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Sample records for induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

  1. Zinc supplementation attenuates high glucose-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of peritoneal mesothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiuli; Wang, Jun; Fan, Yi; Yang, Lina; Wang, Lining; Ma, Jianfei

    2012-12-01

    Zinc (Zn) plays an important role in preventing many types of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-driven fibrosis in vivo. But its function in the EMT of the peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMCs) remains unknown. Here, we studied the Zn effect on the high glucose (HG)-induced EMT in the rat PMCs (RPMCs) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that Zn supplementation significantly inhibited TGF-β1 and ROS production, and attenuated the HG-induced EMT in the RPMCs, likely through inhibition of MAPK, NF-κB, and TGF-β/Smad pathways.

  2. Sox5 induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition by transactivation of Twist1

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Xin-Hong; Lv, Xin-Quan; Li, Hui-Xiang

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Depletion of Sox5 inhibits breast cancer proliferation, migration, and invasion. • Sox5 transactivates Twist1 expression. • Sox5 induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition through transactivation of Twist1 expression. - Abstract: The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a highly conserved cellular program, plays an important role in normal embryogenesis and cancer metastasis. Twist1, a master regulator of embryonic morphogenesis, is overexpressed in breast cancer and contributes to metastasis by promoting EMT. In exploring the mechanism underlying the increased Twist1 in breast cancer cells, we found that the transcription factor SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 5(Sox5) is up-regulation in breast cancer cells and depletion of Sox5 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Furthermore, depletion of Sox5 in breast cancer cells caused a dramatic decrease in Twist1 and chromosome immunoprecipitation assay showed that Sox5 can bind directly to the Twist1 promoter, suggesting that Sox5 transactivates Twist1 expression. We further demonstrated that knockdown of Sox5 up-regulated epithelial phenotype cell biomarker (E-cadherin) and down-regulated mesenchymal phenotype cell biomarkers (N-cadherin, Vimentin, and Fibronectin 1), resulting in suppression of EMT. Our study suggests that Sox5 transactivates Twist1 expression and plays an important role in the regulation of breast cancer progression.

  3. Inducible FGFR-1 activation leads to irreversible prostate adenocarcinoma and an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Victor D; Gangula, Rama D; Freeman, Kevin W; Li, Rile; Zhang, Youngyou; Wang, Fen; Ayala, Gustavo E; Peterson, Leif E; Ittmann, Michael; Spencer, David M

    2007-12-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-1 (FGFR1) is commonly overexpressed in advanced prostate cancer (PCa). To investigate causality, we utilized an inducible FGFR1 (iFGFR1) prostate mouse model. Activation of iFGFR1 with chemical inducers of dimerization (CID) led to highly synchronous, step-wise progression to adenocarcinoma that is linked to an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). iFGFR1 inactivation by CID withdrawal led to full reversion of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, whereas PCa lesions became iFGFR1-independent. Gene expression profiling at distinct stages of tumor progression revealed an increase in EMT-associated Sox9 and changes in the Wnt signaling pathway, including Fzd4, which was validated in human PCa. The iFGFR1 model clearly implicates FGFR1 in PCa progression and demonstrates how CID-inducible models can help evaluate candidate molecules in tumor progression and maintenance.

  4. Topographic confinement of epithelial clusters induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in compliant matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrollahi, Samila; Pathak, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cells disengage from their clusters and become motile by undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an essential process for both embryonic development and tumor metastasis. Growing evidence suggests that high extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness induces EMT. In reality, epithelial clusters reside in a heterogeneous microenvironment whose mechanical properties vary not only in terms of stiffness, but also topography, dimensionality, and confinement. Yet, very little is known about how various geometrical parameters of the ECM might influence EMT. Here, we adapt a hydrogel-microchannels based matrix platform to culture mammary epithelial cell clusters in ECMs of tunable stiffness and confinement. We report a previously unidentified role of ECM confinement in EMT induction. Surprisingly, confinement induces EMT even in the cell clusters surrounded by a soft matrix, which otherwise protects against EMT in unconfined environments. Further, we demonstrate that stiffness-induced and confinement-induced EMT work through cell-matrix adhesions and cytoskeletal polarization, respectively. These findings highlight that both the structure and the stiffness of the ECM can independently regulate EMT, which brings a fresh perspective to the existing paradigm of matrix stiffness-dependent dissemination and invasion of tumor cells.

  5. Topographic confinement of epithelial clusters induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in compliant matrices

    PubMed Central

    Nasrollahi, Samila; Pathak, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cells disengage from their clusters and become motile by undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an essential process for both embryonic development and tumor metastasis. Growing evidence suggests that high extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness induces EMT. In reality, epithelial clusters reside in a heterogeneous microenvironment whose mechanical properties vary not only in terms of stiffness, but also topography, dimensionality, and confinement. Yet, very little is known about how various geometrical parameters of the ECM might influence EMT. Here, we adapt a hydrogel-microchannels based matrix platform to culture mammary epithelial cell clusters in ECMs of tunable stiffness and confinement. We report a previously unidentified role of ECM confinement in EMT induction. Surprisingly, confinement induces EMT even in the cell clusters surrounded by a soft matrix, which otherwise protects against EMT in unconfined environments. Further, we demonstrate that stiffness-induced and confinement-induced EMT work through cell-matrix adhesions and cytoskeletal polarization, respectively. These findings highlight that both the structure and the stiffness of the ECM can independently regulate EMT, which brings a fresh perspective to the existing paradigm of matrix stiffness-dependent dissemination and invasion of tumor cells. PMID:26728047

  6. Montelukast suppresses epithelial to mesenchymal transition of bronchial epithelial cells induced by eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Hosoki, Koa; Kainuma, Keigo; Toda, Masaaki; Harada, Etsuko; Chelakkot-Govindalayathila, Ayshwarya-Lakshmi; Roeen, Ziaurahman; Nagao, Mizuho; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Fujisawa, Takao; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2014-07-04

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a mechanism by which eosinophils can induce airway remodeling. Montelukast, an antagonist of the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor, can suppress airway remodeling in asthma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether montelukast can ameliorate airway remodeling by blocking EMT induced by eosinophils. EMT induced was assessed using a co-culture system of human bronchial epithelial cells and human eosinophils or the eosinophilic leukemia cell lines, Eol-1. Montelukast inhibited co-culture associated morphological changes of BEAS-2b cells, decreased the expression of vimentin and collagen I, and increased the expression of E-cadherin. Montelukast mitigated the rise of TGF-β1 production and Smad3 phosphorylation. Co-culture of human eosinophils with BEAS-2B cells significantly enhanced the production of CysLTs compared with BEAS-2B cells or eosinophils alone. The increase of CysLTs was abolished by montelukast pre-treatment. Montelukast had similar effects when co-culture system of Eol-1 and BEAS-2B was used. This study showed that montelukast suppresses eosinophils-induced EMT of airway epithelial cells. This finding may explain the mechanism of montelukast-mediated amelioration of airway remodeling in bronchial asthma.

  7. FGFR4 promotes stroma-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Li, Jingyi; Xie, Ke; Zhang, Tao; Lei, Yunlong; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Kai; Wang, Kui; Wu, Hong; Wu, Min; Nice, Edouard C; Huang, Canhua; Wei, Yuquan

    2013-10-01

    Tumor cells evolve by interacting with the local microenvironment; however, the tumor-stroma interactions that govern tumor metastasis are poorly understood. In this study, proteomic analyses reveal that coculture with tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAF) induces significant overexpression of FGFR4, but not other FGFRs, in colorectal cancer cell lines. Mechanistic study shows that FGFR4 plays crucial roles in TAF-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in colorectal cancer cell lines. Accumulated FGFR4 in cell membrane phosphorylates β-catenin, leading to translocation of β-catenin into the nucleus. Further, TAF-derived CCL2 and its downstream transcription factor, Ets-1, are prerequisites for TAF-induced FGFR4 upregulation. Furthermore, FGFR4-associated pathways are shown to be preferentially activated in colorectal tumor samples, and direct tumor metastasis in a mouse metastasis model. Our study shows a pivotal role of FGFR4 in tumor-stroma interactions during colorectal cancer metastasis, and suggests novel therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of colorectal cancer.

  8. Inflammation Mediated Metastasis: Immune Induced Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition in Inflammatory Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Evan N; Gao, Hui; Anfossi, Simone; Mego, Michal; Reddy, Neelima G; Debeb, Bisrat; Giordano, Antonio; Tin, Sanda; Wu, Qiong; Garza, Raul J; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Mani, Sendurai A; Croix, Denise A; Ueno, Naoto T; Woodward, Wendy A; Luthra, Raja; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Reuben, James M

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most insidious form of locally advanced breast cancer; about a third of patients have distant metastasis at initial staging. Emerging evidence suggests that host factors in the tumor microenvironment may interact with underlying IBC cells to make them aggressive. It is unknown whether immune cells associated to the IBC microenvironment play a role in this scenario to transiently promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in these cells. We hypothesized that soluble factors secreted by activated immune cells can induce an EMT in IBC and thus promote metastasis. In a pilot study of 16 breast cancer patients, TNF-α production by peripheral blood T cells was correlated with the detection of circulating tumor cells expressing EMT markers. In a variety of IBC model cell lines, soluble factors from activated T cells induced expression of EMT-related genes, including FN1, VIM, TGM2, ZEB1. Interestingly, although IBC cells exhibited increased invasion and migration following exposure to immune factors, the expression of E-cadherin (CDH1), a cell adhesion molecule, increased uniquely in IBC cell lines but not in non-IBC cell lines. A combination of TNF-α, IL-6, and TGF-β was able to recapitulate EMT induction in IBC, and conditioned media preloaded with neutralizing antibodies against these factors exhibited decreased EMT. These data suggest that release of cytokines by activated immune cells may contribute to the aggressiveness of IBC and highlight these factors as potential target mediators of immune-IBC interaction.

  9. Human RON receptor tyrosine kinase induces complete epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition but causes cellular senescence

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Marceline; Miller, A. Dusty; Liu, Shan-Lu

    2014-01-01

    The RON receptor tyrosine kinase is a member of the MET proto-oncogene family and is important for cell proliferation, differentiation, and cancer development. Here we created a series of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell clones that express different levels of RON, and have investigated their biological properties. While low levels of RON correlated with little morphological change in MDCK cells, high levels of RON expression constitutively led to morphological scattering or complete and stabilized epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Unexpectedly, MDCK clones expressing higher levels of RON exhibited retarded proliferation and senescence, despite increased motility and invasiveness. RON was constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated in MDCK cells expressing high levels of RON and undergoing EMT, and the MAPK signaling pathway was activated. This study reveals for the first time that RON alone is sufficient to induce complete and stabilized EMT in MDCK cells, and overexpression of RON does not cause cell transformation but rather induce cell cycle arrest and senescence, leading to impaired cell proliferation. PMID:17588532

  10. Human RON receptor tyrosine kinase induces complete epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition but causes cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Côté, Marceline; Miller, A Dusty; Liu, Shan-Lu

    2007-08-17

    The RON receptor tyrosine kinase is a member of the MET proto-oncogene family and is important for cell proliferation, differentiation, and cancer development. Here, we created a series of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell clones that express different levels of RON, and have investigated their biological properties. While low levels of RON correlated with little morphological change in MDCK cells, high levels of RON expression constitutively led to morphological scattering or complete and stabilized epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Unexpectedly, MDCK clones expressing higher levels of RON exhibited retarded proliferation and senescence, despite increased motility and invasiveness. RON was constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated in MDCK cells expressing high levels of RON and undergoing EMT, and the MAPK signaling pathway was activated. This study reveals for the first time that RON alone is sufficient to induce complete and stabilized EMT in MDCK cells, and overexpression of RON does not cause cell transformation but rather induces cell cycle arrest and senescence, leading to impaired cell proliferation.

  11. Human RON receptor tyrosine kinase induces complete epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition but causes cellular senescence

    SciTech Connect

    Cote, Marceline; Miller, A. Dusty; Liu, Shan-Lu . E-mail: shan-lu.liu@mcgill.ca

    2007-08-17

    The RON receptor tyrosine kinase is a member of the MET proto-oncogene family and is important for cell proliferation, differentiation, and cancer development. Here, we created a series of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cell clones that express different levels of RON, and have investigated their biological properties. While low levels of RON correlated with little morphological change in MDCK cells, high levels of RON expression constitutively led to morphological scattering or complete and stabilized epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Unexpectedly, MDCK clones expressing higher levels of RON exhibited retarded proliferation and senescence, despite increased motility and invasiveness. RON was constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated in MDCK cells expressing high levels of RON and undergoing EMT, and the MAPK signaling pathway was activated. This study reveals for the first time that RON alone is sufficient to induce complete and stabilized EMT in MDCK cells, and overexpression of RON does not cause cell transformation but rather induces cell cycle arrest and senescence, leading to impaired cell proliferation.

  12. Organochlorine pesticides induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition of human primary cultured hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Zucchini-Pascal, Nathalie; Peyre, Ludovic; de Sousa, Georges; Rahmani, Roger

    2012-11-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of organic or chemicals that adversely affect human health and are persistent in the environment. These highly toxic compounds include industrial chemicals, pesticides such as organochlorines, and unwanted wastes such as dioxins. Although studies have described the general toxicity effects of organochlorine pesticides, the mechanisms underlying its potential carcinogenic effects in the liver are not well understood. In this study, we analyzed the effect of three organochlorine pesticides (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, heptachlore and endosulfan) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in primary cultured human hepatocytes. We found that these compounds modified the hepatocyte phenotype, inducing cell spread, formation of lamellipodia structures and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in stress fibers. These morphological alterations were accompanied by disruption of cell-cell junctions, E-cadherin repression and albumin down-regulation. Interestingly, these characteristic features of dedifferentiating hepatocytes were correlated with the gain of expression of various mesenchymal genes, including vimentin, fibronectin and its receptor ITGA5. These various results show that organochlorines and TCDD accelerate cultured human hepatocyte dedifferentiation and EMT processes. These events could account, at least in part, for the carcionogenic and/or fibrogenic activities of these POPs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A core microRNA signature associated with inducers of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Martín, Juan; Díaz-López, Antonio; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Castilla, M Ángeles; Rosa-Rosa, Juan M; Cano, Amparo; Palacios, José

    2014-02-01

    Although it is becoming clear that certain miRNAs fulfil a fundamental role in the regulation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a comprehensive study of the miRNAs associated with this process has yet to be performed. Here, we profiled the signature of miRNA expression in an in vitro model of EMT, ectopically expressing in MDCK cells one of seven EMT transcription factors (SNAI1, SNAI2, ZEB1, ZEB2, TWIST1, TWIST2 or E47) or the EMT inducer LOXL2. In this way, we identified a core subset of deregulated miRNAs that were further validated in vivo, studying endometrial carcinosarcoma (ECS), a tumour entity that represents an extreme example of phenotypic plasticity. Moreover, epigenetic silencing through DNA methylation of miRNA genes of the miR-200 family and miR-205 that are down-regulated during EMT was evident in both the in vitro (MDCK transfectants) and in vivo (ECS) models of EMT. The strong correlation between expression and DNA methylation suggests a major role for this epigenetic mark in the regulation of the miR-141-200c locus. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Soluble Dietary Fiber Ameliorates Radiation-Induced Intestinal Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianbo; Ding, Chao; Dai, Xujie; Lv, Tengfei; Xie, Tingbing; Zhang, Tenghui; Gao, Wen; Gong, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weiming; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2016-09-22

    Intestinal fibrosis is a late complication of pelvic radiotherapy. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in tissue fibrosis. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of soluble dietary fiber on radiation-induced intestinal EMT and fibrosis in a mouse model. Apple pectin (4% wt/wt in drinking water) was administered to wild-type and pVillin-Cre-EGFP transgenic mice with intestinal fibrosis induced by a single dose of abdominal irradiation of 10 Gy. The effects of pectin on intestinal EMT and fibrosis, gut microbiota, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration were evaluated. Intestinal fibrosis in late radiation enteropathy showed increased submucosal thickness and subepithelial collagen deposition. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)(+)/vimentin(+) and EGFP(+)/α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)(+) coexpressing cells were most clearly observed at 2 weeks after irradiation and gradually decreased at 4 and 12 weeks. Pectin significantly attenuated the thickness of submucosa and collagen deposition at 12 weeks (24.3 vs 27.6 µm in the pectin + radiation-treated group compared with radiation-alone group, respectively, P < .05; 69.0% vs 57.1%, P < .001) and ameliorated EMT at 2 and 4 weeks. Pectin also modulated the intestinal microbiota composition and increased the luminal SCFA concentration. The soluble dietary fiber pectin protected the terminal ileum against radiation-induced fibrosis. This effect might be mediated by altered SCFA concentration in the intestinal lumen and reduced EMT in the ileal epithelium. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  15. Interleukin-17 promotes prostate cancer via MMP7-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Q; Liu, S; Parajuli, KR; Zhang, W; Zhang, K; Mo, Z; Liu, J; Chen, Z; Yang, S; Wang, AR; Myers, L; You, Z

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has been associated with a variety of human cancers including prostate cancer. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a critical pro-inflammatory cytokine, which has been demonstrated to promote development of prostate cancer, colon cancer, skin cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, and pancreas cancer. IL-17 promotes prostate adenocarcinoma with a concurrent increase of matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) expression in mouse prostate. Whether MMP7 mediates IL-17’s action and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We generated Mmp7 and Pten double knockout (Mmp7−/− in abbreviation) mouse model and demonstrated that MMP7 promotes prostate adenocarcinoma through induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in Pten-null mice. MMP7 disrupted E-cadherin/β-catenin complex to up-regulate EMT transcription factors in mouse prostate tumors. IL-17 receptor C and Pten double knockout mice recapitulated the weak EMT characteristics observed in Mmp7−/− mice. IL-17 induced MMP7 and EMT in human prostate cancer LNCaP, C4-2B, and PC-3 cell lines, while siRNA knockdown of MMP7 inhibited IL-17-induced EMT. Compound III, a selective MMP7 inhibitor, decreased development of invasive prostate cancer in Pten single knockout mice. In human normal prostates and prostate tumors, IL-17 mRNA levels were positively correlated with MMP7 mRNA levels. These findings demonstrate that MMP7 mediates IL-17’s function in promoting prostate carcinogenesis through induction of EMT, indicating IL-17-MMP7-EMT axis as potential targets for developing new strategies in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:27375020

  16. The cardiotonic steroid hormone marinobufagenin induces renal fibrosis: implication of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, Larisa V; Raju, Vanamala; El-Okdi, Nasser; Shidyak, Amjad; Kennedy, David J; Vetteth, Sandeep; Giovannucci, David R; Bagrov, Alexei Y; Fedorova, Olga V; Shapiro, Joseph I; Malhotra, Deepak

    2009-04-01

    We recently demonstrated that the cardiotonic steroid marinobufagenin (MBG) induced fibrosis in rat hearts through direct stimulation of collagen I secretion by cardiac fibroblasts. This stimulation was also responsible for the cardiac fibrosis seen in experimental renal failure. In this study, the effect of MBG on the development of renal fibrosis in rats was investigated. Four weeks of MBG infusion triggered mild periglomerular and peritubular fibrosis in the cortex and the appearance of fibrotic scars in the corticomedullary junction of the kidney. MBG also significantly increased the protein levels and nuclear localization of the transcription factor Snail in the tubular epithelia. It is known that activation of Snail is associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during renal fibrosis. To examine whether MBG alone can trigger EMT, we used the porcine proximal tubular cell line LLC-PK1. MBG (100 nM) caused LLC-PK1 cells grown to confluence to acquire a fibroblast-like shape and have an invasive motility. The expressions of the mesenchymal proteins collagen I, fibronectin, and vimentin were increased twofold. However, the total level of E-cadherin remained unchanged. These alterations in LLC-PK1 cells in the presence of MBG were accompanied by elevated expression and nuclear translocation of Snail. During the time course of EMT, MBG did not have measurable inhibitory effects on the ion pumping activity of its natural ligand, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. Our data suggest that the MBG may be an important factor in inducing EMT and, through this mechanism, elevated levels of MBG in chronic renal failure may play a role in the progressive fibrosis.

  17. Negative regulation of TGFβ-induced lens epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) by RTK antagonists.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guannan; Wojciechowski, Magdalena C; Jee, Seonah; Boros, Jessica; McAvoy, John W; Lovicu, Frank J

    2015-03-01

    An eclectic range of ocular growth factors with differing actions are present within the aqueous and vitreous humors that bathe the lens. Growth factors that exert their actions via receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as FGF, play a normal regulatory role in lens; whereas other factors, such as TGFβ, can lead to an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) that underlies several forms of cataract. The respective downstream intracellular signaling pathways of these factors are in turn tightly regulated. One level of negative regulation is thought to be through RTK-antagonists, namely, Sprouty (Spry), Sef and Spred that are all expressed in the lens. In this study, we tested these different negative regulators and compared their ability to block TGFβ-induced EMT in rat lens epithelial cells. Spred expression within the rodent eye was confirmed using RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence. Rat lens epithelial explants were used to examine the morphological changes associated with TGFβ-induced EMT over 3 days of culture, as well as α-smooth muscle actin (α-sma) immunolabeling. Cells in lens epithelial explants were transfected with either a reporter (EGFP) vector (pLXSG), or with plasmids also coding for different RTK-antagonists (i.e. pLSXG-Spry1, pLSXG-Spry2, pLXSG-Sef, pLSXG-Spred1, pLSXG-Spred2, pLSXG-Spred3), before treating with TGFβ for up to 3 days. The percentages of transfected cells that underwent TGFβ-induced morphological changes consistent with an EMT were determined using cell counts and validated with a paired two-tailed t-test. Explants transfected with pLXSG demonstrated a distinct transition in cell morphology after TGFβ treatment, with ∼60% of the cells undergoing fibrotic-like cell elongation. This percentage was significantly reduced in cells overexpressing the different antagonists, indicative of a block in lens EMT. Of the antagonists tested under these in vitro conditions, Spred1 was the most potent demonstrating the

  18. MUC1 enhances invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells by inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Lopamudra Das; Sahraei, Mahnaz; Subramani, Durai B.; Besmer, Dahlia; Nath, Sritama; Tinder, Teresa L.; Bajaj, Ekta; Shanmugam, Kandavel; Lee, Yong Yook; Hwang, Sun IL; Gendler, Sandra J.; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2010-01-01

    Increased motility and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells are associated with epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Snai1 and Slug are zinc-finger transcription factors that trigger this process by repressing E-cadherin and enhancing vimentin and N-Cadherin protein expression. However, the mechanisms that regulate this activation in pancreatic tumors remain elusive. MUC1, a transmembrane mucin glycoprotein, is associated with the most invasive forms of pancreatic adenocarcinomas (PDA). In this study, we show that over expression of MUC1 in pancreatic cancer cells triggers the molecular process of EMT which translates to increased invasiveness and metastasis. EMT was significantly reduced when Muc1 was genetically deleted in a mouse model of PDA or when all seven tyrosines in the cytoplasmic tail of MUC1 were mutated to phenylalanine (mutated MUC1 CT). Using proteomics, RT-PCR, and Western blotting, we revealed a significant increase in vimentin, Slug and Snail expression with repression of E-Cadherin in MUC1-expressing cells compared to cells expressing the mutated MUC1 CT. In the cells that carried the mutated MUC1 CT, MUC1 failed to co-immunoprecipitate with β-catenin and translocate to the nucleus thereby blocking transcription of the genes associated with EMT and metastasis. Thus, functional tyrosines are critical in stimulating the interactions between MUC1 and β-catenin and their nuclear translocation to initiate the process of EMT. This study signifies the oncogenic role of MUC1 CT and is the first to identify a direct role of the MUC1 in initiating EMT during pancreatic cancer. The data may have implications in future design of MUC1-targeted therapies for pancreatic cancer. PMID:21102519

  19. MUC1 enhances invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells by inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Roy, L D; Sahraei, M; Subramani, D B; Besmer, D; Nath, S; Tinder, T L; Bajaj, E; Shanmugam, K; Lee, Y Y; Hwang, S I L; Gendler, S J; Mukherjee, P

    2011-03-24

    Increased motility and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells are associated with epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Snai1 and Slug are zinc-finger transcription factors that trigger this process by repressing E-cadherin and enhancing vimentin and N-cadherin protein expression. However, the mechanisms that regulate this activation in pancreatic tumors remain elusive. MUC1, a transmembrane mucin glycoprotein, is associated with the most invasive forms of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDA). In this study, we show that over expression of MUC1 in pancreatic cancer cells triggers the molecular process of EMT, which translates to increased invasiveness and metastasis. EMT was significantly reduced when MUC1 was genetically deleted in a mouse model of PDA or when all seven tyrosines in the cytoplasmic tail of MUC1 were mutated to phenylalanine (mutated MUC1 CT). Using proteomics, RT-PCR and western blotting, we revealed a significant increase in vimentin, Slug and Snail expression with repression of E-Cadherin in MUC1-expressing cells compared with cells expressing the mutated MUC1 CT. In the cells that carried the mutated MUC1 CT, MUC1 failed to co-immunoprecipitate with β-catenin and translocate to the nucleus, thereby blocking transcription of the genes associated with EMT and metastasis. Thus, functional tyrosines are critical in stimulating the interactions between MUC1 and β-catenin and their nuclear translocation to initiate the process of EMT. This study signifies the oncogenic role of MUC1 CT and is the first to identify a direct role of the MUC1 in initiating EMT during pancreatic cancer. The data may have implications in future design of MUC1-targeted therapies for pancreatic cancer.

  20. Salinomycin suppresses TGF-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunying; Lu, Ying; Li, Qing; Mao, Jun; Hou, Zhenhuan; Yu, Xiaotang; Fan, Shujun; Li, Jiazhi; Gao, Tong; Yan, Bing; Wang, Bo; Song, Bo; Li, Lianhong

    2016-03-25

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the major cause of breast cancer to initiate invasion and metastasis. Salinomycin (Sal) has been found as an effective chemical compound to kill breast cancer stem cells. However, the effect of Sal on invasion and metastasis of breast cancer is unclear. In the present study, we showed that Sal reversed transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) induced invasion and metastasis accompanied with down-regulation of MMP-2 by experiments on human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Sal was able to inhibit TGF-β1-induced EMT phenotypic transition and the activation of key signaling molecules involved in Smad (p-Smad2/3,Snail1) and non-Smad (β-catenin, p-p38 MAPK) signals which cooperatively regulate the induction of EMT. Importantly, in a series of breast cancer specimens, we found strong correlation among E-cadherin expression, β-catenin expression, and the lymph node metastatic potential of breast cancer. Our research suggests that Sal is promised to be a chemotherapeutic drug by suppressing the metastasis of breast cancer.

  1. Lin28 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and stemness via downregulation of let-7a in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yujie; Li, Haiyan; Feng, Juan; Cui, Xiuying; Huang, Wei; Li, Yudong; Su, Fengxi; Liu, Qiang; Zhu, Jiujun; Lv, Xiaobin; Chen, Jianing; Huang, Di; Yu, Fengyan

    2013-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein Lin28 is known to promote malignancy by inhibiting the biogenesis of let-7, which functions as a tumor suppressor. However, the role of the Lin28/let-7 axis in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness in breast cancer has not been clearly expatiated. In our previous study, we demonstrated that let-7 regulates self-renewal and tumorigenicity of breast cancer stem cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that Lin28 was highly expressed in mesenchymal (M) type cells (MDA-MB-231 and SK-3rd), but it was barely detectable in epithelial (E) type cells (MCF-7 and BT-474). Lin28 remarkably induced the EMT, increased a higher mammosphere formation rate and ALDH activity and subsequently promoted colony formation, as well as adhesion and migration in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Lin28 induced EMT in breast cancer cells via downregulation of let-7a. Strikingly, Lin28 overexpression was found in breast cancers that had undergone metastasis and was strongly predictive of poor prognoses in breast cancers. Given that Lin28 induced the EMT via let-7a and promoted breast cancer metastasis, Lin28 may be a therapeutic target for the eradication of breast cancer metastasis.

  2. Lin28 Induces Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Stemness via Downregulation of Let-7a in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Li, Yudong; Su, Fengxi; Liu, Qiang; Zhu, Jiujun; Lv, Xiaobin; Chen, Jianing; Huang, Di; Yu, Fengyan

    2013-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein Lin28 is known to promote malignancy by inhibiting the biogenesis of let-7, which functions as a tumor suppressor. However, the role of the Lin28/let-7 axis in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness in breast cancer has not been clearly expatiated. In our previous study, we demonstrated that let-7 regulates self-renewal and tumorigenicity of breast cancer stem cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that Lin28 was highly expressed in mesenchymal (M) type cells (MDA-MB-231 and SK-3rd), but it was barely detectable in epithelial (E) type cells (MCF-7 and BT-474). Lin28 remarkably induced the EMT, increased a higher mammosphere formation rate and ALDH activity and subsequently promoted colony formation, as well as adhesion and migration in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Lin28 induced EMT in breast cancer cells via downregulation of let-7a. Strikingly, Lin28 overexpression was found in breast cancers that had undergone metastasis and was strongly predictive of poor prognoses in breast cancers. Given that Lin28 induced the EMT via let-7a and promoted breast cancer metastasis, Lin28 may be a therapeutic target for the eradication of breast cancer metastasis. PMID:24349438

  3. Thymosin β4 induces proliferation, invasion, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kyoung-Ok; Lee, Jae-Il; Hong, Sam-Pyo; Hong, Seong-Doo

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a vital role in carcinogenesis, invasion, and metastasis of many epithelial tumors including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), a common malignancy of the head and neck. However, the functional role of the actin-sequestering protein thymosin β4 (Tβ4) in the EMT in OSCCs remains unclear. Thus, we investigated whether overexpression of Tβ4 could induce in vitro tumorigenesis such as cell proliferation and anchorage independency and an EMT-like phenotype in OSCCs. Also, we examined whether it affects invasiveness and cell motility-associated signaling molecules. Tβ4-overexpressing OSCCs, SCC-15_Tβ4 and SCC-25_Tβ4, enhanced cell proliferation and colony formation. In addition, we observed that Tβ4 overexpression induced an EMT-like phenotype, accompanied by a decrease in expression of the epithelial cell marker E-cadherin and an increase in expression of mesenchymal cell markers vimentin and N-cadherin. Also, the expression level of Twist1, an EMT-inducing transcription factor, was significantly enhanced in SCC-15_Tβ4 and SCC-25_Tβ4 cells. Tβ4 overexpression augmented in vitro invasion and MMP-2 activity and enhanced the phosphorylation of paxillin and cortactin and expression of LIMK1. Taken together, these results suggest that Tβ4 overexpression could be one of the causes of tumorigenesis and progression in OSCCs. Further investigation on the Tβ4 molecule would encourage the development of specific targets for cancer treatment.

  4. Sprouty Is a Negative Regulator of Transforming Growth Factor β–Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Cataract

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eun Hye H; Basson, M Albert; Robinson, Michael L; McAvoy, John W; Lovicu, Frank J

    2012-01-01

    Fibrosis affects an extensive range of organs and is increasingly acknowledged as a major component of many chronic disorders. It is now well accepted that the elevated expression of certain inflammatory cell–derived cytokines, especially transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), is involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) leading to the pathogenesis of a diverse range of fibrotic diseases. In lens, aberrant TGFβ signaling has been shown to induce EMT leading to cataract formation. Sproutys (Sprys) are negative feedback regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-signaling pathways in many vertebrate systems, and in this study we showed that they are important in the murine lens for promoting the lens epithelial cell phenotype. Conditional deletion of Spry1 and Spry2 specifically from the lens leads to an aberrant increase in RTK-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation and, surprisingly, elevated TGFβ-related signaling in lens epithelial cells, leading to an EMT and subsequent cataract formation. Conversely, increased Spry overexpression in lens cells can suppress not only TGFβ-induced signaling, but also the accompanying EMT and cataract formation. On the basis of these findings, we propose that a better understanding of the relationship between Spry and TGFβ signaling will not only elucidate the etiology of lens pathology, but will also lead to the development of treatments for other fibrotic-related diseases associated with TGFβ-induced EMT. PMID:22517312

  5. Chromatinized Protein Kinase C-θ Directly Regulates Inducible Genes in Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Anjum; Wu, Fan; Hardy, Kristine; Li, Jasmine; Tu, Wen Juan; McCuaig, Robert; Harris, Janelle; Khanna, Kum Kum; Attema, Joanne; Gregory, Philip A.; Goodall, Gregory J.; Harrington, Kirsti; Dahlstrom, Jane E.; Boulding, Tara; Madden, Rebecca; Tan, Abel; Milburn, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is activated during cancer invasion and metastasis, enriches for cancer stem cells (CSCs), and contributes to therapeutic resistance and disease recurrence. Signal transduction kinases play a pivotal role as chromatin-anchored proteins in eukaryotes. Here we report for the first time that protein kinase C-theta (PKC-θ) promotes EMT by acting as a critical chromatin-anchored switch for inducible genes via transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and the key inflammatory regulatory protein NF-κB. Chromatinized PKC-θ exists as an active transcription complex and is required to establish a permissive chromatin state at signature EMT genes. Genome-wide analysis identifies a unique cohort of inducible PKC-θ-sensitive genes that are directly tethered to PKC-θ in the mesenchymal state. Collectively, we show that cross talk between signaling kinases and chromatin is critical for eliciting inducible transcriptional programs that drive mesenchymal differentiation and CSC formation, providing novel mechanisms to target using epigenetic therapy in breast cancer. PMID:24891615

  6. LincRNA-ROR induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and contributes to breast cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hou, P; Zhao, Y; Li, Z; Yao, R; Ma, M; Gao, Y; Zhao, L; Zhang, Y; Huang, B; Lu, J

    2014-06-12

    LncRNAs have critical roles in various biological processes ranging from embryonic development to human diseases, including cancer progression, although their detailed mechanistic functions remain illusive. The lncRNA linc-ROR has been shown to contribute to the maintenance of induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells. In this study, we discovered that linc-ROR was upregulated in breast tumor samples, and ectopic overexpression of linc-ROR in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells induced an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program. Moreover, we showed that linc-ROR enhanced breast cancer cell migration and invasion, which was accompanied by generation of stem cell properties. Contrarily, silencing of linc-ROR repressed breast tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, our data revealed that linc-ROR was associated with miRNPs and functioned as a competing endogenous RNA to mi-205. Specifically, linc-ROR prevented the degradation of mir-205 target genes, including the EMT inducer ZEB2. Thus our results indicate that linc-ROR functions as an important regulator of EMT and can promote breast cancer progression and metastasis through regulation of miRNAs. Potentially, the findings of this study implicate the relevance of linc-ROR as a possible therapeutic target for aggressive and metastatic breast cancers.

  7. SNAIL-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition produces concerted biophysical changes from altered cytoskeletal gene expression.

    PubMed

    McGrail, Daniel J; Mezencev, Roman; Kieu, Quang Minh N; McDonald, John F; Dawson, Michelle R

    2015-04-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the developmental process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is co-opted by cancer cells to metastasize to distant sites. This transition is associated with morphologic elongation and loss of cell-cell adhesions, though little is known about how it alters cell biophysical properties critical for migration. Here, we use multiple-particle tracking (MPT) microrheology and traction force cytometry to probe how genetic induction of EMT in epithelial MCF7 breast cancer cells changes their intracellular stiffness and extracellular force exertion, respectively, relative to an empty vector control. This analysis demonstrated that EMT alone was sufficient to produce dramatic cytoskeletal softening coupled with increases in cell-exerted traction forces. Microarray analysis revealed that these changes corresponded with down-regulation of genes associated with actin cross-linking and up-regulation of genes associated with actomyosin contraction. Finally, we show that this loss of structural integrity to expedite migration could inhibit mesenchymal cell proliferation in a secondary tumor as it accumulates solid stress. This work demonstrates that not only does EMT enable escape from the primary tumor through loss of cell adhesions but it also induces a concerted series of biophysical changes enabling enhanced migration of cancer cells after detachment from the primary tumor. © FASEB.

  8. High expression of lncRNA PVT1 promotes invasion by inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiangxiang; Hu, Haibo; Li, Shiting

    2016-01-01

    The long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) has been identified as an oncogene in numerous diseases, and aberrant lncRNA PVT1 expression has been associated with the development of cancer. However, the underlying mechanism by which lncRNA PVT1 affects cell invasion in esophageal cancer has been not demonstrated. In the current study, the expression of lncRNA PVT1 was found to be increased in esophageal cancer specimens (n=77) by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and was correlated with tumor stage (P=0.009) and metastasis (P<0.001). In vitro, by using transwell assay, upregulation of lncRNA PVT1 promoted the invasion of TE-1 esophageal cancer cells; while downregulation of lncRNA PVT1 inhibited Eca-109 cell invasion. In addition, western blot analysis indicated that upregulation of lncRNA PVT1 may induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by regulating the expression levels of EMT markers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin). In conclusion, lncRNA PVT1 is able to regulate the invasion of esophageal cancer cells by inducing EMT. PMID:27698800

  9. Snail-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Enhances P-gp-Mediated Multi Drug Resistance in HCC827 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tomono, Takumi; Yano, Kentaro; Ogihara, Takuo

    2017-03-17

    Overexpression and/or activation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which mediates efflux transport of various anti-cancer drugs in cancer cells, are associated with multi-drug resistance (MDR). On the other hand, malignant cancer cells frequently undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), thereby acquiring high migratory mobility and invasive ability. Snail is a transcriptional factor that represses multiple other factors, and its overexpression is a trigger of EMT. Since both P-gp and Snail are involved in malignant evolution of cancer, in this work, we evaluated whether or not EMT induced by overexpression of Snail influences P-gp expression and/or activity. Snail-overexpressing cells showed downregulation of epithelial markers, E-cadherin, occludin and claudin-1, and upregulation of mesenchymal markers, vimenin and ZEB1. Although Western blot analysis showed that P-gp expression levels were similar in Mock and Snail-overexpressing cells, the results of P-gp functional assays with P-gp substrates rhodamine123 and paclitaxel indicated that P-gp is activated in Snail-overexpressing cells. Indeed, Snail-overexpressing cells showed greater viability than Mock cells in the presence of paclitaxel. We observed caveolin-1 dephosphorylation and decreased GRB2 expression in Snail-overexpressing cells. These findings suggest a novel pathway leading to cancer MDR, in which Snail induces EMT concomitantly with a decrease of GRB2-mediated caveolin-1 phosphorylation, resulting in activation of P-gp.

  10. Erythropoietin Induces an Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition-like Process in Mammary Epithelial Cells MCF10A.

    PubMed

    Ordoñez-Moreno, Alejandra; Rodriguez-Monterrosas, Cecilia; Cortes-Reynosa, Pedro; Perez-Carreon, Julio Isael; Perez Salazar, Eduardo

    2017-03-01

    Anemia is associated with chemotherapy treatment in cancer patients. Erythropoietin (EPO) has been used to treat anemia of cancer patients, because it stimulates erythropoiesis. However, treatment of breast cancer patients with EPO has been associated with poor prognosis and decrease of survival. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells are transdifferentiated to a mesenchymal state. It has been implicated in tumor progression, because epithelial cells acquire the capacity to execute the multiple steps of invasion/metastasis process. However, the role of EPO on EMT process in human mammary epithelial cells has not been studied. In the present study, we demonstrate that EPO promotes a decrease of E-cadherin expression, an increase of N-cadherin, vimentin and Snail2 expression, activation of FAK and Src kinases and an increase of MMP-2 and MMP-9 secretions. Moreover, EPO induces an increase of NFκB DNA binding activity, an increase of binding of p50 and p65 NFκB subunits to Snail1 promoter, migration and invasion in mammary non-tumorigenic epithelial cells MCF10A. In summary, these findings demonstrate, for the first time, that EPO induces an EMT-like process in mammary non-tumorigenic epithelial cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in penile squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Masferrer, Emili; Ferrándiz-Pulido, Carla; Masferrer-Niubò, Magalí; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Alfredo; Gil, Inmaculada; Pont, Antoni; Servitje, Octavi; García de Herreros, Antonio; Lloveras, Belen; García-Patos, Vicenç; Pujol, Ramon M; Toll, Agustí; Hernández-Muñoz, Inmaculada

    2015-02-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is a phenomenon in epithelial tumors that involves loss of intercellular adhesion, mesenchymal phenotype acquisition and enhanced migratory potential. While the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition process has been extensively linked to metastatic progression of squamous cell carcinoma, studies of the role of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in squamous cell carcinoma containing high risk human papillomaviruses are scarce. Moreover, to our knowledge epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition involvement in human penile squamous cell carcinoma, which can arise through transforming HPV infections or independently of HPV, has not been investigated. We evaluated the presence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers and their relationship to HPV in penile squamous cell carcinoma. We assessed the expression of E-cadherin, vimentin and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition related transcription factors Twist, Zeb1 and Snail by immunohistochemical staining in 64 penile squamous cell carcinoma cases. HPV was detected by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Simultaneous loss of membranous E-cadherin expression and vimentin over expression were noted in 43.5% of penile squamous cell carcinoma cases. HPV was significantly associated with loss of membranous E-cadherin but not with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Recurrence and mortality rates were significantly higher in cases showing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Our findings indicate that in penile squamous cell carcinoma epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is associated with poor prognosis but not with the presence of HPV. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a promising biomarker, induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition in renal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Jingyuan; Chen, Xiao; Bai, Jin; Liu, Qinghua; Li, Hui; Xie, Jianwan; Jing, Hui; Zheng, Junnian

    2016-08-01

    Discoidin domain receptor I (DDR1) is confirmed as a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), which plays a consequential role in a variety of cancers. Nevertheless, the influence of DDR1 expression and development in renal clear cell carcinoma (RCCC) are still not well corroborated. In our research, we firstly discovered that the expression level of DDR1 was remarkable related to TNM stage (p = 0.032), depth of tumor invasion (p = 0.047), and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.034) in 119 RCCC tissue samples using tissue microarray. The function of DDR1 was then evaluated in vitro using collagen I and DDR1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) to regulate the expression of DDR1 in OS-RC-2 and ACHN renal cancer cells (RCC). DDR1 expression correlated with increased RCC cell migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. Further study revealed that high expression of DDR1 can result in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) activation. Western blot assay showed that the N-cadherin protein and vimentin were induced while E-cadherin was reduced after DDR1 over expression. Our results suggest that DDR1 is both a prognostic marker for RCCC and a potential functional target for therapy.

  13. Lysophosphatidic Acid Initiates Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Induces β-Catenin-mediated Transcription in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Burkhalter, Rebecca J.; Westfall, Suzanne D.; Liu, Yueying; Stack, M. Sharon

    2015-01-01

    During tumor progression, epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which influences metastatic success. Mutation-dependent activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in gain of mesenchymal phenotype and loss of differentiation in several solid tumors; however, similar mutations are rare in most EOC histotypes. Nevertheless, evidence for activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in EOC has been reported, and immunohistochemical analysis of human EOC tumors demonstrates nuclear staining in all histotypes. This study addresses the hypothesis that the bioactive lipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), prevalent in the EOC microenvironment, functions to regulate EMT in EOC. Our results demonstrate that LPA induces loss of junctional β-catenin, stimulates clustering of β1 integrins, and enhances the conformationally active population of surface β1 integrins. Furthermore, LPA treatment initiates nuclear translocation of β-catenin and transcriptional activation of Wnt/β-catenin target genes resulting in gain of mesenchymal marker expression. Together these data suggest that LPA initiates EMT in ovarian tumors through β1-integrin-dependent activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, providing a novel mechanism for mutation-independent activation of this pathway in EOC progression. PMID:26175151

  14. Genome-wide gain-of-function screen for genes that induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Škalamera, Dubravka; Dahmer-Heath, Mareike; Stevenson, Alexander J; Pinto, Cletus; Shah, Esha T; Daignault, Sheena M; Said, Nur Akmarina B M; Davis, Melissa; Haass, Nikolas K; Williams, Elizabeth D; Hollier, Brett G; Thompson, Erik W; Gabrielli, Brian; Gonda, Thomas J

    2016-09-20

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental program that has been implicated in progression, metastasis and therapeutic resistance of some carcinomas. To identify genes whose overexpression drives EMT, we screened a lentiviral expression library of 17000 human open reading frames (ORFs) using high-content imaging to quantitate cytoplasmic vimentin. Hits capable of increasing vimentin in the mammary carcinoma-derived cell line MDA-MB-468 were confirmed in the non-tumorigenic breast-epithelial cell line MCF10A. When overexpressed in this model, they increased the rate of cell invasion through Matrigel™, induced mesenchymal marker expression and reduced expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin. In gene-expression datasets derived from breast cancer patients, the expression of several novel genes correlated with expression of known EMT marker genes, indicating their in vivo relevance. As EMT-associated properties are thought to contribute in several ways to cancer progression, genes identified in this study may represent novel targets for anti-cancer therapy.

  15. Genome-wide gain-of-function screen for genes that induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Škalamera, Dubravka; Dahmer-Heath, Mareike; Stevenson, Alexander J.; Pinto, Cletus; Shah, Esha T.; Daignault, Sheena M.; Said, Nur Akmarina B.M.; Davis, Melissa; Haass, Nikolas K.; Williams, Elizabeth D.; Hollier, Brett G.; Thompson, Erik W.; Gabrielli, Brian; Gonda, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental program that has been implicated in progression, metastasis and therapeutic resistance of some carcinomas. To identify genes whose overexpression drives EMT, we screened a lentiviral expression library of 17000 human open reading frames (ORFs) using high-content imaging to quantitate cytoplasmic vimentin. Hits capable of increasing vimentin in the mammary carcinoma-derived cell line MDA-MB-468 were confirmed in the non-tumorigenic breast-epithelial cell line MCF10A. When overexpressed in this model, they increased the rate of cell invasion through Matrigel™, induced mesenchymal marker expression and reduced expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin. In gene-expression datasets derived from breast cancer patients, the expression of several novel genes correlated with expression of known EMT marker genes, indicating their in vivo relevance. As EMT-associated properties are thought to contribute in several ways to cancer progression, genes identified in this study may represent novel targets for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:27876705

  16. Geranylgeranylacetone alleviates radiation-induced lung injury by inhibiting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-Sun; Son, Yeonghoon; Jung, Myung-Gu; Jeong, Ye Ji; Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Su-Jae; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Lee, Hae-June

    2016-06-01

    Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) involves pneumonitis and fibrosis, and results in pulmonary dysfunction. Moreover, RILI can be a fatal complication of thoracic radiotherapy. The present study investigated the protective effect of geranylgeranlyacetone (GGA), an inducer of heat shock protein (HSP)70, on RILI using a C57BL/6 mouse model of RILI developing 6 months subsequent to exposure to 12.5 Gy thoracic radiation. GGA was administered 5 times orally prior and subsequent to radiation exposure, and the results were assessed by histological analysis and western blotting. The results show that late RILI was alleviated by GGA treatment, possibly through the suppression of epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker expression. Based on histological examination, orally administered GGA during the acute phase of radiation injury not only significantly inhibited pro‑surfactant protein C (pro‑SPC) and vimentin expression, but also preserved E‑cadherin expression 6 months after irradiation‑induced injury of the lungs. GGA induced HSP70 and inhibited EMT marker expression in L132 human lung epithelial cells following IR. These data suggest that the prevention of EMT signaling is a key cytoprotective effect in the context of RILI. Thus, HSP70‑inducing drugs, such as GGA, could be beneficial for protection against RILI.

  17. TGF-β induces global changes in DNA methylation during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Horacio; Vieth, Edyta; Lee, Jiyoon; Segar, Mathew; Liu, Yunlong; Nephew, Kenneth P; Matei, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    A key step in the process of metastasis is the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We hypothesized that epigenetic mechanisms play a key role in EMT and to test this hypothesis we analyzed global and gene-specific changes in DNA methylation during TGF-β-induced EMT in ovarian cancer cells. Epigenetic profiling using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (HM450) revealed extensive (P < 0.01) methylation changes after TGF-β stimulation (468 and 390 CpG sites altered at 48 and 120 h post cytokine treatment, respectively). The majority of gene-specific TGF-β-induced methylation changes occurred in CpG islands located in or near promoters (193 and 494 genes hypermethylated at 48 and 120 h after TGF-β stimulation, respectively). Furthermore, methylation changes were sustained for the duration of TGF-β treatment and reversible after the cytokine removal. Pathway analysis of the hypermethylated loci identified functional networks strongly associated with EMT and cancer progression, including cellular movement, cell cycle, organ morphology, cellular development, and cell death and survival. Altered methylation and corresponding expression of specific genes during TGF-β-induced EMT included CDH1 (E-cadherin) and COL1A1 (collagen 1A1). Furthermore, TGF-β induced both expression and activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) -1, -3A, and -3B, and treatment with the DNMT inhibitor SGI-110 prevented TGF-β-induced EMT. These results demonstrate that dynamic changes in the DNA methylome are implicated in TGF-β-induced EMT and metastasis. We suggest that targeting DNMTs may inhibit this process by reversing the EMT genes silenced by DNA methylation in cancer. PMID:25470663

  18. TGF-β induces global changes in DNA methylation during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Horacio; Vieth, Edyta; Lee, Jiyoon; Segar, Mathew; Liu, Yunlong; Nephew, Kenneth P; Matei, Daniela

    2014-11-01

    A key step in the process of metastasis is the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We hypothesized that epigenetic mechanisms play a key role in EMT and to test this hypothesis we analyzed global and gene-specific changes in DNA methylation during TGF-β-induced EMT in ovarian cancer cells. Epigenetic profiling using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (HM450) revealed extensive (P < 0.01) methylation changes after TGF-β stimulation (468 and 390 CpG sites altered at 48 and 120 h post cytokine treatment, respectively). The majority of gene-specific TGF-β-induced methylation changes occurred in CpG islands located in or near promoters (193 and 494 genes hypermethylated at 48 and 120 h after TGF-β stimulation, respectively). Furthermore, methylation changes were sustained for the duration of TGF-β treatment and reversible after the cytokine removal. Pathway analysis of the hypermethylated loci identified functional networks strongly associated with EMT and cancer progression, including cellular movement, cell cycle, organ morphology, cellular development, and cell death and survival. Altered methylation and corresponding expression of specific genes during TGF-β-induced EMT included CDH1 (E-cadherin) and COL1A1 (collagen 1A1). Furthermore, TGF-β induced both expression and activity of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) -1, -3A, and -3B, and treatment with the DNMT inhibitor SGI-110 prevented TGF-β-induced EMT. These results demonstrate that dynamic changes in the DNA methylome are implicated in TGF-β-induced EMT and metastasis. We suggest that targeting DNMTs may inhibit this process by reversing the EMT genes silenced by DNA methylation in cancer.

  19. ERK/GSK3ß/Snail signaling mediates radiation-induced alveolar epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Devipriya; Melo, Tahira; Deng, Zhiyong; Almeida, Celine; Zhao, Weiling

    2011-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the major treatment regimes for thoracic malignancies, but can lead to severe lung complications including pneumonitis and fibrosis. Recent studies suggest that epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in tissue injury leading to organ fibrosis. To investigate whether radiation can induce EMT in lung epithelial cells and also understand the potential mechanism(s) associated with this change, rat alveolar type II lung epithelial RLE-6TN cells were irradiated with 8 Gy of 137Cs γ-rays. Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses revealed a time-dependent decrease in E-cadherin with a concomitant increase in α-SMA and vimentin after radiation, suggesting that the epithelial cells acquired mesenchymal-like morphology. Protein levels and nuclear translocation of Snail, the key inducer of EMT, were significantly elevated in the irradiated cells. Radiation also induced a time-dependent inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3ß), an endogenous inhibitor of Snail. A marked increase in phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but not JNKs or p38, was observed in irradiated RLE-6TN cells. Silencing ERK1/2 using siRNAs and the MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 attenuated the radiation-induced phosphorylation of GSK3ß and altered the protein levels of Snail, α-SMA and E-cadherin in RLE-6TN cells. Pre-incubating RLE-6TN cells with N-acetyl cysteine, an antioxidant, abolished the radiation-induced phosphorylation of ERK and altered protein levels of Snail, E-cadherin and α-SMA. These findings reveal, for the first time, that radiation-induced EMT in alveolar type II epithelial cells is mediated by the ERK/GSK3ß/Snail pathway. PMID:22198183

  20. TRPC1-STIM1 activation modulates transforming growth factor β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Schaar, Anne; Sukumaran, Pramod; Sun, Yuyang; Dhasarathy, Archana; Singh, Brij B

    2016-01-01

    Activation of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is important for tumor metastasis. Although growth factors such as TGFβ and EGF have been shown to induce EMT in breast epithelial cells, the mechanism resulting in migration is not well understood. Herein, we provide evidence that Ca2+ entry into the cell, especially upon store-depletion, plays an important role in TGFβ-induced EMT by promoting cellular migration and potentially leading to metastasis. The increased migration by TGFβ in non-cancerous cells was due to the loss of E-cadherin along with a subsequent increase in N-cadherin levels. Importantly, TGFβ-treatment increases store-mediated Ca2+ entry, which was essential for the activation of calpain leading to the loss of E-cadherin and MMP activation. Inhibition of Ca2+ entry by using Ca2+ channel blocker SKF-96365, significantly decreased Ca2+ entry, decreased TGFβ-induced calpain activation, and suppressed the loss of E-cadherin along with inhibiting cell migration. Furthermore, TRPC1 function as an endogenous Ca2+ entry channel and silencing of either TRPC1 or its activator, STIM1, significantly decreased TGFβ induced Ca2+ entry, inhibited TGFβ-mediated calpain activation and cell migration. In contrast, overexpression of TRPC1 showed increased Ca2+ entry and promoted TGFβ-mediated cell migration. Moreover, increased TRPC1 expression was observed in ductal carcinoma cells. Together these results suggest that disrupting Ca2+ influx via TRPC1/STIM1 mechanism reduces calpain activity, which could restore intercellular junction proteins thereby inhibiting EMT induced motility. PMID:27793015

  1. The Disintegrin and Metalloprotease ADAM12 Is Associated with TGF-β-Induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Michaël; Leyme, Anthony; Le Cann, Fabienne; Bonnier, Dominique; Le Seyec, Jacques; Chesnel, Franck; Fattet, Laurent; Rimokh, Ruth; Baffet, Georges; Théret, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The increased expression of the Disintegrin and Metalloprotease ADAM12 has been associated with human cancers, however its role remain unclear. We have previously reported that ADAM12 expression is induced by the transforming growth factor, TGF-β and promotes TGF-β-dependent signaling through interaction with the type II receptor of TGF-β. Here we explore the implication of ADAM12 in TGF-β-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key process in cancer progression. We show that ADAM12 expression is correlated with EMT markers in human breast cancer cell lines and biopsies. Using a non-malignant breast epithelial cell line (MCF10A), we demonstrate that TGF-β-induced EMT increases expression of the membrane-anchored ADAM12L long form. Importantly, ADAM12L overexpression in MCF10A is sufficient to induce loss of cell-cell contact, reorganization of actin cytoskeleton, up-regulation of EMT markers and chemoresistance. These effects are independent of the proteolytic activity but require the cytoplasmic tail and are specific of ADAM12L since overexpression of ADAM12S failed to induce similar changes. We further demonstrate that ADAM12L-dependent EMT is associated with increased phosphorylation of Smad3, Akt and ERK proteins. Conversely, inhibition of TGF-β receptors or ERK activities reverses ADAM12L-induced mesenchymal phenotype. Together our data demonstrate that ADAM12L is associated with EMT and contributes to TGF-β-dependent EMT by favoring both Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways.

  2. Maresin 1 Inhibits Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Vitro and Attenuates Bleomycin Induced Lung Fibrosis in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaxin; Li, Ruidong; Chen, Lin; Tan, Wen; Sun, Zhipeng; Xia, Haifa; Li, Bo; Yu, Yuan; Gong, Jie; Tang, Min; Ji, Yudong; Yuan, Shiying; Shanglong Yao; Shang, You

    2015-11-01

    Lung fibrosis is an aggressive disease with uncontrolled fibrotic response and no effective therapeutic treatment. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been proved to be an important pathological feature in lung fibrosis. In this study, we investigated whether MaR1, a kind of proresolving lipid mediators, could inhibit TGF-β1-induced EMT in vitro and lung fibrosis in vivo. In vitro study, mouse type II alveolar epithelial cells were treated with different does of MaR1 for 30 min and were exposed to TGF-β1 for 48 h. In vivo study, C57BL/6 mice were administered bleomycin intratracheally. After 14 days, MaR1 was injected intraperitoneally daily for 7 days. In day 28, mice were sacrificed. The results demonstrate that treatment of mouse type II alveolar epithelial cells with MaR1 (10 nM) significantly prevents TGF-β1-induced fibronectin and α-SMA expression and restores E-Cadherin level. The down-regulation of profibrotic molecules of MaR1 is associated with suppression of Smad2/3 and Akt phosphorylation. In vivo, MaR1 treatment significantly prolongs survival rate and attenuates destruction of lung architecture, as well as collagen deposition after bleomycin inhalation. TGF-β1 concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage and fibrotic markers (fibronectin and α-SMA) in lung tissues are inhibited by MaR1 administration. These data indicate that MaR1 inhibits TGF-β1-induced EMT and attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. MaR1 may be a promising strategy for alleviation of lung fibrosis.

