Late events. Expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα Assumption of rounded morphology and accumulation of lipid droplets.

  13. AMP-Activated Kinase (AMPK) Activation by AICAR in Human White Adipocytes Derived from Pericardial White Adipose Tissue Stem Cells Induces a Partial Beige-Like Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Rahman, Omar; Kristóf, Endre; Doan-Xuan, Quang-Minh; Vida, András; Nagy, Lilla; Horváth, Ambrus; Simon, József; Maros, Tamás; Szentkirályi, István; Palotás, Lehel; Debreceni, Tamás; Csizmadia, Péter; Szerafin, Tamás; Fodor, Tamás; Szántó, Magdolna; Tóth, Attila; Kiss, Borbála; Bacsó, Zsolt; Bai, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Beige adipocytes are special cells situated in the white adipose tissue. Beige adipocytes, lacking thermogenic cues, morphologically look quite similar to regular white adipocytes, but with a markedly different response to adrenalin. White adipocytes respond to adrenergic stimuli by enhancing lipolysis, while in beige adipocytes adrenalin induces mitochondrial biogenesis too. A key step in the differentiation and function of beige adipocytes is the deacetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) by SIRT1 and the consequent mitochondrial biogenesis. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an upstream activator of SIRT1, therefore we set out to investigate the role of AMPK in beige adipocyte differentiation using human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSCs) from pericardial adipose tissue. hADMSCs were differentiated to white and beige adipocytes and the differentiation medium of the white adipocytes was supplemented with 100 μM [(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(4-Carbamoyl-5-aminoimidazol-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methyl dihydrogen phosphate (AICAR), a known activator of AMPK. The activation of AMPK with AICAR led to the appearance of beige-like morphological properties in differentiated white adipocytes. Namely, smaller lipid droplets appeared in AICAR-treated white adipocytes in a similar fashion as in beige cells. Moreover, in AICAR-treated white adipocytes the mitochondrial network was more fused than in white adipocytes; a fused mitochondrial system was characteristic to beige adipocytes. Despite the morphological similarities between AICAR-treated white adipocytes and beige cells, functionally AICAR-treated white adipocytes were similar to white adipocytes. We were unable to detect increases in basal or cAMP-induced oxygen consumption rate (a marker of mitochondrial biogenesis) when comparing control and AICAR-treated white adipocytes. Similarly, markers of beige adipocytes such as TBX1, UCP1, CIDEA, PRDM16 and TMEM26 remained the same when

  14. Effects of Rilpivirine on Human Adipocyte Differentiation, Gene Expression, and Release of Adipokines and Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Delfín, Julieta; Domingo, Pere; Mateo, Maria Gracia; Gutierrez, Maria del Mar; Domingo, Joan Carles; Giralt, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Rilpivirine is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) recently developed as a drug of choice for initial antiretroviral treatment of HIV-1 infection. Disturbances in lipid metabolism and, ultimately, in adipose tissue distribution and function are common concerns as secondary effects of antiretroviral treatment. Efavirenz, the most commonly used NNRTI, causes mild dyslipidemic effects in patients and strongly impaired adipocyte differentiation in vitro. In this study, we provide the first demonstration of the effects of rilpivirine on human adipocyte differentiation, gene expression, and release of regulatory proteins (adipokines and cytokines) and compare them with those caused by efavirenz. Rilpivirine caused a repression of adipocyte differentiation that was associated with impaired expression of the master adipogenesis regulators peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP-1) and their target genes encoding lipoprotein lipase and the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. Rilpivirine also repressed adiponectin release by adipocytes, but only at high concentrations, and did not alter leptin release. Rilpivirine induced the release of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and -8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 [PAI-1]) only at very high concentrations (10 μM). A comparison of the effects of rilpivirine and efavirenz at the same concentration (4 μM) or even at lower concentrations of efavirenz (2 μM) showed that rilpivirine-induced impairment of adipogenesis and induction of proinflammatory cytokine expression and release were systematically milder than those of efavirenz. It is concluded that rilpivirine causes an antiadipogenic and proinflammatory response pattern, but only at high concentrations, whereas efavirenz causes similar effects at lower concentrations

  15. Role of extrathyroidal TSHR expression in adipocyte differentiation and its association with obesity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is known to be associated with higher risks of cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSHR) is the receptor for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, or thyrotropin), the key regulator of thyroid functions. The expression of TSHR, once considered to be limited to thyrocytes, has been so far detected in many extrathyroidal tissues including liver and fat. Previous studies have shown that TSHR expression is upregulated when preadipocytes differentiate into mature adipocytes, suggestive of a possible role of TSHR in adipogenesis. However, it remains unclear whether TSHR expression in adipocytes is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity. Methods In the present study, TSHR expression in adipose tissues from both mice and human was analyzed, and its association with obesity was evaluated. Results We here showed that TSHR expression was increased at both mRNA and protein levels when 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate. Knockdown of TSHR blocked the adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes as evaluated by Oil-red-O staining for lipid accumulation and by RT-PCR analyses of PPAR-γ and ALBP mRNA expression. We generated obesity mice (C57/BL6) by high-fat diet feeding and found that the TSHR protein expression in visceral adipose tissues from obesity mice was significantly higher in comparison with the non-obesity control mice (P < 0.05). Finally, the TSHR expression in adipose tissues was determined in 120 patients. The results showed that TSHR expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue is correlated with BMI (body mass index). Conclusion Taken together, these results suggested that TSHR is an important regulator of adipocyte differentiation. Dysregulated expression of TSHR in adipose tissues is associated with obesity, which may involve a mechanism of excess adipogenesis. PMID:22289392

  16. Extract of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) stimulates 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jeong In; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yun, Jong Won

    2010-11-01

    Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has long been used as a folk medicine due to its numerous biological functions such as antibacterial, antiallergic, antiinflammatory and antioxidative activities. In the present study, it was found that the I. obliquus hot water extract (IOWE) activated adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Even in the absence of adipogenic stimuli by insulin, the IOWE strongly induced adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The major constituent of IOWE was glucose-rich polysaccharides with a molecular mass of 149  kDa. IOWE enhanced the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, increasing TG (triacylglycerol) accumulation that is critical for acquisition of the adipocyte phenotype, in a dose-dependent manner. IOWE stimulated gene expression of C/EBPα (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α) and PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ) during adipocyte differentiation, and induced the expression of PPARγ target genes such as aP2 (adipocyte protein 2), LPL (lipoprotein lipase) and CD36 (fatty acid translocase). Immunoblot analysis revealed that IOWE increased the expression of adipogenic makers such as PPARγ and GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4). The luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that IOWE did not exhibit PPARγ ligand activity. Although these results require further investigation, the ability of natural mushroom product to increase PPARγ transcriptional activities may be expected to be therapeutic targets for dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes.

  17. Atypical antipsychotics induce both proinflammatory and adipogenic gene expression in human adipocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Sárvári, Anitta K.; Veréb, Zoltán; Uray, Iván P.; Fésüs, László; Balajthy, Zoltán

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Antipsychotics modulate the expression of adipogenic genes in human adipocytes. • Secretion of proinflammatory cytokine IL8 and MCP-1 is induced by antipsychotics. • Adipocyte-dependent inflammatory abnormality could develop during chronic treatment. • Infiltrated macrophages would further enhance proinflammatory cytokine production. - Abstract: Schizophrenia requires lifelong treatment, potentially causing systemic changes in metabolic homeostasis. In the clinical setting, antipsychotic treatment may differentially lead to weight gain among individual patients, although the molecular determinants of such adverse effects are currently unknown. In this study, we investigated changes in the expression levels of critical regulatory genes of adipogenesis, lipid metabolism and proinflammatory genes during the differentiation of primary human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). These cells were isolated from patients with body mass indices <25 and treated with the second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine, ziprasidone, clozapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole and risperidone and the first-generation antipsychotic haloperidol. We found that antipsychotics exhibited a marked effect on key genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle, signal transduction, transcription factors, nuclear receptors, differentiation markers and metabolic enzymes. In particular, we observed an induction of the transcription factor NF-KB1 and NF-KB1 target genes in adipocytes in response to these drugs, including the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8 and MCP-1. In addition, enhanced secretion of both IL8 and MCP-1 was observed in the supernatant of these cell cultures. In addition to their remarkable stimulatory effects on proinflammatory gene transcription, three of the most frequently prescribed antipsychotic drugs, clozapine, quetiapine and aripiprazole, also induced the expression of essential adipocyte differentiation genes and the adipocyte hormones leptin

  18. Macrophage-secreted factors induce adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Permana, Paska A. . E-mail: Paska.Permana@med.va.gov; Menge, Christopher; Reaven, Peter D.

    2006-03-10

    Macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue increases with obesity, a condition associated with low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. We investigated the direct effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance. 3T3-L1 adipocytes incubated with media conditioned by RAW264.7 macrophages (RAW-CM) showed dramatically increased transcription of several inflammation-related genes, greater nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity, and enhanced binding of U937 monocytes. All of these effects were prevented by co-incubation with pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, an NF-{kappa}B inhibitor. Adipocytes incubated with RAW-CM also released more non-esterified fatty acids and this increased lipolysis was not suppressed by insulin. In addition, RAW-CM treatment decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that macrophage-secreted factors induce inflammatory responses and reduce insulin responsiveness in adipocytes. These effects of macrophage-secreted factors on adipocytes may contribute significantly to the systemic inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity.

  19. PPARgamma and GLUT-4 expression as developmental regulators/markers for preadipocyte differentiation into an adipocyte.

    PubMed

    Fernyhough, M E; Okine, E; Hausman, G; Vierck, J L; Dodson, M V

    2007-11-01

    In this document, we have integrated knowledge about two major cellular markers found in cells of the adipocyte lineage (an adipogenic marker and a metabolic marker). This review provides information as to how differentiation of a cell (such as an adipofibroblast, fibroblast or preadipocyte) to become a viable (and new) adipocyte is under different regulation than that experienced by an immature adipocyte that is just beginning to accumulate lipid. The differentiation, prior to lipid-filling, involves PPARgamma. Subsequently, lipid-filling of the adipocyte relies on a late subset of genes and, depending on depot specificity, involves GLUT-4 or any number of other metabolic markers.

  20. Pear pomace water extract inhibits adipogenesis and induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Rhyu, Jin; Kim, Min Sook; You, Mi-Kyoung; Bang, Mi-Ae; Kim, Hyeon-A

    2014-02-01

    Obesity occurs when a person's calorie intake exceeds the amount of energy burns, which may lead to pathologic growth of adipocytes and the accumulation of fat in the tissues. In this study, the effect and mechanism of pear pomace extracts on 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation and apoptosis of mature adipocytes were investigated. The effects of pear pomace extract on cell viability and the anti-adipogenic and proapoptotic effects were investigated via MTT assay, Oil red O staining, western blot analysis and apoptosis assay. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were stimulated with DMEM containing 10% FBS, 0.5 mM 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), 5 µg/ml insulin and 1 µM dexamethasone for differentiation to adipocytes. 3T3-L1 cells were cultured with PBS or water extract of pear pomace. Water extract of pear pomace effectively inhibited lipid accumulations and expressions of PPAR-γ and C/EBPα in 3T3-L1 cells. It also increased expression of p-AMPK and decreased the expression of SREBP-1c and FAS in 3T3-L1 cells. The induction of apoptosis was observed in 3T3-L1 cells treated with pear pomace. These results indicate that pear pomace water extract inhibits adipogenesis and induces apoptosis of adipocytes and thus can be used as a potential therapeutic substance as part of prevention or treatment strategy for obesity.

  1. Regulation of white and brown adipocyte differentiation by RhoGAP DLC1.

    PubMed

    Sim, Choon Kiat; Kim, Sun-Yee; Brunmeir, Reinhard; Zhang, Qiongyi; Li, Hongyu; Dharmasegaran, Dharmini; Leong, Carol; Lim, Ying Yan; Han, Weiping; Xu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Adipose tissues constitute an important component of metabolism, the dysfunction of which can cause obesity and type II diabetes. Here we show that differentiation of white and brown adipocytes requires Deleted in Liver Cancer 1 (DLC1), a Rho GTPase Activating Protein (RhoGAP) previously studied for its function in liver cancer. We identified Dlc1 as a super-enhancer associated gene in both white and brown adipocytes through analyzing the genome-wide binding profiles of PPARγ, the master regulator of adipogenesis. We further observed that Dlc1 expression increases during differentiation, and knockdown of Dlc1 by siRNA in white adipocytes reduces the formation of lipid droplets and the expression of fat marker genes. Moreover, knockdown of Dlc1 in brown adipocytes reduces expression of brown fat-specific genes and diminishes mitochondrial respiration. Dlc1-/- knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts show a complete inability to differentiate into adipocytes, but this phenotype can be rescued by inhibitors of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) and filamentous actin (F-actin), suggesting the involvement of Rho pathway in DLC1-regulated adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, PPARγ binds to the promoter of Dlc1 gene to regulate its expression during both white and brown adipocyte differentiation. These results identify DLC1 as an activator of white and brown adipocyte differentiation, and provide a molecular link between PPARγ and Rho pathways.

  2. Regulation of white and brown adipocyte differentiation by RhoGAP DLC1

    PubMed Central

    Brunmeir, Reinhard; Zhang, Qiongyi; Li, Hongyu; Dharmasegaran, Dharmini; Leong, Carol; Lim, Ying Yan; Han, Weiping

    2017-01-01

    Adipose tissues constitute an important component of metabolism, the dysfunction of which can cause obesity and type II diabetes. Here we show that differentiation of white and brown adipocytes requires Deleted in Liver Cancer 1 (DLC1), a Rho GTPase Activating Protein (RhoGAP) previously studied for its function in liver cancer. We identified Dlc1 as a super-enhancer associated gene in both white and brown adipocytes through analyzing the genome-wide binding profiles of PPARγ, the master regulator of adipogenesis. We further observed that Dlc1 expression increases during differentiation, and knockdown of Dlc1 by siRNA in white adipocytes reduces the formation of lipid droplets and the expression of fat marker genes. Moreover, knockdown of Dlc1 in brown adipocytes reduces expression of brown fat-specific genes and diminishes mitochondrial respiration. Dlc1-/- knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts show a complete inability to differentiate into adipocytes, but this phenotype can be rescued by inhibitors of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) and filamentous actin (F-actin), suggesting the involvement of Rho pathway in DLC1-regulated adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, PPARγ binds to the promoter of Dlc1 gene to regulate its expression during both white and brown adipocyte differentiation. These results identify DLC1 as an activator of white and brown adipocyte differentiation, and provide a molecular link between PPARγ and Rho pathways. PMID:28358928

  3. Silica nanoparticles inhibit brown adipocyte differentiation via regulation of p38 phosphorylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Min Jeong; Kim, Won Kon; Kwak, Minjeong; Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Chang, Won Seok; Min, Jeong-Ki; Lee, Sang Chul; Song, Nam Woong; Bae, Kwang-Hee

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticles are of great interest due to their wide variety of biomedical and bioengineering applications. However, they affect cellular differentiation and/or intracellular signaling when applied and exposed to target organisms or cells. The brown adipocyte is a cell type important in energy homeostasis and thus closely related to obesity. In this study, we assessed the effects of silica nanoparticles (SNPs) on brown adipocyte differentiation. The results clearly showed that brown adipocyte differentiation was significantly repressed by exposure to SNPs. The brown adipocyte-specific genes as well as mitochondrial content were also markedly reduced. Additionally, SNPs led to suppressed p38 phosphorylation during brown adipocyte differentiation. These effects depend on the size of SNPs. Taken together, these results lead us to suggest that SNP has anti-brown adipogenic effect in a size-dependent manner via regulation of p38 phosphorylation.

  4. MicroRNAs Are Required for the Feature Maintenance and Differentiation of Brown Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Cho, Hyunjii; Alexander, Ryan; Patterson, Heide Christine; Gu, Minxia; Lo, Kinyui Alice; Xu, Dan; Goh, Vera J.; Nguyen, Long N.; Chai, Xiaoran; Huang, Cher X.; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Ghosh, Sujoy; Trajkovski, Mirko; Silver, David L.; Lodish, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized to burn lipids for heat generation as a natural defense against cold and obesity. Previous studies established microRNAs (miRNAs) as essential regulators of brown adipocyte differentiation, but whether miRNAs are required for the feature maintenance of mature brown adipocytes remains unknown. To address this question, we ablated Dgcr8, a key regulator of the miRNA biogenesis pathway, in mature brown as well as in white adipocytes. Adipose tissue–specific Dgcr8 knockout mice displayed enlarged but pale interscapular brown fat with decreased expression of genes characteristic of brown fat and were intolerant to cold exposure. Primary brown adipocyte cultures in vitro confirmed that miRNAs are required for marker gene expression in mature brown adipocytes. We also demonstrated that miRNAs are essential for the browning of subcutaneous white adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. Using this animal model, we performed miRNA expression profiling analysis and identified a set of BAT-specific miRNAs that are upregulated during brown adipocyte differentiation and enriched in brown fat compared with other organs. We identified miR-182 and miR-203 as new regulators of brown adipocyte development. Taken together, our study demonstrates an essential role of miRNAs in the maintenance as well as in the differentiation of brown adipocytes. PMID:25008181

  5. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Differentiating to Adipocytes Accumulate Autophagic Vesicles Instead of Functional Lipid Droplets.

    PubMed

    Gruia, Alexandra T; Suciu, Maria; Barbu-Tudoran, Lucian; Azghadi, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Cristea, Mirabela I; Nica, Dragos V; Vaduva, Adrian; Muntean, Danina; Mic, Ani Aurora; Mic, Felix A

    2016-04-01

    Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) can easily be differentiated into a variety of cells. In vivo transplantation of BMSCs-differentiated cells has had limited success, suggesting that these cells may not be fully compatible with the cells they are intended to replace in vivo. We investigated the structural and functional features of BMSCs-derived adipocytes as compared with adipocytes from adipose tissue, and the structure and functionality of lipid vesicles formed during BMSCs differentiation to adipocytes. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed fatty acid composition of BMSCs-derived adipocytes and adipocytes from the adipose tissue to be very different, as is the lipid rafts composition, caveolin-1 expression, caveolae distribution in their membranes, and the pattern of expression of fatty acid elongases. Confocal microscopy confirmed the absence from BMSCs-derived adipocytes of markers of lipid droplets. BMSCs-derived adipocytes cannot convert deuterated glucose into deuterated species of fatty acids and cannot uptake the deuterated fatty acid-bovine serum albumin complexes from the culture medium, suggesting that intra-cellular accumulation of lipids does not occur by lipogenesis. We noted that BMSCs differentiation to adipocytes is accompanied by an increase in autophagy. Autophagic vesicles accumulate in the cytoplasm of BMSCs-derived adipocytes and their size and distribution resembles that of Nile Red-stained lipid vesicles. Stimulation of autophagy in BMSCs triggers the intra-cellular accumulation of lipids, while inhibition of autophagy prevents this accumulation. In conclusion, differentiation of BMSCs-derived adipocytes leads to intra-cellular accumulation of autophagic vesicles rather than functional lipid droplets, suggesting that these cells are not authentic adipocytes. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 863-875, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Isolation and Culture of Pig Spermatogonial Stem Cells and Their in Vitro Differentiation into Neuron-Like Cells and Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Tingfeng; Zhang, Yani; Li, Bichun; Xu, Qi; Song, Chengyi

    2015-11-04

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) renew themselves throughout the life of an organism and also differentiate into sperm in the adult. They are multipopent and therefore, can be induced to differentiate into many cells types in vitro. SSCs from pigs, considered an ideal animal model, are used in studies of male infertility, regenerative medicine, and preparation of transgenic animals. Here, we report on a culture system for porcine SSCs and the differentiation of these cells into neuron-like cells and adipocytes. SSCs and Sertoli cells were isolated from neonatal piglet testis by differential adhesion and SSCs were cultured on a feeder layer of Sertoli cells. Third-generation SSCs were induced to differentiate into neuron-like cells by addition of retinoic acid, β-mercaptoethanol, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) to the induction media and into adipocytes by the addition of hexadecadrol, insulin, and IBMX to the induction media. The differentiated cells were characterized by biochemical staining, qRT-PCR, and immunocytochemistry. The cells were positive for SSC markers, including alkaline phosphatase and SSC-specific genes, consistent with the cells being undifferentiated. The isolated SSCs survived on the Sertoli cells for 15 generations. Karyotyping confirmed that the chromosomal number of the SSCs were normal for pig (2n = 38, n = 19). Pig SSCs were successfully induced into neuron-like cells eight days after induction and into adipocytes 22 days after induction as determined by biochemical and immunocytochemical staining. qPCR results also support this conclusion. The nervous tissue markers genes, Nestin and β-tubulin, were expressed in the neuron-like cells and the adipocyte marker genes, PPARγ and C/EBPα, were expressed in the adipocytes.

  7. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide induces cytokine expression, lipolysis, and insulin resistance in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Timper, Katharina; Grisouard, Jean; Sauter, Nadine S; Herzog-Radimerski, Tanja; Dembinski, Kaethi; Peterli, Ralph; Frey, Daniel M; Zulewski, Henryk; Keller, Ulrich; Müller, Beat; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Obesity-related insulin resistance is linked to a chronic state of systemic and adipose tissue-derived inflammation. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone also acting on adipocytes. We investigated whether GIP affects inflammation, lipolysis, and insulin resistance in human adipocytes. Human subcutaneous preadipocyte-derived adipocytes, differentiated in vitro, were treated with human GIP to analyze mRNA expression and protein secretion of cytokines, glycerol, and free fatty acid release and insulin-induced glucose uptake. GIP induced mRNA expression of IL-6, IL-1β, and the IL-1 receptor antagonist IL-1Ra, whereas TNFα, IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 remained unchanged. Cytokine induction involved PKA and the NF-κB pathway as well as an autocrine IL-1 effect. Furthermore, GIP potentiated IL-6 and IL-1Ra secretion in the presence of LPS, IL-1β, and TNFα. GIP induced lipolysis via activation of hormone-sensitive lipase and was linked to NF-κB activation. Finally, chronic GIP treatment impaired insulin-induced glucose uptake possibly due to the observed impaired translocation of glucose transporter GLUT4. In conclusion, GIP induces an inflammatory and prolipolytic response via the PKA -NF-κB-IL-1 pathway and impairs insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake in human adipocytes.

  8. The role of the orphan nuclear receptor Rev-Erb alpha in adipocyte differentiation and function.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, S; Fontaine, C; Fruchart, J C; Staels, B

    2005-01-01

    Lipid and carbohydrate homeostasis in higher organisms is governed by an integrated system that has a capacity to rapidly respond to metabolic changes. Numerous signals reciprocally convey information about body fat status from the periphery to central nervous system in the attempt to maintain body weight nearly stable throughout life. The role of adipocyte in energy homeostasis extends its function as a simple energy storage cell. Indeed, adipose tissue not only secretes fatty acids, but is also an active endocrine and paracrine organ due to the production of secreted proteins and lipid indicators collectively called adipokines. These observations have spurred interest in the identification of the transcriptional and other regulatory pathways of adipocyte differentiation. The nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) (NR1C3) and members of the CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family are central mediators controlling adipocyte differentiation and function. Rev-erb alpha (NR1D1) is an orphan nuclear receptor encoded on the opposite strand of the thyroid receptor alpha gene. Rev-erb alpha acts as a negative regulator of transcription binding to the same response element than another orphan nuclear receptor, ROR alpha. Rev-erb alpha is highly expressed in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, heart, liver and brain. Rev-erb alpha expression increases during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and is induced by PPAR gamma activation in both 3T3-L1 cells in vitro and in rat adipose tissue in vivo via a direct repeat (DR2) in the Rev-erb alpha promoter. Ectopic expression of Rev-erb alpha potentiates the adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Recent results in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) indicate that Rev-erb alpha also controls inflammation by regulating NF-kappa B responsive genes, such as IL-6 and COX-2. Future studies on a potential role of Rev-erb alpha on glucose homeostasis and/or inflammation control are

  9. TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) inhibits human adipocyte differentiation via caspase-mediated downregulation of adipogenic transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Zoller, Verena; Funcke, Jan-Bernd; Keuper, Michaela; Abd El Hay, Muad; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Wabitsch, Martin; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and other ligands of the TNF superfamily are potent regulators of adipose tissue metabolism and play a crucial role in the obesity-induced inflammation of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue expression levels of TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) and its receptor were shown to be upregulated by overfeeding and decreased by fasting in mice. In the present study we aimed to elucidate the impact of TRAIL on adipogenesis. To this end, human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) preadipocytes as well as stromal-vascular cells isolated from human white adipose tissue were used as model systems. Human recombinant TRAIL inhibited adipogenic differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. It activated the cleavage of caspase-8 and -3, which in turn resulted in a downregulation of the key adipogenic transcription factors C/EBPα, C/EBPδ, and PPARγ. The effect was completely blocked by pharmacological or genetic inhibition of caspases. Taken together we discovered a so far unrecognized function of TRAIL in the regulation of adipogenesis. Targeting the TRAIL/TRAIL receptor system might provide a novel strategy to interfere with adipose tissue homeostasis. PMID:27735943

  10. C-terminus of HSC70-Interacting Protein (CHIP) Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation via Ubiquitin- and Proteasome-Mediated Degradation of PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Shin, Soyeon; Seo, Jinho; Lee, Eun-Woo; Jeong, Manhyung; Lee, Min-Sik; Han, Hyun-Ji; Song, Jaewhan

    2017-01-06

    PPARγ (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) is a nuclear receptor involved in lipid homeostasis and related metabolic diseases. Acting as a transcription factor, PPARγ is a master regulator for adipocyte differentiation. Here, we reveal that CHIP (C-terminus of HSC70-interacting protein) suppresses adipocyte differentiation by functioning as an E3 ligase of PPARγ. CHIP directly binds to and induces ubiquitylation of the PPARγ protein, leading to proteasome-dependent degradation. Stable overexpression or knockdown of CHIP inhibited or promoted adipogenesis, respectively, in 3T3-L1 cells. On the other hand, a CHIP mutant defective in E3 ligase could neither regulate PPARγ protein levels nor suppress adipogenesis, indicating the importance of CHIP-mediated ubiquitylation of PPARγ in adipocyte differentiation. Lastly, a CHIP null embryo fibroblast exhibited augmented adipocyte differentiation with increases in PPARγ and its target protein levels. In conclusion, CHIP acts as an E3 ligase of PPARγ, suppressing PPARγ-mediated adipogenesis.

  11. C-terminus of HSC70-Interacting Protein (CHIP) Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation via Ubiquitin- and Proteasome-Mediated Degradation of PPARγ

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Shin, Soyeon; Seo, Jinho; Lee, Eun-Woo; Jeong, Manhyung; Lee, Min-sik; Han, Hyun-Ji; Song, Jaewhan

    2017-01-01

    PPARγ (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) is a nuclear receptor involved in lipid homeostasis and related metabolic diseases. Acting as a transcription factor, PPARγ is a master regulator for adipocyte differentiation. Here, we reveal that CHIP (C-terminus of HSC70-interacting protein) suppresses adipocyte differentiation by functioning as an E3 ligase of PPARγ. CHIP directly binds to and induces ubiquitylation of the PPARγ protein, leading to proteasome-dependent degradation. Stable overexpression or knockdown of CHIP inhibited or promoted adipogenesis, respectively, in 3T3-L1 cells. On the other hand, a CHIP mutant defective in E3 ligase could neither regulate PPARγ protein levels nor suppress adipogenesis, indicating the importance of CHIP-mediated ubiquitylation of PPARγ in adipocyte differentiation. Lastly, a CHIP null embryo fibroblast exhibited augmented adipocyte differentiation with increases in PPARγ and its target protein levels. In conclusion, CHIP acts as an E3 ligase of PPARγ, suppressing PPARγ-mediated adipogenesis. PMID:28059128

  12. Interaction between human mature adipocytes and lymphocytes induces T-cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Poloni, Antonella; Maurizi, Giulia; Ciarlantini, Marco; Medici, Martina; Mattiucci, Domenico; Mancini, Stefania; Maurizi, Angela; Falconi, Massimo; Olivieri, Attilio; Leoni, Pietro

    2015-09-01

    Adipose tissue is a critical organ that plays a major role in energy balance regulation and the immune response through intricate signals. We report on the inter-relation between mature adipocytes and lymphocytes in terms of adipocyte-derived T-cell chemo-attractants and adipocyte metabolic effects on lymphocytes. During the culture time, mature adipocytes changed their structural and functional properties into de-differentiated cells. Isolated mature adipocytes expressed significantly higher levels of CIITA, major histocompatibility complex II (human leukocyte antigen [HLA]-DR) and costimulatory signal molecule CD80 compared with adipocytes after the de-differentiation process. Moreover, human leukocyte antigen-G, which may prevent the immune responses of mesenchymal stromal cells, was expressed at lower level in mature adipocytes compared with de-differentiated adipocytes. In line with these molecular data, functional results showed different immunoregulatory properties between adipocytes before and after the de-differentiation process. Mature adipocytes stimulated the proliferation of total lymphocytes and immunoselected cell populations CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ in a direct contact-dependent way that involved the major histocompatibility complex I and II pathways. Moreover, adipocytes secreted potential chemo-attractant factors, but data showed that adipocyte-derived culture medium was not sufficient to activate lymphocyte proliferation, suggesting that a direct contact between adipocytes and immune cells was needed. However, specific mature adipocyte cytokines enhanced lymphocyte proliferation in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. In conclusion, cross-talk occurs between adipocytes and lymphocytes within adipose tissue involving T-cell chemo-attraction by mature adipocytes. Our findings, together with current observations in the field, provide a rationale to identify adipocyte-lymphocyte cross-talk that instigates adipose inflammation. Copyright © 2015 International

  13. Obestatin regulates adipocyte function and protects against diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Granata, Riccarda; Gallo, Davide; Luque, Raul M; Baragli, Alessandra; Scarlatti, Francesca; Grande, Cristina; Gesmundo, Iacopo; Córdoba-Chacón, Jose; Bergandi, Loredana; Settanni, Fabio; Togliatto, Gabriele; Volante, Marco; Garetto, Stefano; Annunziata, Marta; Chanclón, Belén; Gargantini, Eleonora; Rocchietto, Stefano; Matera, Lina; Datta, Giacomo; Morino, Mario; Brizzi, Maria Felice; Ong, Huy; Camussi, Giovanni; Castaño, Justo P; Papotti, Mauro; Ghigo, Ezio

    2012-08-01

    The metabolic actions of the ghrelin gene-derived peptide obestatin are still unclear. We investigated obestatin effects in vitro, on adipocyte function, and in vivo, on insulin resistance and inflammation in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Obestatin effects on apoptosis, differentiation, lipolysis, and glucose uptake were determined in vitro in mouse 3T3-L1 and in human subcutaneous (hSC) and omental (hOM) adipocytes. In vivo, the influence of obestatin on glucose metabolism was assessed in mice fed an HFD for 8 wk. 3T3-L1, hSC, and hOM preadipocytes and adipocytes secreted obestatin and showed specific binding for the hormone. Obestatin prevented apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by increasing phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signaling. In both mice and human adipocytes, obestatin inhibited isoproterenol-induced lipolysis, promoted AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, induced adiponectin, and reduced leptin secretion. Obestatin also enhanced glucose uptake in either the absence or presence of insulin, promoted GLUT4 translocation, and increased Akt phosphorylation and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) protein expression. Inhibition of SIRT1 by small interfering RNA reduced obestatin-induced glucose uptake. In HFD-fed mice, obestatin reduced insulin resistance, increased insulin secretion from pancreatic islets, and reduced adipocyte apoptosis and inflammation in metabolic tissues. These results provide evidence of a novel role for obestatin in adipocyte function and glucose metabolism and suggest potential therapeutic perspectives in insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunctions.

  14. Effect of growth hormone on the differentiation of bovine preadipocytes into adipocytes and the role of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L; Wang, A; Corl, B A; Jiang, H

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of GH on the differentiation of primary bovine preadipocytes into adipocytes. Bovine preadipocytes, derived from adipose tissue explants, were induced to differentiate into adipocytes in the presence or absence of recombinant bovine GH. The differentiation status of adipocytes was assessed by Oil Red O staining and by measuring the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) and the rate of acetate incorporation. Fewer preadipocytes became adipocytes in the presence of GH than in the absence of GH; adipocytes formed in the presence of GH had lower G3PDH activity and lower rate of acetate incorporation than those formed without GH treatment (P < 0.05). These data suggest an inhibitory effect of GH on the differentiation of bovine preadipocytes into adipocytes. Growth hormone decreased the expression of C/EBPα and PPARγ mRNA in bovine adipocytes (P < 0.05). Because C/EBPα and PPARγ are the master regulators of adipocyte differentiation, this data suggests that GH might inhibit the differentiation of bovine preadipocytes into adipocytes by inhibiting the expression of C/EBPα and/or PPARγ. Because the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) is a major component of signaling from the GH receptor, we next determined the potential role of STAT5 in GH inhibition of bovine adipocyte differentiation. Overexpression of a constitutively active form of STAT5b (STAT5bCA) in bovine preadipocytes through adenoviral transduction mimicked the effects of GH on the formation of lipid-containing adipocytes, G3PDH activity, and acetate incorporation rate. Overexpression of STAT5bCA was associated with decreased expression of C/EBPα mRNA (P < 0.05) but not that of PPARγ mRNA in bovine adipocytes. These results support a role of STAT5b in mediating GH inhibition of C/EBPα expression but not that of PPARγ expression in bovine preadipocytes. Overall, the present study suggests that GH may inhibit adipose growth in cattle in

  15. Methylation of miR-145a-5p promoter mediates adipocytes differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Jingjing; Cheng, Xiao; Shen, Linyuan; Tan, Zhendong; Luo, Jia; Wu, Xiaoqian; Liu, Chendong; Yang, Qiong; Jiang, Yanzhi; Tang, Guoqing; Li, Xuewei; Zhang, Shunhua; Zhu, Li

    2016-06-17

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miR) play important roles in adipocyte development. Recent studies showed that the expression of several miRNAs is closely related with promoter methylation. However, it is not known whether miRNA mediates adipocytes differentiation by means of DNA methylation. Here, we showed that miR-145a-5p was poorly expressed in adipose tissue from mice fed a high fat diet (HFD). Overexpression or inhibition of miR-145a-5p was unfavorable or beneficial, respectively, for adipogenesis, and these effects were achieved by regulating adipocyte-specific genes involved in lipogenic transcription, fatty acid synthesis, and fatty acid transportation. Particularly, we first suggested that miR-145a-5p mimics or inhibitors promoted or repressed adipocytes proliferation by regulating p53 and p21, which act as cell cycle regulating factors. Surprisingly, the miR-145a-5p-repressed adipocyte differentiation was enhanced or rescued when cells treated with 5-Aza-dC were transfected with miR-145a-5p mimics or inhibitors, respectively. These data indicated that, as a new mean to positively regulate adipocyte proliferation, the process of miR-145a-5p-inhibited adipogenesis may be regulated by DNA methylation. -- Highlights: •MiR-145a-5p promotes adipocytes proliferation. •MiR-145a-5p is negatively correlated with obesity. •MiR-145a-5p mediates adipocytes differentiation via regulating pathway related adipocytes differentiation. MiR-145a-5p mediating adipocytes differentiation was regulated by DNA methylation.

  16. Unexpected blockade of adipocyte differentiation by K-7174: Implication for endoplasmic reticulum stress

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Tsuyoshi; Hiramatsu, Nobuhiko; Okamura, Maro; Hayakawa, Kunihiro; Kasai, Ayumi; Yao, Jian; Kitamura, Masanori

    2007-11-16

    Preadipocytes constitutively express GATA-2 and GATA-3 that are required to halt the cells at the undifferentiated stage. However, we unexpectedly found that K-7174, a GATA-specific inhibitor, did not induce but rather inhibited differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. It was associated with lack of lipid accumulation, blunted expression of adipocyte markers including adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), and sustained expression of a preadipocyte marker monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1). Subsequent experiments revealed that K-7174 had the potential to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress evidenced by induction of GRP78 and CHOP. Other inducers of ER stress completely reproduced the effects of K-7174 including suppression of lipid accumulation, blockade of induction of adiponection and PPAR{gamma} and maintenance of MCP-1 expression. These results indicated a possibility that ER stress suppresses adipocyte differentiation and that GATA inhibitor K-7174 has the potential for interfering with adipogenesis through induction of ER stress.

  17. Stabilization of the mRNA for the uncoupling protein thermogenin by transcriptional/translational blockade and by noradrenaline in brown adipocytes differentiated in culture: a degradation factor induced by cessation of stimulation?

    PubMed Central

    Picó, C; Herron, D; Palou, A; Jacobsson, A; Cannon, B; Nedergaard, J

    1994-01-01

    The stability of the mRNA coding for the uncoupling protein thermogenin was investigated in mouse brown-fat cells differentiated in culture. After 7 days in culture, the cells were stimulated for 24 h with noradrenaline, and a high level of thermogenin mRNA was then observed. If noradrenaline treatment was continued, the mRNA level remained high, but, upon withdrawal of noradrenaline, the level decreased rapidly, with a half-life of only 2.7 h. The presence of transcriptional (actinomycin) or translational (cycloheximide) inhibitors prolonged the apparent half-life by about 50%. The presence of noradrenaline during transcriptional blockade led to a further stabilization of thermogenin mRNA. It was concluded that an induced (or short-lived) gene product is important for thermogenin mRNA degradation. Direct interaction of noradrenaline with the cultured brown adipocytes could apparently not mimic the paradoxical destabilization of thermogenin mRNA in vivo, previously observed in the cold-exposed mouse [Jacobsson, Cannon and Nedergaard (1987) FEBS Lett. 244, 353-356], indicating significant differences between the systems in vitro and in vivo. Images Figure 4 PMID:8068027

  18. 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone inhibits adipocyte differentiation via antioxidant activity and induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Won; Lee, Chang Won; Lee, Jisun; Choi, Doo Jin; Sohng, Jae Kyung; Park, Yong Il

    2016-01-01

    Anti-obesity effects of a natural plant flavonoid 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF) were evaluated using 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells. The cell viability was determined using MTT assay. Effects of 7,8-DHF on intracellular lipid droplets and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using a 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) assay and Oil Red O staining method, respectively. Apoptotic cell death was monitored by annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and by a TUNEL assay. Antioxidant enzyme mRNA levels and protein expression of adipogenic transcription factors were determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Whereas the cell viability of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was not affected by lower concentrations of 7,8-DHF (<20 μM), higher concentrations of 7,8-DHF (>20 μM) induced apoptotic cell death. 7,8-DHF (<20 μM) significantly reduced the intracellular lipid droplets and the expression of major adipogenic transcription factors, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), C/EBP-β, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). 7,8-DHF treatment also dose-dependently reduced the intracellular ROS level, attenuated MAPK pathway activation, and increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes, such as Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), catalase (CAT), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The results of this study indicated that 7,8-DHF inhibits the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells by down-regulating the expression of adipogenic transcription factors, reduces lipid accumulation, and attenuates ROS accumulation by inducing antioxidant enzymes in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, suggesting for the first time that 7,8-DHF has an anti-obesity effect in vitro via its anti-oxidant activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adipocyte dysfunction in rats with streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Szkudelska, Katarzyna; Nogowski, Leszek; Szkudelski, Tomasz

    2014-04-01

    Administration of streptozotocin (STZ) and nicotinamide (NA) to adult rats allows for the induction of mild diabetes. However, this experimental model has not been fully characterized. This study was undertaken to determine the metabolic and secretory activity of adipose tissue in rats with STZ-NA-induced diabetes. Experiments were performed using epididymal adipocytes isolated from control and mildly diabetic rats. Lipogenesis, glucose transport as well as glucose and alanine oxidation, lipolysis, anti-lipolysis, cAMP levels and adipokine secretion were compared in cells isolated from the control and diabetic rats. Lipogenesis, glucose transport and oxidation were diminished in the adipocytes of diabetic rats compared with the fat cells of control animals. However, alanine oxidation appeared to be similar in the cells of non-diabetic and diabetic animals. Lipolytic response to low epinephrine concentrations was slightly increased in the adipocytes of diabetic rats; however, at higher concentrations of the hormone, lipolysis was similar in both groups of cells. The epinephrine-induced rise in cAMP levels was higher in the adipocytes of STZ-NA-induced diabetic rats, even in the presence of insulin. Lipolysis stimulated by dibutyryl-cAMP did not significantly differ, whereas anti-lipolytic effects of insulin were mildly decreased in the cells of diabetic rats. Secretion of adiponectin and leptin was substantially diminished in the adipocytes of diabetic rats compared with the cells of control animals. Our studies demonstrated that the balance between lipogenesis and lipolysis in the adipose tissue of rats with mild diabetes induced by STZ and NA is slightly shifted towards reduced lipid accumulation. Simultaneously, adiponectin and leptin secretion is significantly impaired. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2014 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  20. Adipocyte dysfunction in rats with streptozotocin–nicotinamide-induced diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Szkudelska, Katarzyna; Nogowski, Leszek; Szkudelski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Administration of streptozotocin (STZ) and nicotinamide (NA) to adult rats allows for the induction of mild diabetes. However, this experimental model has not been fully characterized. This study was undertaken to determine the metabolic and secretory activity of adipose tissue in rats with STZ-NA-induced diabetes. Experiments were performed using epididymal adipocytes isolated from control and mildly diabetic rats. Lipogenesis, glucose transport as well as glucose and alanine oxidation, lipolysis, anti-lipolysis, cAMP levels and adipokine secretion were compared in cells isolated from the control and diabetic rats. Lipogenesis, glucose transport and oxidation were diminished in the adipocytes of diabetic rats compared with the fat cells of control animals. However, alanine oxidation appeared to be similar in the cells of non-diabetic and diabetic animals. Lipolytic response to low epinephrine concentrations was slightly increased in the adipocytes of diabetic rats; however, at higher concentrations of the hormone, lipolysis was similar in both groups of cells. The epinephrine-induced rise in cAMP levels was higher in the adipocytes of STZ-NA-induced diabetic rats, even in the presence of insulin. Lipolysis stimulated by dibutyryl-cAMP did not significantly differ, whereas anti-lipolytic effects of insulin were mildly decreased in the cells of diabetic rats. Secretion of adiponectin and leptin was substantially diminished in the adipocytes of diabetic rats compared with the cells of control animals. Our studies demonstrated that the balance between lipogenesis and lipolysis in the adipose tissue of rats with mild diabetes induced by STZ and NA is slightly shifted towards reduced lipid accumulation. Simultaneously, adiponectin and leptin secretion is significantly impaired. PMID:24628786

  1. Effect of bone morphogenetic protein 7 on differentiation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells into brown adipocytes in rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Long; Liu, Jian-Min; Wang, Jun-Xia; Li, Min-Zhi; Lian, Wei-Guang; Xie, Peng; Liu, Shu-Feng

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of bone morphogenetic protein(BMP7)on the differentiation of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells(AD-MSCs)isolated from different adipose tissues into brown adipocytes in rats. Primary AD-MSCs were isolated from rate interscapular brown adipose tissue(iBAT),inguinal subcutaneous white adipose tissue(sWAT),and epididymal white adipose tissue(eWAT),respectively,and then cultivated in vitro. Differentiation of AD-MSCs into brown adipocytes was induced by BMP7. The characteristics of brown adipocytes were detected by immunofluorescence staining and oil red staining of cells. The expression levels of brown adipocyte-related genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction. AD-MSCs from iBAT and sWAT were differentiated into cluster multilocular cells,which were stained red by oil red "O"staining and showed uncoupling protein 1-positive by immunofluorescent staining method. AD-MSCs from eWAT had a small number of scattered multilocular cells and showed uncoupling protein 1-negative. The results of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that the uncoupling protein 1 gene was highly expressed in the iBAT group and sWAT group but was negative in the eWAT group. AD-MSCs isolated from different adipose tissues in rats have different gene expression profiles and differentiation potentials.