  3. The essential roles of CCR7 in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by hypoxia in epithelial ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaomei; Han, Lin; Guo, Jingyan; Yang, Qing; Zhou, Jianfang; Yang, Xiangshan

    2014-12-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR7 and its ligands CCL19/21 mediate the tumor mobility, invasion, and metastasis (Wu et al. Curr Pharm Des. 15:742-57, 2009). Hypoxia induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to facilitate the tumor biology. Here, we addressed the roles of CCR7 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and hypoxia-induced serous papillary cystic adenocarcinoma (SKOV-3) EMT. The expression level of CCR7 protein was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 30 specimens of epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Western blot was used to investigate the expression of hypoxia-induced CCR7, HIF-1α, and EMT markers (N-cadherin, Snail, MMP-9). In addition, wound healing and Transwell assay were introduced to observe the capacity of migration and invasiveness. Our data showed CCR7 expression was observed in 22 cases of tissues and closely associated with lymph node metastasis and FIGO stage (III + IV). At 6, 12, 24, and 36 h following hypoxia, CCR7 and HIF-1α proteins were both obviously upregulated in a time-dependent method, compared with normal oxygen. In vitro, SKOV-3 expressed N-cadherin, Snail, and MMP-9 once either CCL21 stimulation or hypoxia induction, while hypoxia accompanied with CCL21 induction exhibited strongest upregulation of N-cadherin, Snail, and MMP-9 proteins. Besides, wound healing and Transwell assay further identified that hypoxia with CCL21 stimulation can remarkably promote cell migration and invasiveness. Taken together, CCR7 can constitutively express in epithelial ovarian carcinomas and be induced rapidly in response to hypoxia, which indeed participates in EMT development and prompts the cell migration and invasion. Thus, this study suggested that the epithelial ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis can be inhibited by antagonizing CCR7.

  4. Ionizing radiation predisposes nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells to undergo transforming growth factor beta induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Andarawewa, Kumari L; Erickson, Anna C; Chou, William S; Costes, Sylvain V; Gascard, Philippe; Mott, Joni D; Bissell, Mina J; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2007-09-15

    Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta) is a tumor suppressor during the initial stage of tumorigenesis, but it can switch to a tumor promoter during neoplastic progression. Ionizing radiation (IR), both a carcinogen and a therapeutic agent, induces TGFbeta activation in vivo. We now show that IR sensitizes human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo TGFbeta-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Nonmalignant HMEC (MCF10A, HMT3522 S1, and 184v) were irradiated with 2 Gy shortly after attachment in monolayer culture or treated with a low concentration of TGFbeta (0.4 ng/mL) or double treated. All double-treated (IR + TGFbeta) HMEC underwent a morphologic shift from cuboidal to spindle shaped. This phenotype was accompanied by a decreased expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, beta-catenin, and ZO-1, remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, and increased expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, fibronectin, and vimentin. Furthermore, double treatment increased cell motility, promoted invasion, and disrupted acinar morphogenesis of cells subsequently plated in Matrigel. Neither radiation nor TGFbeta alone elicited EMT, although IR increased chronic TGFbeta signaling and activity. Gene expression profiling revealed that double-treated cells exhibit a specific 10-gene signature associated with Erk/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. We hypothesized that IR-induced MAPK activation primes nonmalignant HMEC to undergo TGFbeta-mediated EMT. Consistent with this, Erk phosphorylation was transiently induced by irradiation and persisted in irradiated cells treated with TGFbeta, and treatment with U0126, a MAP/Erk kinase (MEK) inhibitor, blocked the EMT phenotype. Together, these data show that the interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways elicit heritable phenotypes that could contribute to neoplastic progression.

  5. Berberine reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and inhibits metastasis and tumor-induced angiogenesis in human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chu, Shu-Chen; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Hsu, Li-Sung; Chen, Kuo-Shuen; Su, Mei-Yu; Chen, Pei-Ni

    2014-12-01

    Metastasis is the most common cause of cancer-related death in patients, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is essential for cancer metastasis, which is a multistep complicated process that includes local invasion, intravasation, extravasation, and proliferation at distant sites. When cancer cells metastasize, angiogenesis is also required for metastatic dissemination, given that an increase in vascular density will allow easier access of tumor cells to circulation, and represents a rational target for therapeutic intervention. Berberine has several anti-inflammation and anticancer biologic effects. In this study, we provided molecular evidence that is associated with the antimetastatic effect of berberine by showing a nearly complete inhibition on invasion (P < 0.001) of highly metastatic SiHa cells via reduced transcriptional activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Berberine reversed transforming growth factor-β1-induced EMT and caused upregulation of epithelial markers such as E-cadherin and inhibited mesenchymal markers such as N-cadherin and snail-1. Selective snail-1 inhibition by snail-1-specific small interfering RNA also showed increased E-cadherin expression in SiHa cells. Berberine also reduced tumor-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, an in vivo BALB/c nude mice xenograft model and tail vein injection model showed that berberine treatment reduced tumor growth and lung metastasis by oral gavage, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggested that berberine could reduce metastasis and angiogenesis of cervical cancer cells, thereby constituting an adjuvant treatment of metastasis control.

  6. MUC4 mucin-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition: a novel mechanism for metastasis of human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ponnusamy, MP; Lakshmanan, I; Jain, M; Das, S; Chakraborty, S; Dey, P; Batra, SK

    2010-01-01

    The acquisition of invasiveness in ovarian cancer (OC) is accompanied by the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The MUC4 mucin is overexpressed in ovarian tumors and has a role in the invasiveness of OC cells. The present study was aimed at evaluating the potential involvement of MUC4 in the metastasis of OC cells by inducing EMT. Ectopic overexpression of MUC4 in OC cells (SKOV3-MUC4) resulted in morphological alterations along with a decreased expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and cytokeratin (CK)-18) and an increased expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and vimentin) compared with the control cells (SKOV3-vector). Also, pro-EMT transcription factors TWIST1, TWIST2 and SNAIL showed an upregulation in SKOV3-MUC4 cells. We further investigated the pathways upstream of N-cadherin, such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), MKK7, JNK1/2 and c-Jun, which were also activated in the SKOV3-MUC4 cells compared with SKOV3-vector cells. Inhibition of phospho-FAK (pFAK) and pJNK1/2 decreased N-cadherin expression in the MUC4-overexpressing cells, which further led to a significant decrease in cellular motility. Knockdown of N-cadherin decreased the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2), AKT and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), and inhibited the motility in the SKOV3-MUC4 cells. Upon in vivo tumorigenesis and metastasis analysis, the SKOV3-MUC4 cells produced significantly larger tumors and demonstrated a higher incidence of metastasis to distance organs (peritoneal wall, colon, intestine, stomach, lymph nodes, liver and diaphragm). Taken together, our study reveals a novel role for MUC4 in inducing EMT through the upregulation of N-cadherin and promoting metastasis of OC cells. PMID:20697346

  7. miR-208-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition of pancreatic cancer cells promotes cell metastasis and invasion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Anan; Shao, Chenghao; Jin, Gang; Liu, Rui; Hao, Jun; Song, Bin; Ouyang, Liu; Hu, Xiangui

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR-208 in the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells and the underlying molecular mechanism. miR-208 mimic, miR-208 inhibitor and NC were transfected into pancreatic cancer cell line Bxpc3 using liposome. Transwell invasion and scratch assays were used to test cell migratory and invasive abilities. Western blotting and quantitative PCR methods were used to detect E-cadherin, fibronectin and vimentin protein and mRNA expression in pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC3 after transfection by miR-208 mimic, miR-208 inhibitor and NC. Transwell invasion and scratch assays showed that after overexpressing miR-208, pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC3 exhibited enhanced in vitro migratory and invasive abilities, while after downregulating miR-208 expression, cell migratory and invasive abilities were decreased. Western blotting and quantitative PCR showed that after overexpressing miR-208, expression of E-cadherin, an epithelial cell marker, was decreased and expression of fibronectin and vimentin, interstitial cell markers, was increased in pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC3; however, after inhibiting miR-208, increased E-cadherin expression and decreased fibronectin and vimentin expression were observed in pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC3. After overexpressing miR-208, p-AKT and p-GSK-3β expression was altered by activating AKT/GSK-3β/snail signaling pathway. miR-208 induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition of pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC3 by activating AKT/GSK-3β/snail signaling pathway and thereby promotes cell metastasis and invasion.

  8. Commentary: acetaldehyde and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in colon.

    PubMed

    Rao, Radhakrishna K

    2014-02-01

    Elamin and colleagues in this issue report that acetaldehyde activates Snail, a transcription factor involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, in an intestinal epithelium. Snail mediates acetaldehyde-induced tight junction disruption and increase in paracellular permeability. Results of this study and other previous studies raise several important questions. This commentary addresses these questions by discussing the acetaldehyde concentration in colon, disruption of epical junctional complexes in the intestinal epithelium by acetaldehyde, and the consequence of long-term exposure to acetaldehyde on colonic epithelial regeneration, carcinogenesis, and metastases. The precise role of acetaldehyde in colonic epithelial modifications and promotion of colorectal cancers still remains to be understood.

  9. Dynamic Sialylation in Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β)-induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition*

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jun; Hong, Senlian; Dong, Lu; Cheng, Bo; Lin, Liang; Zhao, Bing; Chen, Ye-Guang; Chen, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental process in embryonic development and organ formation. Aberrant regulation of EMT often leads to tumor progression. Changes in cell surface sialylation have recently been implicated in mediating EMT. Herein we report the visualization of dynamic changes of sialylation and glycoproteomic analysis of newly synthesized sialylated proteins in EMT by metabolic labeling of sialylated glycans with azides, followed by click labeling with fluorophores or affinity tags. We discovered that sialylation was down-regulated during EMT but then reverted and up-regulated in the mesenchymal state after EMT, accompanied by mRNA expression level changes of genes involved in the sialic acid biosynthesis. Quantitative proteomic analysis identified a list of sialylated proteins whose biosynthesis was dynamically regulated during EMT. Sialylation of cell surface adherent receptor integrin β4 was found to be down-regulated, which may regulate integrin functions during EMT. Furthermore, a global sialylation inhibitor was used to probe the functional role of sialylation during EMT. We found that inhibition of sialylation promoted EMT. Taken together, our findings suggest the important role of sialylation in regulating EMT and imply its possible function in related pathophysiological events, such as cancer metastasis. PMID:25809486

  10. Electric field-induced suppression of PTEN drives epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via mTORC1 activation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tiantian; Jiang, Xupin; Guo, Xiaowei; Chen, Wen; Tang, Di; Zhang, Junhui; Zhang, Xingyue; Zhang, Dongxia; Zhang, Qiong; Jia, Jiezhi; Huang, Yuesheng

    2017-02-01

    Naturally occurring electric fields (EFs) are an intrinsic property of wounds. Endogenous EFs in skin wounds play critical roles in the dynamic and well-ordered biological process of wound healing. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) allows keratinocytes to transition from sedentary cells to motile cells, facilitating wound healing. However, EMT-related studies have been performed without considering endogenous EFs. Thus, the relationship between electrical signals and the EMT remain elusive. Phosphatase and tension homolog (PTEN) and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) are key molecules in sensing electrical cues, and they play significant roles in cellular responses to EFs. In addition, these molecules are closely related to the occurrence of the EMT in other cells. We used primary human keratinocytes to investigate the influence of EFs on the EMT as well as the roles of PTEN and mTORC1 in this process. The effects of EFs on the EMT were investigated by analyzing the levels of specific proteins and transcription factors. The roles of mTORC1 and PTEN and their relationship with each other were studied via pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockdown. A Zeiss imaging system and scratch assays were used to study single-cell motility and monolayer cell migration. EFs induced a range of both biochemical changes (e.g., increased Snail, Slug, vimentin, and N-cadherin expression, decreased E-cadherin expression) and functional changes (e.g., enhanced migratory capacity) that are characteristic of the EMT. EF-stimulated cells exhibited suppressed PTEN expression, and further PTEN downregulation led to the acquisition of more mesenchymal features and the loss of epithelial characteristics, which was accompanied by increased migratory capacity. PTEN overexpression reversed the EF-induced EMT and inhibited the migratory capacity of keratinocytes. EF-induced mTORC1 activation was a required component of the causal relationship between PTEN

  11. Roflumilast N-oxide inhibits bronchial epithelial to mesenchymal transition induced by cigarette smoke in smokers with COPD.

    PubMed

    Milara, Javier; Peiró, Teresa; Serrano, Adela; Guijarro, Ricardo; Zaragozá, Cristóbal; Tenor, Herman; Cortijo, Julio

    2014-08-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is under discussion as a potential mechanism of small airway remodelling in COPD. In bronchial epithelium of COPD and smokers markers of EMT were described. In vitro, EMT may be reproduced by exposing well-differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells (WD-HBEC) to cigarette smoke extract (CSE). EMT may be mitigated by an increase in cellular cAMP. This study explored the effects of roflumilast N-oxide, a PDE4 inhibitor on CSE-induced EMT in WD-HBEC and in primary bronchial epithelial cells from smokers and COPD in vitro. WD-HBEC from normal donors were stimulated with CSE (2.5%) for 72 h in presence of roflumilast N-oxide (2 nM or 1 μM) or vehicle. mRNA and protein of EMT markers αSMA, vimentin, collagen-1, E-cadherin, ZO-1, KRT5 as well as NOX4 were quantified by real-time quantitative PCR or protein array, respectively. Phosphorylated and total ERK1/2 and Smad3 were assessed by protein array. cAMP and TGFβ1 were measured by ELISA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by DCF fluorescence, after 30 min CSE (2.5%). Apoptosis was measured with Annexin V/PI labelling. In some experiments, EMT markers were determined in monolayers of bronchial epithelial cells from smokers, COPD versus controls. Roflumilast N-oxide protected from CSE-induced EMT in WD-HBEC. The PDE4 inhibitor reversed both the increase in mesenchymal and the loss in epithelial EMT markers. Roflumilast N-oxide restored the loss in cellular cAMP following CSE, reduced ROS, NOX4 expression, the increase in TGFβ1 release, phospho ERK1/2 and Smad3. The PDE4 inhibitor partly protected from the increment in apoptosis with CSE. Finally the PDE4 inhibitor decreased mesenchymal yet increased epithelial phenotype markers in HBEC of COPD and smokers. Roflumilast N-oxide may mitigate epithelial-mesenchymal transition in bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. β2-microglobulin induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition and confers cancer lethality and bone metastasis in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Josson, Sajni; Nomura, Takeo; Lin, Jen-Tai; Huang, Wen-Chin; Wu, Daqing; Zhau, Haiyen E; Zayzafoon, Majd; Weizmann, M Neale; Gururajan, Murali; Chung, Leland W K

    2011-04-01

    Bone metastasis is one of the predominant causes of cancer lethality. This study demonstrates for the first time how β2-microglobulin (β2-M) supports lethal metastasis in vivo in human prostate, breast, lung, and renal cancer cells. β2-M mediates this process by activating epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) to promote lethal bone and soft tissue metastases in host mice. β2-M interacts with its receptor, hemochromatosis (HFE) protein, to modulate iron responsive pathways in cancer cells. Inhibition of either β2-M or HFE results in reversion of EMT. These results demonstrate the role of β2-M in cancer metastasis and lethality. Thus, β2-M and its downstream signaling pathways are promising prognostic markers of cancer metastases and novel therapeutic targets for cancer therapy.

  13. Dynamics and plasticity of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition induced by miR-200 family inhibition.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Takeshi; Kondo, Masayuki; Uchikawa, Ryo; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hiramatsu, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Chit, Ung Weng; Shimizu, Takanobu; Iba, Hideo

    2016-02-18

    Whereas miR-200 family is known to be involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a crucial biological process observed in normal and pathological contexts, it has been largely unclear how far the functional levels of these tiny RNAs alone can propagate the molecular events to accomplish this process within several days. By developing a potent inhibitor of miR-200 family members (TuD-141/200c), the expression of which is strictly regulatable by the Tet (tetracycline)-On system, we found using a human colorectal cell line, HCT116, that several direct gene target mRNAs (Zeb1/Zeb2, ESRP1, FN1and FHOD1) of miR-200 family were elevated with distinct kinetics. Prompt induction of the transcriptional suppressors, Zeb1/Zeb2 in turn reduced the expression levels of miR-200c/-141 locus, EpCAM, ESRP1 and E-Cad. The loss of ESRP1 subsequently switched the splicing isoforms of CD44 and p120 catenin mRNAs to mesenchymal type. Importantly, within 9 days after the release from the inhibition of miR-200 family, all of the expression changes in the 14 genes observed in this study returned to their original levels in the epithelial cells. This suggests that the inherent epithelial plasticity is supported by a weak retention of key regulatory gene expression in either the epithelial or mesenchymal states through epigenetic regulation.

  14. Effects of Chinese Medicine Tong xinluo on Diabetic Nephropathy via Inhibiting TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Na; Gao, Yanbin; Zou, Dawei; Wang, Jinyang; Li, Jiaoyang; Zhou, Shengnan; Zhu, Zhiyao; Zhao, Xuan; Xu, Liping; Zhang, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of chronic kidney failure and characterized by interstitial and glomeruli fibrosis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DN. Tong xinluo (TXL), a Chinese herbal compound, has been used in China with established therapeutic efficacy in patients with DN. To investigate the molecular mechanism of TXL improving DN, KK-Ay mice were selected as models for the evaluation of pathogenesis and treatment in DN. In vitro, TGF-β1 was used to induce EMT. Western blot (WB), immunofluorescence staining, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were applied to detect the changes of EMT markers in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Results showed the expressions of TGF-β1 and its downstream proteins smad3/p-smad3 were greatly reduced in TXL group; meantime, TXL restored the expression of smad7. As a result, the expressions of collagen IV (Col IV) and fibronectin (FN) were significantly decreased in TXL group. In vivo, 24 h-UAER (24-hour urine albumin excretion ratio) and BUN (blood urea nitrogen) were decreased and Ccr (creatinine clearance ratio) was increased in TXL group compared with DN group. In summary, the present study demonstrates that TXL successfully inhibits TGF-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in DN, which may account for the therapeutic efficacy in TXL-mediated renoprotection. PMID:24864150

  15. Free radical generation induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung epithelium via a TGF-β1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gorowiec, Marta R; Borthwick, Lee A; Parker, Sean M; Kirby, John A; Saretzki, Gabriele C; Fisher, Andrew J

    2012-03-15

    Fibrotic remodelling of lung parenchymal and airway compartments is the major contributor to life-threatening organ dysfunction in chronic lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Since transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is believed to play a key role in disease pathogenesis and markers of oxidative stress are also commonly detected in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from such patients we sought to investigate whether both factors might be interrelated. Here we investigated the hypothesis that oxidative stress to the lung epithelium promotes fibrotic repair by driving epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via the augmentation of TGF-β1. We show that in response to 400μM hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) A549 cells, used a model for alveolar epithelium, and human primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) undergo EMT displaying morphology changes, decreased expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and ZO-1), increased expression of mesenchymal markers (vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin) as well as increased secretion of extracelluar matrix components. The same oxidative stress also promotes expression of TGF-β1. Inhibition of TGF-β1 signalling as well as treatment with antioxidants such as phenyl tert-butylnitrone (PBN) and superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) prevent the oxidative stress driven EMT-like changes described above. Interventions also inhibited EMT-like changes. This study identifies a link between oxidative stress, TGF-β1 and EMT in lung epithelium and highlights the potential for antioxidant therapies to limit EMT and its potential contribution to chronic lung disease.

  16. Metformin against TGFβ-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT): from cancer stem cells to aging-associated fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Cufí, Silvia; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Joven, Jorge; Menendez, Javier A

    2010-11-15

    Transforming Growth Factor-b (TGFb) is a major driving force of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal (EMT) genetic program, which becomes overactive in the pathophysiology of many age-related human diseases.  TGFb-driven EMT is sufficient to generate migrating cancer stem cells by directly linking the acquisition of cellular motility with the maintenance of tumor-initiating (stemness) capacity.  Chronic diseases exhibiting excessive fibrosis can be caused by repeated and sustained infliction of TGFb-driven EMT, which increases collagen and extracellular matrix synthesis.  Pharmacological prevention and/or reversal of TGFb-induced EMT may therefore have important clinical applications in the management of cancer metastasis as well as in the prevention and/or treatment of end-state organ failures.  Earlier studies from our group have revealed that clinically-relevant concentrations of the biguanide derivative metformin, the most widely used oral agent to lower blood glucose concentration in patients with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, notably decreased both the self-renewal and the proliferation of trastuzumab-refractory breast cancer stem cell populations.  Given that: a.) tumor-initiating cancer stem cells display a significant enrichment in the expression of basal/mesenchymal or myoepithelial markers, including an increased secretion of TGFb; b.) metformin treatment impedes the ontogeny of generating the stem cell phenotype by transcriptionally repressing key drivers of the EMT genetic program (e.g. ZEB1, TWIST1, SNAIL2 [Slug], TGFbs), we recently hypothesized that prevention of TGFb-induced EMT might represent a common molecular mechanism underlying the anti-cancer stem cells and anti-fibrotic actions of metformin.  Remarkably, metformin exposure not only impedes TGFb-promoted loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin in MCF-7 breast cancer cells but it prevents further TGF-induced cell scattering and accumulation of the mesenchymal marker vimentin in

  17. Eosinophils promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition of bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Atsushi; Hosoki, Koa; Toda, Masaaki; Miyake, Yasushi; Matsushima, Yuki; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Boveda-Ruiz, Daniel; Gil-Bernabe, Paloma; Nagao, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Mayumi; Hiraguchi, Yukiko; Tokuda, Reiko; Naito, Masahiro; Takagi, Takehiro; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Suga, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Fujisawa, Takao; Taguchi, Osamu; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling of the airways including subepithelial fibrosis and myofibroblast hyperplasia are characteristic pathological findings of bronchial asthma. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in airway remodelling. In this study, we hypothesized that infiltrating eosinophils promote airway remodelling in bronchial asthma. To demonstrate this hypothesis we evaluated the effect of eosinophils on EMT by in vitro and in vivo studies. EMT was assessed in mice that received intra-tracheal instillation of mouse bone marrow derived eosinophils and in human bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with eosinophils freshly purified from healthy individuals or with eosinophilic leukemia cell lines. Intra-tracheal instillation of eosinophils was associated with enhanced bronchial inflammation and fibrosis and increased lung concentration of growth factors. Mice instilled with eosinophils pre-treated with transforming growth factor(TGF)-β1 siRNA had decreased bronchial wall fibrosis compared to controls. EMT was induced in bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with human eosinophils and it was associated with increased expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3 phosphorylation in the bronchial epithelial cells. Treatment with anti-TGF-β1 antibody blocked EMT in bronchial epithelial cells. Eosinophils induced EMT in bronchial epithelial cells, suggesting their contribution to the pathogenesis of airway remodelling.

  18. Vitamin D and the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Larriba, María Jesús; García de Herreros, Antonio; Muñoz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Several studies support reciprocal regulation between the active vitamin D derivative 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Thus, 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibits EMT via the induction of a variety of target genes that encode cell adhesion and polarity proteins responsible for the epithelial phenotype and through the repression of key EMT inducers. Both direct and indirect regulatory mechanisms mediate these effects. Conversely, certain master EMT inducers inhibit 1,25(OH)2D3 action by repressing the transcription of VDR gene encoding the high affinity vitamin D receptor that mediates 1,25(OH)2D3 effects. Consequently, the balance between the strength of 1,25(OH)2D3 signaling and the induction of EMT defines the cellular phenotype in each context. Here we review the current understanding of the genes and mechanisms involved in the interplay between 1,25(OH)2D3 and EMT. PMID:26880977

  19. Parathyroid hormone induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in human renal proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yunshan; Li, Zhen; Ding, Raohai; Li, Hongdong; Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Weijie; Wang, Yanxia

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been shown to play an important role in renal fibrogenesis. Recent studies suggested parathyroid hormone (PTH) could accelerate EMT and subsequent organ fibrosis. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying PTH-induced EMT remain unknown. The present study was to investigate whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in PTH-induced EMT in human renal proximal tubular cells (HK-2 cells) and to determine the profile of gene expression associated with PTH-induced EMT. PTH could induce morphological changes and gene expression characteristic of EMT in cultured HK-2 cells. Suppressing β-catenin expression or DKK1 limited gene expression characteristic of PTH-induced EMT. Based on the PCR array analysis, PTH treatment resulted in the up-regulation of 18 genes and down-regulation of 9 genes compared with the control. The results were further supported by a western blot analysis, which showed the increased Wnt4 protein expression. Wnt4 overexpression also promotes PTH-induced EMT in HK-2 cells. The findings demonstrated that PTH-induced EMT in HK-2 cells is mediated by Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway, and Wnt4 might be a key gene during PTH-induced EMT.

  20. Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition of Mesothelial Cells in Tuberculous Pleurisy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Changhwan; Park, Sung-Hoon; Hwang, Yong Il; Jang, Seung Hun; Kim, Cheol Hong; Jung, Ki-Suck; Min, Kwangseon; Lee, Jae Woong; Jang, Young Sook

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Tuberculous pleurisy is the most frequent extrapulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis. In spite of adequate treatment, pleural fibrosis is a common complication, but the mechanism has not been elucidated. This study is to determine whether epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of mesothelial cells occurs in tuberculous pleurisy. Materials and Methods Normal pleural mesothelial cells, isolated from irrigation fluids during operations for primary spontaneous pneumothorax, were characterized by immunofluorescence and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). These cells were treated in vitro with various cytokines, which were produced in the effluents of tuberculous pleurisy. The isolated cells from the effluents of tuberculous pleurisy were analyzed by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR analysis. Results The isolated cells from the irrigation fluid of primary spontaneous pneumothorax had epithelial characteristics. These cells, with transforming growth factor-β1 and/or interleukin-1β treatment, underwent phenotypic transition from epithelial to mesenchymal cells, with the loss of epithelial morphology and reduction in cytokeratin and E-cadherin expression. Effluent analysis from tuberculous pleurisy using immunofluorescence and RT-PCR demonstrated two phenotypes that showed mesenchymal characteristics and both epithelial & mesencymal characteristics. Conclusion Our results suggest that pleural mesothelial cells in tuberculous pleurisy have been implicated in pleural fibrosis through EMT. PMID:21155035

  1. Bufalin inhibits TGF-β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and migration in human lung cancer A549 cells by downregulating TGF-β receptors

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, LEI; LIU, SHIZHOU; CHE, XIAOFANG; HOU, KEZUO; MA, YANJU; LI, CE; WEN, TI; FAN, YIBO; HU, XUEJUN; LIU, YUNPENG; QU, XIUJUAN

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a well-known prerequisite for cancer cells to acquire the migratory and invasive capacity, and to subsequently metastasize. Bufalin is one of the major active components of the traditional Chinese medicine Chan Su, and accumulating evidence has shown its anticancer effect in multipe types of cancer. However, the role of bufalin in transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced EMT and migration remains unclear. In the present study, the effect of bufalin on TGF-β-induced EMT and migration was investigated in human lung cancer A549 cells. TGF-β induced EMT in A549 cells and increased their migratory ability, which were markedly suppressed by bufalin. Additionally, TGF-β-induced upregulation of Twist2 and zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2), as well as the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 were also inhibited by bufalin. However, the Smad-independent signaling pathways were not affected. Further analysis showed that the TGF-β receptor I (TβRI) and TGF-β receptor II (TβRII) were downregulated in the presence of bufalin. Pretreatment with SB431542, a potent inhibitor of the phosphorylation of TβRI, significantly attenuated TGF-β-induced EMT, mimicking the effect of bufalin on A549 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that bufalin suppresses TGF-β-induced EMT and migration by downregulating TβRI and TβRII in A549 cells. PMID:26133118

  2. Enhanced expression of suppresser of cytokine signaling 3 inhibits the IL-6-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cholangiocarcinoma cell metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing-Xin; Jiang, Xing-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Dong; Li, Chun-Long; Cui, Yun-Fu

    2015-04-01

    It was recently demonstrated that interleukin-6 (IL-6) induces the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), but the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be explored. In this study, we studied the role of suppresser of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), a negative feedback regulator of IL-6/STAT3, in the IL-6-induced EMT in CCA. Treatment with IL-6 induced the EMT by decreasing the E-cadherin expression and increasing the expression of N-cadherin and vimentin. Using wound healing and invasion assays, we found that IL-6 promoted cell motility. Further, a stably transfected cell line overexpressing SOCS3 was constructed. Enhanced SOCS3 expression decreased IL-6-induced cell invasion and EMT in parallel with downregulating the IL-6/STAT3 pathway. In contrast, SOCS3 silencing using siRNA exhibited no effect on the cell invasive ability and EMT. Finally, an in vivo study indicated that the enhancement of SOCS3 expression decreased metastasis compared with the control, and this effect was achieved by the repression of p-STAT3, N-cadherin and vimentin, and the induction of E-cadherin assessed by Western blot analysis. Our results suggest that enhanced expression of SOCS3 can antagonize IL-6-induced EMT and cell metastasis by abrogating the IL-6/STAT3 pathway. These data establish that SOCS3 plays a role in the EMT in CCA and may provide novel therapeutic strategies for CCA.

  3. MicroRNA Regulation of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Abba, Mohammed L.; Patil, Nitin; Leupold, Jörg Hendrik; Allgayer, Heike

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a central regulatory program that is similar in many aspects to several steps of embryonic morphogenesis. In addition to its physiological role in tissue repair and wound healing, EMT contributes to chemo resistance, metastatic dissemination and fibrosis, amongst others. Classically, the morphological change from epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype is characterized by the appearance or loss of a group of proteins which have come to be recognized as markers of the EMT process. As with all proteins, these molecules are controlled at the transcriptional and translational level by transcription factors and microRNAs, respectively. A group of developmental transcription factors form the backbone of the EMT cascade and a large body of evidence shows that microRNAs are heavily involved in the successful coordination of mesenchymal transformation and vice versa, either by suppressing the expression of different groups of transcription factors, or otherwise acting as their functional mediators in orchestrating EMT. This article dissects the contribution of microRNAs to EMT and analyzes the molecular basis for their roles in this cellular process. Here, we emphasize their interaction with core transcription factors like the zinc finger enhancer (E)-box binding homeobox (ZEB), Snail and Twist families as well as some pluripotency transcription factors. PMID:26784241

  4. Role of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in nicotine-induced invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human non-small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xin-Jie; An, Shi-Min; Wang, Hao; Xu, Lu; Zhu, Liang; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) stimulates non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell invasion and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) which underpin the cancer metastasis. However, the receptor subtype-dependent effects of nAChRs on NSCLC cell invasion and EMT, and the signaling pathway underlying the effects remain not fully defined. We identified that nicotine induced NSCLC cell invasion, migration, and EMT; the effects were suppressed by pharmacological intervention using α7-nAChR selective antagonists or by genetic intervention using α7-nAChR knockdown via RNA inference. Meanwhile, nicotine induced activation of MEK/ERK signaling in NSCLC cells; α7-nAChR antagonism or MEK/ERK signaling pathway inhibition suppressed NSCLC cell invasion and EMT marker expression. These results indicate that nicotine induces NSCLC cell invasion, migration, and EMT; the effects are mediated by α7-nAChRs and involve MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Delineating the effect of nicotine on the NSCLC cell invasion and EMT at receptor subtype level would improve the understanding of cancer biology and offer potentials for the exploitation of selective ligands for the control of the cancer metastasis. PMID:27409670

  5. Resveratrol inhibits transforming growth factor-β2-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human retinal pigment epithelial cells by suppressing the Smad pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ching-Long; Chen, Yi-Hao; Tai, Ming-Cheng; Liang, Chang-Min; Lu, Da-Wen; Chen, Jiann-Torng

    2017-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is the main cause of failure following retinal detachment surgery. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the development of PVR, and EMT inhibition decreases collagen gel contraction and fibrotic membrane formation, resulting in prevention of PVR. Resveratrol is naturally found in red wine and has inhibitory effects on EMT. Resveratrol is widely used in cardioprotection, neuroprotection, chemotherapy, and antiaging therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on TGF-β2-induced EMT in ARPE-19 cells in vitro. We found that resveratrol suppressed the decrease of zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) and caused an increase of alpha-smooth muscle actin expression in TGF-β2-treated ARPE-19 cells, assessed using Western blots; moreover, it also suppressed the decrease in ZO-1 and the increase of vimentin expression, observed using immunocytochemistry. Resveratrol attenuated TGF-β2-induced wound closure and cell migration in ARPE-19 cells in a scratch wound test and modified Boyden chamber assay, respectively. We also found that resveratrol reduced collagen gel contraction – assessed by collagen matrix contraction assay – and suppressed the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 in TGF-β2-treated ARPE-19 cells. These results suggest that resveratrol mediates anti-EMT effects, which could be used in the prevention of PVR. PMID:28138219

  6. Alu RNA accumulation induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by modulating miR-566 and is associated with cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Di Ruocco, F; Basso, V; Rivoire, M; Mehlen, P; Ambati, J; De Falco, S; Tarallo, V

    2017-10-09

    Alu sequences are the most abundant short interspersed repeated elements in the human genome. Here we show that in a cell culture model of colorectal cancer (CRC) progression, we observe accumulation of Alu RNA that is associated with reduced DICER1 levels. Alu RNA induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by acting as a molecular sponge of miR-566. Moreover, Alu RNA accumulates as consequence of DICER1 deficit in colorectal, ovarian, renal and breast cancer cell lines. Interestingly, Alu RNA knockdown prevents DICER1 depletion-induced EMT despite global microRNA (miRNA) downregulation. Alu RNA expression is also induced by transforming growth factor-β1, a major driver of EMT. Corroborating this data, we found that non-coding Alu RNA significantly correlates with tumor progression in human CRC patients. Together, these findings reveal an unexpected DICER1-dependent, miRNA-independent role of Alu RNA in cancer progression that could bring mobile element transcripts in the fields of cancer therapeutic and prognosis.Oncogene advance online publication, 9 October 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2017.369.

  7. Resveratrol inhibits transforming growth factor-β2-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human retinal pigment epithelial cells by suppressing the Smad pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Long; Chen, Yi-Hao; Tai, Ming-Cheng; Liang, Chang-Min; Lu, Da-Wen; Chen, Jiann-Torng

    2017-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is the main cause of failure following retinal detachment surgery. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the development of PVR, and EMT inhibition decreases collagen gel contraction and fibrotic membrane formation, resulting in prevention of PVR. Resveratrol is naturally found in red wine and has inhibitory effects on EMT. Resveratrol is widely used in cardioprotection, neuroprotection, chemotherapy, and antiaging therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol on TGF-β2-induced EMT in ARPE-19 cells in vitro. We found that resveratrol suppressed the decrease of zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) and caused an increase of alpha-smooth muscle actin expression in TGF-β2-treated ARPE-19 cells, assessed using Western blots; moreover, it also suppressed the decrease in ZO-1 and the increase of vimentin expression, observed using immunocytochemistry. Resveratrol attenuated TGF-β2-induced wound closure and cell migration in ARPE-19 cells in a scratch wound test and modified Boyden chamber assay, respectively. We also found that resveratrol reduced collagen gel contraction - assessed by collagen matrix contraction assay - and suppressed the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 in TGF-β2-treated ARPE-19 cells. These results suggest that resveratrol mediates anti-EMT effects, which could be used in the prevention of PVR.

  8. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by inflammatory priming elicits mesenchymal stromal cell-like immune-modulatory properties in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, M; Zanotto, M; Malpeli, G; Bassi, G; Perbellini, O; Chilosi, M; Bifari, F; Krampera, M

    2015-03-17

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has a central role in cancer progression and metastatic dissemination and may be induced by local inflammation. We asked whether the inflammation-induced acquisition of mesenchymal phenotype by neoplastic epithelial cells is associated with the onset of mesenchymal stromal cell-like immune-regulatory properties that may enhance tumour immune escape. Cell lines of lung adenocarcinoma (A549), breast cancer (MCF7) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) were co-cultured with T, B and NK cells before and after EMT induction by either the supernatant of mixed-lymphocyte reactions or inflammatory cytokines. EMT occurrence following inflammatory priming elicited multiple immune-regulatory effects in cancer cells resulting in NK and T-cell apoptosis, inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and stimulation of regulatory T and B cells. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, but not Fas ligand pathway, was involved at least in part in these effects, as shown by the use of specific inhibitors. EMT induced by inflammatory stimuli confers to cancer cells some mesenchymal stromal cell-like immune-modulatory properties, which could be a cue for cancer progression and metastatic dissemination by favouring immune escape.

  9. Procyanidin C1 from Cinnamomi Cortex inhibits TGF-β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in the A549 lung cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Kin, Ryoei; Kato, Shinichiro; Kaneto, Naoki; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Li, Feng; Tanaka, Ken; Saiki, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Satoru

    2013-12-01

    Cancer metastasis is one of the most critical events in cancer patients, and the median overall survival of stage IIIb or IV patients with metastatic lung cancer in the TNM classification is only 8 or 5 months, respectively. We previously demonstrated that Juzentaihoto, a Japanese traditional medicine, can inhibit cancer metastasis through the activation of macrophages and T cells in mouse cancer metastatic models; however, the mechanism(s) through which Juzentaihoto directly affects tumor cells during the metastasis process and which herbal components from Juzentaihoto inhibit the metastatic potential have not been elucidated. In this study, we focused on the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which plays an important role in the formation of cancer metastasis. We newly determined that only the Cinnamomi Cortex (CC) extract, one of 10 herbal components of Juzentaihoto, inhibits TGF-β-induced EMT. Moreover, the contents of catechin trimer in CC extracts were significantly correlated with the efficacy of inhibiting TGF-β-induced EMT. Finally, the structure of the catechin trimer from CC extract was chemically identified as procyanidin C1 and the compound showed inhibitory activity against TGF-β-induced EMT. This illustrates that procyanidin C1 is the main active compound in the CC extract responsible for EMT inhibition and that procyanidin C1 could be useful as a lead compound to develop inhibitors of cancer metastasis and other diseases related to EMT.

  10. Calcium oxalate crystals and oxalate induce an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in the proximal tubular epithelial cells: Contribution to oxalate kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Convento, Marcia Bastos; Pessoa, Edson Andrade; Cruz, Edgar; da Glória, Maria Aparecida; Schor, Nestor; Borges, Fernanda Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    TGF-β1 is the main mediator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Hyperoxaluria induces crystalluria, interstitial fibrosis, and progressive renal failure. This study analyzed whether hyperoxaluria is associated with TGF-β1 production and kidney fibrosis in mice and if oxalate or calcium oxalate (CaOx) could induce EMT in proximal tubule cells (HK2) and therefore contribute to the fibrotic process. Hyperoxaluria was induced by adding hydroxyproline and ethylene glycol to the mice’s drinking water for up to 60 days. Renal function and oxalate and urinary crystals were evaluated. Kidney collagen production and TGF-β1 expression were assessed. EMT was analyzed in vitro according to TGF-β1 production, phenotypic characterization, invasion, cell migration, gene and protein expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Hyperoxaluric mice showed a decrease in renal function and an increase in CaOx crystals and Ox urinary excretion. The deposition of collagen in the renal interstitium was observed. HK2 cells stimulated with Ox and CaOx exhibited a decreased expression of epithelial as well as increased expression mesenchymal markers; these cells presented mesenchymal phenotypic changes, migration, invasiveness capability and TGF-β1 production, characterizing EMT. Treatment with BMP-7 or its overexpression in HK2 cells was effective at preventing it. This mechanism may contribute to the fibrosis observed in hyperoxaluria. PMID:28387228

  11. Krüppel-like transcription factor KLF10 suppresses TGFβ-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via a negative feedback mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vivek Kumar; Subramaniam, Malayannan; Kari, Vijayalakshmi; Pitel, Kevin S.; Baumgart, Simon J.; Naylor, Ryan M.; Nagarajan, Sankari; Wegwitz, Florian; Ellenrieder, Volker; Hawse, John R.; Johnsen, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    TGFβ-SMAD signaling exerts a contextual effect that suppresses malignant growth early in epithelial tumorigenesis but promotes metastasis at later stages. Longstanding challenges in resolving this functional dichotomy may uncover new strategies to treat advanced carcinomas. The Krüppel-like transcription factor KLF10 is a pivotal effector of TGFβ/SMAD signaling that mediates anti-proliferative effects of TGFβ. In this study, we show how KLF10 opposes the pro-metastatic effects of TGFβ by limiting its ability to induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). KLF10 depletion accentuated induction of EMT as assessed by multiple metrics. KLF10 occupied GC-rich sequences in the promoter region of the EMT-promoting transcription factor SLUG/SNAI2, repressing its transcription by recruiting HDAC1 and licensing the removal of activating histone acetylation marks. In clinical specimens of lung adenocarcinoma, low KLF10 expression associated with decreased patient survival, consistent with a pivotal role for KLF10 in distinguishing the anti-proliferative versus pro-metastatic functions of TGFβ. Our results establish that KLF10 functions to suppress TGFβ-induced EMT, establishing a molecular basis for the dichotomy of TGFβ function during tumor progression. PMID:28249899

  12. The metastasis suppressor CD82/KAI1 inhibits fibronectin adhesion-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer cells by repressing the associated integrin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moon-Sung; Jin, Young-June; Jeoung, Dooil; Kim, Young-Myeong; Lee, Hansoo

    2017-01-01

    The transmembrane protein CD82/KAI1 suppresses the metastatic potential of various cancer cell types. Moreover, decrease or loss of CD82 expression is closely associated with malignancy and poor prognosis in many human cancers including prostate cancer. Despite intense scrutiny, the mechanisms underlying the metastasis-suppressing role of CD82 are still not fully understood. Here, we found that a fibronectin matrix induced mesenchymal phenotypes in human prostate cancer cells with no or low CD82 expression levels. However, high CD82 expression rendered prostate cancer cells to have intensified epithelial characteristics upon fibronectin engagement, along with decreased cell motility and invasiveness. The CD82 function of inhibiting fibronectin-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was dependent not only on CD82 interactions with fibronectin-binding α3β1/α5β1 integrins but also on the integrin-mediated intracellular signaling events. Notably, CD82 attenuated the FAK-Src and ILK pathways downstream of the fibronectin-receptor integrins. Immunofluorescence staining of human prostate cancer tissue specimens illustrated a negative association of CD82 with EMT-related gene expression as well as prostate malignancy. Altogether, these results suggest that CD82 suppresses EMT in prostate cancer cells adhered to the fibronectin matrix by repressing adhesion signaling through lateral interactions with the associated α3β1 and α5β1 integrins, leading to reduced cell migration and invasive capacities. PMID:27926483

  13. Inhibition of Transforming Growth Factor-β1–induced Signaling and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition by the Smad-binding Peptide Aptamer Trx-SARA

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bryan M.

    2006-01-01

    Overexpression of the inhibitory Smad, Smad7, is used frequently to implicate the Smad pathway in cellular responses to transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling; however, Smad7 regulates several other proteins, including Cdc42, p38MAPK, and β-catenin. We report an alternative approach for more specifically disrupting Smad-dependent signaling using a peptide aptamer, Trx-SARA, which comprises a rigid scaffold, the Escherichia coli thioredoxin A protein (Trx), displaying a constrained 56-amino acid Smad-binding motif from the Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) protein. Trx-SARA bound specifically to Smad2 and Smad3 and inhibited both TGF-β–induced reporter gene expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in NMuMG murine mammary epithelial cells. In contrast to Smad7, Trx-SARA had no effect on the Smad2 or 3 phosphorylation levels induced by TGF-β1. Trx-SARA was primarily localized to the nucleus and perturbed the normal cytoplasmic localization of Smad2 and 3 to a nuclear localization in the absence of TGF-β1, consistent with reduced Smad nuclear export. The key mode of action of Trx-SARA was to reduce the level of Smad2 and Smad3 in complex with Smad4 after TGF-β1 stimulation, a mechanism of action consistent with the preferential binding of SARA to monomeric Smad protein and Trx-SARA-mediated disruption of active Smad complexes. PMID:16775010

  14. Augmenter of liver regeneration inhibits TGF-β1-induced renal tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via suppressing TβR II expression in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Xiao-hui; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Guo-tao; Yan, Ru-yu; Sun, Hang; Guo, Hui; Liu, Qi

    2014-10-01

    Tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a crucial role in the progression of renal tubular interstitial fibrosis (TIF), which subsequently leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and eventually, end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We propose that augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR), a member of the newly discovered ALR/Erv1 protein family shown to ameliorate hepatic fibrosis, plays a similar protective role in renal tubular cells and has potential as a new treatment option for CKD. Here, we showed that recombinant human ALR (rhALR) inhibits EMT in renal tubular cells by antagonizing activation of the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling pathway. Further investigation revealed that rhALR suppresses the expression of TGF-β receptor type II (TβR II) and significantly alleviates TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). No apparent adverse effects were observed upon the addition of rhALR alone to cells. These findings collectively suggest that ALR plays a role in inhibiting progression of renal tubular EMT, supporting its potential utility as an effective antifibrotic strategy to reverse TIF in CKD. - Highlights: • ALR is involved in the pathological progression of renal EMT in NRK-52E cells. • ALR suppresses the expression of TβRII and the phosphorylation of Smad2 and NF-κB. • ALR plays a role in inhibiting progression of renal tubular EMT.

  15. The differential expression of TGF-β1, ILK and wnt signaling inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human renal fibrogenesis: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Kyung; Maeng, Young-In; Sung, Woo Jung; Oh, Hoon-Kyu; Park, Jae-Bok; Yoon, Ghil Suk; Cho, Chang-Ho; Park, Kwan-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process for fully differentiated epithelial cells to undergo a phenotypic change to fibroblasts via diverse intracellular signaling pathways. While the pivotal role of fibroblasts in renal fibrosis is widely accepted, their origin remains undefined. In addition, although a large number of studies have provided evidence of EMT in human kidney diseases, specific signaling pathways leading to EMT have not yet been discovered in humans. To evaluate the origin of interstitial fibroblasts and signaling pathways involved in the EMT process, we analyzed the differential expression of EMT-related molecules in paraffin-fixed sections from 19 human fibrotic kidneys and 4 control kidneys. In human fibrotic kidneys, tubular epithelial cells (TECs) with intact tubular basement membrane (TBM) showed loss or down-regulation of an epithelial marker (E-cadherin), de novo expression of mesenchymal markers (vimentin and fibronectin), and significant up-regulation of inducers and mediators controlling the EMT process (transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), p-Smad2/3, β1-integrin, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), WNT5B and β-catenin) in the areas of interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, compared with their expression in control kidneys. In conclusion, the type II EMT process in humans is thought to be an adaptive response of TECs to chronic injury and is regulated by interconnections of TGF-β/Smad, integrin/integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways.

  16. Gamma secretase inhibitor impairs epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by TGF-β in ovarian tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pazos, M C; Abramovich, D; Bechis, A; Accialini, P; Parborell, F; Tesone, M; Irusta, G

    2017-01-15

    Ovarian cancer is characterized by being highly metastatic, a feature that represents the main cause of failure of the treatment. This study investigated the effects of γ-secretase inhibition on the TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in ovarian cancer cell lines. SKOV3 cells incubated in the presence of TGF-β showed morphological and biochemical changes related to EMT, which were blocked by co-stimulation with TGF-β and the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT. In SKOV3 and IGROV1 cells, the co-stimulation blocked the cadherin switch and the increase in the transcription factors Snail, Slug, Twist and Zeb1 induced by TGF-β. DAPT impaired the translocation of phospho-β-catenin to the inner cell compartment observed in TGF-β-treated cells, but was not able to block the induction at protein level induced by TGF-β. Moreover, the inhibitor blocked the increased cell migration and invasiveness ability of both cell lines induced by TGF-β. Notch target genes (Hes1 and Hey1) were induced by TGF-β, decreased by DAPT treatment and remained low in the presence of both stimuli. However, DAPT alone caused no effects on most of the parameters analyzed. These results demonstrate that the γ-secretase inhibitor used in this study exerted a blockade on TGF-β-induced EMT in ovarian cancer cells.

  17. A novel interaction of PAK4 with PPARγ to regulate Nox1 and radiation-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in glioma.

    PubMed

    Kesanakurti, D; Maddirela, D; Banasavadi-Siddegowda, Y K; Lai, T-H; Qamri, Z; Jacob, N K; Sampath, D; Mohanam, S; Kaur, B; Puduvalli, V K

    2017-09-14

    Tumor recurrence in glioblastoma (GBM) is, in part, attributed to increased epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and enhanced tumor cell dissemination in adjacent brain parenchyma after ionizing radiation (IR). EMT is associated with aggressive behavior, increased stem-like characteristics and treatment resistance in malignancies; however, the underlying signaling mechanisms that regulate EMT are poorly understood. We identified grade-dependent p21-activated kinases 4 (PAK4) upregulation in gliomas and further determined its role in mesenchymal transition and radioresistance. IR treatment significantly elevated expression and nuclear localization of PAK4 in correlation with induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mesenchymal transition in GBM cells. Stable PAK4 overexpression promoted mesenchymal transition by elevating EMT marker expression in these cells. Of note, transcription factor-DNA-binding arrays and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments identified the formation of a novel nuclear PAK4/PPARγ complex which was recruited to the promoter of Nox1, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) target gene. In addition, IR further elevated PAK4/PPARγ complex co-recruitment to Nox1 promoter, and increased Nox1 expression and ROS levels associated with mesenchymal transition in these cells. Conversely, specific PAK4 downregulation decreased PPARγ-mediated Nox1 expression and suppressed EMT in IR-treated cells. In vivo orthotopic tumor experiments showed inhibition of growth and suppression of IR-induced PPARγ and Nox1 expression by PAK4 downregulation in tumors. Our results provide the first evidence of a novel role for PAK4 in IR-induced EMT and suggest potential therapeutic efficacy of targeting PAK4 to overcome radioresistance in gliomas.

  18. Hepatitis C virus represses E-cadherin expression via DNA methylation to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungmi; Jang, Kyung Lib

    2014-04-04

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is known to induce promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes including E-cadherin to repress their expression when overexpressed in human hepatocytes; however, its actual role during HCV infection is still unknown. Here, we report that infection with HCV derived from pJFH-1 replicon system that mimics natural infection elevates protein levels of DNA methyltransferase 1 and 3b to enhance DNMT activity in human hepatocytes. As a consequence, HCV induced promoter hypermethylation of E-cadherin, resulting in repression of its expression. In addition down-regulation of E-cadherin by HCV led to epithelial-mesenchymal transition that is known to be a critical event during the late stage of tumorigenesis.

  19. β-Catenin/CBP–Dependent Signaling Regulates TGF-β–Induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition of Lens Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Taiyab, Aftab; Korol, Anna; Deschamps, Paula A.; West-Mays, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Transforming growth factor-β–induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the main causes of posterior capsular opacification (PCO) or secondary cataract; however, the signaling events involved in TGF-β–induced PCO have not been fully characterized. Here, we focus on examining the role of β-catenin/cyclic AMP response element–binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) and β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-dependent signaling in regulating cytoskeletal dynamics during TGF-β–induced EMT in lens epithelial explants. Methods Rat lens epithelial explants were cultured in medium M199 in the absence of serum. Explants were treated with TGF-β2 in the presence or absence of the β-catenin/CBP interaction inhibitor, ICG-001, or the β-catenin/TCF interaction inhibitor, PNU-74654. Western blot and immunofluorescence experiments were carried out and analyzed. Results An increase in the expression of fascin, an actin-bundling protein, was observed in the lens explants upon stimulation with TGF-β, and colocalized with F-actin filaments. Inhibition of β-catenin/CBP interactions, but not β-catenin/TCF interactions, led to a decrease in TGF-β–induced fascin and stress fiber formation, as well as a decrease in the expression of known markers of EMT, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). In addition, inhibition of β-catenin/CBP–dependent signaling also prevented TGF-β–induced downregulation of epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) in lens explants. Conclusions We show that β-catenin/CBP–dependent signaling regulates fascin, MMP9, and α-SMA expression during TGF-β–induced EMT. We demonstrate that β-catenin/CBP–dependent signaling is crucial for TGF-β–induced EMT in the lens. PMID:27787561

  20. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Inhibit Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice through Suppressing TGF-β1/Smad-Mediated Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; He, Zhong; Gao, Yuan; Zheng, Rui; Zhang, Xiaoye; Zhao, Li; Tan, Mingqi

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and irreversible fibrotic lung disorder with high mortality and few treatment options. Recently, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been considered as an ideal resource for stem cell-based therapy. Although, an earlier study demonstrated the therapeutic effect of iPS cells on pulmonary fibrosis, the exact mechanisms remain obscure. The present study investigated the effects of iPS cells on inflammatory responses, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 signaling pathway, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) during bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis. A single intratracheal instillation of BLM (5 mg/kg) was performed to induce pulmonary fibrosis in C57BL/6 mice. Then, iPS cells (c-Myc-free) were administrated intravenously at 24 h following BLM instillation. Three weeks after BLM administration, pulmonary fibrosis was evaluated. As expected, treatment with iPS cells significantly limited the pathological changes, edema, and collagen deposition in lung tissues of BLM-induced mice. Mechanically, treatment with iPS cells obviously repressed the expression ratios of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) to its tissue inhibitor -2 (TIMP-2) and MMP-9/TIMP-1 in BLM-induced pulmonary tissues. In addition, iPS cell administration remarkably suppressed BLM-induced up-regulation of pulmonary inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2. We further demonstrated that transplantation of iPS cells markedly inhibited BLM-mediated activation of TGF-β1/Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2/3 (Smad2/3) and EMT in lung tissues through up-regulating epithelial marker E-cadherin and down-regulating mesenchymal markers including fibronectin, vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin. Moreover, in vitro, iPS cell-conditioned medium (iPSC-CM) profoundly inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT signaling pathway in mouse alveolar

  1. Jak2-Stat5a/b Signaling Induces Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Stem-Like Cell Properties in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Talati, Pooja G.; Gu, Lei; Ellsworth, Elyse M.; Girondo, Melanie A.; Trerotola, Marco; Hoang, David T.; Leiby, Benjamin; Dagvadorj, Ayush; McCue, Peter A.; Lallas, Costas D.; Trabulsi, Edouard J.; Gomella, Leonard; Aplin, Andrew E.; Languino, Lucia; Fatatis, Alessandro; Rui, Hallgeir; Nevalainen, Marja T.

    2016-01-01

    Active Stat5a/b predicts early recurrence and disease-specific death in prostate cancer (PC), which both typically are caused by development of metastatic disease. Herein, we demonstrate that Stat5a/b induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of PC cells, as shown by Stat5a/b regulation of EMT marker expression (Twist1, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, and fibronectin) in PC cell lines, xenograft tumors in vivo, and patient-derived PCs ex vivo using organ explant cultures. Jak2-Stat5a/b signaling induced functional end points of EMT as well, indicated by disruption of epithelial cell monolayers and increased migration and adhesion of PC cells to fibronectin. Knockdown of Twist1 suppressed Jak2-Stat5a/b–induced EMT properties of PC cells, which were rescued by re-introduction of Twist1, indicating that Twist1 mediates Stat5a/b-induced EMT in PC cells. While promoting EMT, Jak2-Stat5a/b signaling induced stem-like properties in PC cells, such as sphere formation and expression of cancer stem cell markers, including BMI1. Mechanistically, both Twist1 and BMI1 were critical for Stat5a/b induction of stem-like features, because genetic knockdown of Twist1 suppressed Stat5a/b-induced BMI1 expression and sphere formation in stem cell culture conditions, which were rescued by re-introduction of BMI1. By using human prolactin knock-in mice, we demonstrate that prolactin-Stat5a/b signaling promoted metastases formation of PC cells in vivo. In conclusion, our data support the concept that Jak2-Stat5a/b signaling promotes metastatic progression of PC by inducing EMT and stem cell properties in PC cells. PMID:26362718

  2. Vitamin D Can Ameliorate Chlorhexidine Gluconate-Induced Peritoneal Fibrosis and Functional Deterioration through the Inhibition of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition of Mesothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Che; Hung, Shih-Yuan; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Lin, Tsun-Mei; Tsai, Chu-Hung; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Tsai, Yau-Sheng; Chang, Min-Yu; Wang, Hsi-Hao; Ho, Li-Chun; Chen, Yi-Ting; Wu, Ching-Fang; Chen, Ho-Ching; Chen, Hsin-Pao; Liu, Kuang-Wen; Chen, Chih-I.; She, Kuan Min; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Lin, Chi-Wei; Chiou, Yuan-Yow

    2015-01-01

    Background. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) can induce fibrosis and functional alterations in PD patients' peritoneal membranes, due to long-term unphysiological dialysate exposure, partially occurring via triggering of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in peritoneal mesothelial cells (MCs). Vitamin D can ameliorate these negative effects; however, the mechanism remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated its possible links to MCs EMT inhibition. Methods. Peritoneal fibrosis was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by chlorhexidine gluconate (CG) intraperitoneal injection for 21 days, with and without 1α,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Morphological and functional evaluation and western blot analysis of EMT marker were performed upon peritoneum tissue. In vitro study was also performed in a primary human peritoneal MC culture system; MCs were incubated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in the absence or presence of 1α,25(OH)2D3. EMT marker expression, migration activities, and cytoskeleton redistribution of MCs were determined. Results. 1α,25(OH)2D3 ameliorated CG-induced morphological and functional deterioration in animal model, along with CG-induced upregulation of α-SMA and downregulation of E-cadherin expression. Meanwhile, 1α,25(OH)2D3 also ameliorated TGF-β1-induced decrease in E-cadherin expression, increase in Snai1 and α-SMA expression, intracellular F-actin redistribution, and migration activity in vitro. Conclusion. 1α,25(OH)2D3 can ameliorate CG-induced peritoneal fibrosis and attenuate functional deterioration through inhibiting MC EMT. PMID:26495304

  3. Apelin attenuates TGF-β1-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition via activation of PKC-ε in human renal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Yan; Diao, Zong-Li; Zheng, Jun-Fang; Wu, Yi-Ru; Zhang, Qi-Dong; Liu, Wen-Hu

    2017-08-25

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process whereby fully differentiated epithelial cells transition to a mesenchymal phenotype, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. Apelin, a bioactive peptide, has recently been recognized to protect against renal profibrotic activity, but the underlying mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the regulation of EMT in the presence of apelin-13 in vitro. Expression of the mesenchymal marker alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and the epithelial marker E-cadherin was examined by immunofluorescence and western blotting in transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1)-stimulated human proximal tubular epithelial cells. Expression of extracellular matrix, fibronectin and collagen-I was examined by quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA. F13A, an antagonist of the apelin receptor APJ, and small interfering RNA targeting protein kinase C epsilon (PKC-ε) were used to explore the relevant signaling pathways. Apelin attenuated TGF-β1-induced EMT, and inhibited the EMT-associated increase in α-SMA, loss of E-cadherin, and secretion of extracellular matrix. Moreover, apelin activated PKC-ε in tubular epithelial cells, which in turn decreased phospho-Smad2/3 levels and increased Smad-7 levels. APJ inhibition or PKC-ε deletion diminished apelin-induced modulation of Smad signaling and suppression of tubular EMT. Our findings identify a novel PKC-ε-dependent mechanism in which apelin suppresses TGF-β1-mediated activation of Smad signaling pathways and thereby inhibits tubular EMT. These results suggest that apelin may be a new agent that can suppress renal fibrosis and retard chronic kidney disease progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition of airway epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis by kaempferol in endotoxin-induced epithelial cells and ovalbumin-sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ju-Hyun; Cho, In-Hee; Shin, Daekeun; Han, Seon-Young; Park, Sin-Hye; Kang, Young-Hee

    2014-03-01

    Chronic airway remodeling is characterized by structural changes within the airway wall, including smooth muscle hypertrophy, submucosal fibrosis and epithelial shedding. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental mechanism of organ fibrosis, which can be induced by TGF-β. In the in vitro study, we investigated whether 1-20 μM kaempferol inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bronchial EMT in BEAS-2B cells. The in vivo study explored demoting effects of 10-20 mg/kg kaempferol on airway fibrosis in BALB/c mice sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). LPS induced airway epithelial TGF-β1 signaling that promoted EMT with concurrent loss of E-cadherin and induction of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Nontoxic kaempferol significantly inhibited TGF-β-induced EMT process through reversing E-cadherin expression and retarding the induction of N-cadherin and α-SMA. Consistently, OVA inhalation resulted in a striking loss of epithelial morphology by displaying myofibroblast appearance, which led to bronchial fibrosis with submucosal accumulation of collagen fibers. Oral administration of kaempferol suppressed collagen deposition, epithelial excrescency and goblet hyperplasia observed in the lung of OVA-challenged mice. The specific inhibition of TGF-β entailed epithelial protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) as with 20 μM kaempferol. The epithelial PAR-1 inhibition by SCH-79797 restored E-cadherin induction and deterred α-SMA induction, indicating that epithelial PAR-1 localization was responsible for resulting in airway EMT. These results demonstrate that dietary kaempferol alleviated fibrotic airway remodeling via bronchial EMT by modulating PAR1 activation. Therefore, kaempferol may be a potential therapeutic agent targeting asthmatic airway constriction.

  5. CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 blocks TGF-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyeon; Hwan Kim, Seong

    2013-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a major phenotype of cancer metastasis and invasion. As a druggable cancer target, the inhibition of protein kinase CK2 (formally named to casein kinase 2) has been suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy to treat EMT-controlled cancer metastasis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 on the processes of cancer migration and invasion during the EMT in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. The effect of CX-4945 on TGF-β1-induced EMT was evaluated in A549 cells treated with TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) and CX-4945. The effect of CX-4945 on TGF-β1-induced cadherin switch and activation of key signaling molecules involved in Smad, non-Smad, Wnt and focal adhesion signaling pathways were investigated by Western blot analysis, immunocytochemistry and reporter assay. Additionally, the effect of CX-4945 on TGF-β1-induced migration and invasion was investigated by wound healing assay, Boyden chamber assay, gelatin zymography, and the quantitative real-time PCR. CX-4945 inhibits the TGF-β1-induced cadherin switch and the activation of key signaling molecules involved in Smad (Smad2/3, Twist and Snail), non-Smad (Akt and Erk), Wnt (β-catenin) and focal adhesion signaling pathways (FAK, Src and paxillin) that cooperatively regulate the overall process of EMT. As a result, CX-4945 inhibits the migration and invasion of A549 cells accompanied with the downregulation of MMP-2 and 9. Clinical evaluation of CX-4945 in humans as a single agent in solid tumors and multiple myeloma has established its promising pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and safety profiles. Beyond regression of tumor mass, CX-4945 may be advanced as a new therapy for cancer metastasis and EMT-related disorders.

  6. CK2 Inhibitor CX-4945 Blocks TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in A549 Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyeon; Hwan Kim, Seong

    2013-01-01

    Background The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a major phenotype of cancer metastasis and invasion. As a druggable cancer target, the inhibition of protein kinase CK2 (formally named to casein kinase 2) has been suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy to treat EMT-controlled cancer metastasis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 on the processes of cancer migration and invasion during the EMT in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Materials and Methods The effect of CX-4945 on TGF-β1-induced EMT was evaluated in A549 cells treated with TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml) and CX-4945. The effect of CX-4945 on TGF-β1-induced cadherin switch and activation of key signaling molecules involved in Smad, non-Smad, Wnt and focal adhesion signaling pathways were investigated by Western blot analysis, immunocytochemistry and reporter assay. Additionally, the effect of CX-4945 on TGF-β1-induced migration and invasion was investigated by wound healing assay, Boyden chamber assay, gelatin zymography, and the quantitative real-time PCR. Results CX-4945 inhibits the TGF-β1-induced cadherin switch and the activation of key signaling molecules involved in Smad (Smad2/3, Twist and Snail), non-Smad (Akt and Erk), Wnt (β-catenin) and focal adhesion signaling pathways (FAK, Src and paxillin) that cooperatively regulate the overall process of EMT. As a result, CX-4945 inhibits the migration and invasion of A549 cells accompanied with the downregulation of MMP-2 and 9. Conclusions Clinical evaluation of CX-4945 in humans as a single agent in solid tumors and multiple myeloma has established its promising pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and safety profiles. Beyond regression of tumor mass, CX-4945 may be advanced as a new therapy for cancer metastasis and EMT-related disorders. PMID:24023938

  7. The impact of metformin and salinomycin on transforming growth factor β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Koeck, Stefan; Amann, Arno; Huber, Julia M; Gamerith, Gabriele; Hilbe, Wolfgang; Zwierzina, Heinz

    2016-04-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is highly involved in the development of metastases. EMT transforms epithelial carcinoma cells into mesenchymal-like cells, characterized by increased cell migration and invasiveness. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) appears to be crucial in this process. Metformin and salinomycin have demonstrated an EMT inhibitory effect. The current experiments indicate that these substances specifically inhibit TGFβ-induced EMT in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. The NSCLC cell lines A549 and HCC4006 were stimulated with TGFβ for 48 h to induce EMT. Metformin or salinomycin was added simultaneously with TGFβ to inhibit TGFβ-induced EMT. Western blot analyses of E-cadherin and vimentin were performed to detect changes in EMT marker expression, and a wound healing assay was conducted to determine the potential effects on cell migration. The effects of the two drugs on cell viability were also investigated using MTS tetrazolium dye assays. The results revealed that cells undergoing EMT by application of TGFβ exhibited a downregulation of E-cadherin and an upregulation of vimentin protein expression on western blot analyses, and an increased capacity for cell migration. Simultaneous application of TGFβ and metformin specifically inhibited EMT and increased E-cadherin expression. At the higher dose tested, salinomycin also inhibited EMT, despite an increase in vimentin expression in the two cell lines. Furthermore, metformin and salinomycin, at the two concentrations tested, inhibited cell migration. These findings demonstrate that metformin and salinomycin are able to block EMT and inhibit EMT-induced cell migration. Thus, these two substances are novel EMT inhibiting drugs that have the potential to specifically control EMT and metastatic spread in NSCLC.

  8. Highly Expressed Integrin-α8 Induces Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition-Like Features in Multiple Myeloma with Early Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jiyeon; Koh, Youngil; Park, Hyejoo; Kim, Dae Yoon; Kim, Dong Chan; Byun, Ja Min; Lee, Hyun Jung; Yoon, Sung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent groundbreaking advances in multiple myeloma (MM) treatment, most MM patients ultimately experience relapse, and the relapse biology is not entirely understood. To define altered gene expression in MM relapse, gene expression profiles were examined and compared among 16 MM patients grouped by 12 months progression-free survival (PFS) after autologous stem cell transplantation. To maximize the difference between prognostic groups, patients at each end of the PFS spectrum (the four with the shortest PFS and four with the longest PFS) were chosen for additional analyses. We discovered that integrin-α8 (ITGA8) is highly expressed in MM patients with early relapse. The integrin family is well known to be involved in MM progression; however, the role of integrin-α8 is largely unknown. We functionally overexpressed integrin-α8 in MM cell lines, and surprisingly, stemness features including HIF1α, VEGF, OCT4, and Nanog, as well as epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related phenotypes, including N-cadherin, Slug, Snail and CXCR4, were induced. These, consequently, enhanced migration and invasion abilities, which are crucial to MM pathogenesis. Moreover, the gain of integrin-α8 expression mediated drug resistance against melphalan and bortezomib, which are the main therapeutic agents in MM. The cBioPortal genomic database revealed that ITGA8 have significant tendency to co-occur with PDGFRA and PDGFRB and their mRNA expression were up-regulated in ITGA8 overexpressed MM cells. In summary, integrin-α8, which was up-regulated in MM of early relapse, mediates EMT-like phenotype, enhancing migration and invasion; therefore, it could serve as a potential marker of MM relapse and be a new therapeutic target. PMID:28008160

  9. Bardoxolone methyl induces apoptosis and autophagy and inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and stemness in esophageal squamous cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Yang; Yang, Yin-Xue; Zhao, Ren; Pan, Shu-Ting; Zhe, Hong; He, Zhi-Xu; Duan, Wei; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Natural and synthetic triterpenoids have been shown to kill cancer cells via multiple mechanisms. The therapeutic effect and underlying mechanism of the synthetic triterpenoid bardoxolone methyl (C-28 methyl ester of 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid; CDDO-Me) on esophageal cancer are unclear. Herein, we aimed to investigate the anticancer effects and underlying mechanisms of CDDO-Me in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells. Our study showed that CDDO-Me suppressed the proliferation and arrested cells in G2/M phase, and induced apoptosis in human ESCC Ec109 and KYSE70 cells. The G2/M arrest was accompanied with upregulated p21Waf1/Cip1 and p53 expression. CDDO-Me significantly decreased B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xl), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) levels but increased the expression level of Bcl-2-associated X (Bax). Furthermore, CDDO-Me induced autophagy in both Ec109 and KYSE70 cells via suppression of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) signaling pathway. There were interactions between the autophagic and apoptotic pathways in Ec109 and KYSE70 cells subject to CDDO-Me treatment. CDDO-Me also scavenged reactive oxygen species through activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway in Ec109 and KYSE70 cells. CDDO-Me inhibited cell invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and stemness in Ec109 and KYSE70 cells. CDDO-Me significantly downregulated E-cadherin but upregulated Snail, Slug, and zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (TCF-8/ZEB1) in Ec109 and KYSE70 cells. CDDO-Me significantly decreased the expression of octamer-4, sex determining region Y-box 2 (Sox-2), Nanog, and B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi-1), all markers of cancer cell stemness, in Ec109 and KYSE70 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that CDDO-Me is a promising anticancer agent

  10. Conditioned media from human ovarian cancer endothelial progenitor cells induces ovarian cancer cell migration by activating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Teng, L; Peng, S; Guo, H; Liang, H; Xu, Z; Su, Y; Gao, L

    2015-11-01

    Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) migrate to and engraft at ovarian cancer sites. Understanding the interactions between ovarian cancer cells and EPCs is fundamental for determining whether to harness EPC-tumor interactions for delivery of therapeutic agents or target them for intervention. Ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3) were cultured alone or in EPC-conditioned media (EPC-CM). Migration of ovarian cancer cells was detected by transwell chamber. N-cadherin and E-cadherin expression were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription PCR and western blot. EPC-CM can increase transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) secretion in SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells. EPC-CM induced loss of ovarian cancer cell-cell junctions, downregulation of E-cadherin, upregulation of N-cadherin and acquisition of a fibroblastic phenotype, consistent with an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The specific TGF-β inhibitor SB431542 abolished the SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cell migration induced by EPC-CM. In SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3 cells, EPC-CM downregulated E-cadherin and concurrently upregulated N-cadherin. EPC-CM upregulated the expression of transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin, Snail and Twist. Treatment with SB431542 abolished the effects of EPC-CM on the relative expression levels of cadherin, Snail and Twist. This study demonstrates that TGF-β has a role in EPC-CM-induced ovarian cancer migration by activating EMT.

  11. Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase induces an epithelial to mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell-like properties in SCC9 cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tissue invasion and metastasis are acquired abilities of cancer and related to the death in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Emerging observations indicate that the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with tumor progression and the generation of cells with cancer stem cells (CSCs) properties. Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a cell surface proteinase, which is involved in degrading extracellular matrix components that can promote tumor invasion and cell migration. Methods In the current study, we utilized SCC9 cells stably transfected with an empty vector (SCC9-N) or a vector encoding human MT1-MMP (SCC9-M) to study the role of MT1-MMP in EMT development. Results Upon up-regulation of MT1-MMP, SCC9-M cells underwent EMT, in which they presented a fibroblast-like phenotype and had a decreased expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin, cytokeratin18 and β-catenin) and an increased expression of mesenchymal markers (vimentin and fibronectin). We further demonstrated that MT1-MMP-induced morphologic changes increased the level of Twist and ZEB, and were dependent on repressing the transcription of E-cadherin. These activities resulted in low adhesive, high invasive abilities of the SCC9-M cells. Furthermore, MT1-MMP-induced transformed cells exhibited cancer stem cell (CSC)-like characteristics, such as low proliferation, self-renewal ability, resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs and apoptosis, and expression of CSCs surface markers. Conclusions In conclusion, our study indicates that overexpression of MT1-MMP induces EMT and results in the acquisition of CSC-like properties in SCC9 cells. Our growing understanding of the mechanism regulating EMT may provide new targets against invasion and metastasis in OSCC. PMID:23548172

  12. The potential role of Brachyury in inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and HIF-1α expression in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Chao; Zhang, Jingjing; Fu, Jianhua; Ling, Feihai

    2015-11-27

    One of transcription factors of the T-box family, Brachyury has been implicated in tumorigenesis of many types of cancers, regulating cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of Brachyury in breast cancer cells has been scarcely reported. The present study aimed to investigate the expression and role of Brachyury in breast cancer. Brachyury expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR and Western blot. The correlations between Brachyury expression and clinicopathological factors of breast cancer were determined. Involvement of EMT stimulation and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression induction by Brachyury was also evaluated. Moreover, the effect of Brachyury on tumor growth and metastasis in vivo was examined in a breast tumor xenograft model. Brachyury expression was enhanced in primary breast cancer tissues and Brachyury expression was correlated with tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. Hypoxia enhanced Brachyury expression, the silencing of which blocked the modulation effect of hypoxia on E-cadherin and vimentin expression. Brachyury significantly augmented HIF-1alpha expression via PTEN/Akt signaling as well as accelerated cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Additionally, Brachyury accelerated breast tumor xenograft growth and increased lung metastasis in nude mice. In summary, our data confirmed that Brachyury might contribute to hypoxia-induced EMT of breast cancer and trigger HIF-1alpha expression via PTEN/Akt signaling. - Highlights: • Brachyury expression was correlated with tumor stage and lymph node metastasis. • Hypoxia enhanced Brachyury expression, which contributes to hypoxia-induced EMT. • Brachyury significantly augmented HIF-1alpha expression via PTEN/Akt signaling. • Brachyury accelerated tumor xenograft growth and increased lung metastasis.

  13. Treatment with the vascular disruptive agent OXi4503 induces an immediate and widespread epithelial to mesenchymal transition in the surviving tumor.

    PubMed

    Fifis, Theodora; Nguyen, Linh; Malcontenti-Wilson, Cathy; Chan, Lie Sam; Nunes Costa, Patricia Luiza; Daruwalla, Jurstine; Nikfarjam, Mehrdad; Muralidharan, Vijayaragavan; Waltham, Mark; Thompson, Erik W; Christophi, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered an important mechanism in tumor resistance to drug treatments; however, in vivo observation of this process has been limited. In this study we demonstrated an immediate and widespread EMT involving all surviving tumor cells following treatment of a mouse model of colorectal liver metastases with the vascular disruptive agent OXi4503. EMT was characterized by significant downregulation of E-cadherin, relocation and nuclear accumulation of β-catenin as well as significant upregulation of ZEB1 and vimentin. Concomitantly, significant temporal upregulation in hypoxia and the pro-angiogenic growth factors hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, hepatocyte growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor-beta were seen within the surviving tumor. The process of EMT was transient and by 5 days after treatment tumor cell reversion to epithelial morphology was evident. This reversal, termed mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) is a process implicated in the development of new metastases but has not been observed in vivo histologically. Similar EMT changes were observed in response to other antitumor treatments including chemotherapy, thermal ablation, and antiangiogenic treatments in our mouse colorectal metastasis model and in a murine orthotopic breast cancer model after OXi4503 treatment. These results suggest that EMT may be an early mechanism adopted by tumors in response to injury and hypoxic stress, such that inhibition of EMT in combination with other therapies could play a significant role in future cancer therapy. © 2013 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Smoking induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in non-small cell lung cancer through HDAC-mediated downregulation of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Nagathihalli, Nagaraj S; Massion, Pierre P; Gonzalez, Adriana L; Lu, Pengcheng; Datta, Pran K

    2012-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that most cases of lung cancers (85%-90%) are directly attributable to tobacco smoking. Although association between cigarette smoking and lung cancer is well documented, surprisingly little is known about the molecular mechanisms of how smoking is involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through epigenetic changes. Here, we show that lung cancer patients with a smoking history have low E-cadherin levels and loss of E-cadherin is a poor prognostic factor in smokers. Moreover, the downregulation of E-cadherin correlates with the number of pack years. In an attempt to determine the role of long-term cigarette smoking on EMT, we observed that treatment of lung cell lines with cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) induces EMT through downregulation of epithelial markers, including E-cadherin and upregulation of mesenchymal markers. CSC decreases E-cadherin expression at the transcriptional level through upregulation of LEF1 and Slug, and knockdown of these two proteins increases E-cadherin expression. Importantly, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggest that LEF-1 and Slug binding to E-cadherin promoter is important for CSC-mediated downregulation of E-cadherin. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor MS-275 reverses CSC-induced EMT, migration, and invasion through the restoration of E-cadherin expression. These results suggest that recruitment of HDACs by transcriptional repressors LEF-1 and Slug is responsible for E-cadherin suppression and EMT in cigarette smokers and provide a potential drug target toward the treatment of lung cancer.

  15. The coordinated roles of miR-26a and miR-30c in regulating TGFβ1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zongji; Guan, Meiping; Jia, Yijie; Wang, Dan; Pang, Ruoyu; Lv, Fuping; Xiao, Zhizhou; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Hongbin; Xue, Yaoming

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Here, we compared the protective efficacies of miR-26a and miR-30c in renal tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E) and determined whether they demonstrated additive effects in the attenuation of renal fibrosis. TGFβ1 suppressed miR-26a and miR-30c expression but up-regulated pro-fibrotic markers in NRK-52E cells, and these changes were also found in the kidney cortex of 40-week-old diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats. Bioinformatic analyses and luciferase assays further demonstrated that both miR-26a and miR-30c targeted connective tissue growth factor (CTGF); additionally, Snail family zinc finger 1 (Snail1), a potent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducer, was targeted by miR-30c. Overexpression of miR-26a and miR-30c coordinately decreased CTGF protein levels and subsequently ameliorated TGFβ1-induced EMT in NRK-52E cells. Co-silencing of miR-26a and miR-30c exhibited the opposite effect. Moreover, miR-26a and miR-30c co-silenced CTGF to decrease ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK activation. Furthermore, miR-26a was up-regulated in urinary extracellular vesicles of diabetic nephropathy patients. Our study provides evidence for the cooperative roles of miR-26a and miR-30c in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, and the co-targeting of miR-26a and miR-30c could provide a new direction for diabetic nephropathy treatment. PMID:27874055

  16. Role of BCL9L in transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) and metastasis of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sannino, Giuseppina; Armbruster, Nicole; Bodenhöfer, Mona; Haerle, Ursula; Behrens, Diana; Buchholz, Malte; Rothbauer, Ulrich; Sipos, Bence; Schmees, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a low overall survival rate, which is approximately 20% during the first year and decreases to less than 6% within five years of the disease. This is due to premature dissemination accompanied by a lack of disease-specific symptoms during the initial stages. Additionally, to date there are no biomarkers for an early prognosis available. A growing number of studies indicate that epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), triggered by WNT-, TGF-β- and other signaling pathways is crucial for the initiation of the metastatic process in PDAC. Here we show, that BCL9L is up-regulated in PDAC cell lines and patient tissue compared to non-cancer controls. RNAi-induced BCL9L knockdown negatively affected proliferation, migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. On a molecular basis, BCL9L depletion provoked an increment of E-cadherin protein levels, with concomitant increase of β-catenin retention at the plasma membrane. This is linked to the induction of a strong epithelial phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells upon BCL9L knockdown even in the presence of the EMT-inducer TGF-β. Finally, xenograft mouse models of pancreatic cancer revealed a highly significant reduction in the number of liver metastases upon BCL9L knockdown. Taken together, our findings underline the key importance of BCL9L for EMT and thus progression and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells. Direct targeting of this protein might be a valuable approach to effectively antagonize invasion and metastasis of PDAC. PMID:27713160

  17. Covalent dimerization of interleukin-like epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducer (ILEI) facilitates EMT, invasion, and late aspects of metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kral, Maria; Klimek, Christoph; Kutay, Betül; Timelthaler, Gerald; Lendl, Thomas; Neuditschko, Benjamin; Gerner, Christopher; Sibilia, Maria; Csiszar, Agnes

    2017-08-24

    The interleukin-like epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducer (ILEI)/FAM3C is a member of the highly homologous FAM3 family and is essential for EMT and metastasis formation. It is upregulated in several cancers, and its altered subcellular localization strongly correlates with poor survival. However, the mechanism of ILEI action, including the structural requirements for ILEI activity, remains elusive. Here, we show that ILEI formed both monomers and covalent dimers in cancer cell lines and in tumors. Using mutational analysis and pulse-chase experiments, we found that the four ILEI cysteines, conserved throughout the FAM3 family and involved in disulfide bond formation were essential for extracellular ILEI accumulation in cultured cells. Modification of a fifth cysteine (C185), unique for ILEI, did not alter protein secretion, but completely inhibited ILEI dimerization. Wild-type ILEI monomers, but not C185A mutants, could be converted into covalent dimers extracellularly upon overexpression by intramolecular-to-intermolecular disulfide bond isomerization. Incubation of purified ILEI with cell culture medium showed that dimerization was triggered by bovine serum in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Purified ILEI dimers induced EMT and trans-well invasion of cancer cells in vitro. In contrast, ILEI monomers and the dimerization-defective C185A mutant affected only cell motility as detected by scratch assays and cell tracking via time-lapse microscopy. Importantly, tumor cells overexpressing wild-type ILEI caused large tumors and lung metastases in nude mice, while cells overexpressing the dimerization-defective C185A mutant behaved similar to control cells. These data show that covalent ILEI self-assembly is essential for EMT induction, elevated tumor growth, and metastasis. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. MicroRNA-34a targets epithelial to mesenchymal transition-inducing transcription factors (EMT-TFs) and inhibits breast cancer cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Imani, Saber; Wei, Chunli; Cheng, Jingliang; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Fu, Shangyi; Yang, Luquan; Tania, Mousumi; Zhang, Xianqin; Xiao, Xiuli; Zhang, Xianning; Fu, Junjiang

    2017-03-28

    MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a) plays an essential role against tumorigenesis and progression of cancer metastasis. Here, we analyzed the expression, targets and functional effects of miR-34a on epithelial to mesenchymal transition-inducing transcription factors (EMT-TFs), such as TWIST1, SLUG and ZEB1/2, and an EMT-inducing protein NOTCH1 in breast cancer (BC) cell migration and invasion and its correlation with tumorigenesis and clinical outcomes. Expression of miR-34a is downregulated in human metastatic breast cancers (MBC) compared to normal breast tissues and is negatively correlated with clinicopathological features of MBC patients. Ectopic expression of miR-34a in MBC cell-line BT-549 significantly inhibits cell migration and invasion, but exhibits no clear effect on BC cell growth. We found that miR-34a is able to inactivate EMT signaling pathway with mediatory of NOTCH1, TWIST1, and ZEB1 upon 3'-UTR activity in MBC cell lines, but has no inhibitory effects on SLUG and ZEB2. Furthermore, we investigated the synergistic effects of Thymoquinone (TQ) and miR-34a together on the expression of EMT-associated proteins. Results showed that co-delivery of miR-34a and TQ is able to inactivate EMT signaling pathway by directly targeting TWIST1 and ZEB1 in BT-549 cell line, indicating that they might be a promising therapeutic combination against breast cancer metastasis. Epigenetic inactivation of the EMT-TFs/miR-34a pathway can potentially alter the equilibrium of these regulations, facilitating EMT and metastasis in BC. Altogether, our findings suggest that miR-34a alone could serve as a potential therapeutic agent for MBC, and together with TQ, their therapeutic potential is synergistically enhanced.

  19. MicroRNA-34a targets epithelial to mesenchymal transition-inducing transcription factors (EMT-TFs) and inhibits breast cancer cell migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shangyi; Yang, Luquan; Tania, Mousumi; Zhang, Xianqin; Xiao, Xiuli; Zhang, Xianning; Fu, Junjiang

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a) plays an essential role against tumorigenesis and progression of cancer metastasis. Here, we analyzed the expression, targets and functional effects of miR-34a on epithelial to mesenchymal transition-inducing transcription factors (EMT-TFs), such as TWIST1, SLUG and ZEB1/2, and an EMT-inducing protein NOTCH1 in breast cancer (BC) cell migration and invasion and its correlation with tumorigenesis and clinical outcomes. Expression of miR-34a is downregulated in human metastatic breast cancers (MBC) compared to normal breast tissues and is negatively correlated with clinicopathological features of MBC patients. Ectopic expression of miR-34a in MBC cell-line BT-549 significantly inhibits cell migration and invasion, but exhibits no clear effect on BC cell growth. We found that miR-34a is able to inactivate EMT signaling pathway with mediatory of NOTCH1, TWIST1, and ZEB1 upon 3′-UTR activity in MBC cell lines, but has no inhibitory effects on SLUG and ZEB2. Furthermore, we investigated the synergistic effects of Thymoquinone (TQ) and miR-34a together on the expression of EMT-associated proteins. Results showed that co-delivery of miR-34a and TQ is able to inactivate EMT signaling pathway by directly targeting TWIST1 and ZEB1 in BT-549 cell line, indicating that they might be a promising therapeutic combination against breast cancer metastasis. Epigenetic inactivation of the EMT-TFs/miR-34a pathway can potentially alter the equilibrium of these regulations, facilitating EMT and metastasis in BC. Altogether, our findings suggest that miR-34a alone could serve as a potential therapeutic agent for MBC, and together with TQ, their therapeutic potential is synergistically enhanced. PMID:28423483

  20. Dysregulation of PAD4-mediated citrullination of nuclear GSK3β activates TGF-β signaling and induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, Sonja C.; Vincent, C. Theresa; Fedorov, Victor D.; Patsialou, Antonia; Cherrington, Brian D.; Wakshlag, Joseph J.; Mohanan, Sunish; Zee, Barry M.; Zhang, Xuesen; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Condeelis, John S.; Brown, Anthony M. C.; Coonrod, Scott A.; Allis, C. David

    2013-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is a Ca2+-dependent enzyme that converts arginine and methylarginine residues to citrulline, with histone proteins being among its best-described substrates to date. However, the biological function of this posttranslational modification, either in histones or in nonhistone proteins, is poorly understood. Here, we show that PAD4 recognizes, binds, and citrullinates glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), both in vitro and in vivo. Among other functions, GSK3β is a key regulator of transcription factors involved in tumor progression, and its dysregulation has been associated with progression of human cancers. We demonstrate that silencing of PAD4 in breast cancer cells leads to a striking reduction of nuclear GSK3β protein levels, increased TGF-β signaling, induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and production of more invasive tumors in xenograft assays. Moreover, in breast cancer patients, reduction of PAD4 and nuclear GSK3β is associated with increased tumor invasiveness. We propose that PAD4-mediated citrullination of GSK3β is a unique posttranslational modification that regulates its nuclear localization and thereby plays a critical role in maintaining an epithelial phenotype. We demonstrate a dynamic and previously unappreciated interplay between histone-modifying enzymes, citrullination of nonhistone proteins, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. PMID:23818587

  1. Dysregulation of PAD4-mediated citrullination of nuclear GSK3β activates TGF-β signaling and induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Stadler, Sonja C; Vincent, C Theresa; Fedorov, Victor D; Patsialou, Antonia; Cherrington, Brian D; Wakshlag, Joseph J; Mohanan, Sunish; Zee, Barry M; Zhang, Xuesen; Garcia, Benjamin A; Condeelis, John S; Brown, Anthony M C; Coonrod, Scott A; Allis, C David

    2013-07-16

    Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is a Ca(2+)-dependent enzyme that converts arginine and methylarginine residues to citrulline, with histone proteins being among its best-described substrates to date. However, the biological function of this posttranslational modification, either in histones or in nonhistone proteins, is poorly understood. Here, we show that PAD4 recognizes, binds, and citrullinates glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), both in vitro and in vivo. Among other functions, GSK3β is a key regulator of transcription factors involved in tumor progression, and its dysregulation has been associated with progression of human cancers. We demonstrate that silencing of PAD4 in breast cancer cells leads to a striking reduction of nuclear GSK3β protein levels, increased TGF-β signaling, induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and production of more invasive tumors in xenograft assays. Moreover, in breast cancer patients, reduction of PAD4 and nuclear GSK3β is associated with increased tumor invasiveness. We propose that PAD4-mediated citrullination of GSK3β is a unique posttranslational modification that regulates its nuclear localization and thereby plays a critical role in maintaining an epithelial phenotype. We demonstrate a dynamic and previously unappreciated interplay between histone-modifying enzymes, citrullination of nonhistone proteins, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

  2. Astrocyte elevated gene-1 regulates CCL3/CCR5-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via Erk1/2 and Akt signaling in cardiac myxoma.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ping; Fang, Changcun; Pang, Xinyan

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) has been reported as a key mediator that is involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. However, the mechanisms underlying CCL3/CCR5-AEG-1 pathway-mediated EMT in cardiac myxoma (CM) has not been well featured till now. We used immnohistochemistry and immunoblotting to assess the expression of CCR5 and AEG-1 in 30 cases of CM tissues and cells. Subsequently, cultured CM cells were treated with si-AEG-1 or si-CCR5 and then subjected to in vitro assays. We observed that CCR5 and AEG-1 proteins were highly expressed in CM tissues (73.3 and 76.7%, respectively) and closely correlated with tumor size (>5 cm). Importantly, we validated the expression of AEG-1, p-Erk1/2, p-Akt, vimentin, N-cadherin and MMP2 increased in the CM cell with CCL3 treatment in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. When CM cells were treated with si-CCR5, the expression of AEG-1, p-Erk1/2, p-Akt, vimentin, N-cadherin and MMP2 was downregulated. In addition, when CM cells were treated with si-AEG-1, the expression of p-Erk1/2, p-Akt, vimentin, N-cadherin and MMP2 was also downregulated. Using the cell cycle and proliferation assay, the knockdown of AEG-1 inhibited the entry of G1 into S phase and the proliferation capacity of CM cells. In conclusion, AEG-1 mediates CCL3/CCR5-induced EMT development via both Erk1/2 and Akt signaling pathway in CM patients, which indicates CCL3/CCR5-AEG-1-EMT pathway could be suggested as a useful target to affect the progression of CM.

  3. IGF-1 increases invasive potential of MCF 7 breast cancer cells and induces activation of latent TGF-β1 resulting in epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction TGF-β signaling has been extensively studied in many developmental contexts, amongst which is its ability to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transitions (EMT). EMTs play crucial roles during embryonic development and have also come under intense scrutiny as a mechanism through which breast cancers progress to become metastatic. Interestingly, while the molecular hallmarks of EMT progression (loss of cell adhesion, nuclear localization of β-catenin) are straightforward, the cellular signaling cascades that result in an EMT are numerous and diverse. Furthermore, most studies describing the biological effects of TGF-β have been performed using high concentrations of active, soluble TGF-β, despite the fact that TGF-β is produced and secreted as a latent complex. Methods MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with recombinant IGF-1 were assayed for metalloproteinase activity and invasiveness through a matrigel coated transwell invasion chamber. IGF-1 treatments were then followed by the addition of latent-TGF-β1 to determine if elevated levels of IGF-1 together with latent-TGF-β1 could cause EMT. Results Results showed that IGF-1 - a molecule known to be elevated in breast cancer is a regulator of matrix metalloproteinase activity (MMP) and the invasive potential of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The effects of IGF-1 appear to be mediated through signals transduced via the PI3K and MAPK pathways. In addition, increased IGF-1, together with latent TGF-β1 and active MMPs result in EMT. Conclusions Taken together our data suggest a novel a link between IGF-1 levels, MMP activity, TGF-β signaling, and EMT in breast cancer cells. PMID:21535875

  4. SNAIL induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in a human pancreatic cancer cell line (BxPC3) and promotes distant metastasis and invasiveness in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Ryohei; Itoh, Shunji; Gui, Ting; Gai, Zhibo; Oikawa, Kosuke; Kawai, Manabu; Tani, Masaji; Yamaue, Hiroki; Muragaki, Yasuteru

    2010-10-01

    SNAIL, a potent repressor of E-cadherin expression, plays a key role in inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in epithelial cells. During EMT, epithelial cells lose cell polarity and adhesion, and undergo drastic morphological changes acquiring highly migratory abilities. Although there is increasing evidence that EMT is involved in the progression of some human cancers, its significance in the progression of pancreatic cancer remains elusive. In Panc-1, a well-known human pancreatic cancer cell line in which EMT is triggered by TGF-β1 treatment, SNAIL and vimentin are highly expressed, whereas E-cadherin expression is scant. In contrast, another human pancreatic cancer cell line, BxPC3, in which SNAIL expression is not detected, has high levels of E-cadherin expression and does not undergo EMT upon TGF-β1 treatment. After transfecting the SNAIL gene into BxPC3, however, the cells undergo EMT with remarkable alterations in cell morphology and molecular expression patterns without the addition of any growth factors. Furthermore, in an orthotopic transplantation model using SCID mice, SNAIL-transfected BxPC3 displayed highly metastatic and invasive activities. In the immunohistochemical analysis of the tumor derived from the SNAIL-expressing BxPC3, alterations suggestive of EMT were observed in the invasive tumor front. SNAIL enabled BxPC3 to undergo EMT, endowing it with a highly malignant potential in vivo. These results indicate that SNAIL-mediated EMT may be relevant in the progression of pancreatic cancer, and SNAIL could be a molecular target for a pancreatic cancer intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ERK1/2 signaling is required for the initiation but not progression of TGFβ-induced lens epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT).

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, Magdalena C; Mahmutovic, Leila; Shu, Daisy Y; Lovicu, Frank J

    2017-06-01

    Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGFβ) potently induces lens epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The resultant mesenchymal cells resemble those found in plaques of human forms of subcapsular cataract. Smad signaling has long been implicated as the sole driving force of TGFβ-mediated activity. Rat lens epithelial explants were used to examine the role of the Smad-independent signaling, namely the MAPK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway, in the initiation and progression of TGFβ-induced EMT. Phase contrast microscopy was used to observe the morphological changes associated with TGFβ-induced EMT in this model, including cell elongation, cell membrane blebbing, cell loss as indicated by the area of bare capsule and capsular wrinkling. The levels of Smad2, Smad2/3 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation measured using western blotting confirmed that the addition of UO126 was sufficient in blocking all TGFβ-induced ERK1/2 activation, as well as reducing Smad signaling at 18 h. Immunofluorescent labeling and further western blotting confirmed that TGFβ-induced EMT was associated with an increase in α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and a reduction of E-cadherin at cell borders. Pre-treatment with UO126 was effective at blocking the TGFβ-induced EMT, as evidenced by a reduction of α-SMA expression and protein labeling, E-cadherin labeling at cell borders, and a reduction of cell loss, cell elongation and capsular wrinkling. Post-treatment with UO126 at 2 and 6 h after TGFβ addition was also effective at blocking EMT while post-treatment with UO126 at 24 and 48 h was not sufficient in hampering TGFβ-induced EMT. Our data implicates ERK1/2 signaling in the initiation but not the progression of TGFβ-induced EMT in rat lens epithelial cells. The tight regulation of intracellular signaling pathways such as ERK1/2 are required for the maintenance of lens epithelial cell integrity and hence tissue transparency. A greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms that drive the

  6. Ochratoxin A–Induced Renal Cortex Fibrosis and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition: Molecular Mechanisms of Ochratoxin A-Injury and Potential Effects of Red Wine

    PubMed Central

    Gagliano, Nicoletta; Torri, Carlo; Donetti, Elena; Grizzi, Fabio; Costa, Francesco; Bertelli, Alberto AE; Migliori, Massimiliano; Filippi, Cristina; Bedoni, Marzia; Panichi, Vincenzo; Giovannini, Luca; Gioia, Magda

    2005-01-01

    We characterized the effect of chronic ochratoxin A (OTA) on rat kidney cortex, analyzing collagen content and collagen turnover and the major markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), cadherins, and MMP-9. Because OTA nephrotoxicity is mediated by free radicals, we also investigated whether antioxidants in red wine provided protection for the kidney and attenuated OTA-induced EMT. Collagen content, determined by computerized analysis of Sirius red–stained kidney sections, increased in OTA, OTA-wine, and OTA-EtOH treated rats. In kidney cortex homogenates, COL-I and COL-III mRNA levels tended to rise in OTA treated rats, but were similar to CT after OTA-wine and OTA-EtOH administration. TIMP-1 gene expression was up-regulated in OTA, OTA-wine, and OTA-EtOH treated rats. LH2b mRNA/COL-I mRNA was significantly up-regulated in OTA-wine and OTA-EtOH treated rats, compared with CT and OTA alone. TGF-β1 signaling tended to dominate after OTA, OTA-wine, and OTA-EtOH. MMP-1 protein levels were not affected. OTA induced proMMP-9 and αSMA overexpression, decreases of E-cadherin and N-cadherin, and DSC-2 up-regulation. OTA-wine caused a further, unexpected decrease of E- and N-cadherins and further up-regulation of OTA-induced DSC-2, while strongly reducing the OTA-induced increases of αSMA and proMMP-9. Posttranslational collagen modifications, such as decreased collagen degradation through MMP inhibition and increased collagen cross-links, seem to be key mechanisms leading to OTA-induced kidney cortex fibrosis. This mechanism was not affected by red wine in these conditions. Red wine seems to have some protective role against OTA-induced EMT, although without completely blocking the process and determining a condition in which abundant cells display an intermediate translational phenotype, but there are no αSMA or epithelial markers. PMID:16622519

  7. BMP-7 fails to attenuate TGF-beta1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human proximal tubule epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dudas, Paul L; Argentieri, Rochelle L; Farrell, Francis X

    2009-05-01

    In rodent models of chronic renal disease bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) has been shown to halt disease progression and promote recovery. Subsequent studies utilizing immortalized rodent renal cell lines showed that BMP-7 was renoprotective by antagonizing TGF-beta1-stimulated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The present study sought to determine if BMP-7 prevents TGF-beta1-induced EMT in primary (RPTEC) and immortalized (HK-2) human proximal tubule epithelial cells. EMT was determined by quantitative real-time PCR analysis of e-cadherin, vimentin, CTGF and TGF-beta1 transcript expression and immunocytochemical analysis of ZO-1 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) protein expression following TGF-beta1 treatment in RPTEC and HK-2 cells. In RPTEC and HK-2 cells, TGF-beta1 significantly reduced e-cadherin expression and significantly increased vimentin, CTGF and TGF-beta1 expression. TGF-beta1 also diminished ZO-1 immunoreactivity and increased alpha-SMA expression in confluent cell monolayers. Co-incubation of TGF-beta1 with an anti-TGF-beta1 neutralizing antibody substantially reduced the cytokine's effects, which indicated EMT in these cells was inhibitable. Co-administration of BMP-7 over a broad concentration range (0.01-100 microg/ml) with TGF-beta1 failed to attenuate EMT in RPTEC or HK-2 cells, as demonstrated by no inhibition of altered e-cadherin, vimentin, CTGF and TGF-beta1 expression and no restoration of ZO-1 immunoreactivity. Furthermore, when BMP-7 was applied to proximal tubule cells alone, it also decreased e-cadherin expression and increased vimentin, CTGF and TGF-beta1 expression. Additionally, BMP-7 failed to induce the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) in NRK-49F rat renal fibroblasts. BMP-7 did however prevent TGF-beta1-mediated e-cadherin downregulation in TCMK-1 mouse renal tubular epithelial cells. BMP-7 activity was routinely confirmed by examining BMP-7-induced phosphorylation of SMADs 1/5/8, BMP-7 regulation

  8. Downregulation of transcription factor Oct4 induces an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via enhancement of Ca{sup 2+} influx in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jiajia; Qin, Kunhua; Zhang, Yan; Gong, Junbo; Li, Na; Lv, Dan; Xiang, Rong; Tan, Xiaoyue

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} We examine the role of Oct4 in metastasis in cultured MCF-7 cells. {yields} The down regulation of Oct4 induces EMT and increases the capability of migration and invasion in MCF-7 cells. {yields} TGF-{beta}1 inhibits Oct4 expression in both time- and dose-dependent manners. {yields} The EMT induced by TGF-{beta}1 or down regulation of Oct4 could be abrogated by inhibitor of SOCE. {yields} The down regulation of STIM1 (one of the major components of the CRAC channel) alleviates the EMT induce by Oct4 silencing down. -- Abstract: The stem cell-related transcription factor Oct4 regulates tumor proliferation and apoptosis, but its role in tumor migration and invasion is still undefined. Here, we compared Oct4 expression in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, two breast cancer cell lines with similar epithelial origins, but distinct invasive and metastatic characteristics. We found MCF-7 cells to express very high levels of Oct4, while no obvious expression was detected in MDA-MB-231 cells. We then downregulated Oct4 expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to explore its effects on migration and invasion. Transwell assays showed that silencing Oct4 in MCF-7 cells improved their migration and invasion capabilities. Reverse-transcriptase PCR and western blots showed that E-cadherin expression decreased, and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin expression increased with Oct4 downregulation, which suggests that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurred. A potent EMT stimulus, TGF-{beta}1, significantly inhibited Oct4 expression in both dose- and time course-dependent manners. Silencing Oct4 also upregulated expression of two major components of store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry channels (SOCs), STIM1 and Orai1, and enhanced SOC-directed Ca{sup 2+} influx. Silencing STIM1 blocked the Ca{sup 2+} influx and rescued the EMT initiated by Oct4 downregulation. In conclusion, silencing Oct4 promotes invasion and metastasis in breast cancer cells by inducing EMT

  9. Gremlin-mediated decrease in bone morphogenetic protein signaling promotes aristolochic acid-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HK-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Wang, Zihua; Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Jinghong; Zhang, Jingbo; Huang, Yunjian

    2012-07-16

    Ingestion of aristolochic acid (AA) is associated with the development of aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN), which is characterized by progressive tubulointerstitial fibrosis, chronic renal failure and urothelial cancer. Our previous study showed that bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) could attenuate AA-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTEC). However, how gremlin (a BMP-7 antagonist) antagonizes the BMP-7 action in PTEC remained unsolved. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of gremlin in AA-induced EMT in PTEC (HK-2 cells). HK-2 cells were treated with AA (10 μmol/L) for periods up to 72 h. Cell viability was determined by tetrazolium dye (MTT) assay. Morphological changes were assessed by phase-contrast microscopy. Markers of EMT, including E-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were detected by indirect immunofluorescence stains. The BMP-7 and gremlin mRNA and protein expression in HK-2 cells were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (real-time RT-PCR) and western blotting after exposure to AA. The level of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8, a marker of BMP-7 activity, was also determined by western blot analysis. Cells were transfected with gremlin siRNA to determine the effects of gremlin knockdown on markers of EMT following treatment with AA. Our results indicated that AA-induced EMT was associated with acquisition of fibroblast-like cell shape, loss of E-cadherin, and increases of alpha-SMA and collagen type I. Interestingly, exposure of HK-2 cells to 10 μmol/L AA increased the mRNA and protein expression of gremlin in HK-2 cells. This increase was in parallel with a decrease in BMP-7 expression and a down-regulation of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 protein levels. Moreover, transfection with siRNA to gremlin was able to recover BMP-7 signaling activity, and attenuate EMT-associated phenotypic changes induced by AA. Together, these observations strongly suggest that gremlin

  10. Overexpression of SDF-1 activates the NF-κB pathway to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell-like phenotypes of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingxin; Guo, Sufen; Liu, Chunfeng; Zhao, Yiling; Feng, Chong; Liu, Yunshuang; Wang, Tao; Li, Caijuan

    2016-03-01

    The formation of EMT and EMT-induced CSC-like phenotype is crucial for the metastasis of tumor cells. The stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is upregulated in various human carcinomas, which is closely associated with proliferation, migration, invasion and prognosis of malignancies. However, limited attention has been directed towards the effect of SDF-1 on epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) or cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype formation in breast cancer cells and the related mechanism. In the present study, we screened MCF-7 cells with low SDF-1 expression level for the purpose of evaluating whether SDF-1 is involved in EMT and CSC-like phenotype formation in MCF-7 cells. The pEGFP-N1-SDF-1 plasmid was transfected into MCF-7 cells, and the stably overexpressed SDF-1 in MCF-7 cells was confirmed by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Colony formation assay, MTT, wound healing assay and Transwell invasion assay demonstrated that overexpression of SDF-1 significantly boosted the proliferation, migration and invasion of MCF-7 cells compared with parental (P<0.05). Flow cytometry analysis revealed a notable increase of CD44+/CD24- subpopulation in SDF-1 overexpressing MCF-7 cells (P<0.001), accompanied by the apparently elevated ALDH activity and the upregulation of the stem cell markers OCT-4, Nanog, and SOX2 compared with parental (P<0.01). Besides, western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay observed the significant decreased expression of E-cadherin and enhanced expression of slug, fibronectin and vimentin in SDF-1 overexpressed MCF-7 cells in comparison with parental (P<0.01). Further study found that overexpression of SDF-1 induced the activation of NF-κB pathway in MCF-7 cells. Conversely, suppressing or silencing p65 expression by antagonist or RNA interference could remarkably increase the expression of E-cadherin in SDF-1 overexpressed MCF-7 cells (P<0.001). Overall, the above results indicated that overexpression of SDF-1 enhanced

  11. Alisertib, an Aurora kinase A inhibitor, induces apoptosis and autophagy but inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yong-Hui; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Ha, Chun-Fang; Zhang, Xue-Yu; Pan, Shu-Ting; He, Zhi-Xu; Edelman, Jeffrey L; Wang, Dong; Yang, Yin-Xue; Zhang, Xueji; Duan, Wei; Yang, Tianxin; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading killer of women, and no cure for advanced ovarian cancer is available. Alisertib (ALS), a selective Aurora kinase A (AURKA) inhibitor, has shown potent anticancer effects, and is under clinical investigation for the treatment of advanced solid tumor and hematologic malignancies. However, the role of ALS in the treatment of ovarian cancer remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of ALS on cell growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and the underlying mechanisms in human epithelial ovarian cancer SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. Our docking study showed that ALS, MLN8054, and VX-680 preferentially bound to AURKA over AURKB via hydrogen bond formation, charge interaction, and π-π stacking. ALS had potent growth-inhibitory, proapoptotic, proautophagic, and EMT-inhibitory effects on SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. ALS arrested SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells in G2/M phase and induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and autophagy in both SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. ALS suppressed phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways but activated 5'-AMP-dependent kinase, as indicated by their altered phosphorylation, contributing to the proautophagic activity of ALS. Modulation of autophagy altered basal and ALS-induced apoptosis in SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. Further, ALS suppressed the EMT-like phenotype in both cell lines by restoring the balance between E-cadherin and N-cadherin. ALS downregulated sirtuin 1 and pre-B cell colony enhancing factor (PBEF/visfatin) expression levels and inhibited phosphorylation of AURKA in both cell lines. These findings indicate that ALS blocks the cell cycle by G2/M phase arrest and promotes cellular apoptosis and autophagy, but inhibits EMT via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR-mediated and sirtuin 1-mediated pathways in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells

  12. Alisertib, an Aurora kinase A inhibitor, induces apoptosis and autophagy but inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human epithelial ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yong-Hui; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Ha, Chun-Fang; Zhang, Xue-Yu; Pan, Shu-Ting; He, Zhi-Xu; Edelman, Jeffrey L; Wang, Dong; Yang, Yin-Xue; Zhang, Xueji; Duan, Wei; Yang, Tianxin; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading killer of women, and no cure for advanced ovarian cancer is available. Alisertib (ALS), a selective Aurora kinase A (AURKA) inhibitor, has shown potent anticancer effects, and is under clinical investigation for the treatment of advanced solid tumor and hematologic malignancies. However, the role of ALS in the treatment of ovarian cancer remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of ALS on cell growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and the underlying mechanisms in human epithelial ovarian cancer SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. Our docking study showed that ALS, MLN8054, and VX-680 preferentially bound to AURKA over AURKB via hydrogen bond formation, charge interaction, and π-π stacking. ALS had potent growth-inhibitory, proapoptotic, proautophagic, and EMT-inhibitory effects on SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. ALS arrested SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells in G2/M phase and induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and autophagy in both SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. ALS suppressed phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways but activated 5′-AMP-dependent kinase, as indicated by their altered phosphorylation, contributing to the proautophagic activity of ALS. Modulation of autophagy altered basal and ALS-induced apoptosis in SKOV3 and OVCAR4 cells. Further, ALS suppressed the EMT-like phenotype in both cell lines by restoring the balance between E-cadherin and N-cadherin. ALS downregulated sirtuin 1 and pre-B cell colony enhancing factor (PBEF/visfatin) expression levels and inhibited phosphorylation of AURKA in both cell lines. These findings indicate that ALS blocks the cell cycle by G2/M phase arrest and promotes cellular apoptosis and autophagy, but inhibits EMT via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR-mediated and sirtuin 1-mediated pathways in human epithelial ovarian cancer

  13. The pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases danusertib induces apoptosis and autophagy and suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Ping; Yang, Yin-Xue; Liu, Qi-Lun; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Pan, Shu-Ting; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Pan, Si-Yuan; Duan, Wei; He, Shu-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Danusertib (Danu) is a pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases and a third-generation breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (Bcr-Abl) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, but its antitumor effect and underlying mechanisms in the treatment of human breast cancer remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Danu on the growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the molecular mechanisms in human breast cancer MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The results demonstrated that Danu remarkably inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and autophagy, and suppressed EMT in both breast cancer cell lines. Danu arrested MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in G2/M phase, accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and cyclin B1 and upregulation of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. Danu significantly decreased the expression of B-cell lymphoma-extra-large (Bcl-xl) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), but increased the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and promoted the cleavage of caspases 3 and 9. Furthermore, Danu significantly increased the expression levels of the membrane-bound microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II) and beclin 1 in breast cancer cells, two markers for autophagy. Danu induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) and inhibited the activation of protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Treatment with wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor) markedly inhibited Danu-induced activation of p38 MAPK and conversion of cytosolic LC3-I to membrane-bound LC3-II. Pharmacological inhibition and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of p38 MAPK suppressed Akt activation, resulting in LC3-II accumulation and enhanced autophagy. Pharmacological inhibition

  14. The pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases danusertib induces apoptosis and autophagy and suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-Ping; Yang, Yin-Xue; Liu, Qi-Lun; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Pan, Shu-Ting; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Pan, Si-Yuan; Duan, Wei; He, Shu-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Danusertib (Danu) is a pan-inhibitor of Aurora kinases and a third-generation breakpoint cluster region-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (Bcr-Abl) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, but its antitumor effect and underlying mechanisms in the treatment of human breast cancer remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Danu on the growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the molecular mechanisms in human breast cancer MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The results demonstrated that Danu remarkably inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis and autophagy, and suppressed EMT in both breast cancer cell lines. Danu arrested MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in G2/M phase, accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and cyclin B1 and upregulation of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. Danu significantly decreased the expression of B-cell lymphoma-extra-large (Bcl-xl) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), but increased the expression of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and promoted the cleavage of caspases 3 and 9. Furthermore, Danu significantly increased the expression levels of the membrane-bound microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II) and beclin 1 in breast cancer cells, two markers for autophagy. Danu induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) and inhibited the activation of protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Treatment with wortmannin (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor) markedly inhibited Danu-induced activation of p38 MAPK and conversion of cytosolic LC3-I to membrane-bound LC3-II. Pharmacological inhibition and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of p38 MAPK suppressed Akt activation, resulting in LC3-II accumulation and enhanced autophagy. Pharmacological inhibition

  15. URG11 mediates hypoxia-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by modulation of E-cadherin and {beta}-catenin

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Rui; Huang, Chen; Bi, Qian; Zhai, Ying; Xia, Lin; Liu, Jie; Sun, Shiren; Fan, Daiming

    2010-01-01

    Upregulated gene 11 (URG11), recently identified as a new HBx-upregulated gene that may activate {beta}-catenin and Wnt signaling, was found to be upregulated in a human tubule cell line under low oxygen. Here, we investigated the potential role of URG11 in hypoxia-induced renal tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT). Overexpression of URG11 in a human proximal tubule cell line (HK2) promoted a mesenchymal phenotype accompanied by reduced expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased expression of the mesenchymal markers vimentin and {alpha}-SMA, while URG11 knockdown by siRNA effectively reversed hypoxia-induced EMT. URG11 promoted the expression of {beta}-catenin and increased its nuclear accumulation under normoxic conditions through transactivation of the {beta}-catenin promoter. This in turn upregulated {beta}-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) and its downstream effector genes, vimentin, and {alpha}-SMA. In vivo, strong expression of URG11 was observed in the tubular epithelia of 5/6-nephrectomized rats, and a Western blot analysis demonstrated a close correlation between HIF-1{alpha} and URG11 protein levels. Altogether, our results indicate that URG11 mediates hypoxia-induced EMT through the suppression of E-cadherin and the activation of the {beta}-catenin/TCF pathway.

  16. FGF and canonical Wnt signaling cooperate to induce paraxial mesoderm from tailbud neuromesodermal progenitors through regulation of a two-step epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hana; Kimmey, Samuel C; Row, Richard H; Matus, David Q; Martin, Benjamin L

    2017-04-15

    Mesoderm induction begins during gastrulation. Recent evidence from several vertebrate species indicates that mesoderm induction continues after gastrulation in neuromesodermal progenitors (NMPs) within the posteriormost embryonic structure, the tailbud. It is unclear to what extent the molecular mechanisms of mesoderm induction are conserved between gastrula and post-gastrula stages of development. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is required for mesoderm induction during gastrulation through positive transcriptional regulation of the T-box transcription factor brachyury We find in zebrafish that FGF is continuously required for paraxial mesoderm (PM) induction in post-gastrula NMPs. FGF signaling represses the NMP markers brachyury (ntla) and sox2 through regulation of tbx16 and msgn1, thereby committing cells to a PM fate. FGF-mediated PM induction in NMPs functions in tight coordination with canonical Wnt signaling during the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) from NMP to mesodermal progenitor. Wnt signaling initiates EMT, whereas FGF signaling terminates this event. Our results indicate that germ layer induction in the zebrafish tailbud is not a simple continuation of gastrulation events. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Mesenchymal stromal cells induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human colorectal cancer cells through the expression of surface-bound TGF-β

    PubMed Central

    Mele, Valentina; Muraro, Manuele G; Calabrese, Diego; Pfaff, Dennis; Amatruda, Nunzia; Amicarella, Francesca; Kvinlaug, Brynn; Bocelli-Tyndall, Chiara; Martin, Ivan; Resink, Therese J; Heberer, Michael; Oertli, Daniel; Terracciano, Luigi; Spagnoli, Giulio C; Iezzi, Giandomenica

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent precursors endowed with the ability to home to primary and metastatic tumor sites, where they can integrate into the tumor-associated stroma. However, molecular mechanisms and outcome of their interaction with cancer cells have not been fully clarified. In this study, we investigated the effects mediated by bone marrow-derived MSC on human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in vitro and in vivo. We found that MSC triggered epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cells in vitro, as indicated by upregulation of EMT-related genes, downregulation of E-cadherin and acquisition of mesenchymal morphology. These effects required cell-to-cell contact and were mediated by surface-bound TGF-β newly expressed on MSC upon coculture with tumor cells. In vivo tumor masses formed by MSC-conditioned CRC cells were larger and characterized by higher vessel density, decreased E-cadherin expression and increased expression of mesenchymal markers. Furthermore, MSC-conditioned tumor cells displayed increased invasiveness in vitro and enhanced capacity to invade peripheral tissues in vivo. Thus, by promoting EMT-related phenomena, MSC appear to favor the acquisition of an aggressive phenotype by CRC cells. PMID:24214914

  18. Mesenchymal stromal cells induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human colorectal cancer cells through the expression of surface-bound TGF-β.