  2. RARγ-C-Fos-PPARγ2 signaling rather than ROS generation is critical for all-trans retinoic acid-inhibited adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Yang, Peng; Liu, Jiangzheng; Wu, Hao; Yu, Weihua; Zhang, Tao; Fu, Han; Liu, Ying; Hai, Chunxu

    2014-11-01

    Obesity has become a worldwide public health problem, which is mainly determined by excess energy intake and adipose tissue expansion. Adipose tissue expansion can occur through hyperplasia (adipocyte differentiation) or hypertrophy. Retinoic acid was shown to inhibit adipocyte differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism is unclear. In the study, we found that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) inhibited 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. We did not observe significant apoptosis in differentiated adipocytes treated by ATRA. ATRA increased ROS generation and disturbed redox balance. However, antioxidant treatment did not ameliorate the reduction of lipid accumulation induced by ATRA, indicating that ROS generation was not involved in ATRA-inhibited adipocyte differentiation. ATRA reduced C/EBPα, PPARγ and its target gene expression. In the presence of ATRA, retinoic acid receptor (RAR) α/γ expression was increased. Inhibition of RARγ, but not RARα, blocked ATRA-induced reduction of PPARγ2 expression. ATRA induced a profound interaction between RARγ and C-Fos protein, reflected by Co-IP results. C-Fos was found to exhibit a differentiation-dependent DNA binding activity to PPARγ2 promoter. RARγ inhibitor significantly suppressed ATRA-inhibited DNA binding activity of C-Fos to PPARγ2 promoter, indicating that downregulation of C-Fos activity mediated activation of RARγ-exerted reduction of PPARγ2 expression and thus inhibition of adipocyte differentiation induced by ATRA. Taken together, these data demonstrates that RARγ-C-Fos-PPARγ2 signaling rather than ROS generation is critical for ATRA-inhibited adipocyte differentiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  3. Pmch-deficiency in rats is associated with normal adipocyte differentiation and lower sympathetic adipose drive.

    PubMed

    Mul, Joram D; O'Duibhir, Eoghan; Shrestha, Yogendra B; Koppen, Arjen; Vargoviç, Peter; Toonen, Pim W; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Kvetnansky, Richard; Kalkhoven, Eric; Cuppen, Edwin; Bartness, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    The orexigenic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), a product of Pmch, is an important mediator of energy homeostasis. Pmch-deficient rodents are lean and smaller, characterized by lower food intake, body-, and fat mass. Pmch is expressed in hypothalamic neurons that ultimately are components in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) drive to white and interscapular brown adipose tissue (WAT, iBAT, respectively). MCH binds to MCH receptor 1 (MCH1R), which is present on adipocytes. Currently it is unknown if Pmch-ablation changes adipocyte differentiation or sympathetic adipose drive. Using Pmch-deficient and wild-type rats on a standard low-fat diet, we analyzed dorsal subcutaneous and perirenal WAT mass and adipocyte morphology (size and number) throughout development, and indices of sympathetic activation in WAT and iBAT during adulthood. Moreover, using an in vitro approach we investigated the ability of MCH to modulate 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Pmch-deficiency decreased dorsal subcutaneous and perirenal WAT mass by reducing adipocyte size, but not number. In line with this, in vitro 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation was unaffected by MCH. Finally, adult Pmch-deficient rats had lower norepinephrine turnover (an index of sympathetic adipose drive) in WAT and iBAT than wild-type rats. Collectively, our data indicate that MCH/MCH1R-pathway does not modify adipocyte differentiation, whereas Pmch-deficiency in laboratory rats lowers adiposity throughout development and sympathetic adipose drive during adulthood.

  4. Knockdown of PTRF ameliorates adipocyte differentiation and functionality of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Perez-Diaz, Sergio; Garcia-Rodriguez, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Irazabal, Yolanda; Valero, Monica; Lagos-Lizan, Javier; Arbones-Mainar, Jose M

    2017-01-01

    Healthy expansion of human adipose tissue requires mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) able to proliferate and differentiate into mature adipocytes. Hence, characterization of those factors that coordinate hMSC-to-adipocyte transition is of paramount importance to modulate the adipose tissue expansion. It has been previously reported that the adipogenic program of hMSC can be disrupted by upregulating caveolar proteins, and polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) is an integral component of caveolae, highly expressed in adipose tissue. Here, we hypothesized that the role of PTRF in adipocyte functionality might stem from an effect on hMSC. To test this hypothesis, we isolated hMSC from the subcutaneous fat depot. We found an upregulated expression of the PTRF associated with decreased adipogenic potential of hMSC, likely due to the existence of senescent adipocyte precursors. Employing short hairpin RNA-based constructs to stably reduce PTRF, we were able to restore insulin sensitivity and reduced basal lipolysis and leptin levels in human adipocytes with high levels of PTRF. Additionally, we pinpointed the detrimental effect caused by PTRF on the adipose tissue to the existence of senescent adipocyte precursors unable to proliferate and differentiate into adipocytes. This study provides evidence that impaired adipocyte functionality can be corrected, at least partially, by PTRF downregulation and warrants further in vivo research in patients with dysfunctional adipose tissue to prevent metabolic complications.

  5. TNF-alpha inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation without downregulating the expression of C/EBPbeta and delta.

    PubMed

    Kurebayashi, S; Sumitani, S; Kasayama, S; Jetten, A M; Hirose, T

    2001-04-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) has been reported to inhibit adipocyte differentiation in which multiple transcription factors including CCAAT enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma play an important role. Induction of C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma, which regulate the expression of many adipocyte-related genes, is dependent on the expression of C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta at the early phase of adipocyte differentiation. To elucidate the mechanism by which TNF-alpha inhibits adipocyte differentiation, we examined the effect of TNF-alpha on the expression of these transcription factors in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. TNF-alpha did not abrogate the induction of C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta in response to differentiation stimuli. In fully differentiated adipocytes, TNF-alpha rapidly induced C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta, whereas it downregulated the expression of C/EBPalpha and PPARgamma. Our results suggest that TNF-alpha inhibits adipocyte differentiation independently of the downregulation of C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta.

  6. Effects of lipid-related factors on adipocyte differentiation of bovine stromal-vascular cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Wu, P; Sato, K; Suzuta, F; Hikasa, Y; Kagota, K

    2000-09-01

    The effects of several factors related to lipids on bovine adipocyte differentiation were investigated in primary culture. Adipocyte differentiation was assessed by development of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity and morphological observation. Addition of triglyceride mixture (Intralipid), caprylic acid and very low-, low- and high-density lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL and HDL) stimulated bovine preadipocyte differentiation in serum-free condition. Especially, VLDL strongly increased both cell protein contents and GPDH activity, suggesting that it stimulated both proliferation and differentiation of bovine preadipocytes. Under Intralipid-induced condition, differentiation of preadipocytes from subcutaneous adipose tissues was more evident than those from omental adipose tissues. However, such depot difference was not observed in medium supplemented with indomethacin, which is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma agonist. This suggests that the differentiation capacity of bovine preadipocytes was different between depots and such difference is dependent on the ability to utilize lipids as endogenous PPARgamma ligands. Therefore, lipid metabolites have the stimulatory effects on bovine adipocyte differentiation in vitro, and lipoproteins, especially VLDL, may play an important role in development of bovine adipose tissues in vivo.

  7. St. John's wort promotes adipocyte differentiation and modulates NF-κB activation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Tomoko; Sameshima, Yuka; Kawabata, Mami; Yamada, Shizuo; Shinozuka, Kazumasa; Nakabayashi, Toshikatsu; Mizuno, Hideya

    2014-01-01

    St. John's wort (SJW), or Hypericum perforatum, is a perennial herb that has been used in the treatment of depression in several countries. Though its therapeutic effect on depression has been extensively studied, its influence on metabolic syndrome is yet to be fully characterized. Therefore, we investigated the effect of SJW extract on adipocyte differentiation and its anti-inflammatory effects by using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Oil Red O staining indicated that SJW promotes adipocyte differentiation, while immunoblots indicated that SJW increases the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a nuclear receptor regulating adipocyte differentiation, and adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of SJW was demonstrated by its inhibition of the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), an inflammatory transcription factor. Stimulation of mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) decreased the expression of the NF-κB inhibitor IκBα, and increased its phosphorylation. Treatment with SJW further decreased the TNF-α-induced perturbation in IκBα expression and phosphorylation, which indicated that SJW mediated the inhibition of NF-κB activation. In addition, SJW decreased the TNF-α-induced increase in the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory adipokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Collectively, our results indicate that SJW treatment could promote adipocyte differentiation probably through its anti-inflammatory activity, which in turn suggests that SJW has the potential to minimize the risk factors of metabolic syndrome.

  8. 6-gingerol inhibits rosiglitazone-induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the effects of 6-gingerol ((S)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-decanone) on the inhibition of rosiglitazone (RGZ)-induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. The morphological changes were photographed based on staining lipid accumulation by Oil-Red O in RGZ (1 µmol/l)-treated 3T3-L1 cells without or with various concentrations of 6-gingerol on differentiation day 8. Quantitation of triglycerides content was performed in cells on day 8 after differentiation induction. Differentiated cells were lysed to detect mRNA and protein levels of adipocyte-specific transcription factors by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis, respectively. 6-gingerol (50 µmol/l) effectively suppressed oil droplet accumulation and reduced the sizes of the droplets in RGZ-induced adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. The triglyceride accumulation induced by RGZ in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells was also reduced by 6-gingerol (50 µmol/l). Treatment of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells with 6-gingerol (50 µmol/l) antagonized RGZ-induced gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α. Additionally, the increased levels of mRNA and protein in adipocyte-specific fatty acid binding protein 4 and fatty acid synthase induced by RGZ in 3T3-L1 cells were decreased upon treatment with 6-gingerol. Our data suggests that 6-gingerol may be beneficial in obesity, by reducing adipogenesis partly through the down-regulating PPARγ activity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Cellular origins of cold-induced brown adipocytes in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Hee; Petkova, Anelia P; Konkar, Anish A; Granneman, James G

    2015-01-01

    This work investigated how cold stress induces the appearance of brown adipocytes (BAs) in brown and white adipose tissues (WATs) of adult mice. In interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT), cold exposure increased proliferation of endothelial cells and interstitial cells expressing platelet-derived growth factor receptor, α polypeptide (PDGFRα) by 3- to 4-fold. Surprisingly, brown adipogenesis and angiogenesis were largely restricted to the dorsal edge of iBAT. Although cold stress did not increase proliferation in inguinal white adipose tissue (ingWAT), the percentage of BAs, defined as multilocular adipocytes that express uncoupling protein 1, rose from undetectable to 30% of total adipocytes. To trace the origins of cold-induced BAs, we genetically tagged PDGFRα(+) cells and adipocytes prior to cold exposure, using Pdgfra-Cre recombinase estrogen receptor T2 fusion protein (CreER(T2)) and adiponectin-CreER(T2), respectively. In iBAT, cold stress triggered the proliferation and differentiation of PDGFRα(+) cells into BAs. In contrast, all newly observed BAs in ingWAT (5207 out of 5207) were derived from unilocular adipocytes tagged by adiponectin-CreER(T2)-mediated recombination. Surgical denervation of iBAT reduced cold-induced brown adipogenesis by >85%, whereas infusion of norepinephrine (NE) mimicked the effects of cold in warm-adapted mice. NE-induced de novo brown adipogenesis in iBAT was eliminated in mice lacking β1-adrenergic receptors. These observations identify a novel tissue niche for brown adipogenesis in iBAT and further define depot-specific mechanisms of BA recruitment.

  10. Isoflavones in Chickpeas Inhibit Adipocyte Differentiation and Prevent Insulin Resistance in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Yao, Yang; Zhu, Yinging; Ren, Guixing

    2015-11-11

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia arising from defects in insulin secretion. This study investigated the effects of isoflavones in chickpea sprouts germinated in light (IGL) and isoflavones in chickpea seeds (ICS) on insulin resistance through their role in suppression of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Results showed that IGL and ICS inhibit the differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes induced by differentiation medium in a dose-dependent manner, and the suppressive effect of IGL was stronger (p < 0.05) than that of ICS, evidenced by a decrease of Oil Red O staining and intracellular triacylglycerol content in the mature adipocytes. IGL and ICS also stimulated glucose uptake significantly (p < 0.05). Besides, IGL and ICS treatment caused a significant decrease in mRNA and protein expression levels of adipogenesis-related transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα). Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (ap2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2), and glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) in 3T3-L1 cells were also markedly down-regulated (p < 0.05).

  11. Real-time monitoring of adipocyte differentiation using a capacitance sensor array.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rimi; Jung, Inji; Park, Miyoung; Ha, Hunjoo; Yoo, Kyung Hwa

    2013-09-07

    As obesity and its associated metabolic diseases become a worldwide epidemic, the demand for novel anti-obesity agents is increasing. We report a label-free and real-time monitoring method that uses a capacitance sensor array to screen anti-obesity agents. The results for the real-time capacitance of 3T3-L1 cells treated with 12 different chemicals extracted from natural products were consistent with the biochemical indicators of adipogenesis such as the expression of perilipin, the major protein coating the surface of lipid droplets in adipocytes. The data demonstrate that a capacitance change during adipocyte differentiation is closely associated with lipid accumulation in the cells, suggesting that adipocyte differentiation can be monitored in real time. This capacitance sensor might be used for label-free and real-time monitoring of adipocyte differentiation, and may facilitate the development of high throughput screening methods for anti-obesity drugs.

  12. Comprehensive DNA Methylation and Gene Expression Profiling in Differentiating Human Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    van den Dungen, Myrthe W; Murk, Albertinka J; Kok, Dieuwertje E; Steegenga, Wilma T

    2016-12-01

    Insight into the processes controlling adipogenesis is important in the battle against the obesity epidemic and its related disorders. The transcriptional regulatory cascade involved in adipocyte differentiation has been extensively studied, however, the mechanisms driving the transcription activation are still poorly understood. In this study, we explored the involvement of DNA methylation in transcriptional regulation during adipocyte differentiation of primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Genome-wide changes in DNA methylation were measured using the Illumina 450K BeadChip. In addition, expression of 84 adipogenic genes was determined, of which 43 genes showed significant expression changes during the differentiation process. Among these 43 differentially expressed genes, differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were detected in only three genes. By comparing genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in undifferentiated and differentiated adipocytes 793 significant DMRs were detected. Pathway analysis revealed the adipogenesis pathway as the most statistically significant, although only a small number of genes were differentially methylated. Genome-wide DNA methylation changes for single probes were most often located in intergenic regions, and underrepresented close to the transcription start site. In conclusion, DNA methylation remained relatively stable during adipocyte differentiation, implying that changes in DNA methylation are not the underlying mechanism regulating gene expression during adipocyte differentiation. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2707-2718, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Parabens inhibit fatty acid amide hydrolase: A potential role in paraben-enhanced 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kodani, Sean D; Overby, Haley B; Morisseau, Christophe; Chen, Jiangang; Zhao, Ling; Hammock, Bruce D

    2016-11-16

    Parabens are a class of small molecules that are regularly used as preservatives in a variety of personal care products. Several parabens, including butylparaben and benzylparaben, have been found to interfere with endocrine signaling and to stimulate adipocyte differentiation. We hypothesized these biological effects could be due to interference with the endocannabinoid system and identified fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) as the direct molecular target of parabens. FAAH inhibition by parabens yields mixed-type and time-independent kinetics. Additionally, structure activity relationships indicate FAAH inhibition is selective for the paraben class of compounds and the more hydrophobic parabens have higher potency. Parabens enhanced 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation in a dose dependent fashion, different from two other FAAH inhibitors URB597 and PF622. Moreover, parabens, URB597 and PF622 all failed to enhance AEA-induced differentiation. Furthermore, rimonabant, a cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1)-selective antagonist, did not attenuate paraben-induced adipocyte differentiation. Thus, adipogenesis mediated by parabens likely occurs through modulation of endocannabinoids, but cell differentiation is independent of direct activation of CB1 by endocannabinoids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Diabetic human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells fail to differentiate in functional adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, Ignazio; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Tettamanti, Guido; Pluchinotta, Francesca R; Bergante, Sonia; Vanella, Luca

    2016-11-30

    Adipose tissue dysfunction represents a hallmark of diabetic patients and is a consequence of the altered homeostasis of this tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their differentiation into adipocytes contribute significantly in maintaining the mass and function of adult adipose tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differentiation of MSCs from patients suffering type 2 diabetes (dASC) and how such process results in hyperplasia or rather a stop of adipocyte turnover resulting in hypertrophy of mature adipocytes. Our results showed that gene profile of all adipogenic markers is not expressed in diabetic cells after differentiation indicating that diabetic cells fail to differentiate into adipocytes. Interestingly, delta like 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and interleukin 1β were upregulated whereas Sirtuin 1 and insulin receptor substrate 1 gene expression were found downregulated in dASC compared to cells obtained from healthy subjects. Taken together our data indicate that dASC lose their ability to differentiate into mature and functional adipocytes. In conclusion, our in vitro study is the first to suggest that diabetic patients might develop obesity through a hypertrophy of existing mature adipocytes due to failure turnover of adipose tissue.

  15. BMP-2 and sonic hedgehog have contrary effects on adipocyte-like differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zehentner, B K; Leser, U; Burtscher, H

    2000-05-01

    The signaling pathways of bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2) and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) are related during embryogenesis. Both proteins have been implicated as important components during osteogenic differentiation; e.g., considering their in vitro effects in the pluripotent C3H10T/1/2 cell system. Also, BMP-2 has been frequently reported to stimulate adipogenesis as well as osteogenesis in these cells. We investigated the relative potencies of Shh and BMP-2 with regard to adipogenesis. We performed differentiation experiments by stimulating C3H10T1/2 cells with BMP-2, Shh, or a combination. We monitored adipocyte-like differentiation via gene expression analysis and cytologic staining. An adipocytic phenotype was observed in BMP-2-treated cells, as shown by upregulation of two adipocytic marker mRNAs, PPAR-gamma and aP2, and by staining of lipid-filled cell vesicles with Oil Red O. In contrast, no adipocyte-like differentiation could be detected either after treatment with Shh or after exposure to a combination of Shh and BMP-2. Our results demonstrate for the first time that Shh and BMP-2 have contrary effects on adipocyte-like differentiation. Whereas BMP-2 promotes the adipocytic lineage, Shh suppresses the expression of the BMP-2-induced fat-cell phenotype.

  16. Berberine increases expression of GATA-2 and GATA-3 during inhibition of adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Davies, G E

    2009-09-01

    It is known that a number of transcription factors are key regulators in the complex process of adipocyte differentiation including peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and the CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha). Studies have demonstrated that in pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 cells constitutive expression of the DNA binding proteins GATA-2 and GATA-3 results in protein/protein interactions with C/EBPalpha resulting in down regulation of PPARgamma and subsequent suppressed adipocyte differentiation with cells trapped at the pre-adipocyte stage. Thus it appears that GATA-2 and GATA-3 are of critical importance in regulating adipocyte differentiation through molecular interactions with PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha. Recent reports suggest that berberine, an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid isolated from many medicinal herbs prevents differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells via a down regulation of PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha expression. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of berberine on GATA-2 and 3 gene and protein expression levels during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. MTT (Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) was used to detect the cytotoxic effects of berberine on the viability of 3T3-L1 cells during proliferation and differentiation. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells was monitored by Oil Red O staining and RT-PCR of PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha and the expression of GATA-2 and 3 was determined by RT-PCR and Western Blot. Results show that following treatment with 8microM berberine the mRNA and protein expression levels of GATA-2 and 3 were elevated and accompanied by inhibited adipocyte differentiation. These results may lead to the use of berberine to target the induction of specific genes such as GATA-2 and GATA-3 which affect adipocyte differentiation.

  17. Stimulatory Effects of Cinnamon Extract (Cinnamomum cassia) during the Initiation Stage of 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Gil; Siaw, Joanna A.; Kang, Hye Won

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) has an anti-diabetic effect by possibly increasing the lipid storage capacity of white adipocytes; however, this effect remains controversial. The aim of this study was to examine which stage of adipogenesis is critical for the stimulatory effect of cinnamon in adipogenesis using 3T3-L1 cells. Cells were treated with cinnamon extract during three different stages of adipogenesis. We found that genes related to adipogenesis and lipogenesis were enhanced when cinnamon extract was administered during the initiation stage of differentiation but not when administered during the preadipocyte and post stages of differentiation. At the same time, genes that were involved in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation were unexpectedly upregulated. Taken together, cinnamon may boost lipid storage in white adipocytes and increase the fatty acid oxidation capacity throughout the initiation stage of differentiation, which may be beneficial for the prevention of obesity-induced type II diabetes. PMID:28231178

  18. Impact of elvitegravir on human adipocytes: Alterations in differentiation, gene expression and release of adipokines and cytokines.

    PubMed

    Moure, Ricardo; Domingo, Pere; Gallego-Escuredo, José M; Villarroya, Joan; Gutierrez, Maria Del Mar; Mateo, Maria G; Domingo, Joan C; Giralt, Marta; Villarroya, Francesc

    2016-08-01

    Elvitegravir is a recently developed integrase inhibitor used for antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection. Secondary effects, including disturbances in lipid metabolism and, ultimately, in adipose tissue distribution and function, are common concerns associated with antiretroviral treatments. Here, we provide the first study of the effects of elvitegravir (in comparison with efavirenz, a non-nucleoside analog inhibitor of reverse transcriptase; and raltegravir, another integrase inhibitor) on human adipocyte differentiation, gene expression and secretion of adipokines and cytokines. Elvitegravir impaired adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism in human SGBS adipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner (delaying acquisition of adipocyte morphology and reducing the expression of adipogenesis marker genes such as PPARγ, glucose transporter GLUT4, lipoprotein lipase, and the adipokines adiponectin and leptin). Compared with efavirenz, the effects of elvitegravir were similar but tended to occur at higher concentrations than those elicited by efavirenz, or were somewhat less intense than those caused by efavirenz at similar concentration. Elvitegravir tended to cause a more moderate induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines than efavirenz. Efavirenz induced a marked concentration-dependent increase in interleukin-8 expression and release whereas elvitregravir had little effect. Raltegravir had totally neutral actions of adipogenesis, adipocyte metabolism-related gene expression and release of adipokines and cytokines. In conclusion, elvitegravir alters adipocyte differentiation and function and promotes induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines similarly to efavirenz, but several effects were less intense. Further assessment of lipid metabolism and adipose tissue function in patients administered elvitegravir-based regimes is advisable considering that totally neutral effects of elvitegravir on lipid homeostasis cannot be anticipated from the current study in vitro.

  19. Hedgehog associated to microparticles inhibits adipocyte differentiation via a non-canonical pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Audrey; Hoch, Lucile; Martinez, M. Carmen; Faure, Hélène; Taddei, Maurizio; Petricci, Elena; Manetti, Fabrizio; Girard, Nicolas; Mann, André; Jacques, Caroline; Larghero, Jérôme; Ruat, Martial; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Le Lay, Soazig

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) is a critical regulator of adipogenesis. Extracellular vesicles are natural Hh carriers, as illustrated by activated/apoptotic lymphocytes specifically shedding microparticles (MP) bearing the morphogen (MPHh+). We show that MPHh+ inhibit adipocyte differentiation and orientate mesenchymal stem cells towards a pro-osteogenic program. Despite a Smoothened (Smo)-dependency, MPHh+ anti-adipogenic effects do not activate a canonical Hh signalling pathway in contrast to those elicited either by the Smo agonist SAG or recombinant Sonic Hedgehog. The Smo agonist GSA-10 recapitulates many of the hallmarks of MPHh+ anti-adipogenic effects. The adipogenesis blockade induced by MPHh+ and GSA-10 was abolished by the Smo antagonist LDE225. We further elucidate a Smo/Lkb1/Ampk axis as the non-canonical Hh pathway used by MPHh+ and GSA-10 to inhibit adipocyte differentiation. Our results highlight for the first time the ability of Hh-enriched MP to signal via a non-canonical pathway opening new perspectives to modulate fat development. PMID:27010359

  20. Berberine inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation through the PPARgamma pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Zhang, Yuebo; Gong, Zhenwei; Sheng, Xiaoyan; Li, Zongmeng; Zhang, Wei; Qin, Ying

    2006-09-22

    Berberine (BBR), a compound purified from Cortidis rhizoma, reduces serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol of hypercholesterolemic patients and high fat diet fed animals, and increases hepatic LDLR mRNA and protein levels through a post-transcriptional mechanism. BBR also enhances the hypoglycemic action of insulin in diabetic animal models. Here, we show that BBR inhibits the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes induced by DM and suppresses the mitotic clonal expansion of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Gene expression analysis and Western blot analysis reveal that the BBR inhibits the mRNA and protein levels of adipogenesis related transcription factors PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha and their upstream regulator, C/EBPbeta. Reporter gene assays demonstrate that the full-length PPARgamma and alpha transcription activities are inhibited by BBR. Using real-time PCR, we have also found that the PPAR target genes that are involved in adipocyte differentiation, such as aP2, CD36, ACO, LPL, and other adipocyte markers, are suppressed by BBR. These studies suggest that BBR works on multiple molecular targets as an inhibitor of PPARgamma and alpha, and is a potential weight reducing, hypolipidemic, and hypoglycemic drug.

  1. Abscisic acid enhances glucose disposal and induces brown fat activity in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sturla, Laura; Mannino, Elena; Scarfì, Sonia; Bruzzone, Santina; Magnone, Mirko; Sociali, Giovanna; Booz, Valeria; Guida, Lucrezia; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Fresia, Chiara; Emionite, Laura; Buschiazzo, Ambra; Marini, Cecilia; Sambuceti, Gianmario; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2017-02-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone also present in animals, where it is involved in the regulation of innate immune cell function and of glucose disposal, through its receptor LANCL2. ABA stimulates glucose uptake by myocytes and pre-adipocytes in vitro and oral ABA improves glycemic control in rats and in healthy subjects. Here we investigated the role of the ABA/LANCL2 system in the regulation of glucose uptake and metabolism in adipocytes. Silencing of LANCL2 abrogated both the ABA- and insulin-induced increase of glucose transporter-4 expression and of glucose uptake in differentiated 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes; conversely, overexpression of LANCL2 enhanced basal, ABA- and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. As compared with insulin, ABA treatment of adipocytes induced lower triglyceride accumulation, CO2 production and glucose-derived fatty acid synthesis. ABA per se did not induce pre-adipocyte differentiation in vitro, but stimulated adipocyte remodeling in terminally differentiated cells, with a reduction in cell size, increased mitochondrial content, enhanced O2 consumption, increased transcription of adiponectin and of brown adipose tissue (BAT) genes. A single dose of oral ABA (1μg/kg body weight) increased BAT glucose uptake 2-fold in treated rats compared with untreated controls. One-month-long ABA treatment at the same daily dose significantly upregulated expression of BAT markers in the WAT and in WAT-derived preadipocytes from treated mice compared with untreated controls. These results indicate a hitherto unknown role of LANCL2 in adipocyte sensitivity to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and suggest a role for ABA in the induction and maintenance of BAT activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Proliferation and differentiation of brown adipocytes from interstitial cells during cold acclimation

    SciTech Connect

    Bukowiecki, L.J.; Geloeen, A.; Collet, A.J.

    1986-06-01

    The mechanisms of brown adipocyte proliferation and differentiation during cold acclimation (and/or adaptation to hyperphagia) have been studied by quantitative photonic radioautography. (/sup 3/H)thymidine was injected to warm-acclimated (25/sup 0/C) rats and to animals exposed to 5/sup 0/C for 2 days. Samples of interscapular brown adipose tissue were collected for quantitative analysis of mitotic frequencies at various periods of time (4 h-15 days) after the injection of (/sup 3/H)thymidine, the rats being maintained at the temperatures to which they were initially exposed. It was found that cold exposure for 2 days markedly enhanced mitotic activity in endothelial cells, interstitial cells, and brown preadipocytes rather than in fully differentiated brown adipocytes. The total tissue labeling index (percent of labeled nuclei) increased approx.70 times over control values. The authors now report that cellular labeling progressively increased in mature brown adipocytes during cold acclimation, whereas it correspondingly decreased in interstitial cells and brown preadipocytes. This indicates that the sequence of events for cellular differentiation is interstitial cells ..-->.. brown preadipocytes ..-->.. mature brown adipocytes. Remarkable, labeling frequency did not change in endothelial cells during cold acclimation demonstrating that these cells cannot be considered as progenitors of brown adipocytes. It is suggested that brown adipocyte proliferation and differentiation from interstitial cells represent the fundamental phenomena explaining the enhanced capacity of cold-acclimated and/or hyperphagic rats to respond calorigenically to catecholamines.

  3. Vinculin promotes nuclear localization of TAZ to inhibit ECM stiffness-dependent differentiation into adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Mito; Wada, Hiroki; Kimura, Yasuhisa; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Kioka, Noriyuki

    2017-03-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness regulates the lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Although cells sense ECM stiffness through focal adhesions, how cells sense ECM stiffness and regulate ECM stiffness-dependent differentiation remains largely unclear. In this study, we show that the cytoskeletal focal adhesion protein vinculin plays a critical role in the ECM stiffness-dependent adipocyte differentiation of MSCs. ST2 mouse MSCs differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts in an ECM stiffness-dependent manner. We find that a rigid ECM increases the amount of cytoskeleton-associated vinculin and promotes the nuclear localization and activity of the transcriptional coactivator paralogs Yes-associated protein (YAP, also known as YAP1) and transcriptional coactivator with a PDZ-binding motif (TAZ, also known as WWTR1) (hereafter YAP/TAZ). Vinculin is necessary for enhanced nuclear localization and activity of YAP/TAZ on the rigid ECM but it does not affect the phosphorylation of the YAP/TAZ kinase LATS1. Furthermore, vinculin depletion promotes differentiation into adipocytes on rigid ECM, while it inhibits differentiation into osteoblasts. Finally, TAZ knockdown was less effective at promoting adipocyte differentiation in vinculin-depleted cells than in control cells. These results suggest that vinculin promotes the nuclear localization of transcription factor TAZ to inhibit the adipocyte differentiation on rigid ECM.

  4. microRNA-320/RUNX2 axis regulates adipocytic differentiation of human mesenchymal (skeletal) stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Hamam, D; Ali, D; Vishnubalaji, R; Hamam, R; Al-Nbaheen, M; Chen, L; Kassem, M; Aldahmash, A; Alajez, N M

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms promoting lineage-specific commitment of human mesenchymal (skeletal or stromal) stem cells (hMSCs) into adipocytes (ADs) are not fully understood. Thus, we performed global microRNA (miRNA) and gene expression profiling during adipocytic differentiation of hMSC, and utilized bioinformatics as well as functional and biochemical assays, and identified several novel miRNAs differentially expressed during adipogenesis. Among these, miR-320 family (miR-320a, 320b, 320c, 320d and 320e) were ~2.2–3.0-fold upregulated. Overexpression of miR-320c in hMSC enhanced adipocytic differentiation and accelerated formation of mature ADs in ex vivo cultures. Integrated analysis of bioinformatics and global gene expression profiling in miR-320c overexpressing cells and during adipocytic differentiation of hMSC identified several biologically relevant gene targets for miR-320c including RUNX2, MIB1 (mindbomb E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1), PAX6 (paired box 6), YWHAH and ZWILCH. siRNA-mediated silencing of those genes enhanced adipocytic differentiation of hMSC, thus corroborating an important role for those genes in miR-320c-mediated adipogenesis. Concordant with that, lentiviral-mediated stable expression of miR-320c at physiological levels (~1.5-fold) promoted adipocytic and suppressed osteogenic differentiation of hMSC. Luciferase assay validated RUNX2 (Runt-related transcription factor 2) as a bona fide target for miR-320 family. Therefore, our data suggest miR-320 family as possible molecular switch promoting adipocytic differentiation of hMSC. Targeting miR-320 may have therapeutic potential in vivo through regulation of bone marrow adipogenesis. PMID:25356868

  5. Inhibition of SOCS-3 in adipocytes of rats with diet-induced obesity increases leptin-mediated fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hailun; Liu, Li; Ma, Shuang; Liu, Yali; Ren, Yahao; Zhai, Lingling; Yu, Fei; An, Li; Yang, Jun

    2009-12-01

    Rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO) usually experience hyperleptinemia. Thus, leptin produced by adipocytes does not deplete adipocyte fat, which implying a leptin resistance in adipocytes during overnutrition. Here, we induced hyperleptinemia in rats by feeding them a diet consisting of 45% fat. In epididymal adipose tissues, the mRNA and protein levels of a putative leptin resistant factor, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3), were increased. The mRNA levels of SOCS-3 in adipocytes differentiated from adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) were higher in DIO rats than in rats on a 10% fat diet. Using SOCS-3 short hairpin RNA lentivirus interference, we found decreased expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase mRNA (a marker of de novo lipogenesis) and increased expression of acetyl-CoA oxidase mRNA (a marker of fat oxidation) in SOCS-3-knockdown adipocytes after incubation with 50 nM leptin for 6 h. We conclude that the SOCS-3 knockdown may have increased the leptin-mediated in situ fatty acid oxidation in the DIO adipocytes, and therefore, SOCS-3 might be an excellent target for therapeutic intervention for obesity.

  6. Atypical antipsychotics induce both proinflammatory and adipogenic gene expression in human adipocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sárvári, Anitta K; Veréb, Zoltán; Uray, Iván P; Fésüs, László; Balajthy, Zoltán

    2014-08-08

    Schizophrenia requires lifelong treatment, potentially causing systemic changes in metabolic homeostasis. In the clinical setting, antipsychotic treatment may differentially lead to weight gain among individual patients, although the molecular determinants of such adverse effects are currently unknown. In this study, we investigated changes in the expression levels of critical regulatory genes of adipogenesis, lipid metabolism and proinflammatory genes during the differentiation of primary human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). These cells were isolated from patients with body mass indices <25 and treated with the second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine, ziprasidone, clozapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole and risperidone and the first-generation antipsychotic haloperidol. We found that antipsychotics exhibited a marked effect on key genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle, signal transduction, transcription factors, nuclear receptors, differentiation markers and metabolic enzymes. In particular, we observed an induction of the transcription factor NF-KB1 and NF-KB1 target genes in adipocytes in response to these drugs, including the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8 and MCP-1. In addition, enhanced secretion of both IL8 and MCP-1 was observed in the supernatant of these cell cultures. In addition to their remarkable stimulatory effects on proinflammatory gene transcription, three of the most frequently prescribed antipsychotic drugs, clozapine, quetiapine and aripiprazole, also induced the expression of essential adipocyte differentiation genes and the adipocyte hormones leptin and adiponectin, suggesting that both glucose and fat metabolism may be affected by these drugs. These data further suggest that antipsychotic treatments in patients alter the gene expression patterns in adipocytes in a coordinated fashion and priming them for a low-level inflammatory state.

  7. Novel function of the retinoblastoma protein in fat: regulation of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jacob B; te Riele, Hein; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2004-06-01

    The differentiation of white and brown fat cells is controlled by a similar set of transcription factors, including PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha. However, despite many similarities between the two types of fat cells, they carry out essentially opposite functions in vivo, with white adipocytes being the major energy store and brown adipocytes being potent energy-dissipaters through thermogenesis. Yet, little is known about factors differentially regulating the formation of white and brown fat cells. Members of the retinoblastoma protein family (pRB, p107, p130) have been implicated in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation, and expression and phosphorylation of the three retinoblastoma family proteins oscillate in a characteristic manner during differentiation of the white preadipocyte cell line 3T3-L1. We have recently demonstrated a surprising function of the retinoblastoma protein in the regulation of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation in vitro and possibly in vivo. Here we summarize the current knowledge on the retinoblastoma protein in fat cells, with particular emphasis on its potential role in adipocyte lineage commitment and differentiation.

  8. Expression of Caveolin 1 is enhanced by DNA demethylation during adipocyte differentiation. status of insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Ortega, Sara; Varela-Guruceaga, Maider; Milagro, Fermín Ignacio; Martínez, José Alfredo; de Miguel, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Caveolin 1 (Cav-1) is an essential constituent of adipocyte caveolae which binds the beta subunit of the insulin receptor (IR) and is implicated in the regulation of insulin signaling. We have found that, during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells the promoter, exon 1 and first intron of the Cav-1 gene undergo a demethylation process that is accompanied by a strong induction of Cav-1 expression, indicating that epigenetic mechanisms must have a pivotal role in this differentiation process. Furthermore, IR, PKB-Akt and Glut-4 expression are also increased during the differentiation process suggesting a coordinated regulation with Cav-1. Activation of Cav-1 protein by phosphorylation arises during the differentiation process, yet in fully mature adipocytes insulin is no longer able to significantly increase Cav-1 phosphorylation. However, these long-term differentiated cells are still able to respond adequately to insulin, increasing IR and PKB-Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake. The activation of Cav-1 during the adipocyte differentiation process could facilitate the maintenance of insulin sensitivity by these fully mature adipocytes isolated from additional external stimuli. However, under the influence of physiological conditions associated to obesity, such as chronic inflammation and hypoxia, insulin sensitivity would finally be compromised.

  9. Expression of Caveolin 1 Is Enhanced by DNA Demethylation during Adipocyte Differentiation. Status of Insulin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Palacios-Ortega, Sara; Varela-Guruceaga, Maider; Milagro, Fermín Ignacio; Martínez, José Alfredo; de Miguel, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Caveolin 1 (Cav-1) is an essential constituent of adipocyte caveolae which binds the beta subunit of the insulin receptor (IR) and is implicated in the regulation of insulin signaling. We have found that, during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells the promoter, exon 1 and first intron of the Cav-1 gene undergo a demethylation process that is accompanied by a strong induction of Cav-1 expression, indicating that epigenetic mechanisms must have a pivotal role in this differentiation process. Furthermore, IR, PKB-Akt and Glut-4 expression are also increased during the differentiation process suggesting a coordinated regulation with Cav-1. Activation of Cav-1 protein by phosphorylation arises during the differentiation process, yet in fully mature adipocytes insulin is no longer able to significantly increase Cav-1 phosphorylation. However, these long-term differentiated cells are still able to respond adequately to insulin, increasing IR and PKB-Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake. The activation of Cav-1 during the adipocyte differentiation process could facilitate the maintenance of insulin sensitivity by these fully mature adipocytes isolated from additional external stimuli. However, under the influence of physiological conditions associated to obesity, such as chronic inflammation and hypoxia, insulin sensitivity would finally be compromised. PMID:24751908

  10. Identification of inducible brown adipocyte progenitors residing in skeletal muscle and white fat

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Tim J.; Huang, Tian Lian; Tran, Thien T.; Zhang, Hongbin; Townsend, Kristy L.; Shadrach, Jennifer L.; Cerletti, Massimiliano; McDougall, Lindsay E.; Giorgadze, Nino; Tchkonia, Tamara; Schrier, Denis; Falb, Dean; Kirkland, James L.; Wagers, Amy J.; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Brown fat is specialized for energy expenditure and has therefore been proposed to function as a defense against obesity. Despite recent advances in delineating the transcriptional regulation of brown adipocyte differentiation, cellular lineage specification and developmental cues specifying brown-fat cell fate remain poorly understood. In this study, we identify and isolate a subpopulation of adipogenic progenitors (Sca-1+/CD45−/Mac1−; referred to as Sca-1+ progenitor cells, ScaPCs) residing in murine brown fat, white fat, and skeletal muscle. ScaPCs derived from different tissues possess unique molecular expression signatures and adipogenic capacities. Importantly, although the ScaPCs from interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) are constitutively committed brown-fat progenitors, Sca-1+ cells from skeletal muscle and subcutaneous white fat are highly inducible to differentiate into brown-like adipocytes upon stimulation with bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7). Consistent with these findings, human preadipocytes isolated from subcutaneous white fat also exhibit the greatest inducible capacity to become brown adipocytes compared with cells isolated from mesenteric or omental white fat. When muscle-resident ScaPCs are re-engrafted into skeletal muscle of syngeneic mice, BMP7-treated ScaPCs efficiently develop into adipose tissue with brown fat-specific characteristics. Importantly, ScaPCs from obesity-resistant mice exhibit markedly higher thermogenic capacity compared with cells isolated from obesity-prone mice. These data establish the molecular characteristics of tissue-resident adipose progenitors and demonstrate a dynamic interplay between these progenitors and inductive signals that act in concert to specify brown adipocyte development. PMID:21173238

  11. Pmch-Deficiency in Rats Is Associated with Normal Adipocyte Differentiation and Lower Sympathetic Adipose Drive

    PubMed Central

    Mul, Joram D.; O’Duibhir, Eoghan; Shrestha, Yogendra B.; Koppen, Arjen; Vargoviç, Peter; Toonen, Pim W.; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Kvetnansky, Richard; Kalkhoven, Eric; Cuppen, Edwin; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    The orexigenic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), a product of Pmch, is an important mediator of energy homeostasis. Pmch-deficient rodents are lean and smaller, characterized by lower food intake, body-, and fat mass. Pmch is expressed in hypothalamic neurons that ultimately are components in the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) drive to white and interscapular brown adipose tissue (WAT, iBAT, respectively). MCH binds to MCH receptor 1 (MCH1R), which is present on adipocytes. Currently it is unknown if Pmch-ablation changes adipocyte differentiation or sympathetic adipose drive. Using Pmch-deficient and wild-type rats on a standard low-fat diet, we analyzed dorsal subcutaneous and perirenal WAT mass and adipocyte morphology (size and number) throughout development, and indices of sympathetic activation in WAT and iBAT during adulthood. Moreover, using an in vitro approach we investigated the ability of MCH to modulate 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Pmch-deficiency decreased dorsal subcutaneous and perirenal WAT mass by reducing adipocyte size, but not number. In line with this, in vitro 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation was unaffected by MCH. Finally, adult Pmch-deficient rats had lower norepinephrine turnover (an index of sympathetic adipose drive) in WAT and iBAT than wild-type rats. Collectively, our data indicate that MCH/MCH1R-pathway does not modify adipocyte differentiation, whereas Pmch-deficiency in laboratory rats lowers adiposity throughout development and sympathetic adipose drive during adulthood. PMID:23555928

  12. Fructose promotes the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and accelerates lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Legeza, Balázs; Balázs, Zoltán; Odermatt, Alex

    2014-01-31

    Excessive fructose consumption and elevated glucocorticoids contribute to metabolic syndrome. We show that fructose as the only carbohydrate source is sufficient for the differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into adipocytes. Differentiation of cells in fructose containing medium resulted in increased 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) expression and activity. Experiments with transfected HEK-293 cells suggested more efficient NADPH generation by fructose compared with glucose in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Adipocytes differentiated in the presence of fructose showed increased FABP4 expression, C/EBPα to C/EBPβ ratio and lipolysis. Thus, excessive fructose may cause adverse metabolic effects by enhancing 11β-HSD1 activity and increasing lipolysis in adipocytes. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cancer-promoting role of adipocytes in asbestos-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis through dysregulated adipocytokine production.

    PubMed

    Chew, Shan Hwu; Okazaki, Yasumasa; Nagai, Hirotaka; Misawa, Nobuaki; Akatsuka, Shinya; Yamashita, Kyoko; Jiang, Li; Yamashita, Yoriko; Noguchi, Michio; Hosoda, Kiminori; Sekido, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Takashi; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    Like many other human cancers, the development of malignant mesothelioma is closely associated with a chronic inflammatory condition. Both macrophages and mesothelial cells play crucial roles in the inflammatory response caused by asbestos exposure. Here, we show that adipocytes can also contribute to asbestos-induced inflammation through dysregulated adipocytokine production. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into mature adipocytes prior to use. These cells took up asbestos fibers (chrysotile, crocidolite and amosite) but were more resistant to asbestos-induced injury than macrophages and mesothelial cells. Expression microarray analysis followed by reverse transcription-PCR revealed that adipocytes respond directly to asbestos exposure with an increased production of proinflammatory adipocytokines [e.g. monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)], whereas the production of anti-inflammatory adipocytokines (e.g. adiponectin) is suppressed. This was confirmed in epididymal fat pad of mice after intraperitoneal injection of asbestos fibers. Such dysregulated adipocytokine production favors the establishment of a proinflammatory environment. Furthermore, MCP-1 marginally promoted the growth of MeT-5A mesothelial cells and significantly enhanced the wound healing of Y-MESO-8A and Y-MESO-8D human mesothelioma cells. Our results suggest that increased levels of adipocytokines, such as MCP-1, can potentially contribute to the promotion of mesothelial carcinogenesis through the enhanced recruitment of inflammatory cells as well as a direct growth and migration stimulatory effect on mesothelial and mesothelioma cells. Taken together, our findings support a potential cancer-promoting role of adipocytes in asbestos-induced mesothelial carcinogenesis.