    PubMed

    Mele, Valentina; Muraro, Manuele G; Calabrese, Diego; Pfaff, Dennis; Amatruda, Nunzia; Amicarella, Francesca; Kvinlaug, Brynn; Bocelli-Tyndall, Chiara; Martin, Ivan; Resink, Therese J; Heberer, Michael; Oertli, Daniel; Terracciano, Luigi; Spagnoli, Giulio C; Iezzi, Giandomenica

    2014-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent precursors endowed with the ability to home to primary and metastatic tumor sites, where they can integrate into the tumor-associated stroma. However, molecular mechanisms and outcome of their interaction with cancer cells have not been fully clarified. In this study, we investigated the effects mediated by bone marrow-derived MSC on human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in vitro and in vivo. We found that MSC triggered epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cells in vitro, as indicated by upregulation of EMT-related genes, downregulation of E-cadherin and acquisition of mesenchymal morphology. These effects required cell-to-cell contact and were mediated by surface-bound TGF-β newly expressed on MSC upon coculture with tumor cells. In vivo tumor masses formed by MSC-conditioned CRC cells were larger and characterized by higher vessel density, decreased E-cadherin expression and increased expression of mesenchymal markers. Furthermore, MSC-conditioned tumor cells displayed increased invasiveness in vitro and enhanced capacity to invade peripheral tissues in vivo. Thus, by promoting EMT-related phenomena, MSC appear to favor the acquisition of an aggressive phenotype by CRC cells.

  19. Polo-like kinase 1 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and promotes epithelial cell motility by activating CRAF/ERK signaling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianguo; Ivanov, Andrei I; Fisher, Paul B; Fu, Zheng

    2016-03-22

    Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is a key cell cycle regulator implicated in the development of various cancers, including prostate cancer. However, the functions of PLK1 beyond cell cycle regulation remain poorly characterized. Here, we report that PLK1 overexpression in prostate epithelial cells triggers oncogenic transformation. It also results in dramatic transcriptional reprogramming of the cells, leading to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stimulation of cell migration and invasion. Consistently, PLK1 downregulation in metastatic prostate cancer cells enhances epithelial characteristics and inhibits cell motility. The signaling mechanisms underlying the observed cellular effects of PLK1 involve direct PLK1-dependent phosphorylation of CRAF with subsequent stimulation of the MEK1/2-ERK1/2-Fra1-ZEB1/2 signaling pathway. Our findings highlight novel non-canonical functions of PLK1 as a key regulator of EMT and cell motility in normal prostate epithelium and prostate cancer. This study also uncovers a previously unanticipated role of PLK1 as a potent activator of MAPK signaling.

  20. Androgen deprivation in LNCaP prostate tumour xenografts induces vascular changes and hypoxic stress, resulting in promotion of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, N M; Nesbitt, H; Ming, L; McKeown, S R; Worthington, J; McKenna, D J

    2016-01-01

    Background: When single-agent androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is administered for locally advanced prostate cancer, men usually relapse within 1–2 years with more malignant castrate-resistant disease. The reason for this is currently unknown. We now hypothesise that an initial treatment response that increases tumour hypoxia drives selection of more malignant tumours. Methods: The LNCaP prostate tumour xenografts were analysed for physiological (oxygen and vasculature) and genetic (PCR array) changes during longitudinal treatment with ADT (bicalutamide, 6 or 2 mg kg−1 daily for 28 days). Results: Bicalutamide caused an immediate (within 24 h) dose-dependent fall in oxygenation in LNCaP-luc prostate tumours with a nadir of ≤0.1% oxygen within 3–7 days; this was attributed to a significant loss of tumour microvessels (window chamber study). The hypoxic nadir persisted for 10–14 days. During the next 7 days, tumours regrew, oxygenation improved and the vasculature recovered; this was inhibited by the VEGF inhibitor B20.4.1.1. Gene expression over 28 days showed marked fluctuations consistent with the physiological changes. Accompanying the angiogenic burst (day 21) was a particularly striking increase in expression of genes associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In particular, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) showed increases in mRNA and protein expression. Conclusions: Hypoxic stress caused by ADT promotes EMT, providing a mechanism for the cause of malignant progression in prostate cancer. PMID:26954717

  1. Acquired resistance to BRAF inhibition induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in BRAF (V600E) mutant thyroid cancer by c-Met-mediated AKT activation

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Hyung Kwon; Na, Hwi Jung; Yang, Yeon Ju; Ko, Sooah; Yoon, Sun Och; Ku, Minhee; Yang, Jaemoon; Kim, Jae Wook; Ban, Myung Jin; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Da Hee; Kim, Jung Min; Choi, Eun Chang; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Yoon, Joo-Heon; Koh, Yoon Woo

    2017-01-01

    Previously, the authors have identified that c-Met mediates reactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway following BRAF inhibitor treatment in BRAF (V600E) mutant anaplastic thyroid cancer, thereby contributing to the acquired drug resistance. Therefore dual inhibition of BRAF and c-Met led to sustained treatment response, thereby maximizing the specific anti-tumor effect of targeted therapy. The present study goes one step further and aims to investigate the effect of acquired resistance of BRAF inhibitor on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in BRAF mutant thyroid cancer cells and the effect of dual inhibition from combinatorial therapy. Two thyroid cancer cell lines, 8505C and BCPAP were selected and treated with BRAF inhibitor, PLX4032 and its effect on EMT were examined and compared. Further investigation was carried out in orthotopic xenograft mouse models. Unlike BCPAP cells, the BRAF inhibitor resistant 8505C cells showed increased expressions of EMT related markers such as vimentin, β-catenin, and CD44. The combinatorial treatment of PLX4032 and PHA665752, a c-Met inhibitor reversed EMT. Similar results were confirmed in vivo. c-Met-mediated reactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway contributes to the drug resistance to PLX4032 in BRAF (V600E) mutant anaplastic thyroid cancer cells and further promotes tumor cell migration and invasion by upregulated EMT mechanism. Dual inhibition of BRAF and c-Met leads to reversal of EMT, suggesting a maximal therapeutic response. PMID:27880942

  2. ERK and PI3K regulate different aspects of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition of mammary tumor cells induced by truncated MUC1

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Galit; Gaziel, Avital; Wreschner, Daniel H.; Smorodinsky, Nechama I.; Ehrlich, Marcelo

    2009-05-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) integrates changes to cell morphology and signaling pathways resulting from modifications to the cell's transcriptional response. Different combinations of stimuli ignite this process in the contexts of development or tumor progression. The human MUC1 gene encodes multiple alternatively spliced forms of a polymorphic oncoprotein that is aberrantly expressed in epithelial malignancies. MUC1 is endowed with various signaling modules and has the potential to mediate proliferative and morphological changes characteristic of the progression of epithelial tumors. The tyrosine-rich cytoplasmic domain and the heavily glycosylated extracellular domain both play a role in MUC1-mediated signal transduction. However, the attribution of function to specific domains of MUC1 is difficult due to the concomitant presence of multiple forms of the protein, which stem from alternative splicing and proteolytic cleavage. Here we show that DA3 mouse mammary tumor cells stably transfected with a truncated genomic fragment of human MUC1 undergo EMT. In their EMT, these cells demonstrate altered [i] morphology, [ii] signaling pathways and [iii] expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Similarly to well characterized human breast cancer cell lines, cells transfected with truncated MUC1 show an ERK-dependent increased spreading on fibronectin, and a PI3K-dependent enhancement of their proliferative rate.

  3. Polo-like kinase 1 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and promotes epithelial cell motility by activating CRAF/ERK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianguo; Ivanov, Andrei I; Fisher, Paul B; Fu, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is a key cell cycle regulator implicated in the development of various cancers, including prostate cancer. However, the functions of PLK1 beyond cell cycle regulation remain poorly characterized. Here, we report that PLK1 overexpression in prostate epithelial cells triggers oncogenic transformation. It also results in dramatic transcriptional reprogramming of the cells, leading to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stimulation of cell migration and invasion. Consistently, PLK1 downregulation in metastatic prostate cancer cells enhances epithelial characteristics and inhibits cell motility. The signaling mechanisms underlying the observed cellular effects of PLK1 involve direct PLK1-dependent phosphorylation of CRAF with subsequent stimulation of the MEK1/2-ERK1/2-Fra1-ZEB1/2 signaling pathway. Our findings highlight novel non-canonical functions of PLK1 as a key regulator of EMT and cell motility in normal prostate epithelium and prostate cancer. This study also uncovers a previously unanticipated role of PLK1 as a potent activator of MAPK signaling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10734.001 PMID:27003818

  4. Transient and permanent changes in DNA methylation patterns in inorganic arsenic-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Meredith; Rea, Matthew; Fondufe-Mittendorf, Yvonne N

    2017-09-15

    Chronic low dose inorganic arsenic exposure causes cells to take on an epithelial-to-mesenchymal phenotype, which is a crucial process in carcinogenesis. Inorganic arsenic is not a mutagen and thus epigenetic alterations have been implicated in this process. Indeed, during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, morphologic changes to cells correlate with changes in chromatin structure and gene expression, ultimately driving this process. However, studies on the effects of inorganic arsenic exposure/withdrawal on the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and the impact of epigenetic alterations in this process are limited. In this study we used high-resolution microarray analysis to measure the changes in DNA methylation in cells undergoing inorganic arsenic-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and on the reversal of this process, after removal of the inorganic arsenic exposure. We found that cells exposed to chronic, low-dose inorganic arsenic exposure showed 30,530 sites were differentially methylated, and with inorganic arsenic withdrawal several differential methylated sites were reversed, albeit not completely. Furthermore, these changes in DNA methylation mainly correlated with changes in gene expression at most sites tested but not at all. This study suggests that DNA methylation changes on gene expression are not clear-cut and provide a platform to begin to uncover the relationship between DNA methylation and gene expression, specifically within the context of inorganic arsenic treatment. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Low adherent cancer cell subpopulations are enriched in tumorigenic and metastatic epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-induced cancer stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Morata-Tarifa, Cynthia; Jiménez, Gema; García, María A; Entrena, José M; Griñán-Lisón, Carmen; Aguilera, Margarita; Picon-Ruiz, Manuel; Marchal, Juan A

    2016-01-11

    Cancer stem cells are responsible for tumor progression, metastasis, therapy resistance and cancer recurrence, doing their identification and isolation of special relevance. Here we show that low adherent breast and colon cancer cells subpopulations have stem-like properties. Our results demonstrate that trypsin-sensitive (TS) breast and colon cancer cells subpopulations show increased ALDH activity, higher ability to exclude Hoechst 33342, enlarged proportion of cells with a cancer stem-like cell phenotype and are enriched in sphere- and colony-forming cells in vitro. Further studies in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells reveal that TS subpopulation expresses higher levels of SLUG, SNAIL, VIMENTIN and N-CADHERIN while show a lack of expression of E-CADHERIN and CLAUDIN, being this profile characteristic of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The TS subpopulation shows CXCL10, BMI-1 and OCT4 upregulation, differing also in the expression of several miRNAs involved in EMT and/or cell self-renewal such as miR-34a-5p, miR-34c-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-93-5p and miR-100-5p. Furthermore, in vivo studies in immunocompromised mice demonstrate that MDA-MB-231 TS cells form more and bigger xenograft tumors with shorter latency and have higher metastatic potential. In conclusion, this work presents a new, non-aggressive, easy, inexpensive and reproducible methodology to isolate prospectively cancer stem-like cells for subsequent biological and preclinical studies.

  6. Low adherent cancer cell subpopulations are enriched in tumorigenic and metastatic epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-induced cancer stem-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Morata-Tarifa, Cynthia; Jiménez, Gema; García, María A.; Entrena, José M.; Griñán-Lisón, Carmen; Aguilera, Margarita; Picon-Ruiz, Manuel; Marchal, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are responsible for tumor progression, metastasis, therapy resistance and cancer recurrence, doing their identification and isolation of special relevance. Here we show that low adherent breast and colon cancer cells subpopulations have stem-like properties. Our results demonstrate that trypsin-sensitive (TS) breast and colon cancer cells subpopulations show increased ALDH activity, higher ability to exclude Hoechst 33342, enlarged proportion of cells with a cancer stem-like cell phenotype and are enriched in sphere- and colony-forming cells in vitro. Further studies in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells reveal that TS subpopulation expresses higher levels of SLUG, SNAIL, VIMENTIN and N-CADHERIN while show a lack of expression of E-CADHERIN and CLAUDIN, being this profile characteristic of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The TS subpopulation shows CXCL10, BMI-1 and OCT4 upregulation, differing also in the expression of several miRNAs involved in EMT and/or cell self-renewal such as miR-34a-5p, miR-34c-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-93-5p and miR-100-5p. Furthermore, in vivo studies in immunocompromised mice demonstrate that MDA-MB-231 TS cells form more and bigger xenograft tumors with shorter latency and have higher metastatic potential. In conclusion, this work presents a new, non-aggressive, easy, inexpensive and reproducible methodology to isolate prospectively cancer stem-like cells for subsequent biological and preclinical studies. PMID:26752044

  7. Metformin Inhibits TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition via PKM2 Relative-mTOR/p70s6k Signaling Pathway in Cervical Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Keyan; Hao, Min

    2016-11-30

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a prominent role in tumorigenesis. Metformin exerts antitumorigenic effects in various cancers. This study investigated the mechanisms of metformin in TGF-β1-induced Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cervical carcinoma cells. cells were cultured with 10 ng/mL TGF-β1 to induce EMT and treated with or without metformin. Cell viability was evaluated by CCK-8 (Cell Counting Kit 8, CCK-8) assay; apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry; cell migration was evaluated by wound-healing assay. Western blotting was performed to detect E-cadherin, vimentin, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), snail family transcriptional repressor 2 (SNAIL2), phosphorylation of p70s6k (p-p70s6k) and -Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) Results: TGF-β1 promoted proliferation and migration, and it attenuated apoptosis compared with cells treated with metformin with or without TGF-β1 in cervical carcinoma cells. Moreover, metformin partially abolished TGF-β1-induced EMT cell proliferation and reversed TGF-β1-induced EMT. In addition, the anti-EMT effects of metformin could be partially in accord with rapamycin, a specific mTOR inhibitor. Metformin decreased the p-p70s6k expression and the blockade of mTOR/p70s6k signaling decreased PKM2 expression. Metformin abolishes TGF-β1-induced EMT in cervical carcinoma cells by inhibiting mTOR/p70s6k signaling to down-regulate PKM2 expression. Our study provides a novel mechanistic insight into the anti-tumor effects of metformin.

  8. Metformin Inhibits TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition via PKM2 Relative-mTOR/p70s6k Signaling Pathway in Cervical Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Keyan; Hao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a prominent role in tumorigenesis. Metformin exerts antitumorigenic effects in various cancers. This study investigated the mechanisms of metformin in TGF-β1-induced Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cervical carcinoma cells. Methods: cells were cultured with 10 ng/mL TGF-β1 to induce EMT and treated with or without metformin. Cell viability was evaluated by CCK-8 (Cell Counting Kit 8, CCK-8) assay; apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry; cell migration was evaluated by wound-healing assay. Western blotting was performed to detect E-cadherin, vimentin, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), snail family transcriptional repressor 2 (SNAIL2), phosphorylation of p70s6k (p-p70s6k) and -Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) Results: TGF-β1 promoted proliferation and migration, and it attenuated apoptosis compared with cells treated with metformin with or without TGF-β1 in cervical carcinoma cells. Moreover, metformin partially abolished TGF-β1-induced EMT cell proliferation and reversed TGF-β1-induced EMT. In addition, the anti-EMT effects of metformin could be partially in accord with rapamycin, a specific mTOR inhibitor. Metformin decreased the p-p70s6k expression and the blockade of mTOR/p70s6k signaling decreased PKM2 expression. Conclusion: Metformin abolishes TGF-β1-induced EMT in cervical carcinoma cells by inhibiting mTOR/p70s6k signaling to down-regulate PKM2 expression. Our study provides a novel mechanistic insight into the anti-tumor effects of metformin. PMID:27916907

  9. SIRT1 suppresses the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer metastasis and organ fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Simic, Petra; Williams, Eric O; Bell, Eric L; Gong, Jing Jing; Bonkowski, Michael; Guarente, Leonard

    2013-04-25

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is important for the development of cancer metastases and organ fibrosis, conditions prevalent in aging. Because sirtuins affect the pathology of aging, we tested the effect of SirT1 on EMT. Reduced SIRT1 levels in HMLER breast cancer cells led to increased metastases in nude mice, and the loss of SIRT1 in kidney tubular epithelial cells exacerbated injury-induced kidney fibrosis. SIRT1 reduces EMT in cancer and fibrosis by deacetylating Smad4 and repressing the effect of TGF-β signaling on MMP7, a Smad4 target gene. Consequently, less E-cadherin is cleaved from the cell surface and β-catenin remains bound to E-cadherin at the cell-cell junctions. Our findings suggest that the SIRT1/Smad4/β-catenin axis may be a target for diseases driven by EMT. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cancer stem cells, the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and radioresistance: potential role of hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Marie-Egyptienne, Delphine Tamara; Lohse, Ines; Hill, Richard Peter

    2013-11-28

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) within solid tumors. Although the precursor of these cells is not clearly established, recent studies suggest that the phenotype of CSCs may be quite plastic and associated with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In patients, the presence of EMT and CSCs has been implicated in increased resistance to radiotherapy. Hypoxia, a negative prognostic factor for treatment success, is a potent driver of a multitude of molecular signalling pathways that allow cells to survive and thrive in the hostile tumor microenvironment and can induce EMT. Hypoxia also provides tumor cells with cues for maintenance of a stem-like state and may help to drive the linkage between EMT and CSCs. Understanding the biology of CSCs, the EMT phenotype and their implications in therapeutic relapse may provide crucial new approaches in the development of improved therapeutic strategies.

  11. Circadian Gating of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer Cells Via Melatonin-Regulation of GSK3β

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Lulu; Dauchy, Robert T.; Blask, David E.; Slakey, Lauren M.; Xiang, Shulin; Yuan, Lin; Dauchy, Erin M.; Shan, Bin; Brainard, George C.; Hanifin, John P.; Duplessis, Tamika T.; Hill, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Disturbed sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythmicity are associated with cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Employing a tissue-isolated human breast xenograft tumor nude rat model, we observed that glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), an enzyme critical in metabolism and cell proliferation/survival, exhibits a circadian rhythm of phosphorylation in human breast tumors. Exposure to light-at-night suppresses the nocturnal pineal melatonin synthesis, disrupting the circadian rhythm of GSK3β phosphorylation. Melatonin activates GSK3β by inhibiting the serine-threonine kinase Akt phosphorylation, inducing β-catenin degradation and inhibiting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, a fundamental process underlying cancer metastasis. Thus, chronic circadian disruption by light-at-night via occupational exposure or age-related sleep disturbances may contribute to cancer incidence and the metastatic spread of breast cancer by inhibiting GSK3β activity and driving epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer patients. PMID:23002080

  12. Foxm1 transcription factor is required for lung fibrosis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Balli, David; Ustiyan, Vladimir; Zhang, Yufang; Wang, I-Ching; Masino, Alex J; Ren, Xiaomeng; Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Kalinichenko, Vladimir V; Kalin, Tanya V

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) participate in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, producing pro-inflammatory mediators and undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Herein, we demonstrated the critical role of Forkhead Box M1 (Foxm1) transcription factor in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Foxm1 was induced in AECs following lung irradiation. Transgenic expression of an activated Foxm1 transcript in AECs enhanced radiation-induced pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, and increased the expression of IL-1β, Ccl2, Cxcl5, Snail1, Zeb1, Zeb2 and Foxf1. Conditional deletion of Foxm1 from respiratory epithelial cells decreased radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and prevented the increase in EMT-associated gene expression. siRNA-mediated inhibition of Foxm1 prevented TGF-β-induced EMT in vitro. Foxm1 bound to and increased promoter activity of the Snail1 gene, a critical transcriptional regulator of EMT. Expression of Snail1 restored TGF-β-induced loss of E-cadherin in Foxm1-deficient cells in vitro. Lineage-tracing studies demonstrated that Foxm1 increased EMT during radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in vivo. Foxm1 is required for radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis by enhancing the expression of genes critical for lung inflammation and EMT. PMID:23288041

  13. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition: new and old insights from the classical neural crest model

    PubMed Central

    Pablo H., Strobl-Mazzulla; Marianne E., Bronner

    2012-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important event converting compact and ordered epithelial cells into migratory mesenchymal cells. Given the molecular and cellular similarities between pathological and developmental EMTs, studying this event during neural crest development offers and excellent in vivo model for understanding the mechanisms underlying this process. Here, we review new and old insight into neural crest EMT in search of commonalities with cancer progression that might aid in the design of specific therapeutic prevention. PMID:22575214

  14. Synergistic action of master transcription factors controls epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hongyuan; Liu, Yuwei; Xue, Mengzhu; Liu, Haiyue; Du, Shaowei; Zhang, Liwen; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex multistep process in which phenotype switches are mediated by a network of transcription factors (TFs). Systematic characterization of all dynamic TFs controlling EMT state transitions, especially for the intermediate partial-EMT state, represents a highly relevant yet largely unexplored task. Here, we performed a computational analysis that integrated time-course EMT transcriptomic data with public cistromic data and identified three synergistic master TFs (ETS2, HNF4A and JUNB) that regulate the transition through the partial-EMT state. Overexpression of these regulators predicted a poor clinical outcome, and their elimination readily abolished TGF-β-induced EMT. Importantly, these factors utilized a clique motif, physically interact and their cumulative binding generally characterized EMT-associated genes. Furthermore, analyses of H3K27ac ChIP-seq data revealed that ETS2, HNF4A and JUNB are associated with super-enhancers and the administration of BRD4 inhibitor readily abolished TGF-β-induced EMT. These findings have implications for systematic discovery of master EMT regulators and super-enhancers as novel targets for controlling metastasis. PMID:26926107

  15. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition: possible role in meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Pecina-Slaus, Nives; Cicvara-Pecina, Tatjana; Kafka, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchimal transition (EMT) is a process involved in invasion and metastasis of tumors. The occurrence of EMT during tumor progression resembles the developmental scenario and sheds light on important mechanisms for the initial step of metastasis - invasion where noninvasive tumor cells acquire motility and ultimately disseminate to distant organs. The hallmark of EMT is the loss of expression of the cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin. The numerous reports by many authors as well as our own results indicate that E-cadherin plays a role in CNS tumors - meningiomas. Our studies showed that 73 % of meningiomas had downregulation of E-cadherin. Moreover, loss of heterozygosity of E-cadherin was observed in 32 % of meningiomas. Bound to E-cadherin in adherens junctions is beta-catenin, whose translocation to the nucleus is yet another molecular event involved in EMT. In our study beta-catenin was progressively upregulated from meningothelial to atypical, while 60 % of anaplastic meningiomas showed upregulation and nuclear localization of the protein. The elucidation of molecular mechanisms that govern EMT will offer new approaches and targets to restrain metastasis.

  16. Enhanced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and upregulated MYC in ectopic lesions contribute independently to endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Proestling, Katharina; Birner, Peter; Gamperl, Susanne; Nirtl, Nadine; Marton, Erika; Yerlikaya, Gülen; Wenzl, Rene; Streubel, Berthold; Husslein, Heinrich

    2015-07-22

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process in which epithelial cells lose polarity and cell-to-cell contacts and acquire the migratory and invasive abilities of mesenchymal cells. These abilities are thought to be prerequisites for the establishment of endometriotic lesions. A hallmark of EMT is the functional loss of E-cadherin (CDH1) expression in epithelial cells. TWIST1, a transcription factor that represses E-cadherin transcription, is among the EMT inducers. SNAIL, a zinc-finger transcription factor, and its close relative SLUG have similar properties to TWIST1 and are thus also EMT inducers. MYC, which is upregulated by estrogens in the uterus by an estrogen response cis-acting element (ERE) in its promoter, is associated with proliferation in endometriosis. The role of EMT and proliferation in the pathogenesis of endometriosis was evaluated by analyzing TWIST1, CDH1 and MYC expression. CDH1, TWIST1, SNAIL and SLUG mRNA expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR from 47 controls and 74 patients with endometriosis. Approximately 42 ectopic and 62 eutopic endometrial tissues, of which 30 were matched samples, were collected during the same surgical procedure. We evaluated TWIST1 and MYC protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the epithelial and stromal tissue of 69 eutopic and 90 ectopic endometrium samples, of which 49 matched samples were analyzed from the same patient. Concordant expression of TWIST1/SNAIL/SLUG and CDH1 but also of TWIST1 and MYC was analyzed. We found that TWIST1, SNAIL and SLUG are overexpressed (p < 0.001, p = 0.016 and p < 0.001) in endometriosis, while CDH1 expression was concordantly reduced in these samples (p < 0.001). Similar to TWIST1, the epithelial expression of MYC was also significantly enhanced in ectopic endometrium compared to eutopic tissues (p = 0.008). We found exclusive expression of either TWIST1 or MYC in the same samples (p = 0.003). Epithelial TWIST1 is overexpressed in

  17. Transforming growth factor-β1 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human lung cancer cells via PI3K/Akt and MEK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Hui-Jun; Wang, Hai-Bing; Zhu, Jun; Zhou, Wen-Yong; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Ming-Chuan; Su, Jin-Mei; Gao, Wen; Zhang, Lei; Fei, Ke; Zhang, Hong-Tao; Wang, He-Yong

    2012-04-01

    Metastasis of tumor cells is associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a process whereby epithelial cells lose their polarity and acquire new features of mesenchyme. EMT has been reported to be induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), but its mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we performed a study to investigate whether PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways involved in EMT in the human lung cancer A549 cells. The results showed that after treated with TGF-β1 for 48 h, A549 cells displayed more fibroblast-like shape, lost epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased mesenchymal markers Vimentin and Fibronectin. Moreover, TGF-β1-induced EMT after 48 h was accompanied by increased of cell migration and change of Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation. In addition, EMT was reversed by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126, which suggested that A549 cells under stimulation of TGF-β1 undergo a switch into mesenchymal cells and PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk1/2 signaling pathways serve to regulate TGF-β1-induced EMT of A549 cells.

  18. PUMA Cooperates with p21 to Regulate Mammary Epithelial Morphogenesis and Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhong; Yan, Wensheng; Jung, Yong Sam; Chen, Xinbin

    2013-01-01

    Lumen formation is essential for mammary morphogenesis and requires proliferative suppression and apoptotic clearance of the inner cells within developing acini. Previously, we showed that knockdown of p53 or p73 leads to aberrant mammary acinus formation accompanied with decreased expression of p53 family targets PUMA and p21, suggesting that PUMA, an inducer of apoptosis, and p21, an inducer of cell cycle arrest, directly regulate mammary morphogenesis. To address this, we generated multiple MCF10A cell lines in which PUMA, p21, or both were stably knocked down. We found that morphogenesis of MCF10A cells was altered modestly by knockdown of either PUMA or p21 alone but markedly by knockdown of both PUMA and p21. Moreover, we found that knockdown of PUMA and p21 leads to loss of E-cadherin expression along with increased expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. Interestingly, we found that knockdown of ΔNp73, which antagonizes the ability of wide-type p53 and TA isoform of p73 to regulate PUMA and p21, mitigates the abnormal morphogenesis and EMT induced by knockdown of PUMA or p21. Together, our data suggest that PUMA cooperates with p21 to regulate normal acinus formation and EMT.

  19. Epigenetic plasticity: A central regulator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bedi, Upasana; Mishra, Vivek Kumar; Wasilewski, David; Scheel, Christina; Johnsen, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in most solid cancers. A growing body of evidence suggests that the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a central role during tumor metastasis and frequently imparts a stem cell-like phenotype and therapeutic resistance to tumor cells. The induction of EMT is accompanied by a dynamic reprogramming of the epigenome involving changes in DNA methylation and several post-translational histone modifications. These changes in turn promote the expression of mesenchymal genes or repress those associated with an epithelial phenotype. Importantly, in order for metastatic colonization and the formation of macrometastases to occur, tumor cells frequently undergo a reversal of EMT referred to as the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). Thus, a high degree of epigenetic plasticity is required in order to induce and reverse EMT during tumor progression. In this review, we describe various epigenetic regulatory mechanisms employed by tumor cells during EMT and elaborate on the importance of the histone code in controlling both the expression and activity of EMT-associated transcription factors. We propose that a more thorough understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms controlling EMT may provide new opportunities which may be harnessed for improved and individualized cancer therapy based on defined molecular mechanisms. PMID:24840099

  20. Directing epithelial to mesenchymal transition through engineered microenvironments displaying orthogonal adhesive and mechanical cues.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Marilyn C; Brown, Ashley C; Barker, Thomas H

    2012-08-01

    Cell interactions with their extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironments play a major role in directing cellular processes that can drive wound healing and tissue regeneration but, if uncontrolled, lead to pathological progression. One such process, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), if finely controlled could have significant potential in regenerative medicine approaches. Despite recent findings that highlight the influence of biochemical and mechanical properties of the ECM on EMT, it is still unclear how these two orthogonal cues act synergistically to control epithelial cell phenotype. Here, we cultured lung epithelial cells on combinations of different mutants of fibronectin's cell binding domain that preferentially engage specific integrins and substrates of varying stiffness. Our results suggest that while stiff substrates induce spontaneous EMT, this response can be overcome by with fragments of fibronectin that support α3 and α5 integrin engagement. Furthermore, we found that substrate-induced EMT correlates with transforming growth factor beta activation by resident epithelial cells and is dependent on Rho/ROCK signaling. Suppressing cell-contractility was sufficient to maintain an epithelial phenotype. Our results suggest that integrin-specific engagement of fibronectin adhesive domains and the mechanics of the ECM act synergistically to direct EMT.

  1. ZEB1 drives epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jill E; Nathan, Vaishnavi; Osborne, Jihan K; Farrow, Rebecca K; Deb, Dhruba; Sullivan, James P; Dospoy, Patrick D; Augustyn, Alexander; Hight, Suzie K; Sato, Mitsuo; Girard, Luc; Behrens, Carmen; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Gazdar, Adi F; Hayward, Nicholas K; Minna, John D

    2016-09-01

    Increased expression of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) is associated with tumor grade and metastasis in lung cancer, likely due to its role as a transcription factor in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we modeled malignant transformation in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) and determined that EMT and ZEB1 expression are early, critical events in lung cancer pathogenesis. Specific oncogenic mutations in TP53 and KRAS were required for HBECs to engage EMT machinery in response to microenvironmental (serum/TGF-β) or oncogenetic (MYC) factors. Both TGF-β- and MYC-induced EMT required ZEB1, but engaged distinct TGF-β-dependent and vitamin D receptor-dependent (VDR-dependent) pathways, respectively. Functionally, we found that ZEB1 causally promotes malignant progression of HBECs and tumorigenicity, invasion, and metastases in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lines. Mechanistically, ZEB1 expression in HBECs directly repressed epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1 (ESRP1), leading to increased expression of a mesenchymal splice variant of CD44 and a more invasive phenotype. In addition, ZEB1 expression in early stage IB primary NSCLC correlated with tumor-node-metastasis stage. These findings indicate that ZEB1-induced EMT and associated molecular changes in ESRP1 and CD44 contribute to early pathogenesis and metastatic potential in established lung cancer. Moreover, TGF-β and VDR signaling and CD44 splicing pathways associated with ZEB1 are potential EMT chemoprevention and therapeutic targets in NSCLC.

  2. Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Trung; Jin, Lin; Datta, Pran K.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process that allows an epithelial cell to acquire a mesenchymal phenotype through multiple biochemical changes resulting in an increased migratory capacity. During cancer progression, EMT is found to be associated with an invasive or metastatic phenotype. In this review, we focus on the discussion of recent studies about the regulation of EMT by cigarette smoking. Various groups of active compounds found in cigarette smoke such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK), and reactive oxygen specicies (ROS) can induce EMT through different signaling pathways. The links between EMT and biological responses to cigarette smoke, such as hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative damages, are also discussed. The effect of cigarette smoke on EMT is not only limited to cancer types directly related to smoking, such as lung cancer, but has also been found in other types of cancer. Altogether, this review emphasizes the importance of understanding molecular mechanisms of the induction of EMT by cigarette smoking and will help in identifying novel small molecules for targeting EMT induced by smoking. PMID:27077888

  3. Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vu, Trung; Jin, Lin; Datta, Pran K

    2016-04-11

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process that allows an epithelial cell to acquire a mesenchymal phenotype through multiple biochemical changes resulting in an increased migratory capacity. During cancer progression, EMT is found to be associated with an invasive or metastatic phenotype. In this review, we focus on the discussion of recent studies about the regulation of EMT by cigarette smoking. Various groups of active compounds found in cigarette smoke such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK), and reactive oxygen specicies (ROS) can induce EMT through different signaling pathways. The links between EMT and biological responses to cigarette smoke, such as hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative damages, are also discussed. The effect of cigarette smoke on EMT is not only limited to cancer types directly related to smoking, such as lung cancer, but has also been found in other types of cancer. Altogether, this review emphasizes the importance of understanding molecular mechanisms of the induction of EMT by cigarette smoking and will help in identifying novel small molecules for targeting EMT induced by smoking.

  4. Baicalin inhibits human osteosarcoma cells invasion, metastasis, and anoikis resistance by suppressing the transforming growth factor-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanmao; Wang, Huimin; Zhou, Runhua; Zhong, Wanrun; Lu, Shengdi; Ma, Zhongliang; Chai, Yimin

    2017-04-04

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in inducing cancer metastasis. Baicalin, a flavone derivative isolated from Scutellaria spp., shows a series of pharmacological and physiological activities. However, the possible role of baicalin in the EMT is unclear. In this study, we attempted to investigate the potential use of baicalin as an inhibitor of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced EMT in U2OS cells. We found that TGF-β1 induced the EMT to promote U2OS cells migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance. Western blotting showed that baicalin inhibited U2OS cells' invasion and migration, increased the expression of the epithelial phenotype marker E-cadherin, repressed the expression of the mesenchymal phenotype marker vimentin, as well as decreased the level of EMT-inducing transcription factors Snail1 and Slug during the initiation of TGF-β1-induced EMT. Baicalin also inhibited the TGF-β1-induced increase in cell migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance in TGF-β1-induced U2OS cells. In addition, the TGF-β1-mediated phosphorylated levels of Smad2/3 were inhibited by baicalin pretreatment. Above all, we conclude that baicalin suppresses human osteosarcoma cells' migration, invasion, and anoikis resistance in vitro through suppression of TGF-β1-induced EMT.

  5. Aneuploidy, oncogene amplification and epithelial to mesenchymal transition define spontaneous transformation of murine epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Nash, Hesed M.; McNeil, Nicole E.

    2013-01-01

    Human epithelial cancers are defined by a recurrent distribution of specific chromosomal aneuploidies, a trait less typical for murine cancer models induced by an oncogenic stimulus. After prolonged culture, mouse epithelial cells spontaneously immortalize, transform and become tumorigenic. We assessed genome and transcriptome alterations in cultures derived from bladder and kidney utilizing spectral karyotyping, array CGH, FISH and gene expression profiling. The results show widespread aneuploidy, yet a recurrent and tissue-specific distribution of genomic imbalances, just as in human cancers. Losses of chromosome 4 and gains of chromosome 15 are common and occur early during the transformation process. Global gene expression profiling revealed early and significant transcriptional deregulation. Chromosomal aneuploidy resulted in expression changes of resident genes and consequently in a massive deregulation of the cellular transcriptome. Pathway interrogation of expression changes during the sequential steps of transformation revealed enrichment of genes associated with DNA repair, centrosome regulation, stem cell characteristics and aneuploidy. Genes that modulate the epithelial to mesenchymal transition and genes that define the chromosomal instability phenotype played a dominant role and were changed in a directionality consistent with loss of cell adhesion, invasiveness and proliferation. Comparison with gene expression changes during human bladder and kidney tumorigenesis revealed remarkable overlap with changes observed in the spontaneously transformed murine cultures. Therefore, our novel mouse models faithfully recapitulate the sequence of genomic and transcriptomic events that define human tumorigenesis, hence validating them for both basic and preclinical research. PMID:23619298

  6. F-box proteins: Keeping the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in check.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Víctor M; de Herreros, Antonio García

    2016-02-01

    F-box proteins are the key recognition subunit of multimeric E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes that participate in the proteasome degradation of specific substrates. In the last years, a discrete number of F-box proteins have been shown to regulate the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process defined by a rapid change of cell phenotype, the loss of epithelial characteristics and the acquisition of a more invasive phenotype. Specific EMT transcription factors (EMT-TFs), such as Snail, Slug, Twist and Zeb, control EMT induction both during development and in cancer. These EMT-TFs are short-lived proteins that are targeted to the proteasome system by specific F-box proteins, keeping them at low levels. F-box proteins also indirectly regulate the EMT process by controlling EMT inducers, such as Notch, c-Myc or mTOR. Here we summarize the role that these F-box proteins (Fbxw1, Fbxw7, Fbxl14, Fbxl5, Fbxo11 and Fbxo45) play in controlling EMT during development and cancer progression, a process dependent on post-translational modifications that govern their interaction with target proteins.

  7. MOF Acetylates the Histone Demethylase LSD1 to Suppress Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Luo, Huacheng; Shenoy, Anitha K; Li, Xuehui; Jin, Yue; Jin, Lihua; Cai, Qingsong; Tang, Ming; Liu, Yang; Chen, Hao; Reisman, David; Wu, Lizi; Seto, Edward; Qiu, Yi; Dou, Yali; Casero, Robert A; Lu, Jianrong

    2016-06-21

    The histone demethylase LSD1 facilitates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor progression by repressing epithelial marker expression. However, little is known about how its function may be modulated. Here, we report that LSD1 is acetylated in epithelial but not mesenchymal cells. Acetylation of LSD1 reduces its association with nucleosomes, thus increasing histone H3K4 methylation at its target genes and activating transcription. The MOF acetyltransferase interacts with LSD1 and is responsible for its acetylation. MOF is preferentially expressed in epithelial cells and is downregulated by EMT-inducing signals. Expression of exogenous MOF impedes LSD1 binding to epithelial gene promoters and histone demethylation, thereby suppressing EMT and tumor invasion. Conversely, MOF depletion enhances EMT and tumor metastasis. In human cancer, high MOF expression correlates with epithelial markers and a favorable prognosis. These findings provide insight into the regulation of LSD1 and EMT and identify MOF as a critical suppressor of EMT and tumor progression. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The hypoxia factor Hif-1α controls neural crest chemotaxis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Barriga, Elias H.; Maxwell, Patrick H.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important mechanisms that promotes metastasis is the stabilization of Hif-1 (hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1). We decided to test whether Hif-1α also was required for early embryonic development. We focused our attention on the development of the neural crest, a highly migratory embryonic cell population whose behavior has been likened to cancer metastasis. Inhibition of Hif-1α by antisense morpholinos in Xenopus laevis or zebrafish embryos led to complete inhibition of neural crest migration. We show that Hif-1α controls the expression of Twist, which in turn represses E-cadherin during epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of neural crest cells. Thus, Hif-1α allows cells to initiate migration by promoting the release of cell–cell adhesions. Additionally, Hif-1α controls chemotaxis toward the chemokine SDF-1 by regulating expression of its receptor Cxcr4. Our results point to Hif-1α as a novel and key regulator that integrates EMT and chemotaxis during migration of neural crest cells. PMID:23712262

  9. The hypoxia factor Hif-1α controls neural crest chemotaxis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Barriga, Elias H; Maxwell, Patrick H; Reyes, Ariel E; Mayor, Roberto

    2013-05-27

    One of the most important mechanisms that promotes metastasis is the stabilization of Hif-1 (hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1). We decided to test whether Hif-1α also was required for early embryonic development. We focused our attention on the development of the neural crest, a highly migratory embryonic cell population whose behavior has been likened to cancer metastasis. Inhibition of Hif-1α by antisense morpholinos in Xenopus laevis or zebrafish embryos led to complete inhibition of neural crest migration. We show that Hif-1α controls the expression of Twist, which in turn represses E-cadherin during epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of neural crest cells. Thus, Hif-1α allows cells to initiate migration by promoting the release of cell-cell adhesions. Additionally, Hif-1α controls chemotaxis toward the chemokine SDF-1 by regulating expression of its receptor Cxcr4. Our results point to Hif-1α as a novel and key regulator that integrates EMT and chemotaxis during migration of neural crest cells.

  10. FLASH protects ZEB1 from degradation and supports cancer cells' epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Abshire, C F; Carroll, J L; Dragoi, A-M

    2016-01-01

    Cancer metastasis remains a significant challenge and the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. It is postulated that during metastasis cells undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process characterized by loss of cell–cell contacts and increased migratory and invasive potential. ZEB1 is one the most prominent transcriptional repressors of genes associated with EMT. We identified caspase-8-associated protein 2 (CASP8AP2 or FLASH) as a novel posttranscriptional regulator of ZEB1. Here we demonstrate that FLASH protects ZEB1 from proteasomal degradation brought by the action of the ubiquitin ligases SIAH1 and F-box protein FBXO45. As a result, loss of FLASH rapidly destabilized ZEB1 and reversed EMT cellular characteristics. Importantly, loss of FLASH blocked transforming growth factor-β-induced EMT and enhanced sensitivity to chemotherapy. Thus, we propose that FLASH–ZEB1 interplay may be a protective mechanism against ZEB1 degradation in cells undergoing EMT and may be an efficacious target for therapies aimed to block EMT progression. PMID:27526108

  11. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition confers pericyte properties on cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Anitha K.; Jin, Yue; Luo, Huacheng; Pampo, Christine; Shao, Rong; Siemann, Dietmar W.; Heldermon, Coy D.; Law, Brian K.; Chang, Lung-Ji

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma cells can acquire increased motility and invasiveness through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the significance of EMT in cancer metastasis has been controversial, and the exact fates and functions of EMT cancer cells in vivo remain inadequately understood. Here, we tracked epithelial cancer cells that underwent inducible or spontaneous EMT in various tumor transplantation models. Unlike epithelial cells, the majority of EMT cancer cells were specifically located in the perivascular space and closely associated with blood vessels. EMT markedly activated multiple pericyte markers in carcinoma cells, in particular PDGFR-β and N-cadherin, which enabled EMT cells to be chemoattracted towards and physically interact with endothelium. In tumor xenografts generated from carcinoma cells that were prone to spontaneous EMT, a substantial fraction of the pericytes associated with tumor vasculature were derived from EMT cancer cells. Depletion of such EMT cells in transplanted tumors diminished pericyte coverage, impaired vascular integrity, and attenuated tumor growth. These findings suggest that EMT confers key pericyte attributes on cancer cells. The resulting EMT cells phenotypically and functionally resemble pericytes and are indispensable for vascular stabilization and sustained tumor growth. This study thus proposes a previously unrecognized role for EMT in cancer. PMID:27721239

  12. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition confers pericyte properties on cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Anitha K; Jin, Yue; Luo, Huacheng; Tang, Ming; Pampo, Christine; Shao, Rong; Siemann, Dietmar W; Wu, Lizi; Heldermon, Coy D; Law, Brian K; Chang, Lung-Ji; Lu, Jianrong

    2016-11-01

    Carcinoma cells can acquire increased motility and invasiveness through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the significance of EMT in cancer metastasis has been controversial, and the exact fates and functions of EMT cancer cells in vivo remain inadequately understood. Here, we tracked epithelial cancer cells that underwent inducible or spontaneous EMT in various tumor transplantation models. Unlike epithelial cells, the majority of EMT cancer cells were specifically located in the perivascular space and closely associated with blood vessels. EMT markedly activated multiple pericyte markers in carcinoma cells, in particular PDGFR-β and N-cadherin, which enabled EMT cells to be chemoattracted towards and physically interact with endothelium. In tumor xenografts generated from carcinoma cells that were prone to spontaneous EMT, a substantial fraction of the pericytes associated with tumor vasculature were derived from EMT cancer cells. Depletion of such EMT cells in transplanted tumors diminished pericyte coverage, impaired vascular integrity, and attenuated tumor growth. These findings suggest that EMT confers key pericyte attributes on cancer cells. The resulting EMT cells phenotypically and functionally resemble pericytes and are indispensable for vascular stabilization and sustained tumor growth. This study thus proposes a previously unrecognized role for EMT in cancer.

  13. FLASH protects ZEB1 from degradation and supports cancer cells' epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Abshire, C F; Carroll, J L; Dragoi, A-M

    2016-08-15

    Cancer metastasis remains a significant challenge and the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths. It is postulated that during metastasis cells undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process characterized by loss of cell-cell contacts and increased migratory and invasive potential. ZEB1 is one the most prominent transcriptional repressors of genes associated with EMT. We identified caspase-8-associated protein 2 (CASP8AP2 or FLASH) as a novel posttranscriptional regulator of ZEB1. Here we demonstrate that FLASH protects ZEB1 from proteasomal degradation brought by the action of the ubiquitin ligases SIAH1 and F-box protein FBXO45. As a result, loss of FLASH rapidly destabilized ZEB1 and reversed EMT cellular characteristics. Importantly, loss of FLASH blocked transforming growth factor-β-induced EMT and enhanced sensitivity to chemotherapy. Thus, we propose that FLASH-ZEB1 interplay may be a protective mechanism against ZEB1 degradation in cells undergoing EMT and may be an efficacious target for therapies aimed to block EMT progression.

  14. Substrate stiffness modulates lung cancer cell migration but not epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Shukla, V C; Higuita-Castro, N; Nana-Sinkam, P; Ghadiali, S N

    2016-05-01

    Biomechanical properties of the tumor microenvironment, including matrix/substrate stiffness, play a significant role in tumor evolution and metastasis. Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is a fundamental biological process that is associated with increased cancer cell migration and invasion. The goal of this study was to investigate (1) how substrate stiffness modulates the migration behaviors of lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) and (2) if stiffness-induced changes in cell migration correlate with biochemical markers of EMT. Collagen-coated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates and an Ibidi migration assay were used to investigate how substrate stiffness alters the migration patterns of A549 cells. RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to investigate how substrate stiffness alters biochemical markers of EMT, that is, E-cadherin and N-cadherin, and the phosphorylation of focal adhesion proteins. Increases in substrate stiffness led to slower, more directional migration but did not alter the biochemical markers of EMT. Interestingly, growth factor (i.e., Transforming Growth Factor-β) stimulation resulted in similar levels of EMT regardless of substrate stiffness. We also observed decreased levels of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin on stiffer substrates which correlated with slower cell migration. These results indicate that substrate stiffness modulates lung cancer cell migration via focal adhesion signaling as opposed to EMT signaling.

  15. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human skin wound healing is induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha through bone morphogenic protein-2.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chunli; Grimm, Wesley A; Garner, Warren L; Qin, Lan; Travis, Taryn; Tan, Neiman; Han, Yuan-Ping

    2010-05-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterized by loss of epithelial adhesion and gain of mesenchymal features, is an important mechanism to empower epithelial cells into the motility that occurs during embryonic development and recurs in cancer and fibrosis. Whether and how EMT occurs in wound healing and fibrosis in human skin remains unknown. In this study we found that migrating epithelial cells in wound margins and deep epithelial ridges had gained mesenchymal features such as vimentin and FSP1 expression. In hypertrophic scars, EMT-related genes were elevated along with inflammatory cytokines, indicating a causal relationship. To reconstitute EMT in vitro, normal human skin and primary keratinocytes were exposed to cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), resulting in expression of vimentin, FSP1, and matrix metalloproteinases. Moreover, TNF-alpha-induced EMT was impaired by antagonists against bone morphogen proteins (BMP) 2/4, suggesting that BMP mediates the TNF-alpha-induced EMT in human skin. Indeed, TNF-alpha could induce BMP-2 and its receptor (BMPR1A) in human skin and primary keratinocytes, and BMP2 could induce EMT features in skin explants and primary keratinocytes. In summary, we uncovered EMT features in both acute and fibrotic cutaneous wound healing of human skin. Moreover, we propose that the mesenchymal induction in wound healing is motivated by TNF-alpha, in part, through induction of BMP.

  16. MicroRNA-328 inhibits renal tubular cell epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by targeting the CD44 in pressure-induced renal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Cheng, Chung-Yi; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Sue, Yuh-Mou; Liu, Chung-Te; Cheng, Tzu-Hurng; Hsu, Yung-Ho; Chen, Tso-Hsiao

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs in stressed tubular epithelial cells, contributing to renal fibrosis. Initial mechanisms promoting EMT are unknown. Pressure force is an important mechanism contributing to the induction and progression of renal fibrogenesis in ureteric obstruction. In our study of cultured rat renal tubular cells (NRK-52E) under 60 mmHg of pressure, we found that the epithelial marker E-cadherin decreased and mesenchymal markers, e.g., α-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin and Snail, increased. Pressure also induced the expression of connective tissue growth factor and transforming growth factor-β. MicroRNA array assays showed that pressure reduced miR-328 at the initial stage of pressurization. We identified a potential target sequence of miR-328 in rat CD44 3'-untranslated regions. In contrast with the miR-328 expression, CD44 expression was up-regulated at the initial pressurization stage. We also found that miR-328 expression decreased and CD44 increased in ureteric obstruction kidneys in the animal study. CD44 siRNA transfection significantly increased E-cadherin expression and inhibited pressure-induced EMT. Both hyaluronan binding peptide pep-1 and osteopontin neutralizing antibody inhibited pressure-induced EMT. Our results suggest that miR-328-mediated CD44 transient upregulation is an important trigger of the pressure-induced EMT in renal fibrosis.

  17. Resveratrol induces chemosensitization to 5-fluorouracil through up-regulation of intercellular junctions, Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and apoptosis in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Buhrmann, Constanze; Shayan, Parviz; Kraehe, Patricia; Popper, Bastian; Goel, Ajay; Shakibaei, Mehdi

    2015-11-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), a common chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC), by itself has inadequate response rates; highlighting the need for novel and improved treatment regimens for these patients. Resveratrol, a naturally-occurring polyphenol, has been linked with chemosensitizing potential and anticancer properties; however, the underlying mechanisms for these effects remain poorly understood. The effect of resveratrol in parental CRC cell lines (HCT116, SW480) and their corresponding isogenic 5-FU-chemoresistant derived clones (HCT116R, SW480R) was examined by MTT assays, intercellular junction formation and apoptosis by electron- and immunoelectron microscopy, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and NF-κB regulated gene products by western blot analysis in a 3D-alginate microenvironment. Resveratrol blocked the proliferation of all four CRC cell lines and synergized the invasion inhibitory effects of 5-FU. Interestingly, resveratrol induced a transition from 5-FU-induced formation of microvilli to a planar cell surface, which was concomitant with up-regulation of desmosomes, gap- and tight junctions (claudin-2) and adhesion molecules (E-cadherin) expression in HCT116 and HCT116R cells. Further, resveratrol significantly attenuated drug resistance through inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) factors (decreased vimentin and slug, increased E-cadherin) and down-regulation of NF-κB activation and its translocation to the nucleus and abolished NF-κB-regulated gene end-products (MMP-9, caspase-3). Moreover, this suppression was mediated through inhibition of IκBα kinase and IκBα phosphorylation and degradation. Our results demonstrate that resveratrol can potentiate the anti-tumor effects of 5-FU on CRC cells by chemosensitizing them, inhibiting an EMT phenotype via up-regulation of intercellular junctions and by down-regulation of NF-κB pathway.

  18. Kaempferol Suppresses Transforming Growth Factor-β1-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Migration of A549 Lung Cancer Cells by Inhibiting Akt1-Mediated Phosphorylation of Smad3 at Threonine-179.

    PubMed

    Jo, Eunji; Park, Seong Ji; Choi, Yu Sun; Jeon, Woo-Kwang; Kim, Byung-Chul

    2015-07-01

    Kaempferol, a natural dietary flavonoid, is well known to possess chemopreventive and therapeutic anticancer efficacy; however, its antimetastatic effects have not been mechanistically studied so far in any cancer model. This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and accompanying mechanisms of kaempferol on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). In human A549 non-small lung cancer cells, kaempferol strongly blocked the enhancement of cell migration by TGF-β1-induced EMT through recovering the loss of E-cadherin and suppressing the induction of mesenchymal markers as well as the upregulation of TGF-β1-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity. Interestingly, kaempferol reversed TGF-β1-mediated Snail induction and E-cadherin repression by weakening Smad3 binding to the Snail promoter without affecting its C-terminus phosphorylation, complex formation with Smad4, and nuclear translocation under TGF-β1 stimulation. Mechanism study revealed that the phosphorylation of Smad3 linker region induced by TGF-β1 was required for the induction of EMT and cell migration, and selective downregulation of the phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue (not Ser204, Ser208, and Ser213) in the linker region was responsible for the inhibition by kaempferol of TGF-β1-induced EMT and cell migration. Furthermore, Akt1 was required for TGF-β1-mediated induction of EMT and cell migration and directly phosphorylated Smad3 at Thr179, and kaempferol completely abolished TGF-β1-induced Akt1 phosphorylation. In summary, kaempferol blocks TGF-β1-induced EMT and migration of lung cancer cells by inhibiting Akt1-mediated phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr179 residue, providing the first evidence of a molecular mechanism for the anticancer effect of kaempferol.

  19. Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) increases during renal fibrogenesis and its inhibition potentiates TGF-β 1-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Matheus, Luiz Henrique Gomes; Simão, Gislene Mendes; Amaral, Taíssa Altieri; Brito, Rodrigo Barbosa Oliveira; Malta, Camila Soares; Matos, Yves Silva Teles; Santana, Alexandre Chagas; Rodrigues, Gabriela Gomes Cardoso; Albejante, Maria Clara; Bach, Erna Elisabeth; Dalboni, Maria Aparecida; Camacho, Cleber Pinto; Dellê, Humberto

    2017-09-06

    Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunomodulatory molecule that has been implicated in several biological processes. Although IDO has been linked with some renal diseases, its role in renal fibrosis is still unclear. Because IDO may be modulated by TGF-β1, a potent fibrogenic molecule, we hypothesized that IDO could be involved in renal fibrosis, especially acting in the TGF-β1-induced tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We analyzed the IDO expression and activity in a model of renal fibrogenesis, and the effect of the IDO inhibitor 1-methyl-tryptophan (MT) on TGF-β1-induced EMT using tubular cell culture. Male Wistar rats where submited to 7 days of UUO. Non-obstructed kidneys (CL) and kidneys from SHAM rats were used as controls. Masson's Tricrome and macrophages counting were used to chatacterize the tissue fibrosis. The EMT was analysed though immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR. Immunohistochemestry in tissue has used to show IDO expression. MDCK cells were incubated with TGF- β1 to analyse IDO expression. Additionally, effects of TGF- β1 and the inhibition of IDO over the EMT process was acessed by immunoessays and scrath wound essay. IDO was markedly expressed in cortical and medular tubules of the UUO kidneys. Similarly to the immunolocalizaton of TGF- β1, accompanied by loss of e-cadherin expression and an increase of mesenchymal markers. Results in vitro with MDCK cells, showed that IDO was increased after stimulus with TGF-β1, and treatment with MT potentiated its expression. MDCK stimulated with TGF-β1 had higher migratory activity (scratch-wound assay), which was exacerbated by MT treatment. IDO is constitutively expressed in tubular cells and increases during renal fibrogenesis. Although IDO is induced by TGF-β1 in tubular cells, its chemical inhibitor acts as a profibrotic agent.

  20. Lysophosphatidic Acid Promotes Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Ovarian Cancer Cells by Repressing SIRT1.

    PubMed

    Ray, Upasana; Roy, Sib Sankar; Chowdhury, Shreya Roy

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an essential role in the transition from early to invasive phenotype, however the underlying mechanisms still remain elusive. Herein, we propose a mechanism through which the class-III deacetylase SIRT1 regulates EMT in ovarian cancer (OC) cells. Expression analysis was performed using Q-PCR, western blot, immunofluorescence and fluorescence-IHC study. Matrigel invasion assay was used for the invasion study. Morphological alterations were observed by phalloidin-staining. Co-immunoprecipitation study was performed to analyze protein-protein interaction. Overexpression of SIRT1-WT as well as Resveratrol-mediated SIRT1 activation antagonized the invasion of OC cells by suppressing EMT. SIRT1 deacetylates HIF1α, to inactivate its transcriptional activity. To further validate HIF1α inactivation, its target gene, i.e. ZEB1, an EMT-inducing factor was found to attenuate upon SIRT1 activation. To uncover the regulatory factor governing SIRT1 expression, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a highly enriched oncolipid in ascites/serum of OC patients, was found to down-regulate SIRT1 expression. Importantly, LPA was found to induce the mesenchymal switch in OC cells through suppression of SIRT1. Decreased level of SIRT1 was further validated in ovarian tissue samples of OC patients. We have identified a mechanism that relates SIRT1 down-regulation to LPA-induced EMT in OC cells and may open new arenas on developing novel anti-cancer therapeutics. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Notch signaling: targeting cancer stem cells and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Ingrid; Pochampally, Radhika; Xing, Fei; Watabe, Kounosuke; Miele, Lucio

    2013-09-06

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway involved in cell fate control during development, stem cell self-renewal, and postnatal tissue differentiation. Roles for Notch in carcinogenesis, the biology of cancer stem cells, tumor angiogenesis, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) have been reported. This review describes the role of Notch in the "stemness" program in cancer cells and in metastases, together with a brief update on the Notch inhibitors currently under investigation in oncology. These agents may be useful in targeting cancer stem cells and to reverse the EMT process.

  2. ZEB1 drives epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Increased expression of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) is associated with tumor grade and metastasis in lung cancer, likely due to its role as a transcription factor in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we modeled malignant transformation in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) and determined that EMT and ZEB1 expression are early, critical events in lung cancer pathogenesis. Specific oncogenic mutations in TP53 and KRAS were required for HBECs to engage EMT machinery in response to microenvironmental (serum/TGF-β) or oncogenetic (MYC) factors.

  3. Notch signaling: targeting cancer stem cells and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Ingrid; Pochampally, Radhika; Xing, Fei; Watabe, Kounosuke; Miele, Lucio

    2013-01-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway involved in cell fate control during development, stem cell self-renewal, and postnatal tissue differentiation. Roles for Notch in carcinogenesis, the biology of cancer stem cells, tumor angiogenesis, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) have been reported. This review describes the role of Notch in the “stemness” program in cancer cells and in metastases, together with a brief update on the Notch inhibitors currently under investigation in oncology. These agents may be useful in targeting cancer stem cells and to reverse the EMT process. PMID:24043949

  4. Role of glycogen synthase kinase-3β and PPAR-γ on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in DSS-induced colorectal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Di Gregorio, Jacopo; Sferra, Roberta; Speca, Silvia; Vetuschi, Antonella; Dubuquoy, Caroline; Desreumaux, Pierre; Pompili, Simona; Cristiano, Loredana; Gaudio, Eugenio; Flati, Vincenzo; Latella, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal fibrosis is characterized by abnormal production and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by activated myofibroblasts. The main progenitor cells of activated myofibroblasts are the fibroblasts and the epithelial cells, the latter through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). To evaluate the action of the new PPAR-γ modulator, GED-0507-34 Levo (GED) on the expression of EMT associated and regulatory proteins such as TGF-β, Smad3, E-cadherin, Snail, ZEB1, β-catenin, and GSK-3β, in a mouse model of DSS-induced intestinal fibrosis. Chronic colitis and fibrosis were induced by oral administration of 2.5% DSS (w/v) for 6 weeks. GW9662 (GW), a selective PPAR-γ inhibitor, was also administered by intraperitoneal injection at the dose of 1 mg/kg/day combined with GED treatment. All drugs were administered at the beginning of the second cycle of DSS (day 12). 65 mice were randomly divided into five groups (H2O as controls n = 10, H2O+GED n = 10, DSS n = 15, DSS+GED n = 15, DSS+GED+GW n = 15). The colon was excised for macroscopic examination and histological and morphometric analyses. The level of expression of molecules involved in EMT and fibrosis, like TGF-β, Smad3, E-cadherin, Snail, ZEB1, β-catenin, GSK-3β and PPAR-γ, was assessed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, western blot and Real Time PCR. GED improved the DSS-induced chronic colitis and fibrosis. GED was able to reduce the expression of the main fibrosis markers (α-SMA, collagen I-III and fibronectin) as well as the pivotal pro-fibrotic molecules IL-13, TGF-β and Smad3, while it increased the anti-fibrotic PPAR-γ. All these GED effects were nullified by co-administration of GW with GED. Furthermore, GED was able to normalize the expression levels of E-cadherin and β-catenin and upregulated GSK-3β, that are all known to be involved both in EMT and fibrosis. The DSS-induced intestinal fibrosis was improved by the new PPAR-γ modulator GED-0507-34 Levo through

  5. Role of glycogen synthase kinase-3β and PPAR-γ on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in DSS-induced colorectal fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Vetuschi, Antonella; Dubuquoy, Caroline; Desreumaux, Pierre; Pompili, Simona; Cristiano, Loredana; Gaudio, Eugenio; Flati, Vincenzo; Latella, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Background Intestinal fibrosis is characterized by abnormal production and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by activated myofibroblasts. The main progenitor cells of activated myofibroblasts are the fibroblasts and the epithelial cells, the latter through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Aim To evaluate the action of the new PPAR-γ modulator, GED-0507-34 Levo (GED) on the expression of EMT associated and regulatory proteins such as TGF-β, Smad3, E-cadherin, Snail, ZEB1, β-catenin, and GSK-3β, in a mouse model of DSS-induced intestinal fibrosis. Methods Chronic colitis and fibrosis were induced by oral administration of 2.5% DSS (w/v) for 6 weeks. GW9662 (GW), a selective PPAR-γ inhibitor, was also administered by intraperitoneal injection at the dose of 1 mg/kg/day combined with GED treatment. All drugs were administered at the beginning of the second cycle of DSS (day 12). 65 mice were randomly divided into five groups (H2O as controls n = 10, H2O+GED n = 10, DSS n = 15, DSS+GED n = 15, DSS+GED+GW n = 15). The colon was excised for macroscopic examination and histological and morphometric analyses. The level of expression of molecules involved in EMT and fibrosis, like TGF-β, Smad3, E-cadherin, Snail, ZEB1, β-catenin, GSK-3β and PPAR-γ, was assessed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, western blot and Real Time PCR. Results GED improved the DSS-induced chronic colitis and fibrosis. GED was able to reduce the expression of the main fibrosis markers (α-SMA, collagen I-III and fibronectin) as well as the pivotal pro-fibrotic molecules IL-13, TGF-β and Smad3, while it increased the anti-fibrotic PPAR-γ. All these GED effects were nullified by co-administration of GW with GED. Furthermore, GED was able to normalize the expression levels of E-cadherin and β-catenin and upregulated GSK-3β, that are all known to be involved both in EMT and fibrosis. Conclusions The DSS-induced intestinal fibrosis was improved by the new

  6. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 promotes transforming growth factor-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via control of linker phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of Smad3.

    PubMed

    Velden, Jos L J van der; Alcorn, John F; Guala, Amy S; Badura, Elsbeth C H L; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M W

    2011-04-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is a key mediator of lung remodeling and fibrosis. Epithelial cells are both a source of and can respond to TGF-β1 with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We recently determined that TGF-β1-induced EMT in lung epithelial cells requires the presence of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1. Because TGF-β1 signals via Smad complexes, the goal of the present study was to determine the impact of JNK1 on phosphorylation of Smad3 and Smad3-dependent transcriptional responses in lung epithelial cells. Evaluation of JNK1-deficient lung epithelial cells demonstrated that TGF-β1-induced terminal phosphorylation of Smad3 was similar, whereas phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase sites in the linker regions of Smad3 was diminished, in JNK1-deficient cells compared with wild-type cells. In comparison to wild-type Smad3, expression of a mutant Smad3 in which linker mitogen-activated protein kinase sites were ablated caused a marked attenuation in JNK1 or TGF-β1-induced Smad-binding element transcriptional activity, and expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, fibronectin-1, high-mobility group A2, CArG box-binding factor-A, and fibroblast-specific protein-1, genes critical in the process of EMT. JNK1 enhanced the interaction between Smad3 and Smad4, which depended on linker phosphorylation of Smad3. Conversely, Smad3 with phosphomimetic mutations in the linker domain further enhanced EMT-related genes and proteins, even in the absence of JNK1. Finally, we demonstrated a TGF-β1-induced interaction between Smad3 and JNK1. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Smad3 phosphorylation in the linker region and Smad transcriptional activity are directly or indirectly controlled by JNK1, and provide a putative mechanism whereby JNK1 promotes TGF-β1-induced EMT.

  7. Curcumin inhibits cobalt chloride-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition associated with interference with TGF-β/Smad signaling in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Desong; Zhang, Feng; Shao, Jiangjuan; Wu, Li; Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, Li; Lu, Yin; Zheng, Shizhong

    2015-11-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs during adult tissue remodeling responses including carcinogenesis and fibrosis. Existing evidence reveals that hepatocytes can undergo EMT in adult liver, which is critically involved in chronic liver injury. We herein established a hypoxia-induced EMT model in human LO2 hepatocytes treated with cobalt chloride (CoCl2) in vitro, and evaluated the effects of curcumin, a natural antifibrotic compound, on hepatocyte EMT and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that CoCl2 at non-toxic doses induced a mesenchymal cell phenotype in hepatocytes and upregulated several mesenchymal markers including α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, N-cadherin, fibronectin and Snail (an EMT-related transcription factor), but downregulated the epithelial marker E-cadherin in hepatocytes. However, curcumin reversed the morphological changes, abrogated the increased expression of mesenchymal markers, and rescued E-cadherin expression in CoCl2-treated hepatocytes, suggesting the inhibition of hepatocyte EMT in vitro. We further found that curcumin interfered with the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling by reducing the expression of TGF-β receptor I and inhibiting the expression and phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3. Use of SB431542, a specific inhibitor of TGF-β receptor I, demonstrated that interference with the TGF-β/Smad pathway was associated with curcumin suppression of hepatocyte EMT. Our in vivo data showed that curcumin affected hepatic EMT in rat fibrotic liver caused by carbon tetrachloride, which was associated with the inhibition of TGF-β/Smad signaling. These findings characterized a novel mechanism by which curcumin modulated hepatocyte EMT implicated in treatment of liver fibrosis.

  8. Urothelial cells undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition after exposure to muscle invasive bladder cancer exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Franzen, C A; Blackwell, R H; Todorovic, V; Greco, K A; Foreman, K E; Flanigan, R C; Kuo, P C; Gupta, G N

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer, the fourth most common noncutaneous malignancy in the United States, is characterized by high recurrence rate, with a subset of these cancers progressing to a deadly muscle invasive form of disease. Exosomes are small secreted vesicles that contain proteins, mRNA and miRNA, thus potentially modulating signaling pathways in recipient cells. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells lose their cell polarity and cell–cell adhesion and gain migratory and invasive properties to become mesenchymal stem cells. EMT has been implicated in the initiation of metastasis for cancer progression. We investigated the ability of bladder cancer-shed exosomes to induce EMT in urothelial cells. Exosomes were isolated by ultracentrifugation from T24 or UMUC3 invasive bladder cancer cell conditioned media or from patient urine or bladder barbotage samples. Exosomes were then added to the urothelial cells and EMT was assessed. Urothelial cells treated with bladder cancer exosomes showed an increased expression in several mesenchymal markers, including α-smooth muscle actin, S100A4 and snail, as compared with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated cells. Moreover, treatment of urothelial cells with bladder cancer exosomes resulted in decreased expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin and β-catenin, as compared with the control, PBS-treated cells. Bladder cancer exosomes also increased the migration and invasion of urothelial cells, and this was blocked by heparin pretreatment. We further showed that exosomes isolated from patient urine and bladder barbotage samples were able to induce the expression of several mesenchymal markers in recipient urothelial cells. In conclusion, the research presented here represents both a new insight into the role of exosomes in transition of bladder cancer into invasive disease, as well as an introduction to a new platform for exosome research in urothelial cells. PMID:26280654

  9. HSP72 inhibits Smad3 activation and nuclear translocation in renal epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Mao, Haiping; Li, Shu; Cao, Shirong; Li, Zhijian; Zhuang, Shougang; Fan, Jinjin; Dong, Xiuqing; Borkan, Steven C; Wang, Yihan; Yu, Xueqing

    2010-04-01

    Although heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) ameliorates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis by inhibiting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the underlying mechanism is unknown. Because Smad proteins transduce TGF-beta signaling from the cytosol to the nucleus and HSP72 assists in protein folding and facilitates nuclear translocation, we investigated whether HSP72 inhibits TGF-beta-induced EMT by modulating Smad expression, activation, and nuclear translocation. To evaluate the roles of distinct HSP72 structural domains in these processes, we constructed vectors that expressed wild-type HSP72 or mutants lacking either the peptide-binding domain (HSP72-DeltaPBD), which is responsible for substrate binding and refolding, or the nuclear localization signal (HSP72-DeltaNLS). Overexpression of wild-type HSP72 or HSP72-DeltaNLS inhibited TGF-beta1-induced EMT, but HSP72-DeltaPBD did not, suggesting a critical role for the PBD in this inhibition. HSP72 overexpression inhibited TGF-beta1-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Smad3 and p-Smad3, but not Smad2; these inhibitory effects required the PBD but not the NLS. Coimmunoprecipitation assays suggested a physical interaction between Smad3 and the PBD. siRNA knockdown of endogenous HSP72 enhanced both TGF-beta1-induced Smad3 phosphorylation and EMT and confirmed the interaction of HSP72 with both Smad3 and p-Smad3. In vivo, induction of HSP72 by geranylgeranylacetone suppressed Smad3 phosphorylation in renal tubular cells after unilateral ureteral obstruction. In conclusion, HSP72 inhibits EMT in renal epithelial cells primarily by exerting domain-specific effects on Smad3 activation and nuclear translocation.

  10. Sulfate Aerosols Promote Lung Cancer Metastasis by Epigenetically Regulating the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT).

    PubMed

    Yun, Yang; Gao, Rui; Yue, Huifeng; Guo, Lin; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2017-10-03

    Secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA), particularly sulfate aerosols, are central particulate matter (PM) constituents of severe haze formation in China and exert profound impacts on human health; however, our understanding of the mechanisms by which sulfate aerosols cause malignancy in lung carcinogenesis remains incomplete. Here, we show that exposure to secondary inorganic aerosols induced the invasion and migration of lung epithelial cells, and that (NH4)2SO4 exerted the most serious effects in vitro and promoted lung tumor metastasis in vivo. This action was associated with alterations of phenotype markers in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as the up-regulation of fibronectin (Fn1) and the down-regulation of E-cadherin (E-cad). Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α)-Snail signaling, regulated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), was involved in the (NH4)2SO4-induced EMT, and the potent antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) inhibited the activation of HIF-1α-Snail and blocked the EMT, cell invasion, and migration in response to (NH4)2SO4. Additionally, CpG hypermethylation in the E-cad promoter regions partly contributed to the (NH4)2SO4-regulated E-cad repression, and the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza) restored the (NH4)2SO4-induced down-regulation of E-cad. Our findings reveal a potential mechanistic basis for exploring the association between sulfate aerosol exposure and increased malignancy during lung carcinogenesis, and suggest new approaches for the treatment, improvement, and prevention of lung cancer resulting from sulfate aerosol exposure in severe haze-fog.

  11. Blockage of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and upregulation of let 7b are critically involved in ursolic acid induced apoptosis in malignant mesothelioma cell

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Eun Jung; Won, Gunho; Lee, Jihyun; Yoon, Sang Wook; Lee, Ilho; Kim, Hee Jeong; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPN), which is caused by asbestos exposure, is one of aggressive lung tumors. In the present study, we elucidated the anti-tumor mechanism of ursolic acid in malignant mesotheliomas. Ursolic acid significantly exerted cytotoxicity in a time and dose dependent manner in H28, H2452 and MSTO-211H mesothelioma cells and inhibited cell proliferation by colony formation assay in a dose-dependent fashion. Also, ursolic acid treatment accumulated the sub-G1 population, attenuated the expression of procapase 9, cyclin D1, pAKT, p-glycogen synthase kinase 3-alpha/beta (pGSK3α/β), β-catenin and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB) and also cleaved caspase 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in mesothelioma cells. Furthermore, ursolic acid treatment blocked epithelial and mesenchymal transition (EMT) molecules by activating E-cadherin as an epithelial marker and attenuating Vimentin, and Twist as mesenchymal molecules. Interestingly, miRNA array revealed that 23 miRNAs (>2 folds) including let-7b and miRNA3613-5p, miRNA134 and miRNA196b were significantly upregulated while 33 miRNAs were downregulated in ursolic acid treated H2452 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of let 7b using let-7b mimics enhanced the antitumor effect of ursolic acid to attenuate the expression of procaspases 3, pro-PARP, pAKT, β-catenin and Twist and increase sub-G1 accumulation in H2452 mesothelioma cells. Overall, our findings suggest that ursolic acid induces apoptosis via inhibition of EMT and activation of let7b in mesothelioma cells as a potent chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of malignant mesotheliomas. PMID:28090191

  12. Blockage of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and upregulation of let 7b are critically involved in ursolic acid induced apoptosis in malignant mesothelioma cell.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Eun Jung; Won, Gunho; Lee, Jihyun; Yoon, Sang Wook; Lee, Ilho; Kim, Hee Jeong; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPN), which is caused by asbestos exposure, is one of aggressive lung tumors. In the present study, we elucidated the anti-tumor mechanism of ursolic acid in malignant mesotheliomas. Ursolic acid significantly exerted cytotoxicity in a time and dose dependent manner in H28, H2452 and MSTO-211H mesothelioma cells and inhibited cell proliferation by colony formation assay in a dose-dependent fashion. Also, ursolic acid treatment accumulated the sub-G1 population, attenuated the expression of procapase 9, cyclin D1, pAKT, p-glycogen synthase kinase 3-alpha/beta (pGSK3α/β), β-catenin and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFkB) and also cleaved caspase 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in mesothelioma cells. Furthermore, ursolic acid treatment blocked epithelial and mesenchymal transition (EMT) molecules by activating E-cadherin as an epithelial marker and attenuating Vimentin, and Twist as mesenchymal molecules. Interestingly, miRNA array revealed that 23 miRNAs (>2 folds) including let-7b and miRNA3613-5p, miRNA134 and miRNA196b were significantly upregulated while 33 miRNAs were downregulated in ursolic acid treated H2452 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of let 7b using let-7b mimics enhanced the antitumor effect of ursolic acid to attenuate the expression of procaspases 3, pro-PARP, pAKT, β-catenin and Twist and increase sub-G1 accumulation in H2452 mesothelioma cells. Overall, our findings suggest that ursolic acid induces apoptosis via inhibition of EMT and activation of let7b in mesothelioma cells as a potent chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of malignant mesotheliomas.

  13. Neutrophil Granulocytes in Ovarian Cancer - Induction of Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal-Transition and Tumor Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Christine; Darb-Esfahani, Silvia; Meyer, Anne-Sophie; Hübner, Katrin; Rom, Joachim; Sohn, Christof; Braicu, Ioana; Sehouli, Jalid; Hänsch, G. Maria; Gaida, Matthias M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ovarian cancer (OvCa) is a highly aggressive malignoma with a tumor-promoting microenvironment. Infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) is frequently seen, raising the question of their impact on tumor development. In that context, effects of PMN on human ovarian cancer cells were assessed. Methods: Human epithelial ovarian cancer cells were incubated with human PMN, lysate of PMN, or neutrophil elastase. Morphological alterations were observed by time-lapse video-microscopy, and the underlying molecular mechanism was analyzed by flow cytometry and Western blotting. Functional alternations were assessed by an in vitro wound healing assay. In parallel, a large cohort of n=334 primary OvCa tissue samples of various histological subtypes was histologically evaluated. Results: Co-cultivation of cancer cells with either PMN or PMN lysate causes a change of the polygonal epithelial phenotype of the cells towards a spindle shaped morphology, causing a cribriform cell growth. The PMN-induced alteration could be attributed to elastase, a major protease of PMN. Elastase-induced shape change was most likely due to the degradation of membranous E-cadherin, which results in loss of cell contacts and polarity. Moreover, in response to elastase, epithelial cytokeratins were downmodulated, in parallel with a nuclear translocation of β-catenin. These PMN-elastase induced alterations of cells are compatible with an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the cancer cells. Following EMT, the cells displayed a more migratory phenotype. In human biopsies, neutrophil infiltration was seen in 72% of the cases. PMN infiltrates were detected preferentially in areas with low E-cadherin expression. Conclusion: PMN in the microenvironment of OvCa can alter tumor cells towards a mesenchymal and migratory phenotype. PMID:27053953

  14. Oxystressed tumor microenvironment potentiates epithelial to mesenchymal transition and alters cellular bioenergetics towards cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Sridaran, Dhivya; Ramamoorthi, Ganesan; MahaboobKhan, Rasool; Kumpati, Premkumar

    2016-10-01

    cytomorphological variations, alterations in expression patterns of adhesion markers, redox homeostasis, and metabolic reprogramming that supports epithelial to mesenchymal transition and cancer progression.

  15. EZH2 inhibition promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Horacio; Zhao, Janice; Vieth, Edyta; Nephew, Kenneth P; Matei, Daniela

    2016-12-20

    Cancer cells acquire essential characteristics for metastatic dissemination through the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is regulated by gene expression and chromatin remodeling changes. The enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), the catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), catalyzes trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) to repress gene transcription. Here we report the functional roles of EZH2-catalyzed H3K27me3 during EMT in ovarian cancer (OC) cells. TGF-β-induced EMT in SKOV3 OC cells was associated with decreased levels of EZH2 and H3K27me3 (P<0.05). These effects were delayed (~72 h relative to EMT initiation) and coincided with increased (>15-fold) expression of EMT-associated transcription factors ZEB2 and SNAI2. EZH2 knockdown (using siRNA) or enzymatic inhibition (by GSK126) induced EMT-like changes in OC cells. The EMT regulator ZEB2 was upregulated in cells treated with either approach. Furthermore, TGF-β enhanced expression of ZEB2 in EZH2 siRNA- or GSK126-treated cells (P<0.01), suggesting that H3K27me3 plays a role in TGF-β-stimulated ZEB2 induction. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that TGF-β treatment decreased binding of EZH2 and H3K27me3 to the ZEB2 promoter (P<0.05). In all, these results demonstrate that EZH2, by repressing ZEB2, is required for the maintenance of an epithelial phenotype in OC cells.

  16. Regulation of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Using Biomimetic Fibrous Scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Ravikrishnan, Anitha; Ozdemir, Tugba; Bah, Mohamed; Baskerville, Karen A; Shah, S Ismat; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K; Jia, Xinqiao

    2016-07-20

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a well-studied biological process that takes place during embryogenesis, carcinogenesis, and tissue fibrosis. During EMT, the polarized epithelial cells with a cuboidal architecture adopt an elongated fibroblast-like morphology. This process is accompanied by the expression of many EMT-specific molecular markers. Although the molecular mechanism leading to EMT has been well-established, the effects of matrix topography and microstructure have not been clearly elucidated. Synthetic scaffolds mimicking the meshlike structure of the basement membrane with an average fiber diameter of 0.5 and 5 μm were produced via the electrospinning of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and were used to test the significance of fiber diameter on EMT. Cell-adhesive peptide motifs were conjugated to the fiber surface to facilitate cell attachment. Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells grown on these substrates showed distinct phenotypes. On 0.5 μm substrates, cells grew as compact colonies with an epithelial phenotype. On 5 μm scaffolds, cells were more individually dispersed and appeared more fibroblastic. Upon the addition of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), an EMT inducer, cells grown on the 0.5 μm scaffold underwent pronounced scattering, as evidenced by the alteration of cell morphology, localization of focal adhesion complex, weakening of cell-cell adhesion, and up-regulation of mesenchymal markers. In contrast, HGF did not induce a pronounced scattering of MDCK cells cultured on the 5.0 μm scaffold. Collectively, our results show that the alteration of the fiber diameter of proteins found in the basement membrane may create enough disturbances in epithelial organization and scattering that might have important implications in disease progression.

  17. Regulation of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Using Biomimetic Fibrous Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Ravikrishnan, Anitha; Ozdemir, Tugba; Bah, Mohamed; Baskerville, Karen A.; Shah, S. Ismat; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K.; Jia, Xinqiao

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a well-studied biological process that takes place during embryogenesis, carcinogenesis and tissue fibrosis. During EMT, the polarized epithelial cells with a cuboidal architecture adopt an elongated fibroblast-like morphology. This process is accompanied by the expression of many EMT-specific molecular markers. While the molecular mechanism leading to EMT has been well established, the effects of matrix topography and microstructure have not been clearly elucidated. Synthetic scaffolds mimicking the mesh-like structure of the basement membrane with an average fiber diameter of 0.5 μm and 5 μm were produced via electrospinning of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and were used to test the significance of fiber diameter on EMT. Cell-adhesive peptide motifs were conjugated to the fiber surface to facilitate cell attachment. Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells grown on these substrates showed distinct phenotypes. On 0.5 μm substrates, cells grew as compact colonies with an epithelial phenotype. On 5 μm scaffolds, cells were more individually dispersed and appeared more fibroblastic. Upon addition of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), an EMT inducer, cells grown on the 0.5 μm scaffold underwent pronounced scattering, as evidenced by the alteration of cell morphology, localization of focal adhesion complex, weakening of cell-cell adhesion, and upregulation of mesenchymal markers. By contrast, HGF did not induce a pronounced scattering of MDCK cells cultured on the 5.0 μm scaffold. Collectively, our results show that the alteration of the fiber diameter of proteins found in the basement membrane may create enough disturbances in epithelial organization and scattering that might have important implications in disease progression. PMID:27322677

  18. ZEB1 drives epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Jill E.; Nathan, Vaishnavi; Osborne, Jihan K.; Farrow, Rebecca K.; Deb, Dhruba; Sullivan, James P.; Dospoy, Patrick D.; Augustyn, Alexander; Hight, Suzie K.; Sato, Mitsuo; Girard, Luc; Behrens, Carmen; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Gazdar, Adi F.; Hayward, Nicholas K.

    2016-01-01

    Increased expression of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) is associated with tumor grade and metastasis in lung cancer, likely due to its role as a transcription factor in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we modeled malignant transformation in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) and determined that EMT and ZEB1 expression are early, critical events in lung cancer pathogenesis. Specific oncogenic mutations in TP53 and KRAS were required for HBECs to engage EMT machinery in response to microenvironmental (serum/TGF-β) or oncogenetic (MYC) factors. Both TGF-β– and MYC-induced EMT required ZEB1, but engaged distinct TGF-β–dependent and vitamin D receptor–dependent (VDR-dependent) pathways, respectively. Functionally, we found that ZEB1 causally promotes malignant progression of HBECs and tumorigenicity, invasion, and metastases in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lines. Mechanistically, ZEB1 expression in HBECs directly repressed epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1 (ESRP1), leading to increased expression of a mesenchymal splice variant of CD44 and a more invasive phenotype. In addition, ZEB1 expression in early stage IB primary NSCLC correlated with tumor-node-metastasis stage. These findings indicate that ZEB1-induced EMT and associated molecular changes in ESRP1 and CD44 contribute to early pathogenesis and metastatic potential in established lung cancer. Moreover, TGF-β and VDR signaling and CD44 splicing pathways associated with ZEB1 are potential EMT chemoprevention and therapeutic targets in NSCLC. PMID:27500490

  19. Population Heterogeneity in the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition Is Controlled by NFAT and Phosphorylated Sp1

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Anirikh; Varner, Jeffrey D.; Butcher, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential differentiation program during tissue morphogenesis and remodeling. EMT is induced by soluble transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family members, and restricted by vascular endothelial growth factor family members. While many downstream molecular regulators of EMT have been identified, these have been largely evaluated individually without considering potential crosstalk. In this study, we created an ensemble of dynamic mathematical models describing TGF-β induced EMT to better understand the operational hierarchy of this complex molecular program. We used ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to describe the transcriptional and post-translational regulatory events driving EMT. Model parameters were estimated from multiple data sets using multiobjective optimization, in combination with cross-validation. TGF-β exposure drove the model population toward a mesenchymal phenotype, while an epithelial phenotype was enhanced following vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) exposure. Simulations predicted that the transcription factors phosphorylated SP1 and NFAT were master regulators promoting or inhibiting EMT, respectively. Surprisingly, simulations also predicted that a cellular population could exhibit phenotypic heterogeneity (characterized by a significant fraction of the population with both high epithelial and mesenchymal marker expression) if treated simultaneously with TGF-β and VEGF-A. We tested this prediction experimentally in both MCF10A and DLD1 cells and found that upwards of 45% of the cellular population acquired this hybrid state in the presence of both TGF-β and VEGF-A. We experimentally validated the predicted NFAT/Sp1 signaling axis for each phenotype response. Lastly, we found that cells in the hybrid state had significantly different functional behavior when compared to VEGF-A or TGF-β treatment alone. Together, these results establish a predictive mechanistic model of EMT

  20. The role of gremlin, a BMP antagonist, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Helena; O'Meara, Sarah J; O'Brien, Colm; Kane, Rosemary

    2007-09-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), a major reason for failure of retinal detachment surgery, is characterized by the formation of scarlike tissue that contains transdifferentiated retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. The scar tissue occurs in response to growth factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The authors postulate that transdifferentiation of RPE cells may arise via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are expressed in the retina and have an antiproliferative role. Gremlin is expressed in the outer retina and is a BMP antagonist. The study was conducted to establish a model of PVR by inducing EMT in the human RPE cell line ARPE-19, using TGF-beta and EGF and to establish the contribution of gremlin to EMT. ARPE-19 cells were cultured and stimulated with TGF-beta1, EGF, and gremlin. The expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), vimentin, and zona occludens (ZO)-1 were examined via PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence. Zymography was performed for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. Scratch assays were performed to assess migration. A model of EMT was established in the ARPE-19 cell line. The characteristics of EMT include gain of alpha-SMA, loss of ZO-1, upregulation of MMP activity and enhanced migration. Gremlin plays an important role in this process, contributing to the gain of alpha-SMA, loss of ZO-1, and upregulation of MMP activity. EMT occurs in vitro in the ARPE-19 cell line in response to the growth factors TGF-beta1 and EGF. EMT is also induced by Gremlin.

  1. Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase Promotes Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition as a Soluble Factor Independent of Its Enzymatic Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Soncini, Debora; Caffa, Irene; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Cea, Michele; Cagnetta, Antonia; Passalacqua, Mario; Mastracci, Luca; Boero, Silvia; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Sociali, Giovanna; Lasigliè, Denise; Damonte, Patrizia; Grozio, Alessia; Mannino, Elena; Poggi, Alessandro; D'Agostino, Vito G.; Monacelli, Fiammetta; Provenzani, Alessandro; Odetti, Patrizio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Bruzzone, Santina; Nencioni, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    Boosting NAD+ biosynthesis with NAD+ intermediates has been proposed as a strategy for preventing and treating age-associated diseases, including cancer. However, concerns in this area were raised by observations that nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), a key enzyme in mammalian NAD+ biosynthesis, is frequently up-regulated in human malignancies, including breast cancer, suggesting possible protumorigenic effects for this protein. We addressed this issue by studying NAMPT expression and function in human breast cancer in vivo and in vitro. Our data indicate that high NAMPT levels are associated with aggressive pathological and molecular features, such as estrogen receptor negativity as well as HER2-enriched and basal-like PAM50 phenotypes. Consistent with these findings, we found that NAMPT overexpression in mammary epithelial cells induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, a morphological and functional switch that confers cancer cells an increased metastatic potential. However, importantly, NAMPT-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition was found to be independent of NAMPT enzymatic activity and of the NAMPT product nicotinamide mononucleotide. Instead, it was mediated by secreted NAMPT through its ability to activate the TGFβ signaling pathway via increased TGFβ1 production. These findings have implications for the design of therapeutic strategies exploiting NAD+ biosynthesis via NAMPT in aging and cancer and also suggest the potential of anticancer agents designed to specifically neutralize extracellular NAMPT. Notably, because high levels of circulating NAMPT are found in obese and diabetic patients, our data could also explain the increased predisposition to cancer of these subjects. PMID:25331943

  2. N-Cadherin Extracellular Repeat 4 Mediates Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Increased Motility

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Beom; Islam, Shahidul; Kim, Young J.; Prudoff, Ryan S.; Sass, Kristin M.; Wheelock, Margaret J.; Johnson, Keith R.

    2000-01-01

    E- and N-cadherin are members of the classical cadherin family of proteins. E-cadherin plays an important role in maintaining the normal phenotype of epithelial cells. Previous studies from our laboratory and other laboratories have shown that inappropriate expression of N-cadherin by tumor cells derived from epithelial tissue results in conversion of the cell to a more fibroblast-like cell, with increased motility and invasion. Our present study was designed to determine which domains of N-cadherin make it different from E-cadherin, with respect to altering cellular behavior, such as which domains are responsible for the epithelial to mesenchymal transition and increased cell motility and invasion. To address this question, we constructed chimeric cadherins comprised of selected domains of E- and N-cadherin. The chimeras were transfected into epithelial cells to determine their effect on cell morphology and cellular behavior. We found that a 69–amino acid portion of EC-4 of N-cadherin was necessary and sufficient to promote both an epithelial to mesenchymal transition in squamous epithelial cells and increased cell motility. Here, we show that different cadherin family members promote different cellular behaviors. In addition, we identify a novel activity that can be ascribed to the extracellular domain of N-cadherin. PMID:11121435

  3. Sox2 acts as a rheostat of epithelial to mesenchymal transition during neural crest development

    PubMed Central

    Mandalos, Nikolaos; Rhinn, Muriel; Granchi, Zoraide; Karampelas, Ioannis; Mitsiadis, Thimios; Economides, Aris N.; Dollé, Pascal; Remboutsika, Eumorphia

    2014-01-01

    Precise control of self-renewal and differentiation of progenitor cells into the cranial neural crest (CNC) pool ensures proper head development, guided by signaling pathways such as BMPs, FGFs, Shh and Notch. Here, we show that murine Sox2 plays an essential role in controlling progenitor cell behavior during craniofacial development. A “Conditional by Inversion” Sox2 allele (Sox2COIN) has been employed to generate an epiblast ablation of Sox2 function (Sox2EpINV). Sox2EpINV/+(H) haploinsufficient and conditional (Sox2EpINV/mosaic) mutant embryos proceed beyond gastrulation and die around E11. These mutant embryos exhibit severe anterior malformations, with hydrocephaly and frontonasal truncations, which could be attributed to the deregulation of CNC progenitor cells during their epithelial to mesenchymal transition. This irregularity results in an exacerbated and aberrant migration of Sox10+ NCC in the branchial arches and frontonasal process of the Sox2 mutant embryos. These results suggest a novel role for Sox2 as a regulator of the epithelial to mesenchymal transitions (EMT) that are important for the cell flow in the developing head. PMID:25309446

  4. Triclosan potentiates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in anoikis-resistant human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Winitthana, Thidarat; Lawanprasert, Somsong; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of cancer cell toward mesenchymal phenotype has been shown to potentiate tumor aggressiveness by increasing cancer cell metastasis. Herein, we report the effect of triclosan, a widely used antibacterial agent found in many daily products, in enhancing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in aggressive anoikis resistant human H460 lung cancer cells. EMT has been long known to increase abilities of the cells to increase migration, invasion, and survival in circulating system. The present study reveals that treatment of the cancer cells with triclosan at the physiologically related concentrations significantly increased the colony number of the cancer cells assessed by tumor formation assay. Also, the mesenchymal-like morphology and decrease in cell-to-cell adhesion were observed in triclosan-treated cells. Importantly, western blot analysis revealed that triclosan-treated cells exhibited decreased E-cadherin, while the levels of EMT markers, namely N-cadherin, vimentin, snail and slug were found to be significantly up-regulated. Furthermore, EMT induced by triclosan treatment was accompanied by the activation of focal adhesion kinase/ATP dependent tyrosine kinase (FAK/Akt) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), which enhanced the ability of the cells to migrate and invade. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that triclosan may potentiate cancer cells survival in detached condition and motility via the process of EMT. As mentioned capabilities are required for success in metastasis, the present study provides the novel toxicological information and encourages the awareness of triclosan use in cancer patients.

  5. Meta-Analysis of Gene Expression Signatures Defining the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition during Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Gröger, Christian J.; Grubinger, Markus; Waldhör, Thomas; Vierlinger, Klemens; Mikulits, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) represents a crucial event during cancer progression and dissemination. EMT is the conversion of carcinoma cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype that associates with a higher cell motility as well as enhanced chemoresistance and cancer stemness. Notably, EMT has been increasingly recognized as an early event of metastasis. Numerous gene expression studies (GES) have been conducted to obtain transcriptome signatures and marker genes to understand the regulatory mechanisms underlying EMT. Yet, no meta-analysis considering the multitude of GES of EMT has been performed to comprehensively elaborate the core genes in this process. Here we report the meta-analysis of 18 independent and published GES of EMT which focused on different cell types and treatment modalities. Computational analysis revealed clustering of GES according to the type of treatment rather than to cell type. GES of EMT induced via transforming growth factor-β and tumor necrosis factor-α treatment yielded uniformly defined clusters while GES of models with alternative EMT induction clustered in a more complex fashion. In addition, we identified those up- and downregulated genes which were shared between the multitude of GES. This core gene list includes well known EMT markers as well as novel genes so far not described in this process. Furthermore, several genes of the EMT-core gene list significantly correlated with impaired pathological complete response in breast cancer patients. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides a comprehensive survey of available EMT expression signatures and shows fundamental insights into the mechanisms that are governing carcinoma progression. PMID:23251436

  6. Withania somnifera root extract inhibits mammary cancer metastasis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Garcia, Anapatricia; Xu, Songli; Powell, Doris R; Vertino, Paula M; Singh, Shivendra; Marcus, Adam I

    2013-01-01

    Though clinicians can predict which patients are at risk for developing metastases, traditional therapies often prove ineffective and metastatic disease is the primary cause of cancer patient death; therefore, there is a need to develop anti-metastatic therapies that can be administered over long durations to specifically inhibit the motility of cancer cells. Withaniasomnifera root extracts (WRE) have anti-proliferative activity and the active component, Withaferin A, inhibits the pro-metastatic protein, vimentin. Vimentin is an intermediate filament protein and is part of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) program to promote metastasis. Here, we determined whether WRE standardized to Withaferin A (sWRE) possesses anti-metastatic activity and whether it inhibits cancer motility via inhibition of vimentin and the EMT program. Several formulations of sWRE were created to enrich for Withaferin A and a stock solution of sWRE in EtOH could recover over 90% of the Withaferin A found in the original extract powder. This sWRE formulation inhibited breast cancer cell motility and invasion at concentrations less than 1µM while having negligible cytotoxicity at this dose. sWRE treatment disrupted vimentin morphology in cell lines, confirming its vimentin inhibitory activity. To determine if sWRE inhibited EMT, TGF-β was used to induce EMT in MCF10A human mammary epithelial cells. In this case, sWRE prevented EMT induction and inhibited 3-D spheroid invasion. These studies were taken into a human xenograft and mouse mammary carcinoma model. In both models, sWRE and Withaferin A showed dose-dependent inhibition of tumor growth and metastatic lung nodule formation with minimal systemic toxicity. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that low concentrations of sWRE inhibit cancer metastasis potentially through EMT inhibition. Moreover, these doses of sWRE have nearly no toxicity in normal mouse organs, suggesting the potential for clinical use of orally

  7. Triclosan Potentiates Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition in Anoikis-Resistant Human Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Winitthana, Thidarat; Lawanprasert, Somsong; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2014-01-01

    Alteration of cancer cell toward mesenchymal phenotype has been shown to potentiate tumor aggressiveness by increasing cancer cell metastasis. Herein, we report the effect of triclosan, a widely used antibacterial agent found in many daily products, in enhancing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in aggressive anoikis resistant human H460 lung cancer cells. EMT has been long known to increase abilities of the cells to increase migration, invasion, and survival in circulating system. The present study reveals that treatment of the cancer cells with triclosan at the physiologically related concentrations significantly increased the colony number of the cancer cells assessed by tumor formation assay. Also, the mesenchymal-like morphology and decrease in cell-to-cell adhesion were observed in triclosan-treated cells. Importantly, western blot analysis revealed that triclosan-treated cells exhibited decreased E-cadherin, while the levels of EMT markers, namely N-cadherin, vimentin, snail and slug were found to be significantly up-regulated. Furthermore, EMT induced by triclosan treatment was accompanied by the activation of focal adhesion kinase/ATP dependent tyrosine kinase (FAK/Akt) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), which enhanced the ability of the cells to migrate and invade. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that triclosan may potentiate cancer cells survival in detached condition and motility via the process of EMT. As mentioned capabilities are required for success in metastasis, the present study provides the novel toxicological information and encourages the awareness of triclosan use in cancer patients. PMID:25329306

  8. Parathyroid hormone related-protein promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ongkeko, Weg M; Burton, Doug; Kiang, Alan; Abhold, Eric; Kuo, Selena Z; Rahimy, Elham; Yang, Meng; Hoffman, Robert M; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Deftos, Leonard J

    2014-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) possesses a variety of physiological and developmental functions and is also known to facilitate the progression of many common cancers, notably their skeletal invasion, primarily by increasing bone resorption. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PTHrP could promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process implicated in cancer stem cells that is critically involved in cancer invasion and metastasis. EMT was observed in DU 145 prostate cancer cells stably overexpressing either the 1-141 or 1-173 isoform of PTHrP, where there was upregulation of Snail and vimentin and downregulation of E-cadherin relative to parental DU 145. By contrast, the opposite effect was observed in PC-3 prostate cancer cells where high levels of PTHrP were knocked-down via lentiviral siRNA transduction. Increased tumor progression was observed in PTHrP-overexpressing DU 145 cells while decreased progression was observed in PTHrP-knockdown PC-3 cells. PTHrP-overexpressing DU 145 formed larger tumors when implanted orthoptopically into nude mice and in one case resulted in spinal metastasis, an effect not observed among mice injected with parental DU 145 cells. PTHrP-overexpressing DU 145 cells also caused significant bone destruction when injected into the tibiae of nude mice, while parental DU 145 cells caused little to no destruction of bone. Together, these results suggest that PTHrP may work through EMT to promote an aggressive and metastatic phenotype in prostate cancer, a pathway of importance in cancer stem cells. Thus, continued efforts to elucidate the pathways involved in PTHrP-induced EMT as well as to develop ways to specifically target PTHrP signaling may lead to more effective therapies for prostate cancer.

  9. Prolyl-4-Hydroxylase 3 (PHD3) Expression Is Downregulated during Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Place, Trenton L.; Nauseef, Jones T.; Peterson, Maina K.; Henry, Michael D.; Mezhir, James J.; Domann, Frederick E.

    2013-01-01

    Prolyl-4-hydroxylation by the intracellular prolyl-4-hydroxylase enzymes (PHD1-3) serves as a master regulator of environmental oxygen sensing. The activity of these enzymes is tightly tied to tumorigenesis, as they regulate cell metabolism and angiogenesis through their control of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stability. PHD3 specifically, is gaining attention for its broad function and rapidly accumulating array of non-HIF target proteins. Data from several recent studies suggest a role for PHD3 in the regulation of cell morphology and cell migration. In this study, we aimed to investigate this role by closely examining the relationship between PHD3 expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); a transcriptional program that plays a major role in controlling cell morphology and migratory capacity. Using human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cell lines and Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, we examined the correlation between several markers of EMT and PHD3 expression. We demonstrated that loss of PHD3 expression in PDA cell lines is highly correlated with a mesenchymal-like morphology and an increase in cell migratory capacity. We also found that induction of EMT in MDCK cells resulted in the specific downregulation of PHD3, whereas the expression of the other HIF-PHD enzymes was not affected. The results of this study clearly support a model by which the basal expression and hypoxic induction of PHD3 is suppressed by the EMT transcriptional program. This may be a novel mechanism by which migratory or metastasizing cells alter signaling through specific pathways that are sensitive to regulation by O2. The identification of downstream pathways that are affected by the suppression of PHD3 expression during EMT may provide important insight into the crosstalk between O2 and the migratory and metastatic potential of tumor cells. PMID:24367580

  10. Fibulin-4 promotes osteosarcoma invasion and metastasis by inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Wang, Songgang; Chen, Jie; Liu, Haitao; Lu, Jinfa; Jiang, Hua; Huang, Aimin; Chen, Yunzhen

    2017-05-01

    This study explored the role of fibulin-4 in osteosarcoma progression and the possible signaling pathway involved. Fibulin-4 mRNA and protein expression in normal tissue, benign fibrous dysplasia, osteosarcoma, osteosarcoma cell lines, the normal osteoblastic cell line hFOB, and different invasive subclones were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or immunocytochemistry (ICC) and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR). Using in vitro functional assays, we analyzed the invasive and proliferative abilities of different osteosarcoma cell lines and subclones with differing invasive potential. To assess the role of fibulin-4 in the invasion and metastasis of osteosarcoma cells, lentiviral vectors with fibulin-4 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) and pLVX-fibulin-4 were constructed and used to infect the highly invasive and low invasive subclones and osteosarcoma cell lines. The effects of fibulin-4 knockdown and upregulation on the biological behavior of osteosarcoma cells were investigated by functional in vitro and in vivo assays. The results revealed that fibulin-4 expression was upregulated in osteosarcoma, and was positively correlated with low differentiation, lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis. Fibulin-4 was also found to be over-expressed in highly invasive cell lines and in the highly invasive subclones. Fibulin-4 could promote osteosarcoma cell invasion and metastasis by inducing EMT via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that fibulin-4 is a promoter of osteosarcoma development and progression, and suggest a novel therapeutic target for future studies.

  11. Altered Death Receptor Signaling Promotes Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Acquired Chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Antoon, James W.; Lai, Rongye; Struckhoff, Amanda P.; Nitschke, Ashley M.; Elliott, Steven; Martin, Elizabeth C.; Rhodes, Lyndsay V.; Yoon, Nam Seung; Salvo, Virgilio A.; Shan, Bin; Beckman, Barbara S.; Nephew, Kenneth P.; Burow, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    Altered death receptor signaling and resistance to subsequent apoptosis is an important clinical resistance mechanism. Here, we investigated the role of death receptor resistance in breast cancer progression. Resistance of the estrogen receptor alpha (ER)-positive, chemosensitive MCF7 breast cancer cell line to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was associated with loss of ER expression and a multi-drug resistant phenotype. Changes in three major pathways were involved in this transition to a multidrug resistance phenotype: ER, Death Receptor and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Resistant cells exhibited altered ER signaling, resulting in decreased ER target gene expression. The death receptor pathway was significantly altered, blocking extrinsic apoptosis and increasing NF-kappaB survival signaling. TNF resistance promoted EMT changes, resulting in a more aggressive phenotype. This first report identifying specific mechanisms underlying acquired resistance to TNF could lead to a better understanding of the progression of breast cancer in response to chemotherapy treatment. PMID:22844580

  12. Pathogenesis of Type 2 Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Renal and Hepatic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tennakoon, Anusha H.; Izawa, Takeshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), particularly, type 2 EMT, is important in progressive renal and hepatic fibrosis. In this process, incompletely regenerated renal epithelia lose their epithelial characteristics and gain migratory mesenchymal qualities as myofibroblasts. In hepatic fibrosis (importantly, cirrhosis), the process also occurs in injured hepatocytes and hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), as well as ductular reaction-related bile epithelia. Interestingly, the ductular reaction contributes partly to hepatocarcinogenesis of HPCs, and further, regenerating cholangiocytes after injury may be derived from hepatic stellate cells via mesenchymal to epithelia transition, a reverse phenomenon of type 2 EMT. Possible pathogenesis of type 2 EMT and its differences between renal and hepatic fibrosis are reviewed based on our experimental data. PMID:26729181

  13. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) confers primary resistance to trastuzumab (Herceptin).

    PubMed

    Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cufí, Sílvia; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Iglesias, Juan Manuel; López-Bonet, Eugeni; Martin, Ángel G; Menendez, Javier A

    2012-11-01

    The rate of inherent resistance to single-agent trastuzumab in HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast carcinomas is impressive at above 70%. Unfortunately, little is known regarding the distinctive genetic signatures that could predict trastuzumab refractoriness ab initio. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) molecular features, HER2 expression status and primary responses to trastuzumab were explored in the public Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) Breast Cancer Collection. Lentivirus-delivered small hairpin RNAs were employed to reduce specifically and stably the expression of EMT transcription factors in trastuzumab-refractory basal/HER2+ cells. Cell proliferation assays and pre-clinical nude mice xenograft-based studies were performed to assess the contribution of specific EMT transcription factors to inherent trastuzumab resistance. Primary sensitivity to trastuzumab was restricted to the SLUG/SNAIL2-negative subset of luminal/HER2+ cell lines, whereas all of the SLUG/SNAIL2-positive basal/HER2+ cell lines exhibited an inherent resistance to trastuzumab. The specific knockdown of SLUG/SNAIL2 suppressed the stem-related CD44+CD24(-/low) mesenchymal immunophenotype by transcriptionally upregulating the luminal epithelial marker CD24 in basal/HER2+ cells. Basal/HER2+ cells gained sensitivity to the growth-inhibitory effects of trastuzumab following SLUG/SNAIL2 gene depletion, which induced the expression of the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) genes involved in promoting an epithelial phenotype. The isolation of CD44+CD24(-/low) mesenchymal cells by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) confirmed their intrinsic unresponsiveness to trastuzumab. A reduction in tumor growth and dramatic gain in sensitivity to trastuzumab in vivo were confirmed when the SLUG/SNAIL2 knockdown basal/HER2+ cells were injected into nude mice. HER2 overexpression in a basal, rather than in a luminal molecular background, results in a basal/HER2+ breast cancer subtype

  14. TGFβ Signaling in Tumor Initiation, Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition, and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Retaining the delicate balance in cell signaling activity is a prerequisite for the maintenance of physiological tissue homeostasis. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) signaling is an essential pathway that plays crucial roles during embryonic development as well as in adult tissues. Aberrant TGFβ signaling activity regulates tumor progression in a cancer cell-autonomous or non-cell-autonomous fashion and these effects may be tumor suppressing or tumor promoting depending on the cellular context. The fundamental role of this pathway in promoting cancer progression in multiple stages of the metastatic process, including epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), is also becoming increasingly clear. In this review, we discuss the latest advances in the effort to unravel the inherent complexity of TGFβ signaling and its role in cancer progression and metastasis. These findings provide important insights into designing personalized therapeutic strategies against advanced cancers. PMID:25883652

  15. Polarity Reversal by Centrosome Repositioning Primes Cell Scattering during Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Burute, Mithila; Prioux, Magali; Blin, Guillaume; Truchet, Sandrine; Letort, Gaëlle; Tseng, Qingzong; Bessy, Thomas; Lowell, Sally; Young, Joanne; Filhol-Cochet, Odile; Théry, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Summary During epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), cells lining the tissue periphery break up their cohesion to migrate within the tissue. This dramatic reorganization involves a poorly characterized reorientation of the apico-basal polarity of static epithelial cells into the front-rear polarity of migrating mesenchymal cells. To investigate the spatial coordination of intracellular reorganization with morphological changes, we monitored centrosome positioning during EMT in vivo, in developing mouse embryos and mammary gland, and in vitro, in cultured 3D cell aggregates and micro-patterned cell doublets. In all conditions, centrosomes moved from their off-centered position next to intercellular junctions toward extra-cellular matrix adhesions on the opposite side of the nucleus, resulting in an effective internal polarity reversal. This move appeared supported by controlled microtubule network disassembly. Sequential release of cell confinement using dynamic micropatterns, and modulation of microtubule dynamics, confirmed that centrosome repositioning was responsible for further cell disengagement and scattering. PMID:28041907

  16. Epigenetic Regulation of the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Roche, Joëlle; Gemmill, Robert M; Drabkin, Harry A

    2017-06-24

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. It is an aggressive and devastating cancer because of metastasis triggered by enhanced migration and invasion, and resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental developmental process that is reactivated in wound healing and a variety of diseases including cancer where it promotes migration/invasion and metastasis, resistance to treatment, and generation and maintenance of cancer stem cells. The induction of EMT is associated with reprogramming of the epigenome. This review focuses on major mechanisms of epigenetic regulation mainly in lung cancer with recent data on EZH2 (enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit ), the catalytic subunit of the PRC2 (Polycomb Group PcG), that behaves as an oncogene in lung cancer associated with gene repression, non-coding RNAs and the epitranscriptome.

  17. Epigenetic Regulation of the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Joëlle; Gemmill, Robert M.; Drabkin, Harry A.

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. It is an aggressive and devastating cancer because of metastasis triggered by enhanced migration and invasion, and resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental developmental process that is reactivated in wound healing and a variety of diseases including cancer where it promotes migration/invasion and metastasis, resistance to treatment, and generation and maintenance of cancer stem cells. The induction of EMT is associated with reprogramming of the epigenome. This review focuses on major mechanisms of epigenetic regulation mainly in lung cancer with recent data on EZH2 (enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit ), the catalytic subunit of the PRC2 (Polycomb Group PcG), that behaves as an oncogene in lung cancer associated with gene repression, non-coding RNAs and the epitranscriptome. PMID:28672805

  18. Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in the Female Reproductive Tract: From Normal Functioning to Disease Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Bilyk, Olena; Coatham, Mackenzie; Jewer, Michael; Postovit, Lynne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a physiological process that is vital throughout the human lifespan. In addition to contributing to the development of various tissues within the growing embryo, EMT is also responsible for wound healing and tissue regeneration later in adulthood. In this review, we highlight the importance of EMT in the development and normal functioning of the female reproductive organs (the ovaries and the uterus) and describe how dysregulation of EMT can lead to pathological conditions, such as endometriosis, adenomyosis, and carcinogenesis. We also summarize the current literature relating to EMT in the context of ovarian and endometrial carcinomas, with a particular focus on how molecular mechanisms and the tumor microenvironment can govern cancer cell plasticity, therapy resistance, and metastasis. PMID:28725636

  19. Chrysin inhibits diabetic renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis through blocking epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Kyung; Park, Sin-Hye; Choi, Yean-Jung; Shin, Daekeun; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-07-01

    Renal fibrosis is a crucial event in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The process known as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to the accumulation of matrix proteins in kidneys, in which renal tubular epithelial cells play an important role in progressive renal fibrosis. The current study investigated that chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) present in bee propolis and herbs, inhibited renal tubular EMT and tubulointerstitial fibrosis due to chronic hyperglycemia. Human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC) were incubated in media containing 5.5 mM glucose, 27.5 mM mannitol (as an osmotic control), or 33 mM glucose (HG) in the absence and presence of 1-20 μM chrysin for 72 h. Chrysin significantly inhibited high glucose-induced renal EMT through blocking expression of the mesenchymal markers vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin, and fibroblast-specific protein-1 in RPTEC and db/db mice. Chrysin reversed the HG-induced down-regulation of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and the HG-enhanced N-cadherin induction in RPTEC. In addition, chrysin inhibited the production of collagen IV in tubular cells and the deposition of collagen fibers in mouse kidneys. Furthermore, chrysin blocked tubular cell migration concurrent with decreasing matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity, indicating epithelial cell derangement and tubular basement membrane disruption. Chrysin restored the induction of the tight junction proteins Zona occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) and occludin downregulated in diabetic mice. Chrysin inhibited renal tubular EMT-mediated tubulointerstitial fibrosis caused by chronic hyperglycemia. Therefore, chrysin may be a potent renoprotective agent for the treatment of renal fibrosis-associated DN. • Glucose increases renal tubular epithelial induction of vimentin, α-SMA and FSP-1. • Glucose enhances renal EMT by blocking tubular epithelial E-cadherin expression. • Chrysin inhibits tubular EMT-mediated tubulointerstitial fibrosis in

  20. Alisertib induces cell cycle arrest and autophagy and suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition involving PI3K/Akt/mTOR and sirtuin 1-mediated signaling pathways in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Li, Hai; Yan, Xiao-Gang; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yi, Zhi-Gang; He, Zhi-Xu; Pan, Shu-Ting; Yang, Yin-Xue; Wang, Zuo-Zheng; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxing; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most aggressive cancer worldwide with poor response to current therapeutics. Alisertib (ALS), a potent and selective Aurora kinase A inhibitor, exhibits potent anticancer effects in preclinical and clinical studies; however, the effect and underlying mechanism of ALS in the pancreatic cancer treatment remain elusive. This study aimed to examine the effects of ALS on cell growth, autophagy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and to delineate the possible molecular mechanisms in human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. The results showed that ALS exerted potent cell growth inhibitory, pro-autophagic, and EMT-suppressing effects in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. ALS remarkably arrested PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells in G2/M phase via regulating the expression of cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. ALS concentration-dependently induced autophagy in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells, which may be attributed to the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) but activation of 5'-AMP-dependent kinase signaling pathways. ALS significantly inhibited EMT in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells with an increase in the expression of E-cadherin and a decrease in N-cadherin. In addition, ALS suppressed the expression of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor/visfatin in both cell lines with a rise in the level of acetylated p53. These findings show that ALS induces cell cycle arrest and promotes autophagic cell death but inhibits EMT in pancreatic cancer cells with the involvement of PI3K/Akt/mTOR, p38 MAPK, Erk1/2, and Sirt1-mediated signaling pathways. Taken together, ALS may represent a promising anticancer drug for pancreatic cancer treatment. More studies are warranted to investigate other molecular targets and

  1. Alisertib induces cell cycle arrest and autophagy and suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition involving PI3K/Akt/mTOR and sirtuin 1-mediated signaling pathways in human pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Li, Hai; Yan, Xiao-Gang; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yi, Zhi-Gang; He, Zhi-Xu; Pan, Shu-Ting; Yang, Yin-Xue; Wang, Zuo-Zheng; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxing; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the most aggressive cancer worldwide with poor response to current therapeutics. Alisertib (ALS), a potent and selective Aurora kinase A inhibitor, exhibits potent anticancer effects in preclinical and clinical studies; however, the effect and underlying mechanism of ALS in the pancreatic cancer treatment remain elusive. This study aimed to examine the effects of ALS on cell growth, autophagy, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and to delineate the possible molecular mechanisms in human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. The results showed that ALS exerted potent cell growth inhibitory, pro-autophagic, and EMT-suppressing effects in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. ALS remarkably arrested PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells in G2/M phase via regulating the expression of cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. ALS concentration-dependently induced autophagy in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells, which may be attributed to the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) but activation of 5′-AMP-dependent kinase signaling pathways. ALS significantly inhibited EMT in PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells with an increase in the expression of E-cadherin and a decrease in N-cadherin. In addition, ALS suppressed the expression of sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor/visfatin in both cell lines with a rise in the level of acetylated p53. These findings show that ALS induces cell cycle arrest and promotes autophagic cell death but inhibits EMT in pancreatic cancer cells with the involvement of PI3K/Akt/mTOR, p38 MAPK, Erk1/2, and Sirt1-mediated signaling pathways. Taken together, ALS may represent a promising anticancer drug for pancreatic cancer treatment. More studies are warranted to investigate other molecular targets and

  2. OVOL2 Maintains the Transcriptional Program of Human Corneal Epithelium by Suppressing Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Kitazawa, Koji; Hikichi, Takafusa; Nakamura, Takahiro; Mitsunaga, Kanae; Tanaka, Azusa; Nakamura, Masahiro; Yamakawa, Tatsuya; Furukawa, Shiori; Takasaka, Mieko; Goshima, Naoki; Watanabe, Akira; Okita, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Ueno, Morio; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Masui, Shinji

    2016-05-10

    In development, embryonic ectoderm differentiates into neuroectoderm and surface ectoderm using poorly understood mechanisms. Here, we show that the transcription factor OVOL2 maintains the transcriptional program of human corneal epithelium cells (CECs), a derivative of the surface ectoderm, and that OVOL2 may regulate the differential transcriptional programs of the two lineages. A functional screen identified OVOL2 as a repressor of mesenchymal genes to maintain CECs. Transduction of OVOL2 with several other transcription factors induced the transcriptional program of CECs in fibroblasts. Moreover, neuroectoderm derivatives were found to express mesenchymal genes, and OVOL2 alone could induce the transcriptional program of CECs in neural progenitors by repressing these genes while activating epithelial genes. Our data suggest that the difference between the transcriptional programs of some neuroectoderm- and surface ectoderm-derivative cells may be regulated in part by a reciprocally repressive mechanism between epithelial and mesenchymal genes, as seen in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

  3. Colocynth Extracts Prevent Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Stemness of Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Kaushik; Sharma, Ankit; Kumar, Suresh; Gunjan, Gyanesh K; Nag, Alo; Mandal, Chandi C

    2017-01-01

    Modern treatment strategies provide better overall survival in cancer patients, primarily by controlling tumor growth. However, off-target and systemic toxicity, tumor recurrence, and resistance to therapy are still inadvertent hurdles in current treatment regimens. Similarly, metastasis is another deadly threat to patients suffering from cancer. This has created an urgent demand to come up with new drugs having anti-metastatic potential and minimum side effects. Thus, this study was aimed at exploring the anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic potential of colocynth medicinal plant. Results from MTT assay, morphological visualization of cells and scratch assay indicated a role of ethanol and acetone extracts of fruit pulp of the colocynth plant in inhibiting cell viability, enhancing cell cytotoxicity and preventing cell migration in various cancer cell types, including breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, and cervical cancer cell line SiHa, subsequently having a low cytotoxic effect on mononuclear PBMC and macrophage J774A cells. Our study in metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells showed that both ethanol and acetone pulp extracts decreased transcript levels of the anti-apoptotic genes BCL2 and BCLXL, and a reverse effect was observed for the pro-apoptotic genes BAX and caspase 3. Additionally, enhanced caspase 3 activity and downregulated BCL2 protein were seen, indicating a role of these extracts in inducing apoptotic activity. Moreover, MDA-MB-231 cells treated with both these extracts demonstrated up-regulation of the epithelial gene keratin 19 and down-regulation of the mesenchymal genes, vimentin, N-cadherin, Zeb1 and Zeb2 compared to control, suggesting a suppressive impact of these extracts in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). In addition, these extracts inhibited colony and sphere formation with simultaneous reduction in the transcript level of the stemness associated genes, BMI-1 and CD44. It was also found that both the plant extracts

  4. IGF-IR signaling in epithelial to mesenchymal transition and targeting IGF-IR therapy: overview and new insights.

    PubMed

    Li, Heming; Batth, Izhar Singh; Qu, Xiujuan; Xu, Ling; Song, Na; Wang, Ruoyu; Liu, Yunpeng

    2017-01-30

    The insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) program and contributes to metastasis and drug resistance in several subtypes of tumors. In preclinical studies, targeting of the insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) showed promising anti-tumor effects. Unfortunately, high expectations for anti-IGF-IR therapy encountered challenge and disappointment in numerous clinical trials. This review summarizes the regulation of EMT by IGF-I/IGF-IR signaling pathway and drug resistance mechanisms of targeting IGF-IR therapy. Most importantly, we address several factors in the regulation of IGF-I/IGF-IR-associated EMT progression that may be potential predictive biomarkers in targeted therapy.