  14. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate inhibits adipogenesis and induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ji; Della-Fera, Mary Anne; Baile, Clifton A

    2005-06-01

    Green tea catechins have been shown to promote loss of body fat and to inhibit growth of many cancer cell types by inducing apoptosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the primary green tea catechin, could act directly on adipocytes to inhibit adipogenesis and induce apoptosis. Mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and mature adipocytes were used. To test the effect of EGCG on viability, cells were incubated for 3, 6, 12, or 24 hours with 0, 50, 100, or 200 microM EGCG. Viability was quantitated by MTS assay. To determine the effect of EGCG on apoptosis, adipocytes were incubated for 24 hours with 0 to 200 microM EGCG, then stained with annexin V and propidium iodide and analyzed by laser scanning cytometry. Both preadipocytes and adipocytes were also analyzed for apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay. To determine the effect of EGCG on adipogenesis, maturing preadipocytes were incubated during the 6-day induction period with 0 to 200 microM EGCG, then stained with Oil-Red-O and analyzed for lipid content. EGCG had no effect on either viability or apoptosis of preconfluent preadipocytes. EGCG also did not affect viability of mature adipocytes; however, EGCG increased apoptosis in mature adipocytes, as demonstrated by both laser scanning cytometry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assays. Furthermore, EGCG dose-dependently inhibited lipid accumulation in maturing preadipocytes. These results demonstrate that EGCG can act directly to inhibit differentiation of preadipocytes and to induce apoptosis of mature adipocytes and, thus, could be an important adjunct in the treatment of obesity.

  15. Adipocyte Dynamics and Reversible Metabolic Syndrome in Mice with an Inducible Adipocyte-Specific Deletion of the Insulin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Masaji; Fujisaka, Shiho; Cai, Weikang; Winnay, Jonathon N; Konishi, Masahiro; O'Neill, Brian T; Li, Mengyao; García-Martín, Rubén; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Hu, Jiang; Kulkarni, Rohit N; Kahn, C Ronald

    2017-02-07

    Insulin and IGF1 signaling are important for adipose tissue development and function; however, their role in mature adipocytes is unclear. Mice with a tamoxifen-inducible knockout of insulin and/or IGF1 receptors (IR/IGF1R) demonstrate a rapid loss of white and brown fat due to increased lipolysis and adipocyte apoptosis. This results in insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hepatosteatosis, islet hyperplasia with hyperinsulinemia, and cold intolerance. This phenotype, however, resolves over 10-30 days due to a proliferation of preadipocytes and rapid regeneration of both brown and white adipocytes as identified by mTmG lineage tracing. This cycle can be repeated with a second round of receptor inactivation. Leptin administration prior to tamoxifen treatment blocks development of the metabolic syndrome without affecting adipocyte loss or regeneration. Thus, IR is critical in adipocyte maintenance, and this loss of adipose tissue stimulates regeneration of brown/white fat and reversal of metabolic syndrome associated with fat loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Estrogen-related receptor alpha modulates the expression of adipogenesis-related genes during adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ijichi, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Yagi, Ken; Okazaki, Yasushi; Inoue, Satoshi

    2007-07-06

    Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRalpha) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates cellular energy metabolism by modulating gene expression involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue. However, the physiological role of ERRalpha in adipogenesis and white adipose tissue development has not been well studied. Here, we show that ERRalpha and ERRalpha-related transcriptional coactivators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and PGC-1beta, can be up-regulated in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at mRNA levels under the adipogenic differentiation condition including the inducer of cAMP, glucocorticoid, and insulin. Gene knockdown by ERRalpha-specific siRNA results in mRNA down-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 4, PPARgamma, and PGC-1alpha in 3T3-L1 cells in the adipogenesis medium. ERRalpha and PGC-1beta mRNA expression can be also up-regulated in another preadipocyte lineage DFAT-D1 cells and a pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 under the differentiation condition. Furthermore, stable expression of ERRalpha in 3T3-L1 cells up-regulates adipogenic marker genes and promotes triglyceride accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation. These results suggest that ERRalpha may play a critical role in adipocyte differentiation by modulating the expression of various adipogenesis-related genes.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyl 153 in lipid medium modulates differentiation of human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Mullerova, D; Pesta, M; Dvorakova, J; Cedikova, M; Kulda, V; Dvorak, P; Bouchalová, V; Kralickova, M; Babuska, V; Kuncova, J; Langmajerova, J; Muller, L

    2017-04-12

    Emerging evidence indicates that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are involved in the development of diabetes mellitus in the obese. The purpose of this study was to determine mechanisms by which PCB 153 (2,2´,4,4´,5,5´-hexachlorobiphenyl) could influence diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance during adipogenesis. Lineage of h-ADMSCs was differentiated either as control (differentiation medium only), or with lipid vehicle modelling high fat nutrition (NuTRIflex) or lipid free vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide) for 28 days with or without PCB 153 daily co-exposure (in three concentrations 0.1, 1, and 10 microM). Gene expression analyses were performed using RT-qPCR at days 4, 10, 21, 24, 28; protein levels Akt and phosphorylated Akt (Phospho-Akt) by Western blot at days 4, and 21. PCB 153 treatment of h-ADMSCs only in lipid vehicle was associated with down regulation of key master genes of adipogenesis: PPARgamma, SREBP-1, PPARGC1B, and PLIN2 during the whole process of differentiation; and with increased Akt and decreased Phospho-Akt protein level at day 21. We have shown that PCB 153, in concentration 0.1 microM, has a potential in lipid rich environment to modulate differentiation of adipocytes. Because European and U.S. adults have been exposed to PCB 153, this particular nutrient-toxicant interaction potentially impacts human obesity and insulin sensitivity.

  18. Genistein, EGCG, and capsaicin inhibit adipocyte differentiation process via activating AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jin-Taek; Park, In-Ja; Shin, Jang-In; Lee, Yun Kyoung; Lee, Seong Kyu; Baik, Haing Woon; Ha, Joohun; Park, Ock Jin

    2005-12-16

    Phytochemicals such as soy isoflavone genistein have been reported to possess therapeutic effects for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the molecular basis of selective phytochemicals with emphasis on their ability to control intracellular signaling cascades of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) responsible for the inhibition of adipogenesis was investigated. Recently, the evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase, AMPK, emerges as a possible target molecule of anti-obesity. Hypothalamic AMPK was found to integrate nutritional and hormonal signals modulating feeding behavior and energy expenditure. We have investigated the effects of genistein, EGCG, and capsaicin on adipocyte differentiation in relation to AMPK activation in 3T3-L1 cells. Genistein (20-200muM) significantly inhibited the process of adipocyte differentiation and led to apoptosis of mature adipocytes. Genistein, EGCG, and capsaicin stimulated the intracellular ROS release, which activated AMPK rapidly. We suggest that AMPK is a novel and critical component of both inhibition of adipocyte differentiation and apoptosis of mature adipocytes by genistein or EGCG or capsaicin further implying AMPK as a prime target of obesity control.

  19. Effect of hexavalent chromium on proliferation and differentiation to adipocytes of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Martini, Claudia N; Brandani, Javier N; Gabrielli, Matías; Vila, María del C

    2014-06-01

    Heavy metals contamination has become an important risk factor for public health and the environment. Chromium is a frequent industrial contaminant and is also used in orthopaedic joint replacements made from cobalt-chromium-alloy. Since hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) was reported as genotoxic and carcinogenic in different mammals, to further evaluate its cytotoxicity, we investigated the effect of this heavy metal in the proliferation and differentiation to adipocytes of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. These cells, after the addition of a mixture containing insulin, dexamethasone and methylisobutylxanthine, first proliferate, a process known as mitotic clonal expansion (MCE), and then differentiate to adipocytes. In this differentiation process a key transcription factor is induced: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma). We found that treatment of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts with potassium chromate inhibited proliferation in exponentially growing cells and MCE as well as differentiation. A decrease in PPAR gamma content, evaluated by western blot and immunofluorescence, was found in cells differentiated in the presence of chromium. On the other hand, after inhibition of differentiation with chromium, when the metal was removed, differentiation was recovered, which indicates that this may be a reversible effect. We also found an increase in the number of micronucleated cells after treatment with Cr(VI) which is associated with genotoxic effects. According to our results, Cr(VI) is able to inhibit proliferation and differentiation to adipocytes of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and to increase micronucleated cells, which are all indicative of alterations in cellular physiology and therefore, contributes to further elucidate the cytotoxic effects of this heavy metal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Autotaxin is released from adipocytes, catalyzes lysophosphatidic acid synthesis, and activates preadipocyte proliferation. Up-regulated expression with adipocyte differentiation and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, Gilles; Tellier, Edwige; Try, Anne; Grés, Sandra; Naime, Isabelle; Simon, Marie Françoise; Rodriguez, Marianne; Boucher, Jérémie; Tack, Ivan; Gesta, Stéphane; Chomarat, Pascale; Dieu, Marc; Raes, Martine; Galizzi, Jean Pierre; Valet, Philippe; Boutin, Jean A.; Saulnier-Blache, Jean Sébastien

    2003-01-01

    Our group has recently demonstrated (Gesta et al. J. Lipid. Res, 2002, 43:904–910) the presence, in adipocyte conditioned-medium, of a soluble lysophospholipase D-activity (LPLDact) involved in synthesis of the bioactive phospholipid, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). In the present report, LPLDact was purified from 3T3F442A-adipocyte conditioned-medium and identified as the type II ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase: autotaxin (ATX). A unique ATX cDNA was cloned from 3T3F442A-adipocytes, and its recombinant expression in COS-7 cells led to extracellular release of LPLDact. ATX mRNA expression was highly up-regulated during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3F442A-preadipocytes. This up-regulation was paralleled by the ability of newly differentiated adipocytes to release LPLDact and LPA. Differentiation-dependent up-regulation of ATX expression was also observed in primary culture of mouse preadipocytes. Treatment of 3T3F442A-preadipocytes with concentrated conditioned medium from ATX expressing-COS-7 cells led to an increase in cell number as compared with concentrated conditioned medium from ATX non-expressing-COS-7 cells. The specific effect of ATX on preadipocyte proliferation was completely suppressed by co-treatment with a LPA-hydrolyzing phospholipase, phospholipase B. Finally, ATX expression was found in mature adipocytes isolated from mouse adipose tissue, and was substantially increased in genetically obese-diabetic db/db mice when compared to their lean siblings. In conclusion, the present work shows that ATX is responsible for the LPLDact released by adipocytes, and exerts a paracrine control on preadipocyte growth via an LPA-dependent mechanism. Up-regulations of ATX expression with adipocyte differentiation and genetic obesity suggest a possible involvement of this released protein in the development of adipose tissue and obesity-associated pathologies. PMID:12642576

  1. PKC-ALDH2 Pathway Plays a Novel Role in Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yu-Hsiang; Liao, Pei-Ru; Guo, Chien-Jung; Chen, Che-Hong; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The ALDH2 gene encodes the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), a critical enzyme involved in ethanol clearance through acetaldehyde metabolism. ALDH2 also catalyzes the metabolism of other bioreactive aldehydes, including propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, and 4-hydroxykenals (4-HNE). Increased levels of 4-HNE in adipose tissue positively correlate with obesity and insulin resistance. However, it remains unclear whether ALDH2 is involved in regulation of adipocyte differentiation. Here, we found that ALDH2 protein levels were lower in white adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed mice and ob/ob mice relative to lean mice. Knockdown of ALDH2 expression in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes caused an increase in intracellular 4-HNE, thereby attenuated adipocyte differentiation. By contrast, an ALDH2 activator, Alda-1, significantly accelerated adipogenesis, which was accompanied by an increase in adipogenic gene expression. Consistently, adipogenesis was reduced when protein kinase C ε (PKCε), an ALDH2 phosphorylating activator, was silenced in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, whereas treatment with a PKCε agonist in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes enhanced adipogenesis. Whole-genome microarray profiling of Alda-1-treated cells demonstrated several upregulated transcripts encoding proteins involved in metabolism and the majority of these transcripts are for proteins involved in PPAR signaling pathways. Furthermore, PKCε-ALDH2 interaction alleviates 4-HNE induced aberrant PPARγ regulation on adipogenesis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ALDH2 activation enhances adipogenesis and signaling pathways involving PPARγ. Thus, activation of PKCε-ALDH2 regulatory axis may be a therapeutic target for treating obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27575855

  2. Endothelin-1 inhibits TNF alpha-induced iNOS expression in 3T3-F442A adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Mérial-Kieny, Christelle; Lonchampt, Michel; Cogé, Francis; Verwaerde, Patrick; Galizzi, Jean-Pierre; Boutin, Jean A; Lafontan, Max; Levens, Nigel; Galitzky, Jean; Félétou, Michel

    2003-07-01

    1. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) by their action on adipocytes have been independently linked to the pathogenesis of insulino-resistance. In isolated adipocytes, TNFalpha induces the expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The purpose of the present work was, in the 3T3-F442A adipocyte cell line, to characterise TNFalpha-induced iNOS expression and to determine whether or not ET-1 could influence TNFalpha-induced iNOS expression and NO production. 2. In differentiated 3T3-F442A, treatment with TNFalpha (20 ng ml(-1)) induced the expression of a functional iNOS as demonstrated by nitrite assay, Western blot, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analysis. TNFalpha-induced iNOS expression requires nuclear factor kappaB activation, but does not necessitate the activation of the PI-3 kinase/Akt and P38-MAP kinase pathways. 3. ET-1, but not ET-3, inhibited the TNFalpha-induced expression of iNOS protein and mRNA as well as nitrite production. The effects of ET-1 were blocked by a specific ETA (BQ123, pA(2) 7.4) but not by a specific ETB receptor antagonist (BQ788). 3T3-F442A adipocytes express the mRNAs for prepro-ET-1 and the ET-A receptor subtype, but not for the ET-B subtype. 4. The inhibitory effect of ET-1 was not affected by bisindolylmaleimide, SB 203580 or indomethacin, inhibitors of protein kinase C, p38-MAP kinase and cyclooxygenase, respectively, and was not associated with cAMP production. However, the effect of ET-1 was partially reversed by wortmannin, suggesting the involvement of PI3 kinase in the transduction signal of ET-1. 5. Differentiated 3T3-F442A adipocytes did not release ET-1 with or without exposure to TNFalpha, although the mRNA for preproET-1 was detected in both pre- and differentiated adipocytes. 6. Thus, these results confirm that adipocytes are a target for circulating ET-1 and demonstrate that the activation of the ETA receptor subtype can prevent TNFalpha-induced

  3. SRSF10 regulates alternative splicing and is required for adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Huang; Cheng, Yuanming; Wu, Wenwu; Liu, Yuguo; Wei, Ning; Feng, Xiaoyan; Xie, Zhiqin; Feng, Ying

    2014-06-01

    During adipocyte differentiation, significant alternative splicing changes occur in association with the adipogenic process. However, little is known about roles played by splicing factors in this process. We observed that mice deficient for the splicing factor SRSF10 exhibit severely impaired development of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) as a result of defects in adipogenic differentiation. To identify splicing events responsible for this, transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis was performed using embryonic fibroblast cells. Several SRSF10-affected splicing events that are implicated in adipogenesis have been identified. Notably, lipin1, known as an important regulator during adipogenesis, was further investigated. While lipin1β is mainly involved in lipogenesis, its alternatively spliced isoform lipin1α, generated through the skipping of exon 7, is primarily required for initial adipocyte differentiation. Skipping of exon 7 is controlled by an SRSF10-regulated cis element located in the constitutive exon 8. The activity of this element depends on the binding of SRSF10 and correlates with the relative abundance of lipin1α mRNA. A series of experiments demonstrated that SRSF10 controls the production of lipin1α and thus promotes adipocyte differentiation. Indeed, lipin1α expression could rescue SRSF10-mediated adipogenic defects. Taken together, our results identify SRSF10 as an essential regulator for adipocyte differentiation and also provide new insights into splicing control by SRSF10 in lipin1 pre-mRNA splicing. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Investigating the role of class-IA PI 3-kinase isoforms in adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji Eun; Shepherd, Peter R. Chaussade, Claire

    2009-02-20

    PI 3-kinases, in particular class-IA, are key signalling molecules controlling many cellular processes including growth, proliferation, migration and differentiation. In this study, we have used a collection of isoform selective PI 3-kinase inhibitors to determine whether attenuation of signalling through class-IA PI 3-kinase isoforms will impact adipocyte differentiation. First, we analysed the expression profiles and found that fibroblastic pre-adipocytes express detectable levels of p110{alpha} and p110{delta} and that after differentiation, p110{delta} levels fall while p110{alpha} levels rise, together with C/EBP{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}. When using specific inhibitors during the differentiation process, we observed that neither p110{beta} nor p110{delta} inhibition, had any significant effect. In contrast PIK-75, a selective p110{alpha} inhibitor completely abolished adipocyte differentiation as assessed by morphology, transcript and protein levels of adipocyte markers. These results indicate that long term treatment with p110{alpha} inhibitors could potentially have a severe impact on fat cell numbers in vivo.

  5. ATF3 inhibits adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Min Kyung; Kim, Cho Hee; Seong, Je Kyung; Jung, Myeong Ho

    2012-04-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of ATF3 inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of ATF3 represses C/EBP{alpha} expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATF3 directly binds to mouse C/EBP{alpha} promoter spanning from -1928 to -1907. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATF3 may play a role in hypoxia-mediated inhibition of adipocyte differentiation. -- Abstract: ATF3 is a stress-adaptive gene that regulates proliferation or apoptosis under stress conditions. However, the role of ATF3 is unknown in adipocyte cells. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the functional role of ATF3 in adipocytes. Both lentivirus-mediated overexpression of ATF3 and stably-overexpressed ATF3 inhibited adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells, as revealed by decreased lipid staining with oil red staining and reduction in adipogenic genes. Thapsigargin treatment and overexpression of ATF3 decreased C/EBP{alpha} transcript and repressed the activity of the 3.6-kb mouse C/EBP{alpha} promoter, demonstrating that ATF3 downregulates C/EBP{alpha} expression. Transfection studies using mutant constructs containing 5 Prime -deletions in the C/EBP{alpha} promoter revealed that a putative ATF/CRE element, GGATGTCA, is located between -1921 and -1914. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that ATF3 directly binds to mouse C/EBP{alpha} promoter spanning from -1928 to -1907. Both chemical hypoxia-mimetics or physical hypoxia led to reduce the C/EBP{alpha} mRNA and repress the promoter activity of the C/EBP{alpha} gene, whereas increase ATF3 mRNA, suggesting that ATF3 may contribute to the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation in hypoxia through downregulation of C/EBP{alpha} expression. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ATF3 represses the C/EBP{alpha} gene, resulting in inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, and thus plays a role in hypoxia-mediated inhibition

  6. Suppressive Effects of Barley β-Glucans with Different Molecular Weight on 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingying; Yao, Yang; Gao, Yue; Hu, Yibo; Shi, Zhenxing; Ren, Guixing

    2016-03-01

    In this study, 2 β-glucans with different molecular weight were prepared and purified from hull-less barley bran. The aim was to evaluate their effects on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. Results showed that barley β-glucans inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes induced by differentiation medium in a dose-dependent manner, the suppressive effect of high-molecular-weight barley β-glucans (552 kDa, BGH) was stronger (P < 0.05) than that of low-molecular-weight barley β-glucan (32 kDa, BGL), evidenced by the significantly decrease (P < 0.05) of Oil-red O staining and intracellular triglyceride content in the mature adipocytes. Besides, gene expression analysis and Western Blot analysis revealed that both BGH and BGL inhibited the mRNA and protein levels of adipogenesis related transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) which are principal regulators of adipogenesis. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of PPARγ target genes in adipose tissue including adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (ap2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2), and glucose-transporter 4 (Glut4) in 3T3-L1 cells was also markedly downregulated (P < 0.05). These findings were anticipated to help develop barley β-glucans based functional food for the management of obesity. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Role of P2 × 7 receptor in the differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells into osteoblasts and adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenkai; Li, Guizhen; Zhang, Yingchi; Wei, Sheng; Song, Mingyu; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Xuefeng; Wu, Hua; Yang, Yong

    2015-12-10

    Imbalance in osteogenesis and adipogenesis of bone marrow stromal cells is a crucial pathological process of osteoporosis. P2 × 7-deficient mice were previously shown to exhibit an osteopenic phenotype and abnormal fat distribution, leading us to hypothesize that P2 × 7R activation was involved in the differentiation of BMSCs. Consequently, we investigated the effect of P2 × 7R activation on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro, and established an ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis model to test P2 × 7R activation on adipocytes formation, trabecular and cortical bone parameters in vivo. Our results showed that activation of P2 × 7R by BzATP resulted in increase in the gene expression of osteoblastic markers, the activity of alkaline phosphatase and bone mineralization, and decrease in the gene expression of adipogenic markers and the number of adipocytes generated by BMSCs. MicroCT analysis showed that BzATP treatment ameliorated the micro-architecture of trabecular bones in OVX mice, while cortical bone parameters were unaffected. H&E staining analysis showed that was increase in the volume of trabecular bone and number of trabecular bone, and decrease in bone marrow adipocytes in BzATP-treated OVX mice compared with OVX mice. Also, activation of P2 × 7R transduced to ERK1/2 and JNK signaling pathways. This transduction was prevented by BBG, U0126, and SP600125. U0126 and SP600125 prevented BzATP-induced up-regulation of osteogenic-related genes expression and down-regulation of adipogenic-related genes expression. These data suggest that BzATP activates the differentiation of BMSCs into osteoblasts but not adipocytes by stimulating ERK1/2 and JNK signaling pathways in a P2 × 7R-dependent way. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) water extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai Kai; Liu, Chuek Lun; Shiu, Hoi Ting; Wong, Hing Lok; Siu, Wing Sum; Zhang, Cheng; Han, Xiao Qiang; Ye, Chuang Xing; Leung, Ping Chung; Ko, Chun Hay

    2016-02-01

    Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) is a naturally decaffeinated tea plant. Previously we found that cocoa tea demonstrated a beneficial effect against high-fat diet induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and hyperlipidemia in mice. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-adipogenic effect of cocoa tea in vitro using preadipocytes 3T3-L1. Adipogenic differentiation was confirmed by Oil Red O stain, qPCR and Western blot. Our results demonstrated that cocoa tea significantly inhibited triglyceride accumulation in mature adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Cocoa tea was shown to suppress the expressions of key adipogenic transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP α). The tea extract was subsequently found to reduce the expressions of adipocyte-specific genes such as sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid translocase (FAT) and stearoylcoenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD-1). In addition, JNK, ERK and p38 phosphorylation were inhibited during cocoa tea inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipogenic differentiation. Taken together, this is the first study that demonstrates cocoa tea has the capacity to suppress adipogenesis in pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 similar to traditional green tea.

  9. SIRT2 Suppresses Adipocyte Differentiation by Deacetylating FOXO1 and Enhancing FOXO1's Repressive Interaction with PPARγ

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei

    2009-01-01

    Sirtuin family of proteins possesses NAD-dependent deacetylase and ADP ribosyltransferase activities. They are found to respond to nutrient deprivation and profoundly regulate metabolic functions. We have previously reported that caloric restriction increases the expression of one of the seven mammalian sirtuins, SIRT2, in tissues such as white adipose tissue. Because adipose tissue is a key metabolic organ playing a critical role in whole body energy homeostasis, we went on to explore the function of SIRT2 in adipose tissue. We found short-term food deprivation for 24 h, already induces SIRT2 expression in white and brown adipose tissues. Additionally, cold exposure elevates SIRT2 expression in brown adipose tissue but not in white adipose tissue. Intraperitoneal injection of a β-adrenergic agonist (isoproterenol) enhances SIRT2 expression in white adipose tissue. Retroviral expression of SIRT2 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes promotes lipolysis. SIRT2 inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation in low-glucose (1 g/l) or low-insulin (100 nM) condition. Mechanistically, SIRT2 suppresses adipogenesis by deacetylating FOXO1 to promote FOXO1's binding to PPARγ and subsequent repression on PPARγ transcriptional activity. Overall, our results indicate that SIRT2 responds to nutrient deprivation and energy expenditure to maintain energy homeostasis by promoting lipolysis and inhibiting adipocyte differentiation. PMID:19037106

  10. FoxO1 interacts with transcription factor EB and differentially regulates mitochondrial uncoupling proteins via autophagy in adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Longhua; Tao, Zhipeng; Zheng, Louise D; Brooke, Joseph P; Smith, Cayleen M; Liu, Dongmin; Long, Yun Chau; Cheng, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are inducible and play an important role in metabolic and redox homeostasis. Recent studies have suggested that FoxO1 controls mitochondrial biogenesis and morphology, but it remains largely unknown how FoxO1 may regulate mitochondrial UCPs. Here we show that FoxO1 interacted with transcription factor EB (Tfeb), a key regulator of autophagosome and lysosome, and mediated the expression of UCP1, UCP2 and UCP3 differentially via autophagy in adipocytes. UCP1 was down-regulated but UCP2 and UCP3 were upregulated during adipocyte differentiation, which was associated with increased Tfeb and autophagy activity. However, inhibition of FoxO1 suppressed Tfeb and autophagy, attenuating UCP2 and UCP3 but increasing UCP1 expression. Pharmacological blockade of autophagy recapitulated the effects of FoxO1 inhibition on UCPs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that FoxO1 interacted with Tfeb by directly binding to its promoter, and silencing FoxO1 led to drastic decrease in Tfeb transcript and protein levels. These data provide the first line of evidence that FoxO1 interacts with Tfeb to regulate autophagy and UCP expression in adipocytes. Dysregulation of FoxO1→autophagy→UCP pathway may account for metabolic changes in obesity. PMID:27777789

  11. Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) water extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai Kai; Liu, Chuek Lun; Shiu, Hoi Ting; Wong, Hing Lok; Siu, Wing Sum; Zhang, Cheng; Han, Xiao Qiang; Ye, Chuang Xing; Leung, Ping Chung; Ko, Chun Hay

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa tea (Camellia ptilophylla) is a naturally decaffeinated tea plant. Previously we found that cocoa tea demonstrated a beneficial effect against high-fat diet induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and hyperlipidemia in mice. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-adipogenic effect of cocoa tea in vitro using preadipocytes 3T3-L1. Adipogenic differentiation was confirmed by Oil Red O stain, qPCR and Western blot. Our results demonstrated that cocoa tea significantly inhibited triglyceride accumulation in mature adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Cocoa tea was shown to suppress the expressions of key adipogenic transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP α). The tea extract was subsequently found to reduce the expressions of adipocyte-specific genes such as sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid translocase (FAT) and stearoylcoenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD-1). In addition, JNK, ERK and p38 phosphorylation were inhibited during cocoa tea inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipogenic differentiation. Taken together, this is the first study that demonstrates cocoa tea has the capacity to suppress adipogenesis in pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 similar to traditional green tea PMID:26833256

  12. Control of Adipocyte Differentiation in Different Fat Depots; Implications for Pathophysiology or Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiuquan; Lee, Paul; Chisholm, Donald J.; James, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Adipocyte differentiation and its impact on restriction or expansion of particular adipose tissue depots have physiological and pathophysiological significance in view of the different functions of these depots. Brown or “beige” fat [brown adipose tissue (BAT)] expansion can enhance thermogenesis, lipid oxidation, insulin sensitivity, and glucose tolerance; conversely expanded visceral fat [visceral white adipose tissue (VAT)] is associated with insulin resistance, low grade inflammation, dyslipidemia, and cardiometabolic risk. The largest depot, subcutaneous white fat [subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SAT)], has important beneficial characteristics including storage of lipid “out of harms way” and secretion of adipokines, especially leptin and adiponectin, with positive metabolic effects including lipid oxidation, energy utilization, enhanced insulin action, and an anti-inflammatory role. The absence of these functions in lipodystrophies leads to major metabolic disturbances. An ability to expand white adipose tissue adipocyte differentiation would seem an important defense mechanism against the detrimental effects of energy excess and limit harmful accumulation of lipid in “ectopic” sites, such as liver and muscle. Adipocyte differentiation involves a transcriptional cascade with PPARγ being most important in SAT but less so in VAT, with increased angiogenesis also critical. The transcription factor, Islet1, is fairly specific to VAT and in vitro inhibits adipocyte differentiation. The physiological importance of Islet1 requires further study. Basic control of differentiation is similar in BAT but important differences include the effect of PGC-1α on mitochondrial biosynthesis and upregulation of UCP1; also PRDM16 plays a pivotal role in expression of the BAT phenotype. Modulation of the capacity or function of these different adipose tissue depots, by altering adipocyte differentiation or other means, holds promise for interventions that can be

  13. Phloretin promotes adipocyte differentiation in vitro and improves glucose homeostasis in vivo

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adipocyte dysfunction is associated with many metabolic diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. Previous studies found that phloretin promotes 3T3-L1 cells differentiation, but the underlying mechanisms for phloretin's effects on adipogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we demo...

  14. [ICAM-1 regulates differentiation of MSC to adipocytes via activating MAPK pathway].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-De; Xu, Fen-Fen; Zhu, Heng; Li, Xi-Mei; Tang, Bo; Liu, Yuan-Lin; Zhang, Yi

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed to explore the molecular mechanism of the regulatory effects of ICAM-1 on the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to adipocytes. The murine MSC cell line C3H10T 1/2 was treated with the supernatants contained plasmid MIGR1-ICAM-1 and MIGR1-ICAM-1/MSC (high expression of ICAM-1), the activation of the pathway was detected by Western blot. The ICAM-1 modified MSC and its control cells named MIGR1/MSC were cultured in adipocyte medium with or without the inhibitors of the ERK, P38, and JNK pathway. Oil-red-O staining was used to detect the lipid accumulation, and the expression of C/EBPα and PPARγ in differentiation of MSC to adipocyte were examined by real-time-PCR. The results showed that the overexpression of ICAM-1 stably activated the ERK, P38, and JNK pathway in MSC. Inhibiting of the activation of ERK pathways by chemical inhibitors up-regulated the mRNA expression level of C/EBPα and PPARγ in MIGR1-ICAM-1/MSC while inhibiting of P38 pathway resulted in lower mRNA expression of the transcription factors. Consistent with the mRNA expression, the lipid droplets were getting smaller and number of adipocytes increased when P38 pathway was inhibited, while bigger lipid droplet and increased quantity of adipocytes were identified in MIGR1-ICAM-1/MSC with the addition of ERK pathway inhibitor. It is concluded that ICAM-1 may suppress MSC differentiate into adipocyte via activating ERK pathway, while it can maintain the adipogenesis of MSC though P38 pathway.

  15. Insulin/glucose induces natriuretic peptide clearance receptor in human adipocytes: a metabolic link with the cardiac natriuretic pathway.

    PubMed

    Bordicchia, M; Ceresiani, M; Pavani, M; Minardi, D; Polito, M; Wabitsch, M; Cannone, V; Burnett, J C; Dessì-Fulgheri, P; Sarzani, R

    2016-07-01

    Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NP) are involved in cardiorenal regulation and in lipolysis. The NP activity is largely dependent on the ratio between the signaling receptor NPRA and the clearance receptor NPRC. Lipolysis increases when NPRC is reduced by starving or very-low-calorie diet. On the contrary, insulin is an antilipolytic hormone that increases sodium retention, suggesting a possible functional link with NP. We examined the insulin-mediated regulation of NP receptors in differentiated human adipocytes and tested the association of NP receptor expression in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with metabolic profiles of patients undergoing renal surgery. Differentiated human adipocytes from VAT and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome (SGBS) adipocyte cell line were treated with insulin in the presence of high-glucose or low-glucose media to study NP receptors and insulin/glucose-regulated pathways. Fasting blood samples and VAT samples were taken from patients on the day of renal surgery. We observed a potent insulin-mediated and glucose-dependent upregulation of NPRC, through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, associated with lower lipolysis in differentiated adipocytes. No effect was observed on NPRA. Low-glucose medium, used to simulate in vivo starving conditions, hampered the insulin effect on NPRC through modulation of insulin/glucose-regulated pathways, allowing atrial natriuretic peptide to induce lipolysis and thermogenic genes. An expression ratio in favor of NPRC in adipose tissue was associated with higher fasting insulinemia, HOMA-IR, and atherogenic lipid levels. Insulin/glucose-dependent NPRC induction in adipocytes might be a key factor linking hyperinsulinemia, metabolic syndrome, and higher blood pressure by reducing NP effects on adipocytes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Activation of pattern recognition receptors in brown adipocytes induces inflammation and suppresses uncoupling protein 1 expression and mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jiyoung; Ricciardi, Carolyn J; Esposito, Debora; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Hu, Pan; Curry, Benjamin J; Brown, Patricia L; Gao, Zhanguo; Biggerstaff, John P; Chen, Jiangang; Zhao, Ling

    2014-05-15

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRR), Toll-like receptors (TLR), and nucleotide-oligomerization domain-containing proteins (NOD) play critical roles in mediating inflammation and modulating functions in white adipocytes in obesity. However, the role of PRR activation in brown adipocytes, which are recently found to be present in adult humans, has not been studied. Here we report that mRNA of TLR4, TLR2, NOD1, and NOD2 is upregulated, paralleled with upregulated mRNA of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the brown adipose tissue (BAT) of the obese mice. During brown adipocyte differentiation, mRNA and protein expression of NOD1 and TLR4, but not TLR2 and NOD2, is also increased. Activation of TLR4, TLR2, or NOD1 in brown adipocytes induces activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, leading to inflammatory cytokine/chemokine mRNA expression and/or protein secretion. Moreover, activation of TLR4, TLR2, or NOD1 attenuates both basal and isoproterenol-induced uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) expression without affecting mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid accumulation in brown adipocytes. Cellular bioenergetics measurements confirm that attenuation of UCP-1 expression by PRR activation is accompanied by suppression of both basal and isoproterenol-stimulated oxygen consumption rates and isoproterenol-induced uncoupled respiration from proton leak; however, maximal respiration and ATP-coupled respiration are not changed. Further, the attenuation of UCP-1 by PRR activation appears to be mediated through downregulation of the UCP-1 promoter activities. Taken together, our results demonstrate the role of selected PRR activation in inducing inflammation and downregulation of UCP-1 expression and mitochondrial respiration in brown adipocytes. Our results uncover novel targets in BAT for obesity treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Dexamethasone-induced lipolysis increases the adverse effect of adipocytes on osteoblasts using cells derived from human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongqing; Haile, Azeb; Jones, Lynne C

    2013-04-01

    The increased bone marrow lipid deposition in steroid-associated bone loss diseases indicates that abnormalities in fat metabolism are associated with disease development. Recent studies have suggested that bone marrow adipocytes are secretory cells and that they may release substances that have an inhibitory effect on the differentiation and function of osteoblasts. We hypothesized that exposure of bone-marrow-derived adipocytes to corticosteroids exacerbates their deleterious effects on osteoblast metabolism and function. Adipocytes and osteoblasts derived from a human mesenchymal stem cell line (240L) were co-cultured in the absence of direct cell contact with or without dexamethasone treatment. After 6days of co-culture, osteoblasts demonstrated significantly lower levels of function based on lower mineralization, alkaline phosphatase activity and expression of osteogenic (Runx2, osteocalcin) mRNA marker. Dexamethasone treatment resulted in significantly lower levels of osteoblastic function compared with co-cultured cells without dexamethasone. Furthermore, conditioned media from dexamethasone-treated adipocytes induced a similar toxic effect and increased apoptosis involving activation of caspases 3/7 compared with conditioned media without dexamethasone treatment. Within the conditioned media, a substantial increase in the levels of leptin and two saturated fatty acids (FAs; stearate and palmitate) was observed after dexamethasone treatment. Although leptin supplementation failed to induce the inhibitory effect on osteoblasts, similar toxic results were produced with stearate and palmitate treatment, and an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species was observed. Stearate- and palmitate-induced apoptosis was blocked by a reactive oxygen species scavenger pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. These data show that saturated FAs secreted from adipocytes induce lipotoxic effects via mechanisms that may involve reactive oxygen species accumulation in osteoblasts

  18. Testosterone regulates 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation and epididymal fat accumulation in mice through modulating macrophage polarization.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaojiao; Fu, Xiaojian; Zhang, Xinhua; Chen, Shiqiang; Huang, Shuguang; Yao, Lun; Liu, Guoquan

    2017-09-15

    Low testosterone levels are strongly related to obesity in males. The balance between the classically M1 and alternatively M2 polarized macrophages also plays a critical role in obesity. It is not clear whether testosterone regulates macrophage polarization and then affects adipocyte differentiation. In this report, we demonstrate that testosterone strengthens interleukin (IL) -4-induced M2 polarization and inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced M1 polarization, but has no direct effect on adipocyte differentiation. Cellular signaling studies indicate that testosterone regulates macrophage polarization through the inhibitory regulative G-protein (Gαi) mainly, rather than via androgen receptors, and phosphorylation of Akt. Moreover, testosterone inhibits pre-adipocyte differentiation induced by M1 macrophage medium. Lowering of serum testosterone in mice by injecting a luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) peptide increases epididymal white adipose tissue. Testosterone supplementation reverses this effect. Therefore, our findings indicate that testosterone inhibits pre-adipocyte differentiation by switching macrophages to M2 polarization through the Gαi and Akt signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Shrinking and development of lipid droplets in adipocytes during catecholamine-induced lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Masafumi; Shimizu, Kyoko; Taira, Toshio; Uchida, Tsutomu; Gohara, Kazutoshi

    2010-01-04

    Time-lapse observation of adipocytes during catecholamine-induced lipolysis clearly shows that shrinking of existing lipid droplets (LDs) occurs in some adipocytes and that small LDs are newly developed in almost all cells. Immunofluorescence imaging reveals that activation and localization of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) on the surface of LDs, which are required for conferring maximal lipolysis, are necessary for the shrinking of the LDs. However, not all adipocytes in which phosphorylated HSL is localized on LDs exhibit shrinking of LDs. The simultaneous shrinking and development of LDs yield apparent fragmentation and dispersion of LDs in adipocytes stimulated with catecholamine.

  20. Berberine Suppresses Adipocyte Differentiation via Decreasing CREB Transcriptional Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Tang, Hongju; Deng, Ruyuan; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Yuqing; Wang, Yao; Liu, Yun; Li, Fengying; Wang, Xiao; Zhou, Libin

    2015-01-01

    Berberine, one of the major constituents of Chinese herb Rhizoma coptidis, has been demonstrated to lower blood glucose, blood lipid, and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The anti-obesity effect of berberine has been attributed to its anti-adipogenic activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we found that berberine significantly suppressed the expressions of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)α, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), and other adipogenic genes in the process of adipogenesis. Berberine decreased cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and C/EBPβ expression at the early stage of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. In addition, CREB phosphorylation and C/EBPβ expression induced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) and forskolin were also attenuated by berberine. The binding activities of cAMP responsive element (CRE) stimulated by IBMX and forskolin were inhibited by berberine. The binding of phosphorylated CREB to the promoter of C/EBPβ was abrogated by berberine after the induction of preadipocyte differentiation. These results suggest that berberine blocks adipogenesis mainly via suppressing CREB activity, which leads to a decrease in C/EBPβ-triggered transcriptional cascades.

  1. Berberine Suppresses Adipocyte Differentiation via Decreasing CREB Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ruyuan; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Yuqing; Wang, Yao; Liu, Yun; Li, Fengying; Wang, Xiao; Zhou, Libin

    2015-01-01

    Berberine, one of the major constituents of Chinese herb Rhizoma coptidis, has been demonstrated to lower blood glucose, blood lipid, and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The anti-obesity effect of berberine has been attributed to its anti-adipogenic activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we found that berberine significantly suppressed the expressions of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)α, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), and other adipogenic genes in the process of adipogenesis. Berberine decreased cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and C/EBPβ expression at the early stage of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. In addition, CREB phosphorylation and C/EBPβ expression induced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) and forskolin were also attenuated by berberine. The binding activities of cAMP responsive element (CRE) stimulated by IBMX and forskolin were inhibited by berberine. The binding of phosphorylated CREB to the promoter of C/EBPβ was abrogated by berberine after the induction of preadipocyte differentiation. These results suggest that berberine blocks adipogenesis mainly via suppressing CREB activity, which leads to a decrease in C/EBPβ-triggered transcriptional cascades. PMID:25928058

  2. Inhibition of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis by the traditional Chinese herb Sibiraea angustata.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lei; Zhang, Jun; Li, Hongxing; Liu, Jin; He, Lan; Zhang, Junjie; Zhai, Yonggong

    2010-12-01

    Obesity has become a major health concern due to its strong association with the metabolic syndrome. Inhibition of adipocyte differentiation represents a key strategy to inhibit obesity. Sibiraea angustata (SA), a traditional Chinese herb, has a wide range of pharmacological effects, such as improving digestive functions. Here, we report a novel antiadipogenic effect of SA. By using the SA water extract (SAW), SA acetic ether extract (SAA) and the 3T3-L1 model of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis, we showed that both SAW and SAA impaired the proliferation and adipo-differentiation of 3T3-L1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. At the molecular level, treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with SAW or SAA inhibited the expression of the key adipocyte differentiation regulator CCAAT enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ), as well as peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ, adipocyte protein-2, lipoprotein lipase and glucose transporter 4. Cell cycle analysis showed that both SAW and SAA blocked cell cycle at the G1-S transition phase, causing cells to remain in the preadipocyte state. The expression of CyclinA and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 was also inhibited by SAW and SAA. Treatment with SAW also prevented the localization of C/EBPβ to the centromeres. Taken together, our results show that SA has a potent antiadipogenic effect in 3T3-L1 cells due to the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis. We propose that SA may be used as a safe and effective neutraceutical to manage obesity.

  3. [Isolation of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells from the tissue of umbilical cord for osteoblasts and adipocytes differentiation].

    PubMed

    Tian, Xin; Fu, Ren-yi; Chen, Yan; Yuan, Li-xing

    2008-01-01

    To explore the methods and conditions for isolating and proliferating multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from the tissue of umbilical cord, with an aim to induce osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation in vitro. The cord was dissected along the long axis, with vessels pulled away and then sutured into a "loop". Collagenase solution was filled into the loop. Suspended cells were collected from the loop suspension after 6-8 hours and centrifuged. The cells were finally cultured in polystyrene dishes. The single cell-derived colonies were obtained and tested for their immunophenotype and osteoblast and lipoblast differentiations. Adherent cells were obtained from the tissue of umbilical cord, which proliferated and formed single cell-derived colonies. The colonies presented matrix cells immunophenotype and differentiated into osteoblasts that produced mineralized matrices, which were stained by alizarin red and alkaline phosphatase. The colonies also differentiated into adipocytes that accumulated lipid vacuoles, which were demonstrated by the morphology and oil red stains. MSCs can be isolate from the tissue of umbilical cords and proliferate in vitro. The proliferated colonies show matrix cell immunophenotypes and can differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes.

  4. Inhibition of mouse brown adipocyte differentiation by second-generation antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jee-Eun; Cho, Yoon Mi; Kwak, Su-Nam; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Kyung Won; Jung, Hyosan; Jeong, Seong-Whan

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is specialized to burn lipids for thermogenesis and energy expenditure. Second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) are the most commonly used drugs for schizophrenia with several advantages over first-line drugs, however, it can cause clinically-significant weight gain. To reveal the involvement of brown adipocytes in SGA-induced weight gain, we compared the effect of clozapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone, SGA with different propensities to induce weight gain, on the differentiation and the expression of brown fat-specific markers, lipogenic genes and adipokines in a mouse brown preadipocyte cell line. On Oil Red-O staining, the differentiation was inhibited almost completely by clozapine (40 µM) and partially by quetiapine (30 µM). Clozapine significantly down-regulated the brown adipogenesis markers PRDM16, C/EBPβ, PPARγ2, UCP-1, PGC-1α, and Cidea in dose- and time-dependent manners, whereas quetiapine suppressed PRDM16, PPARγ2, and UCP-1 much weakly than clozapine. Clozapine also significantly inhibited the mRNA expressions of lipogenic genes ACC, SCD1, GLUT4, aP2, and CD36 as well as adipokines such as resistin, leptin, and adiponectin. In contrast, quetiapine suppressed only resistin and leptin but not those of lipogenic genes and adiponectin. Ziprasidone (10 µM) did not alter the differentiation as well as the gene expression patterns. Our results suggest for the first time that the inhibition of brown adipogenesis may be a possible mechanism to explain weight gain induced by clozapine and quetiapine. PMID:22809901

  5. Nobiletin enhances differentiation and lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Takeshi; Abe, Daigo; Sekiya, Keizo . E-mail: ksekiya@affrc.go.jp

    2007-06-01

    Nobiletin is a polymethoxylated flavone found in certain citrus fruits. Here we demonstrate that nobiletin enhance differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Nobiletin dose-dependently increased accumulation of lipid droplets in adipocytes. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses indicated that nobiletin increased the expression of genes critical for acquisition of the adipocyte phenotype. Some of them were known peroxisome proliferator activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) targets and PPAR{gamma} itself, however, nobiletin did not exhibit PPAR{gamma} ligand activity. We observed the expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein {beta} (C/EBP{beta}), a transcription factor for PPAR{gamma}, was increased by nobiletin. The activation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which play important roles in C/EBP{beta} expression were also potentiated by nobiletin. Furthermore, nobiletin stimulated lipolysis in differentiated adipocytes, which is known to be stimulated by cAMP pathway. These results suggested that nobiletin enhanced both differentiation and lipolysis of adipocyte through activation of signaling cascades mediated by cAMP/CREB.