  5. Cancer-associated fibroblasts are not formed from cancer cells by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in nu/nu mice.

    PubMed

    Dvořánková, Barbora; Smetana, Karel; Říhová, Blanka; Kučera, Jan; Mateu, Rosana; Szabo, Pavol

    2015-05-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts are bioactive elements influencing the biological properties of malignant tumors. Their origin from different cell types has been established, and the possibility of their formation by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition from cancer cells is under debate. This study shows that human cancer cells grafted to nu/nu mice induced formation of tumor stroma with the presence of typical smooth muscle actin-containing cancer-associated fibroblasts. These cells seem to be of the host origin because they are not recognized by an antibody specific for human vimentin, as was also verified in vitro. These results suggest that cancer-associated stromal fibroblasts are not formed by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition from cancer cells.

  6. An in vivo model of epithelial to mesenchymal transition reveals a mitogenic switch

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Stephan C.; Law, Mary E.; Corsino, Patrick E.; Parker, Nicole N.; Pham, Kien; Davis, Bradley J.; Lu, Jianrong; Law, Brian K.

    2012-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which differentiated epithelial cells transition to a mesenchymal phenotype. EMT enables the escape of epithelial cells from the rigid structural constraints of the tissue architecture to a phenotype more amenable to cell migration and, therefore, invasion and metastasis. We characterized an in vivo model of EMT and discovered that marked changes in mitogenic signaling occurred during this process. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the expression of a number of genes varied significantly between post-EMT and pre-EMT breast cancer cells. Post-EMT cancer cells upregulated mRNA encoding c-Met and the PDGF and LPA receptors, and acquired increased responsiveness to HGF, PDGF, and LPA. This rendered the post-EMT cells responsive to the growth inhibitory effects of HGF, PDGF, and LPA receptor inhibitors/antagonists. Furthermore, post- EMT cells exhibited decreased basal Raf and Erk phosphorylation, and in comparison to pre-EMT cells, their proliferation was poorly inhibited by a MEK inhibitor. These studies suggest that therapies need to be designed to target both pre-EMT and post-EMT cancer cells and that signaling changes in post- EMT cells may allow them to take advantage of paracrine signaling from the stroma in vivo. PMID:22906417

  7. A comparison of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and re-epithelialization.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Philip L; Vincent, Jan; Wang, Hongjun

    2012-10-01

    Wound healing and cancer metastasis share a common starting point, namely, a change in the phenotype of some cells from stationary to motile. The term, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) describes the changes in molecular biology and cellular physiology that allow a cell to transition from a sedentary cell to a motile cell, a process that is relevant not only for cancer and regeneration, but also for normal development of multicellular organisms. The present review compares the similarities and differences in cellular response at the molecular level as tumor cells enter EMT or as keratinocytes begin the process of re-epithelialization of a wound. Looking toward clinical interventions that might modulate these processes, the mechanisms and outcomes of current and potential therapies are reviewed for both anti-cancer and pro-wound healing treatments related to the pathways that are central to EMT. Taken together, the comparison of re-epithelialization and tumor EMT serves as a starting point for the development of therapies that can selectively modulate different forms of EMT.

  8. Loss of giant obscurins from breast epithelium promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, tumorigenicity and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Shriver, M; Stroka, KM; Vitolo, MI; Martin, S; Huso, DL; Konstantopoulos, K; Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, A

    2015-01-01

    Obscurins, encoded by the single OBSCN gene, are giant cytoskeletal proteins with structural and regulatory roles. The OBSCN gene is highly mutated in different types of cancers. Loss of giant obscurins from breast epithelial cells confers them with a survival and growth advantage, following exposure to DNA-damaging agents. Here we demonstrate that the expression levels and subcellular distribution of giant obscurins are altered in human breast cancer biopsies compared with matched normal samples. Stable clones of non-tumorigenic MCF10A cells lacking giant obscurins fail to form adhesion junctions, undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and generate >100-μm mammospheres bearing markers of cancer-initiating cells. Obscurin-knockdown MCF10A cells display markedly increased motility as a sheet in 2-dimensional (2D) substrata and individually in confined spaces and invasion in 3D matrices. In line with these observations, actin filaments redistribute to extending filopodia where they exhibit increased dynamics. MCF10A cells that stably express the K-Ras oncogene and obscurin short hairpin RNA (shRNA), but not scramble control shRNA, exhibit increased primary tumor formation and lung colonization after subcutaneous and tail vein injections, respectively. Collectively, our findings reveal that loss of giant obscurins from breast epithelium results in disruption of the cell–cell contacts and acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype that leads to enhanced tumorigenesis, migration and invasiveness in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25381817

  9. Targeting tight junctions during epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kyuno, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Ito, Tatsuya; Kono, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Imamura, Masafumi; Konno, Takumi; Hirata, Koichi; Sawada, Norimasa; Kojima, Takashi

    2014-08-21

    Pancreatic cancer continues to be a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide and there is an urgent need to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to reduce the mortality of patients with this disease. In pancreatic cancer, some tight junction proteins, including claudins, are abnormally regulated and therefore are promising molecular targets for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. Claudin-4 and -18 are overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions. Claudin-4 is a high affinity receptor of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE). The cytotoxic effects of CPE and monoclonal antibodies against claudin-4 are useful as novel therapeutic tools for pancreatic cancer. Claudin-18 could be a putative marker and therapeutic target with prognostic implications for patients with pancreatic cancer. Claudin-1, -7, tricellulin and marvelD3 are involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of pancreatic cancer cells and thus might be useful as biomarkers during disease. Protein kinase C is closely related to EMT of pancreatic cancer and regulates tight junctions of normal human pancreatic duct epithelial cells and the cancer cells. This review focuses on the regulation of tight junctions via protein kinase C during EMT in human pancreatic cancer for the purpose of developing new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for pancreatic cancer.

  10. Targeting tight junctions during epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kyuno, Daisuke; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Ito, Tatsuya; Kono, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Imamura, Masafumi; Konno, Takumi; Hirata, Koichi; Sawada, Norimasa; Kojima, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer continues to be a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide and there is an urgent need to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to reduce the mortality of patients with this disease. In pancreatic cancer, some tight junction proteins, including claudins, are abnormally regulated and therefore are promising molecular targets for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. Claudin-4 and -18 are overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions. Claudin-4 is a high affinity receptor of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE). The cytotoxic effects of CPE and monoclonal antibodies against claudin-4 are useful as novel therapeutic tools for pancreatic cancer. Claudin-18 could be a putative marker and therapeutic target with prognostic implications for patients with pancreatic cancer. Claudin-1, -7, tricellulin and marvelD3 are involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of pancreatic cancer cells and thus might be useful as biomarkers during disease. Protein kinase C is closely related to EMT of pancreatic cancer and regulates tight junctions of normal human pancreatic duct epithelial cells and the cancer cells. This review focuses on the regulation of tight junctions via protein kinase C during EMT in human pancreatic cancer for the purpose of developing new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for pancreatic cancer. PMID:25152584

  11. Morphological and immunohistochemical identification of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in clinical prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kolijn, Kimberley; Verhoef, Esther I.; van Leenders, Geert J.L.H.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process known to be associated with aggressive tumor behavior, metastasis and treatment resistance. It is characterized by coincidental upregulation of mesenchymal markers such as vimentin, fibronectin and N-cadherin concurrent with E-cadherin downregulation. Studies on EMT are generally performed in cell lines and mouse models, while the histopathological and phenotypical properties in clinical prostate cancer (PCa) are still unclear. The objective of this study was to identify EMT in PCa patients. We demonstrated that N-cadherin, vimentin and fibronectin were generally not co-expressed in corresponding tumor regions. Immunofluorescent double stainings confirmed that co-expression of mesenchymal markers was uncommon, as we found no prostate cancer cells that co-expressed N-cadherin with fibronectin and only rare (<1%) cells that co-expressed N-cadherin with vimentin. Downregulation of E-cadherin was demonstrated in all N-cadherin positive tumor cells, but not in vimentin or fibronectin positive tumor cells. We further analyzed N-cadherin expression in morphologically distinct PCa growth patterns in a radical prostatectomy cohort (n = 77) and found that N-cadherin is preferentially expressed in ill-defined Gleason grade 4 PCa. In conclusion, we demonstrate that N-cadherin is the most reliable marker for EMT in clinical PCa and is preferentially expressed in ill-defined Gleason grade 4 growth pattern. PMID:26041890

  12. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition correlates with tumor budding and predicts prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Yukiko; Yamada, Suguru; Koike, Masahiko; Kanda, Mitsuro; Fujii, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Goro; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Nomoto, Shuji; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2014-11-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered to play an important role in cancer invasion. Tumor budding is a prognostic factor in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between EMT and tumor budding. Surgical specimens from 78 cases of ESCC resected without preoperative treatment between 2001 and 2013 were enrolled in the study. The mRNA expressions of E-cadherin and vimentin were measured in cancerous tissues using real-time PCR, and each tumor was classified into either epithelial or mesenchymal group. Tumor budding was evaluated in H&E-stained slides and divided into two groups; low-grade budding (<3) and high-grade budding (≥3). The 5-year survival rate in the epithelial group was significantly higher than that in the mesenchymal group (62.0% vs. 31.5%, P = 0.021). Survival rate of patients in the low-grade budding group was significantly higher than that of patients in the high-grade budding group (75.1% vs. 25.9%, P < 0.001). High-grade tumor budding was significantly associated with the mesenchymal group (P = 0.009). EMT was found to occur in ESCC and was significantly associated with tumor budding. Tumor budding was identified as a significant independent prognostic factor among the current population of ESCC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Intratumoral heterogeneity: Clonal cooperation in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Neelakantan, Deepika; Drasin, David J; Ford, Heide L

    2015-01-01

    Although phenotypic intratumoral heterogeneity was first described many decades ago, the advent of next-generation sequencing has provided conclusive evidence that in addition to phenotypic diversity, significant genotypic diversity exists within tumors. Tumor heterogeneity likely arises both from clonal expansions, as well as from differentiation hierarchies existent in the tumor, such as that established by cancer stem cells (CSCs) and non-CSCs. These differentiation hierarchies may arise due to genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations, or microenvironmental influences. An additional differentiation hierarchy within epithelial tumors may arise when only a few tumor cells trans-differentiate into mesenchymal-like cells, a process known as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Again, this process can be influenced by both genetic and non-genetic factors. In this review we discuss the evidence for clonal interaction and cooperation for tumor maintenance and progression, particularly with respect to EMT, and further address the far-reaching effects that tumor heterogeneity may have on cancer therapy. PMID:25482627

  14. An epithelial to mesenchymal transition programme does not usually drive the phenotype of invasive lobular carcinomas.

    PubMed

    McCart Reed, Amy E; Kutasovic, Jamie R; Vargas, Ana C; Jayanthan, Janani; Al-Murrani, Amel; Reid, Lynne E; Chambers, Rachael; Da Silva, Leonard; Melville, Lewis; Evans, Elizabeth; Porter, Alan; Papadimos, David; Thompson, Erik W; Lakhani, Sunil R; Simpson, Peter T

    2016-03-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular phenotype switching phenomenon which occurs during normal development and is proposed to promote tumour cell invasive capabilities during tumour progression. Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is a histological special type of breast cancer with a peculiar aetiology - the tumour cells display an invasive growth pattern, with detached, single cells or single files of cells, and a canonical feature is the loss of E-cadherin expression. These characteristics are indicative of an EMT or at the very least that they represent some plasticity between phenotypes. While some gene expression profiling data support this view, the tumour cells remain epithelial and limited immunohistochemistry data suggest that EMT markers may not feature prominently in ILC. We assessed the expression of a panel of EMT markers (fibronectin, vimentin, N-cadherin, smooth muscle actin, osteonectin, Snail, Twist) in 148 ILCs and performed a meta-analysis of publically available molecular data from 154 ILCs. Three out of 148 (2%) ILCs demonstrated an early and coordinated alteration of multiple EMT markers (down-regulation of E-cadherin, nuclear TWIST, and up-regulation of vimentin, osteonectin, and smooth muscle actin). However, the data overall do not support a role for EMT in defining the phenotypic peculiarities of the majority of ILCs. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Thymoquinone inhibits cancer metastasis by downregulating TWIST1 expression to reduce epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md. Asaduzzaman; Tania, Mousumi; Wei, Chunli; Mei, Zhiqiang; Fu, Shelly; Cheng, Jingliang; Xu, Jianming; Fu, Junjiang

    2015-01-01

    Proteins that promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) are associated with cancer metastasis. Inhibition of EMT regulators may be a promising approach in cancer therapy. In this study, Thymoquinone (TQ) was used to treat cancer cell lines to investigate its effects on EMT-regulatory proteins and cancer metastasis. We show that TQ inhibited cancer cell growth, migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. At the molecular level, TQ treatment decreased the transcriptional activity of the TWIST1 promoter and the mRNA expression of TWIST1, an EMT-promoting transcription factor. Accordingly, TQ treatment also decreased the expression of TWIST1-upregulated genes such as N-Cadherin and increased the expression of TWIST1-repressed genes such as E-Cadherin, resulting in a reduction of cell migration and invasion. TQ treatment also inhibited the growth and metastasis of cancer cell-derived xenograft tumors in mice but partially attenuated the migration and invasion in TWIST1-overexpressed cell lines. Furthermore, we found that TQ treatment enhanced the promoter DNA methylation of the TWIST1 gene in BT 549 cells. Together, these results demonstrate that TQ treatment inhibits TWIST1 promoter activity and decreases its expression, leading to the inhibition of cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. These findings suggest TQ as a potential small molecular inhibitor of cancer growth and metastasis. PMID:26023736

  16. Acquired platinum resistance involves epithelial to mesenchymal transition through ubiquitin ligase FBXO32 dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Miyazaki, Yasumasa; Mikami, Shuji; Niwa, Naoya; Otsuka, Yutaro; Mizuno, Ryuichi; Kikuchi, Eiji; Miyajima, Akira; Sabe, Hisataka; Okada, Yasunori; Suematsu, Makoto; Oya, Mototsugu

    2016-01-01

    To identify the molecules involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in urothelial carcinoma (UC) after acquisition of platinum resistance, here we examined the changes in global gene expression before and after platinum treatment. Four invasive UC cell lines, T24, 5637, and their corresponding sublines T24PR and 5637PR with acquired platinum resistance, were assessed by microarray, and the ubiquitin E3 ligase FBXO32 was newly identified as a negative regulator of EMT in UC tumors after acquisition of platinum resistance. In vitro and in vivo studies showed an intimate relationship between FBXO32 expression and EMT, demonstrating that FBXO32 dysregulation in T24PR cells results in elevated expression of the mesenchymal molecules SNAIL and vimentin and decreased expression of the epithelial molecule E-cadherin. The association between FBXO32 expression and EMT was further validated using clinical samples. Knockdown of MyoD expression, a specific target of FBXO32 polyubiquitination, revealed upregulation of E-cadherin expression and downregulation of SNAIL and vimentin expression in T24PR cells. Comparative genomic hybridization array analysis demonstrated loss of heterozygosity at 8q24.13 in T24PR cells, which harbors FBXO32. Our findings suggest the importance of the association between EMT and ubiquitin-proteasome regulation when tumors develop acquired platinum resistance. PMID:27812537

  17. Acquired platinum resistance involves epithelial to mesenchymal transition through ubiquitin ligase FBXO32 dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Kosaka, Takeo; Miyazaki, Yasumasa; Mikami, Shuji; Niwa, Naoya; Otsuka, Yutaro; Minamishima, Yoji Andrew; Mizuno, Ryuichi; Kikuchi, Eiji; Miyajima, Akira; Sabe, Hisataka; Okada, Yasunori; Uhlén, Per; Suematsu, Makoto; Oya, Mototsugu

    2016-11-03

    To identify the molecules involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in urothelial carcinoma (UC) after acquisition of platinum resistance, here we examined the changes in global gene expression before and after platinum treatment. Four invasive UC cell lines, T24, 5637, and their corresponding sublines T24PR and 5637PR with acquired platinum resistance, were assessed by microarray, and the ubiquitin E3 ligase FBXO32 was newly identified as a negative regulator of EMT in UC tumors after acquisition of platinum resistance. In vitro and in vivo studies showed an intimate relationship between FBXO32 expression and EMT, demonstrating that FBXO32 dysregulation in T24PR cells results in elevated expression of the mesenchymal molecules SNAIL and vimentin and decreased expression of the epithelial molecule E-cadherin. The association between FBXO32 expression and EMT was further validated using clinical samples. Knockdown of MyoD expression, a specific target of FBXO32 polyubiquitination, revealed upregulation of E-cadherin expression and downregulation of SNAIL and vimentin expression in T24PR cells. Comparative genomic hybridization array analysis demonstrated loss of heterozygosity at 8q24.13 in T24PR cells, which harbors FBXO32. Our findings suggest the importance of the association between EMT and ubiquitin-proteasome regulation when tumors develop acquired platinum resistance.

  18. Melanoma Proteoglycan Modifies Gene Expression to Stimulate Tumor Cell Motility, Growth and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianbo; Price, Matthew A.; Li, GuiYuan; Bar-Eli, Menashe; Salgia, Ravi; Jagedeeswaran, Ramasamy; Carlson, Jennifer H.; Ferrone, Soldano; Turley, Eva A.; McCarthy, James B.

    2009-01-01

    Melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP) is a plasma membrane-associated proteoglycan that facilitates the growth, motility and invasion of tumor cells. MCSP expression in melanoma cells enhances integrin function and constitutive activation of Erk 1,2. The current studies were performed to determine the mechanism by which MCSP expression promotes tumor growth and motility. The results demonstrate that MCSP expression in radial growth phase (RGP), vertical growth phase (VGP) or metastatic cell lines causes sustained activation of Erk 1,2, enhanced growth and motility which all require the cytoplasmic domain of the MCSP core protein. MCSP expression in an RGP cell line also promotes an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) based on changes in cell morphology and the expression of several EMT markers. Finally MCSP enhances the expression of c-Met and HGF, and inhibiting c-Met expression or activation limits the increased growth and motility of multiple melanoma cell lines. The studies collectively demonstrate an importance for MCSP in promoting progression by an epigenetic mechanism and they indicate that MCSP could be targeted to delay or inhibit tumor progression in patients. PMID:19738072

  19. Glycosylation in Cancer: Interplay between Multidrug Resistance and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition?

    PubMed Central

    da Fonseca, Leonardo Marques; da Silva, Vanessa Amil; Freire-de-Lima, Leonardo; Previato, José Osvaldo; Mendonça-Previato, Lucia; Capella, Márcia Alves Marques

    2016-01-01

    The expression of unusual glycan structures is a hallmark of cancer progression, and their functional roles in cancer biology have been extensively investigated in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) models. EMT is a physiological process involved in embryonic development and wound healing. It is characterized by loss of epithelial cell polarity and cell adhesion, permitting cell migration, and thus formation of new epithelia. However, this process is unwanted when occurring outside their physiological limit, resulting in fibrosis of organs and progression of cancer and metastasis. Several studies observed that EMT is related to the acquisition of multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype, a condition in which cancer cells acquire resistance to multiple different drugs, which has virtually nothing in common. However, although some studies suggested interplay between these two apparently distinct phenomena, almost nothing is known about this possible relationship. A common pathway to them is the need for glycosylation, a post-translational modification that can alter biological function. Thus, this review intends to compile the main facts obtained until now in these two areas, as an effort to unravel the relationship between EMT and MDR. PMID:27446804

  20. Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and MicroRNAs in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pécuchet, Nicolas; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Pallier, Karine; Didelot, Audrey; Roussel, Hélène; Gibault, Laure; Fabre, Elizabeth; Le Pimpec-Barthes, Françoise; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Blons, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    Despite major advances, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains the major cause of cancer-related death in developed countries. Metastasis and drug resistance are the main factors contributing to relapse and death. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex molecular and cellular process involved in tissue remodelling that was extensively studied as an actor of tumour progression, metastasis and drug resistance in many cancer types and in lung cancers. Here we described with an emphasis on NSCLC how the changes in signalling pathways, transcription factors expression or microRNAs that occur in cancer promote EMT. Understanding the biology of EMT will help to define reversing process and treatment strategies. We will see that this complex mechanism is related to inflammation, cell mobility and stem cell features and that it is a dynamic process. The existence of intermediate phenotypes and tumour heterogeneity may be debated in the literature concerning EMT markers, EMT signatures and clinical consequences in NSCLC. However, given the role of EMT in metastasis and in drug resistance the development of EMT inhibitors is an interesting approach to counteract tumour progression and drug resistance. This review describes EMT involvement in cancer with an emphasis on NSCLC and microRNA regulation. PMID:28771186

  1. Endocardial and epicardial epithelial to mesenchymal transitions in heart development and disease

    PubMed Central

    von Gise, Alexander; Pu, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) converts epithelial cells to mobile and developmentally plastic mesenchymal cells. All cells in the heart arise from one or more EMTs. Within the developing heart, endocardial and epicardial EMTs produce most of the non-cardiomyocyte lineages of the mature heart. Endocardial EMT generates valve progenitor cells and is necessary for formation of the cardiac valves and for complete cardiac septation. Epicardial EMT is required for myocardial growth and coronary vessel formation, and generates cardiac fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle cells, a subset of coronary endothelial cells, and possibly a subset of cardiomyocytes. Emerging studies suggest that these developmental mechanisms are redeployed in adult heart valve disease, in cardiac fibrosis, and in myocardial responses to ischemic injury. Redirection and amplification of disease-related EMTs offer potential new therapeutic strategies and approaches for treatment of heart disease. Here we review the role and molecular regulation of endocardial and epicardial EMT in fetal heart development, and we summarize key literature implicating reactivation of endocardial and epicardial EMT in adult heart disease. PMID:22679138

  2. Seeding of recipient-originated epithelial cells attenuates epithelial to mesenchymal transition in rat tracheal allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xun; Yan, Xiaolong; Zhang, Zhipei; Li, Xiaofei

    2015-06-01

    The specific role and mechanism of epithelium in the progression of obliterative airway disease (OAD) after tracheal allotransplantation remain poorly understood. In this study, we used rat heterotopic tracheal transplantation to investigate the mechanism of epithelial cell seeding during the process of OAD. Prospective, basic science. Research laboratory. In total, 120 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and 90 Wistar rats were used. Tracheas from SD rats were implanted into SD rats (syngeneic, n = 30) or Wistar rats (allogeneic, n = 30), and SD rat tracheas (seeded with Wistar rat-derived epithelial cells 6 days after transplantation) were transplanted into Wistar rats (seeded allogeneic, n = 30). Grafts were harvested at 7, 14, or 30 days after transplantation for histologic, quantitative reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction or Western blot analyses. Syngrafts retained normal histologic structures, while the corresponding allografts demonstrated less ciliated epithelia and more lumenal occlusion. Seeding of epithelial cells ameliorated the histologic changes, reduced the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related transcriptional factors and mesenchymal markers, and dampened the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and phosphorylation of smad3. Seeding of recipient epithelial cells inhibits the progression of OAD by attenuating EMT via TGF-β-Smad signaling in rat heterotopic tracheal allografts. Clinically, the injection of recipient-originated epithelial cells might provide new insights into the treatment for OAD after tracheal allotransplantation. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  3. MicroRNA-Mediated Post-Transcriptional Regulation of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Behbahani, Golnoush Dehbashi; Ghahhari, Nastaran Mohammadi; Javidi, Mohammad Amin; Molan, Asghar Farzi; Feizi, Neda; Babashah, Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) program participates in tissue repair, embryogenesis and numerous pathological conditions, particularly cancer progression and tumor metastasis. A highly complex and strongly controlled post-transcriptionally regulated network of microRNAs (miRNAs) regulates the EMT process. miRNAs are critical parts of the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. A set of miRNAs target multiple components of major signaling pathways and downstream effectors of EMT. miRNAs associated with this process are involved in controlling tumor progression and invasiveness either as oncogenes or as tumor suppressors. Since several miRNAs directly affect EMT-related master regulators, they have been discovered to have the potential to be used as biomarkers or targets in EMT-based pathological conditions such as cancer. Therefore, comprehensive understanding of miRNA-EMT correlation with tumor metastatic spread may provide improvements to diagnostic tools or therapeutics for cancer. This review summarizes our current knowledge about some of these important miRNAs and focuses on their specific roles in regulation of the EMT process in cancer.

  4. Bioinformatic approaches to augment study of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Tim N.; Chikwem, Adaeze J.; Solanki, Nehal R.

    2014-01-01

    Bioinformatic approaches are intended to provide systems level insight into the complex biological processes that underlie serious diseases such as cancer. In this review we describe current bioinformatic resources, and illustrate how they have been used to study a clinically important example: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths and is often diagnosed at advanced stages, leading to limited therapeutic success. While EMT is essential during development and wound healing, pathological reactivation of this program by cancer cells contributes to metastasis and drug resistance, both major causes of death from lung cancer. Challenges of studying EMT include its transient nature, its molecular and phenotypic heterogeneity, and the complicated networks of rewired signaling cascades. Given the biology of lung cancer and the role of EMT, it is critical to better align the two in order to advance the impact of precision oncology. This task relies heavily on the application of bioinformatic resources. Besides summarizing recent work in this area, we use four EMT-associated genes, TGF-β (TGFB1), NEDD9/HEF1, β-catenin (CTNNB1) and E-cadherin (CDH1), as exemplars to demonstrate the current capacities and limitations of probing bioinformatic resources to inform hypothesis-driven studies with therapeutic goals. PMID:25096367

  5. Glycosylation in Cancer: Interplay between Multidrug Resistance and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition?

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Leonardo Marques; da Silva, Vanessa Amil; Freire-de-Lima, Leonardo; Previato, José Osvaldo; Mendonça-Previato, Lucia; Capella, Márcia Alves Marques

    2016-01-01

    The expression of unusual glycan structures is a hallmark of cancer progression, and their functional roles in cancer biology have been extensively investigated in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) models. EMT is a physiological process involved in embryonic development and wound healing. It is characterized by loss of epithelial cell polarity and cell adhesion, permitting cell migration, and thus formation of new epithelia. However, this process is unwanted when occurring outside their physiological limit, resulting in fibrosis of organs and progression of cancer and metastasis. Several studies observed that EMT is related to the acquisition of multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype, a condition in which cancer cells acquire resistance to multiple different drugs, which has virtually nothing in common. However, although some studies suggested interplay between these two apparently distinct phenomena, almost nothing is known about this possible relationship. A common pathway to them is the need for glycosylation, a post-translational modification that can alter biological function. Thus, this review intends to compile the main facts obtained until now in these two areas, as an effort to unravel the relationship between EMT and MDR.

  6. La enhances IRES-mediated translation of laminin B1 during malignant epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Petz, Michaela; Them, Nicole; Huber, Heidemarie; Beug, Hartmut; Mikulits, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The majority of transcripts that harbor an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) are involved in cancer development via corresponding proteins. A crucial event in tumor progression referred to as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) allows carcinoma cells to acquire invasive properties. The translational activation of the extracellular matrix component laminin B1 (LamB1) during EMT has been recently reported suggesting an IRES-mediated mechanism. In this study, the IRES activity of LamB1 was determined by independent bicistronic reporter assays. Strong evidences exclude an impact of cryptic promoter or splice sites on IRES-driven translation of LamB1. Furthermore, no other LamB1 mRNA species arising from alternative transcription start sites or polyadenylation signals were detected that account for its translational control. Mapping of the LamB1 5'-untranslated region (UTR) revealed the minimal LamB1 IRES motif between -293 and -1 upstream of the start codon. Notably, RNA affinity purification showed that the La protein interacts with the LamB1 IRES. This interaction and its regulation during EMT were confirmed by ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation. In addition, La was able to positively modulate LamB1 IRES translation. In summary, these data indicate that the LamB1 IRES is activated by binding to La which leads to translational upregulation during hepatocellular EMT.

  7. Targeting the Metabolic Reprogramming That Controls Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Aggressive Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Morandi, Andrea; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Chiarugi, Paola; Giannoni, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process allows the trans-differentiation of a cell with epithelial features into a cell with mesenchymal characteristics. This process has been reported to be a key priming event for tumor development and therefore EMT activation is now considered an established trait of malignancy. The transcriptional and epigenetic reprogramming that governs EMT has been extensively characterized and reviewed in the last decade. However, increasing evidence demonstrates a correlation between metabolic reprogramming and EMT execution. The aim of the current review is to gather the recent findings that illustrate this correlation to help deciphering whether metabolic changes are causative or just a bystander effect of EMT activation. The review is divided accordingly to the catabolic and anabolic pathways that characterize carbohydrate, aminoacid, and lipid metabolism. Moreover, at the end of each part, we have discussed a series of potential metabolic targets involved in EMT promotion and execution for which drugs are either available or that could be further investigated for therapeutic intervention. PMID:28352611

  8. Regulation of heterochromatin transcription by Snail1/LOXL2 during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Millanes-Romero, Alba; Herranz, Nicolás; Perrera, Valentina; Iturbide, Ane; Loubat-Casanovas, Jordina; Gil, Jesús; Jenuwein, Thomas; García de Herreros, Antonio; Peiró, Sandra

    2013-12-12

    Although heterochromatin is enriched with repressive traits, it is also actively transcribed, giving rise to large amounts of noncoding RNAs. Although these RNAs are responsible for the formation and maintenance of heterochromatin, little is known about how their transcription is regulated. Here, we show that the Snail1 transcription factor represses mouse pericentromeric transcription, acting through the H3K4 deaminase LOXL2. Since Snail1 plays a key role in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), we analyzed the regulation of heterochromatin transcription in this process. At the onset of EMT, one of the major structural heterochromatin proteins, HP1α, is transiently released from heterochromatin foci in a Snail1/LOXL2-dependent manner, concomitantly with a downregulation of major satellite transcription. Moreover, preventing the downregulation of major satellite transcripts compromised the migratory and invasive behavior of mesenchymal cells. We propose that Snail1 regulates heterochromatin transcription through LOXL2, thus creating the favorable transcriptional state necessary for completing EMT.

  9. Combinatorial Interventions Inhibit the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Support Hybrid Cellular Phenotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanudo, Jorge G. T.; Steinway, S. N.; Michel, P. J.; Feith, D. J.; Loughran, T. P., Jr.; Albert, Reka

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental process hijacked by cancer cells to leave the primary tumor site and spread to other parts of the body. The molecular network regulating EMT involves the cooperation and cross-talk between multiple signaling pathways and key transcription factors, which we incorporated into systems-level logical network model for EMT. Using the EMT network model, we investigate potential EMT-suppressing interventions by identifying which individual and combinatorial perturbations suppress the induction of EMT by TGF β, an important signal driving EMT in liver cancer. We find that all non-trivial interventions are combinatorial and involve the inhibition of the SMAD complex together with other targets, several of which we experimentally tested and validated using liver cancer cell lines. We compare the combinatorial interventions with the results from a network control method we recently developed, which allowed us to determine the specific feedback regulatory motifs through which the interventions suppress EMT. Our results also reveal that blocking certain network components gives rise to steady states that are intermediate to the epithelial and mesenchymal states, supporting the existence of hybrid epithelial-mesenchymal states. Supported by NSF Grants PHY 1205840 and IIS 1161001, and NIH Grant F30DK093234.

  10. Fumarate is an epigenetic modifier that elicits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Sciacovelli, Marco; Gonçalves, Emanuel; Isaac Johnson, Timothy; Roberto Zecchini, Vincent; da Costa, Ana Sofia Henriques; Gaude, Edoardo; Vercauteren Drubbel, Alizee; Julian Theobald, Sebastian; Abbo, Sandra; Tran, Maxine; Rajeeve, Vinothini; Cardaci, Simone; Foster, Sarah; Yun, Haiyang; Cutillas, Pedro; Warren, Anne; Gnanapragasam, Vincent; Gottlieb, Eyal; Franze, Kristian; Huntly, Brian; Richard Maher, Eamonn; Henry Maxwell, Patrick; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Frezza, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Mutations of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) cause Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC)1. FH-deficient renal cancers are highly aggressive and metastasise even when small, leading to an abysmal clinical outcome2. Fumarate, a small molecule metabolite that accumulates in FH-deficient cells, plays a key role in cell transformation, making it a bona fide oncometabolite3. Fumarate was shown to inhibit α-ketoglutarate (aKG)-dependent dioxygenases involved in DNA and histone demethylation4,5. However, the link between fumarate accumulation, epigenetic changes, and tumorigenesis is unclear. Here we show that loss of FH and the subsequent accumulation of fumarate elicits an epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), a phenotypic switch associated with cancer initiation, invasion, and metastasis6. We demonstrate that fumarate inhibits Tet-mediated demethylation of a regulatory region of the antimetastatic miRNA cluster6 miR-200ba429, leading to the expression of EMT-related transcription factors and enhanced migratory properties. These epigenetic and phenotypic changes are recapitulated by the incubation of FH-proficient cells with cell-permeable fumarate. Loss of FH is associated with suppression of miR-200 and EMT signature in renal cancer patients, and is associated with poor clinical outcome. These results imply that loss of FH and fumarate accumulation contribute to the aggressive features of FH-deficient tumours. PMID:27580029

  11. Targeting the Metabolic Reprogramming That Controls Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Aggressive Tumors.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Andrea; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Chiarugi, Paola; Giannoni, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process allows the trans-differentiation of a cell with epithelial features into a cell with mesenchymal characteristics. This process has been reported to be a key priming event for tumor development and therefore EMT activation is now considered an established trait of malignancy. The transcriptional and epigenetic reprogramming that governs EMT has been extensively characterized and reviewed in the last decade. However, increasing evidence demonstrates a correlation between metabolic reprogramming and EMT execution. The aim of the current review is to gather the recent findings that illustrate this correlation to help deciphering whether metabolic changes are causative or just a bystander effect of EMT activation. The review is divided accordingly to the catabolic and anabolic pathways that characterize carbohydrate, aminoacid, and lipid metabolism. Moreover, at the end of each part, we have discussed a series of potential metabolic targets involved in EMT promotion and execution for which drugs are either available or that could be further investigated for therapeutic intervention.

  12. Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Diabetic Nephropathy: Fact or Fiction?

    PubMed Central

    Loeffler, Ivonne; Wolf, Gunter

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy (DN), one of the most serious complications in diabetic patients and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide, is complex and not fully elucidated. A typical hallmark of DN is the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the glomerulus and in the renal tubulointerstitium, eventually leading to glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Although it is obvious that myofibroblasts play a major role in the synthesis and secretion of ECM, the origin of myofibroblasts in DN remains the subject of controversial debates. A number of studies have focused on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as one source of matrix-generating fibroblasts in the diseased kidney. EMT is characterized by the acquisition of mesenchymal properties by epithelial cells, preferentially proximal tubular cells and podocytes. In this review we comprehensively review the literature and discuss arguments both for and against a function of EMT in renal fibrosis in DN. While the precise extent of the contribution to nephrotic fibrosis is certainly arduous to quantify, the picture that emerges from this extensive body of literature suggests EMT as a major source of myofibroblasts in DN. PMID:26473930

  13. Mechanisms of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in sea urchin embryos

    PubMed Central

    Katow, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Sea urchin mesenchyme is composed of the large micromere-derived spiculogenetic primary mesenchyme cells (PMC), veg2-tier macromere-derived non-spiculogenetic mesenchyme cells, the small micromere-derived germ cells, and the macro- and mesomere-derived neuronal mesenchyme cells. They are formed through the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and possess multipotency, except PMCs that solely differentiate larval spicules. The process of EMT is associated with modification of epithelial cell surface property that includes loss of affinity to the apical and basal extracellular matrices, inter-epithelial cell adherens junctions and epithelial cell surface-specific proteins. These cell surface structures and molecules are endocytosed during EMT and utilized as initiators of cytoplasmic signaling pathways that often initiate protein phosphorylation to activate the gene regulatory networks. Acquisition of cell motility after EMT in these mesenchyme cells is associated with the expression of proteins such as Lefty, Snail and Seawi. Structural simplicity and genomic database of this model will further promote detailed EMT research. PMID:26716069

  14. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is not required for lung metastasis but contributes to chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Kari R; Durrans, Anna; Lee, Sharrell; Sheng, Jianting; Li, Fuhai; Wong, Stephen T C; Choi, Hyejin; El Rayes, Tina; Ryu, Seongho; Troeger, Juliane; Schwabe, Robert F; Vahdat, Linda T; Altorki, Nasser K; Mittal, Vivek; Gao, Dingcheng

    2015-11-26

    The role of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in metastasis is a longstanding source of debate, largely owing to an inability to monitor transient and reversible EMT phenotypes in vivo. Here we establish an EMT lineage-tracing system to monitor this process in mice, using a mesenchymal-specific Cre-mediated fluorescent marker switch system in spontaneous breast-to-lung metastasis models. We show that within a predominantly epithelial primary tumour, a small proportion of tumour cells undergo EMT. Notably, lung metastases mainly consist of non-EMT tumour cells that maintain their epithelial phenotype. Inhibiting EMT by overexpressing the microRNA miR-200 does not affect lung metastasis development. However, EMT cells significantly contribute to recurrent lung metastasis formation after chemotherapy. These cells survived cyclophosphamide treatment owing to reduced proliferation, apoptotic tolerance and increased expression of chemoresistance-related genes. Overexpression of miR-200 abrogated this resistance. This study suggests the potential of an EMT-targeting strategy, in conjunction with conventional chemotherapies, for breast cancer treatment.

  15. Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Diabetic Nephropathy: Fact or Fiction?

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Ivonne; Wolf, Gunter

    2015-10-09

    The pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy (DN), one of the most serious complications in diabetic patients and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide, is complex and not fully elucidated. A typical hallmark of DN is the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the glomerulus and in the renal tubulointerstitium, eventually leading to glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Although it is obvious that myofibroblasts play a major role in the synthesis and secretion of ECM, the origin of myofibroblasts in DN remains the subject of controversial debates. A number of studies have focused on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as one source of matrix-generating fibroblasts in the diseased kidney. EMT is characterized by the acquisition of mesenchymal properties by epithelial cells, preferentially proximal tubular cells and podocytes. In this review we comprehensively review the literature and discuss arguments both for and against a function of EMT in renal fibrosis in DN. While the precise extent of the contribution to nephrotic fibrosis is certainly arduous to quantify, the picture that emerges from this extensive body of literature suggests EMT as a major source of myofibroblasts in DN.

  16. On the Origin of Prostate Cancer Stem Cells through Transmissible ER Stress-Mediated Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    telomeres and the potential for an unlimited number of cell divisions. ß-catenin has been shown to bind the Tert promoter and increase Tert expression...that transmissible ER stress (TERS) promotes the Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in differentiated prostate cancer cells, programming...Zanetti, M.D. Abstract This DoD Innovation grant was based on the hypothesis that transmissible ER stress (TERS) promotes the Epithelial to

  17. On the Origin of Prostate Cancer Stem Cells through Transmissible ER Stress-Mediated Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    catenin, we have begun to pursue if Wnt signaling occurs during TERS driven EMT . Given that this signaling process has tumor implicated roles in...hypothesis that transmissible ER stress (TERS) promotes Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition ( EMT ) in differentiated prostate cancer cells, programming...tumorigenesis. Through the work performed during the last year, we have been able to demonstrate a link between prostate tumor ER stress and EMT . The

  18. Role of microRNA in epithelial to mesenchymal transition and metastasis and clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-López, Antonio; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Cano, Amparo

    2014-01-01

    The microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, 20–22 nucleotides in length, endogenously expressed noncoding RNAs that regulate multiple targets posttranscriptionally. Interestingly, miRNAs have emerged as regulators of most physiological and pathological processes, including metastatic tumor progression, in part by controlling a reversible process called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The activation of EMT increases the migratory and invasive properties fundamental for tumor cell spread while activation of the reverse mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition is required for metastasis outgrowth. The EMT triggering leads to the activation of a core of transcription factors (EMT-TFs) – SNAIL1/SNAIL2, bHLH (E47, E2-2, and TWIST1/TWIST2), and ZEB1/ZEB2 – that act as E-cadherin repressors and, ultimately, coordinate EMT. Recent evidence indicates that several miRNAs regulate the expression of EMT-TFs or EMT-activating signaling pathways. Interestingly, some miRNAs and EMT-TFs form tightly interconnected negative feedback loops that control epithelial cell plasticity, providing self-reinforcing signals and robustness to maintain the epithelial or mesenchymal cell status. Among the most significant feedback loops, we focus on the ZEB/miR-200 and the SNAIL1/miR-34 networks that hold a clear impact in the regulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal state. Recent insights into the p53 modulation of the EMT-TF/miRNA loops and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in the context of metastasis dissemination will also be discussed. Understanding the regulation of EMT by miRNAs opens new avenues for the diagnosis and prognosis of tumors and identifies potential therapeutic targets that might help to negatively impact on metastasis dissemination and increasing patient survival. PMID:24812525

  19. HMG20A is required for SNAI1-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Rivero, S; Ceballos-Chávez, M; Bhattacharya, S S; Reyes, J C

    2015-10-08

    HMG20A is a high mobility group (HMG) domain containing protein homologous to HMG20B, a core subunit of the Lys-specific demethylase 1/REST co-repressor 1 (LSD1-CoREST) histone demethylase complex. Here, we show that HMG20A can replace HMG20B and, therefore, they are mutually exclusive subunits of the complex. Both proteins interact through a coiled-coil domain with BHC80, another subunit of the LSD1-CoREST complex. To investigate the functional differences between the two proteins, we performed transcriptomic analysis of HMG20A- and HMG20B-depleted cells. Analysis of the misregulated genes in HMG20A-knockdown cells evidenced a high proportion of genes related to the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. EMT occurs during embryonic development or during the course of malignant cancer progression and consists in the dynamic and reversible transitions between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes. We show that HMG20A together with LSD1 are required for SNAI1-dependent repression of epithelial genes and for (transforming growth factor β) TGF-β-triggered EMT. Importantly, HMG20A-depleted cells displayed reduced binding of LSD1 to epithelial gene promoters and increased methylation of lysine 4 of histone H3, suggesting a role of HMG20A in recruiting or in stabilizing the complex at the chromatin. SNAI1 and the TGF-β-related transcription factor SMAD4 were found to be associated with the LSD1-CoREST complex containing HMG20A. Furthermore, we show that HMG20A-depleted cells displayed reduced motility and invasion activity. Finally, we show that expression of HMG20A correlates positively with mesenchymal markers and negatively with epithelial markers in human tumor samples. Taken together, our data demonstrate that HMG20A is essential for the mesenchymal phenotype.

  20. Interaction Between Ezrin and Cortactin in Promoting Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Jing; Ma, Ge; Qian, Jiayi; Zhu, Yichao; Liang, Mengdi; Yao, Na; Ding, Qiang; Chen, Lin; Liu, Xiaoan; Xia, Tiansong; Wang, Shui

    2017-01-01

    Background Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to metastases in various types of tumors, and is also the key step in the breast cancer metastatic cascade. In our previous study, a mouse model containing human-derived normal breast tissue was established and allowed EMT/MET process of human breast cancer cells to be mimicked in a humanized mammary microenvironment. Material/Methods Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry were used to detect different proteins between parental MDA-MB-231 and its variant sub-line obtained from tumors grown in transplanted normal human breast tissue (MDA-MB-231br). We knocked down the ezrin in 2 cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and SUM1315). The migration and invasion ability was assessed. EMT markers were examined by real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis and Western blot analysis. The relationship of ezrin with cortactin was tested by tissue microarray and co-immunoprecipitation. Results Proteomic analysis revealed 81 differentially expressed proteins between parental MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-231br. Among these proteins, the expression of ezrin and cortactin and the phosphorylation of ezrin were significantly correlated, accompanied with a group of classic EMT makers. Knockdown of ezrin reversed the expression of EMT markers and downregulated cortactin and EMT transcription factors. Ezrin silencing inhibited tumor cell migration and invasion. Breast cancer tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry showed a significant positive association between ezrin and cortactin. Conclusions These findings indicate that ezrin is correlated with cortactin in facilitating EMT in breast cancer. The interaction between ezrin and cortactin is a novel mechanism contributing to the EMT process in cancer metastases. PMID:28364518

  1. Scrib is required for epithelial cell identity and prevents epithelial to mesenchymal transition in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Yamben, Idella F; Rachel, Rivka A; Shatadal, Shalini; Copeland, Neal G; Jenkins, Nancy A; Warming, Soren; Griep, Anne E

    2013-12-01

    The integrity and function of epithelial tissues depend on the establishment and maintenance of defining characteristics of epithelial cells, cell-cell adhesion and cell polarity. Disruption of these characteristics can lead to the loss of epithelial identity through a process called epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which can contribute to pathological conditions such as tissue fibrosis and invasive cancer. In invertebrates, the epithelial polarity gene scrib plays a critical role in establishing and maintaining cell adhesion and polarity. In this study we asked if the mouse homolog, Scrib, is required for establishment and/or maintenance of epithelial identity in vivo. To do so, we conditionally deleted Scrib in the head ectoderm tissue that gives rise to both the ocular lens and the corneal epithelium. Deletion of Scrib in the lens resulted in a change in epithelial cell shape from cuboidal to flattened and elongated. Early in the process, the cell adhesion protein, E-cadherin, and apical polarity protein, ZO-1, were downregulated and the myofibroblast protein, αSMA, was upregulated, suggesting EMT was occurring in the Scrib deficient lenses. Correlating temporally with the upregulation of αSMA, Smad3 and Smad4, TGFβ signaling intermediates, accumulated in the nucleus and Snail, a TGFβ target and transcriptional repressor of the gene encoding E-cadherin, was upregulated. Pax6, a lens epithelial transcription factor required to maintain lens epithelial cell identity also was downregulated. Loss of Scrib in the corneal epithelium also led to molecular changes consistent with EMT, suggesting that the effect of Scrib deficiency was not unique to the lens. Together, these data indicate that mammalian Scrib is required to maintain epithelial identity and that loss of Scrib can culminate in EMT, mediated, at least in part, through TGFβ signaling.

  2. Inhibition of histamine receptor 3 suppresses glioblastoma tumor growth, invasion, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wen-Ke; Yang, Yong-Xiang; Sun, Chao; Zhang, Zhuo; Xu, Yu-Qiao; Chang, Ting; Li, Zhu-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Histamine receptor 3 (H3R) is expressed in various tumors and correlated with malignancy and tumor proliferation. However, the role of H3R in tumor invasion and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains unknown. Here, we explored the H3R in the highly invasive glioblastoma (GBM) and U87MG cells. We found that H3R mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in the GBM and glioma cell lines compared to normal brain tissue and astrocytes. In U87MG cell line, inhibition of H3R by siRNA or the antagonist ciproxifan (CPX) suppressed proliferation, invasiveness, and the expression of EMT activators (Snail, Slug and Twist). In addition, expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and ZO-1) was up-regulated and expression of mesenchymal markers (vimentin and N-cadherin) was down-regulated in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft model. In addition, we also showed that inhibition of H3R by siRNA or CPX inactivated the PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK signaling pathways, while inhibition of Akt or ERK activity with antagonists or siRNAs suppressed H3R agonist (R)-(α)-(−)- methylhistamine dihydrobromide (RAMH) mediated invasion and reorganization of cadherin-household. In conclusion, overexpression of H3R is associated with glioma progression. Inhibition of H3R leads to suppressed invasion and EMT of GBM by inactivating the PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK pathways in gliomas. PMID:25940798

  3. P63 regulates tubular formation via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y; Yan, W; Chen, X

    2016-01-01

    P63, a p53 family member, is expressed as TA and ΔN isoforms. Interestingly, both TAp63 and ΔNp63 are transcription factors, and regulate both common and distinct sets of target genes. p63 is required for survival of some epithelial cell lineages, and lack of p63 leads to loss of epidermis and other epithelia in humans and mice. Here, we explored the role of p63 isoforms in cell proliferation, migration and tubulogenesis by using Madin–Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) tubular epithelial cells in two- or three-dimensional (2-D or 3-D) culture. We found that like downregulation of p53, downregulation of p63 and TAp63 decreases expression of growth-suppressing genes, including p21, PUMA and MIC-1, and consequently promotes cell proliferation and migration in 2-D culture. However, in 3-D culture, downregulation of p63, especially TAp63, but not p53, decapacitates MDCK cells to form a cyst structure through enhanced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In contrast, downregulation of ΔNp63 inhibits MDCK cell proliferation and migration in 2-D culture, and delays but does not block MDCK cell cyst formation and tubulogenesis in 3-D culture. Consistent with this, downregulation of ΔNp63 markedly upregulates growth-suppressing genes, including p21, PUMA and MIC-1. Taken together, these data suggest that TAp63 is the major isoform required for tubulogenesis by maintaining an appropriate level of EMT, whereas ΔNp63 fine-tunes the rate of cyst formation and tubulogenesis by maintaining an appropriate expression level of genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. PMID:23542170

  4. Interaction Between Ezrin and Cortactin in Promoting Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Ma, Ge; Qian, Jiayi; Zhu, Yichao; Liang, Mengdi; Yao, Na; Ding, Qiang; Chen, Lin; Liu, Xiaoan; Xia, Tiansong; Wang, Shui

    2017-04-01

    BACKGROUND Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to metastases in various types of tumors, and is also the key step in the breast cancer metastatic cascade. In our previous study, a mouse model containing human-derived normal breast tissue was established and allowed EMT/MET process of human breast cancer cells to be mimicked in a humanized mammary microenvironment. MATERIAL AND METHODS Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry were used to detect different proteins between parental MDA-MB-231 and its variant sub-line obtained from tumors grown in transplanted normal human breast tissue (MDA-MB-231br). We knocked down the ezrin in 2 cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and SUM1315). The migration and invasion ability was assessed. EMT markers were examined by real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis and Western blot analysis. The relationship of ezrin with cortactin was tested by tissue microarray and co-immunoprecipitation. RESULTS Proteomic analysis revealed 81 differentially expressed proteins between parental MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-231br. Among these proteins, the expression of ezrin and cortactin and the phosphorylation of ezrin were significantly correlated, accompanied with a group of classic EMT makers. Knockdown of ezrin reversed the expression of EMT markers and downregulated cortactin and EMT transcription factors. Ezrin silencing inhibited tumor cell migration and invasion. Breast cancer tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry showed a significant positive association between ezrin and cortactin. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicate that ezrin is correlated with cortactin in facilitating EMT in breast cancer. The interaction between ezrin and cortactin is a novel mechanism contributing to the EMT process in cancer metastases.

  5. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition mediates docetaxel resistance and high risk of relapse in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Marín-Aguilera, Mercedes; Codony-Servat, Jordi; Reig, Òscar; Lozano, Juan José; Fernández, Pedro Luis; Pereira, María Verónica; Jiménez, Natalia; Donovan, Michael; Puig, Pere; Mengual, Lourdes; Bermudo, Raquel; Font, Albert; Gallardo, Enrique; Ribal, María José; Alcaraz, Antonio; Gascón, Pere; Mellado, Begoña

    2014-05-01

    Molecular characterization of radical prostatectomy specimens after systemic therapy may identify a gene expression profile for resistance to therapy. This study assessed tumor cells from patients with prostate cancer participating in a phase II neoadjuvant docetaxel and androgen deprivation trial to identify mediators of resistance. Transcriptional level of 93 genes from a docetaxel-resistant prostate cancer cell lines microarray study was analyzed by TaqMan low-density arrays in tumors from patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer (36 surgically treated, 28 with neoadjuvant docetaxel + androgen deprivation). Gene expression was compared between groups and correlated with clinical outcome. VIM, AR and RELA were validated by immunohistochemistry. CD44 and ZEB1 expression was tested by immunofluorescence in cells and tumor samples. Parental and docetaxel-resistant castration-resistant prostate cancer cell lines were tested for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers before and after docetaxel exposure. Reversion of EMT phenotype was investigated as a docetaxel resistance reversion strategy. Expression of 63 (67.7%) genes differed between groups (P < 0.05), including genes related to androgen receptor, NF-κB transcription factor, and EMT. Increased expression of EMT markers correlated with radiologic relapse. Docetaxel-resistant cells had increased EMT and stem-like cell markers expression. ZEB1 siRNA transfection reverted docetaxel resistance and reduced CD44 expression in DU-145R and PC-3R. Before docetaxel exposure, a selected CD44(+) subpopulation of PC-3 cells exhibited EMT phenotype and intrinsic docetaxel resistance; ZEB1/CD44(+) subpopulations were found in tumor cell lines and primary tumors; this correlated with aggressive clinical behavior. This study identifies genes potentially related to chemotherapy resistance and supports evidence of the EMT role in docetaxel resistance and adverse clinical behavior in early prostate cancer.

  6. The development of cisplatin resistance in neuroblastoma is accompanied by epithelial to mesenchymal transition in vitro.

    PubMed

    Piskareva, Olga; Harvey, Harry; Nolan, John; Conlon, Ross; Alcock, Leah; Buckley, Patrick; Dowling, Paul; Henry, Michael; O'Sullivan, Finbarr; Bray, Isabella; Stallings, Raymond L

    2015-08-10

    Neuroblastoma is a challenging childhood malignancy, with a very high percentage of patients relapsing following acquisition of drug resistance, thereby necessitating the identification of mechanisms of drug resistance as well as new biological targets contributing to the aggressive pathogenicity of the disease. In order to investigate the molecular pathways that are involved with drug resistance in neuroblastoma, we have developed and characterised cisplatin resistant sublines SK-N-ASCis24, KellyCis83 and CHP-212Cis100, integrating data of cell behaviour, cytotoxicity, genomic alterations and modulation of protein expression. All three cisplatin resistant cell lines demonstrated cross resistance to temozolomide, etoposide and irinotecan, all of which are drugs in re-initiation therapy. Array CGH analysis indicated that resistant lines have acquired additional genomic imbalances. Differentially expressed proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and classified by bioinformatics tools according to their molecular and cellular functions and their involvement into biological pathways. Significant changes in the expression of proteins involved with pathways such as actin cytoskeletal signalling (p = 9.28E-10), integrin linked kinase (ILK) signalling (p = 4.01E-8), epithelial adherens junctions signalling (p = 5.49E-8) and remodelling of epithelial adherens junctions (p = 5.87E-8) pointed towards a mesenchymal phenotype developed by cisplatin resistant SK-N-ASCis24. Western blotting and confocal microscopy of MYH9, ACTN4 and ROCK1 coupled with invasion assays provide evidence that elevated levels of MYH9 and ACTN4 and reduced levels of ROCK1 contribute to the increased ROCK1-independent migratory potential of SK-N-ASCis24. Therefore, our results suggest that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is a feature during the development of drug resistance in neuroblastoma.

  7. Colorectal cancer intrinsic subtypes predict chemotherapy benefit, deficient mismatch repair and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Roepman, Paul; Schlicker, Andreas; Tabernero, Josep; Majewski, Ian; Tian, Sun; Moreno, Victor; Snel, Mireille H; Chresta, Christine M; Rosenberg, Robert; Nitsche, Ulrich; Macarulla, Teresa; Capella, Gabriel; Salazar, Ramon; Orphanides, George; Wessels, Lodewyk FA; Bernards, Rene; Simon, Iris M

    2014-01-01

    In most colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, outcome cannot be predicted because tumors with similar clinicopathological features can have differences in disease progression and treatment response. Therefore, a better understanding of the CRC biology is required to identify those patients who will benefit from chemotherapy and to find a more tailored therapy plan for other patients. Based on unsupervised classification of whole genome data from 188 stages I–IV CRC patients, a molecular classification was developed that consist of at least three major intrinsic subtypes (A-, B- and C-type). The subtypes were validated in 543 stages II and III patients and were associated with prognosis and benefit from chemotherapy. The heterogeneity of the intrinsic subtypes is largely based on three biological hallmarks of the tumor: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, deficiency in mismatch repair genes that result in high mutation frequency associated with microsatellite instability and cellular proliferation. A-type tumors, observed in 22% of the patients, have the best prognosis, have frequent BRAF mutations and a deficient DNA mismatch repair system. C-type patients (16%) have the worst outcome, a mesenchymal gene expression phenotype and show no benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. Both A-type and B-type tumors have a more proliferative and epithelial phenotype and B-types benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. B-type tumors (62%) show a low overall mutation frequency consistent with the absence of DNA mismatch repair deficiency. Classification based on molecular subtypes made it possible to expand and improve CRC classification beyond standard molecular and immunohistochemical assessment and might help in the future to guide treatment in CRC patients. PMID:23852808

  8. Surprisal analysis characterizes the free energy time course of cancer cells undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Zadran, Sohila; Arumugam, Rameshkumar; Herschman, Harvey; Phelps, Michael E; Levine, R D

    2014-09-09

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) initiates the invasive and metastatic behavior of many epithelial cancers. Mechanisms underlying EMT are not fully known. Surprisal analysis of mRNA time course data from lung and pancreatic cancer cells stimulated to undergo TGF-β1-induced EMT identifies two phenotypes. Examination of the time course for these phenotypes reveals that EMT reprogramming is a multistep process characterized by initiation, maturation, and stabilization stages that correlate with changes in cell metabolism. Surprisal analysis characterizes the free energy time course of the expression levels throughout the transition in terms of two state variables. The landscape of the free energy changes during the EMT for the lung cancer cells shows a stable intermediate state. Existing data suggest this is the previously proposed maturation stage. Using a single-cell ATP assay, we demonstrate that the TGF-β1-induced EMT for lung cancer cells, particularly during the maturation stage, coincides with a metabolic shift resulting in increased cytosolic ATP levels. Surprisal analysis also characterizes the absolute expression levels of the mRNAs and thereby examines the homeostasis of the transcription system during EMT.

  9. Surprisal analysis characterizes the free energy time course of cancer cells undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Zadran, Sohila; Arumugam, Rameshkumar; Herschman, Harvey; Phelps, Michael E.; Levine, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) initiates the invasive and metastatic behavior of many epithelial cancers. Mechanisms underlying EMT are not fully known. Surprisal analysis of mRNA time course data from lung and pancreatic cancer cells stimulated to undergo TGF-β1–induced EMT identifies two phenotypes. Examination of the time course for these phenotypes reveals that EMT reprogramming is a multistep process characterized by initiation, maturation, and stabilization stages that correlate with changes in cell metabolism. Surprisal analysis characterizes the free energy time course of the expression levels throughout the transition in terms of two state variables. The landscape of the free energy changes during the EMT for the lung cancer cells shows a stable intermediate state. Existing data suggest this is the previously proposed maturation stage. Using a single-cell ATP assay, we demonstrate that the TGF-β1–induced EMT for lung cancer cells, particularly during the maturation stage, coincides with a metabolic shift resulting in increased cytosolic ATP levels. Surprisal analysis also characterizes the absolute expression levels of the mRNAs and thereby examines the homeostasis of the transcription system during EMT. PMID:25157127

  10. AKT1 inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer through phosphorylation-dependent Twist1 degradation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chia-Wei; Xia, Weiya; Lim, Seung-Oe; Hsu, Jennifer L.; Huo, Longfei; Wu, Yun; Li, Long-Yuan; Lai, Chien-Chen; Chang, Shih-Shin; Hsu, Yi-Hsin; Sun, Hui-Lung; Kim, Jongchan; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Lee, Dung-Fang; Wang, Hongmei; Wang, Yan; Chou, Chao-Kai; Hsu, Jung-Mao; Lai, Yun-Ju; LaBaff, Adam M.; Ding, Qingqing; Ko, How-Wen; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential physiological process that promotes cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. Several lines of evidence from both cellular and genetic studies suggest that AKT1/PKBα, but not AKT2 or AKT3, serves as a negative regulator of EMT and breast cancer metastasis. However, the underlying mechanism by which AKT1 suppresses EMT remains poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of Twist1 by AKT1 is required for β-TrCP-mediated Twist1 ubiquitination and degradation. The clinically used AKT inhibitor MK-2206, which possesses higher specificity toward AKT1, stabilized Twist1 and enhanced EMT in breast cancer cells. However, we discovered that resveratrol, a naturally occurring compound, induced β-TrCP-mediated Twist1 degradation to attenuate MK-2206-induced EMT in breast cancer cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that resveratrol counteracts the unexpected metastatic potential induced by anti-AKT therapy, and therefore suggest that the addition of resveratrol to an anti-AKT therapeutic regimen may provide extra support for limiting EMT. PMID:26759241

  11. YB-1 expression promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer that is inhibited by a small molecule fisetin

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Imran; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Lall, Rahul Kumar; Sechi, Mario; Joshi, Dinesh C.; Haidar, Omar M.; Syed, Deeba Nadeem; Siddiqui, Imtiaz Ahmad; Chiu, Shing-Yan; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in prostate cancer (PCa) metastasis. The transcription/translation regulatory Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is known to be associated with cancer metastasis. We observed that YB-1 expression increased with tumor grade and showed an inverse relationship with E-cadherin in a human PCa tissue array. Forced YB-1 expression induced a mesenchymal morphology that was associated with down regulation of epithelial markers. Silencing of YB-1 reversed mesenchymal features and decreased cell proliferation, migration and invasion in PCa cells. YB-1 is activated directly via Akt mediated phosphorylation at Ser102 within the cold shock domain (CSD). We next identified fisetin as an inhibitor of YB-1 activation. Computational docking and molecular dynamics suggested that fisetin binds on the residues from β1 - β4 strands of CSD, hindering Akt's interaction with YB-1. Calculated free binding energy ranged from −11.9845 to −9.6273 kcal/mol. Plasmon Surface Resonance studies showed that fisetin binds to YB-1 with an affinity of approximately 35 μM, with both slow association and dissociation. Fisetin also inhibited EGF induced YB-1 phosphorylation and markers of EMT both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively our data suggest that YB-1 induces EMT in PCa and identify fisetin as an inhibitor of its activation. PMID:24770864

  12. MAP3K4 Controls the Chromatin Modifier HDAC6 during Trophoblast Stem Cell Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Robert J; Raghu, Deepthi; Duke, Lauren D; Abell-Hart, Kayley; Zawistowski, Jon S; Lutz, Kyla; Gomez, Shawn M; Roy, Sujoy; Homayouni, Ramin; Johnson, Gary L; Abell, Amy N

    2017-03-07

    The first epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs in trophoblast stem (TS) cells during implantation. Inactivation of the serine/threonine kinase MAP3K4 in TS cells (TS(KI4) cells) induces an intermediate state of EMT, where cells retain stemness, lose epithelial markers, and gain mesenchymal characteristics. Investigation of relationships among MAP3K4 activity, stemness, and EMT in TS cells may reveal key regulators of EMT. Here, we show that MAP3K4 activity controls EMT through the ubiquitination and degradation of HDAC6. Loss of MAP3K4 activity in TS(KI4) cells results in elevated HDAC6 expression and the deacetylation of cytoplasmic and nuclear targets. In the nucleus, HDAC6 deacetylates the promoters of tight junction genes, promoting the dissolution of tight junctions. Importantly, HDAC6 knockdown in TS(KI4) cells restores epithelial features, including cell-cell adhesion and barrier formation. These data define a role for HDAC6 in regulating gene expression during transitions between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes.

  13. The Hippo transducer TAZ promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell maintenance in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongwu; Wang, Yanling; Zhu, Yumin; Yuan, Chunping; Wang, Dongmiao; Zhang, Wei; Qi, Bin; Qiu, Jin; Song, Xiaomeng; Ye, Jinhai; Wu, Heming; Jiang, Hongbing; Liu, Laikui; Zhang, Yuan; Song, Liang-Nian; Yang, Jianrong; Cheng, Jie

    2015-06-01

    The Hippo pathway has emerged as a fundamental regulator in tissue growth, organ size and stem cell functions, and tumorigenesis when deregulated. However, its roles and associated molecular mechanisms underlying oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) initiation and progression remain largely unknown. Here, we identified TAZ, the downstream effector of Hippo signaling, as a novel bona fide oncogene by promoting cell proliferation, migration/invasion and chemoresistance in OSCC. TAZ promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and also was involved in TGF-β1-induced EMT in oral cancer cells. Furthermore, enriched TAZ sustained self-renewal, maintenance, tumor-seeding potential of oral cancer stem cells (CSCs). Remarkably, enforced TAZ overexpression conferred CSCs-like properties on differentiated non-CSCs and fueled phenotypic transition from non-CSCs to CSCs-like cells. Mechanistically, TAZ-TEADs binding and subsequent transcriptional activation of EMT mediators and pluripotency factors are presumably responsible for TAZ-mediated EMT and non-CSCs-to-CSCs conversion. Importantly, aberrant TAZ overexpression was found to be associated with tumor size, pathological grade and cervical lymph node metastasis, as well as unfavorable prognosis. Pharmacological repression of TAZ by simvastatin resulted in potent anti-cancer effects against OSCC. Taken together, our findings have revealed critical links between TAZ, EMT and CSCs in OSCC initiation and progression, and also established TAZ as a novel cancer biomarker and viable druggable target for OSCC therapeutics.

  14. Danusertib, a potent pan-Aurora kinase and ABL kinase inhibitor, induces cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death and inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition involving the PI3K/Akt/mTOR-mediated signaling pathway in human gastric cancer AGS and NCI-N78 cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chun-Xiu; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Yin-Xue; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Wang, Dong; Yang, Tianxing; Pan, Si-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with a poor response to current chemotherapy. Danusertib is a pan-inhibitor of the Aurora kinases and a third-generation Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potent anticancer effects, but its antitumor effect and underlying mechanisms in the treatment of human gastric cancer are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of danusertib on cell growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition and the molecular mechanisms involved in human gastric cancer AGS and NCI-N78 cells. The results showed that danusertib had potent growth-inhibitory, apoptosis-inducing, and autophagy-inducing effects on AGS and NCI-N78 cells. Danusertib arrested AGS and NCI-N78 cells in G2/M phase, with downregulation of expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and upregulation of expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. Danusertib induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, with an increase in expression of proapoptotic protein and a decrease in antiapoptotic proteins in both cell lines. Danusertib induced release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol and triggered activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. Further, danusertib induced autophagy, with an increase in expression of beclin 1 and conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-I) to LC3-II in both cell lines. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways as well as activation of 5' AMP-activated protein kinase contributed to the proautophagic effect of danusertib in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. SB202191 and wortmannin enhanced the autophagy-inducing effect of danusertib in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. In addition, danusertib inhibited epithelial to mesenchymal transition with an increase in expression of E-cadherin and a decrease in expression of

  15. Danusertib, a potent pan-Aurora kinase and ABL kinase inhibitor, induces cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death and inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition involving the PI3K/Akt/mTOR-mediated signaling pathway in human gastric cancer AGS and NCI-N78 cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Chun-Xiu; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Yin-Xue; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Wang, Dong; Yang, Tianxing; Pan, Si-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with a poor response to current chemotherapy. Danusertib is a pan-inhibitor of the Aurora kinases and a third-generation Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potent anticancer effects, but its antitumor effect and underlying mechanisms in the treatment of human gastric cancer are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of danusertib on cell growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition and the molecular mechanisms involved in human gastric cancer AGS and NCI-N78 cells. The results showed that danusertib had potent growth-inhibitory, apoptosis-inducing, and autophagy-inducing effects on AGS and NCI-N78 cells. Danusertib arrested AGS and NCI-N78 cells in G2/M phase, with downregulation of expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and upregulation of expression of p21 Waf1/Cip1, p27 Kip1, and p53. Danusertib induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, with an increase in expression of proapoptotic protein and a decrease in antiapoptotic proteins in both cell lines. Danusertib induced release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol and triggered activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. Further, danusertib induced autophagy, with an increase in expression of beclin 1 and conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-I) to LC3-II in both cell lines. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways as well as activation of 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase contributed to the proautophagic effect of danusertib in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. SB202191 and wortmannin enhanced the autophagy-inducing effect of danusertib in AGS and NCI-N78 cells. In addition, danusertib inhibited epithelial to mesenchymal transition with an increase in expression of E-cadherin and a decrease in expression

  16. Downregulation of ceramide synthase-6 during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition reduces plasma membrane fluidity and cancer cell motility.

    PubMed

    Edmond, V; Dufour, F; Poiroux, G; Shoji, K; Malleter, M; Fouqué, A; Tauzin, S; Rimokh, R; Sergent, O; Penna, A; Dupuy, A; Levade, T; Theret, N; Micheau, O; Ségui, B; Legembre, P

    2015-02-19

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes cell motility, which is important for the metastasis of malignant cells, and blocks CD95-mediated apoptotic signaling triggered by immune cells and chemotherapeutic regimens. CD95L, the cognate ligand of CD95, can be cleaved by metalloproteases and released as a soluble molecule (cl-CD95L). Unlike transmembrane CD95L, cl-CD95L does not induce apoptosis but triggers cell motility. Electron paramagnetic resonance was used to show that EMT and cl-CD95L treatment both led to augmentation of plasma membrane fluidity that was instrumental in inducing cell migration. Compaction of the plasma membrane is modulated, among other factors, by the ratio of certain lipids such as sphingolipids in the membrane. An integrative analysis of gene expression in NCI tumor cell lines revealed that expression of ceramide synthase-6 (CerS6) decreased during EMT. Furthermore, pharmacological and genetic approaches established that modulation of CerS6 expression/activity in cancer cells altered the level of C16-ceramide, which in turn influenced plasma membrane fluidity and cell motility. Therefore, this study identifies CerS6 as a novel EMT-regulated gene that has a pivotal role in the regulation of cell migration.

  17. JDP2 inhibits the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer BxPC3 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Du, Ruixia; Long, Jin; Dong, Anbing; Fan, Jianpeng; Guo, Kejian; Xu, Yuanhong

    2012-10-01

    Pancreatic carcinoma is one of the most malignant and aggressive cancers. Increased motility and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells are believed to be associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the molecular basis of EMT in pancreatic cancer cells is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the relationship between Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2), which is an AP-1 inhibitor, and EMT in human pancreatic carcinoma cells. We demonstrated that transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) promoted epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EMT in co-treated human pancreatic BxPC3 cells and that JDP2 overexpression reversed the EMT that was induced by co-treatment with TGF-β1 and EGF. These results suggest that EGF plays a principal role in EMT through its association with TGF-β1 in human pancreatic BxPC3 cells and that JDP2 may be a molecular target for pancreatic carcinoma intervention.

  18. microRNA-520f reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by targeting ADAM9 and TGFBR2.

    PubMed

    van Kampen, Jasmijn Gm; van Hooij, Onno; Jansen, Cornelius Fj; Smit, Frank P; van Noort, Paula I; Schultz, Iman J; Schaapveld, Roel Qj; Schalken, Jack A; Verhaegh, Gerald W

    2017-02-16

    Reversing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells has been widely considered as an approach to combat cancer progression and therapeutic resistance, but a limited number of broadly comprehensive investigations of microRNAs involved in this process have been conducted. In this study, we screened a library of 1120 microRNA for their ability to transcriptionally activate the E-cadherin gene CDH1 in a promoter reporter assay as a measure of EMT reversal. By this approach, we defined miR-520f as a novel EMT-reversing microRNA. miR-520f expression was sufficient to restore endogenous levels of E-cadherin in cancer cell lines exhibiting strong or intermediate mesenchymal phenotypes. In parallel, miR-520f inhibited invasive behavior in multiple cancer cell systems and reduced metastasis in an experimental mouse model of lung metastasis. Mechanistically, miR-520f inhibited tumor cell invasion by directly targeting ADAM9, the TGF-ß receptor TGFBR2 and the EMT inducers ZEB1, ZEB2 and the snail transcriptional repressor SNAI2, each crucial factors in mediating EMT. Collectively, our results show that miR-520f exerts anti-invasive and anti-metastatic effects in vitro and in vivo, warranting further study in clinical settings.

  19. Ferritin heavy chain is a negative regulator of ovarian cancer stem cell expansion and epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Pisanu, Maria Elena; Faniello, Maria Concetta; Jakopin, Žiga; Chiarella, Emanuela; Giovannone, Emilia Dora; Mancini, Rita; Ciliberto, Gennaro

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Ferritin is the major intracellular iron storage protein essential for maintaining the cellular redox status. In recent years ferritin heavy chain (FHC) has been shown to be involved also in the control of cancer cell growth. Analysis of public microarray databases in ovarian cancer revealed a correlation between low FHC expression levels and shorter survival. To better understand the role of FHC in cancer, we have silenced the FHC gene in SKOV3 cells. Results FHC-KO significantly enhanced cell viability and induced a more aggressive behaviour. FHC-silenced cells showed increased ability to form 3D spheroids and enhanced expression of NANOG, OCT4, ALDH and Vimentin. These features were accompanied by augmented expression of SCD1, a major lipid metabolism enzyme. FHC apparently orchestrates part of these changes by regulating a network of miRNAs. Methods FHC-silenced and control shScr SKOV3 cells were monitored for changes in proliferation, migration, ability to propagate as 3D spheroids and for the expression of stem cell and epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) markers. The expression of three miRNAs relevant to spheroid formation or EMT was assessed by q-PCR. Conclusions In this paper we uncover a new function of FHC in the control of cancer stem cells. PMID:27566559

  20. Regulation of Cell Survival, Apoptosis, and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition by Nitric Oxide-Dependent Post-Translational Modifications.

    PubMed

    González, Raúl; Molina-Ruiz, Francisco J; Bárcena, J Antonio; Padilla, C Alicia; Muntané, Jordi

    2017-09-22

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a physiopathological messenger generating different reactive nitrogen species (RNS) according to hypoxic, acidic and redox conditions. Recent Advances: RNS and reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote relevant post-translational modifications, such as nitrosation, nitration, and oxidation, in critical components of cell proliferation and death, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and metastasis. The pro- or antitumoral properties of NO are dependent on local concentration, redox state, cellular status, duration of exposure, and compartmentalization of NO generation. The increased expression of NO synthase has been associated with cancer progression. However, the experimental strategies leading to high intratumoral NO generation have been shown to exert antitumoral properties. The effect of NO and ROS on cell signaling is critically altered by factors modulating tumor progression such as oxygen content, metabolism, and inflammatory response. The review describes the alteration of key components involved in cell survival and death, metabolism, and metastasis induced by RNS- and ROS-related post-translational modifications. The identification of the molecular targets affected by nitrosation, nitration, and oxidation, as well as their interactions with other post-translational modifications, will improve the understanding on the complex signaling and cell fate decision in cancer. The therapeutic NO-based strategies have to address the complex crosstalk among NO and ROS with regard to critical components affecting tumor cell survival, metabolism, and metastasis in the progression of cancer, as well as close interaction with ionizing radiation and chemotherapy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

  1. Novel cancer stem cell targets during epithelial to mesenchymal transition in PTEN-deficient trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gasparyan, Mari; Xu, Fangying; Jiang, Hui; Lin, Chang-Ching; Myers, Ila; Korkaya, Hasan; Liu, Yajing; Connarn, Jamie; He, Huining; Zhang, Ning; Wicha, Max S.; Sun, Duxin

    2016-01-01

    Continued use of trastuzumab in PTEN-deficient HER2+ breast cancer induces the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), transforms HER2+ to triple negative breast cancer, and expands breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). Using cancer cell lines with two distinct states, epithelial and mesenchymal, we identified novel targets during EMT in PTEN-deficient trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer. Differential gene expression and distinct responses to a small molecule in BT474 (HER2+ trastuzumab-sensitive) and the PTEN-deficient trastuzumab-resistant derivative (BT474-PTEN-LTT) provided the selection tools to identify targets during EMT. siRNA knockdown and small molecule inhibition confirmed MEOX1 as one of the critical molecular targets to regulate both BCSCs and mesenchymal-like cell proliferation. MEOX1 was associated with poor survival, lymph node metastasis, and stage of breast cancer patients. These findings suggest that MEOX1 is a clinically relevant novel target in BCSCs and mesenchymal-like cancer cells in PTEN-deficient trastuzumab resistant breast cancer and may serve as target for future drug development. PMID:27285982

  2. Lineage tracing demonstrates no evidence of cholangiocyte epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in murine models of hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Andrew S.; Diaz, Rosalyn; Hui, Jia-Ji; Yanger, Kilangsungla; Zong, Yiwei; Alpini, Gianfranco; Stanger, Ben Z.; Wells, Rebecca G.

    2011-01-01

    Whether or not cholangiocytes or their hepatic progenitors undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to become matrix-producing myofibroblasts during biliary fibrosis is a significant ongoing controversy. To assess whether EMT is active during biliary fibrosis, we used Alfp-Cre x Rosa26-YFP mice, in which the epithelial cells of the liver (hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and their bipotential progenitors) are heritably labeled at high efficiency with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Primary cholangiocytes isolated from our reporter strain were able to undergo EMT in vitro when treated with transforming growth factor-β1 alone or in combination with tumor necrosis factor-α, as indicated by adoption of fibroblastoid morphology, intracellular relocalization of E-cadherin, and expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). To determine whether EMT occurs in vivo, we induced liver fibrosis in Alfp-Cre x Rosa26-YFP mice using the bile duct ligation (BDL; 2, 4, and 8 weeks), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4, 3 weeks), and 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC; 2 and 3 weeks) models. In no case did we find evidence of co-localization of YFP with the mesenchymal markers S100A4, vimentin, α-SMA, or pro-collagen 1α2, although these proteins were abundant in the peribiliary regions. Conclusion Hepatocytes and cholangiocytes do not undergo EMT in murine models of hepatic fibrosis. PMID:21520179

  3. The Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition-Like Process in Glioblastoma: An Updated Systematic Review and In Silico Investigation.

    PubMed

    Iser, Isabele C; Pereira, Mariana B; Lenz, Guido; Wink, Márcia R

    2017-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive form of brain cancer due to its highly invasive nature that impedes the surgical removal of all tumor cells, making relapse inevitable. However, the mechanisms used by glioma cells to invade the surrounding tissue are still unclear. In this context, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has emerged as a key regulator of this invasive state and although the real relevance of this program in malignant glioma is still controversial, it has been strongly associated with GBM malignancy. EMT is a very complex process regulated by several families of transcriptional factors through many signaling pathways that form a network that allows cancer cells to acquire invasive properties and penetrate the neighboring stroma, resulting in the formation of an advantageous microenvironment for cancer progression and metastasis. In this systematic review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms of EMT including EMT-factors, drug resistance, miRNA, and new therapeutic strategies. In addition, we address controversial questions about mesenchymal shift in GBMs with a bioinformatics analysis to show that in terms of epithelial and mesenchymal phenotype, the majority of GBMs samples analyzed have a profile more mesenchymal than epithelial. If induced, this phenotype can be shifted toward an even more mesenchymal phenotype in an EMT-like process in glioma cells. A better understanding of the molecular regulation of the EMT during tumor spreading will help to provide potential therapeutic interventions to target this program when treating GBM.

  4. Glioma progression through the prism of heat shock protein mediated extracellular matrix remodeling and epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, Y; Biswas, Angana; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2017-10-15

    Glial tumor is one of the intrinsic brain tumors with high migratory and infiltrative potential. This essentially contributes to the overall poor prognosis by circumvention of conventional treatment regimen in glioma. The underlying mechanism in gliomagenesis is bestowed by two processes- Extracellular matrix (ECM) Remodeling and Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Heat Shock Family of proteins (HSPs), commonly known as "molecular chaperons" are documented to be upregulated in glioma. A positive correlation also exists between elevated expression of HSPs and invasive capacity of glial tumor. HSPs overexpression leads to mutational changes in glioma, which ultimately drive cells towards EMT, ECM modification, malignancy and invasion. Differential expression of HSPs - a factor providing cytoprotection to glioma cells, also contributes towards its radioresistance /chemoresistance. Various evidences also display upregulation of EMT and ECM markers by various heat shock inducing proteins e.g. HSF-1. The aim of this review is to study in detail the role of HSPs in EMT and ECM leading to radioresistance/chemoresistance of glioma cells. The existing treatment regimen for glioma could be enhanced by targeting HSPs through immunotherapy, miRNA and exosome mediated strategies. This could be envisaged by better understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying glial tumorigenesis in relation to EMT and ECM remodeling under HSPs influence. Our review might showcase fresh potential for the development of next generation therapeutics for effective glioma management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Wnt/β-catenin pathway is required for epithelial to mesenchymal transition in CXCL12 over expressed breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shan, Shumei; Lv, Qiang; Zhao, Yiling; Liu, Chunfeng; Sun, Yingyan; Xi, Kemin; Xiao, Jiayi; Li, Caijuan

    2015-01-01

    CXCL12 is positively associated with the metastasis and prognosis of various human malignancies. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), the main cells secreting CXCL12, are capable of inducing epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of breast cancer cells. However, it has not been completely understood whether CXCL12 is involved in EMT of breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of CXCL12 on the EMT and cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotypes formation by transfecting pEGFP-N1-CXCL12 plasmid into MCF-7 cells. Real time-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated the successful over expression of CXCL12 in MCF-7 cells. Cell counting kit-8 assay, wound healing assay and Transwell invasion analysis confirmed that over expression of CXCL12 significantly promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion in MCF-7 cells (P<0.05). In addition, ALDH activity was dramatically enhanced compared with parental (P<0.001), accompanied by the notably elevated mRNA and protein levels of OCT-4, Nanog, and SOX2 in CXCL12 overexpressed-MCF-7 cells (P<0.001). Furthermore, we observed the down regulation of E-cadherin and up regulation of vimentin, N-cadherin, and α-SMA in CXCL12 overexpressed-MCF-7 cells (P<0.01). Meanwhile, western blot and immunofluorescence assay showed that over expression of CXCL12 activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway to induce EMT of MCF-7 cells, as evidenced by the increased expression of E-cadherin after silencing β-catenin by siRNA interference (P<0.001). Collectively, our findings suggested that over expression of CXCL12 could trigger EMT by activating Wnt/β-catenin pathway and induce CSC-like phenotypes formation to promote the proliferation and metastasis in MCF-7. Hence, CXCL12 may become a promising candidate for breast cancer therapy.

  6. CXCL13-CXCR5 co-expression regulates epithelial to mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells during lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Subir; Sengupta, Suman; Roy Chowdhury, Sougata; Jana, Samir; Mandal, Gunjan; Mandal, Palash Kumar; Saha, Nipun; Malhotra, Vivek; Gupta, Arnab; Kuprash, Dmitry V; Bhattacharyya, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the expression of -CXC chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) and its receptor -CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5) in 98 breast cancer (BC) patients with infiltrating duct carcinoma, out of which 56 were found lymph node metastasis (LNM) positive. Interestingly, co-expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 showed a significant correlation with LNM. Since, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is highly associated with metastasis we investigated EMT-inducing potential of CXCL13 in BC cell lines. In CXCL13-stimulated BC cells, expression of various mesenchymal markers (Vimentin, N-cadherin), EMT regulators (Snail, Slug), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) was increased, whereas the expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin was found to be decreased. In addition, expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), which is known to regulate MMP9 expression via Src activation, was also significantly increased after CXCL13 stimulation. Using specific protein kinase inhibitors, we confirmed that CXCL13 stimulated EMT and MMP9 expression via RANKL-Src axis in BC cell lines. To further validate this observation, we examined gene expression patterns in primary breast tumors and detected significantly higher expression of various mesenchymal markers and regulators in CXCL13-CXCR5 co-expressing patients. Therefore, this study showed the EMT-inducing potential of CXCL13 as well as demonstrated the prognostic value of CXCL13-CXCR5 co-expression in primary BC. Moreover, CXCL13-CXCR5-RANKL-Src axis may present a therapeutic target in LNM positive BC patients.

  7. Honokiol confers immunogenicity by dictating calreticulin exposure, activating ER stress and inhibiting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Lee, Wen-Jane; Lai, De-Wei; Wu, Sheng-Mao; Liu, Chia-Yu; Tien, Hsing-Ru; Chiu, Chien-Shan; Peng, Yen-Chun; Jan, Yee-Jee; Chao, Te-Hsin; Pan, Hung-Chuan; Sheu, Meei-Ling

    2015-04-01

    Peritoneal dissemination is a major clinical obstacle in gastrointestinal cancer therapy, and it accounts for the majority of cancer-related mortality. Calreticulin (CRT) is over-expressed in gastric tumors and has been linked to poor prognosis. In this study, immunohistochemistry studies revealed that the up-regulation of CRT was associated with lymph node and distant metastasis in patients with gastric cancer specimens. CRT was significantly down-regulated in highly metastatic gastric cancer cell lines and metastatic animal by Honokiol-treated. Small RNA interference blocking CRT by siRNA-CRT was translocated to the cells in the early immunogenic response to Honokiol. Honokiol activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and down-regulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) activity resulting in PPARγ and CRT degradation through calpain-II activity, which could be reversed by siRNA-calpain-II. The Calpain-II/PPARγ/CRT axis and interaction evoked by Honokiol could be blocked by gene silencing or pharmacological agents. Both transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) induced cell migration, invasion and reciprocal down-regulation of epithelial marker E-cadherin, which could be abrogated by siRNA-CRT. Moreover, Honokiol significantly suppressed MNNG-induced gastrointestinal tumor growth and over-expression of CRT in mice. Knockdown CRT in gastric cancer cells was found to effectively reduce growth ability and metastasis in vivo. The present study provides insight into the specific biological behavior of CRT in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis. Taken together, our results suggest that the therapeutic inhibition of CRT by Honokiol suppresses both gastric tumor growth and peritoneal dissemination by dictating early translocation of CRT in immunogenic cell death, activating ER stress, and blocking EMT. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by

  8. Kruppel-like factor 4 inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition through regulation of E-cadherin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Yori, Jennifer L; Johnson, Emhonta; Zhou, Guangjin; Jain, Mukesh K; Keri, Ruth A

    2010-05-28

    The Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a transcriptional regulator of proliferation and differentiation in epithelial cells, both during development and tumorigenesis. Although KLF4 functions as a tumor suppressor in several tissues, including the colon, the role of KLF4 in breast cancer is less clear. Here, we show that KLF4 is necessary for maintenance of the epithelial phenotype in non-transformed MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells. KLF4 silencing led to alterations in epithelial cell morphology and migration, indicative of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Consistent with these changes, decreased levels of KLF4 also resulted in the loss of E-cadherin protein and mRNA. Promoter/reporter analyses revealed decreased E-cadherin promoter activity with KLF4 silencing, while chromatin immunoprecipitation identified endogenous KLF4 binding to the GC-rich/E-box region of this promoter. Furthermore, forced expression of KLF4 in the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cell line was sufficient to restore E-cadherin expression and suppress migration and invasion. These findings identify E-cadherin as a novel transcriptional target of KLF4. The clear requirement for KLF4 to maintain E-cadherin expression and prevent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in mammary epithelial cells supports a metastasis suppressive role for KLF4 in breast cancer.

  9. CYR61 and TAZ Upregulation and Focal Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition May Be Early Predictors of Barrett's Esophagus Malignant Progression.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Joana; Mesquita, Marta; Dias Pereira, António; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica; Chaves, Paula; Pereira-Leal, José B

    2016-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus is the major risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. It has a low but non-neglectable risk, high surveillance costs and no reliable risk stratification markers. We sought to identify early biomarkers, predictive of Barrett's malignant progression, using a meta-analysis approach on gene expression data. This in silico strategy was followed by experimental validation in a cohort of patients with extended follow up from the Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa de Francisco Gentil EPE (Portugal). Bioinformatics and systems biology approaches singled out two candidate predictive markers for Barrett's progression, CYR61 and TAZ. Although previously implicated in other malignancies and in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotypes, our experimental validation shows for the first time that CYR61 and TAZ have the potential to be predictive biomarkers for cancer progression. Experimental validation by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry confirmed the up-regulation of both genes in Barrett's samples associated with high-grade dysplasia/adenocarcinoma. In our cohort CYR61 and TAZ up-regulation ranged from one to ten years prior to progression to adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus index samples. Finally, we found that CYR61 and TAZ over-expression is correlated with early focal signs of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Our results highlight both CYR61 and TAZ genes as potential predictive biomarkers for stratification of the risk for development of adenocarcinoma and suggest a potential mechanistic route for Barrett's esophagus neoplastic progression.

  10. Association between cancer stem cell-like properties and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in primary and secondary cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wonbong; Kim, Hye-Eun; Kim, Young; Na, Risu; Li, Xiaojie; Jeon, Sangmi; Choi, Hongran; Kim, Okjoon

    2016-09-01

    One of the theories on cancer stem cells (CSCs) states that these cells initiate most tumors and give rise to more-or-less differentiated tumor cells. Genetic signatures of CSCs are thought to predict tumor recurrence and metastases, thus, supporting the notion that CSCs may be metastatic precursors and induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this study, we tried to examine the association between CSCs and EMT (using specific markers) in the mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell line YD15 and its derivative cell line YD15M (lymph node metastasis). Relative protein expression levels were analyzed by western blotting, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence assays. In addition, cell cycle assay and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity assay were carried out. Under growth conditions, YD15M cells formed irregular spherical colonies consistent with a stem cell phenotype. YD15M cells demonstrated the low expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin but high expression of vimentin than that in YD15 cells. In the metastatic cells (YD15M), the coexpression of vimentin and CD133 was detected. Weak proliferation based on cell cycle analysis and decreased PCNA expression was also observed. In addition, expression levels of ALDHA1, OCT4, and NANOG (CSC-like properties) were significantly increased in YD15M cells. Taken together, these findings should help to elucidate the interplay between EMT and CSC-like properties during metastasis and may provide useful information for the development of a novel classification system and therapeutic strategies against head and neck cancer.

  11. Markers of fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition demonstrate field cancerization in histologically normal tissue adjacent to breast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Kristina A.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Mai, Minh; Vargas, Keith M.; Jones, Anna C.; Vo, Phung; Butler, Kimberly S.; Joste, Nancy E.; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a field of genetically altered but histologically normal tissue extends 1 cm or more from the margins of human breast tumors. The extent, composition and biological significance of this field are only partially understood, but the molecular alterations in affected cells could provide mechanisms for limitless replicative capacity, genomic instability and a microenvironment that supports tumor initiation and progression. We demonstrate by microarray, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry a signature of differential gene expression that discriminates between patient-matched, tumor-adjacent histologically normal breast tissues located 1 cm and 5 cm from the margins of breast adenocarcinomas (TAHN-1 and TAHN-5, respectively). The signature includes genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, wound healing, fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Myofibroblasts, which are mediators of wound healing and fibrosis, and intra-lobular fibroblasts expressing MMP2, SPARC, TGF-β3, which are inducers of EMT, were both prevalent in TAHN-1 tissues, sparse in TAHN-5 tissues, and absent in normal tissues from reduction mammoplasty. Accordingly, EMT markers S100A4 and vimentin were elevated in both luminal and myoepithelial cells, and EMT markers α-smooth muscle actin and SNAIL were elevated in luminal epithelial cells of TAHN-1 tissues. These results identify cellular processes that are differentially activated between TAHN-1 and TAHN-5 breast tissues, implicate myofibroblasts as likely mediators of these processes, provide evidence that EMT is occurring in histologically normal tissues within the affected field and identify candidate biomarkers to investigate whether or how field cancerization contributes to the development of primary or recurrent breast tumors. PMID:21105047

  12. Deguelin Suppresses Pancreatic Tumor Growth and Metastasis by Inhibiting Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in an Orthotopic Model1

    PubMed Central

    Boreddy, Srinivas Reddy; Srivastava, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Deguelin is known to suppress the growth of cancer cells; however, its anti-metastatic effects have not been studied so far in any cancer model. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-metastatic potential of deguelin in vivo and in TGFβ1-stimulated cells. Our results demonstrate that tumor growth, peritoneal-dissemination and liver/lung metastasis of orthotopically implanted PanC-1-luc cells were significantly reduced in deguelin-treated mice along with the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, deguelin-treated tumors showed increased epithelial signature such as increased expression of E-Cadherin and cytokeratin-18 and decreased expression of Snail. Similar observations were made when PanC-1, COLO-357 and L3.6pl cells were treated in vitro with deguelin. Moreover, E-cadherin was transcriptionally up-regulated and accumulated in the membrane fraction of deguelin-treated cells as indicated by increased interaction of E-Cadherin with β-catenin. TGFβ1-induced down-regulation of E-Cadherin and up-regulation of Snail were abrogated by deguelin treatment. In addition, deguelin inhibited TGFβ1-induced Smad3 phosphorylation and Smad4 nuclear translocation in PanC-1 cells. Furthermore, when TGFβ1-induced NFkB activation was inhibited, TGFβ1-induced Snail up-regulation or E-Cadherin down-regulation was blocked. Deguelin also significantly down regulated the constitutive phosphorylation and DNA binding of NFkB in a dose dependent manner. Interestingly, overexpression of either NFkB or Snail completely abrogated deguelin-mediated EMT inhibition, whereas overexpression of NFkB but not Snail rescued cells from deguelin-induced apoptosis. Hence, deguelin targets NFkB to induce reversal of EMT and apoptosis but downstream effectors might be different for both processes. Taken together, our results suggest that deguelin suppresses both pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting epithelial to mesenchymal transition. PMID:22986522

  13. Prostate-Derived ETS Factor Regulates Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition through Both SLUG-Dependent and Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, Victoria J.; Turner, David P.; Yordy, John S.; McCarragher, Brent; Shriver, Marey R.; Szalai, Gabor; Watson, Patricia M.; LaRue, Amanda C.; Moussa, Omar; Watson, Dennis K.

    2011-01-01

    The 5-year survival rate is very low when breast cancer becomes metastatic. The metastatic process is governed by a network of molecules of which SLUG is known to play a major role as a regulator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Prostate-derived ETS factor (PDEF) has been proposed as a tumor suppressor, possibly through inhibition of invasion and metastasis; therefore, understanding the mechanism of PDEF regulation may help to better understand its role in breast cancer progression. This study shows for the first time that the transcription factor SLUG is a direct target of PDEF in breast cancer. We show that the expression of PDEF is able to suppress/dampen EMT through the negative regulation of SLUG. In addition, we show that PDEF is also able to regulate downstream targets of SLUG, namely E-cadherin, in both SLUG-dependent and -independent manners, suggesting a critical role for PDEF in regulating EMT. PMID:21779485

  14. Cell-Type-Specific Chromatin States Differentially Prime Squamous Cell Carcinoma Tumor-Initiating Cells for Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Latil, Mathilde; Nassar, Dany; Beck, Benjamin; Boumahdi, Soufiane; Wang, Li; Brisebarre, Audrey; Dubois, Christine; Nkusi, Erwin; Lenglez, Sandrine; Checinska, Agnieszka; Vercauteren Drubbel, Alizée; Devos, Michael; Declercq, Wim; Yi, Rui; Blanpain, Cédric

    2017-02-02

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells has been associated with metastasis, stemness, and resistance to therapy. Some tumors undergo EMT while others do not, which may reflect intrinsic properties of their cell of origin. However, this possibility is largely unexplored. By targeting the same oncogenic mutations to discrete skin compartments, we show that cell-type-specific chromatin and transcriptional states differentially prime tumors to EMT. Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) derived from interfollicular epidermis (IFE) are generally well differentiated, while hair follicle (HF) stem cell-derived SCCs frequently exhibit EMT, efficiently form secondary tumors, and possess increased metastatic potential. Transcriptional and epigenomic profiling revealed that IFE and HF tumor-initiating cells possess distinct chromatin landscapes and gene regulatory networks associated with tumorigenesis and EMT that correlate with accessibility of key epithelial and EMT transcription factor binding sites. These findings highlight the importance of chromatin states and transcriptional priming in dictating tumor phenotypes and EMT.

  15. Curcumin suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells by inhibiting cancer-associated fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Qu, Chao; Xie, Fang; Chen, Lianyu; Liu, Luming; Liang, Xiaohua; Wu, Xueyong; Wang, Peng; Meng, Zhiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, because of its aggressive and highly metastatic ability even in its early stages. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have been reported to be vital to pancreatic cancer progression via regulating tumorigenesis and metastasis. Studies have shown that CAFs also mediate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cells. Curcumin has recently been reported to have anticancer effects by modulating pathways involved in cancer progression. Therefore, we hypothesized that curcumin might inhibit EMT by targeting CAFs in pancreatic cancer. In this study, we show that the CAF-mediated enhancement of pancreatic cancer cell migration and metastasis was blocked by curcumin. In conclusion, our data provide the first evidence that curcumin inhibits the migration and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells by reducing the mesenchymal characteristics of CAFs, which reverses the EMT phenotypes of pancreatic cancer cells. PMID:28123853

  16. Cancer stem-like cells from head and neck cancers are chemosensitized by the Wnt antagonist, sFRP4, by inducing apoptosis, decreasing stemness, drug resistance and epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Warrier, S; Bhuvanalakshmi, G; Arfuso, F; Rajan, G; Millward, M; Dharmarajan, A

    2014-09-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are defined by high self-renewal and drug refractory potential. Involvement of Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in rapidly cycling cells such as CSCs, and inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a novel approach to target CSCs from HNSCC. In this study, we found that an antagonist of FrzB/Wnt, the secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP4), inhibited the growth of CSCs from two HNSCC cell lines, Hep2 and KB. We enriched the CD44(+) CSC population, and grew them in spheroid cultures. sFRP4 decreased the proliferation and increased the sensitivity of spheroids to a commonly used drug in HNSCC, namely cisplatin. Self-renewal in sphere formation assays decreased upon sFRP4 treatment, and the effect was reverted by the addition of Wnt3a. sFRP4 treatment of spheroids also decreased β-catenin, confirming its action through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Quantitative PCR demonstrated a clear decrease of the stemness markers CD44 and ALDH, and an increase in CD24 and drug-resistance markers ABCG2 and ABCC4. Furthermore, we found that after sFRP4 treatment, there was a reversal in the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT) markers with the restoration of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, and depletion of EMT-specific markers twist, snail and N-cadherin. This is the first report demonstrating that the naturally occurring Wnt inhibitor, sFRP4, can be a potential drug to destroy CSC-enriched spheroids from HNSCCs. The repression of EMT and the decrease in stemness profile further strengthen the use of sFRP4 as a potent therapeutic against CSCs.

  17. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling promotes tumorigenicity and stemness via activation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Islam, S S; Mokhtari, R B; Noman, A S; Uddin, M; Rahman, M Z; Azadi, M A; Zlotta, A; van der Kwast, T; Yeger, H; Farhat, W A

    2016-05-01

    Activation of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway controls tumorigenesis in a variety of cancers. Here, we show a role for Shh signaling in the promotion of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumorigenicity, and stemness in the bladder cancer. EMT induction was assessed by the decreased expression of E-cadherin and ZO-1 and increased expression of N-cadherin. The induced EMT was associated with increased cell motility, invasiveness, and clonogenicity. These progression relevant behaviors were attenuated by treatment with Hh inhibitors cyclopamine and GDC-0449, and after knockdown by Shh-siRNA, and led to reversal of the EMT phenotype. The results with HTB-9 were confirmed using a second bladder cancer cell line, BFTC905 (DM). In a xenograft mouse model TGF-β1 treated HTB-9 cells exhibited enhanced tumor growth. Although normal bladder epithelial cells could also undergo EMT and upregulate Shh with TGF-β1 they did not exhibit tumorigenicity. The TGF-β1 treated HTB-9 xenografts showed strong evidence for a switch to a more stem cell like phenotype, with functional activation of CD133, Sox2, Nanog, and Oct4. The bladder cancer specific stem cell markers CK5 and CK14 were upregulated in the TGF-β1 treated xenograft tumor samples, while CD44 remained unchanged in both treated and untreated tumors. Immunohistochemical analysis of 22 primary human bladder tumors indicated that Shh expression was positively correlated with tumor grade and stage. Elevated expression of Ki-67, Shh, Gli2, and N-cadherin were observed in the high grade and stage human bladder tumor samples, and conversely, the downregulation of these genes were observed in the low grade and stage tumor samples. Collectively, this study indicates that TGF-β1-induced Shh may regulate EMT and tumorigenicity in bladder cancer. Our studies reveal that the TGF-β1 induction of EMT and Shh is cell type context dependent. Thus, targeting the Shh pathway could be clinically beneficial in the

  18. Cell fusion between gastric epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells results in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    He, Xianghui; Li, Baosong; Shao, Yang; Zhao, Na; Hsu, Yiling; Zhang, Zhixiang; Zhu, Liwei

    2015-01-30

    The discovery of cancer stem cells and tumor heterogeneity prompted the exploration of additional mechanisms aside from genetic mutations for carcinogenesis and cancer progression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cell fusion between mesenchymal stem cells and the gastric epithelial cells in tumorigenesis. Cell fusion between cord blood mesenchymal stem cells and human gastric epithelial cells was performed in vitro. Cell scratch and transwell assays were performed to determine migration and invasion abilities of the hybrids. The expressions of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related proteins and genes were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and real time quantitative PCR. Tumorigenesis of the hybrids was evaluated through in vivo inoculation in nude mice. Hybrids expressed the phenotypes of both donor cells. Aneuploidy was observed in 84.1% of cells. The hybrids showed increased proliferation, migration and invasion abilities compared with the parental cells. In addition, the expression of N-cadherin and vimentin in the hybrids was significantly higher than that of the epithelial cells, and the mRNA expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes, Twist and Slug, in the hybrids was also increased compared with that of the parental epithelial cells. Furthermore, the hybrids formed masses of epithelial origin with glandular structures in BALB/c nude mice. These findings suggest that cell fusion between gastric epithelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells may result in epithelial to mesenchymal transition and malignant transformation.

  19. SSX2 regulates focal adhesion but does not drive the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Jordan E.; McNeel, Douglas G.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy for men in the United States. Metastatic prostate cancer, the lethal form of the disease, has a life expectancy of approximately five years. Identification of factors associated with this transition to metastatic disease is crucial for future therapies. One such factor is the SSX gene family, a family of cancer/testis antigens (CTA) transcription factors which have been shown to be aberrantly expressed in other cancers and associated with the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). We have previously shown that SSX expression in prostate cancers was restricted to metastatic tissue and not primary tumors. In this study, we have identified SSX2 as the predominant SSX family member expressed in prostate cancer, and found its expression in the peripheral blood of 19 of 54 (35%) prostate cancer patients, with expression restricted to circulating tumor cells, and in 7 of 15 (47%) metastatic cDNA samples. Further, we examined SSX2 function in prostate cancer through knockdown and overexpression in prostate cancer cell lines. While overexpression had little effect on morphology or gene transcript changes, knockdown of SSX2 resulted in an epithelial morphology, increased cell proliferation, increased expression of genes involved in focal adhesion, decreased anchorage independent growth, increased invasion, and increased tumorigenicity in vivo. We conclude from these findings that SSX2 expression in prostate cancer is not a driver of EMT, but is involved in processes associated with EMT including loss of focal adhesion that may be related to tumor cell dissemination. PMID:27276714

  20. Notch signaling modulates proliferative vitreoretinopathy via regulating retinal pigment epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Yuan, Gongqiang; Dong, Muchen; Zhang, Ting; Hua, Gao; Zhou, Qingjun; Shi, Weiyun

    2016-09-07

    Elevated Notch signaling has been verified in a large range of fibrotic diseases developed in the kidney, liver, and lung, inducing the development of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The aim of this study was to observe the involvement of Notch signaling in the EMT of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). In vitro cultivated human RPE cells (ARPE-19) were treated with 10 ng/mL transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 for 24, 48, and 72 h. The expression levels of ZO-1, α-SMA, vimentin, Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD1), and Hes-1 were evaluated with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunofluorescence staining or Western blot. TGF-β1 induced EMT and the activation of Notch signaling in ARPE-19 cells. To examine the effect of Notch inhibition on TGF-β1-induced EMT and PVR formation, ARPE-19 cells were preincubated with γ-secretase inhibitor LY411575 before TGF-β1 treatment. Mouse PVR model was used for in vivo study. ARPE-19 cells were injected intravitreously with or without the LY411575 to examine the effect of Notch inhibition on PVR formation. LY411575 significantly attenuated EMT by inhibiting the Notch signaling activation in vitro. PVR was induced by intravitreal injections of ARPE-19 cells, while LY411575 inhibited mouse PVR formation in vivo. Notch signaling plays a critical role in TGF-β1-induced EMT in vitro and mice PVR model, which provides a novel insight into the pathogenesis of PVR. The specific inhibition of Notch signaling by γ-secretase inhibitor may provide a new approach for the prevention of PVR.

  1. Study of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Atypical Fibroxanthoma and Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma to Discern an Epithelial Origin.

    PubMed

    Toll, Agustí; Gimeno, Javier; Baró, Teresa; Hernández-Muñoz, Maria I; Pujol, Ramon M

    2016-04-01

    Atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) is considered a fibroblastic or myofibroblastic neoplasm probably corresponding to a superficial variant of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS). However, an epithelial origin has also been postulated. An immunohistochemical study of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenomenon was performed in a series of 19 AFX and 4 UPS to discern an epithelial origin. A panel of epithelial (cytokeratins AE1-AE3 panel, podoplanin D2-40, and E-cadherin) and EMT (vimentin, Twist, Zeb1, and Snail1) markers were evaluated in both tumoral cells and the adjacent epidermis. Podoplanin and Snail1 were negative in all the samples. Nuclear E-cadherin, Twist, and Zeb1 were detected in most lesions, as previously reported in other sarcomas. In the epidermis, E-cadherin showed a normal membranous pattern and only isolated cells were positive for vimentin. Twist and Zeb1 were mainly negative in the epidermis. None of the immunohistochemical markers mentioned above elicited a conspicuous bridging between the epidermis and the dermis. Our findings suggest that EMT does not play a role in the development of AFX or UPS.

  2. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition drives a pro-metastatic Golgi compaction process through scaffolding protein PAQR11

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaochao; Banerjee, Priyam; Guo, Hou-Fu; Ireland, Stephen; Pankova, Daniela; Ahn, Young-ho; Nikolaidis, Irodotos Michail; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Yanbin; Burns, Alan R.; Gibbons, Don L.; Zal, Tomasz; Creighton, Chad J.; Wang, Yanzhuang; Kurie, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells gain metastatic capacity through a Golgi phosphoprotein 3–dependent (GOLPH3-dependent) Golgi membrane dispersal process that drives the budding and transport of secretory vesicles. Whether Golgi dispersal underlies the pro-metastatic vesicular trafficking that is associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains unclear. Here, we have shown that, rather than causing Golgi dispersal, EMT led to the formation of compact Golgi organelles with improved ribbon linking and cisternal stacking. Ectopic expression of the EMT-activating transcription factor ZEB1 stimulated Golgi compaction and relieved microRNA-mediated repression of the Golgi scaffolding protein PAQR11. Depletion of PAQR11 dispersed Golgi organelles and impaired anterograde vesicle transport to the plasma membrane as well as retrograde vesicle tethering to the Golgi. The N-terminal scaffolding domain of PAQR11 was associated with key regulators of Golgi compaction and vesicle transport in pull-down assays and was required to reconstitute Golgi compaction in PAQR11-deficient tumor cells. Finally, high PAQR11 levels were correlated with EMT and shorter survival in human cancers, and PAQR11 was found to be essential for tumor cell migration and metastasis in EMT-driven lung adenocarcinoma models. We conclude that EMT initiates a PAQR11-mediated Golgi compaction process that drives metastasis. PMID:27869652

  3. Cellular Migration and Invasion Uncoupled: Increased Migration Is Not an Inexorable Consequence of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Daneen; Somarelli, Jason A.; Hanna, Gabi; Palmer, Gregory M.

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic dissemination requires carcinoma cells to detach from the primary tumor and invade through the basement membrane. To acquire these characteristics, epithelial tumor cells undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT), whereby cells lose polarity and E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. Post-EMT cells have also been shown, or assumed, to be more migratory; however, there have been contradictory reports on an immortalized human mammary epithelial cell line (HMLE) that underwent EMT. In the context of carcinoma-associated EMT, it is not yet clear whether the change in migration and invasion must be positively correlated during EMT or whether enhanced migration is a necessary consequence of having undergone EMT. Here, we report that pre-EMT rat prostate cancer (PC) and HMLE cells are more migratory than their post-EMT counterparts. To determine a mechanism for increased epithelial cell migration, gene expression analysis was performed and revealed an increase in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in pre-EMT cells. Indeed, inhibition of EGFR in PC epithelial cells slowed migration. Importantly, while post-EMT PC and HMLE cell lines are less migratory, both remain invasive in vitro and, for PC cells, in vivo. Our study demonstrates that enhanced migration is not a phenotypic requirement of EMT, and migration and invasion can be uncoupled during carcinoma-associated EMT. PMID:25002532

  4. Irisin suppresses the migration, proliferation, and invasion of lung cancer cells via inhibition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lei; Li, Huanjie; Chen, Jian; Song, Haibo; Zhang, Yuzhu; Wu, Fei; Wang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Fang; Li, Hui; Tang, Dongqi

    2017-04-08

    Irisin is involved in promoting metabolism, immune regulation, and affects chronic inflammation in many systemic diseases, including gastric cancer. However, the role of irisin in lung cancer is not well characterized. To determine whether irisin has a protective effect against lung cancer, we cultured A549 and NCI-H446 lung cancer cells and treated them with irisin. We detected the proliferation by MTT assay, and assessed the migration and invasion of the cells by scratch wound healing assay and Tran-swell assay. The expression levels of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and the related signaling pathways were detected by western blot analysis. Meanwhile, an inhibitor of PI3K was used to investigate the effect of irsin. Finally, the expression of Snail was detected. We demonstrated that irisin inhibits the proliferation, migration, and invasion of lung cancer cells, and has a novel role in mediating the PI3K/AKT pathway in the cells. Irisin can reverse the activity of EMT and inhibit the expression of Snail via mediating the PI3K/AKT pathway, which is a key regulator of Snail. These results revealed that irisin inhibited EMT and reduced the invasion of lung cancer cells via the PI3K/AKT/Snail pathway.

  5. DMXL2 drives epithelial to mesenchymal transition in hormonal therapy resistant breast cancer through notch hyper-activation

    PubMed Central

    Faronato, Monica; Nguyen, Van T.M.; Patten, Darren K.; Lombardo, Ylenia; Steel, Jennifer H.; Patel, Naina; Woodley, Laura; Shousha, Sami; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Coombes, R. Charles; Magnani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of endocrine therapy resistance in estrogen receptor α (ERα) breast cancer patients represents a major clinical problem. Notch signalling has been extensively linked to breast cancer especially in patients who fail to respond to endocrine therapy. Following activation, Notch intracellular domain is released and enters the nucleus where activates transcription of target genes. The numerous steps that cascade after activation of the receptor complicate using Notch as biomarker. Hence, this warrants the development of reliable indicators of Notch activity. DMXL2 is a novel regulator of Notch signalling not yet investigated in breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that DMXL2 is overexpressed in a subset of endocrine therapy resistant breast cancer cell lines where it promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition through hyper-activation of Notch signalling via V-ATPase dependent acidification. Following DMXL2 depletion or treatment with Bafilomycin A1, both EMT targets and Notch signalling pathway significantly decrease. We show for the first time that DMXL2 protein levels are significantly increased in ERα positive breast cancer patients that progress after endocrine therapy. Finally, we demonstrate that DMXL2 is a transmembrane protein with a potential extra-cellular domain. These findings identify DMXL2 as a novel, functional biomarker for ERα positive breast cancer. PMID:26093085

  6. DMXL2 drives epithelial to mesenchymal transition in hormonal therapy resistant breast cancer through Notch hyper-activation.

    PubMed

    Faronato, Monica; Nguyen, Van T M; Patten, Darren K; Lombardo, Ylenia; Steel, Jennifer H; Patel, Naina; Woodley, Laura; Shousha, Sami; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Coombes, R Charles; Magnani, Luca

    2015-09-08

    The acquisition of endocrine therapy resistance in estrogen receptor α (ERα) breast cancer patients represents a major clinical problem. Notch signalling has been extensively linked to breast cancer especially in patients who fail to respond to endocrine therapy. Following activation, Notch intracellular domain is released and enters the nucleus where activates transcription of target genes. The numerous steps that cascade after activation of the receptor complicate using Notch as biomarker. Hence, this warrants the development of reliable indicators of Notch activity. DMXL2 is a novel regulator of Notch signalling not yet investigated in breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate that DMXL2 is overexpressed in a subset of endocrine therapy resistant breast cancer cell lines where it promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition through hyper-activation of Notch signalling via V-ATPase dependent acidification. Following DMXL2 depletion or treatment with Bafilomycin A1, both EMT targets and Notch signalling pathway significantly decrease. We show for the first time that DMXL2 protein levels are significantly increased in ERα positive breast cancer patients that progress after endocrine therapy. Finally, we demonstrate that DMXL2 is a transmembrane protein with a potential extra-cellular domain. These findings identify DMXL2 as a novel, functional biomarker for ERα positive breast cancer.