  6. Rubi Fructus (Rubus coreanus) Inhibits Differentiation to Adipocytes in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Hye-Lin; Park, Jinbong; An, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Su-Jin; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2013-01-01

    Rubi Fructus (RF) is known to exert several pharmacological effects including antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, its antiobesity effect has not been reported yet. This study was focused on the antidifferentiation effect of RF extract on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiating into adipocytes, 10-100  μ g/mL of RF was added. Next, the lipid contents were quantified by Oil Red O staining. RF significantly reduced lipid accumulation and downregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), CCAAT0-enhancer-binding proteins α (C/EBP α ), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2 (aP2), resistin, and adiponectin in ways that were concentration dependent. Moreover, RF markedly upregulated liver kinase B1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Interestingly, pretreatment with AMPK α siRNA and RF downregulated the expression of PPAR γ and C/EBP α protein as well as the adipocyte differentiation. Our study shows that RF is capable of inhibiting the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the modulation of PPAR γ , C/EBP α , and AMPK, suggesting that it has a potential for therapeutic application in the treatment or prevention of obesity.

  7. FFA-induced adipocyte inflammation and insulin resistance: involvement of ER stress and IKKβ pathways.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Ping; Ma, Jie; Feng, Bin; Zhang, Hao; Diehl, J Alan; Chin, Y Eugene; Yan, Weiqun; Xu, Haiyan

    2011-03-01

    Free-fatty acids (FFAs) are well-characterized factor for causing production of inflammatory factors and insulin resistance in adipocytes. Using cultured adipocytes, we demonstrate that FFAs can activate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway by examination of ER stress sensor activation and marker gene expression. Chemical chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) can reduce FFA-induced adipocyte inflammation and improve insulin signaling whereas overexpression of spliced X-box protein 1 (XBP-1s) only attenuates FFA-induced inflammation. PKR-like eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinase (PERK) is one of the three major ER stress sensor proteins and deficiency of PERK alleviates FFA-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. The key downstream target of FFA-induced ER stress is IκB kinase β (IKKβ), a master kinase for regulating expression of inflammatory genes. Deficiency of PERK attenuates FFA-induced activation of IKKβ and deficiency of IKKβ alleviates FFA-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Consistently, overexpression of IKKβ in 3T3-L1 CAR adipocytes causes inflammation and insulin resistance. In addition, IKKβ overexpression has profound effect on adipocyte lipid metabolism, including inhibition of lipogenesis and promotion of lipolysis. Furthermore, increased endogenous IKKβ expression and activation is also observed in isolated primary adipocytes from mice injected with lipids or fed on high-fat diet (HFD) acutely. These results indicate that ER stress pathway is a key mediator for FFA-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in adipocytes with PERK and IKKβ as the critical signaling components.

  8. Synthesis of mitochondrial uncoupling protein in brown adipocytes differentiated in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Kopecky, J.; Baudysova, M.; Zanotti, F.; Janikova, D.; Pavelka, S.; Houstek, J. )

    1990-12-25

    In order to characterize the biogenesis of unique thermogenic mitochondria of brown adipose tissue, differentiation of precursor cells isolated from mouse brown adipose tissue was studied in cell culture. Synthesis of mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP), F1-ATPase, and cytochrome oxidase was examined by L-(35S)methionine labeling and immunoblotting. For the first time, synthesis of physiological amounts of the UCP, a key and tissue-specific component of thermogenic mitochondria, was observed in cultures at about confluence (day 6), indicating that a complete differentiation of brown adipocytes was achieved in vitro. In postconfluent cells (day 8) the content of UCP decreased rapidly, in contrast to some other mitochondrial proteins (beta subunit of F1-ATPase, cytochrome oxidase). In these cells, it was possible, by using norepinephrine, to induce specifically the synthesis of the UCP but not of F1-ATPase or cytochrome oxidase. The maximal response was observed at 0.1 microM norepinephrine and the synthesis of UCP remained activated for at least 24 h. Detailed analysis revealed a major role of the beta-adrenergic receptors and elevated intracellular concentration of cAMP in stimulation of UCP synthesis. A quantitative recovery of the newly synthesized UCP in the mitochondrial fraction indicated completed biogenesis of functionally competent thermogenic mitochondria.

  9. Characterization of human mesenchymal stem cell secretome at early steps of adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chiellini, Chiara; Cochet, Olivia; Negroni, Luc; Samson, Michel; Poggi, Marjorie; Ailhaud, Gérard; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Dani, Christian; Amri, Ez-Zoubir

    2008-01-01

    Background It is well established that adipose tissue plays a key role in energy storage and release but is also a secretory organ and a source of stem cells. Among different lineages, stem cells are able to differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts. As secreted proteins could regulate the balance between both lineages, we aimed at characterizing the secretome of human multipotent adipose-derived stem cell (hMADS) at an early step of commitment to adipocytes and osteoblasts. Results A proteomic approach, using mono-dimensional electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry, allowed us to identify a total of 73 proteins at day 0 and day 3 of adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation. Analysis of identified proteins showed that 52 % corresponded to classical secreted proteins characterized by a signal peptide, that 37 % previously described in the extracellular compartment were devoid of signal peptide and that 11 % neither exhibited a signal peptide nor had been previously described extracellularly. These proteins were classified into 8 clusters according to their function. Quantitative analysis has been performed for 8 candidates: PAI-1, PEDF, BIGH3, PTX3, SPARC, ENO1, GRP78 and MMP2. Among them, PAI-1 was detected at day 0 and day 3 of osteoblast differentiation but never in adipocyte secretome. Furthermore we showed that PAI-1 mRNA was down-regulated in the bone of ovariectomized mice. Conclusion Given its regulation during the early events of hMADS cell differentiation and its status in ovariectomized mice, PAI-1 could play a role in the adipocyte/osteoblast balance and thus in bone diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:18302751

  10. Mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat cells can trans-differentiate into osteoblasts in vitro and in vivo only by all-trans retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Oki, Yoshinao; Watanabe, Saiko; Endo, Tuyoshi; Kano, Koichiro

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether de-differentiated fat (DFAT) cells, a mature adipocyte-derived preadipocyte cell line, can be induced to trans-differentiate into osteoblasts in vitro and in vivo. All-trans retinoic acid (RA) induced expression of osteoblast-specific mRNAs encoding Cbfa1/Runx2, osterix, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, parathyroid hormone receptor, and osteocalcin in the DFAT cells, but did not induce the expression of adipocyte-specific mRNAs encoding PPARgamma2, C/EBPalpha, and GLUT4. Moreover, alkaline phosphatase activity was expressed in DFAT cells and the cells underwent mineralization of the bone matrix in vitro. Furthermore, when DFAT cells were transplanted subcutaneously into C57BL/6N mice in diffusion chambers, these cells formed ectopic osteoid tissue without any host cell-invasion of the chambers. These results indicate that DFAT cells derived from mature adipocytes can be converted into fully differentiated osteoblasts in vitro and in vivo using RA. DFAT cells provide a unique model for studying the lineage commitment of the adipocytes and osteoblasts derived from mesenchymal stem cells. Identification of the pathways that regulate these processes could lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies for control of unwarranted growth of bone and adipose tissue.

  11. Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase 3 Is the Key Enzyme for Incorporating Arachidonic Acid into Glycerophospholipids during Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Eto, Miki; Shindou, Hideo; Koeberle, Andreas; Harayama, Takeshi; Yanagida, Keisuke; Shimizu, Takao

    2012-01-01

    Cellular membranes contain glycerophospholipids, which have important structural and functional roles in cells. Glycerophospholipids are first formed in the de novo pathway (Kennedy pathway) and are matured in the remodeling pathway (Lands’ cycle). Recently, lysophospholipid acyltransferases functioning in Lands’ cycle were identified and characterized. Several enzymes involved in glycerophospholipid biosynthesis have been reported to have important roles in adipocytes. However, the role of Lands’ cycle in adipogenesis has not yet been reported. Using C3H10T1/2, a cell line capable of differentiating to adipocyte-like cells in vitro, changes of lysophospholipid acyltransferase activities were investigated. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase (LPEAT) and lysophosphatidylserine acyltransferase (LPSAT) activities were enhanced, especially with 18:2-CoA and 20:4-CoA as donors. Correspondingly, mRNA expression of LPCAT3, which possesses LPCAT, LPEAT and LPSAT activities with high specificity for 18:2- and 20:4-CoA, was upregulated during adipogenesis. Analysis of acyl-chain compositions of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) showed a change in their profiles between preadipocytes and adipocytes, including an increase in the percentage of arachidonic acid-containing phospholipids. These changes are consistent with the activities of LPCAT3. Therefore, it is possible that enhanced phospholipid remodeling by LPCAT3 may be associated with adipocyte differentiation. PMID:23208369

  12. Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} modulates the expression of adipogenesis-related genes during adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ijichi, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Yagi, Ken; Okazaki, Yasushi; Inoue, Satoshi . E-mail: INOUE-GER@h.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2007-07-06

    Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} (ERR{alpha}) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates cellular energy metabolism by modulating gene expression involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue. However, the physiological role of ERR{alpha} in adipogenesis and white adipose tissue development has not been well studied. Here, we show that ERR{alpha} and ERR{alpha}-related transcriptional coactivators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) and PGC-1{beta}, can be up-regulated in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at mRNA levels under the adipogenic differentiation condition including the inducer of cAMP, glucocorticoid, and insulin. Gene knockdown by ERR{alpha}-specific siRNA results in mRNA down-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 4, PPAR{gamma}, and PGC-1{alpha} in 3T3-L1 cells in the adipogenesis medium. ERR{alpha} and PGC-1{beta} mRNA expression can be also up-regulated in another preadipocyte lineage DFAT-D1 cells and a pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 under the differentiation condition. Furthermore, stable expression of ERR{alpha} in 3T3-L1 cells up-regulates adipogenic marker genes and promotes triglyceride accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation. These results suggest that ERR{alpha} may play a critical role in adipocyte differentiation by modulating the expression of various adipogenesis-related genes.

  13. Deleted in breast cancer 1 plays a functional role in adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Moreno, María; Vidal, Marta; Ortega, Francisco; Serrano, Marta; Xifra, Gemma; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Genetic deletion of Dbc1 in mice reduced adipose tissue senescence and inflammation while promoting an expansion of this tissue. Here, we aimed to investigate DBC1 mRNA and protein levels in human adipose tissue from subjects with a wide spectrum of fat mass (cohort 1; n = 105) and insulin resistance (cohort 2; n = 47); we also investigated the effects of DBC1 knockdown on 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. DBC1 mRNA was relatively abundant in both visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (mainly in the adipocyte fraction), being decreased in adipose tissue from obese compared with lean subjects. In both VAT and SAT, DBC1 mRNA levels were negatively associated with BMI and positively associated with age and the expression of PPARγ, GLUT4, IRS1, lipogenic (FASN, ACACA), lipid droplet-associated genes (PLIN1, FSP27, ADRP, and TIP47), and lipolytic (ABDH5, AKAP, and PRKACA) genes but negatively associated with ADIPOQ in VAT. DBC1 mRNA and protein levels were increased in the early stages of adipocyte differentiation of human and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Dbc1 knockdown (KD) with lentivirus led to enhanced adipocyte differentiation, increasing intracellular lipid accumulation and adipogenic gene expression. In conclusion, although DBC1 gene expression was reduced in adipose tissue from obese subjects, it was negatively associated with ADIPOQ gene expression in VAT, suggesting that DBC1 might promote visceral adipose tissue dysfunction. In vitro data supported the antiadipogenic effects of DBC1.

  14. Paprika Pigments Attenuate Obesity-Induced Inflammation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Hayato; Saito, Shuuichi; Nakamura, Nozomi; Maoka, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is related to various diseases, such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Adipocytokine, which is released from adipocyte cells, affects insulin resistance and blood lipid level disorders. Further, adipocytokine is related to chronic inflammation in obesity condition adipocyte cells. Paprika pigments (PPs) contain large amounts of capsanthin and capsorubin. These carotenoids affect the liver and improve lipid disorders of the blood. However, how these carotenoids affect adipocyte cells remains unknown. Present study examined the effects of PP on adipocytokine secretion, which is related to improvement of metabolic syndrome. In addition, suppressive effects of PP on chronic inflammation in adipocyte cells were analyzed using 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells and macrophage cell coculture experiments. PP promoted 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells differentiation upregulated adiponectin mRNA expression and secretion. Further, coculture of adipocyte and macrophage cells treated with PP showed suppressed interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and resistin mRNA expression, similarly to treatment with troglitazone, which is a PPARγ ligand medicine. Conclusion. These results suggest that PP ameliorates chronic inflammation in adipocytes caused by obesity. PP adjusts adipocytokine secretion and might, therefore, affect antimetabolic syndrome diseases. PMID:24049664

  15. Reduced expression of collagen VI alpha 3 (COL6A3) confers resistance to inflammation-induced MCP1 expression in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Gesta, Stephane; Guntur, Kalyani; Majumdar, Ishita Deb; Akella, Syamala; Vishnudas, Vivek K; Sarangarajan, Rangaprasad; Narain, Niven R

    2016-08-01

    Collagen VI alpha 3 (COL6A3) is associated with insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation. In this study, the role of COL6A3 in human adipocyte function was characterized. Immortalized human preadipocyte cell lines stably expressing control or COL6A3 shRNA were used to study adipocyte function and inflammation. COL6A3 knockdown increased triglyceride content, lipolysis, insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation, and mRNA expression of key adipogenic genes (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, glucose transporter, adiponectin, and fatty acid binding protein), indicating increased adipocyte function and insulin sensitivity. However, COL6A3 knockdown decreased basal adipocyte chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 [CCL2, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP1)] mRNA expression, reduced secreted protein levels, and abrogated tumor necrosis factor-α- and lipopolysaccharide-induced MCP1 mRNA expression. In addition, while control adipocytes co-cultured with THP1 macrophages showed a threefold increase in adipocyte MCP1 mRNA expression, in COL6A3 knockdown adipocytes MCP1 mRNA expression was unaltered by co-culturing. Lastly, in normal differentiated adipocytes, matrix metalloproteinase-11 treatment reduced expression of COL6A3 protein, MCP1 mRNA, MCP1 secretion, and abrogated tumor necrosis factor-α- and lipopolysaccharide-induced MCP1 mRNA expression and protein secretion. COL6A3 knockdown in adipocytes leads to the development of a unique state of inflammatory resistance via suppression of MCP1 induction. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  16. Both inflammatory and classical lipolytic pathways are involved in lipopolysaccharide-induced lipolysis in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Grisouard, Jean; Bouillet, Elisa; Timper, Katharina; Radimerski, Tanja; Dembinski, Kaethi; Frey, Daniel M; Peterli, Ralph; Zulewski, Henryk; Keller, Ulrich; Müller, Beat; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2012-02-01

    High fat diet-induced endotoxaemia triggers low-grade inflammation and lipid release from adipose tissue. This study aims to unravel the cellular mechanisms leading to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) effects in human adipocytes. Subcutaneous pre-adipocytes surgically isolated from patients were differentiated into mature adipocytes in vitro. Lipolysis was assessed by measurement of glycerol release and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated by real-time PCR. Treatment with LPS for 24 h induced a dose-dependent increase in interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression. At 1 µg/ml LPS, IL-6 and IL-8 were induced to 19.5 ± 1.8-fold and 662.7 ± 91.5-fold (P < 0.01 vs basal), respectively. From 100 ng/ml to 1 µg/ml, LPS-induced lipolysis increased to a plateau of 3.1-fold above basal level (P < 0.001 vs basal). Co-treatment with inhibitors of inhibitory kappa B kinase kinase beta (IKKβ) or NF-κB inhibited LPS-induced glycerol release. Co-treatment with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89, the lipase inhibitor orlistat or the hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) inhibitor CAY10499 abolished the lipolytic effects of LPS. Co-treatment with the MAPK inhibitor, U0126 also reduced LPS-induced glycerol release. Inhibition of lipolysis by orlistat or CAY10499 reduced LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression. Induction of lipolysis by the synthetic catecholamine isoproterenol or the phosphodiesterase type III inhibitor milrinone did not alter basal IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression after 24 treatments whereas these compounds enhanced LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression. Both the inflammatory IKKβ/NF-κB pathway and the lipolytic PKA/HSL pathways mediate LPS-induced lipolysis. In turn, LPS-induced lipolysis reinforces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and, thereby, triggers its own lipolytic activity.

  17. The Fto Gene Regulates the Proliferation and Differentiation of Pre-Adipocytes in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yang; Zhang, Jingying; Lu, Lunjie; Xu, Jiaying; Qin, Liqiang

    2016-02-19

    The highly regulated differentiation and proliferation of pre-adipocytes play a key role in the initiation of obesity. Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) is a novel gene strongly associated with the risk of obesity. A deficiency of FTO may cause growth retardation in addition to fat mass and adipocyte size reduction in vivo. To investigate the potential role of Fto gene on the proliferation and differentiation of pre-adipocytes, we generated Fto-knockdown and overexpressed 3T3-L1 cells. Using numerous proliferation assays our results suggest that Fto knockdown leads to suppression of proliferation, lower mitochondrial membrane potential, less cellular ATP, and decreased and smaller intracellular lipid droplets compared with controls (p < 0.05). Western blot analysis demonstrated that Fto knockdown can significantly suppress peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) expression and inhibit Akt phosphorylation. By contrast, overexpression of Fto had the opposing effect on proliferation, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP generation, in vitro differentiation, Akt phosphorylation, and PPARγ and GLUT4 expression. Moreover, we demonstrated that Wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, could inhibit phospho-Akt in Fto overexpressed 3T3-L1 cells. Taken together, the results suggest that Fto regulates the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells via multiple mechanisms, including PPARγ and PI3K/Akt signaling.

  18. Averrhoa carambola L. peel extract suppresses adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Asyifah Mohamed; Lu, Kaihui; Yip, Yew Mun; Zhang, Dawei

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of many chronic diseases. Recently, a growing body of evidence has shown that phytochemicals may inhibit adipogenesis and obesity. In this study, we report for the first time, the ability of Averrhoa carambola L. peel extract commonly known as star fruit (SFP) to effectively suppress adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and therefore, address it as a potential candidate to treat obesity and its related diseases. (-)-Epicatechin was identified as a bioactive compound likely responsible for this suppression. As the genetic expression studies revealed that the adipogenic activity of SFP extract was due to the simultaneous downregulation of the C/EBPα and PPARγ as well as the upregulation of PPARα receptor genes, a detailed computational docking study was also elucidated to reveal the likely binding mode of (-)-epicatechin to the receptor of interest, accounting for the likely mechanism that results in the overall suppression of adipocyte differentiation.

  19. Autotaxin is released from adipocytes, catalyzes lysophosphatidic acid synthesis, and activates preadipocyte proliferation. Up-regulated expression with adipocyte differentiation and obesity.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Gilles; Tellier, Edwige; Try, Anne; Grés, Sandra; Naime, Isabelle; Simon, Marie Françoise; Rodriguez, Marianne; Boucher, Jérémie; Tack, Ivan; Gesta, Stéphane; Chomarat, Pascale; Dieu, Marc; Raes, Martine; Galizzi, Jean Pierre; Valet, Philippe; Boutin, Jean A; Saulnier-Blache, Jean Sébastien

    2003-05-16

    Our group has recently demonstrated (Gesta, S., Simon, M., Rey, A., Sibrac, D., Girard, A., Lafontan, M., Valet, P., and Saulnier-Blache, J. S. (2002) J. Lipid Res. 43, 904-910) the presence, in adipocyte conditioned-medium, of a soluble lysophospholipase d-activity (LPLDact) involved in synthesis of the bioactive phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). In the present report, LPLDact was purified from 3T3F442A adipocyte-conditioned medium and identified as the type II ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase, autotaxin (ATX). A unique ATX cDNA was cloned from 3T3F442A adipocytes, and its recombinant expression in COS-7 cells led to extracellular release of LPLDact. ATX mRNA expression was highly up-regulated during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3F442A-preadipocytes. This up-regulation was paralleled by the ability of newly differentiated adipocytes to release LPLDact and LPA. Differentiation-dependent up-regulation of ATX expression was also observed in a primary culture of mouse preadipocytes. Treatment of 3T3F442A-preadipocytes with concentrated conditioned medium from ATX-expressing COS-7 cells led to an increase in cell number as compared with concentrated conditioned medium from ATX non-expressing COS-7 cells. The specific effect of ATX on preadipocyte proliferation was completely suppressed by co-treatment with a LPA-hydrolyzing phospholipase, phospholipase B. Finally, ATX expression was found in mature adipocytes isolated from mouse adipose tissue and was substantially increased in genetically obese-diabetic db/db mice when compared with their lean siblings. In conclusion, the present work shows that ATX is responsible for the LPLDact released by adipocytes and exerts a paracrine control on preadipocyte growth via an LPA-dependent mechanism. Up-regulations of ATX expression with adipocyte differentiation and genetic obesity suggest a possible involvement of this released protein in the development of adipose tissue and obesity

  20. Inhibition of mitotic clonal expansion mediates fisetin-exerted prevention of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngyi; Bae, Eun Ju

    2013-11-01

    Adipocytes are the key player in adipose tissue inflammation and subsequent systemic insulin resistance and its development involves complex process of proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes. Fistein, a polyphenol flavonoid, is known to exert anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and anti-diabetic effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of fisetin on adipocyte proliferation and differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line and its mechanism of action. We found that fisetin inhibits adipocyte differentiation in a concentration dependent manner, which were evidenced by Oil Red O staining and the protein expression of mature adipocyte marker genes fatty acid synthase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Moreover, the proliferation of preadipocytes was also markedly suppressed by treatment of fisetin for 24 and 48 h in the differentiation medium. We also found that fisetin inhibition of adipocyte differentiation was largely due to the effect on mitotic clonal expansion. Fisetin suppression of preadipocyte proliferation at early stage of differentiation was accompanied by the changes of expression of a series of cell cycle regulatory proteins. Altogether, our results suggest that the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation by fisetin may be at least in part mediated by cell cycle arrest during adipogenesis.

  1. The role of ATF-2 family transcription factors in adipocyte differentiation: antiobesity effects of p38 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Toshio; Jin, Wanzhu; Ishii, Shunsuke

    2010-02-01

    ATF-2 is a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors and is activated by stress-activated protein kinases, such as p38. To analyze the physiological role of ATF-2 family transcription factors, we have generated mice with mutations in Atf-2 and Cre-bpa, an Atf-2-related gene. The trans-heterozygotes of both mutants were lean and had reduced white adipose tissue (WAT). ATF-2 and CRE-BPa were required for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2)-and p38-dependent induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPARgamma2), a key transcription factor mediating adipocyte differentiation. Since stored fat supplies have been recognized as a possible target for antiobesity treatments, we tested whether inhibition of the p38-ATF-2 pathway suppresses adipocyte differentiation and leads to reduced WAT by treating mice with a p38 inhibitor for long periods of time. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity was significantly reduced in mice fed the p38 inhibitor. Furthermore, the p38 inhibitor alleviated HFD-induced insulin resistance. In p38 inhibitor-treated mice, macrophage infiltration into WAT was reduced and the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were lower than control mice. Thus, p38 inhibitors may provide a novel antiobesity treatment.

  2. Ratio of total traction force to projected cell area is preserved in differentiating adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Abuhattum, Shada; Gefen, Amit; Weihs, Daphne

    2015-10-01

    During obesity development, preadipocytes proliferate and differentiate into new mature adipocytes, to increase the storage capacity of triglycerides. The morphology of the cells changes during differentiation from an elongated spindle-shape preadipocyte into a rounded, differentiated adipocyte. That change allows efficient packing of spheroidal (triglyceride) lipid droplets in the cells, also reducing their ability to proliferate and migrate. The change in preadipocyte morphology is well known. However, little is known about the dynamic mechanical interactions of the cells with their microenvironment, and specifically the forces applied by the cells during and following differentiation. In this study, we evaluated changes in the morphology concurrently with the magnitude and location of forces applied by the cells onto a compliant gel-substrate. We found that the elongated preadipocytes applied forces concentrated at the poles of the cell, yet during differentiation the forces become more uniformly distributed around the cell and mostly at its perimeter. Furthermore, we observed that the total traction force per cell area is preserved, remaining essentially unchanged between preadipocytes and differentiated cells 3-14 days post-differentiation. At differentiation times longer than 8 days we also observed an increasing subset of cells that indent the gels, as opposed to merely applying horizontal traction forces. Our work provides insights into the dynamic mechanobiology of the adipogenesis process.

  3. Adipocyte differentiation is regulated by mitochondrial trifunctional protein α-subunit via sirtuin 1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Xia; Wang, Yan-Mei; Hu, Jian-Ping; Huang, Li-Ying; Fang, Ning-Yuan

    2017-08-15

    Mitochondrial trifunctional protein α-subunit (MTPα) is involved in the fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) pathway. Two MTPα activities, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and long-chain hydratase, have been linked with the occurrence and development of obesity and obesity-related disorders. These activities catalyze two steps in the FAO pathway (the second and third reactions). However, the role of MTPα in the pathogenesis of obesity has not been evaluated, and the functional role of MTPα in adipocyte differentiation has not been determined. Here, we analyzed the functional role of MTPα using in vitro and in vivo models of adipogenesis. MTPα expression was upregulated during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells into adipocytes. MTPα gene silencing stimulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha(C/EBPα) expression, which promoted adipocyte differentiation. By contrast, MTPα overexpression blocked adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Further analysis showed that MTPα positively regulated sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). Injection of preadipocytes overexpressing MTPα into athymic mice significantly impaired de novo fat pad formation compared with that of the control, and furthermore MTPα knockdown enhances fat pad formation at a time point earlier than 5-week, such as week-2 and week-3, when the control fat pad is not fully developed. In summary, our data indicate that MTPα is a novel factor that negatively regulates adipocyte differentiation. We propose a pathway in which MTPα inhibits adipogenesis by promoting SIRT1 expression, which represses PPARγ and attenuates adipogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Local renin angiotensin expression regulates human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Kenichi; Wu, Yaojiong; Okamoto, Yoshihisa; Pratt, Richard E; Dzau, Victor J

    2006-12-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a role in metabolic syndrome. Adipogenesis is suggested to modulate obesity and obesity-related consequences, such as metabolic syndrome. Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a major source of adipocyte generation, the influence of RAS on MSC differentiation to adipocyte is unknown. We evaluated the expression of endogenous RAS in human MSCs during its differentiation to adipocytes and studied the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II), Ang II type 1 receptor blocker Valsartan, and type 2 (AT(2)) receptor blocker PD123319. Our data showed that differentiation was associated with an increase in cellular renin and AT(2) receptor expression and a concomitant decrease in angiotensinogen and angiotensin-converting enzyme expression. The net effect is an increase in endogenous cellular angiotensin II production. Incubation with Ang II (exogenous) inhibited adipogenesis. Combined treatment of exogenous Ang II and Valsartan further inhibited adipogenesis, whereas combined treatment of Ang II and PD123319 completely abolished the inhibition of adipogenesis, suggesting an important role for the AT(2) receptor. Blockade of endogenous angiotensin II effect by incubation with Valsartan alone inhibited adipogenesis, whereas PD123319 alone promoted adipogenesis, confirming the data using exogenous Ang II. The combination of Valsartan and PD123319 had no net effect. Our data demonstrate an important role of the expression of the local RAS in the regulation of human MSC differentiation to adipocytes. Elucidation of the molecular mechanism should provide important insight into the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome and the development of future therapeutics.

  5. Endothelial differentiation in multipotent cells derived from mouse and human white mature adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Jumabay, Medet; Abdmaulen, Raushan; Urs, Sumithra; Heydarkhan-Hagvall, Sepideh; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D; Jordan, Maria C; Roos, Kenneth P; Yao, Yucheng; Boström, Kristina I

    2012-12-01

    White mature adipocytes give rise to multipotent cells, so-called de-differentiated fat (DFAT) cells, when losing their fat in culture. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of DFAT cells to give rise to endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro and vivo. We demonstrate that mouse and human DFAT cells, derived from adipose tissue and lipospirate, respectively, initially lack expression of CD34, CD31, CD146, CD45 and pericyte markers, distinguishing them from progenitor cells previously identified in adipose stroma. The DFAT cells spontaneously differentiate into vascular ECs in vitro, as determined by real-time PCR, fluorescence activated cell sorting, immunostaining, and formation of tube structures. Treatment with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)4 and BMP9, important in regulating angiogenesis, significantly enhances the EC differentiation. Furthermore, adipocyte-derived cells from Green Fluorescent Protein-transgenic mice were detected in the vasculature of infarcted myocardium up to 6 weeks after ligation of the left anterior descending artery in mice. We conclude that adipocyte-derived multipotent cells are able to spontaneously give rise to ECs, a process that is promoted by BMPs and may be important in cardiovascular regeneration and in physiological and pathological changes in fat and other tissues.

  6. Endothelial Differentiation in Multipotent Cells Derived from Mouse and Human White Mature Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jumabay, Medet; Abdmaulen, Raushan; Urs, Sumithra; Heydarkhan-Hagvall, Sepideh; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D.; Jordan, Maria C.; Roos, Kenneth P.; Yao, Yucheng; Boström, Kristina I.

    2012-01-01

    White mature adipocytes give rise to multipotent cells, so-called de-differentiated fat (DFAT) cells, when losing their fat in culture. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of DFAT cells to give rise to endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro and vivo. We demonstrate that mouse and human DFAT cells, derived from adipose tissue and lipospirate, respectively, initially lack expression of CD34, CD31, CD146, CD45 and pericyte markers, distinguishing them from progenitor cells previously identified in adipose stroma. The DFAT cells spontaneously differentiate into vascular ECs in vitro, as determined by real-time PCR, fluorescence activated cell sorting, immunostaining, and formation of tube structures. Treatment with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)4 and BMP9, important in regulating angiogenesis, significantly enhance the EC differentiation. Furthermore, adipocyte-derived cells from Green Fluorescent Protein-transgenic mice were detected in the vasculature of infarcted myocardium up to 6 weeks after ligation of the left anterior descending artery in mice. We conclude that adipocyte-derived multipotent cells are able to spontaneously give rise to ECs, a process that is promoted by BMPs and may be important in cardiovascular regeneration and in physiological and pathological changes in fat and other tissues. PMID:22999861

  7. PCB-153 shows different dynamics of mobilisation from differentiated rat adipocytes during lipolysis in comparison with PCB-28 and PCB-118.

    PubMed

    Louis, Caroline; Tinant, Gilles; Mignolet, Eric; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Debier, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants. Due to their lipophilic character, they are preferentially stored within the adipose tissue. During the mobilisation of lipids, PCBs might be released from adipocytes into the bloodstream. However, the mechanisms associated with the release of PCBs have been poorly studied. Several in vivo studies followed their dynamics of release but the complexity of the in vivo situation, which is characterised by a large range of pollutants, does not allow understanding precisely the behaviour of individual congeners. The present in vitro experiment studied the impact of (i) the number and position of chlorine atoms of PCBs on their release from adipocytes and (ii) the presence of other PCB congeners on the mobilisation rate of such molecules. Differentiated rat adipocytes were used to compare the behaviour of PCB-28, -118 and -153. Cells were contaminated with the three congeners, alone or in cocktail, and a lipolysis was then induced with isoproterenol during 12 hours. Our data indicate that the three congeners were efficiently released from adipocytes and accumulated in the medium during the lipolysis. Interestingly, for a same level of cell lipids, PCB-153, a hexa-CB with two chlorine atoms in ortho-position, was mobilised slower than PCB-28, a tri-CB, and PCB-118, a penta-CB, which are both characterised by one chlorine atom in ortho-position. It suggests an impact of the chemical properties of pollutants on their mobilisation during periods of negative energy balance. Moreover, the mobilisation of PCB congeners, taken individually, did not seem to be influenced by the presence of other congeners within adipocytes. These results not only highlight the obvious mobilisation of PCBs from adipocytes during lipolysis, in parallel to lipids, but also demonstrate that the structure of congeners defines their rate of release from adipocytes.

  8. PCB-153 Shows Different Dynamics of Mobilisation from Differentiated Rat Adipocytes during Lipolysis in Comparison with PCB-28 and PCB-118

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Caroline; Tinant, Gilles; Mignolet, Eric; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Debier, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants. Due to their lipophilic character, they are preferentially stored within the adipose tissue. During the mobilisation of lipids, PCBs might be released from adipocytes into the bloodstream. However, the mechanisms associated with the release of PCBs have been poorly studied. Several in vivo studies followed their dynamics of release but the complexity of the in vivo situation, which is characterised by a large range of pollutants, does not allow understanding precisely the behaviour of individual congeners. The present in vitro experiment studied the impact of (i) the number and position of chlorine atoms of PCBs on their release from adipocytes and (ii) the presence of other PCB congeners on the mobilisation rate of such molecules. Methodology/Principal Findings Differentiated rat adipocytes were used to compare the behaviour of PCB-28, -118 and -153. Cells were contaminated with the three congeners, alone or in cocktail, and a lipolysis was then induced with isoproterenol during 12 hours. Our data indicate that the three congeners were efficiently released from adipocytes and accumulated in the medium during the lipolysis. Interestingly, for a same level of cell lipids, PCB-153, a hexa-CB with two chlorine atoms in ortho-position, was mobilised slower than PCB-28, a tri-CB, and PCB-118, a penta-CB, which are both characterised by one chlorine atom in ortho-position. It suggests an impact of the chemical properties of pollutants on their mobilisation during periods of negative energy balance. Moreover, the mobilisation of PCB congeners, taken individually, did not seem to be influenced by the presence of other congeners within adipocytes. Conclusion/Significance These results not only highlight the obvious mobilisation of PCBs from adipocytes during lipolysis, in parallel to lipids, but also demonstrate that the structure of congeners defines their rate of release from adipocytes. PMID

  9. Temporal profiling of the adipocyte proteome during differentiation using a 5-plex SILAC based strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ruch, Travis; Kim, Jae-Woo; Mortensen, Peter; Otto, Tamara; Nalli, Anuradha; Tang, Qi-Qun; Lane, M. Daniel; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2008-01-01

    The adipose tissue has important secretory and endocrine functions in humans. The regulation of adipocyte differentiation has been actively pursued using transcriptomic methods over the last several years. Quantitative proteomics has emerged as a promising approach to obtain temporal profiles of biological processes such as differentiation. Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) is a simple and robust method for labeling proteins in vivo. Here, we describe the development and application of a five-plex SILAC experiment using four different heavy stable isotopic forms of arginine to study the nuclear proteome and the secretome during the course of adipocyte differentiation. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis using a quadrupole time-of-flight instrument resulted in identification of a total 882 proteins from these two proteomes. Of these proteins, 427 were identified on the basis of one or more arginine containing peptides that allowed quantitation. In addition to previously reported molecules that are differentially expressed during the process of adipogenesis (e.g. adiponectin and lipoprotein lipase), we identified several proteins whose differential expression during adipocyte differentiation has not been documented previously. For example, THO complex 4, a context-dependent transcriptional activator in the T-cell receptor alpha enhancer complex, showed highest expression at middle stage of adipogenesis while SNF2 alpha, a chromatin remodeling protein, was downregulated upon initiation of adipogenesis and remained so during subsequent time points. This study using a 5-plex SILAC to investigate dynamics illustrates the power of this approach to identify differentially expressed proteins in a temporal fashion. PMID:18947249

  10. Isoliquiritigenin impairs insulin signaling and adipocyte differentiation through the inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B oxidation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun-Ji; Choe, Young-Geun; Kim, Jung-Hak; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2016-07-01

    Isoliquritigenin (ISL) is an abundant dietary flavonoid with a chalcone structure, which is an important constituent in Glycyrrhizae Radix (GR). ISL exhibits anti-oxidant activity, and this activity has been shown to play a beneficial role in various health conditions. However, it is unclear whether the anti-oxidant activity of ISL affects insulin signaling pathway and lipid accumulation of adipocytes. We sought to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of ISL on insulin-stimulated adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. We investigated whether ISL attenuates insulin-induced Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation, and whether ISL inhibits the lipid accumulation and the expression of adipogenic-genes during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. ISL blocked the ROS generation, suppressed the lipid accumulation and the expression of adipocyte-specific proteins, which are increased in response to insulin stimulation during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. We also investigated whether the anti-oxidant capacity of ISL is involved in regulating the molecular events of insulin-signaling cascade in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ISL restores PTP1B activity by inhibiting PTP1B oxidation and IR/PI3K/AKT phosphorylation during the early stages of insulin-induced adipogenesis. Our findings show that the anti-oxidant capacity of ISL attenuated insulin IR/PI3K/AKT signaling through inhibition of PTP1B oxidation, and ultimately attenuated insulin-induced adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuropoietin attenuates adipogenesis and induces insulin resistance in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    White, Ursula A; Stewart, William C; Mynatt, Randall L; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2008-08-15

    Recent findings have implicated gp130 receptor ligands, particularly ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), as potential anti-obesity therapeutics. Neuropoietin (NP) is a recently discovered cytokine in the gp130 family that shares functional and structural features with CNTF and signals via the CNTF receptor tripartite complex comprised of CNTFRalpha, LIF receptor, and gp130. NP plays a role in the development of the nervous system, but the effects of NP on adipocytes have not been previously examined. Because CNTF exerts anti-obesogenic effects in adipocytes and NP shares the same receptor complex, we investigated the effects of NP on adipocyte development and insulin action. Using cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we observed that NP has the ability to block adipogenesis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also observed that cultured adipocytes, as well as murine adipose tissue, are highly responsive to acute NP treatment. Rodents injected with NP had a substantial increase in STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and ERK 1 and 2 activation. We also observed the induction of SOCS-3 mRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes following NP treatment. Unlike CNTF, our studies have revealed that NP also substantially attenuates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, NP blocks insulin action in adipose tissue in vivo. These observations are supported by data demonstrating that NP impairs insulin signaling via decreased activation of both IRS-1 and Akt. In summary, we have observed that both adipocytes in vitro and in vivo are highly responsive to NP, and this cytokine has the ability to affect insulin signaling in fat cells. These novel observations suggest that NP, unlike CNTF, may not be a viable obesity therapeutic.

  12. Neuropoietin Attenuates Adipogenesis and Induces Insulin Resistance in Adipocytes*

    PubMed Central

    White, Ursula A.; Stewart, William C.; Mynatt, Randall L.; Stephens, Jacqueline M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent findings have implicated gp130 receptor ligands, particularly ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), as potential anti-obesity therapeutics. Neuropoietin (NP) is a recently discovered cytokine in the gp130 family that shares functional and structural features with CNTF and signals via the CNTF receptor tripartite complex comprised of CNTFRα, LIF receptor, and gp130. NP plays a role in the development of the nervous system, but the effects of NP on adipocytes have not been previously examined. Because CNTF exerts anti-obesogenic effects in adipocytes and NP shares the same receptor complex, we investigated the effects of NP on adipocyte development and insulin action. Using cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, we observed that NP has the ability to block adipogenesis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We also observed that cultured adipocytes, as well as murine adipose tissue, are highly responsive to acute NP treatment. Rodents injected with NP had a substantial increase in STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and ERK 1 and 2 activation. We also observed the induction of SOCS-3 mRNA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes following NP treatment. Unlike CNTF, our studies have revealed that NP also substantially attenuates insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, NP blocks insulin action in adipose tissue in vivo. These observations are supported by data demonstrating that NP impairs insulin signaling via decreased activation of both IRS-1 and Akt. In summary, we have observed that both adipocytes in vitro and in vivo are highly responsive to NP, and this cytokine has the ability to affect insulin signaling in fat cells. These novel observations suggest that NP, unlike CNTF, may not be a viable obesity therapeutic. PMID:18562323

  13. Proinflammatory cytokines differentially regulate adipocyte mitochondrial metabolism, oxidative stress, and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Wendy S.; Kuzmicic, Jovan; Burrill, Joel S.; Donoghue, Margaret A.; Foncea, Rocio; Jensen, Michael D.; Lavandero, Sergio; Arriaga, Edgar A.

    2014-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines differentially regulate adipocyte mitochondrial metabolism, oxidative stress, and dynamics. Macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue and the chronic low-grade production of inflammatory cytokines have been mechanistically linked to the development of insulin resistance, the forerunner of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we evaluated the chronic effects of TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1β on adipocyte mitochondrial metabolism and morphology using the 3T3-L1 model cell system. TNFα treatment of cultured adipocytes led to significant changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics, including increased proton leak, decreased ΔΨm, increased basal respiration, and decreased ATP turnover. In contrast, although IL-6 and IL-1β decreased maximal respiratory capacity, they had no effect on ΔΨm and varied effects on ATP turnover, proton leak, or basal respiration. Only TNFα treatment of 3T3-L1 cells led to an increase in oxidative stress (as measured by superoxide anion production and protein carbonylation) and C16 ceramide synthesis. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with cytokines led to decreased mRNA expression of key transcription factors and control proteins implicated in mitochondrial biogenesis, including PGC-1α and eNOS as well as deceased expression of COX IV and Cyt C. Whereas each cytokine led to effects on expression of mitochondrial markers, TNFα exclusively led to mitochondrial fragmentation and decreased the total level of OPA1 while increasing OPA1 cleavage, without expression of levels of mitofusin 2, DRP-1, or mitofilin being affected. In summary, these results indicate that inflammatory cytokines have unique and specialized effects on adipocyte metabolism, but each leads to decreased mitochondrial function and a reprogramming of fat cell biology. PMID:24595304

  14. Browning of White Adipose Tissue with Roscovitine Induces a Distinct Population of UCP1(+) Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Liu, Libin; Lin, Jean Z; Aprahamian, Tamar R; Farmer, Stephen R

    2016-12-13

    Brown-like adipocytes exist in several adipose depots including white (WAT) as well as brown (BAT). Activation of these UCP1(+) cells is a potential therapeutic strategy to combat obesity. Studies have shown that posttranslational modifications of PPARγ regulate select adipocyte programs. Deacetylation of K268 and K293 in the ligand-binding domain of PPARγ by Sirt1 induces browning of WAT. Phosphorylation of S273 of PPARγ by CDK5 or ERK stimulates a diabetogenic program of gene expression in WAT. Here, we report that roscovitine, a CDK inhibitor, prevents S273 phosphorylation and promotes formation of UCP1(+) (brite) adipocytes in WAT. It also enhances energy expenditure as well as prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Analysis of fluorescence-activated cell-sorted UCP1(+) adipocytes shows that the mRNA signature of brite adipocytes is distinct from beige adipocytes, which arise through catecholamine signaling. These results suggest that brown-like adipocytes in WAT may arise from multiple origins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Adipocytic tumors].

    PubMed

    Stock, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Adipocytic tumors are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms, liposarcoma accounting for approximately 20% of soft tissue sarcomas. The differential diagnosis between benign and malignant tumors is often problematic and represents a significant proportion of consultation cases. The goal of this article is to review liposarcoma subtypes, the main benign adipocytic neoplasms: lipoblastoma, hibernoma, spindle/pleomorphic cell lipoma, chondroid lipoma, as well as non adipocytic neoplasms with a lipomatous component such as lipomatous solitary fibrous tumor, emphasizing on practical differential diagnosis issues, and immunohistochemical and molecular tools allowing their resolution.

  16. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) in Regenerative Medicine: Molecular Mechanism for PPAR in Stem Cells' Adipocyte Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiang; Tian, Taoran; Chen, Zhaozhao; Deng, Shuwen; Sun, Ke; Xie, Jing; Cai, Xiaoxiao

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative medicine plays an indispensable role in modern medicine and many trials and researches have therefore been developed to fit our medical needs. Tissue engineering has proven that adipose tissue can widely be used and brings advantages to regenerative medicine. Moreover, a trait of adipose stem cells being isolated and grown in vitro is a cornerstone to various applications. Since the adipose tissue has been widely used in regenerative medicine, numerous studies have been conducted to seek methods for gaining more adipocytes. To investigate molecular mechanism for adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) has been widely studied to find out its functional mechanism, as a key factor for adipocyte differentiation. However, the precise molecular mechanism is still unknown. This review thus summarizes recent progress on the study of molecular mechanism and role of PPAR in adipocyte differentiation.

  17. Vaspin suppresses cytokine-induced inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes via inhibition of NFκB pathway.

    PubMed

    Zieger, Konstanze; Weiner, Juliane; Krause, Kerstin; Schwarz, Maximilian; Kohn, Martin; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Heiker, John T

    2017-07-26

    Vaspin expression is increased in white adipose tissue (WAT) of diet-induced obese mice and rats and is supposed to compensate HFD-induced inflammatory processes and insulin resistance in adipose tissue by counteracting pro-inflammatory gene expression in obesity. Multiple studies have also demonstrated strong anti-inflammatory effects in vascular and skin cells. Here, we used vaspin treated 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes as well as 3T3-L1 cells with stable vaspin expression to investigate the effect of exogenous and endogenous vaspin on inflammatory processes and insulin signaling in adipocytes. Our stably transfected cells secreted significant amounts of vaspin which was in the physiological range of ∼0.5 ng/ml in cell supernatants. Adipocyte differentiation was not affected by vaspin as expression of adipogenic marker genes as well as lipid accumulation after full differentiation was similar to control cells. We found that IL-1β induced expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, MCP1 and TNFα was significantly blunted in vaspin expressing 3T3-L1 cells. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with exogenous vaspin resulted in reduced cytokine-induced activation of the intracellular and pro-inflammatory NFκB signaling cascades (IKKα/β, IκB and NFκB). Moreover, endogenous vaspin positively affected insulin signaling by increasing insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the key mediator protein kinase B (AKT). Together, we demonstrate anti-inflammatory effects of vaspin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes as well as increased insulin signaling by endogenous expression or exogenous treatment. The results provide evidence for potent anti-inflammatory action of vaspin not only in vascular cells but also in adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Differentiation of adipocytes and osteocytes from human adipose and placental mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahra; Afshari, Jalil Tavakkol; Keramati, Mohammad Reza; Alamdari, Daryoush Hamidi; Ganjibakhsh, Meysam; Zarmehri, Azam Moradi; Jangjoo, Ali; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Ameri, Masoumeh Arab; Moinzadeh, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can be isolated from adult tissues such as adipose tissue and other sources. Among these sources, adipose tissue (because of easy access) and placenta (due to its immunomodulatory properties, in addition to other useful properties), have attracted more attention in terms of research. The isolation and comparison of MSC from these two sources provides a proper source for clinical experimentation. The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of MSC isolated from human adipose tissue and placenta. Materials and Methods: Adipose and placental MSC were isolated from the subcutaneous adipose tissues of 10 healthy women (25 to 40 years) and from a fresh term placenta (n= 1), respectively. Stem cells were characterized and compared by flow cytometry using CD29, CD31, CD34, CD44, CD45, CD105, CD166 and HLA-DR markers. Osteocytes and adipocytes were differentiated from isolated human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSC). Results: Adipose and placenta-derived MSC exhibited the same morphological features. ADSC differentiated faster than placenta; however, both were differentiated, taking up to 21 days for osteocyte and 14 days for adipocyte differentiation. About 90% of PLC-MSC and ADSC were positive for CD29, CD44, CD105, and CD166; and negative for CD31, CD34, CD45, and HLA-DR. Conclusion: The two sources of stem cells showed similar surface markers, morphology and differentiation potential and because of their multipotency for differentiating to adipocytes and osteocytes, they can be applied as attractive sources of MSC for regenerative medicine. PMID:25945239

  19. Lactacystin inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation through induction of CHOP-10 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xi; Huang Haiyan |; Chen Jiegen; Jiang Lin; Liu Honglei |; Liu Deguo; Song Tanjing; He Qun; Ma Chungu; Ma Duan |; Song Houyan; Tang Qiqun ||. E-mail: qqtang@shmu.edu.cn

    2006-11-10

    Hormonal induction triggers a cascade leading to the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein(C/EBP){alpha} and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {gamma}, C/EBP{alpha}, and PPAR{gamma} turns on series of adipocyte genes that give rise to the adipocyte phenotype. Previous findings indicate that C/EBP{beta}, a transcriptional activator of the C/EBP{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} genes, is rapidly expressed after induction, but lacks DNA-binding activity and therefore cannot activate transcription of the C/EBP{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} genes early in the differentiation program. Acquisition of DNA-binding activity of C/EBP{beta} occurs when CHOP-10, a dominant-negative form of C/EBP family members, is down-regulated and becomes hyperphosphorylated as preadipocytes traverse the G{sub 1}-S checkpoint of mitotic clonal expansion. Evidences are presented in this report that lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor, up-regulated the CHOP-10 expression, blocked the DNA-binding activity of C/EBP{beta}, and subsequently inhibited MCE as well as adipocyte differentiation.

  20. Almond Skin Polyphenol Extract Inhibits Inflammation and Promotes Lipolysis in Differentiated 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Chi-Yuan; Wu, Shu-Ju

    2017-02-01

    Studies have shown that polyphenols reduce the risk of inflammation-related diseases and upregulates energy expenditure in adipose tissue. Here, we investigated the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory and antiobesity effects of almond skin polyphenol extract (ASP) in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The antioxidant effects of ASP were measured based on DPPH radical scavenging activity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and total phenolic content. Differentiated 3T3-L1 cells were treated with ASP. Subsequently, lipolysis proteins and transcription factors of adipogenesis were measured. The proinflammatory mediators monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and chemokine ligand 5 (CCL-5) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that ASP significantly promoted phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), increased activity of adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase, and inhibited adipogenesis-related transcription factors. In addition, ASP inhibited the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced cell inflammatory response via downregulation of MCP-1 and CCL-5 secretion. This study suggests that ASP regulates lipolysis through activation of AMPK, reduced adipogenesis, and suppresses proinflammatory cytokines in adipocytes.

  1. Free fatty acids and IL-6 induce adipocyte galectin-3 which is increased in white and brown adipose tissues of obese mice.

    PubMed

    Krautbauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina; Hader, Yvonne; Buechler, Christa

    2014-10-01

    Galectin-3 regulates immune cell function and clearance of advanced glycation end products. Galectin-3 is increased in serum of obese humans and mice and most studies suggest that this protein protects from inflammation in metabolic diseases. Current data show that galectin-3 is markedly elevated in the liver, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat depots of mice fed a high fat diet and ob/ob mice. Galectin-3 is also increased in brown adipose tissues of these animals and immunohistochemistry confirms higher levels in adipocytes. Raised galectin-3 in obese white adipocytes has been described in the literature and regulation of adipocyte galectin-3 by metabolites with a role in obesity has been analyzed. Galectin-3 is expressed in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and human preadipocytes and is modestly induced in mature adipocytes. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes galectin-3 is localized in the cytoplasm and is also detected in cell supernatants. Glucose does not alter soluble galectin-3. Lipopolysaccharide has no effect while TNF reduces and IL-6 raises this lectin in cell supernatants. Palmitate and oleate modestly elevate soluble galectin-3. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells in the presence of 100 μM and 200 μM linoleate induces soluble galectin-3 and cellular levels are upregulated by the higher concentration. Current data suggest that free fatty acids and IL-6 increase galectin-3 in adipocytes and thereby may contribute to higher levels in obesity.

  2. Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) regulates adipocyte differentiation and determines adipose tissue expandability

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Diaz, Sergio; Johnson, Lance A.; DeKroon, Robert M.; Moreno-Navarrete, Jose M.; Alzate, Oscar; Fernandez-Real, Jose M.; Maeda, Nobuyo; Arbones-Mainar, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired adipogenesis renders an adipose tissue unable to expand, leading to lipotoxicity and conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While factors important for adipogenesis have been studied extensively, those that set the limits of adipose tissue expansion remain undetermined. Feeding a Western-type diet to apolipoprotein E2 knock-in mice, a model of metabolic syndrome, produced 3 groups of equally obese mice: mice with normal glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemic yet glucose-tolerant mice, and prediabetic mice with impaired glucose tolerance and reduced circulating insulin. Using proteomics, we compared subcutaneous adipose tissues from mice in these groups and found that the expression of PTRF (polymerase I and transcript release factor) associated selectively with their glucose tolerance status. Lentiviral and pharmacologically overexpressed PTRF, whose function is critical for caveola formation, compromised adipocyte differentiation of cultured 3T3-L1cells. In human adipose tissue, PTRF mRNA levels positively correlated with markers of lipolysis and cellular senescence. Furthermore, a negative relationship between telomere length and PTRF mRNA levels was observed in human subcutaneous fat. PTRF is associated with limited adipose tissue expansion underpinning the key role of caveolae in adipocyte regulation. Furthermore, PTRF may be a suitable adipocyte marker for predicting pathological obesity and inform clinical management.—Perez-Diaz, S., Johnson, L. A., DeKroon, R. M., Moreno-Navarrete, J. M., Alzate, O., Fernandez-Real, J. M., Maeda, N., Arbones-Mainar, J. M. Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) regulates adipocyte differentiation and determines adipose tissue expandability. PMID:24812087

  3. Role of Adiantum philippense L. on Glucose Uptake in Isolated Pancreatic Cells and Inhibition of Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Paul, Tania; Apte, Kishori G; Parab, Pradeep B; Das, Biswadeep

    2017-07-01

    Adiantum philippense (AP) is a pteridophyte that shows antihyperglycemic activity in vivo diabetic model, but the mechanism of action is unknown. AP was found to play a pivotal role in minimizing the high blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Simultaneously, it was observed that it could maintain the normal lipid profile even in diabetic condition. To investigate its insulin-like activity along with its inhibitory role on adipocyte differentiation became the objective of our present study. Glucose uptake potential of this fern was done in isolated pancreatic islets and inhibition of adipocyte differentiation was assessed in 3T3-L1 cell line. Before this, the cytotoxic concentration was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay on L929 cell line. To determine its role in lipid metabolism, the oil droplets produced in adipocytes were stained with Oil 'O' red staining, and triglyceride levels of various drug treatments were measured spectrophotometrically. This fern extract was found to be actively utilizing glucose in the glucose uptake assay. Moreover, it was also involved in inhibiting differentiation of pro-adipocyte to adipocyte in the 3T3-L1 cell lines. The percentage inhibition as obtained from the absorbance showed that the ethanolic extract at the concentration of 200 μg/ml showed 32.48% inhibition. All the above-mentioned parameters when appraised indicated that this fern could be used as an alternative medicine in managing diabetes associated with obesity. Adiantum phillippense (AP) is a pteridophyte that can work as antihyperglycemic agent by minimizing some adverse effects produced by diabetes. Diabetes produces oxidative stress, hampers normal glucose uptake in the pancreas, promotes adipocyte differentiation, and leads to obesity, and as a result, it generates catastrophic effect to the normal cells. The present study has shown that ethanolic extract of AP gives better protection rate against H(2) O(2

  4. ZnO Nanoparticles Upregulates Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Muthuraman; Jin, Bong Yeon; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2016-03-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on 3T3-L1 cell differentiation, by quantitating peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1), and serine-threonine kinase cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (cdk4), which are critical for adipogenesis. 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells were cultured and differentiated with the standard differentiation medium. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay determined 3T3-L1 cell viability. ZnO nanoparticles increased the lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes as evidenced by Oil Red O staining. The quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that the PPARγ, FABP4, C/EBPα, and SREBP1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was significantly increased in the ZnO nanoparticle-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Western blot analysis showed increased PPARγ, FABP4, C/EBPα, and SREBP1 protein expression compared to their respective controls. Also, the immunofluorescence study showed the increased cdk4 and PPARγ expression in the nanoparticle-treated cells. Taking all these data together, it is concluded that ZnO nanoparticles may be a potent substance to alter 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis.

  5. Mesodermal developmental gene Tbx15 impairs adipocyte differentiation and mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Gesta, Stephane; Bezy, Olivier; Mori, Marcelo A; Macotela, Yazmin; Lee, Kevin Y; Kahn, C Ronald

    2011-02-15

    Increased intraabdominal (visceral) fat is associated with a high risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. We have previously shown that the mesodermal developmental transcription factor Tbx15 is highly differentially expressed between visceral and subcutaneous (s.c.) fat in both humans and rodents, and in humans visceral fat Tbx15 expression is decreased in obesity. Here we show that, in mice, Tbx15 is 260-fold more highly expressed in s.c. preadipocytes than in epididymal preadipocytes. Overexpression of Tbx15 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes impairs adipocyte differentiation and decreases triglyceride content. This defect in differentiation can be corrected by stimulating cells with the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (Rosi). However, triglyceride accumulation remains decreased by ∼50%, due to a decrease in basal lipogenic rate and increase in basal lipolytic rate. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes overexpressing Tbx15 also have a 15% reduction in mitochondrial mass and a 28% reduction in basal mitochondrial respiration (P = 0.004) and ATP turnover (P = 0.02), and a 45% (P = 0.003) reduction in mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Thus, differential expression of Tbx15 between fat depots plays an important role in the interdepot differences in adipocyte differentiation, triglyceride accumulation, and mitochondrial function that may contribute to the risk of diabetes and metabolic disease.

  6. Insulin regulation of protein biosynthesis in differentiated 3T3 adipocytes. Regulation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, M.; Curtis, G.; Avruch, J.; Goodman, H.M.

    1985-10-05

    The effect of insulin on protein biosynthesis was examined in differentiated 3T3-L1 and 3T3-F442A adipocytes. Insulin altered the relative rate of synthesis of specific proteins independent of its ability to hasten conversion of the fibroblast (preadipocyte) phenotype to the adipocyte phenotype. Although more than one pattern of response to insulin was observed, the authors focused on the induction of a Mr 33,000 protein which was identified as the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Exposure of 3T3 adipocytes to insulin throughout differentiation specifically increased GAPDH activity and protein content by 2- to 3-fold as compared to 3T3 adipocytes differentiated in the absence of insulin. These changes in enzyme activity and content could be accounted for by a 4-fold increase in the relative rate of synthesis of GAPDH and a 9-fold increase in hybridizable mRNA levels. Within 2 h of insulin addition to 3T3 adipocytes differentiated in the absence of hormone, hybridizable GAPDH mRNA levels increased 3-fold, and within 24 h GAPDH mRNA levels increased 8-fold, and (TVS) methionine incorporation into GAPDH protein increased 5-fold. These studies demonstrate that insulin, as the sole hormonal perturbant, can increase the synthesis of certain 3T3 adipocyte proteins by altering the cellular content of a specific mRNA.

  7. The dietary fatty acid 10E12Z-CLA induces epiregulin expression through COX-2 dependent PGF(2α) synthesis in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Belda, Benjamin J; Thompson, Jerry T; Sinha, Raghu; Prabhu, K Sandeep; Vanden Heuvel, John P

    2012-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are a group of dietary fatty acids that are widely marketed as weight loss supplements. The isomer responsible for this effect is the trans-10, cis-12 CLA (10E12Z-CLA) isomer. 10E12Z-CLA treatment during differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes induces expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (Cyclooxygenase-2; COX-2). This work demonstrates that COX-2 is also induced in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes after a single treatment of 10E12Z-CLA at both the mRNA (20-40 fold) and protein level (7 fold). Furthermore, prostaglandin (PG)F(2α), but not PGE(2), is significantly increased 10 fold. In female BALB/c mice fed 0.5% 10E12Z-CLA for 10 days, COX-2 was induced in uterine adipose (2 fold). In vitro, pharmacological COX-2 inhibition did not block the effect of 10E12Z-CLA on adipocyte-specific gene expression although PGF(2α) was dose-dependently decreased. These studies demonstrate that PGF(2α) was not by itself responsible for the reduction in adipocyte character due to 10E12Z-CLA treatment. However, PGF(2α), either exogenously or endogenously in response to 10E12Z-CLA, increased the expression of the potent mitogen and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) ligand epiregulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Blocking PGF(2α) signaling with the PGF(2α) receptor (FP) antagonist AL-8810 returned epiregulin mRNA levels back to baseline. Although this pathway is not directly responsible for adipocyte dependent gene expression, these results suggest that this signaling pathway may still have broad effect on the adipocyte and surrounding cells. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Loss of Oncostatin M Signaling in Adipocytes Induces Insulin Resistance and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Elks, Carrie M; Zhao, Peng; Grant, Ryan W; Hang, Hardy; Bailey, Jennifer L; Burk, David H; McNulty, Margaret A; Mynatt, Randall L; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2016-08-12

    Oncostatin M (OSM) is a multifunctional gp130 cytokine. Although OSM is produced in adipose tissue, it is not produced by adipocytes. OSM expression is significantly induced in adipose tissue from obese mice and humans. The OSM-specific receptor, OSM receptor β (OSMR), is expressed in adipocytes, but its function remains largely unknown. To better understand the effects of OSM in adipose tissue, we knocked down Osmr expression in adipocytes in vitro using siRNA. In vivo, we generated a mouse line lacking Osmr in adiponectin-expressing cells (OSMR(FKO) mice). The effects of OSM on gene expression were also assessed in vitro and in vivo OSM exerts proinflammatory effects on cultured adipocytes that are partially rescued by Osmr knockdown. Osm expression is significantly increased in adipose tissue T cells of high fat-fed mice. In addition, adipocyte Osmr expression is increased following high fat feeding. OSMR(FKO) mice exhibit increased insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation and have increased lean mass, femoral length, and bone volume. Also, OSMR(FKO) mice exhibit increased expression of Osm, the T cell markers Cd4 and Cd8, and the macrophage markers F4/80 and Cd11c Interestingly, the same proinflammatory genes induced by OSM in adipocytes are induced in the adipose tissue of the OSMR(FKO) mouse, suggesting that increased expression of proinflammatory genes in adipose tissue arises both from adipocytes and other cell types. These findings suggest that adipocyte OSMR signaling is involved in the regulation of adipose tissue homeostasis and that, in obesity, OSMR ablation may exacerbate insulin resistance by promoting adipose tissue inflammation.

  9. Effects of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray Extract on Adipocyte Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Di Giacomo, Claudia; Vanella, Luca; Sorrenti, Valeria; Santangelo, Rosa; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Calabrese, Giovanna; Genovese, Carlo; Mastrojeni, Silvana; Ragusa, Salvatore; Acquaviva, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray (Asteraceae) is widely used in traditional medicine. There is increasing interest on the in vivo protective effects of natural compounds contained in plants against oxidative damage caused from reactive oxygen species. In the present study the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of aqueous, methanol and dichloromethane extracts of leaves of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray were determined; furthermore, free radical scavenging capacity of each extract and the ability of these extracts to inhibit in vitro plasma lipid peroxidation were also evaluated. Since oxidative stress may be involved in trasformation of pre-adipocytes into adipocytes, to test the hypothesis that Tithonia extract may also affect adipocyte differentiation, human mesenchymal stem cell cultures were treated with Tithonia diversifolia aqueous extract and cell viability, free radical levels, Oil-Red O staining and western bolt analysis for heme oxygenase and 5'-adenosine monophoshate-activated protein kinase were carried out. Results obtained in the present study provide evidence that Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray exhibits interesting health promoting properties, resulting both from its free radical scavenger capacity and also by induction of protective cellular systems involved in cellular stress defenses and in adipogenesis of mesenchymal cells. PMID:25848759

  10. RBM4a-regulated splicing cascade modulates the differentiation and metabolic activities of brown adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jung-Chun; Lu, Yi-Han; Liu, Yun-Ru; Lin, Ying-Ju

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding motif protein 4a (RBM4a) reportedly reprograms splicing profiles of the insulin receptor (IR) and myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) genes, facilitating the differentiation of brown adipocytes. Using an RNA-sequencing analysis, we first compared the gene expressing profiles between wild-type and RBM4a−/− brown adipocytes. The ablation of RBM4a led to increases in the PTBP1, PTBP2 (nPTB), and Nova1 proteins, whereas elevated RBM4a reduced the expression of PTBP1 and PTBP2 proteins in brown adipocytes through an alternative splicing-coupled nonsense-mediated decay mechanism. Subsequently, RBM4a indirectly shortened the half-life of the Nova1 transcript which was comparatively stable in the presence of PTBP2. RBM4a diminished the influence of PTBP2 in adipogenic development by reprogramming the splicing profiles of the FGFR2 and PKM genes. These results constitute a mechanistic understanding of the RBM4a-modulated splicing cascade during the brown adipogenesis. PMID:26857472

  11. Aculeatin, a coumarin derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., enhances differentiation and lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Akio; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Yusuke; Yoshida, Izumi; Harada, Teppei; Mishima, Takashi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Aculeatin promoted adipocyte differentiation. • Aculeatin improved glucose uptake. • Aculeatin enhanced adipocyte lipolysis. - Abstract: Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (T. asiatica) has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of diabetes. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of anti-diabetic agents, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. In this study, we investigated the effects of fractionated T. asiatica extracts on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and identified aculeatin as a potential active agent. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with aculeatin isolated from T. asiatica in the presence of insulin, aculeatin increased cellular triglyceride levels and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. This indicated that aculeatin could enhance the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Further analyses using a DNA microarray and real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR showed an increase in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ target genes (Pparg, Ap2, Cd36, Glut4 and Adipoq) by aculeatin, suggesting that aculeatin enhances the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by modulating the expression of genes critical for adipogenesis. Interestingly, after treatment of differentiated adipocytes with aculeatin, glucose uptake and lipolysis were enhanced. Overall, our results suggested that aculeatin is an active compound in T. asiatica for enhancing both differentiation and lipolysis of adipocytes, which are useful for the treatment of lipid abnormalities as well as diabetes.

  12. Different regulation role of myostatin in differentiating pig ADSCs and MSCs into adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Bing; Wen, Jianghui; Ding, Yi; Peng, Jian; Jiang, Siwen

    2012-03-01

    Myostation (MSTN), which is primarily expressed in muscle, plays an important role in myogenic and adipogenic cells. However, there is little information about whether MSTN displays different roles between adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and muscle satellite cells (MSCs). The two kinds of cells can both exist in the muscle and differentiate into adiposities. In this research, we isolated ADSCs and MSCs from porcine fat tissues and semitendinosus muscle, respectively, to investigate the effect of MSTN on the adipogenesis of those cells. ADSCs and MSCs were treated with recombinant human MSTN during the induction of adipogenesis or before the induction of differentiation. Then, we evaluated adipogenesis by Oil Red O staining and assessed the expression patterns of adipocyte-specific fatty acid binding protein (aP2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ using real-time polymerase chain reaction methods. Our results indicated that the treatment with MSTN before or during the induction of differentiation in MSCs could both inhibit the adipogenesis. However, the treatment with MSTN only during the induction of differentiation in ADSCs could suppress the adipogenesis. Those results showed that MSTN had different roles in the adipogenesis of ADSCs and MSCs. It can shed new light on the origin of adipocyte located in muscle. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. N-acetylcysteine inhibits kinase phosphorylation during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Soto, Daniela; Gomez-Serrano, María; Pieralisi, Azul; Calvo, Juan C; Peral, Belén; Guerra, Liliana N

    2016-09-27

    Reports investigating the effects of antioxidants on obesity have provided contradictory results. We have previously demonstrated that treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) inhibits cellular triglyceride (Tg) accumulation as well as total cellular monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) expression in 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes (Calzadilla et al., Redox Rep. 2013;210-218). Here we analyzed the role of NAC on adipogenic differentiation pathway. Assays were conducted using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes (undifferentiated cells: CC), which are capable of differentiating into mature adipocytes (differentiated cells: DC). We studied the effects of different doses of NAC (0.01 or 1 mM) on DC, to evaluate cellular expression of phospho-JNK½ (pJNK½), phospho-ERK½ (pERK½) and, mitochondrial expression of citrate synthase, fumarate hydratase and MAOA. Following the differentiation of preadipocytes, an increase in the expression levels of pJNK½ and pERK½ was observed, together with mitotic clonal expansion (MCE). We found that both doses of NAC decreased the expression of pJNK½ and pERK½. Consistent with these results, NAC significantly inhibited MCE and modified the expression of different mitochondrial proteins. Our results suggested that NAC could inhibit Tg and mitochondrial protein expression by preventing both MCE and kinase phosphorylation.

  14. Small‑molecule COH-SR4 inhibits adipocyte differentiation via AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Figarola, James L; Rahbar, Samuel

    2013-05-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. It is one of the principal causative factors involved in the development of metabolic syndrome and cancer. Inhibition of adipocyte differentiation has often been a target of anti-obesity strategies since obesity is caused not only by hypertrophy but also by adipocyte hyperplasia. In this study, we investigated the effects of COH-SR4, a novel compound with anticancer properties, on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Treatment with COH-SR4 significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect mainly occurred at the early phase of differentiation through inhibition of mitotic clonal expansion and cell cycle arrest at the G1/S phase transition. In differentiating adipocytes, COH-SR4 significantly reduced intracellular lipid accumulation and downregulated the expression of key adipogenesis-related transcription factors and lipogenic proteins. COH-SR4 exhibited no cytotoxic effects in 3T3-L1 cells, but indirectly activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK activation by COH-SR4 also resulted in the phosphorylation of raptor and tuberous sclerosis protein 2 (TSC2), two proteins involved in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. Additionally, COH-SR4 decreased the phosphorylation of p70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) and initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binding protein 1 (4EB‑P1), two downstream effectors of mTOR that regulate protein synthesis. Interestingly, knockdown of AMPKα1/α2 prevented the ability of COH-SR4 to inhibit cell cycle arrest and overall adipogenesis and lipid accumulation in the differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that COH-SR4 inhibits 3T3-L1 adipogenesis via AMPK activation. COH-SR4 may be a promising compound for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.

  15. Indole-3-carbinol directly targets SIRT1 to inhibit adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y; Um, S J; Park, T

    2013-06-01

    Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a natural product of Brassica vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage, inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in various cancer cells. I3C has recently received attention as a possible anti-obesity agent. However, how I3C interacts with specific targets in the pathways involved in obesity and metabolic disorders is unknown. Silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), a NADþ-dependent deacetylase sirtuin, has recently emerged as a novel therapeutic target for metabolic diseases. Herein, we report that I3C is a potent, specific SIRT1 activator efficacious in cultured 3T3-L1 cell lines. A pull-down assay showed that I3C binds to SIRT1. To assess the significance of this binding, we determined whether I3C could activate SIRT1 deacetylase activity in a cell-free system. We found that I3C binds to SIRT1 and activates SIRT1 deacetylase activity in 3T3-L1 cells. In addition, I3C did not inhibit adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells in which SIRT1 was knockdowned. Further, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that I3C treatment reduced mRNA levels of adipogenic genes that encode for C/EBPa, PPARg2, FAS, and aP2 in 3T3-L1 cells but not in SIRT1 knockdown cells. Overall, these results suggested that I3C ameliorates adipogenesis by activating SIRT1 in 3T3-L1 cells.

  16. Anti-obesity effects of Arctii Fructus (Arctium lappa) in white/brown adipocytes and high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Kim, Dae-Seung; Park, Jinbong; Jeong, Mi-Young; Mun, Jung-Geon; Park, Sung-Joo; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2016-12-07

    Arctii Fructus is traditionally used in oriental pharmacies as an anti-inflammatory medicine. Although several studies have shown its anti-inflammatory effects, there have been no reports on its use in obesity related studies. In this study, the anti-obesity effect of Arctii Fructus was investigated in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and the effect was confirmed in white and primary cultured brown adipocytes. Arctii Fructus inhibited weight gain and reduced the mass of white adipose tissue in HFD-induced obese mice. Serum levels of triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol were reduced, and HDL-cholesterol was increased in the Arctii Fructus treated group. In 3T3-L1 cells, a water extract (WAF) and 70% EtOH extract (EtAF) of Arctii Fructus significantly inhibited adipogenesis and suppressed the expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha. In particular, EtAF activated the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase. On the other hand, uncoupling protein 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, known as brown adipocytes specific genes, were increased in primary cultured brown adipocytes by WAF and EtAF. This study shows that Arctii Fructus prevents the development of obesity through the inhibition of white adipocyte differentiation and activation of brown adipocyte differentiation which suggests that Arctii Fructus could be an effective therapeutic for treating or preventing obesity.

  17. Resistance to diet-induced adiposity in cannabinoid receptor-1 deficient mice is not due to impaired adipocyte function

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Overactivity and/or dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) contribute to development of obesity. In vitro studies indicate a regulatory role for the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) in adipocyte function and CB1-receptor deficient (CB1-/-) mice are resistant to high fat diet-induced obesity. Whether this phenotype of CB1-/- mice is related to altered fat metabolism in adipose tissue is unknown. Methods We evaluated adipose tissue differentiation/proliferation markers and quantified lipogenic and lipolytic activities in fat tissues of CB1-/- and CB1+/+ mice fed a high-fat (HF) or a high-fat/fish oil (HF/FO) diet as compared to animals receiving a low-fat chow diet. Comparison between HF diet and HF/FO diet allowed to investigate the influence of dietary fat quality on adipose tissue biology in relation to CB1 functioning. Results The adiposity-resistant phenotype of the CB1-/- mice was characterized by reduced fat mass and adipocyte size in HF and HF/FO-fed CB1-/- mice in parallel to a significant increase in energy expenditure as compared to CB1+/+ mice. The expression levels of adipocyte differentiation and proliferation markers were however maintained in these animals. Consistent with unaltered lipogenic gene expression, the fatty acid synthesis rates in adipose tissues from CB1-/- and CB1+/+ mice were unchanged. Whole-body and adipose-specific lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities were also not altered in CB1-/- mice. Conclusions These findings indicate that protection against diet-induced adiposity in CB1-deficient mice is not related to changes in adipocyte function per se, but rather results from increased energy dissipation by oxidative and non-oxidative pathways. PMID:22201701

  18. Interleukin-1β mediates macrophage-induced impairment of insulin signaling in human primary adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dan; Madi, Mohamed; Ding, Cherlyn; Fok, Matthew; Steele, Thomas; Ford, Christopher; Hunter, Leif; Bing, Chen

    2014-08-01

    Adipose tissue expansion during obesity is associated with increased macrophage infiltration. Macrophage-derived factors significantly alter adipocyte function, inducing inflammatory responses and decreasing insulin sensitivity. Identification of the major factors that mediate detrimental effects of macrophages on adipocytes may offer potential therapeutic targets. IL-1β, a proinflammatory cytokine, is suggested to be involved in the development of insulin resistance. This study investigated the role of IL-1β in macrophage-adipocyte cross-talk, which affects insulin signaling in human adipocytes. Using macrophage-conditioned (MC) medium and human primary adipocytes, we examined the effect of IL-1β antagonism on the insulin signaling pathway. Gene expression profile and protein abundance of insulin signaling molecules were determined, as was the production of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokines. We also examined whether IL-1β mediates MC medium-induced alteration in adipocyte lipid storage. MC medium and IL-1β significantly reduced gene expression and protein abundance of insulin signaling molecules, including insulin receptor substrate-1, phosphoinositide 3-kinase p85α, and glucose transporter 4 and phosphorylation of Akt. In contrast, the expression and release of the proinflammatory markers, including IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 by adipocytes were markedly increased. These changes were significantly reduced by blocking IL-1β activity, its receptor binding, or its production by macrophages. MC medium-inhibited expression of the adipogenic factors and -stimulated lipolysis was also blunted with IL-1β neutralization. We conclude that IL-1β mediates, at least in part, the effect of macrophages on insulin signaling and proinflammatory response in human adipocytes. Blocking IL-1β could be beneficial for preventing obesity-associated insulin resistance and inflammation in human adipose tissue. Copyright

  19. Interleukin-1β mediates macrophage-induced impairment of insulin signaling in human primary adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Dan; Madi, Mohamed; Ding, Cherlyn; Fok, Matthew; Steele, Thomas; Ford, Christopher; Hunter, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue expansion during obesity is associated with increased macrophage infiltration. Macrophage-derived factors significantly alter adipocyte function, inducing inflammatory responses and decreasing insulin sensitivity. Identification of the major factors that mediate detrimental effects of macrophages on adipocytes may offer potential therapeutic targets. IL-1β, a proinflammatory cytokine, is suggested to be involved in the development of insulin resistance. This study investigated the role of IL-1β in macrophage-adipocyte cross-talk, which affects insulin signaling in human adipocytes. Using macrophage-conditioned (MC) medium and human primary adipocytes, we examined the effect of IL-1β antagonism on the insulin signaling pathway. Gene expression profile and protein abundance of insulin signaling molecules were determined, as was the production of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokines. We also examined whether IL-1β mediates MC medium-induced alteration in adipocyte lipid storage. MC medium and IL-1β significantly reduced gene expression and protein abundance of insulin signaling molecules, including insulin receptor substrate-1, phosphoinositide 3-kinase p85α, and glucose transporter 4 and phosphorylation of Akt. In contrast, the expression and release of the proinflammatory markers, including IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 by adipocytes were markedly increased. These changes were significantly reduced by blocking IL-1β activity, its receptor binding, or its production by macrophages. MC medium-inhibited expression of the adipogenic factors and -stimulated lipolysis was also blunted with IL-1β neutralization. We conclude that IL-1β mediates, at least in part, the effect of macrophages on insulin signaling and proinflammatory response in human adipocytes. Blocking IL-1β could be beneficial for preventing obesity-associated insulin resistance and inflammation in human adipose tissue. PMID:24918199

  20. Very low density lipoprotein receptor promotes adipocyte differentiation and mediates the proadipogenic effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists.

    PubMed

    Tao, Huan; Hajri, Tahar

    2011-12-15

    Very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) is a member of the low density receptor family, expressed mostly in adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscles. VLDLR binds apolipoprotein-E-triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and plays a key role in lipid metabolism. In adipocytes, VLDLR expression increases with differentiation but it is not known whether it plays a role in the adipogenesis. Here we report that VLDLR expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is upregulated by PPARγ agonist 15-deoxy-delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) in dose- and time-dependant manners. Knockdown of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) with siRNA abolished pioglitazone- and 15d-PGJ(2)-induced VLDLR expression and simultaneously reduced VLDL uptake in adipocytes. In addition, PPARγ-agonist treatment of control mouse adipocytes (vldlr(+/+)) enhanced adipogenesis and VLDL uptake concurrently with the induction of VLDLR expression. However, vldlr deficiency (vldlr(-/-)) significantly blunted the proadipogenic effects of PPARγ agonists. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a putative PPARγ responsive sequence (PPRE) within the vldlr promoter, which is responsive to natural (15d-PGJ(2)) and synthetic (pioglitazone) PPARγ agonists. Reporter gene assays using serial deletion of the 5'-flanking region showed that this putative PPRE site induced promoter transactivation, while a site-targeted mutation abolished transactivation. Moreover, electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatic immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed the specific binding of PPARγ to the PPRE sequence. Together, these results support a crucial function for VLDLR in adipocyte differentiation and mediation of the proadipogenic effect of PPARγ. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ADP-ribosylation factor 6 regulates endothelin-1-induced lipolysis in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jonathon C B; Bain, Stephen C; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu

    2014-08-15

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) induces lipolysis in adipocytes, where ET-1 chronic exposure results in insulin resistance (IR) through suppression of glucose transporter (GLUT)4 translocation to the plasma membrane and consequently glucose uptake. ARF6 small GTPase, which plays a vital role in cell surface receptors trafficking, has previously been shown to regulate GLUT4 recycling and thereby insulin signalling. ARF6 also plays a role in ET-1 promoted endothelial cell migration. However, ARF6 involvement in ET-1-induced lipolysis in adipocytes is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the role of ARF6 in ET-1-induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This was achieved by studying the effect of inhibitors for the activation of ARF6 and other signalling proteins on ET-1 induced lipolysis and ARF6 activation in the adipocytes. Our results indicate that ET-1 induces, through endothelin type A receptor (ETAR), lipolysis, the ARF6 activation and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in adipocytes, further ET-1 stimulated lipolysis is inhibited by the inhibitors of ARF6 activation, ERK phosphorylation and dynamin, which is essential for endocytosis. Our studies also revealed that ARF6 acts upstream of ERK in ET-1-indcued lipolysis. In summary, we determined that ET-1 activation of ETAR signalled through ARF6, which is crucial for lipolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Major role of adipocyte prostaglandin E2 in lipolysis-induced macrophage recruitment[S

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoqian; Cifarelli, Vincenza; Sun, Shishuo; Kuda, Ondrej; Abumrad, Nada A.; Su, Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Obesity induces accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), which contribute to both local and systemic inflammation and modulate insulin sensitivity. Adipocyte lipolysis during fasting and weight loss also leads to ATM accumulation, but without proinflammatory activation suggesting distinct mechanisms of ATM recruitment. We examined the possibility that specific lipid mediators with anti-inflammatory properties are released from adipocytes undergoing lipolysis to induce macrophage migration. In the present study, we showed that conditioned medium (CM) from adipocytes treated with forskolin to stimulate lipolysis can induce migration of RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition to FFAs, lipolytic stimulation increased release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), reflecting cytosolic phospholipase A2 α activation and enhanced cyclooxygenase (COX) 2 expression. Reconstituted medium with the anti-inflammatory PGE2 potently induced macrophage migration while different FFAs and PGD2 had modest effects. The ability of CM to induce macrophage migration was abolished by treating adipocytes with the COX2 inhibitor sc236 or by treating macrophages with the prostaglandin E receptor 4 antagonist AH23848. In fasted mice, macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue coincided with increases of PGE2 levels and COX1 expression. Collectively, our data show that adipocyte-originated PGE2 with inflammation suppressive properties plays a significant role in mediating ATM accumulation during lipolysis. PMID:26912395

  3. Monoterpene limonene induces brown fat-like phenotype in 3T3-L1 white adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lone, Jameel; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-05-15

    Several dietary compounds that are able to induce the brown fat-like phenotype in white adipocytes have been considered for treatment of obesity due to their ability to increase energy expenditure. Here, we report that limonene induces the brown fat-like phenotype in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by increasing expression of brown adipocyte-specific genes and proteins. Limonene-induced browning in white adipocytes was investigated by determining expression levels of brown fat-specific genes and proteins by real-time RT-PCR, immunoblot analysis, and immunocytochemical staining. Limonene enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis, as evidenced by increased mitochondrial content and immunofluorescent intensity. Limonene also significantly elevated protein levels of HSL, PLIN, p-AMPK, p-ACC, ACO, COX4, CPT1, and CYT C, suggesting its possible role in enhancement of lipolysis and lipid catabolism. Increased expression of PRDM16, UCP1, C/EBPβ, and other brown fat-specific markers by limonene was possibly mediated by activation of β3-adnergenic receptor (β3-AR), as inhibition of β3-AR inhibited up-regulation of brown fat-specific markers. Similarly, limonene-mediated activation of ERK and up-regulation of key brown adipocyte specific markers were eliminated by treatment with ERK antagonist. Taken together, these results suggest that limonene induces browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes via activation of β3-AR and the ERK signaling pathway. In conclusion, our findings suggest that limonene plays a dual modulatory role in induction of the brown adipocyte-like phenotype as well as promotion of lipid metabolism and thus may have potential therapeutic implications for treatment of obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Antioxidant, anti-adipocyte differentiation, antitumor activity and anthelmintic activities against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana of yakuchinone A from Alpinia oxyphylla

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alpinia oxyphylla is a common remedy in traditional Chinese medicine. Yakuchinone A is a major constituent of A. oxyphylla and exhibits anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antibacterial, and gastric protective activities. Methods Antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of yakuchinone A in skin cancer cells as well as novel mechanisms for the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana adults, and nematocidal activities against Anisakis simplex larvae are investigated. Results Yakuchinone A presents the ability of the removal of DPPH·and ABTS+ free radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Yakuchinone A suppresses intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3 T3-L1 cells and the expressions of leptin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Yakuchinone A induces apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation in skin cancer cells. The inhibition of cell growth by yakuchinone A is more significant for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) cells than for melanoma (A375 and B16) and noncancerous (HaCaT and BNLCL2) cells. Treatment BCC cells with yakuchinone A shows down-regulation of Bcl-2, up-regulation of Bax, and an increase in cleavage poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). This suggests that yakuchinone A induces BCC cells apoptosis through the Bcl-2-mediated signaling pathway. The anthelmintic activities of yakuchinone A for A. simplex are better than for H. nana. Conclusions In this work, yakuchinone A exhibits antioxidative properties, anti-adipocyte differentiation, antitumor activity, and anthelmintic activities against A. simplex and H. nana. PMID:24070160

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene: a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation in chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Mu, Y; Li, H; Ding, N; Wang, Q; Wang, Y; Wang, S; Wang, N

    2008-02-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma is regarded as a "master regulator" of adipocyte differentiation in mammals. The current study was designed to investigate the function and regulatory mechanism of PPARgamma in chicken adipogenesis by RNA interference. Preadipocytes were isolated from the abdominal fat tissue of 12-d-old chickens and cultured. Small-interference PPARgamma RNA (siPPARgamma) was synthesized by in vitro transcription and transfected into chicken preadipocytes by using liposomes. The suppressive effect of siPPARgamma was detected by real-time reverse-transcription PCR and reverse-transcription PCR. The results showed that transient transfection with siPPARgamma significantly inhibited differentiation and enhanced proliferation of chicken preadipocytes (P < 0.05). The adipogenesis-associated adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein gene was down-regulated when PPARgamma was silenced. The current work indicates that PPARgamma is a key regulator of chicken preadipocyte differentiation.

  6. Multilocular adipocytes from muscovy ducklings differentiated in response to cold acclimation.

    PubMed Central

    Barré, H; Cohen-Adad, F; Duchamp, C; Rouanet, J L

    1986-01-01

    Morphological and functional aspects of adipose tissue from 6-week-old cold-acclimated muscovy ducklings reared at 4 degrees C ambient temperature (Ta) from the age of 1 week were examined for the occurrence of brown adipose tissue (b.a.t.) in order to explain non-shivering thermogenesis (n.s.t.) observed at this age. Metabolic rate and integrated muscle electrical activity (e.m.g.) were measured at different Ta (from -10 to +28 degrees C) in cold-acclimated and in control ducklings reared at thermoneutrality. The results confirm the existence of n.s.t. in 6-week-old cold-acclimated muscovy ducklings. In cold-acclimated ducklings, typical multilocular adipocytes were found in subcutaneous adipose deposits instead of the unilocular white adipocytes as in control ducklings. Mitochondria isolated from this differentiated tissue were less abundant than in b.a.t. of mammals. Their respiration rate was similar to the respiration rate of white adipose tissue mitochondria from control rats and much lower than the b.a.t. mitochondria rate from cold-acclimated rats. It is therefore unlikely that this differentiated adipose tissue contributes to the n.s.t. observed, an n.s.t. whose capacity reached 5.26 W/kg (+73.5% above resting metabolic rate) in cold-acclimated ducklings. The role of this differentiated adipose tissue in the metabolic adaptation to cold is discussed. Images Plate 4 Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 PMID:3795059

  7. CUDC-907 Promotes Bone Marrow Adipocytic Differentiation Through Inhibition of Histone Deacetylase and Regulation of Cell Cycle.

    PubMed

    Ali, Dalia; Alshammari, Hassan; Vishnubalaji, Radhakrishnan; Chalisserry, Elna Paul; Hamam, Rimi; Alfayez, Musaad; Kassem, Moustapha; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Alajez, Nehad M

    2017-03-01

    The role of bone marrow adipocytes (BMAs) in overall energy metabolism and their effects on bone mass are currently areas of intensive investigation. BMAs differentiate from bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs); however, the molecular mechanisms regulating BMA differentiation are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of CUDC-907, identified by screening an epigenetic small-molecule library, on adipocytic differentiation of human BMSCs (hBMSCs) and determined its molecular mechanism of action. Human bone marrow stromal cells exposed to CUDC-907 (500 nM) exhibited enhanced adipocytic differentiation (∼2.9-fold increase, P < 0.005) compared with that of control cells. Global gene expression and signaling pathway analyses of differentially expressed genes revealed a strong enrichment of genes involved in adipogenesis, cell cycle, and DNA replication. Chromatin immune precipitation combined with quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed significant increase in H3K9ac epigenetic marker in the promoter regions of AdipoQ, FABP4, PPARγ, KLF15, and CEBPA in CUDC-907-treated hBMSCs. Follow-up experiments corroborated that the inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity enhanced adipocytic differentiation, while the inhibition of PI3K decreased adipocytic differentiation. In addition, CUDC-907 arrested hBMSCs in the G0-G1 phase of the cell cycle and reduced the number of S-phase cells. Our data reveal that HDAC, PI3K, and cell cycle genes are important regulators of BMA formation and demonstrate that adipocyte differentiation of hBMSCs is associated with complex changes in a number of epigenetic and genetic pathways, which can be targeted to regulate BMA formation.

  8. Effects of arachidonic acid on the concentration of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids in culture media of mesenchymal stromal cells differentiating into adipocytes or osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Casado-Díaz, Antonio; Ferreiro-Vera, Carlos; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Dorado, Gabriel; Luque-de-Castro, María Dolores; Quesada-Gómez, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Metabolites derived from the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may modulate the mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) differentiation. Such cells can differentiate into different cellular types, including adipocytes and osteoblasts. Aging favors the bone marrow MSC differentiation toward the former, causing a loss of bone density associated with pathologies like osteoporosis. The omega-6 arachidonic acid (AA) favors MSC adipogenesis to a greater extent than omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In this work, we study the joint action of both PUFA. Thus, not induced and induced to adipocyte or osteoblast MSC were treated with 20 μM of each PUFA (either AA, AA + DHA or AA + EPA). The expression of osteogenic and adipogenic molecular markers, the alox15b lipoxygenase gene expression and the 5-, 8-, 11-, 12- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETE) derived from the AA metabolism in the culture media were determined. The results show that the adipogenesis induction of AA is not suppressed by the joint presence of EPA and DHA. In fact, both increased the adipogenic effect of AA on MSC differentiated into osteoblasts. The different HETE concentrations increased in cultures supplemented with AA, albeit such concentrations were lower in the cultures induced to differentiate, mainly at day 21 after the induction. Furthermore, the reduction in the HETE concentration was correlated with a higher expression of the alox15b gene. These results highlight the PUFA metabolism differences between uninduced and induced MSC to differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts, besides the relevant role of the lipoxygenase gene expression in adipogenesis induction.

  9. Mouse strains to study cold-inducible beige progenitors and beige adipocyte formation and function

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Daniel C.; Jiang, Yuwei; Graff, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Cold temperatures induce formation of beige adipocytes, which convert glucose and fatty acids to heat, and may increase energy expenditure, reduce adiposity and lower blood glucose. This therapeutic potential is unrealized, hindered by a dearth of genetic tools to fate map, track and manipulate beige progenitors and ‘beiging'. Here we examined 12 Cre/inducible Cre mouse strains that mark adipocyte, muscle and mural lineages, three proposed beige origins. Among these mouse strains, only those that marked perivascular mural cells tracked the cold-induced beige lineage. Two SMA-based strains, SMA-CreERT2 and SMA-rtTA, fate mapped into the majority of cold-induced beige adipocytes and SMA-marked progenitors appeared essential for beiging. Disruption of the potential of the SMA-tracked progenitors to form beige adipocytes was accompanied by an inability to maintain body temperature and by hyperglycaemia. Thus, SMA-engineered mice may be useful to track and manipulate beige progenitors, beige adipocyte formation and function. PMID:26729601

  10. Trichostatin A modulates thiazolidinedione-mediated suppression of tumor necrosis factor α-induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Juu-Chin; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Wang, Chih-Tien; Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Chun-Ken; Wu, Zhong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In obesity, high levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) stimulate lipolysis in adipocytes, leading to hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), the insulin-sensitizing drugs, antagonize TNFα-induced lipolysis in adipocytes, thereby increasing insulin sensitivity in diabetes patients. The cellular target of TZDs is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a nuclear receptor that controls many adipocyte functions. As a transcription factor, PPARγ is closely modulated by coregulators, which include coactivators and corepressors. Previous studies have revealed that in macrophages, the insulin-sensitizing effect of PPARγ may involve suppression of proinflammatory gene expression by recruiting the corepressor complex that contains corepressors and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Therefore, we investigated whether the corepressor complex is involved in TZD-mediated suppression of TNFα-induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Trichostatin A (TSA), a pan HDAC inhibitor (HDACI) that inhibits class I and II HDACs, was used to examine the involvement of HDACs in the actions of TZDs. TSA alone increased basal lipolysis and attenuated TZD-mediated suppression of TNFα-induced lipolysis. Increased basal lipolysis may in part result from class I HDAC inhibition because selective class I HDACI treatment had similar results. However, attenuation of TZD-mediated TNFα antagonism may be specific to TSA and related hydroxamate-based HDACI rather than to HDAC inhibition. Consistently, corepressor depletion did not affect TZD-mediated suppression. Interestingly, TSA treatment greatly reduced PPARγ levels in differentiated adipocytes. Finally, extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) mediated TNFα-induced lipolysis, and TZDs suppressed TNFα-induced ERK phosphorylation. We determined that TSA increased basal ERK phosphorylation, and attenuated TZD-mediated suppression of TNFα-induced ERK phosphorylation, consistent with TSA's effects

  11. Trichostatin A Modulates Thiazolidinedione-Mediated Suppression of Tumor Necrosis Factor α-Induced Lipolysis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Juu-Chin; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Wang, Chih-Tien; Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Chun-Ken; Wu, Zhong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In obesity, high levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) stimulate lipolysis in adipocytes, leading to hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), the insulin-sensitizing drugs, antagonize TNFα-induced lipolysis in adipocytes, thereby increasing insulin sensitivity in diabetes patients. The cellular target of TZDs is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a nuclear receptor that controls many adipocyte functions. As a transcription factor, PPARγ is closely modulated by coregulators, which include coactivators and corepressors. Previous studies have revealed that in macrophages, the insulin-sensitizing effect of PPARγ may involve suppression of proinflammatory gene expression by recruiting the corepressor complex that contains corepressors and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Therefore, we investigated whether the corepressor complex is involved in TZD-mediated suppression of TNFα-induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Trichostatin A (TSA), a pan HDAC inhibitor (HDACI) that inhibits class I and II HDACs, was used to examine the involvement of HDACs in the actions of TZDs. TSA alone increased basal lipolysis and attenuated TZD-mediated suppression of TNFα-induced lipolysis. Increased basal lipolysis may in part result from class I HDAC inhibition because selective class I HDACI treatment had similar results. However, attenuation of TZD-mediated TNFα antagonism may be specific to TSA and related hydroxamate-based HDACI rather than to HDAC inhibition. Consistently, corepressor depletion did not affect TZD-mediated suppression. Interestingly, TSA treatment greatly reduced PPARγ levels in differentiated adipocytes. Finally, extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) mediated TNFα-induced lipolysis, and TZDs suppressed TNFα-induced ERK phosphorylation. We determined that TSA increased basal ERK phosphorylation, and attenuated TZD-mediated suppression of TNFα-induced ERK phosphorylation, consistent with TSA

  12. Role of C/EBPβ-LAP and C/EBPβ-LIP in early adipogenic differentiation of human white adipose-derived progenitors and at later stages in immature adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Stefan; Mitterberger, Maria C; Mattesich, Monika; Zwerschke, Werner

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of the major isoforms of CCAAT enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ), C/EBPβ-LAP and C/EBPβ-LIP, in adipogenesis of human white adipose-derived stromal/progenitor cells (ASC). C/EBPβ gene expression was transiently induced early in adipogenesis. At later stages, in immature adipocytes, the C/EBPβ mRNA and protein levels declined. The C/EBPβ-LIP protein steady-state level decreased considerably stronger than the C/EBPβ-LAP level and the C/EBPβ-LIP half-life was significantly shorter than the C/EBPβ-LAP half-life. The turn-over of both C/EBPβ-isoforms was regulated by ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent degradation. These data suggest that the protein stability of the C/EBPβ-isoforms is differentially regulated in the course of adipogenesis and in immature adipocytes. Constitutive overexpression of C/EBPβ-LIP had antiadipogenic activity in human ASC. C/EBPβ-LAP, which promotes adipogenesis in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by directly activating expression of the adipogenic keyregulator PPARγ2, induced the expression of PPARγ2 and of the adipocyte differentiation gene product FABP4 in confluent ASC in the absence of adipogenic hormones. At later stages after hormone cocktail-induced adipogenesis, in immature adipocytes, constitutive overexpression of C/EBPβ-LAP led to reduced expression of PPARγ2 and FABP4, C/EBPα expression was downregulated and the expression of the adipocyte differentiation gene products adiponectin and leptin was impaired. These findings suggest that constitutive overexpression of C/EBPβ-LAP induces adipogenesis in human ASC and negatively regulates the expression of adipogenic regulators and certain adipocyte differentiation gene products in immature adipocytes. We conclude the regulation of both C/EBPβ gene expression and C/EBPβ-LIP and C/EBPβ-LAP protein turn-over plays an important role for the expression of adipogenic regulators and/or adipocyte differentiation genes in early adipogenic differentiation of

  13. Temperature induced modulation of lipid oxidation and lipid accumulation in palmitate-mediated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaofen; Li, Yi; Leung, Polly Hangmei; Li, Jiashen; Hu, Junyan; Liu, Xuan; Li, Zhi

    2016-05-01

    Human skin temperature can vary widely depending on anatomical location and ambient temperature. It is also known that local changes in skin and subcutaneous temperature can affect fat metabolism. This study aimed to explore the potential effects of surrounding thermal environment on fat by investigating cell viability, lipid oxidation, and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and palmitate-treated adipocytes after 4h incubation. No significant differences of viability in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were detected under different temperature conditions. Despite no significant increase being observed under warm temperature (39°C) conditions, a similarly significant suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation were found in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and palmitate-treated adipocytes under 4h exposure to cooler temperatures of 31-33°C (P<0.01). ROS, chemically reactive molecules containing oxygen, are currently understood to be a major contributor to oxidantive stress in obesity. Additionally, cooler temperatures (31-33°C) could improve the size of lipid droplets in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (P<0.01), but no significant effect was generated by temperature change on lipid droplets in palmitate-treated adipocytes. In the palmitate-induced adiposity model, although excessive ROS and lipid peroxidation has been attenuated by temperature decrease (P<0.01), it still does not positively modulate lipid droplet size (P>0.05) and remedy the palmitate damage induced cell death (P<0.01). These findings provide preliminary support for potential interventions based on temperature manipulation for cell metabolism of adipocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Suppression of adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation by stearidonic acid (SDA) in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueru; Rong, Yinghui; Bao, Lisui; Nie, Ben; Ren, Guang; Zheng, Chen; Amin, Rajesh; Arnold, Robert D; Jeganathan, Ramesh B; Huggins, Kevin W

    2017-09-25

    Increased consumption of omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids found in cold-water fish and fish oil has been reported to protect against obesity. A potential mechanism may be through reduction in adipocyte differentiation. Stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant-based ω-3 fatty acid, has been targeted as a potential surrogate for fish-based fatty acids; however, its role in adipocyte differentiation is unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of SDA on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated in the presence of SDA or vehicle-control. Cell viability assay was conducted to determine potential toxicity of SDA. Lipid accumulation was measured by Oil Red O staining and triglyceride (TG) quantification in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocyte differentiation was evaluated by adipogenic transcription factors and lipid accumulation gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Fatty acid analysis was conducted by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). 3T3-L1 cells treated with SDA were viable at concentrations used for all studies. SDA treatment reduced lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This anti-adipogenic effect by SDA was a result of down-regulation of mRNA levels of the adipogenic transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins alpha and beta (C/EBPα, C/EBPβ), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). SDA treatment resulted in decreased expression of the lipid accumulation genes adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein (AP2), fatty acid synthase (FAS), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD-1), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). The transcriptional activity of PPARγ was found to be decreased with SDA treatment. SDA treatment led to significant EPA enrichment in 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared to vehicle-control. These

  15. 3-O-Glucosylation of quercetin enhances inhibitory effects on the adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Won; Seo, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Jisun; Choi, Ji Won; Cho, Sarang; Bae, Jae Youn; Sohng, Jae Kyung; Kim, Sung Oog; Kim, Jihoon; Park, Yong Il

    2017-09-01

    Glycosylation of natural flavonoids with various sugar moieties can affect their physicochemical and pharmacological properties. In this study, the plant flavonoids quercetin aglycon (Quer) and quercetin 3-O-glucoside (Q3G) were evaluated and compared for their potential anti-obesity effects. The Q3G dose-dependently reduced the TG contents and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells, by 52% and 60% at 20μM, respectively, compared to differentiated control (100%), which were 1.6-fold and 2.4-fold higher reduction than Quer. The Q3G (20μM) also more significantly reduced the expression of adipogenic markers such as C/EBP-β, C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, and aP2 than Quer, indicating that the Q3G suppresses both adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis more effectively than Quer in vitro. Comparing to those in the high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice control group for 10 weeks, both the body and liver weights and the size of adipocytes in epididymal adipose tissues were significantly reduced in HFD mice fed with Q3G for another 6 weeks (30mg/kg body weight by oral administration), accompanied by the reductions of TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol in serum. The Q3G also reduced the levels of the lipid metabolism-associated proteins, PPAR-γ, SREBP-1c, and FAS in the liver tissues. These results clearly demonstrated that Q3G exhibits a stronger anti-obesity effect than Quer and its anti-obesity effect is mediated via inhibition of adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis, decreasing serum lipid levels by altering hepatic lipid metabolism, and reducing body weight gain. The results of this study suggest that the Q3G, but not Quer, can be a potent functional ingredient of beneficial health foods or a therapeutic agent to prevent or treat obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L. Voigt) root suppresses adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L. Voigt) is a tropical plant widely distributed throughout Asia, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. The anti-obesity property of this plant has been claimed but still remains to be scientifically proven. We therefore investigated the effects of ivy gourd leaf, stem, and root on adipocyte differentiation by employing cell culture model. Methods Dried roots, stems, and leaves of ivy gourd were separately extracted with ethanol. Each extract was then applied to 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes upon induction with a mixture of insulin, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and dexamethasone, for anti-adipogenesis assay. The active extract was further fractionated by a sequential solvent partitioning method, and the resulting fractions were examined for their abilities to inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Differences in the expression of adipogenesis-related genes between the treated and untreated cells were determined from their mRNA and protein levels. Results Of the three ivy gourd extracts, the root extract exhibited an anti-adipogenic effect. It significantly reduced intracellular fat accumulation during the early stages of adipocyte differentiation. Together with the suppression of differentiation, expression of the genes encoding PPARγ, C/EBPα, adiponectin, and GLUT4 were down-regulated. Hexane-soluble fraction of the root extract also inhibited adipocyte differentiation and decreased the mRNA levels of various adipogenic genes in the differentiating cells. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that ivy gourd root may prevent obesity based mainly on the ability of its active constituent(s) to suppress adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Such an inhibitory effect is mediated by at least down-regulating the expression of PPARγ-the key transcription factor of adipogenesis in pre-adipocytes during their early differentiation processes. PMID:24884680

  17. Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L. Voigt) root suppresses adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Bunkrongcheap, Ruthaiwan; Hutadilok-Towatana, Nongporn; Noipha, Kusumarn; Wattanapiromsakul, Chatchai; Inafuku, Masashi; Oku, Hirosuke

    2014-05-28

    Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L. Voigt) is a tropical plant widely distributed throughout Asia, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. The anti-obesity property of this plant has been claimed but still remains to be scientifically proven. We therefore investigated the effects of ivy gourd leaf, stem, and root on adipocyte differentiation by employing cell culture model. Dried roots, stems, and leaves of ivy gourd were separately extracted with ethanol. Each extract was then applied to 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes upon induction with a mixture of insulin, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and dexamethasone, for anti-adipogenesis assay. The active extract was further fractionated by a sequential solvent partitioning method, and the resulting fractions were examined for their abilities to inhibit adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Differences in the expression of adipogenesis-related genes between the treated and untreated cells were determined from their mRNA and protein levels. Of the three ivy gourd extracts, the root extract exhibited an anti-adipogenic effect. It significantly reduced intracellular fat accumulation during the early stages of adipocyte differentiation. Together with the suppression of differentiation, expression of the genes encoding PPARγ, C/EBPα, adiponectin, and GLUT4 were down-regulated. Hexane-soluble fraction of the root extract also inhibited adipocyte differentiation and decreased the mRNA levels of various adipogenic genes in the differentiating cells. This is the first study to demonstrate that ivy gourd root may prevent obesity based mainly on the ability of its active constituent(s) to suppress adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Such an inhibitory effect is mediated by at least down-regulating the expression of PPARγ-the key transcription factor of adipogenesis in pre-adipocytes during their early differentiation processes.

  18. Molecular characterization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and their gene expression in the differentiating adipocytes of red sea bream Pagrus major.

    PubMed

    Oku, Hiromi; Umino, Tetsuya

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanism of fish adipocyte differentiation, the three subtypes of PPAR genes (alpha, beta and gamma) were characterized in a marine teleost red sea bream (Pagrus major). The primary structures of red sea bream PPARs exhibited high degrees of similarities to their mammalian counterparts, and their gene expression was detected in various tissues including adipose tissue, heart and hepatopancreas. During the differentiation of primary cultured red sea bream adipocytes, three PPARs showed distinct expression patterns: The alpha subtype showed a transient increase and the beta gene expression tended to increase during adipocyte differentiation whereas the gene expression level of PPARgamma did not change. These results suggest that they play distinct roles in adipocyte differentiation in red sea bream. In the differentiating red sea bream adipocytes, mammalian PPAR agonists, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2), ciglitazone and fenofibrate did not show clear effects on the adipogenic gene expression. However, 2-bromopalmitate increased the PPARgamma and related adipogenic gene expression levels, suggesting the gamma subtype plays a central role in red sea bream adipocyte differentiation and in addition, fatty acid metabolites can be used as modulators of adipocyte function. Thus our study highlighted the roles of PPARs in fish adipocyte differentiation and provided information on the molecular mechanisms of fish adipocyte development.

  19. Phytic acid and myo-inositol support adipocyte differentiation and improve insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Kim, Hye-Kyeong

    2014-08-01

    Phytic acid, also known as myo-inositol hexaphosphate, has been shown to lower blood glucose levels and to improve insulin sensitivity in rodents. We investigated the effects of phytic acid and myo-inositol on differentiation, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and lipolysis of adipocytes to test the hypothesis that the antidiabetic properties of phytic acid and myo-inositol are mediated directly through adipocytes. 3T3-L1 cells were treated with 10, 50, or 200 μmol/L of phytic acid or myo-inositol. Oil Red O staining and an intracellular triacylglycerol assay were used to determine lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. Immunoblotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to evaluate expression of transcription factors, a target protein, and insulin signaling molecules. Phytic acid and myo-inositol exposures increased lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner (P < .01). The expression of key transcription factors associated with adipocyte differentiation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, and the expression of fatty acid synthase increased upon treatments with phytic acid and myo-inositol (P < .05). Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mature adipocytes increased with phytic acid and myo-inositol treatments (P < .01). In addition, mRNA levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), mRNA levels of glucose transporter 4, and phosphorylation of tyrosine in IRS1 increased upon phytic acid and myo-inositol treatments. In fully differentiated adipocytes, phytic acid and myo-inositol reduced basal lipolysis dose dependently (P < .01). These results suggest that phytic acid and myo-inositol increase insulin sensitivity in adipocytes by increasing lipid storage capacity, improving glucose uptake, and inhibiting lipolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Kefir inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation through down-regulation of adipogenic transcription factor expression.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Choi, Jae-Woo; Lim, Won-Chul; Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Lee, In-Young; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2013-02-01

    Kefir, a traditional fermented milk composed of microbial symbionts, is reported to have various health benefits such as anti-tumour, anti-inflammatory, anti-neoplastic and pro-digestive effects. In this study, to elucidate the effects of kefir on adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation, three fractions were prepared from kefir culture broth. The inhibitory effects of kefir liquid culture broth fraction (Fr-1), soluble fraction (Fr-2) and insoluble fraction (Fr-3), prepared by sonication of kefir solid culture broth, on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were examined. Fr-3 (0.1 mg mL(-1)) significantly decreased lipid accumulation and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity by 60 and 68% respectively without affecting cell viability. In addition, Fr-3 treatment down-regulated the mRNA expression of adipogenic transcription factors including C/EBPα (32%), PPARγ (46%) and SREBP-1c (34%) during adipocyte differentiation compared with untreated control cells. The mRNA expression of adipocyte-specific genes (aP2, FAS and ACC) was also clearly decreased. The results suggest that the insoluble fraction of kefir (Fr-3) mediates anti-adipogenic effects through the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, partly via suppression of the C/EBPα-, SREBP-1c- and PPARγ-dependent pathways. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. [Molecular Mechanisms of Early-stage Adipocyte Differentiation and Multi-functional Roles of Newly Isolated Adipogenic Factors].

    PubMed

    Imagawa, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and arteriosclerosis. Although the middle and late stages of adipocyte differentiation are well characterized, the earliest step in the differentiation process has remained largely unknown. We isolated 102 genes expressed at the beginning of the differentiation of a mouse preadipocyte cell line, 3T3-L1 cells. Because approximately half of these genes were unknown, we named them factor for adipocyte differentiation (fad) genes. I first show how these genes regulate the early stage of adipocyte differentiation. We next generated fad104-deficient mice, and demonstrated that fad104-deficient mice died due to cyanosis-associated lung dysplasia with atelectasis. We also found that fad104 positively regulated adipocyte differentiation and negatively regulated osteoblast differentiation. We then demonstrated that fad24-knockdown inhibited mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) and that FAD24 contributed to the regulation of DNA replication by recruiting histone acetyltransferase binding to ORC1 (HBO1) to DNA replication origins. In vitro culture experiments revealed that fad24-null embryos developed normally to the morula stage, but acquired growth defects in subsequent stages. These results strongly suggest that fad24 is essential for pre-implantation in embryonic development, particularly for progression to the blastocyst stage. These findings together indicate that both fad104 and fad24 contribute not only to adipogenesis but also to other physiological events. The multi-functional roles of these genes are discussed.

  2. Overexpression of NYGGF4 (PID1) induces mitochondrial impairment in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yaping; Zhang, Chunmei; Chen, Xiaohui; Gao, Chunlin; Ji, Chenbo; Chen, Fukun; Zhu, Chun; Zhu, Jingai; Wang, Jialin; Qian, Lingmei; Guo, Xirong

    2010-07-01

    NYGGF4 is a recently discovered gene that is involved in obesity-associated insulin resistance. The exact mechanism by which NYGGF4 induces insulin resistance has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that the overexpression of NYGGF4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes decreased mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial DNA, and intracellular ATP synthesis. In addition, NYGGF4 overexpression also led to an imbalance of the mitochondrial dynamics and excess intracellular ROS production. Collectively, our results indicated that the overexpression of NYGGF4 caused mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes, which might be responsible for the development of NYGGF4-induced insulin resistance.

  3. Retinoic acid inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeong-Yeh; Koo, Bon-Sun; Kang, Mi-Kyung; Rho, Hye-Won; Sohn, Hee-Sook; Jhee, Eun-Chung; Park, Jin-Woo

    2002-11-30

    The present study was undertaken to explore whether retinoids, which are known to have immunomodulatory actions, could attenuate tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Adipocytes incubated with TNF induced dose- and time-dependent accumulation of nitrite in the culture medium through the iNOS induction as confirmed by Western blotting. Treatment of cells with TNF in the presence of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) significantly decreased their ability to produce nitrite and iNOS induction. Both 13-cis- and all- trans-RA-induced suppression was dose-dependent, and all-trans-RA was somewhat potent than 13-cis-RA. The inhibitory effect of RA on TNF-induced iNOS induction was reversible, completely recovered after 2 days, and was exerted through the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation. TNF also suppressed the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. RA could not reverse the TNF- induced LPL suppression at RA levels causing near complete inhibition of the TNF-induced NO production. These results indicate that RAs attenuate iNOS expression reversibly in TNF-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and that the TNF-induced LPL suppression is not the result of NO overproduction.

  4. Bisindoylmaleimide I suppresses adipocyte differentiation through stabilization of intracellular {beta}-catenin protein

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Munju; Park, Seoyoung; Gwak, Jungsug; Kim, Dong-Eun; Yea, Sung Su; Shin, Jae-Gook; Oh, Sangtaek

    2008-02-29

    The Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway plays important roles in cell differentiation. Activation of this pathway, likely by Wnt-10b, has been shown to inhibit adipogenesis in cultured 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and mice. Here we revealed that bisindoylmaleimide I (BIM), which is widely used as a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), inhibits adipocyte differentiation through activation of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway. BIM increased {beta}-catenin responsive transcription (CRT) and up-regulated intracellular {beta}-catenin levels in HEK293 cells and 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. BIM significantly decreased intracellular lipid accumulation and reduced expression of important adipocyte marker genes including peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) and CAATT enhancer-binding protein {alpha} (C/EBP{alpha}) in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Taken together, our findings indicate that BIM inhibits adipogenesis by increasing the stability of {beta}-catenin protein in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells.

  5. WEHI-3 cells inhibit adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Jing; Liu, Gexiu; Yan, Guoyao; He, Dongmei; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Shengting

    2015-06-26

    By investigating the anti-adipogenic effects of WEHI-3 cells – a murine acute myelomonocytic leukemia cell line – we sought to improve the efficiency of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Analysis of Oil Red O staining and the expression of adipogenic genes, including PPARγ, C/EBPα, FAS and LPL, indicated that WEHI-3 cells significantly inhibited 3T3-L1 mouse preadipocyte cells from differentiating into adipocytes. In vivo, fat vacuoles in mice injected with WEHI-3 cells were also remarkably reduced in the murine bone marrow pimelosis model. Moreover, the key gene in the Rho signaling pathway, ROCKII, and the key gene in the Wnt signaling pathway, β-catenin, were both upregulated compared with the control group. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ROCKII and β-catenin reversed these WEHI-3-mediated anti-adipogenic effects. Taken together, these data suggest that WEHI-3 cells exert anti-adipogenic effects and that both ROCKII and β-catenin are involved in this process. - Highlights: • WEHI-3, an acute myelomonocytic leukemia cell line, inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte from differentiating into adipocyte. • WEHI-3 cells can arrest 3T3-L1 cells in G0/G1 phase by secreting soluble factors and thus inhibit their proliferation. • WEHI-3 cells reduced bone marrow pimelosis in the murine model. • Both ROCKII and β-catenin were involved in the WEHI-3-mediated anti-adipogenic effects.

  6. Adipocyte-specific Hypoxia-inducible gene 2 promotes fat deposition and diet-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Marina T; Roth Flach, Rachel J; Senol-Cosar, Ozlem; Danai, Laura V; Virbasius, Joseph V; Nicoloro, Sarah M; Straubhaar, Juerg; Dagdeviren, Sezin; Wabitsch, Martin; Gupta, Olga T; Kim, Jason K; Czech, Michael P

    2016-12-01

    Adipose tissue relies on lipid droplet (LD) proteins in its role as a lipid-storing endocrine organ that controls whole body metabolism. Hypoxia-inducible Gene 2 (Hig2) is a recently identified LD-associated protein in hepatocytes that promotes hepatic lipid storage, but its role in the adipocyte had not been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that Hig2 localization to LDs in adipocytes promotes adipose tissue lipid deposition and systemic glucose homeostasis. White and brown adipocyte-deficient (Hig2(fl/fl) × Adiponection cre+) and selective brown/beige adipocyte-deficient (Hig2(fl/fl) × Ucp1 cre+) mice were generated to investigate the role of Hig2 in adipose depots. Additionally, we used multiple housing temperatures to investigate the role of active brown/beige adipocytes in this process. Hig2 localized to LDs in SGBS cells, a human adipocyte cell strain. Mice with adipocyte-specific Hig2 deficiency in all adipose depots demonstrated reduced visceral adipose tissue weight and increased glucose tolerance. This metabolic effect could be attributed to brown/beige adipocyte-specific Hig2 deficiency since Hig2(fl/fl) × Ucp1 cre+ mice displayed the same phenotype. Furthermore, when adipocyte-deficient Hig2 mice were moved to thermoneutral conditions in which non-shivering thermogenesis is deactivated, these improvements were abrogated and glucose intolerance ensued. Adipocyte-specific Hig2 deficient animals displayed no detectable changes in adipocyte lipolysis or energy expenditure, suggesting that Hig2 may not mediate these metabolic effects by restraining lipolysis in adipocytes. We conclude that Hig2 localizes to LDs in adipocytes, promoting adipose tissue lipid deposition and that its selective deficiency in active brown/beige adipose tissue mediates improved glucose tolerance at 23 °C. Reversal of this phenotype at thermoneutrality in the absence of detectable changes in energy expenditure, adipose mass, or liver triglyceride suggests that

  7. Adipocytes can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, YuKyung; Jung, Woo Hee; Koo, Ja Seung

    2015-09-01

    Adipocytes are known to be involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in several cancers. However, the role of adipocytes in the EMT of breast cancer cells is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of adipocytes in the EMT in breast cancer. Breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-453, MDA-MB-435S, MDA-MB-231, and MDA-MB-468 were co-cultured with adipocytes and analyzed for morphological changes, proliferation activity, EMT markers, migration, and invasion. In addition, 296 human breast cancer specimens were classified according to the presence of the fibrous or adipose stroma and analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, antigen Ki-67, N-cadherin, Twist-related protein 1 (TWIST1), high-mobility group AT-hook 2, TGFβ, and S100 calcium-binding protein A4 using tissue microarray. After co-culture with adipocytes, MCF-7, MDA-MB-435S, and MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited elongated spindle-like morphology and increased proliferation; MDA-MB-435S and MDA-MB-231 cells also showed increased dispersion. In all tested breast cancer cells, adipocytes induced migration and invasion. The EMT-like phenotypic changes and increased cell migration and invasion were accompanied by the upregulation of matrix metallopeptidase 9 and TWIST1. Consistently, breast cancer tumors with the adipose stroma showed higher TWIST1 expression than those with the adipose stroma; however, no difference was observed in the levels of other EMT-related proteins. Adipocytes stimulate breast cancer cells to acquire aggressive tumor phenotype by inducing EMT-associated traits, and breast cancer with the adipose stroma expresses EMT markers as breast cancer with the fibrous stroma.

  8. Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract down-regulates expression of PPARγ2 and leptin genes in high fat diet fed C57BL/6J Mice and retards in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Ramani, Umed V; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2011-01-01

    Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract (SRLE) is being used by the populace of North-East India to alleviate symptoms of diabetes and obesity. We have previously reported its hypolipidemic and anti-diabetic properties. In this study, we report the effect of SRLE on (i) in vivo modulation of genes controlling high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and (ii) in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation and leptin release. Supplementation with SRLE significantly prevented HFD induced increment in bodyweight, plasma lipids and leptin, visceral adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy. Also, SRLE supplementation reduced food intake, down regulated PPARγ2, SREBP1c, FAS and LEP expressions and up-regulated CPT-1 in epididymal adipose tissue compared to obese mice. In vitro adipogenesis of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes was significantly retarded in the presence of SRLE extract. Also decreased triglyceride accumulation, leptin release and glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase activity along with higher glycerol release without significant alteration of viability of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes, was recorded. Our findings suggest that prevention of HFD induced visceral adiposity is primarily by down regulation of PPARγ2 and leptin gene expression coupled with attenuation of food intake in C57BL/6J mice. SRLE induced prevention of pre-adipocytes differentiation, and leptin release further substantiated these findings and scientifically validates the potential application of SRLE as a therapeutic agent against obesity.

  9. Sida rhomboidea. Roxb Leaf Extract Down-Regulates Expression of PPARγ2 and Leptin Genes in High Fat Diet Fed C57BL/6J Mice and Retards in Vitro 3T3L1 Pre-Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Thounaojam, Menaka C.; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N.; Ramani, Umed V.; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V.; Ramachandran, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract (SRLE) is being used by the populace of North-East India to alleviate symptoms of diabetes and obesity. We have previously reported its hypolipidemic and anti-diabetic properties. In this study, we report the effect of SRLE on (i) in vivo modulation of genes controlling high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and (ii) in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation and leptin release. Supplementation with SRLE significantly prevented HFD induced increment in bodyweight, plasma lipids and leptin, visceral adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy. Also, SRLE supplementation reduced food intake, down regulated PPARγ2, SREBP1c, FAS and LEP expressions and up-regulated CPT-1 in epididymal adipose tissue compared to obese mice. In vitro adipogenesis of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes was significantly retarded in the presence of SRLE extract. Also decreased triglyceride accumulation, leptin release and glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase activity along with higher glycerol release without significant alteration of viability of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes, was recorded. Our findings suggest that prevention of HFD induced visceral adiposity is primarily by down regulation of PPARγ2 and leptin gene expression coupled with attenuation of food intake in C57BL/6J mice. SRLE induced prevention of pre-adipocytes differentiation, and leptin release further substantiated these findings and scientifically validates the potential application of SRLE as a therapeutic agent against obesity. PMID:21845103

  10. Nesfatin-1 promotes brown adipocyte phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuexin; Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xinyu; Xiang, Xinxin; Li, Yin; Mulholland, Michael W.; Zhang, Weizhen

    2016-01-01

    Nesfatin-1, an 82 amino acid gastric peptide, is involved in regulation of food uptake and in multiple metabolic activities. Whether nesfatin-1 modulates the differentiation and lipid metabolism of brown adipocytes remains unknown. In the present study, we found that nesfatin-1 mRNA and protein were detectable in isolated brown adipocytes and gradually decreased during differentiation (95% CI 0.6057 to 1.034, p = 0.0001). The decrease in nesfatin-1 was associated with a significant reduction in p-S6. Exposure to nesfatin-1 promoted differentiation of brown adipocytes as revealed by a significant increase in UCP1 mRNA (p = 0.03) and lipolysis-related ATGL mRNA (p = 0.04). Nesfatin-1 attenuated phosphorylation of S6K and S6 during brown adipocyte differentiation. Activation of mTOR by leucine or deletion of TSC1 decreased expression of brown adipocyte-related genes UCP1, UCP3, PGC1α and PRDM16, as well as COX8B and ATP5B. Both leucine and TSC1 deletion blocked nesfatin-1-induced up-regulation of UCP1, PGC1α, COX8B and ATP5B in differentiated brown adipocytes. In conclusion, nesfatin-1 promotes the differentiation of brown adipocytes likely through the mTOR dependent mechanism. PMID:27824141

  11. Sparstolonin B inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Xiu, Liangchang; Diao, Jianxin; Wei, Lianbo; Sun, Jia

    2015-12-15

    Sparstolonin B (SsnB), an isocoumarin compound isolated from the tubers of both Sparganium stoloniferum and Scirpus yagara, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, whether SsnB has anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of SsnB on adipocyte inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and anti-obesity properties in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were pretreated with SsnB 1h before LPS treatment. The expression of MCP-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA. The expression of PPAR-γ, TLR4 and NF-κB were detected by western blotting. SsnB was administered to HFD-induced obese rats to confirm its effects in vivo. Our results showed that SsnB dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced MCP-1, IL-6, and TNF-α production. SsnB was found to inhibit LPS-induced TLR4 expression and NF-κB activition. Furthermore, SsnB was found to activate PPAR-γ and the inhibitory effects of SsnB on MCP-1, IL-6, and TNF-α production can be reversed by PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662. In vivo, SsnB was found to reduce the body weight of rats fed with HFD. SsnB also inhibited the levels of serum triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (TC) induced by HFD. In conclusion, the results suggested that SsnB could reduce HFD-induced obesity in rats and inhibited LPS-induced cytokines production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by activating PPAR-γ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Adipocyte-specific deletion of Ip6k1 reduces diet-induced obesity by enhancing AMPK-mediated thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qingzhang; Ghoshal, Sarbani; Rodrigues, Ana; Gao, Su; Asterian, Alice; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Barrow, James C; Chakraborty, Anutosh

    2016-11-01

    Enhancing energy expenditure (EE) is an attractive strategy to combat obesity and diabetes. Global deletion of Ip6k1 protects mice from diet-induced obesity (DIO) and insulin resistance, but the tissue-specific mechanism by which IP6K1 regulates body weight is unknown. Here, we have demonstrated that IP6K1 regulates fat accumulation by modulating AMPK-mediated adipocyte energy metabolism. Cold exposure led to downregulation of Ip6k1 in murine inguinal and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (IWAT and RWAT) depots. Adipocyte-specific deletion of Ip6k1 (AdKO) enhanced thermogenic EE, which protected mice from high-fat diet-induced weight gain at ambient temperature (23°C), but not at thermoneutral temperature (30°C). AdKO-induced increases in thermogenesis also protected mice from cold-induced decreases in body temperature. UCP1, PGC1α, and other markers of browning and thermogenesis were elevated in IWAT and RWAT of AdKO mice. Cold-induced activation of sympathetic signaling was unaltered, whereas AMPK was enhanced, in AdKO IWAT. Moreover, beige adipocytes from AdKO IWAT displayed enhanced browning, which was diminished by AMPK depletion. Furthermore, we determined that IP6 and IP6K1 differentially regulate upstream kinase-mediated AMPK stimulatory phosphorylation in vitro. Finally, treating mildly obese mice with the IP6K inhibitor TNP enhanced thermogenesis and inhibited progression of DIO. Thus, IP6K1 regulates energy metabolism via a mechanism that could potentially be targeted in obesity.

  13. Adipocyte-specific deletion of Ip6k1 reduces diet-induced obesity by enhancing AMPK-mediated thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qingzhang; Ghoshal, Sarbani; Rodrigues, Ana; Gao, Su; Asterian, Alice; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Barrow, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing energy expenditure (EE) is an attractive strategy to combat obesity and diabetes. Global deletion of Ip6k1 protects mice from diet-induced obesity (DIO) and insulin resistance, but the tissue-specific mechanism by which IP6K1 regulates body weight is unknown. Here, we have demonstrated that IP6K1 regulates fat accumulation by modulating AMPK-mediated adipocyte energy metabolism. Cold exposure led to downregulation of Ip6k1 in murine inguinal and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (IWAT and RWAT) depots. Adipocyte-specific deletion of Ip6k1 (AdKO) enhanced thermogenic EE, which protected mice from high-fat diet–induced weight gain at ambient temperature (23°C), but not at thermoneutral temperature (30°C). AdKO-induced increases in thermogenesis also protected mice from cold-induced decreases in body temperature. UCP1, PGC1α, and other markers of browning and thermogenesis were elevated in IWAT and RWAT of AdKO mice. Cold-induced activation of sympathetic signaling was unaltered, whereas AMPK was enhanced, in AdKO IWAT. Moreover, beige adipocytes from AdKO IWAT displayed enhanced browning, which was diminished by AMPK depletion. Furthermore, we determined that IP6 and IP6K1 differentially regulate upstream kinase-mediated AMPK stimulatory phosphorylation in vitro. Finally, treating mildly obese mice with the IP6K inhibitor TNP enhanced thermogenesis and inhibited progression of DIO. Thus, IP6K1 regulates energy metabolism via a mechanism that could potentially be targeted in obesity. PMID:27701146

  14. Human adipocytes are highly sensitive to intermittent hypoxia induced NF-kappaB activity and subsequent inflammatory gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Cormac T.; Kent, Brian D.; Crinion, Sophie J.; McNicholas, Walter T.; Ryan, Silke

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • Intermittent hypoxia (IH) leads to NF-κB activation in human primary adipocytes. • Adipocytes bear higher pro-inflammatory potential than other human primary cells. • IH leads to upregulation of multiple pro-inflammatory genes in human adipocytes. - Abstract: Introduction: Intermittent hypoxia (IH)-induced activation of pro-inflammatory pathways is a major contributing factor to the cardiovascular pathophysiology associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Obesity is commonly associated with OSA although it remains unknown whether adipose tissue is a major source of inflammatory mediators in response to IH. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that IH leads to augmented inflammatory responses in human adipocytes when compared to cells of non-adipocyte lineages. Methods and results: Human primary subcutaneous and visceral adipocytes, human primary microvascular pulmonary endothelial cells (HUMEC-L) and human primary small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) were exposed to 0, 6 or 12 cycles of IH or stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. IH led to a robust increase in NF-κB DNA-binding activity in adipocytes compared with normoxic controls regardless of whether the source of adipocytes was visceral or subcutaneous. Notably, the NF-κB response of adipocytes to both IH and TNF-α was significantly greater than that in HUMEC-L and SAEC. Western blotting confirmed enhanced nuclear translocation of p65 in adipocytes in response to IH, accompanied by phosphorylation of I-κB. Parallel to p65 activation, we observed a significant increase in secretion of the adipokines interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and TNF-α with IH in adipocytes accompanied by significant upregulation of mRNA expression. PCR-array suggested profound influence of IH on pro-inflammatory gene expression in adipocytes. Conclusion: Human adipocytes demonstrate strong sensitivity to inflammatory gene expression in response to acute IH and hence, adipose tissue may be a key

  15. Activated Human T Lymphocytes Express Cyclooxygenase-2 and Produce Proadipogenic Prostaglandins that Drive Human Orbital Fibroblast Differentiation to Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Feldon, Steven E.; O’Loughlin, Charles W.; Ray, Denise M.; Landskroner-Eiger, Shira; Seweryniak, Kathryn E.; Phipps, Richard P.

    2006-01-01

    The differentiation of preadipocyte fibroblasts to adipocytes is a crucial process to many disease states including obesity, cardiovascular, and autoimmune diseases. In Graves’ disease, the orbit of the eye can become severely inflamed and infiltrated with T lymphocytes as part of the autoimmune process. The orbital fibroblasts convert to fat-like cells causing the eye to protrude, which is disfiguring and can lead to blindness. Recently, the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-γ and its natural (15d-PGJ2) and synthetic (thiazolidinedione-type) PPAR-γ agonists have been shown to be crucial to the in vitro differentiation of preadipocyte fibroblasts to adipocytes. We show herein several novel findings. First, that activated T lymphocytes from Graves’ patients drive the differentiation of PPAR-γ-expressing orbital fibroblasts to adipocytes. Second, this adipogenic differentiation is blocked by nonselective small molecule cyclooxygenase (Cox)-1/Cox-2 inhibitors and by Cox-2 selective inhibitors. Third, activated, but not naïve, human T cells highly express Cox-2 and synthesize prostaglandin D2 and related prostaglandins that are PPAR-γ ligands. These provocative new findings provide evidence for how activated T lymphocytes, through production of PPAR-γ ligands, profoundly influence human fibroblast differentiation to adipocytes. They also suggest the possibility that, in addition to the orbit, T lymphocytes influence the deposition of fat in other tissues. PMID:17003477

  16. CDK5 Regulatory Subunit-Associated Protein 1-like 1 Negatively Regulates Adipocyte Differentiation through Activation of Wnt Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Take, Kazumi; Waki, Hironori; Sun, Wei; Wada, Takahito; Yu, Jing; Nakamura, Masahiro; Aoyama, Tomohisa; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2017-08-04

    CDK5 Regulatory Subunit-Associated Protein 1-like 1 (CDKAL1) was identified as a susceptibility gene for type 2 diabetes and body mass index in genome-wide association studies. Although it was reported that CDKAL1 is a methylthiotransferase essential for tRNA(Lys)(UUU) and faithful translation of proinsulin generated in pancreatic β cells, the role of CDKAL1 in adipocytes has not been understood well. In this study, we found that CDKAL1 is expressed in adipose tissue and its expression is increased during differentiation. Stable overexpression of CDKAL1, however, inhibited adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, whereas knockdown of CDKAL1 promoted differentiation. CDKAL1 increased protein levels of β-catenin and its active unphosphorylated form in the nucleus, thereby promoting Wnt target gene expression, suggesting that CDKAL1 activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway-a well-characterized inhibitory regulator of adipocyte differentiation. Mutant experiments show that conserved cysteine residues of Fe-S clusters of CDKAL1 are essential for its anti-adipogenic action. Our results identify CDKAL1 as novel negative regulator of adipocyte differentiation and provide insights into the link between CDKAL1 and metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  17. The epigenetic modifiers 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A influence adipocyte differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zych, J; Stimamiglio, M A; Senegaglia, A C; Brofman, P R S; Dallagiovanna, B; Goldenberg, S; Correa, A

    2013-05-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modification are important in stem cell differentiation. Methylation is principally associated with transcriptional repression, and histone acetylation is correlated with an active chromatin state. We determined the effects of these epigenetic mechanisms on adipocyte differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissue (ADSCs) using the chromatin-modifying agents trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5azadC), a demethylating agent. Subconfluent MSC cultures were treated with 5, 50, or 500 nM TSA or with 1, 10, or 100 µM 5azadC for 2 days before the initiation of adipogenesis. The differentiation was quantified and expression of the adipocyte genes PPARG and FABP4 and of the anti-adipocyte gene GATA2 was evaluated. TSA decreased adipogenesis, except in BM-MSCs treated with 5 nM TSA. Only treatment with 500 nM TSA decreased cell proliferation. 5azadC treatment decreased proliferation and adipocyte differentiation in all conditions evaluated, resulting in the downregulation of PPARG and FABP4 and the upregulation of GATA2. The response to treatment was stronger in ADSCs than in BM-MSCs, suggesting that epigenetic memories may differ between cells of different origins. As epigenetic signatures affect differentiation, it should be possible to direct the use of MSCs in cell therapies to improve process efficiency by considering the various sources available.

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Spirulina platensis in Macrophages Is Beneficial for Adipocyte Differentiation and Maturation by Inhibiting Nuclear Factor-κB Pathway in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tho X; Lee, Ji-Young

    2016-06-01

    We previously showed that the organic extract of a blue-green alga, Spirulina platensis (SPE), had potent anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages. As the interplay between macrophages and adipocytes is critical for adipocyte functions, we investigated the contribution of the anti-inflammatory effects of SPE in macrophages to adipogenesis/lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with 10% conditioned medium from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages (CMC) or LPS-stimulated, but SPE-pretreated, macrophages (CMS) at different stages of adipocyte differentiation. The expression of adipocyte differentiation markers, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and perilipin, was significantly repressed by CMC when added on day 3, while the repression was attenuated by CMS. Oil Red O staining confirmed that adipocyte maturation in CMS-treated cells, but not in CMC-treated cells, was equivalent to that of control cells. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65 was decreased by CMS compared to CMC. In lipid-laden adipocytes, CMC promoted the loss of lipid droplets, while CMS had minimal effects. Histone deacetylase 9 mRNA and protein levels were increased during adipocyte maturation, which were decreased by CMC. In conclusion, by cross-talking with adipocytes, the anti-inflammatory effects of SPE in macrophages promoted adipocyte differentiation/maturation, at least in part, by repressing the activation of NF-κB inflammatory pathways, which otherwise can be compromised in inflammatory conditions.

  19. Initial differences in lipid processing leading to pig-and beef-derived mature adipocyte differentiation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clonal cultures of pig-derived mature adipocytes are capable of dedifferentiating and forming proliferative-competent progeny cells in vitro. Initial lipid processing, is different to that observed in cultures of beef-derived adipocytes. Mature pig adipocytes extrude lipid before proliferation, wher...

  20. MicroRNA-188 regulates age-related switch between osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chang-Jun; Cheng, Peng; Liang, Meng-Ke; Chen, Yu-Si; Lu, Qiong; Wang, Jin-Yu; Xia, Zhu-Ying; Zhou, Hou-De; Cao, Xu; Xie, Hui; Liao, Er-Yuan; Luo, Xiang-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) exhibit an age-dependent reduction in osteogenesis that is accompanied by an increased propensity toward adipocyte differentiation. This switch increases adipocyte numbers and decreases the number of osteoblasts, contributing to age-related bone loss. Here, we found that the level of microRNA-188 (miR-188) is markedly higher in BMSCs from aged compared with young mice and humans. Compared with control mice, animals lacking miR-188 showed a substantial reduction of age-associated bone loss and fat accumulation in bone marrow. Conversely, mice with transgenic overexpression of miR-188 in osterix+ osteoprogenitors had greater age-associated bone loss and fat accumulation in bone marrow relative to WT mice. Moreover, using an aptamer delivery system, we found that BMSC-specific overexpression of miR-188 in mice reduced bone formation and increased bone marrow fat accumulation. We identified histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) and RPTOR-independent companion of MTOR complex 2 (RICTOR) as the direct targets of miR-188. Notably, BMSC-specific inhibition of miR-188 by intra–bone marrow injection of aptamer-antagomiR-188 increased bone formation and decreased bone marrow fat accumulation in aged mice. Together, our results indicate that miR-188 is a key regulator of the age-related switch between osteogenesis and adipogenesis of BMSCs and may represent a potential therapeutic target for age-related bone loss. PMID:25751060

  1. Green tea catechins enhance norepinephrine-induced lipolysis via a protein kinase A-dependent pathway in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu; Osaki, Noriko; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2015-05-22

    Green tea catechins have been shown to attenuate obesity in animals and humans. The catechins activate adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and thereby increase fatty acid oxidation in liver and skeletal muscles. Green tea catechins have also been shown to reduce body fat in humans. However, the effect of the catechins on lipolysis in adipose tissue has not been fully understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of green tea catechins on lipolysis in adipocytes and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Differentiated mouse adipocyte cell line (3T3-L1) was stimulated with green tea catechins in the presence or absence of norepinephrine. Glycerol and free fatty acids in the media were measured. Phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) was determined by Western blotting, and the mRNA expression levels of HSL, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and perilipin were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. The cells were treated with inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), protein kinase G (PKG), or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) to determine the responsible pathway. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with green tea catechins increased the level of glycerol and free fatty acids released into the media in the presence, but not absence, of norepinephrine, and increased the level of phosphorylated HSL in the cells. The catechins also increased mRNA and protein levels of HSL and ATGL. PKA inhibitor (H89) attenuated the catechin-induced increase in glycerol release and HSL phosphorylation. The results demonstrate that green tea catechins enhance lipolysis in the presence of norepinephrine via a PKA-dependent pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, providing a potential mechanism by which green tea catechins could reduce body fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of telmisartan on lipid metabolisms and proinflammatory factors secretion of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chen; Yijun, Li; Jingtao, Dou; Changyu, Pan; Wenhua, Yan; Baoan, Wang; Fangling, Ma; Xianling, Wang; Guoqing, Yang; Yiming, Mu; Juming, Lu

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of telmisartan on the lipometabolisms and the proinflammatory factors secreted from 3T3-L1 adipocytes and to explore the possible mechanisms. Telmisartan was applied to interfere with mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The culture's free fatty acids, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) were evaluated. Oil Red O staining was used to determine the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (18)F-FDG uptake levels corrected for protein content were determined by cellular radioactivity. The total RNA was isolated for hybridization experimentation in the microarray. Telmisartan reduced lipid storage and increased (18)F-FDG uptake in a dose-dependent manner, reduced the levels of IL-6 and TNFα and increased those of free fatty acids. One hundred and fifty-seven differentially expressed genes were found by microarray. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway involved in the secretion of proinflammatory factor and lipid metabolisms was affected by telmisartan. The expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthetase gene 3 (Nos3) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1α (CPT1α) was up-regulated by telmisartan. Telmisartan affected lipometabolisms and the proinflammatory factors secreted from adipocytes. Nos3, CPT1α and the MAPK pathway being affected by telmisartan may be the underlying cause of the improvement in lipid metabolisms and secretion of proinflammatory factors of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Physical exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects are mediated by the adipocyte hormone adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Yau, Suk Yu; Li, Ang; Hoo, Ruby L C; Ching, Yick Pang; Christie, Brian R; Lee, Tatia M C; Xu, Aimin; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-11-04

    Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipocyte-secreted protein with insulin-sensitizing, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties. Evidence is also accumulating that ADN has neuroprotective activities, yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that ADN could pass through the blood-brain barrier, and elevating its levels in the brain increased cell proliferation and decreased depression-like behaviors. ADN deficiency did not reduce the basal hippocampal neurogenesis or neuronal differentiation but diminished the effectiveness of exercise in increasing hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, exercise-induced reduction in depression-like behaviors was abrogated in ADN-deficient mice, and this impairment in ADN-deficient mice was accompanied by defective running-induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hippocampal tissue. In vitro analyses indicated that ADN itself could increase cell proliferation of both hippocampal progenitor cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells. The neurogenic effects of ADN were mediated by the ADN receptor 1 (ADNR1), because siRNA targeting ADNR1, but not ADNR2, inhibited the capacity of ADN to enhance cell proliferation. These data suggest that adiponectin may play a significant role in mediating the effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and depression, possibly by activation of the ADNR1/AMPK signaling pathways, and also raise the possibility that adiponectin and its agonists may represent a promising therapeutic treatment for depression.

  4. Physical exercise-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and antidepressant effects are mediated by the adipocyte hormone adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Suk Yu; Li, Ang; Hoo, Ruby L. C.; Ching, Yick Pang; Christie, Brian R.; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Xu, Aimin; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin (ADN) is an adipocyte-secreted protein with insulin-sensitizing, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, and antiatherogenic properties. Evidence is also accumulating that ADN has neuroprotective activities, yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we show that ADN could pass through the blood–brain barrier, and elevating its levels in the brain increased cell proliferation and decreased depression-like behaviors. ADN deficiency did not reduce the basal hippocampal neurogenesis or neuronal differentiation but diminished the effectiveness of exercise in increasing hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, exercise-induced reduction in depression-like behaviors was abrogated in ADN-deficient mice, and this impairment in ADN-deficient mice was accompanied by defective running-induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the hippocampal tissue. In vitro analyses indicated that ADN itself could increase cell proliferation of both hippocampal progenitor cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells. The neurogenic effects of ADN were mediated by the ADN receptor 1 (ADNR1), because siRNA targeting ADNR1, but not ADNR2, inhibited the capacity of ADN to enhance cell proliferation. These data suggest that adiponectin may play a significant role in mediating the effects of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis and depression, possibly by activation of the ADNR1/AMPK signaling pathways, and also raise the possibility that adiponectin and its agonists may represent a promising therapeutic treatment for depression. PMID:25331877

  5. Differentiation of A31T6 proadipocytes to adipocytes: A flow cytometric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, M.J.; Wharton, W. )

    1992-03-01

    A flow cytometric assay has been developed which provides precise, quantitative information on the accumulation of cytoplasmic triglycerides in individual A31T6 proadipocytes as they differentiate into adipocytes. The opportunity to measure multiple optical parameter on a cell-by-cell basis has enabled us to monitor phenotypic aspects of differentiation with a greater level of sensitivity than was previously possible. Using the fluorescent hydrophobic probe, Nile red, they have found that as a cell proceeds along the differentiation pathway, the gold fluorescence signal from the cell increases, reflecting the accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. They have determined (1) the presence of an undifferentiated population of cells whose existence is not detected by conventional phase microscopy, (2) that insulin is no required to drive differentiation in this system, (3) that exposure to a combination of insulin and dexamethasone results in a lower accumulation of lipid in a cell than does exposure to either agent alone, and (4) that A31T6 cells show the same response to differentiation-promoting agents whether applied at the time of plating or at confluence.

  6. Increased heme-oxygenase 1 expression in mesenchymal stem cell-derived adipocytes decreases differentiation and lipid accumulation via upregulation of the canonical Wnt signaling cascade

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Heme oxygenase (HO), a major cytoprotective enzyme, attenuates oxidative stress and obesity. The canonical Wnt signaling cascade plays a pivotal role in the regulation of adipogenesis. The present study examined the interplay between HO-1and the Wnt canonical pathway in the modulation of adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived adipocytes. Methods To verify the role of HO-1 in generating small healthy adipocytes, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), inducer of HO-1, was used during adipocyte differentiation. Lipid accumulation was measured by Oil red O staining and lipid droplet size was measured by BODIPY staining. Results During adipogenesis in vitro, differentiating pre-adipocytes display transient increases in the expression of genes involved in canonical Wnt signaling cascade. Increased levels of HO-1 expression and HO activity resulted in elevated levels of β-catenin, pGSK3β, Wnt10b, Pref-1, and shh along with increased levels of adiponectin (P < 0.05). In addition, induction of HO-1 resulted in a reduction in C/EBPα, PPARγ, Peg-1/Mest, aP2, CD36 expression and lipid accumulation (P < 0.05). Suppression of HO-1 gene by siRNA decreased Wnt10b, pGSK3β and β-catenin expression, and increased lipid accumulation. The canonical Wnt responsive genes, IL-8 and SFRP1, were upregulated by CoPP and their expression was decreased by the concurrent administration of tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), an inhibitor of HO activity. Furthermore, knockdown of Wnt10b gene expression by using siRNA showed increased lipid accumulation, and this effect was not decreased by concurrent treatment with CoPP. Also our results show that blocking the Wnt 10b antagonist, Dickkopf 1 (Dkk-1), by siRNA decreased lipid accumulation and this effect was further enhanced by concurrent administration of CoPP. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that HO-1 acts upstream of canonical Wnt signaling cascade and decreases lipogenesis and adipocyte differentiation suggesting

  7. Brown Algae Polyphenol, a Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 Inhibitor, Prevents Obesity by Inhibiting the Differentiation of Stem Cells into Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Atsuko; Saeki, Toshiyuki; Ikuji, Hiroko; Uchida, Chiyoko; Uchida, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    While screening for an inhibitor of the peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase, Pin1, we came across a brown algae polyphenol that blocks the differentiation of fibroblasts into adipocytes. However, its effectiveness on the accumulation of fat in the body has never been studied. Oral administration of brown algae polyphenol to mice fed with a high fat diet, suppressed the increase in fat volume to a level observed in mice fed with a normal diet. We speculate that Pin1 might be required for the differentiation of stem cell to adipocytes. We established wild type (WT) and Pin1-/- (Pin1-KO) adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ASC) lines and found that WT ASCs differentiate to adipocytes but Pin1-KO ASCs do not. Oral administration of brown algae polyphenol, a Pin1 inhibitor, reduced fat buildup in mice. We showed that Pin1 is required for the differentiation of stem cells into adipocytes. We propose that oral intake of brown algae polyphenol is useful for the treatment of obesity.

  8. Brown Algae Polyphenol, a Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 Inhibitor, Prevents Obesity by Inhibiting the Differentiation of Stem Cells into Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Atsuko; Saeki, Toshiyuki; Ikuji, Hiroko; Uchida, Chiyoko; Uchida, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Background While screening for an inhibitor of the peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase, Pin1, we came across a brown algae polyphenol that blocks the differentiation of fibroblasts into adipocytes. However, its effectiveness on the accumulation of fat in the body has never been studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Oral administration of brown algae polyphenol to mice fed with a high fat diet, suppressed the increase in fat volume to a level observed in mice fed with a normal diet. We speculate that Pin1 might be required for the differentiation of stem cell to adipocytes. We established wild type (WT) and Pin1-/- (Pin1-KO) adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ASC) lines and found that WT ASCs differentiate to adipocytes but Pin1-KO ASCs do not. Conclusion and Significance Oral administration of brown algae polyphenol, a Pin1 inhibitor, reduced fat buildup in mice. We showed that Pin1 is required for the differentiation of stem cells into adipocytes. We propose that oral intake of brown algae polyphenol is useful for the treatment of obesity. PMID:28036348

  9. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits tumour necrosis factor-α-induced lipolysis in murine cultured adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lorente-Cebrián, Silvia; Bustos, Matilde; Marti, Amelia; Fernández-Galilea, Marta; Martinez, J Alfredo; Moreno-Aliaga, Maria J

    2012-03-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with beneficial effects in obesity and insulin resistance. High levels of proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in obesity promote lipolysis in adipocytes, leading to the development of insulin resistance. Thus, the aims of the present study were to analyze the potential antilipolytic properties of EPA on cytokine-induced lipolysis and to investigate the possible mechanisms involved. The EPA effects on basal and TNF-α-induced lipolysis were determined in both primary rat and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Treatment of primary rat adipocytes with EPA (100 and 200 μM) significantly decreased basal glycerol release (P<.01) and prevented cytokine-induced lipolysis in a dose-dependent manner (P<.001). Moreover, EPA decreased TNF-α-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB and extracellular-related kinase 1/2 phosphorylation. In addition, the antilipolytic action of EPA was stimulated by the AMP-kinase (AMPK) activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-b-d-ribofuranoside and blocked by the AMPK-inhibitor compound C. Moreover, we found that EPA stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) phosphorylation on serine-565, which further supports the involvement of AMPK in EPA's antilipolytic actions. Eicosapentaenoic acid treatment (24 h), alone and in the presence of TNF-α, also decreased adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) protein content in cultured adipocytes. However, oral supplementation with EPA for 35 days was able to partially reverse the down-regulation of HSL and ATGL messenger RNA observed in retroperitoneal adipose tissue of high-fat-diet-fed rats. These findings suggest that EPA inhibits proinflammatory cytokine-induced lipolysis in adipocytes. This effect might contribute to explain the insulin-sensitizing properties of EPA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Berardinelli-seip congenital lipodystrophy 2/seipin is a cell-autonomous regulator of lipolysis essential for adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiqin; Chang, Benny; Saha, Pradip; Hartig, Sean M; Li, Lan; Reddy, Vasumathi Theegala; Yang, Yisheng; Yechoor, Vijay; Mancini, Michael A; Chan, Lawrence

    2012-03-01

    Mutations in BSCL2 underlie human congenital generalized lipodystrophy. We inactivated Bscl2 in mice to examine the mechanisms whereby absence of Bscl2 leads to adipose tissue loss and metabolic disorders. Bscl2(-/-) mice develop severe lipodystrophy of white adipose tissue (WAT), dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. In vitro differentiation of both Bscl2(-/-) murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and stromal vascular cells (SVCs) reveals normal early-phase adipocyte differentiation but a striking failure in terminal differentiation due to unbridled cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA)-activated lipolysis, which leads to loss of lipid droplets and silencing of the expression of adipose tissue-specific transcription factors. Importantly, such defects in differentiation can be largely rescued by inhibitors of lipolysis but not by a gamma peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) agonist. The residual epididymal WAT (EWAT) in Bscl2(-/-) mice displays enhanced lipolysis. It also assumes a "brown-like" phenotype with marked upregulation of UCP1 and other brown adipose tissue-specific markers. Together with decreased Pref1 but increased C/EBPβ levels, these changes highlight a possible increase in cAMP signaling that impairs terminal adipocyte differentiation in the EWAT of Bscl2(-/-) mice. Our study underscores the fundamental role of regulated cAMP/PKA-mediated lipolysis in adipose differentiation and identifies Bscl2 as a novel cell-autonomous determinant of activated lipolysis essential for terminal adipocyte differentiation.

  11. Transcription regulator TRIP-Br2 mediates ER stress-induced brown adipocytes dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Guifen; Whang Kong, Hyerim; Gil, Victoria; Liew, Chong Wee

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to play critical roles for both basal and inducible energy expenditure. Obesity is associated with reduction of BAT function; however, it is not well understood how obesity promotes BAT dysfunction, especially at the molecular level. Here we show that the transcription regulator TRIP-Br2 mediates ER stress-induced inhibition of lipolysis and thermogenesis in BAT. Using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo approaches, we demonstrate that obesity-induced inflammation upregulates brown adipocytes TRIP-Br2 expression via the ER stress pathway and amelioration of ER stress in mice completely abolishes high fat diet-induced upregulation of TRIP-Br2 in BAT. We find that increased TRIP-Br2 significantly inhibits brown adipocytes thermogenesis. Finally, we show that ablation of TRIP-Br2 ameliorates ER stress-induced inhibition on lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, oxidative metabolism, and thermogenesis in brown adipocytes. Taken together, our current study demonstrates a role for TRIP-Br2 in ER stress-induced BAT dysfunction, and inhibiting TRIP-Br2 could be a potential approach for counteracting obesity-induced BAT dysfunction. PMID:28067333

  12. Exercise-induced galanin release facilitated GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes of type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Sheng, Shudong; Fang, Penghua; Ma, Yinping; Li, Jian; Shi, Qiaojia; Sui, Yumei; Shi, Mingyi

    2012-01-01

    Although galanin has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle of rats, there is no literature available about the effect of galanin on Glucose Transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation from intracellular membrane pools to plasma membranes in adipocytes of type 2 diabetic rats. In the present study M35, a galanin antagonist was used to elucidate whether exercise-induced galanin release increased GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The present findings showed that plasma galanin levels after swimming training in all four trained groups were higher compared with each sedentary control. M35 treatment had an inhibitory effect on glucose infusion rates in the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp test and GLUT4 mRNA expression levels in adipocytes. Moreover, M35 treatment reduced GLUT4 concentration in both plasma membranes and total cell membranes. The ratios of GLUT4 contents in plasma membranes to total cell membranes in four drug groups were lower compared with each control. These data demonstrate a beneficial role of endogenous galanin to transfer GLUT4 from internal stores to plasma membranes in adipocytes of type 2 diabetic rats. Galanin plays a significant role in regulation of glucose metabolic homeostasis and is an important hormone relative to diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Simvastatin enhances induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Araki, Shunsuke; Dobashi, Kazushige; Asayama, Kohtaro; Shirahata, Akira

    2007-09-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) modulate the NO production via iNOS in adipocytes stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (L) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (T). Well-differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes significantly produced NO by LT-treatment. Pre-incubation with simvastatin, a lipophilic statin, pravastatin, a hydrophilic one, or Y27632, an inhibitor of Rho kinase, further enhanced the production of NO. The effect of simvastatin was offset by mevalonate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) but not by squalene. The mRNA level for iNOS parallelled the NO production. The NF-kappaB was activated by the LT-treatment and was further enhanced by simvastatin, pravastatin or Y27632 addition. Mevalonate and GGPP completely offset the effect of simvastatin. Statins and Y27632 also further increased the interleukin-6 secretion in the LT-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results suggest that statins, especially lipophilic type, enhance induction of iNOS by inhibiting the small GTP-binding protein signal in adipocytes.

  14. Taurine chloramine modulates the expression of adipokines through inhibition of the STAT-3 signaling pathway in differentiated human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Soo; Ji, Hye-In; Chung, Hyunju; Kim, Chakyeun; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Yeon-Ah; Yang, Hyung-In; Yoo, Myung Chul; Hong, Seung Jae

    2013-12-01

    To examine the possible role of taurine chloramine (TauCl) in modulating the expression of adipokines in adipose tissue associated with obesity, we evaluated the effect of TauCl in human differentiated adipocytes in response to IL-1β. To study the physiological effects of TauCl on adipokine expression, differentiated adipocytes were treated with IL-1β in the presence or absence of TauCl at concentrations ranging from 200 to 600 μM for 7 days. Cell culture supernatants and total RNA were analyzed by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively, to determine protein and mRNA levels of adipokines, including adiponectin, leptin, IL-6, and IL-8. Levels of proteins involved in relevant signaling pathways were investigated by western blotting. Stimulation with IL-1β significantly decreased levels of adiponectin and leptin in adipocytes, but increased levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with TauCl significantly reversed the modulation of adipokine expression by inhibiting STAT-3 signaling in IL-1β-stimulated adipocytes, independent of MAPK signaling. TauCl treatment more significantly modulated the expression of adipokines in adipocytes stimulated with IL-1β than that of non-stimulated adipocytes, suggesting that TauCl plays a significant role in modulating the expression of adipokines under inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, TauCl and other taurine derivatives that inhibit the STAT-3 signaling pathway can modulate expression of adipokines and thus may be useful as therapeutic agents for obesity-related diseases.

  15. Proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β suppresses cold-induced thermogenesis in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Naknukool, Supaporn; Yoshitake, Rieko; Hanafusa, Yuki; Tokiwa, Soshi; Li, Yongjia; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Nitta, Takahiro; Kim, Minji; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yu, Rina; Daiyasu, Hiromi; Seno, Shigeto; Matsuda, Hideo; Kawada, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), a typical proinflammatory cytokine on the β-adrenoreceptor-stimulated induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in adipocytes. IL-1β mRNA expression levels were upregulated in white adipose tissues of obese mice and in RAW264.7 macrophages under conditions designed to mimic obese adipose tissue. Isoproterenol-stimulated induction of UCP1 mRNA expression was significantly inhibited in C3H10T1/2 adipocytes by conditioned medium from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages in comparison with control conditioned medium. This inhibition was significantly attenuated in the presence of recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-1β antibody, suggesting that activated macrophage-derived IL-1β is an important cytokine for inhibition of β-adrenoreceptor-stimulated UCP1 induction in adipocytes. IL-1β suppressed isoproterenol-induced UCP1 mRNA expression in C3H10T1/2 adipocytes, and this effect was partially but significantly abrogated by inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). IL-1β also suppressed the isoproterenol-induced activation of the UCP1 promoter and transcription factors binding to the cAMP response element. Moreover, intraperitoneal administration of IL-1β suppressed cold-induced UCP1 expression in adipose tissues. These findings suggest that IL-1β upregulated in obese adipose tissues suppresses β-adrenoreceptor-stimulated induction of UCP1 expression through ERK activation in adipocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fetuin-A downregulates adiponectin through Wnt-PPARγ pathway in lipid induced inflamed adipocyte.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Soumik; Chattopadhyay, Mrittika; Mukherjee, Sandip; Dasgupta, Suman; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Bhattacharya, Samir

    2017-01-01

    Adiponectin secreted from adipocytes is an anti-diabetic and anti-atherogenic adipokine. Adiponectin level is known to fall significantly in obesity induced type 2 diabetes which worsen insulin sensitivity because of aberrant lipid management. However, underlying mechanism of adiponectin decrease in obese diabetic condition is yet unclear. We report here that lowering of plasma adiponectin coincided with the higher Fetuin A (FetA) level in high fat diet (HFD) induced obese diabetic mice. Knock down of FetA gene (FetA(KD)) elevated adiponectin level markedly in HFD mice, while reinforcement of FetA into FetA(KD)HFD mice reduced its level again. These results indicate FetA's involvement in the lowering of adiponectin level in obesity induced diabetic mice. Our findings to understand how FetA could affect adiponectin decrease demonstrated that FetA could enhance Wnt3a expression in the adipocyte of HFD mice. FetA addition to 3T3L1 adipocyte incubation elevated Wnt3a expression in a dose dependent manner. Overexpression of Wnt3a by FetA inhibited PPARγ and adiponectin. FetA failed to reduce PPARγ and adiponectin in Wnt3a gene knocked down 3T3L1` adipocytes. All these suggest that FetA mediate its inhibitory effect on adiponectin through Wnt3a-PPARγ pathway. Inhibition of adiponectin expression through FetA and Wnt3a significantly compromised with the activation of AMPK and its downstream signalling molecules which adversely affected lipid management causing loss of insulin sensitivity. Downregulation of adiponectin in inflamed adipocyte by FetA through the mediation of Wnt3a and PPARγ is a new report.

  17. Long-acting insulin analog detemir displays reduced effects on adipocyte differentiation of human subcutaneous and visceral adipose stem cells.

    PubMed

    Cignarelli, A; Perrini, S; Nigro, P; Ficarella, R; Barbaro, M; Peschechera, A; Porro, S; Natalicchio, A; Laviola, L; Puglisi, F; Giorgino, F

    2016-04-01

    Since treatment with insulin detemir results in a lower weight gain compared to human insulin, we investigated whether detemir is associated with lower ability to promote adipogenesis and/or lipogenesis in human adipose stem cells (ASC). Human ASC isolated from both the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were differentiated for 30 days in the presence of human insulin or insulin detemir. Nile Red and Oil-Red-O staining were used to quantify the rate of ASC conversion to adipocytes and lipid accumulation, respectively. mRNA expression levels of early genes, including Fos and Cebpb, as well as of lipogenic and adipogenic genes, were measured at various phases of differentiation by qRT-PCR. Activation of insulin signaling was assessed by immunoblotting. ASC isolated from subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue were less differentiated when exposed to insulin detemir compared to human insulin, showing lower rates of adipocyte conversion, reduced triglyceride accumulation, and impaired expression of late-phase adipocyte marker genes, such as Pparg2, Slc2a4, Adipoq, and Cidec. However, no differences in activation of insulin receptor, Akt and Erk and induction of the early genes Fos and Cebpb were observed between insulin detemir and human insulin. Insulin detemir displays reduced induction of the Pparg2 adipocyte master gene and diminished effects on adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis in human subcutaneous and visceral ASC, in spite of normal activation of proximal insulin signaling reactions. These characteristics of insulin detemir may be of potential relevance to its weight-sparing effects observed in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The anti-angiogenic herbal extract from Melissa officinalis inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and suppresses adipocyte hypertrophy in high fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sangee; Yoon, Miso; Kim, Jeongjun; Hong, Yeonhee; Kim, Min-Young; Shin, Soon Shik; Yoon, Michung

    2016-02-03

    Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm) has been used traditionally and contemporarily as an anti-stress herb. Current hypotheses suggest that not only chronic stress promotes angiogenesis, but angiogenesis also modulates adipogenesis and obesity. Because the herbal extract ALS-L1023 from M. officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm) has an anti-angiogenic activity, we hypothesized that ALS-L1023 could inhibit adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy. ALS-L1023 was prepared by a two-step organic solvent fractionation from M. officinalis. The effects of ALS-L1023 on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and adipocyte hypertrophy in high fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice were measured using in vivo and in vitro approaches. ALS-L1023 inhibited angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner in the HUVEC tube formation assay in vitro. Treatment of cells with ALS-L1023 inhibited lipid accumulation and adipocyte-specific gene expression caused by troglitazone or MDI differentiation mix. ALS-L1023 reduced mRNA expression of angiogenic factors (VEGF-A and FGF-2) and MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in differentiated cells. In contrast, mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors (TSP-1, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2) increased. Protease activity, as measured by zymography, showed that activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 decreased in ALS-L1023-treated cells. ALS-L1023 also inhibited MMP-2 and MMP-9 reporter gene expression in the presence of the MMP inducer phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. An in vivo study showed that ALS-L1023 not only decreased adipose tissue mass and adipocyte size, but also reduced mRNA levels of adipose tissue angiogenic factors and MMPs in HFD-fed obese mice. These results suggest that the anti-angiogenic herbal extract ALS-L1023 suppresses adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy, and this effect may be mediated by inhibiting angiogenesis and MMP activities. Thus, by curbing adipogenesis, anti-angiogenic ALS-L1023 yields a possible therapeutic choice for the prevention and treatment of human obesity and

  19. MicroRNA-24 promotes 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation by directly targeting the MAPK7 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Min; Wu, Yutao; Wang, Jing; Chen, Jian; Huang, Yiting; Rao, Jinpeng; Feng, Chun

    2016-05-20

    Over the past years, MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as a vital role in harmony with gene regulation and maintaining cellular homeostasis. It is well testified that miRNAshave been involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes, including embryogenesis, cell fate decision, and cellular differentiation. Adipogenesis is an organized process of cellular differentiation by which pre-adipocytes differentiate towards mature adipocytes, and it is tightly modulated by a series of transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) and sterol regulatory-element binding proteins 1 (SREBP1). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the connection between miRNAs and adipogenesis-related transcription factors remain obscure. In this study, we unveiled that miR- 24 was remarkably upregulated during 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. Overexpression of miR-24 significantly promoted 3T3-L1 adipogenesis, as evidenced by its ability to increase the expression of PPAR-γ and SREBP1, lipid droplet formation and triglyceride (TG) accumulation. Furthermore, we found that neither ectopic expression of miR-24nor miR-24 inhibitor affect cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. Finally, we demonstrated that miR-24 plays the modulational role by directly repressing MAPK7, a key number in the MAPK signaling pathway. These data indicate that miR-24 is a novel positive regulator of adipocyte differentiation by targeting MAPK7, which provides new insights into the molecular mechanism of miRNA-mediated cellular differentiation. -- Highlights: •We firstly found miR-24 was upregulated in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes differentiation. •miR-24 promoted 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes differentiation while silencing the expression of miR-24 had an opposite function. •miR-24 regulated 3T3-L1 differentiation by directly targeting MAPK7 signaling pathway. •miR-24did not affect 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes cellular proliferation.

  20. Mature adipocyte-derived cells, dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT), promoted functional recovery from spinal cord injury-induced motor dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yuki; Takenaga, Mitsuko; Tokura, Yukie; Hamaguchi, Akemi; Matsumoto, Taro; Kano, Koichiro; Mugishima, Hideo; Okano, Hideyuki; Igarashi, Rie

    2008-01-01

    Transplantation of mature adipocyte-derived cells (dedifferentiated fat cells) led to marked functional recovery from spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced motor dysfunction in rats. When mature adipocytes were isolated from rat adipose tissue and grown in ceiling culture, transformation into fibroblast-like cells without lipid droplets occurred. These fibroblast-like cells, termed dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT), could proliferate and could also differentiate back into adipocytes. DFAT expressed neural markers such as nestin, betaIII tubulin, and GFAP. Allografting of DFAT into SCI-induced rats led to significant recovery from hindlimb dysfunction. Grafted cells were detected at the injection site, and some of these cells expressed betaIII tubulin. DFAT expressed neurotrophic factors such as BDNF and GDNF prior to transplantation, and grafted cells were also positive for these factors. Therefore, these neurotrophic factors derived from grafted DFAT might have contributed to the promotion of functional recovery. These findings also suggest that mature adipocytes could become a new source for cell replacement therapy to treat central nervous system disorders.

  1. Aculeatin, a coumarin derived from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam., enhances differentiation and lipolysis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Akio; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Yusuke; Yoshida, Izumi; Harada, Teppei; Mishima, Takashi; Fujita, Kazuhiro; Watai, Masatoshi; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2014-10-31

    Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (T. asiatica) has been utilized traditionally for medicinal purposes such as the treatment of diabetes. Currently, the extract is considered to be a good source of anti-diabetic agents, but the active compounds have yet to be identified. In this study, we investigated the effects of fractionated T. asiatica extracts on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and identified aculeatin as a potential active agent. When 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated with aculeatin isolated from T. asiatica in the presence of insulin, aculeatin increased cellular triglyceride levels and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. This indicated that aculeatin could enhance the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. Further analyses using a DNA microarray and real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR showed an increase in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ target genes (Pparg, Ap2, Cd36, Glut4 and Adipoq) by aculeatin, suggesting that aculeatin enhances the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by modulating the expression of genes critical for adipogenesis. Interestingly, after treatment of differentiated adipocytes with aculeatin, glucose uptake and lipolysis were enhanced. Overall, our results suggested that aculeatin is an active compound in T. asiatica for enhancing both differentiation and lipolysis of adipocytes, which are useful for the treatment of lipid abnormalities as well as diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The proteomic analysis of an adipocyte differentiated from human mesenchymal stem cells using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Byung-Hyo; Park, Seung-Ah; Kim, Chan-Wha

    2006-02-01

    Adipose tissues play a crucial endocrine role in the control of whole body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Considering the current substantial rise in obesity and obesity-related diseases, including diabetes, it is important to understand the molecular basis of adipocyte differentiation and its control. In this study, we have analyzed the protein expression inherent to adipogenic differentiation, by 2-DE, MALDI-TOF, and RT-PCR. This study focused on proteins that were differentially expressed by the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to adipocytes. We conducted 2-DE for each set of proteins in the cytosol of adipocytes that had differentiated from hMSC, in a pH range from 3-10. Thirty-two protein spots were shown to have different expression levels. Among these, eight up-regulated proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS, as the following: syntaxin binding protein 3, OSBP-related protein 3, phosphodiesterase, glycophorin, immunoglobulin kappa chain variable region, peroxisome proliferative activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma), bA528A10.3.1 (novel protein similar to KIAA01616, isoform 1), and T cell receptor V-beta 4. Four proteins: syntaxin-3, OSBP-related protein 3, PPAR-gamma and glycophorin were associated with adipogenesis.

  3. Go-6976 Reverses Hyperglycemia-Induced Insulin Resistance Independently of cPKC Inhibition in Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Katherine A.; Hegyi, Krisztina; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Buse, Maria G.; Sethi, Jaswinder K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia induces insulin resistance by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. One model of hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance involves chronic preincubation of adipocytes in the presence of high glucose and low insulin concentrations. We have previously shown that the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) plays a partial role in the development of insulin resistance in this model. Here, we demonstrate that treatment with Go-6976, a widely used “specific” inhibitor of cPKCs, alleviates hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance. However, the effects of mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin and Go-6976 were not additive and only rapamycin restored impaired insulin-stimulated AKT activation. Although, PKCα, (but not –β) was abundantly expressed in these adipocytes, our studies indicate cPKCs do not play a major role in causing insulin-resistance in this model. There was no evidence of changes in the expression or phosphorylation of PKCα, and PKCα knock-down did not prevent the reduction of insulin-stimulated glucose transport. This was also consistent with lack of IRS-1 phosphorylation on Ser-24 in hyperglycemia-induced insulin-resistant adipocytes. Treatment with Go-6976 did inhibit a component of the mTORC1 pathway, as evidenced by decreased phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein. Raptor knock-down enhanced the effect of insulin on glucose transport in insulin resistant adipocytes. Go-6976 had the same effect in control cells, but was ineffective in cells with Raptor knock-down. Taken together these findings suggest that Go-6976 exerts its effect in alleviating hyperglycemia-induced insulin-resistance independently of cPKC inhibition and may target components of the mTORC1 signaling pathway. PMID:25330241

  4. Shikonin suppresses ERK 1/2 phosphorylation during the early stages of adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The naphthoquinone pigment, shikonin, is a major component of Lithospermum erythrorhizon and has been shown to have various biological functions, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of shikonin on adipocyte differentiation and its mechanism of action in 3T3-L1 cells. Methods To investigate the effects of shikonin on adipocyte differentiation, 3T3-L1 cells were induced to differentiate using 3-isobutyl-1-methylzanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI) for 8 days in the presence of 0–2 μM shikonin. Oil Red O staining was performed to determine the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. To elucidate the anti-adipogenic mechanism of shikonin, adipogenic transcription factors, the phosphorylation levels of ERK, and adipogenic gene expression were analyzed by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. To further confirm that shikonin inhibits adipogenic differentiation through downregulation of ERK 1/2 activity, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with shikonin in the presence of FGF-2, an activator, or PD98059, an inhibitor, of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Results Shikonin effectively suppressed adipogenesis and downregulated the protein levels of 2 major transcription factors, PPARγ and C/EBPα, as well as the adipocyte specific gene aP2 in a dose-dependent manner. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that shikonin inhibited mRNA expression of adipogenesis-related genes, such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, and aP2. Adipocyte differentiation was mediated by ERK 1/2 phosphorylation, which was confirmed by pretreatment with PD98059 (an ERK 1/2 inhibitor) or FGF-2 (an ERK 1/2 activator). The phosphorylation of ERK1/2 during the early stages of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells was inhibited by shikonin. We also confirmed that FGF-2-stimulated ERK 1/2 activity was attenuated by shikonin. Conclusions These results demonstrate that shikonin inhibits adipogenic differentiation via suppression of the ERK signaling pathway

  5. AICAR Attenuates TNFα-Induced Inappropriate Secretion of Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and Adiponectin in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nagahara, Keiko; Ishikawa, Takuya; Nakano, Yuya; Abe, Yoshifusa; Tanaka, Daisuke; Itabashi, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The increase in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and the decrease in adiponectin production from hypertrophic adipocytes are associated with adipose tissue inflammation and its metabolic complications. The aim of this study was to determine whether 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), an adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, modulates these adipocytokine productions in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)-treated adipocytes. Methods: AICAR and/or other reagents were added to the culture medium, and then, TNFα was added to fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The MCP-1 and adiponectin production in the culture supernatant was measured by ELISA. AMPK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activities were also assayed. Results: Treatment with TNFα increased MCP-1 and decreased adiponectin secretion dose-dependently in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and AICAR significantly inhibited these TNFα-mediated changes. Interestingly, metformin, another AMPK activator, did not have such effects on these adipocytokines. Both the AMPK and PI3K systems in the cells were significantly activated by the AICAR treatment, but the effects of AICAR on adipocytokines were not weakened by the addition of dorsomorphin, an AMPK inhibitor, or LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an NF-κB inhibitor, showed protective effects similar to those as AICAR. AICAR, but not metformin, significantly inhibited the TNFα-stimulated activation of NF-κB, and dorsomorphin did not change AICAR's effect. Conclusion: AICAR attenuates the TNFα-induced secretion of MCP-1 and adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The observed effects of AICAR seem to be mainly due to the inhibition of NF-κB activation rather than the activation of the AMPK pathway, at least in TNFα-treated adipocytes. PMID:27170207

  6. A dynamic CTCF chromatin binding landscape promotes DNA hydroxymethylation and transcriptional induction of adipocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Dubois-Chevalier, Julie; Oger, Frédérik; Dehondt, Hélène; Firmin, François F.; Gheeraert, Céline; Staels, Bart; Lefebvre, Philippe; Eeckhoute, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a ubiquitously expressed multifunctional transcription factor characterized by chromatin binding patterns often described as largely invariant. In this context, how CTCF chromatin recruitment and functionalities are used to promote cell type-specific gene expression remains poorly defined. Here, we show that, in addition to constitutively bound CTCF binding sites (CTS), the CTCF cistrome comprises a large proportion of sites showing highly dynamic binding patterns during the course of adipogenesis. Interestingly, dynamic CTCF chromatin binding is positively linked with changes in expression of genes involved in biological functions defining the different stages of adipogenesis. Importantly, a subset of these dynamic CTS are gained at cell type-specific regulatory regions, in line with a requirement for CTCF in transcriptional induction of adipocyte differentiation. This relates to, at least in part, CTCF requirement for transcriptional activation of both the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and its target genes. Functionally, we show that CTCF interacts with TET methylcytosine dioxygenase (TET) enzymes and promotes adipogenic transcriptional enhancer DNA hydroxymethylation. Our study reveals a dynamic CTCF chromatin binding landscape required for epigenomic remodeling of enhancers and transcriptional activation driving cell differentiation. PMID:25183525

  7. Harmine Induces Adipocyte Thermogenesis through RAC1-MEK-ERK-CHD4 Axis

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Tao; Hui, Xiaoyan; Mao, Liufeng; Nie, Baoming; Li, Kuai; Sun, Wei; Gao, Xuefei; Tang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Yong; Jiang, Baishan; Tu, Zhengcao; Li, Peng; Ding, Ke; Han, Weiping; Zhang, Shaoping; Xu, Aimin; Ding, Sheng; Liu, Pentao; Patterson, Adam; Cooper, Garth; Wu, Donghai

    2016-01-01

    Harmine is a natural compound possessing insulin-sensitizing effect in db/db diabetic mice. However its effect on adipose tissue browning is unknown. Here we reveal that harmine antagonizes high fat diet-induced adiposity. Harmine-treated mice gained less weight on a high fat diet and displayed increased energy expenditure and adipose tissue thermogenesis. In vitro, harmine potently induced the expression of thermogenic genes in both brown and white adipocytes, which was largely abolished by inhibition of RAC1/MEK/ERK pathway. Post-transcriptional modification analysis revealed that chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 4 (CHD4) is a potential downstream target of harmine-mediated ERK activation. CHD4 directly binds the proximal promoter region of Ucp1, which is displaced upon treatment of harmine, thereby serving as a negative modulator of Ucp1. Thus, here we reveal a new application of harmine in combating obesity via this off-target effect in adipocytes. PMID:27805061

  8. Moderate alcohol intake induces thermogenic brown/beige adipocyte formation via elevating retinoic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Zhixiu; de Avila, Jeanene M; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Zhang, Faya; Gomez, Noe Alberto; Zhao, Liang; Tian, Qiyu; Zhao, Junxing; Maricelli, Joseph; Zhang, Hui; Rodgers, Buel D; Du, Min

    2017-10-01

    Clinically, low and moderate alcohol intake improves human health with protection against metabolic syndromes, including type 2 diabetes; however, mechanisms that are associated with these effects remain to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol intake on thermogenic brown/beige adipocyte formation and glucose and lipid homeostasis, as well as the involvement of retinoic acid (RA) signaling in the entire process. C57BL6 male mice were supplemented with 8% (w/v) alcohol in water for 1 or 4 mo. Alcohol intake prevented body weight gain, induced the formation of uncoupling protein 1-positive beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue, and increased thermogenesis in mice, which is associated with decreased serum glucose and triacylglycerol levels. Mechanistically, alcohol intake increased RA levels in serum and adipose tissue, which was associated with increased expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 subfamily A1 (Aldh1a1). When RA receptor-α signaling was conditionally blocked in platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α-positive adipose progenitors, the effects of alcohol on beige adipogenesis were largely abolished. Finally, moderate alcohol prevented high-fat diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction. In conclusion, moderate alcohol intake induces thermogenic brown/beige adipocyte formation and promotes glucose and lipid oxidation via elevation of RA signaling.-Wang, B., Wang, Z., de Avila, J. M., Zhu, M.-J., Zhang, F., Gomez, N. A., Zhao, L., Tian, Q., Zhao, J., Maricelli, J., Zhang, H., Rodgers, B. D., Du, M. Moderate alcohol intake induces thermogenic brown/beige adipocyte formation via elevating retinoic acid signaling. © FASEB.

  9. miR-148a is Associated with Obesity and Modulates Adipocyte Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells through Wnt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chunmei; Zhang, Min; Tong, Meiling; Yang, Lei; Pang, Lingxia; Chen, Ling; Xu, Guangfeng; Chi, Xia; Hong, Qin; Ni, Yuhui; Ji, Chenbo; Guo, Xirong

    2015-01-01

    Obesity results from numerous, interacting genetic, behavioral, and physiological factors. Adipogenesis is partially regulated by several adipocyte-selective microRNAs (miRNAs) and transcription factors that regulate proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs-Ad). In this study, we examined the roles of adipocyte-selective miRNAs in the differentiation of hMSCs-Ad to adipocytes. Results showed that the levels of miR-148a, miR-26b, miR-30, and miR-199a increased in differentiating hMSCs-Ad. Among these miRNAs, miR-148a exhibited significant effects on increasing PPRE luciferase activity (it represents PPAR-dependent transcription, a major factor in adipogenesis) than others. Furthermore, miR-148a expression levels increased in adipose tissues from obese people and mice fed high-fat diet. miR-148a acted by suppressing its target gene, Wnt1, an endogenous inhibitor of adipogenesis. Ectopic expression of miR-148a accelerated differentiation and partially rescued Wnt1-mediated inhibition of adipogenesis. Knockdown of miR-148a also inhibited adipogenesis. Analysis of the upstream region of miR-148a locus identified a 3 kb region containing a functional cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) required for miR-148a expression in hMSCs-Ad. The results suggest that miR-148a is a biomarker of obesity in human subjects and mouse model, which represents a CREB-modulated miRNA that acts to repress Wnt1, thereby promoting adipocyte differentiation. PMID:26001136

  10. The epigenetic modifiers 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A influence adipocyte differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zych, J.; Stimamiglio, M.A.; Senegaglia, A.C.; Brofman, P.R.S.; Dallagiovanna, B.; Goldenberg, S.; Correa, A.

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modification are important in stem cell differentiation. Methylation is principally associated with transcriptional repression, and histone acetylation is correlated with an active chromatin state. We determined the effects of these epigenetic mechanisms on adipocyte differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissue (ADSCs) using the chromatin-modifying agents trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, and 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5azadC), a demethylating agent. Subconfluent MSC cultures were treated with 5, 50, or 500 nM TSA or with 1, 10, or 100 µM 5azadC for 2 days before the initiation of adipogenesis. The differentiation was quantified and expression of the adipocyte genes PPARG and FABP4 and of the anti-adipocyte gene GATA2 was evaluated. TSA decreased adipogenesis, except in BM-MSCs treated with 5 nM TSA. Only treatment with 500 nM TSA decreased cell proliferation. 5azadC treatment decreased proliferation and adipocyte differentiation in all conditions evaluated, resulting in the downregulation of PPARG and FABP4 and the upregulation of GATA2. The response to treatment was stronger in ADSCs than in BM-MSCs, suggesting that epigenetic memories may differ between cells of different origins. As epigenetic signatures affect differentiation, it should be possible to direct the use of MSCs in cell therapies to improve process efficiency by considering the various sources available. PMID:23797495

  11. Redox modulation of adipocyte differentiation: hypothesis of "Redox Chain" and novel insights into intervention of adipogenesis and obesity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Hai, Chunxu

    2015-12-01

    In view of the global prevalence of obesity and obesity-associated disorders, it is important to clearly understand how adipose tissue forms. Accumulating data from various laboratories implicate that redox status is closely associated with energy metabolism. Thus, biochemical regulation of the redox system may be an attractive alternative for the treatment of obesity-related disorders. In this work, we will review the current data detailing the role of the redox system in adipocyte differentiation, as well as identifying areas for further research. The redox system affects adipogenic differentiation in an extensive way. We propose that there is a complex and interactive "redox chain," consisting of a "ROS-generating enzyme chain," "combined antioxidant chain," and "transcription factor chain," which contributes to fine-tune the regulation of ROS level and subsequent biological consequences. The roles of the redox system in adipocyte differentiation are paradoxical. The redox system exerts a "tridimensional" mechanism in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation, including transcriptional, epigenetic, and posttranslational modulations. We suggest that redoxomic techniques should be extensively applied to understand the biological effects of redox alterations in a more integrated way. A stable and standardized "redox index" is urgently needed for the evaluation of the general redox status. Therefore, more effort should be made to establish and maintain a general redox balance rather than to conduct simple prooxidant or antioxidant interventions, which have comprehensive implications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Flavonoids from Tetracera indica Merr. induce adipogenesis and exert glucose uptake activities in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Mahmudul; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Soad, Siti Zaiton Mat; Latip, Jalifah; Taher, Muhammad; Syafiq, Tengku Muhamad Faris; Sarian, Murni Nazira; Alhassan, Alhassan Muhammad; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin

    2017-08-30

    Tetracera indica Merr. (Family: Dilleniaceae), known to the Malay as 'Mempelas paya', is one of the medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes in Malaysia. However, no proper scientific study has been carried out to verify the traditional claim of T. indica as an antidiabetic agent. Hence, the aims of the present study were to determine the in vitro antidiabetic potential of the T. indica stems ethanol extract, subfractions and isolated compounds. The ethanol extract and its subfractions, and isolated compounds from T. indica stems were subjected to cytotoxicity test using MTT viability assay on 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. Then, the test groups were subjected to the in vitro antidiabetic investigation using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and differentiated adipocytes to determine the insulin-like and insulin sensitizing activities. Rosiglitazone was used as a standard antidiabetic agent. All compounds were also subjected to fluorescence glucose (2-NBDG) uptake test on differentiated adipocytes. Test solutions were introduced to the cells in different safe concentrations as well as in different adipogenic cocktails, which were modified by the addition of compounds to be investigated and in the presence or absence of insulin. Isolation of bioactive compounds from the most effective subfraction (ethyl acetate) was performed through repeated silica gel and sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies and their structures were elucidated through (1)H-and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Four monoflavonoids, namely, wogonin, norwogonin, quercetin and techtochrysin were isolated from the T. indica stems ethanol extract. Wogonin, norwogonin and techtochrysin induced significant (P < 0.05) adipogenesis like insulin and enhanced adipogenesis like rosiglitazone. Wogonin and norwogonin also exhibited significant (P < 0.05) glucose uptake activity. The present study demonstrated that the flavonoids isolated from the T. indica stems possess antidiabetic potential revealing insulin-like and

  13. Adipocyte JAK2 mediates growth hormone–induced hepatic insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Corbit, Kevin C.; Camporez, João Paulo G.; Tran, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Camella G.; Lowe, Dylan A.; Nordstrom, Sarah M.; Ganeshan, Kirthana; Perry, Rachel J.; Weiss, Ethan J.

    2017-01-01

    For nearly 100 years, growth hormone (GH) has been known to affect insulin sensitivity and risk of diabetes. However, the tissue governing the effects of GH signaling on insulin and glucose homeostasis remains unknown. Excess GH reduces fat mass and insulin sensitivity. Conversely, GH insensitivity (GHI) is associated with increased adiposity, augmented insulin sensitivity, and protection from diabetes. Here, we induce adipocyte-specific GHI through conditional deletion of Jak2 (JAK2A), an obligate transducer of GH signaling. Similar to whole-body GHI, JAK2A mice had increased adiposity and extreme insulin sensitivity. Loss of adipocyte Jak2 augmented hepatic insulin sensitivity and conferred resistance to diet-induced metabolic stress without overt changes in circulating fatty acids. While GH injections induced hepatic insulin resistance in control mice, the diabetogenic action was absent in JAK2A mice. Adipocyte GH signaling directly impinged on both adipose and hepatic insulin signal transduction. Collectively, our results show that adipose tissue governs the effects of GH on insulin and glucose homeostasis. Further, we show that JAK2 mediates liver insulin sensitivity via an extrahepatic, adipose tissue–dependent mechanism. PMID:28194444

  14. Effects of cardiotrophin on adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Zvonic, Sanjin; Hogan, Jessica C; Arbour-Reily, Patricia; Mynatt, Randall L; Stephens, Jacqueline M

    2004-11-12

    Cardiotrophin (CT-1) is a naturally occurring protein member of the interleukin (IL)-6 cytokine family and signals through the gp130/leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) heterodimer. The formation of gp130/LIFR complex triggers the auto/trans-phosphorylation of associated Janus kinases, leading to the activation of Janus kinase/STAT and MAPK (ERK1 and -2) signaling pathways. Since adipocytes express both gp130 and LIFR proteins and are responsive to other IL-6 family cytokines, we examined the effects of CT-1 on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Our studies have shown that CT-1 administration results in a dose- and time-dependent activation and nuclear translocation of STAT1, -3, -5A, and -5B as well as ERK1 and -2. We also confirmed the ability of CT-1 to induce signaling in fat cells in vivo. Our studies revealed that neither CT-1 nor ciliary neurotrophic factor treatment affected adipocyte differentiation. However, acute CT-1 treatment caused an increase in SOCS-3 mRNA in adipocytes and a transient decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) mRNA that was regulated by the binding of STAT1 to the PPARgamma2 promoter. The effects of CT-1 on SOCS-3 and PPARgamma mRNA were independent of MAPK activation. Chronic administration of CT-1 to 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in a decrease of both fatty acid synthase and insulin receptor substrate-1 protein expression yet did not effect the expression of a variety of other adipocyte proteins. Moreover, chronic CT-1 treatment resulted in the development of insulin resistance as judged by a decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. In summary, CT-1 is a potent regulator of signaling in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo, and our current efforts are focused on determining the role of this cardioprotective cytokine on adipocyte physiology.

  15. Fucoxanthin exerts differing effects on 3T3-L1 cells according to differentiation stage and inhibits glucose uptake in mature adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Seong-Il; Ko, Hee-Chul; Shin, Hye-Sun; Kim, Hyo-Min; Hong, Youn-Suk; Lee, Nam-Ho; Kim, Se-Jae

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} Fucoxanthin enhances 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation at an early stage. {yields} Fucoxanthin inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation at intermediate and late stages. {yields} Fucoxanthin attenuates glucose uptake by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IRS in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. {yields} Fucoxanthin exerts its anti-obesity effect by inhibiting the differentiation of adipocytes at both intermediate and late stages, as well as glucose uptake in mature adipocytes. -- Abstract: Progression of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation is divided into early (days 0-2, D0-D2), intermediate (days 2-4, D2-D4), and late stages (day 4 onwards, D4-). In this study, we investigated the effects of fucoxanthin, isolated from the edible brown seaweed Petalonia binghamiae, on adipogenesis during the three differentiation stages of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. When fucoxanthin was applied during the early stage of differentiation (D0-D2), it promoted 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation, as evidenced by increased triglyceride accumulation. At the molecular level, fucoxanthin increased protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein {alpha} (C/EBP{alpha}), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), and aP2, and adiponectin mRNA expression, in a dose-dependent manner. However, it reduced the expression of PPAR{gamma}, C/EBP{alpha}, and SREBP1c during the intermediate (D2-D4) and late stages (D4-D7) of differentiation. It also inhibited the uptake of glucose in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes by reducing the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1). These results suggest that fucoxanthin exerts differing effects on 3T3-L1 cells of different differentiation stages and inhibits glucose uptake in mature adipocytes.

  16. Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase (LCAT) Deficiency Promotes Differentiation of Satellite Cells to Brown Adipocytes in a Cholesterol-dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Nesan, Dinushan; Tavallaee, Ghazaleh; Koh, Deborah; Bashiri, Amir; Abdin, Rawand; Ng, Dominic S

    2015-12-18

    Our laboratory previously reported that lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and LDL receptor double knock-out mice (Ldlr(-/-)xLcat(-/-) or DKO) spontaneously develop functioning ectopic brown adipose tissue (BAT) in skeletal muscle, putatively contributing to protection from the diet-induced obesity phenotype. Here we further investigated their developmental origin and the mechanistic role of LCAT deficiency. Gene profiling of skeletal muscle in DKO newborns and adults revealed a classical lineage. Primary quiescent satellite cells (SC) from chow-fed DKO mice, not in Ldlr(-/-)xLcat(+/+) single-knock-out (SKO) or C57BL/6 wild type, were found to (i) express exclusively classical BAT-selective genes, (ii) be primed to express key functional BAT genes, and (iii) exhibit markedly increased ex vivo adipogenic differentiation into brown adipocytes. This gene priming effect was abrogated upon feeding the mice a 2% high cholesterol diet in association with accumulation of excess intracellular cholesterol. Ex vivo cholesterol loading of chow-fed DKO SC recapitulated the effect, indicating that cellular cholesterol is a key regulator of SC-to-BAT differentiation. Comparing adipogenicity of Ldlr(+/+)xLcat(-/-) (LCAT-KO) SC with DKO SC identified a role for LCAT deficiency in priming SC to express BAT genes. Additionally, we found that reduced cellular cholesterol is important for adipogenic differentiation, evidenced by increased induction of adipogenesis in cholesterol-depleted SC from both LCAT-KO and SKO mice. Taken together, we conclude that ectopic BAT in DKO mice is classical in origin, and its development begins in utero. We further showed complementary roles of LCAT deficiency and cellular cholesterol reduction in the SC-to-BAT adipogenesis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Implication of the Tpl2 kinase in inflammatory changes and insulin resistance induced by the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ceppo, Franck; Berthou, Flavien; Jager, Jennifer; Dumas, Karine; Cormont, Mireille; Tanti, Jean-François

    2014-03-01

    Adipose tissue inflammation is associated with the development of insulin resistance. In obese adipose tissue, lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and saturated fatty acids trigger inflammatory factors that mediate a paracrine loop between adipocytes and macrophages. However, the inflammatory signaling proteins underlying this cross talk remain to be identified. The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2) is activated by inflammatory stimuli, including LPS, and its expression is up-regulated in obese adipose tissue, but its role in the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages remains ill-defined. To assess the implication of Tpl2 in the cross talk between these 2 cell types, we used coculture system and conditioned medium (CM) from macrophages. Pharmacological inhibition of Tpl2 in the coculture markedly reduced lipolysis and cytokine production and prevented the decrease in adipocyte insulin signaling. Tpl2 knockdown in cocultured adipocytes reduced lipolysis but had a weak effect on cytokine production and did not prevent the alteration of insulin signaling. By contrast, Tpl2 silencing in cocultured macrophages resulted in a marked inhibition of cytokine production and prevented the alteration of adipocyte insulin signaling. Further, when Tpl2 was inhibited in LPS-activated macrophages, the produced CM did not alter adipocyte insulin signaling and did not induce an inflammatory response in adipocytes. By contrast, Tpl2 silencing in adipocytes did not prevent the deleterious effects of a CM from LPS-activated macrophages. Together, these data establish that Tpl2, mainly in macrophages, is involved in the cross talk between adipocytes and macrophages that promotes inflammatory changes and alteration of insulin signaling in adipocytes.

  18. Regulation of Autophagy-Related Protein and Cell Differentiation by High Mobility Group Box 1 Protein in Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Huanhuan; Zhang, Guojun; Liu, Guoyan; Yang, Can

    2016-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a molecule related to the development of inflammation. Autophagy is vital to maintain cellular homeostasis and protect against inflammation of adipocyte injury. Our recent work focused on the relationship of HMGB1 and autophagy in 3T3-L1 cells. In vivo experimental results showed that, compared with the normal-diet group, the high-fat diet mice displayed an increase in adipocyte size in the epididymal adipose tissues. The expression levels of HMGB1 and LC3II also increased in epididymal adipose tissues in high-fat diet group compared to the normal-diet mice. The in vitro results indicated that HMGB1 protein treatment increased LC3II formation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in contrast to that in the control group. Furthermore, LC3II formation was inhibited through HMGB1 knockdown by siRNA. Treatment with the HMGB1 protein enhanced LC3II expression after 2 and 4 days but decreased the expression after 8 and 10 days among various differentiation stages of adipocytes. By contrast, FABP4 expression decreased on the fourth day and increased on the eighth day. Hence, the HMGB1 protein modulated autophagy-related proteins and lipid-metabolism-related genes in adipocytes and could be a new target for treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:27843198

  19. Lipolytic efficacy of alginate double-layer nanoemulsion containing oleoresin capsicum in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mak-Soon; Jung, Sunyoon; Shin, Yoonjin; Lee, Seohyun; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, In-Hwan; Kim, Yangha

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oleoresin capsicum (OC) is an organic extract from fruits of the genus Capsicum, and has been reported to have an anti-obesity effect. Objective: This study comparatively investigated lipolytic effects of single-layer nanoemulsion (SN) and alginate double-layer nanoemulsion (AN) containing OC in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods: SN and AN were compared by analyzing the intracellular lipid accumulation, triglyceride (TG) content, release of free fatty acids (FFAs) and glycerol, and mRNA expression of genes related to adipogenesis and lipolysis were analyzed in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Results: Compared with SN, AN exhibited higher efficiency in inhibiting the intracellular lipid accumulation and TG content, and enhanced the release of FFAs and glycerol into the medium. In AN-treated cells, mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and the fatty acid-binding protein adipocyte protein-2, which are involved in adipogenesis, were down-regulated, whereas those of genes related to lipolysis, including hormone-sensitive lipase and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1α, were up-regulated compared with SN-treated cells. Conclusion: The lipolytic effect of AN was greater than that of SN; this was partly associated with the increased TG hydrolysis via induction of lipolytic gene expression and suppression of adipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.​​​​.

  20. miR-26b Promotes 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation Through Targeting PTEN.

    PubMed

    Li, Guilin; Ning, Chunyou; Ma, Yao; Jin, Long; Tang, Qianzi; Li, Xuewei; Li, Mingzhou; Liu, Haifeng

    2017-08-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in adipogenesis that is closely linked to obesity and energy homeostasis. Thus far, only a few miRNAs have been identified to regulate adipocyte development, arousing interest in the detailed function of miRNAs during adipogenesis. In this study, we found that the miR-26b expression showed an increasing trend during 3T3-L1 cells differentiation. To investigate the role of miR-26b in adipogenesis, the synthetic miR-26b agomirs and antagomirs were used to perform overexpression and knockdown experiment, respectively. Our data revealed that overexpression of miR-26b significantly accelerated the mRNA expression of the adipogenic markers, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), and lipoprotein lipase, and the protein level of PPARγ and FAS. miR-26b overexpression also resulted in a significant increase in lipid accumulation. In contrast, inhibition of miR-26b expression decreased differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. By target gene prediction and luciferase reporter assay, we demonstrated that miR-26b may directly bind to the 3' UTR of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Taken together, these results demonstrate that miR-26b might participate in regulating adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells by inhibiting the PTEN expression, further highlighting the importance of miRNA in adipogenesis.

  1. Metallomics approach to changes in element concentration during differentiation from fibroblasts into adipocytes by element array analysis.

    PubMed

    Ogra, Yasumitsu; Nagasaki, Shu; Yawata, Ayako; Anan, Yasumi; Hamada, Koichi; Mizutani, Akihiro

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to establish an element array analysis that involves the simultaneous detection of all elements in cells and the display of changes in element concentration before and after a cellular event. In this study, we demonstrated changes in element concentration during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 mouse fibroblasts into adipocytes. This metallomics approach yielded unique information of cellular response to physiological and toxicological events.

  2. Loss of DRO1/CCDC80 results in obesity and promotes adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Grill, Jessica I; Neumann, Jens; Herbst, Andreas; Ofner, Andrea; Hiltwein, Felix; Marschall, Maximilian K; Zierahn, Heike; Wolf, Eckhard; Schneider, Marlon R; Kolligs, Frank T

    2017-01-05

    To investigate the role of DRO1 in obesity and adipogenesis in vivo, we generated a constitutive Dro1 knockout mouse model and analyzed the effect of DRO1 loss on body growth under standard and high fat diet feeding conditions. Loss of DRO1 resulted in a significant increase in body weight which was accompanied by a substantial expansion of white adipose tissue depots. The obese phenotype could be further enhanced by a high fat dietary challenge which also resulted in impaired glucose metabolism and the development of hepatosteatosis in Dro1 knockout mice. To study the role of DRO1 in adipocyte differentiation, primary stromal-vascular (SV) cells were isolated from inguinal white fat pads of knockout and control mice. In primary SV cells, depletion of DRO1 significantly promoted adipogenesis with upregulation of markers for adipogenesis (Cebpa, Pparg, Adipoq) and lipid metabolism (Dgat1, Dgat2). Our results demonstrate that DRO1 is a crucial regulator of energy homeostasis in vivo and functions as an inhibitor of adipogenesis in primary cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hyperspectral and differential CARS microscopy for quantitative chemical imaging in human adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Pope, Iestyn; Masia, Francesco; Watson, Peter; Langbein, Wolfgang; Borri, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the applicability of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) micro-spectroscopy for quantitative chemical imaging of saturated and unsaturated lipids in human stem-cell derived adipocytes. We compare dual-frequency/differential CARS (D-CARS), which enables rapid imaging and simple data analysis, with broadband hyperspectral CARS microscopy analyzed using an unsupervised phase-retrieval and factorization method recently developed by us for quantitative chemical image analysis. Measurements were taken in the vibrational fingerprint region (1200–2000/cm) and in the CH stretch region (2600–3300/cm) using a home-built CARS set-up which enables hyperspectral imaging with 10/cm resolution via spectral focussing from a single broadband 5 fs Ti:Sa laser source. Through a ratiometric analysis, both D-CARS and phase-retrieved hyperspectral CARS determine the concentration of unsaturated lipids with comparable accuracy in the fingerprint region, while in the CH stretch region D-CARS provides only a qualitative contrast owing to its non-linear behavior. When analyzing hyperspectral CARS images using the blind factorization into susceptibilities and concentrations of chemical components recently demonstrated by us, we are able to determine vol:vol concentrations of different lipid components and spatially resolve inhomogeneities in lipid composition with superior accuracy compared to state-of-the art ratiometric methods. PMID:24877002

  4. Sanggenol F exerts anti-diabetic effects via promoting adipocyte differentiation and modifying adipokines expression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing-Jie; Huang, Jun-Shang; Wang, Ting; Ji, Jun; Hou, Ai-Jun; Wang, He-Yao

    2016-12-21

    Adipose tissue is not only a lipid storage site, but also a well-known endocrine organ. Dysfunction of adipose tissue is associated with irregular lipid metabolism, ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. It is proposed that modulating on adipose tissue is a reasonable way to ameliorate glucose and lipid metabolism. (±)-sanggenol F (SGF, purity >98.5%) was synthesized as a racemic mixture of natural (+)-sanggenol F. In this study, SGF was found to promote adipocyte differentiation, enhance insulin sensitivity, and upregulate beneficial adipokines expression in 3T3-L1 cells. Furthermore, in vivo study showed that treatment with SGF for 4 weeks improved glucose metabolism, by decreasing fasting blood glucose and enhancing insulin sensitivity. It also improved lipid metabolism, with reduced serum lipid level and ameliorated hepatic steatosis in db/db mice. During the process of target finding, we found that SGF had multiple activities of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonism. These results showed the potential of SGF as a candidate for the therapy of type 2 diabetes.

  5. Hyperspectral and differential CARS microscopy for quantitative chemical imaging in human adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Pope, Iestyn; Masia, Francesco; Watson, Peter; Langbein, Wolfgang; Borri, Paola

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the applicability of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) micro-spectroscopy for quantitative chemical imaging of saturated and unsaturated lipids in human stem-cell derived adipocytes. We compare dual-frequency/differential CARS (D-CARS), which enables rapid imaging and simple data analysis, with broadband hyperspectral CARS microscopy analyzed using an unsupervised phase-retrieval and factorization method recently developed by us for quantitative chemical image analysis. Measurements were taken in the vibrational fingerprint region (1200-2000/cm) and in the CH stretch region (2600-3300/cm) using a home-built CARS set-up which enables hyperspectral imaging with 10/cm resolution via spectral focussing from a single broadband 5 fs Ti:Sa laser source. Through a ratiometric analysis, both D-CARS and phase-retrieved hyperspectral CARS determine the concentration of unsaturated lipids with comparable accuracy in the fingerprint region, while in the CH stretch region D-CARS provides only a qualitative contrast owing to its non-linear behavior. When analyzing hyperspectral CARS images using the blind factorization into susceptibilities and concentrations of chemical components recently demonstrated by us, we are able to determine vol:vol concentrations of different lipid components and spatially resolve inhomogeneities in lipid composition with superior accuracy compared to state-of-the art ratiometric methods.

  6. Metformin induces oxidative stress in white adipocytes and raises uncoupling protein 2 levels.

    PubMed

    Anedda, Andrea; Rial, Eduardo; González-Barroso, M Mar

    2008-10-01

    Metformin is a drug widely used to treat type 2 diabetes. It enhances insulin sensitivity by improving glucose utilization in tissues like liver or muscle. Metformin inhibits respiration, and the decrease in cellular energy activates the AMP-activated protein kinase that in turn switches on catabolic pathways. Moreover, metformin increases lipolysis and beta-oxidation in white adipose tissue, thereby reducing the triglyceride stores. The uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are transporters that lower the efficiency of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. UCP2 is thought to protect against oxidative stress although, alternatively, it could play an energy dissipation role. The aim of this work was to analyse the involvement of UCP2 on the effects of metformin in white adipocytes. We studied the effect of this drug in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes and found that metformin causes oxidative stress since it increases the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lowers the aconitase activity. Variations in UCP2 protein levels parallel those of ROS. Metformin also increases lipolysis in these cells although only when the levels of ROS and UCP2 have decreased. Hence, UCP2 does not appear to be needed to facilitate fatty acid oxidation. Furthermore, treatment of C57BL/6 mice with metformin also augmented the levels of UCP2 in epididymal white adipose tissue. We conclude that metformin treatment leads to the overexpression of UCP2 in adipocytes to minimize the oxidative stress that is probably due to the inhibition of respiration caused by the drug.

  7. Lipid droplets fusion in adipocyte differentiated 3T3-L1 cells: A Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Boschi, Federico; Rizzatti, Vanni; Zamboni, Mauro; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2014-02-15

    Several human worldwide diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis, atherosclerosis and other metabolic pathologies are related to the excessive accumulation of lipids in cells. Lipids accumulate in spherical cellular inclusions called lipid droplets (LDs) whose sizes range from fraction to one hundred of micrometers in adipocytes. It has been suggested that LDs can grow in size due to a fusion process by which a larger LD is obtained with spherical shape and volume equal to the sum of the progenitors’ ones. In this study, the size distribution of two populations of LDs was analyzed in immature and mature (5-days differentiated) 3T3-L1 adipocytes (first and second populations, respectively) after Oil Red O staining. A Monte Carlo simulation of interaction between LDs has been developed in order to quantify the size distribution and the number of fusion events needed to obtain the distribution of the second population size starting from the first one. Four models are presented here based on different kinds of interaction: a surface weighted interaction (R2 Model), a volume weighted interaction (R3 Model), a random interaction (Random model) and an interaction related to the place where the LDs are born (Nearest Model). The last two models mimic quite well the behavior found in the experimental data. This work represents a first step in developing numerical simulations of the LDs growth process. Due to the complex phenomena involving LDs (absorption, growth through additional neutral lipid deposition in existing droplets, de novo formation and catabolism) the study focuses on the fusion process. The results suggest that, to obtain the observed size distribution, a number of fusion events comparable with the number of LDs themselves is needed. Moreover the MC approach results a powerful tool for investigating the LDs growth process. Highlights: • We evaluated the role of the fusion process in the synthesis of the lipid droplets. • We compared the

  8. Butein induction of HO-1 by p38 MAPK/Nrf2 pathway in adipocytes attenuates high-fat diet induced adipose hypertrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Ka, Sun-O; Lee, Youngyi; Park, Byung-Hyun; Bae, Eun Ju

    2017-03-15

    Adipose tissue inflammation and oxidative stress are key components in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in adipocytes protects against obesity and adipose dysfunction. In this study, we report the identification of butein, a flavonoid chalcone, as a novel inducer of HO-1 expression in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. Butein upregulated HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, accompanied by Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein (Keap) 1 degradation and increase in the nuclear level of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Butein modulation of Keap1 and Nrf2 as well as HO-1 upregulation was reversed by pretreatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, indicating the involvement of p38 MAPK in butein activation of Nrf2 in adipocytes. In addition, HO-1 activation by butein led to the inhibitions of reactive oxygen species and adipocyte differentiation, as evidenced by the fact that butein repression of reactive oxygen species and adipogenesis was reversed by pretreatment with HO-1 inhibitor SnPP. Induction of HO-1 expression by butein was also demonstrated in the adipose tissue of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet administered along with butein for three weeks, and correlated with the inhibitions of adiposity and adipose tissue inflammation, which were reversed by co-administration of SnPP. Altogether, our results demonstrate that butein activates the p38 MAPK/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway to act as a potent inhibitor of adipose hypertrophy and inflammation in a diet-induced obesity model and thus has potential for suppressing obesity-linked metabolic syndrome.

  9. Berardinelli-Seip Congenital Lipodystrophy 2/Seipin Is a Cell-Autonomous Regulator of Lipolysis Essential for Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiqin; Chang, Benny; Saha, Pradip; Hartig, Sean M.; Li, Lan; Reddy, Vasumathi Theegala; Yang, Yisheng; Yechoor, Vijay; Mancini, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in BSCL2 underlie human congenital generalized lipodystrophy. We inactivated Bscl2 in mice to examine the mechanisms whereby absence of Bscl2 leads to adipose tissue loss and metabolic disorders. Bscl2−/− mice develop severe lipodystrophy of white adipose tissue (WAT), dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. In vitro differentiation of both Bscl2−/− murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and stromal vascular cells (SVCs) reveals normal early-phase adipocyte differentiation but a striking failure in terminal differentiation due to unbridled cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA)-activated lipolysis, which leads to loss of lipid droplets and silencing of the expression of adipose tissue-specific transcription factors. Importantly, such defects in differentiation can be largely rescued by inhibitors of lipolysis but not by a gamma peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) agonist. The residual epididymal WAT (EWAT) in Bscl2−/− mice displays enhanced lipolysis. It also assumes a “brown-like” phenotype with marked upregulation of UCP1 and other brown adipose tissue-specific markers. Together with decreased Pref1 but increased C/EBPβ levels, these changes highlight a possible increase in cAMP signaling that impairs terminal adipocyte differentiation in the EWAT of Bscl2−/− mice. Our study underscores the fundamental role of regulated cAMP/PKA-mediated lipolysis in adipose differentiation and identifies Bscl2 as a novel cell-autonomous determinant of activated lipolysis essential for terminal adipocyte differentiation. PMID:22269949

  10. Inhibitory effect of microRNA-24 on fatty acid-binding protein expression on 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kang, M; Yan, L M; Li, Y M; Zhang, W Y; Wang, H; Tang, A Z; Ou, H S

    2013-11-07

    We examined the effect of microRNAs on 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation and expression of adipocyte-specific gene fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4). We screened and identified adipo-related microRNAs during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation with a microRNA microarray. High expression plasmids of miR-24 and miR-21 were constructed and transfected into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes by lipofectamine. The effects of miR-24 and miR-21 on 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation were observed, and the protein and mRNA expression levels of FABP4 and AP-1 were determined. The expression profiles of microRNAs significantly changed during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. The expression of 33 microRNAs was downregulated, among which downregulation of miR-24 was the most extensive. There were 17 microRNAs with upregulated expression; the highest levels were found for miR-21. miR-24 significantly inhibited 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation and maturity, while miR-21 had no significant effect. In addition, miR-24 significantly inhibited the expression of FABP4, while it upregulated AP-1 expression, but had no effect on the level of FABP4 mRNA. miR-21 had no effect on FABP4 protein and mRNA expression. AP-1 silencing could, at least partially, reverse the inhibitory effect of miR-24 on FABP4 expression. We conclude that microRNA expression profiles change significantly during 3T3- L1 adipocyte differentiation and that miR-24 plays an important role in regulating adipocyte differentiation and FABP4 expression. The mechanism involved may be the upregulation of AP-1.

  11. Amphipath-induced plasma membrane curvature controls microparticle formation from adipocytes: novel therapeutic implications for metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Itsuro; Maruyama, Yoshio; Baba, Asuka

    2014-02-01

    Microparticles produced from the membrane surface of adipocytes promote lipid biosynthesis and angiogenesis in adipose tissues. Thus, they are deeply associated with the onset of metabolic disorders. Despite our understanding of their roles in physiological or pathological responses, we know little about the mechanism by which microparticles are produced from adipocytes. Based on our previous studies using rat megakaryocytes or mast cells during exocytosis, we proposed that membrane curvature induced by amphiphilic reagents, such as chlorpromazine or salicylate, facilitate or inhibit the formation of microparticles. Since the plasma membranes in adipocytes share many common biophysiological features with those in megakaryocytes or mast cells during exocytosis, the same stimulatory or inhibitory mechanism of microparticle formation would exist in adipocytes. Therefore, we hypothesize here that amphiphilic reagents would also change the membrane curvature in adipocytes, and that such changes would facilitate or inhibit the microparticle formation from adipocytes. Our hypothesis is unique because it sheds light for the first time on the physiological mechanism by which microparticles are produced in adipocytes. It is also important because the idea could have novel therapeutic implications for metabolic disorders that are triggered by increases in the microparticle formation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fibrin glue is a candidate scaffold for long-term therapeutic protein expression in spontaneously differentiated adipocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Aoyagi, Yasuyuki; Kuroda, Masayuki; Asada, Sakiyo; Tanaka, Shigeaki; Konno, Shunichi; Tanio, Masami; Aso, Masayuki; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Nakayama, Toshinori; Saito, Yasushi; Bujo, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue is expected to provide a source of cells for protein replacement therapies via auto-transplantation. However, the conditioning of the environment surrounding the transplanted adipocytes for their long-term survival and protein secretion properties has not been established. We have recently developed a preparation procedure for preadipocytes, ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs), as a therapeutic gene vehicle suitable for stable gene product secretion. We herein report the results of our evaluation of using fibrin glue as a scaffold for the transplanted ccdPAs for the expression of a transduced gene in a three-dimensional culture system. The ccdPAs secreted the functional protein translated from an exogenously transduced gene, as well as physiological adipocyte proteins, and the long viability of ccdPAs (up to 84 days) was dependent on the fibrinogen concentrations. The ccdPAs spontaneously accumulated lipid droplets, and their expression levels of the transduced exogenous gene with its product were maintained for at least 56 days. The fibrinogen concentration modified the adipogenic differentiation of ccdPAs and their exogenous gene expression levels, and the levels of exogenously transduced gene expression at the different fibrinogen concentrations were dependent on the extent of adipogenic differentiation in the gel. These results indicate that fibrin glue helps to maintain the high adipogenic potential of cultured adipocytes after passaging in a 3D culture system, and suggests that once they are successfully implanted at the transplantation site, the cells exhibit increased expression of the transduced gene with adipogenic differentiation.

  13. Anthocyanins from Purple Corn Ameliorated TNF-α-Induced Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes via Activation of Insulin Signaling and Enhanced GLUT4 Translocation.

    PubMed

    Luna-Vital, Diego; Weiss, Matthew; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2017-07-31

    The aim was to compare the effect of an anthocyanin-rich extract from purple corn pericarp (PCW) and pure anthocyanins on adipogenesis, inflammation and insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes on basal and inflammatory conditions. Preadipocytes (3T3-L1) were treated during differentiation with or without PCW. Differentiated adipocytes were treated either individually or in combination with tumor necrosis factor TNF-α and PCW, or pure C3G, Pg3G, P3G. PCW reduced preadipocyte differentiation (IC50 = 0.4 mg/mL). PCW and pure anthocyanins including C3G reduced fatty acid synthase enzymatic activity. PCW reduced TNF-α-dependent inflammatory status increasing adiponectin (39%), and decreasing leptin (-79%). PCW and C3G increased glucose uptake and reduced reactive oxygen species generation in insulin resistant adipocytes. An increase in phosphorylation was observed in AKT, IKK, and MEK, and a decrease in IRS and mTOR activating the insulin receptor-associated pathway. PCW (7.5-fold) and C3G (6.3-fold) enhanced GLUT4 membrane translocation compared to insulin resistant adipocytes. Anthocyanins from colored corn prevented adipocyte differentiation, lipid accumulation and reduced PPAR-γ transcriptional activity on adipocytes in basal conditions. Ameliorated TNF-α-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in adipocytes via activation of insulin signaling and enhanced GLUT4 translocation suggesting a reduce hyperglycemia associated with the metabolic syndrome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. High-fat diet-induced adipocyte cell death occurs through a cyclophilin D intrinsic signaling pathway independent of adipose tissue inflammation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Daorong; Tang, Yan; Kwon, Hyokjoon; Zong, Haihong; Hawkins, Meredith; Kitsis, Richard N; Pessin, Jeffrey E

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) develop insulin resistance with proinflammatory macrophage infiltration into white adipose tissue. Concomitantly, adipocytes undergo programmed cell death with the loss of the adipocyte-specific lipid droplet protein perilipin, and the dead/dying adipocytes are surrounded by macrophages that are organized into crown-like structures. This study investigated whether adipocyte cell death provides the driving signal for macrophage inflammation or if inflammation induces adipocyte cell death. Two knockout mouse models were used: granulocyte/monocyte-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-null mice that are protected against HFD-induced adipose tissue inflammation and cyclophilin D (CyP-D)-null mice that are protected against adipocyte cell death. Mice were fed for 4-14 weeks with a 60% HFD, and different markers of cell death and inflammation were analyzed. HFD induced a normal extent of adipocyte cell death in GM-CSF-null mice, despite a marked reduction in adipose tissue inflammation. Similarly, depletion of macrophages by clodronate treatment prevented HFD-induced adipose tissue inflammation without any affect on adipocyte cell death. However, CyP-D deficiency strongly protected adipocytes from HFD-induced cell death, without affecting adipose tissue inflammation. These data demonstrate that HFD-induced adipocyte cell death is an intrinsic cellular response that is CyP-D dependent but is independent of macrophage infiltration/activation.

  15. Seapolynol Extracted from Ecklonia cava Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation in Vitro and Decreases Fat Accumulation in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hui-Jeon; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Yeon-Joo; Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Seo, Min-Jung; Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2015-12-04

    Seapolynol (SN) is a polyphenol mixture derived from Ecklonia cava. We evaluated the effects of SN on lipid accumulation in adipocytes, zebrafish, and mice. SN effectively inhibited lipid accumulation in three experimental models by suppressing adipogenic factors. Triglyceride synthetic enzymes such as diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) and GPAT3 were also downregulated by SN. This SN-induced inhibition of adipogenic factors was shown to be due to the regulatory effect of SN on early adipogenic factors; SN downregulated the expression of Krueppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), KLF5, CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ), C/EBPδ, and Protein C-ets-2 (ETS2), while KLF2, an anti-early adipogenic factor, was upregulated by SN. SN-mediated inhibition in early adipogenesis was closely correlated with the inhibition of mitotic clonal expansion via cell cycle arrest. SN inhibited cell cycle progression by suppressing cell cycle regulators, such as cyclin A, cyclinD, and pRb but increased p27, a cell cycle inhibitor. In a mouse study, SN effectively reduced body weight and plasma lipid increases induced by a high-fat diet; triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were markedly reduced by SN. Moreover, SN remarkably improved high-fat-diet-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. Furthermore, SN activated AMP-activated protein kinase-α (AMPKα), an energy sensor, to suppress acetyl-coA carboxylase (ACC), inhibiting lipid synthesis. Our study suggests that SN may be an edible agent that can play a positive role in prevention of metabolic disorders.

  16. Connective tissue growth factor regulates adipocyte differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells and facilitates leukemia bone marrow engraftment

    PubMed Central

    Battula, V. Lokesh; Chen, Ye; Cabreira, Maria da Graca; Ruvolo, Vivian; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Wencai; Konoplev, Sergej; Shpall, Elizabeth; Lyons, Karen; Strunk, Dirk; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Davis, Richard Eric; Konopleva, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a major component of the leukemia bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is highly expressed in MSCs, but its role in the BM stroma is unknown. Therefore, we knocked down (KD) CTGF expression in human BM-derived MSCs by CTGF short hairpin RNA. CTGF KD MSCs exhibited fivefold lower proliferation compared with control MSCs and had markedly fewer S-phase cells. CTGF KD MSCs differentiated into adipocytes at a sixfold higher rate than controls in vitro and in vivo. To study the effect of CTGF on engraftment of leukemia cells into BM, an in vivo model of humanized extramedullary BM (EXM-BM) was developed in NOD/SCID/IL-2rgnull mice. Transplanted Nalm-6 or Molm-13 human leukemia cells engrafted at a threefold higher rate in adipocyte-rich CTGF KD MSC-derived EXM-BM than in control EXM-BM. Leptin was found to be highly expressed in CTGF KD EXM-BM and in BM samples of patients with acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia, whereas it was not expressed in normal controls. Given the established role of the leptin receptor in leukemia cells, the data suggest an important role of CTGF in MSC differentiation into adipocytes and of leptin in homing and progression of leukemia. PMID:23741006

  17. Skp2 promotes adipocyte differentiation via a p27{sup Kip1}-independent mechanism in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Mitsuru; Sakai, Tamon; Nakamura, Takehiro; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Kitajima, Shigetaka; Matsuki, Yasushi; Watanabe, Eijiro; Hiramatsu, Ryuji; Sakaue, Hiroshi Kasuga, Masato

    2009-02-06

    Skp2, the substrate-binding subunit of an SCF ubiquitin ligase complex, is a key regulator of cell cycle progression that targets substrates for degradation by the 26S proteasome. We have now shown that ablation of Skp2 in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) results both in impairment of adipocyte differentiation and in the accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27{sup Kip1}, a principal target of the SCF{sup Skp2} complex. Genetic ablation of p27{sup Kip1} in MEFs promoted both lipid accumulation and adipocyte-specific gene expression. However, depletion of p27{sup Kip1} by adenovirus-mediated RNA interference failed to correct the impairment of adipocyte differentiation in Skp2{sup -/-} MEFs. In contrast, troglitazone, a high-affinity ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), largely restored lipid accumulation and PPAR{gamma} gene expression in Skp2{sup -/-} MEFs. Our data suggest that Skp2 plays an essential role in adipogenesis in MEFs in a manner that is at least in part independent of regulation of p27{sup Kip1} expression.

  18. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate suppresses adipocyte differentiation through the MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyojung; Sakamoto, Kazuichi

    2012-02-01

    EGCG [(-)-epigallocatechin gallate], tea catechin, is one of the compounds that has been reported to act against obesity and diabetes. To determine the effect of EGCG on adipocyte differentiation, we treated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with different catechins. Oil Red O staining showed significantly reduced intracellular lipid accumulation, especially with EGCG. Cell cycle analysis showed that EGCG inhibited cell proliferation by disturbing the cell cycle during the clonal expansion of 3T3-L1. RT-PCR (real-time PCR) demonstrated that EGCG noticeably reduced mRNA expression of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ), C/EBPα (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α) and FoxO1 (forkhead box class O1). EGCG also caused a significant decrease in the transcription of FoxO1 - the forkhead transcription factor class O1 involved in adipocyte differentiation - via the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt and MEK [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) kinase] pathways. These results suggest that EGCG suppresses the clonal expansion of adipocytes by inactivating FoxO1 via insulin signalling and stress-dependent MAPK pathways.

  19. [The dynamic mitochondria-nuclear redistribution of FKBP51 during the process of adipocyte differentiation is regulated by PKA].

    PubMed

    Toneatto, Judith; Charó, Nancy L; Susperreguy, Sebastián; Piwien-Pilipuk, Graciela

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids play an important role in adipogenesis via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) that forms a heterocomplex with Hsp90-Hsp70 and a high molecular weight immunophilin FKBP51 or FKBP52. We have found that FKBP51 level of expression progressively increases, FKBP52 decreases, whereas Hsp90, Hsp70, and p23 remain unchanged when 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiate. Interestingly, FKBP51 translocates from mitochondria to the nucleus at the onset of adipogenesis. FKBP51 transiently concentrates in the nuclear lamina, at a time that this nuclear compartment undergoes its reorganization. FKBP51 nuclear localization is transient, after 48 h it cycles back to mitochondria. We found that the dynamic FKBP51 mitochondrial-nuclear shuttling is regulated by glucocorticoids and mainly on cAMP-PKA signaling since PKA inhibition by myristoilated-PKI, abrogated FKBP51 nuclear translocation induced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). It has been reported that PKA interacts with GR in a ligand dependent manner potentiating its transcriptional capacity. GR transcriptional capacity is reduced when cells are incubated in the presence of IBMX, forskolin or dibutyryl-cAMP, compounds that induced nuclear translocation of FKBP51, therefore PKA may exert a dual role in the control of GR. In summary, the presence of FKBP51 in the nucleus may be critical for GR transcriptional control, and possibly for the control of other transcription factors that are not members of the nuclear receptor family but are