  7. TGFβ-Dependent Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Is Required to Generate Cardiospheres from Human Adult Heart Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Forte, Elvira; Miraldi, Fabio; Chimenti, Isotta; Angelini, Francesco; Zeuner, Ann; Giacomello, Alessandro; Mercola, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Autologous cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) isolated as cardiospheres (CSps) represent a promising candidate for cardiac regenerative therapy. A better understanding of the origin and mechanisms underlying human CSps formation and maturation is undoubtedly required to enhance their cardiomyogenic potential. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key morphogenetic process that is implicated in the acquisition of stem cell-like properties in different adult tissues, and it is activated in the epicardium after ischemic injury to the heart. We investigated whether EMT is involved in the formation and differentiation of human CSps, revealing that an up-regulation of the expression of EMT-related genes accompanies CSps formation that is relative to primary explant-derived cells and CSp-derived cells grown in a monolayer. EMT and CSps formation is enhanced in the presence of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) and drastically blocked by the type I TGFβ-receptor inhibitor SB431452, indicating that TGFβ-dependent EMT is essential for the formation of these niche-like 3D-multicellular clusters. Since TGFβ is activated in the myocardium in response to injury, our data suggest that CSps formation mimics an adaptive mechanism that could potentially be enhanced to increase in vivo or ex vivo regenerative potential of adult CPCs. PMID:22765842

  8. Grainyhead-like 2 downstream targets act to suppress epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition during neural tube closure.

    PubMed

    Ray, Heather J; Niswander, Lee A

    2016-04-01

    The transcription factor grainyhead-like 2 (GRHL2) is expressed in non-neural ectoderm (NNE) and Grhl2 loss results in fully penetrant cranial neural tube defects (NTDs) in mice. GRHL2 activates expression of several epithelial genes; however, additional molecular targets and functional processes regulated by GRHL2 in the NNE remain to be determined, as well as the underlying cause of the NTDs in Grhl2 mutants. Here, we find that Grhl2 loss results in abnormal mesenchymal phenotypes in the NNE, including aberrant vimentin expression and increased cellular dynamics that affects the NNE and neural crest cells. The resulting loss of NNE integrity contributes to an inability of the cranial neural folds to move toward the midline and results in NTD. Further, we identified Esrp1, Sostdc1, Fermt1, Tmprss2 and Lamc2 as novel NNE-expressed genes that are downregulated in Grhl2 mutants. Our in vitro assays show that they act as suppressors of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Thus, GRHL2 promotes the epithelial nature of the NNE during the dynamic events of neural tube formation by both activating key epithelial genes and actively suppressing EMT through novel downstream EMT suppressors.

  9. STIM1 accelerates cell senescence in a remodeled microenvironment but enhances the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yingxi; Zhang, Shu; Niu, Haiying; Ye, Yujie; Hu, Fen; Chen, Si; Li, Xuefei; Luo, Xiaohe; Jiang, Shan; Liu, Yanhua; Chen, Yanan; Li, Junying; Xiang, Rong; Li, Na

    2015-01-01

    The importance of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) and the role of its key molecular regulators, STIM1 and ORAI1, in the development of cancer are emerging. Here, we report an unexpected dual function of SOCE in prostate cancer progression by revealing a decrease in the expression of STIM1 in human hyperplasia and tumor tissues of high histological grade and by demonstrating that STIM1 and ORAI1 inhibit cell growth by arresting the G0/G1 phase and enhancing cell senescence in human prostate cancer cells. In addition, STIM1 and ORAI1 inhibited NF-κB signaling and remodeled the tumor microenvironment by reducing the formation of M2 phenotype macrophages, possibly creating an unfavorable tumor microenvironment and inhibiting cancer development. However, STIM1 also promoted cell migration and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by activating TGF-β, Snail and Wnt/β-Catenin pathways. Thus, our study revealed novel regulatory effects and the mechanisms by which STIM1 affects cell senescence, tumor migration and the tumor microenvironment, revealing that STIM1 has multiple functions in prostate cancer cells. PMID:26257076

  10. Regulation of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition and metastasis by Raf kinase inhibitory protein-dependent Notch1 activity

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ji Hye; Kang, Min Young; Zada, Sahib; Rha, Sun Young; Kang, Sang Soo; Kim, Hyun Joon; Park, Jae-Yong; Byun, June-Ho; Hahm, Jong Ryeal; Shin, Jeong Kyu; Jeong, Sang-Ho; Lee, Young-Joon; Kim, Deok Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP), an endogenous inhibitor of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, has been implicated as a suppressor of metastasis and a prognostic marker in cancers. However, how RKIP acts as a suppressor during metastasis is not fully understood. Here, we show that RKIP activity in cervical and stomach cancer is inversely correlated with endogenous levels of the Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD), which stimulates the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis. The levels of RKIP were significantly decreased in tumor tissues compared to normal tissues, whereas NICD levels were increased. Overexpression of RKIP in several cell lines resulted in a dramatic decrease of NICD and subsequent inhibition of several mesenchymal markers, such as vimentin, N-cadherin, and Snail. In contrast, knockdown of RKIP exhibited opposite results both in vitro and in vivo using mouse models. Nevertheless, knockdown of Notch1 in cancer cells had no effect on the expression of RKIP, suggesting that RKIP is likely an upstream regulator of the Notch1 pathway. We also found that RKIP directly interacts with Notch1 but has no influence on the intracellular level of the γ-secretase complex that is necessary for Notch1 activation. These data suggest that RKIP plays a distinct role in activation of Notch1 during EMT and metastasis, providing a new target for cancer treatment. PMID:26716415

  11. STIM1 accelerates cell senescence in a remodeled microenvironment but enhances the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingxi; Zhang, Shu; Niu, Haiying; Ye, Yujie; Hu, Fen; Chen, Si; Li, Xuefei; Luo, Xiaohe; Jiang, Shan; Liu, Yanhua; Chen, Yanan; Li, Junying; Xiang, Rong; Li, Na

    2015-08-10

    The importance of store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and the role of its key molecular regulators, STIM1 and ORAI1, in the development of cancer are emerging. Here, we report an unexpected dual function of SOCE in prostate cancer progression by revealing a decrease in the expression of STIM1 in human hyperplasia and tumor tissues of high histological grade and by demonstrating that STIM1 and ORAI1 inhibit cell growth by arresting the G0/G1 phase and enhancing cell senescence in human prostate cancer cells. In addition, STIM1 and ORAI1 inhibited NF-κB signaling and remodeled the tumor microenvironment by reducing the formation of M2 phenotype macrophages, possibly creating an unfavorable tumor microenvironment and inhibiting cancer development. However, STIM1 also promoted cell migration and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by activating TGF-β, Snail and Wnt/β-Catenin pathways. Thus, our study revealed novel regulatory effects and the mechanisms by which STIM1 affects cell senescence, tumor migration and the tumor microenvironment, revealing that STIM1 has multiple functions in prostate cancer cells.

  12. Upregulation of minichromosome maintenance complex component 3 during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Paul A; Khamis, Zahraa I; Zhau, Haiyen E; Duan, Peng; Li, Quanlin; Chung, Leland W K; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2017-06-13

    Metastasis is often associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). To understand the molecular mechanisms of this process, we conducted proteomic analysis of androgen-repressed cancer of the prostate (ARCaP), an experimental model of metastatic human prostate cancer. The protein signatures of epithelial (ARCaPE) and mesenchymal (ARCaPM) cells were consistent with their phenotypes. Importantly, the expression of mini-chromosome maintenance 3 (MCM3) protein, a crucial subunit of DNA helicase, was significantly higher in ARCaPM cells than that of ARCaPE cells. This increased MCM3 protein expression level was verified using Western blot analysis of the ARCaP cell lineages. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis of MCM3 protein levels in human prostate tissue specimens showed elevated expression in bone metastasis and advanced human prostate cancer tissue samples. Subcutaneous injection experiments using ARCaPE and ARCaPM cells in a mouse model also revealed increased MCM3 protein levels in mesenchymal-derived tumors. This study identifies MCM3 as an upregulated molecule in mesenchymal phenotype of human prostate cancer cells and advanced human prostate cancer specimens, suggesting MCM3 may be a new potential drug target for prostate cancer treatment.

  13. Prostate Epithelial Pten/TP53 Loss Leads to Transformation of Multipotential Progenitors and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Philip; Liu, Yen-Nien; Pierce, Rachel; Abou-Kheir, Wassim; Casey, Orla; Seng, Victoria; Camacho, Daniel; Simpson, R. Mark; Kelly, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Loss of PTEN and loss of TP53 are common genetic aberrations occurring in prostate cancer. PTEN and TP53 contribute to the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation in prostate progenitors, presumptive tumor initiating cells for prostate cancer. Here we characterize the transformed phenotypes resulting from deletion of the Pten and TP53 tumor suppressors in prostate epithelium. Using the PB-Cre4+Ptenfl/flTP53fl/fl model of prostate cancer, we describe the histological and metastatic properties of primary tumors, transplanted primary tumor cells, and clonal cell lines established from tumors. Adenocarcinoma was the major primary tumor type that developed, which progressed to lethal sarcomatoid carcinoma at approximately 6 months of age. In addition, basal carcinomas and prostatic urothelial carcinomas were observed. We show that tumor heterogeneity resulted, at least in part, from the transformation of multipotential progenitors. CK8+ luminal epithelial cells were capable of undergoing epithelial to mesenchymal transition in vivo to sarcomatoid carcinomas containing osseous metaplasia. Metastasis rarely was observed from primary tumors, but metastasis to lung and lymph nodes occurred frequently from orthotopic tumors initiated from a biphenotypic clonal cell line. Androgen deprivation influenced the differentiated phenotypes of metastases. These data show that one functional consequence of Pten/TP53 loss in prostate epithelium is lineage plasticity of transformed cells. PMID:21703421

  14. PDGF enhances IRES-mediated translation of Laminin B1 by cytoplasmic accumulation of La during epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Petz, Michaela; Them, Nicole C C; Huber, Heidemarie; Mikulits, Wolfgang

    2012-10-01

    The extracellular matrix protein Laminin B1 (LamB1) regulates tumor cell migration and invasion. Carcinoma cells acquire invasive properties by epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a fundamental step in dissemination of metastatic cells from the primary tumor. Recently, we showed that enhanced translation of LamB1 upon EMT of malignant hepatocytes is mediated by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). We demonstrated that the IRES transacting factor La binds the minimal IRES motif and positively modulates IRES activity of LamB1. Here, we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) enhances IRES activity of LamB1 by the increasing cytoplasmic localization of La during EMT. Accordingly, cells expressing dominant negative PDGF receptor display reduced cytoplasmic accumulation of La and show no elevation of IRES activity or endogenous LamB1 levels after stimulation with PDGF. Furthermore, La-mediated regulation of LamB1 IRES activity predominantly depends on MAPK/ERK signaling downstream of PDGF. Notably, LamB1 expression is not significantly downregulated by the impairment of the translation initiation factor eIF4E. In vivo, knockdown of La associated with decreased LamB1 expression and reduced tumor growth. Together, these data suggest that PDGF is required for the cytoplasmic accumulation of La that triggers IRES-dependent translation of LamB1 during EMT.

  15. Down-regulation of programmed cell death 4 leads to epithelial to mesenchymal transition and promotes metastasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Yong; Sun, Zhenxiao; Guo, Xiaoling; Wang, Xin; Lee, Eun; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Yang, Qifeng; Yang, Hsin-Sheng

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that knockdown of programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4), a novel tumour suppressor, decreased the expressions of epithelial-specific proteins and increased the expressions of mesenchymal-specific proteins in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that knockdown of Pdcd4 results in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Knockdown of Pdcd4 increased the rate of wound closure and migration capacity in wound-healing assays and Boyden chamber migration assays, respectively, indicating that Pdcd4 knockdown promotes cell migration. Pdcd4 knockdown also altered the adhesion capacity of GEO cells to extracellular matrix including laminin, collagen IV and fibronectin. To test whether knockdown of Pdcd4 promotes metastasis in vivo, parental, control and Pdcd4 knockdown cells were injected into the caecal wall (orthotopic implantation) of nude mice. Tumours are formed on caecum in all injected mice. However, only mice injected with Pdcd4 knockdown cells developed hepatic and local lymph node metastases. Immunohistochemical staining analyses showed that c-Myc and Snail/Slug expressions were up-regulated in the tumours derived from injection of Pdcd4 knockdown cells. These results implicated that promotion of metastasis by Pdcd4 knockdown was contributed by up-regulation of c-Myc and Snail/Slug in nude mice. Taken together, our data demonstrated that knockdown of Pdcd4 leads to EMT, alternation of adhesion and promotion of migration and metastasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Emerging Transcriptional Mechanisms in the Regulation of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Cellular Plasticity in the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    De Chiara, Letizia; Crean, John

    2016-01-01

    Notwithstanding controversies over the role of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in the pathogenesis of renal disease, the last decade has witnessed a revolution in our understanding of the regulation of renal cell plasticity. Significant parallels undoubtedly exist between ontogenic processes and the initiation and propagation of damage in the diseased kidney as evidenced by the reactivation of developmental programmes of gene expression, in particular with respect to TGFβ superfamily signaling. Indeed, multiple signaling pathways converge on a complex transcriptional regulatory nexus that additionally involves epigenetic activator and repressor mechanisms and microRNA regulatory networks that control renal cell plasticity. It is becoming increasingly apparent that differentiated cells can acquire an undifferentiated state akin to “stemness” which is leading us towards new models of complex cell behaviors and interactions. Here we discuss the latest findings that delineate new and novel interactions between this transcriptional regulatory network and highlight a hitherto poorly recognized role for the Polycomb Repressive Complex (PRC2) in the regulation of renal cell plasticity. A comprehensive understanding of how external stimuli interact with the epigenetic control of gene expression, in normal and diseased contexts, establishes a new therapeutic paradigm to promote the resolution of renal injury and regression of fibrosis. PMID:26771648

  17. AGE-RAGE interaction in the TGFβ2-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition of human lens epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Cibin T.; Nagaraj, Ram H.

    2016-01-01

    Basement membrane (BM) proteins accumulate chemical modifications with age. One such modification is glycation, which results in the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). In a previous study, we reported that AGEs in the human lens capsule (BM) promote the TGFβ2-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells, which we proposed as a mechanism for posterior capsule opacification (PCO) or secondary cataract formation. In this study, we investigated the role of a receptor for AGEs (RAGE) in the TGFβ2-mediated EMT in a human lens epithelial cell line (FHL124). RAGE was present in FHL124 cells, and its levels were unaltered in cells cultured on either native or AGE-modified BM or upon treatment with TGFβ2. RAGE overexpression significantly enhanced the TGFβ2-mediated EMT responses in cells cultured on AGE-modified BM compared with the unmodified matrix. In contrast, treatment of cells with a RAGE antibody or EN-RAGE (an endogenous ligand for RAGE) resulted in a significant reduction in the TGFβ2-mediated EMT response. This was accompanied by a reduction in TGFβ2-mediated Smad signaling and ROS generation. These results imply that the interaction of matrix AGEs with RAGE plays a role in the TGFβ2-mediated EMT of lens epithelial cells and suggest that the blockade of RAGE could be a strategy to prevent PCO and other age-associated fibrosis. PMID:27263094

  18. AGE-RAGE interaction in the TGFβ2-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition of human lens epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Cibin T; Nagaraj, Ram H

    2016-08-01

    Basement membrane (BM) proteins accumulate chemical modifications with age. One such modification is glycation, which results in the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). In a previous study, we reported that AGEs in the human lens capsule (BM) promote the TGFβ2-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells, which we proposed as a mechanism for posterior capsule opacification (PCO) or secondary cataract formation. In this study, we investigated the role of a receptor for AGEs (RAGE) in the TGFβ2-mediated EMT in a human lens epithelial cell line (FHL124). RAGE was present in FHL124 cells, and its levels were unaltered in cells cultured on either native or AGE-modified BM or upon treatment with TGFβ2. RAGE overexpression significantly enhanced the TGFβ2-mediated EMT responses in cells cultured on AGE-modified BM compared with the unmodified matrix. In contrast, treatment of cells with a RAGE antibody or EN-RAGE (an endogenous ligand for RAGE) resulted in a significant reduction in the TGFβ2-mediated EMT response. This was accompanied by a reduction in TGFβ2-mediated Smad signaling and ROS generation. These results imply that the interaction of matrix AGEs with RAGE plays a role in the TGFβ2-mediated EMT of lens epithelial cells and suggest that the blockade of RAGE could be a strategy to prevent PCO and other age-associated fibrosis.

  19. Vitiligo patient-derived keratinocytes exhibit characteristics of normal wound healing via epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Poulomi; Venkatachalam, Sandhyaa; Mamidi, Murali Krishna; Bhonde, Ramesh; Shankar, Krupa; Pal, Rajarshi

    2015-05-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disorder that leads to depigmentation of skin via melanocyte dysfunction. Keratinocyte-induced toxicity is one among the several etiological factors implicated for vitiligo, and hence, autologous keratinocyte grafting is projected as one of the primary mode of treatment for vitiligo. However, reports indicate that perilesional keratinocytes not only display signatures of apoptosis but also could secrete cytokines and mediators which have antagonistic effect on proliferation or survival. Therefore, we investigated how vitiligo patients' derived keratinocytes respond to surplus amounts of inflammatory cytokines and whether they recapitulate events that take place during conventional wound healing. The primary objective of our study was to determine whether keratinocytes isolated from a vitiligo patient would undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition similar to their normal counterparts upon induction with inflammatory cytokines such as TGF-b1 and EGF. We found that these keratinocytes undergo EMT during wound repair accompanied with increase in the levels of mesenchymal markers and ECM proteins; decrease in the levels of epithelial markers and enhanced migratory ability. Besides, we also demonstrated that EMT induction leads to activation of SMAD and MAPK pathways via Ras, Raf, PAI 1, Snail, Slug and ZO1. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the characterization of primary keratinocytes isolated from vitiligo patients with respect to their wound healing capacity.

  20. Genotypes of cancer stem cells characterized by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and proliferation related functions.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chueh-Lin; Chung, Feng-Hsiang; Chen, Chih-Hao; Hsu, Tzu-Ting; Liu, Szu-Mam; Chung, Dao-Sheng; Hsu, Ya-Fen; Chen, Chien-Lung; Ma, Nianhan; Lee, Hoong-Chien

    2016-09-06

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), or cancer cells with stem cell-like properties, generally exhibit drug resistance and have highly potent cancer inducing capabilities. Genome-wide expression data collected at public repositories over the last few years provide excellent material for studies that can lead to insights concerning the molecular and functional characteristics of CSCs. Here, we conducted functional genomic studies of CSC based on fourteen PCA-screened high quality public CSC whole genome gene expression datasets and, as control, four high quality non-stem-like cancer cell and non-cancerous stem cell datasets from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. A total of 6,002 molecular signatures were taken from the Molecular Signatures Database and used to characterize the datasets, which, under two-way hierarchical clustering, formed three genotypes. Type 1, consisting of mainly glia CSCs, had significantly enhanced proliferation, and significantly suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), related functions. Type 2, mainly breast CSCs, had significantly enhanced EMT, but not proliferation, related functions. Type 3, composed of ovarian, prostate, and colon CSCs, had significantly suppressed proliferation related functions and mixed expressions on EMT related functions.

  1. Sohlh2 suppresses epithelial to mesenchymal transition in breast cancer via downregulation of IL-8

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Hao, Chunyan; Hao, Aijun; Gao, Qing; Zhang, Hongying; Sun, Jinhao; Hao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide due to its strong metastasis to other organs. Metastasis of breast cancer involves a complex set of events, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that increases invasiveness of the tumor cells. We previously identified sohlh2 is a tumor suppressor in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. However, the functions of sohlh2 in breast cancer cell migration and invasion remain unknown. Here we report a novel sohlh2/IL-8 signaling pathway in the invasive breast cancer. We observed sohlh2 expression was downregulated in the metastatic breast cancer. Ectopic sohlh2 expression in breast cancer cells reduced EMT and inhibited cell migration and invasion in vitro, and metastasis in vivo. Moreover, the depletion of sohlh2 induced the opposite effects to ectopic sohlh2 expression. RNA-Seq data from a sohlh2 knockdown breast cancer cell line showed that after sohlh2 depletion, the mRNA level of interleukin 8 (IL-8) was significantly increased in these cancer cells, which consequently increased secretion of IL-8 protein. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays, we demonstrated that sohlh2 bound to IL-8 promoter and repressed its activities. The enhanced migration and invasion in sohlh2 -ablated MCF-7 cells were blocked by knockdown of IL-8 expression, while exogenous IL-8 neutralized the anti-migratory and invasive activities of sohlh2 in MDA-MB-231cells. Overall, these results demonstrate that sohlh2 functions as a tumor metastasis suppressor via suppressing IL-8 expression in breast cancer. PMID:27384482

  2. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition-related proteins ZEB1, β-catenin, and β-tubulin-III in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chilosi, Marco; Caliò, Anna; Rossi, Andrea; Gilioli, Eliana; Pedica, Federica; Montagna, Licia; Pedron, Serena; Confalonieri, Marco; Doglioni, Claudio; Ziesche, Rolf; Grubinger, Markus; Mikulits, Wolfgang; Poletti, Venerino

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition has been suggested as a relevant contributor to pulmonary fibrosis, but how and where this complex process is triggered in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is not fully understood. Beta-tubulin-III (Tubβ3), ZEB1, and β-catenin are partially under the negative control of miR-200, a family of micro-RNAs playing a major role in epithelial to mesenchymal transition, that are reduced in experimental lung fibrosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We wonder whether in situ expression of these proteins is increased in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, to better understand the significance of miR-200 feedback loop and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. We investigated the immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent expression and precise location of ZEB1, Tubβ3, and β-catenin in tissue samples from 34 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis cases and 21 controls (5 normal lungs and 16 other interstitial lung diseases). In 100% idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis samples, the three proteins were concurrently expressed in fibroblastic foci, as well in damaged epithelial cells overlying these lesions and in pericytes within neo-angiogenesis areas. These results were also confirmed by immunofluorescence assay. In controls the abnormal expression of the three proteins was absent or limited. This is the first study that relates concurrent expression of Tubβ3, ZEB1, and β-catenin to abnormal epithelial and myofibroblast differentiation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, providing indirect but robust evidence of miR-200 deregulation and epithelial to mesenchymal transition activation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The abnormal expression and localization of these proteins in bronchiolar fibro-proliferative lesions are unique for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and might represent a disease-specific marker in challenging lung biopsies.

  3. Combinatorial TGF-β attenuation with paclitaxel inhibits the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and breast cancer stem-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Min-Jin; Park, Sang-A; Kim, Jung-Shin; Min, Kyung-Nan; Kim, Dae-Kee; Lim, Woosung; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Sheen, Yhun Yhong

    2015-01-01

    Distant relapse after chemotherapy is an important clinical issue for treating breast cancer patients and results from the development of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) during chemotherapy. Here we report that blocking epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) suppresses paclitaxel-induced CSCs properties by using a MDA-MB-231-xenografted mice model (in vivo), and breast cancer cell lines (in vitro). Paclitaxel, one of the cytotoxic taxane-drugs such as docetaxel, increases mesenchymal markers (Vimentin and Fibronectin) and decreases an epithelial marker (Zo-1). Blocking TGF-β signaling with the TGF-β type I receptor kinase (ALK5) inhibitor, EW-7197, suppresses paclitaxel-induced EMT and CSC properties such as mammosphere-forming efficiency (MSFE), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, CD44+/CD24− ratio, and pluripotency regulators (Oct4, Nanog, Klf4, Myc, and Sox2). The combinatorial treatment of EW-7197 improves the therapeutic effect of paclitaxel by decreasing the lung metastasis and increasing the survival time in vivo. We confirmed that Snail is increased by paclitaxel-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and EW-7197 suppresses the paclitaxel-induced Snail and EMT by attenuating paclitaxel-induced intracellular ROS. Knock-down of SNAI1 suppresses paclitaxel-induced EMT and CSC properties. These data together suggest that blocking the Snail-induced EMT with the ALK5 inhibitor attenuates metastasis after paclitaxel-therapy and that this combinatorial approach could prove useful in treating breast cancer. PMID:26462028

  4. Combinatorial TGF-β attenuation with paclitaxel inhibits the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and breast cancer stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Min-Jin; Park, Sang-A; Kim, Jung-Shin; Min, Kyung-Nan; Kim, Dae-Kee; Lim, Woosung; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Sheen, Yhun Yhong

    2015-11-10

    Distant relapse after chemotherapy is an important clinical issue for treating breast cancer patients and results from the development of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) during chemotherapy. Here we report that blocking epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) suppresses paclitaxel-induced CSCs properties by using a MDA-MB-231-xenografted mice model (in vivo), and breast cancer cell lines (in vitro). Paclitaxel, one of the cytotoxic taxane-drugs such as docetaxel, increases mesenchymal markers (Vimentin and Fibronectin) and decreases an epithelial marker (Zo-1). Blocking TGF-β signaling with the TGF-β type I receptor kinase (ALK5) inhibitor, EW-7197, suppresses paclitaxel-induced EMT and CSC properties such as mammosphere-forming efficiency (MSFE), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, CD44+/CD24- ratio, and pluripotency regulators (Oct4, Nanog, Klf4, Myc, and Sox2). The combinatorial treatment of EW-7197 improves the therapeutic effect of paclitaxel by decreasing the lung metastasis and increasing the survival time in vivo. We confirmed that Snail is increased by paclitaxel-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and EW-7197 suppresses the paclitaxel-induced Snail and EMT by attenuating paclitaxel-induced intracellular ROS. Knock-down of SNAI1 suppresses paclitaxel-induced EMT and CSC properties. These data together suggest that blocking the Snail-induced EMT with the ALK5 inhibitor attenuates metastasis after paclitaxel-therapy and that this combinatorial approach could prove useful in treating breast cancer.

  5. LRIG1 opposes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and inhibits invasion of basal-like breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yokdang, N; Hatakeyama, J; Wald, J H; Simion, C; Tellez, J D; Chang, D Z; Swamynathan, M M; Chen, M; Murphy, W J; Carraway Iii, K L; Sweeney, C

    2016-06-02

    LRIG1 (leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin-like domain containing), a member of the LRIG family of transmembrane leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins, is a negative regulator of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and a tumor suppressor. LRIG1 expression is broadly decreased in human cancer and in breast cancer and low expression of LRIG1 has been linked to decreased relapse-free survival. Recently, low expression of LRIG1 was revealed to be an independent risk factor for breast cancer metastasis and death. These findings suggest that LRIG1 may oppose breast cancer cell motility and invasion, cellular processes that are fundamental to metastasis. However, very little is known of LRIG1 function in this regard. In this study, we demonstrate that LRIG1 is downregulated during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human mammary epithelial cells, suggesting that LRIG1 expression may represent a barrier to EMT. Indeed, depletion of endogenous LRIG1 in human mammary epithelial cells expands the stem cell population, augments mammosphere formation and accelerates EMT. Conversely, expression of LRIG1 in highly invasive Basal B breast cancer cells provokes a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition accompanied by a dramatic suppression of tumorsphere formation and a striking loss of invasive growth in three-dimensional culture. LRIG1 expression perturbs multiple signaling pathways and represses markers and effectors of the mesenchymal state. Furthermore, LRIG1 expression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells significantly slows their growth as tumors, providing the first in vivo evidence that LRIG1 functions as a growth suppressor in breast cancer.

  6. LRIG1 opposes epithelial to mesenchymal transition and inhibits invasion of basal-like breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Yokdang, Nucharee; Hatakeyama, Jason; Wald, Jessica H.; Simion, Catalina; Tellez, Joseph D.; Chang, Dennis Z.; Swamynathan, Manojit Mosur; Chen, Mingyi; Murphy, William J.; Carraway, Kermit L.; Sweeney, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    LRIG1, a member of the LRIG family of transmembrane leucine rich repeat-containing proteins, is a negative regulator of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and a tumor suppressor. LRIG1 expression is broadly decreased in human cancer and in breast cancer, low expression of LRIG1 has been linked to decreased relapse-free survival. Recently, low expression of LRIG1 was revealed to be an independent risk factor for breast cancer metastasis and death. These findings suggest that LRIG1 may oppose breast cancer cell motility and invasion, cellular processes which are fundamental to metastasis. However, very little is known of LRIG1 function in this regard. In this study, we demonstrate that LRIG1 is down-regulated during epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human mammary epithelial cells, suggesting that LRIG1 expression may represent a barrier to EMT. Indeed, depletion of endogenous LRIG1 in human mammary epithelial cells expands the stem cell population, augments mammosphere formation and accelerates EMT. Conversely, expression of LRIG1 in highly invasive Basal B breast cancer cells provokes a mesenchymal to epithelial transition accompanied by a dramatic suppression of tumorsphere formation and a striking loss of invasive growth in three-dimensional culture. LRIG1 expression perturbs multiple signaling pathways and represses markers and effectors of the mesenchymal state. Furthermore, LRIG1 expression in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells significantly slows their growth as tumors, providing the first in vivo evidence that LRIG1 functions as a growth suppressor in breast cancer. PMID:26387542

  7. Reprogramming during epithelial to mesenchymal transition under the control of TGFβ

    PubMed Central

    Tan, E-Jean; Olsson, Anna-Karin; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) refers to plastic changes in epithelial tissue architecture. Breast cancer stromal cells provide secreted molecules, such as transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), that promote EMT on tumor cells to facilitate breast cancer cell invasion, stemness and metastasis. TGFβ signaling is considered to be abnormal in the context of cancer development; however, TGFβ acting on breast cancer EMT resembles physiological signaling during embryonic development, when EMT generates or patterns new tissues. Interestingly, while EMT promotes metastatic fate, successful metastatic colonization seems to require the inverse process of mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). EMT and MET are interconnected in a time-dependent and tissue context-dependent manner and are coordinated by TGFβ, other extracellular proteins, intracellular signaling cascades, non-coding RNAs and chromatin-based molecular alterations. Research on breast cancer EMT/MET aims at delivering biomolecules that can be used diagnostically in cancer pathology and possibly provide ideas for how to improve breast cancer therapy. PMID:25482613

  8. HMGA2-FOXL2 Axis Regulates Metastases and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition of Chemoresistant Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jiaqiang; Wang, Rui; Ren, Gui; Li, Xiaowei; Wang, Jingbo; Sun, Yi; Liang, Jie; Nie, Yongzhan; Wu, Kaichun; Feng, Bin; Shang, Yulong; Fan, Daiming

    2017-07-01

    Purpose: Chemoresistance is the main cause of treatment failure in cancer and is associated with distant metastases and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). This study was aimed to explore the mechanism of metastases and EMT in chemoresistant gastric cancer.Experimental Design: A key molecular pathway was identified via gene profiling and a bioinformatic analysis in a chemoresistant gastric cancer model. The roles of FOXL2, HMGA2, and ITGA2 were validated via loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments in vitro and in an orthotopic gastric cancer animal model. The regulation of FOXL2 by HMGA2 was explored via immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays. The expression of these proteins in gastric cancer tissues was examined by IHC.Results: HMGA2 and FOXL2 directly regulated the metastasis and EMT of chemoresistant gastric cancer. The interaction between HMGA2 and pRb facilitated the transactivation of FOXL2 by E2F1, and ITGA2 was the downstream effector of the HMGA2-FOXL2 pathway. HMGA2, FOXL2, and ITGA2 were associated with the TNM classification and staging of gastric cancer and were increased in metastatic lymph nodes and distant metastases. Increased HMGA2, FOXL2, and ITGA2 levels were associated with reduced overall survival periods of patients with gastric cancer.Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the transactivation of FOXL2 driven by interactions between HMGA2 and pRb might exert critical effects on the metastases and EMT of chemoresistant gastric cancer. Blocking the HMGA2-FOXL2-ITGA2 pathway could serve as a new strategy for gastric cancer treatment. Clin Cancer Res; 23(13); 3461-73. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Exploring the role of sphingolipid machinery during the epithelial to mesenchymal transition program using an integrative approach

    PubMed Central

    Meshcheryakova, Anastasia; Köfeler, Harald C.; Triebl, Alexander; Mungenast, Felicitas; Heinze, Georg; Gerner, Christopher; Zimmermann, Philip; Jaritz, Markus; Mechtcheriakova, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) program is activated in epithelial cancer cells and facilitates their ability to metastasize based on enhanced migratory, proliferative, anti-apoptotic, and pluripotent capacities. Given the fundamental impact of sphingolipid machinery to each individual process, the sphingolipid-related mechanisms might be considered among the most prominent drivers/players of EMT; yet, there is still limited knowledge. Given the complexity of the interconnected sphingolipid system, which includes distinct sphingolipid mediators, their synthesizing enzymes, receptors and transporters, we herein apply an integrative approach for assessment of the sphingolipid-associated mechanisms underlying EMT program. We created the sphingolipid-/EMT-relevant 41-gene/23-gene signatures which were applied to denote transcriptional events in a lung cancer cell-based EMT model. Based on defined 35-gene sphingolipid/EMT-attributed signature of regulated genes, we show close associations between EMT markers, genes comprising the sphingolipid network at multiple levels and encoding sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)-/ceramide-metabolizing enzymes, S1P and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors and S1P transporters, pluripotency genes and inflammation-related molecules, and demonstrate the underlying biological pathways and regulators. Mass spectrometry-based sphingolipid analysis revealed an EMT-attributed shift towards increased S1P and LPA accompanied by reduced ceramide levels. Notably, using transcriptomics data across various cell-based perturbations and neoplastic tissues (24193 arrays), we identified the sphingolipid/EMT signature primarily in lung adenocarcinoma tissues; besides, bladder, colorectal and prostate cancers were among the top-ranked. The findings also highlight novel regulatory associations between influenza virus and the sphingolipid/EMT-associated mechanisms. In sum, data propose the multidimensional contribution of sphingolipid machinery

  10. Usual interstitial pneumonia and smoking-related interstitial fibrosis display epithelial to mesenchymal transition in fibroblastic foci.

    PubMed

    Fabro, Alexandre Todorovic; Minatel, Igor Otavio; Rangel, Maristela Peres; Halbwedl, Iris; Parra, Edwin Roger; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza; Popper, Helmut

    2014-09-01

    Fibroblastic foci (FF) are a major histological feature of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and collagen vascular diseases (non-IPF). In addition, FF are occasionally associated with smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF). Recent studies have suggested a role for epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pulmonary fibrogenesis. Here, we investigated whether EMT was present in patients with IPF (n = 19), non-IPF (n = 17), and SRIF (n = 16) using morphometric immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy. All patients had received lung biopsies or lobectomies for lung cancer. IPF and non-IPF patients displayed restrictive lung function patterns, whereas those with SRIF presented mixed patterns. Cells within FF presented high number of alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA)-staining cells; however, the foci of IPF patients showed comparatively lower number. Moreover, colocalization of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF1) and αSMA within FF showed low number of staining cells for IPF and SRIF in comparison to non-IPF (p < 0.01). Nevertheless, all groups displayed colocalization of high rate of TTF1(+)-cells and low rate of αSMA(+)-cells within hyperplastic epithelioid cells in FF. Also, we observed areas with low proportion of TTF1(+)cells and αSMA(+)cells, which were present in SRIF and non-IPF more often than IPF (p < 0.001). Electron microscopy revealed small breaks in the alveolar basal lamina, which allowed epithelioid cells to directly contact the collagenous matrix and fibroblasts. Three-dimensional reconstruction revealed intense αSMA staining within some epithelioid cells, suggesting that they had gained a mesenchymal phenotype. These findings constitute the first report of EMT in SRIF and suggest that EMT occurs more prominently in SRIF and non-IPF than IPF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ovol2 gene inhibits the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in lung adenocarcinoma by transcriptionally repressing Twist1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Hai; Li, Zhong; Hu, Meng; Yang, Qing-Jie; Yan, Shen; Wu, Rong-Si; Li, Bo-An; Guo, Ming

    2017-02-05

    Associated with recent achievements in therapy for advanced lung adenocarcinoma, there will still be an unmet medical need for effective treatment of stage IIIb/IV, and the prognosis of lung cancer is not optimistic till now. In order to obtain some essential evidences for a potential targeted therapy in lung adenocarcinoma, the effects of Ovol2 gene on Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) was observed and the probable mechanisms were analyzed. Ovol2 expression was previously evaluated by immunochemistry in lung adenocarcinoma tissue, and Ovol2 was overexpressed by lentivirus infection in A549 cells. Subsequently, the migration and invasion ability of A549 cells was tested by Transwell and Wound healing experiments. The mRNA level of genes correlated to EMT was detected by Real-time PCR, and the expression of reasonable makers was probed by Western Blot. Finally, rescue experiment, Luciferase assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay were performed to explore the probable mechanisms. After treated with Ovol2 overexpression, the expression level of E-cadherin was increased, while the expression level of Vimentin and Twist1 was declined not only in the mRNA level but also in the protein level. Moreover, we found that Ovol2 represses transcription of Twist1 by binding to its promoter directly. Wound healing and Transwell assays indicate that the migration and invasion ability were downregulated by Ovol2 in A549 cells. Ovol2 can suppress migration and invasion ability of A549 cells, and prevent EMT by inhibition of Twist1 transcription directly. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Loss of Trop2 promotes carcinogenesis and features of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianbo; Zhang, Kaihua; Grabowska, Dorota; Li, Aimin; Dong, Yiyu; Day, Ryan; Humphrey, Peter; Lewis, James; Kladney, Raleigh D; Arbeit, Jeffrey M; Weber, Jason D; Chung, Christine H; Michel, Loren S

    2011-12-01

    Trop2, an oncogenic cell surface protein under investigation as a therapeutic target, is commonly overexpressed in several epithelial tumor types yet its function in tumor biology remains relatively unexplored. To investigate the role of Trop2 in epithelial carcinogenesis, we generated Trop2(-/-) mice, which are viable and possess a normal lifespan. Contrary to expectations, Trop2 loss fails to suppress keratinocyte transformation. Instead, ras-transformed Trop2(-/-) keratinocytes preferentially pass through an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and form tumors with spindle cell histology. Furthermore, Trop2 loss renders Arf-null mice susceptible to the formation of biphasic sarcomatoid carcinomas containing both squamous and spindle cell components upon carcinogen exposure in an otherwise skin cancer-resistant strain (C57BL/6). Immortalized keratinocytes derived from Trop2(-/-)Arf(-/-) mice exhibit enhanced proliferative and migratory capacity as well as increased activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and Src prior to transformation. The clinical relevance of these findings was supported by studying the molecular epidemiology of Trop2 in primary head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. This analysis revealed that Trop2 mRNA levels are decreased in a subset of tumors with features of EMT, and total loss of Trop2 protein expression is observed in the spindle cell component of sarcomatoid carcinomas. Therefore, while previous studies have emphasized the potential importance of Trop2 gain of function, these results uncover a role for Trop2 loss in tumorigenesis and the mesenchymal transdifferentiation observed in a subset of squamous cell carcinomas.

  13. Doxycycline as an inhibitor of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and vasculogenic mimicry in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jie; Sun, Baocun; Zhao, Xiulan; Zhang, Danfang; Zhao, Xueming; Gu, Qiang; Dong, Xueyi; Zhao, Nan; Liu, Peimei; Liu, Yanrong

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of doxycycline on the survival time and proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vivo and on the biologic functions of HCC in vitro. This study was also designed to evaluate the effects of doxycycline on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)- and vasculogenic mimicry (VM)-related protein expression and on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity in vitro. Human MHCC97H cells were injected into BALB/c mice, which were divided into treatment and control groups. Doxycycline treatment prolonged the mouse survival time and partly suppressed the growth of engrafted HCC tumor cells, with an inhibition rate of 43.39%. Higher amounts of VM and endothelium-dependent vessels were found in the control group than the treatment group. IHC indicated that epithelial (E)-cadherin expression was increased in the doxycycline-treated mice compared with the control group. In in vitro experiments, doxycycline promoted HCC cell adhesion but inhibited HCC cell viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion. Western blot analysis, semiquantitative RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, and immunofluorescence demonstrated that doxycycline inhibited the degradation of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and downregulated the expression levels of EMT promoters, the mesenchymal marker vimentin, and the VM-associated marker vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin. Furthermore, the activities of MMPs and DNMTs were examined in different groups via gelatin zymography and a DNMT activity assay kit. A methylation-specific PCR was performed to assess the promoter methylation of CDH1 (the gene encoding E-cadherin). Doxycycline prolonged the mouse survival time by inhibiting EMT progression and VM formation.

  14. Runx1 stabilizes the mammary epithelial cell phenotype and prevents epithelial to mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Deli; Messier, Terri L.; Tye, Coralee E.; Dobson, Jason R.; Fritz, Andrew J.; Sikora, Kenneth R.; Browne, Gillian; Stein, Janet L.; Lian, Jane B.; Stein, Gary S.

    2017-01-01

    Runx1 is a well characterized transcription factor essential for hematopoietic differentiation and Runx1 mutations are the cause of leukemias. Runx1 is highly expressed in normal epithelium of most glands and recently has been associated with solid tumors. Notably, the function of Runx1 in the mammary gland and how it is involved in initiation and progression of breast cancer is still unclear. Here we demonstrate the consequences of Runx1 loss in normal mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells. We first observed that Runx1 is decreased in tumorigenic and metastatic breast cancer cells. We also observed loss of Runx1 expression upon induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in MCF10A (normal-like) cells. Furthermore depletion of Runx1 in MCF10A cells resulted in striking changes in cell shape, leading to mesenchymal cell morphology. The epithelial phenotype could be restored in breast cancer cells by re-expressing Runx1. Analyses of breast tumors and patient data revealed that low Runx1 expression is associated with poor prognosis and decreased survival. We addressed mechanisms for the function of Runx1 in maintaining the epithelial phenotype and find Runx1 directly regulates E-cadherin; and serves as a downstream transcription factor mediating TGFβ signaling. We also observed through global gene expression profiling of growth factor depleted cells that induction of EMT and loss of Runx1 is associated with activation of TGFβ and WNT pathways. Thus these findings have identified a novel function for Runx1 in sustaining normal epithelial morphology and preventing EMT and suggest Runx1 levels could be a prognostic indicator of tumor progression. PMID:28407681

  15. Runx1 stabilizes the mammary epithelial cell phenotype and prevents epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Hong, Deli; Messier, Terri L; Tye, Coralee E; Dobson, Jason R; Fritz, Andrew J; Sikora, Kenneth R; Browne, Gillian; Stein, Janet L; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Gary S

    2017-03-14

    Runx1 is a well characterized transcription factor essential for hematopoietic differentiation and Runx1 mutations are the cause of leukemias. Runx1 is highly expressed in normal epithelium of most glands and recently has been associated with solid tumors. Notably, the function of Runx1 in the mammary gland and how it is involved in initiation and progression of breast cancer is still unclear. Here we demonstrate the consequences of Runx1 loss in normal mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells. We first observed that Runx1 is decreased in tumorigenic and metastatic breast cancer cells. We also observed loss of Runx1 expression upon induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in MCF10A (normal-like) cells. Furthermore depletion of Runx1 in MCF10A cells resulted in striking changes in cell shape, leading to mesenchymal cell morphology. The epithelial phenotype could be restored in breast cancer cells by re-expressing Runx1. Analyses of breast tumors and patient data revealed that low Runx1 expression is associated with poor prognosis and decreased survival. We addressed mechanisms for the function of Runx1 in maintaining the epithelial phenotype and find Runx1 directly regulates E-cadherin; and serves as a downstream transcription factor mediating TGFβ signaling. We also observed through global gene expression profiling of growth factor depleted cells that induction of EMT and loss of Runx1 is associated with activation of TGFβ and WNT pathways. Thus these findings have identified a novel function for Runx1 in sustaining normal epithelial morphology and preventing EMT and suggest Runx1 levels could be a prognostic indicator of tumor progression.

  16. Targeting the Nuclear Export Protein XPO1/CRM1 Reverses Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Azmi, Asfar S.; Muqbil, Irfana; Wu, Jack; Aboukameel, Amro; Senapedis, William; Baloglu, Erkan; Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia; Dyson, Gregory; Kauffman, Michael; Landesman, Yosef; Shacham, Sharon; Philip, Philip A.; Mohammad, Ramzi M.

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate for the first time that targeted inhibition of nuclear exporter protein exportin 1 (XPO1) also known as chromosome maintenance region 1 (CRM1) by Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds results in reversal of EMT in snail-transduced primary human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). SINE compounds selinexor (KPT-330) and KPT-185, leptomycin B (LMB as +ve control) but not KPT-301 (–ve control) reverse EMT, suppress mesenchymal markers and consequently induce growth inhibition, apoptosis and prevent spheroid formation. SINE treatment resulted in nuclear retention of snail regulator FBXL5 that was concurrent with suppression of snail and down-regulation of mesenchymal markers. FBXL5 siRNA or transfection with cys528 mut-Xpo1 (lacking SINE binding site) markedly abrogated SINE activity highlighting an XPO1 and FBXL5 mediated mechanism of action. Silencing XPO1 or snail caused re-expression of FBXL5 as well as EMT reversal. Pathway analysis on SINE treated HMECs further verified the involvement of additional F-Box family proteins and confirmed the suppression of snail network. Oral administration of selinexor (15 mg/kg p.o. QoDx3/week for 3weeks) resulted in complete cures (no tumor rebound at 120 days) of HMLER-Snail xenografts. These findings raise the unique possibility of blocking EMT at the nuclear pore. PMID:26536918

  17. Small cell lung cancer, an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like cancer: significance of inactive Notch signaling and expression of achaete-scute complex homologue 1.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takaaki; Kudoh, Shinji; Ichimura, Takaya; Fujino, Kosuke; Hassan, Wael Ahmed Maher Abdo; Udaka, Naoko

    2017-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of the most malignant neoplasms in common human cancers. The tumor is composed of small immature-looking cells with a round or fusiform shape, which possesses weak adhesion features among them, suggesting that SCLC shows the morphological characteristics of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). SCLC is characterized by high metastatic and recurrent rates, sensitivity to the initial chemotherapy, and easy acquirement of chemoresistance afterwards. These characters may be related to the EMT phenotype of SCLC. Notch signaling is an important signaling pathway, and could have roles in regulating neuroendocrine differentiation, proliferation, cell adhesion, EMT, and chemoresistance. Notch1 is usually absent in SCLC in vivo, but could appear after chemotherapy. Notch1 can enhance cell adhesion by induction of E-cadherin in SCLC, which indicates mesenchymal to epithelial transition. On the other hand, achaete-scute complex homologue 1 (ASCL1), negatively regulated by Notch signaling, is a lineage-specific gene of SCLC, and functions to promote neuroendocrine differentiation as well as EMT. ASCL1-transfected adenocarcinoma cell lines induced neuroendocrine phenotypes and lost epithelial cell features. SCLC is characterized by neuroendocrine differentiation and EMT-like features, which could be produced by inactive Notch signaling and ASCL1 expression. In addition, chemical and radiation treatments can activate Notch signaling, which suppress neuroendocrine differentiation and induces chemoradioresistance, accompanied by secession from EMT. Thus, the status of Notch signaling and ASCL1 expression may determine the cell behaviors of SCLC partly through modifying EMT phenotypes.

  18. Antrodin C inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and metastasis of breast cancer cells via suppression of Smad2/3 and β-catenin signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K J Senthil; Vani, M Gokila; Chueh, Pin-Ju; Mau, Jeng-Leun; Wang, Sheng-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial event involved metastasis of certain tumors. Thus, identifying chemical agents that can block EMT is highly warranted for the development of anti-cancer chemoprevention/chemotherapies. In this study, we found that Antrodin C (ADC), a maleimide derivative isolated from Antrodia cinnamomea health food product inhibits TGF-β1-induced EMT and breast cancer cell metastasis in vitro. Pretreatment of MCF-7 cells with ADC significantly blocked TGF-β1-induced phenotypic changes and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. In addition, ADC was able to up-regulate epithelial markers such as E-cadherin and occludin, whereas mesenchymal markers including N-cadherin and vimentin were significantly inhibited, possibly through the modulation of transcriptional regulators Smad/Smad3. ADC blocked TGF-β1-induced migration and invasion of MCF-7 cells through the down-regulation of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP-2, -9) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). The inhibition of MMPs and uPA activity by ADC was reasoned by suppression of its corresponding transcription factor β-catenin. Taken together, our data suggested that ADC attenuates the TGF-β1-induced EMT, migration and invasion of human breast carcinoma through the suppression of Smad2/3 and β-catenin signaling pathways.

  19. Antrodin C Inhibits Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Metastasis of Breast Cancer Cells via Suppression of Smad2/3 and β-Catenin Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K. J. Senthil; Vani, M. Gokila; Chueh, Pin-Ju; Mau, Jeng-Leun; Wang, Sheng-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial event involved metastasis of certain tumors. Thus, identifying chemical agents that can block EMT is highly warranted for the development of anti-cancer chemoprevention/chemotherapies. In this study, we found that Antrodin C (ADC), a maleimide derivative isolated from Antrodia cinnamomea health food product inhibits TGF-β1-induced EMT and breast cancer cell metastasis in vitro. Pretreatment of MCF-7 cells with ADC significantly blocked TGF-β1-induced phenotypic changes and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. In addition, ADC was able to up-regulate epithelial markers such as E-cadherin and occludin, whereas mesenchymal markers including N-cadherin and vimentin were significantly inhibited, possibly through the modulation of transcriptional regulators Smad/Smad3. ADC blocked TGF-β1-induced migration and invasion of MCF-7 cells through the down-regulation of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP-2, -9) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). The inhibition of MMPs and uPA activity by ADC was reasoned by suppression of its corresponding transcription factor β-catenin. Taken together, our data suggested that ADC attenuates the TGF-β1-induced EMT, migration and invasion of human breast carcinoma through the suppression of Smad2/3 and β-catenin signaling pathways. PMID:25658913

  20. PAC exhibits potent anti-colon cancer properties through targeting cyclin D1 and suppressing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Al-Qasem, Abeer; Al-Howail, Huda A; Al-Swailem, Mashael; Al-Mazrou, Amer; Al-Otaibi, Basem; Al-Jammaz, Ibrahim; Al-Khalaf, Huda H; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although response rates and overall survival have been improved in recent years, resistance to multiple drug combinations is inevitable. Therefore, the development of more efficient drugs, with fewer side effects is urgently needed. To this end, we have investigated in the present report the effect of PAC, a novel cucumin analogue, on CRC cells both in vitro and in vivo. We have shown that PAC induces apoptosis, mainly via the internal mitochondrial route, and inhibits cell proliferation through delaying the cell cycle at G2/M phase. Interestingly, the pro-apoptotic effect was mediated through STAT3-dependent down-regulation of cyclin D1 and its downstream target survivin. Indeed, change in the expression level of cyclin D1 modulated the expression of survivin and the response of CRC cells to PAC. Furthermore, using the ChIP assay, we have shown PAC-dependent reduction in the binding of STAT3 to the cyclin D1 promoter in vivo. Additionally, PAC suppressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal process through down-regulating the mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, vimentin and Twist1) and inhibiting the invasion/migration abilities of the CRC cells via repressing the pro-migration/invasion protein kinases AKT and ERK1/2. In addition, PAC inhibited tumor growth and repressed the JAK2/STAT3, AKT/mTOR and MEK/ERK pathways as well as their common downstream effectors cyclin D1 and survivin in humanized CRC xenografts. Collectively, these results indicate that PAC has potent anti-CRC effects, and therefore could constitute an effective alternative chemotherapeutic agent, which may consolidate the adjuvant treatment of colon cancer.

  1. Alterations of microRNAs throughout the malignant evolution of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: the role of miR-497 in epithelial to mesenchymal transition of keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, A; Barzilai, A; Gur-Wahnon, D; Ben-Dov, I Z; Glassberg, S; Meningher, T; Elharar, E; Masalha, M; Jacob-Hirsch, J; Tabibian-Keissar, H; Barshack, I; Roszik, J; Leibowitz-Amit, R; Sidi, Y; Avni, D

    2017-09-18

    Skin carcinogenesis is known to be a multi-step process with several stages along its malignant evolution. We hypothesized that transformation of normal epidermis to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is causally linked to alterations in microRNAs (miRNA) expression. For this end we decided to evaluate their alterations in the pathologic states ending in cSCC. Total RNA was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded biopsies of five stages along the malignant evolution of keratinocytes towards cSCC: Normal epidermis, solar elastosis, actinic keratosis KIN1-2, advanced actinic keratosis KIN3 and well-differentiated cSCC. Next-generation small RNA sequencing was performed. We found that 18 miRNAs are overexpressed and 28 miRNAs are underexpressed in cSCC compared to normal epidermis. miR-424, miR-320, miR-222 and miR-15a showed the highest fold change among the overexpressed miRNAs. And miR-100, miR-101 and miR-497 showed the highest fold change among the underexpressed miRNAs. Heat map of hierarchical clustering analysis of significantly changed miRNAs and principle component analysis disclosed that the most prominent change in miRNAs expression occurred in the switch from 'early' stages; normal epidermis, solar elastosis and early actinic keratosis to the 'late' stages of epidermal carcinogenesis; late actinic keratosis and cSCC. We found several miRNAs with 'stage specific' alterations while others display a clear 'gradual', either progressive increase or decrease in expression along the malignant evolution of keratinocytes. The observed alterations focused in miRNAs involved in the regulation of AKT/mTOR or in those involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition. We chose to concentrate on the evaluation of the molecular role of miR-497. We found that it induces reversion of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. We proved that SERPINE-1 is its biochemical target. The present study allows us to further study the pathways that are regulated by mi

  2. Crk-like adapter protein regulates CCL19/CCR7-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via ERK signaling pathway in epithelial ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaomei; Guo, Jingyan; Yang, Qing; Yang, Xiangshan

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have suggested that Crk-like adapter protein (CrkL) and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by CCL19/CCR7 play an important role in ovarian epithelial carcinogenesis. However, the regulatory mechanisms of CrkL on the CCL19/CCR7 signaling pathways in epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOC) are not well characterized. Here, CCR7 and CrkL proteins were tested in 30 EOC tissues and cell lines. In vitro, the roles of CrkL in CCL19-stimulated SKOV-3 cell invasion and migration were investigated. In this work, CCR7 and CrkL over-expressed in EOC tissues and cell lines and correlated with FIGO stage and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, CCR7 and CrkL serve as an independent prognostic factor. In SKOV-3 cells, CrkL knockdown markedly suppressed the CCL19-stimulated expression of p-ERK and EMT biomarkers (N-cadherin, Snail and MMP9), compared with control. In contrast, p-AKT expression level did not change. On the other hand, functional analysis revealed CrkL knockdown could significantly decrease SKOV-3 cell invasion number of transwell invasion assay, and wound closure area of wound healing assay, compared to control. In conclusion, CrkL regulates CCL19/CCR7-induced EMT via ERK signaling pathway in EOC patients, which further suggested CrkL could be suggested as an efficient target in ovarian cancer treatment.

  3. Expression of neuroendocrine factor VGF in lung cancer cells confers resistance to EGFR kinase inhibitors and triggers epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hwang; Chiu, Yu-Fan; Kuo, Ming-Han; Lee, Kuan-Lin; Lee, An-Chun; Yu, Chia-Cherng; Chang, Junn-Liang; Huang, Wen-Chien; Hsiao, Shih-Hsin; Lin, Sey-En; Chou, Yu-Ting

    2017-04-05

    Mutations in EGFR drive tumor growth but render tumor cells sensitive to treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Phenotypic alteration in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been linked to the TKI resistance in lung adenocarcinoma. However, the mechanism underlying this resistance remains unclear. Here we report that high expression of a neuroendocrine factor termed VGF induces the transcription factor TWIST1 to facilitate TKI resistance, EMT, and cancer dissemination in a subset of lung adenocarcinoma cells. VGF silencing resensitized EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma cells to TKI. Conversely, overexpression of VGF in sensitive cells conferred resistance to TKIs and induced EMT, increasing migratory and invasive behaviors. Correlation analysis revealed a significant association of VGF expression with advanced tumor grade and poor survival in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. In a mouse xenograft model of lung adenocarcinoma, suppressing VGF expression was sufficient to attenuate tumor growth. Overall, our findings show how VGF can confer TKI resistance and trigger EMT, suggesting its potential utility as a biomarker and therapeutic target in lung adenocarcinoma.

  4. Helicobacter pylori CagA and IL-1β Promote the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in a Nontransformed Epithelial Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Romero, Haruki; Meza, Isaura; Vallejo-Flores, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the third cause of cancer death worldwide and infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered the most important risk factor, mainly by the activity of its virulence factor CagA. H. pylori/CagA-induced chronic inflammation triggers a series of gastric lesions of increased severity, starting with gastritis and ending with cancer. IL-1β has been associated with tumor development and invasiveness in different types of cancer, including gastric cancer. Currently, it is not clear if there is an association between CagA and IL-1β at a cellular level. In this study, we analyzed the effects of IL-1β and CagA on MCF-10A nontransformed cells. We found evidence that both CagA and IL-1β trigger the initiation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition characterized by β-catenin nuclear translocation, increased expression of Snail1 and ZEB1, downregulation of CDH1, and morphological changes during MCF-10A acini formation. However, only CagA induced MMP9 activity and cell invasion. Our data support that IL-1β and CagA target the β-catenin pathway, with CagA leading to acquisition of a stage related to aggressive tumors. PMID:27525003

  5. Involvement of Renal Corpuscle microRNA Expression on Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Maternal Low Protein Diet in Adult Programmed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sene, Letícia de Barros; Mesquita, Flávia Fernandes; de Moraes, Leonardo Nazário; Santos, Daniela Carvalho; Carvalho, Robson; Gontijo, José Antônio Rocha; Boer, Patrícia Aline

    2013-01-01

    Prior study shows that maternal protein-restricted (LP) 16-wk-old offspring have pronounced reduction of nephron number and arterial hypertension associated with unchanged glomerular filtration rate, besides enhanced glomerular area, which may be related to glomerular hyperfiltration/overflow and which accounts for the glomerular filtration barrier breakdown and early glomerulosclerosis. In the current study, LP rats showed heavy proteinuria associated with podocyte simplification and foot process effacement. TGF-β1 glomerular expression was significantly enhanced in LP. Isolated LP glomeruli show a reduced level of miR-200a, miR-141, miR-429 and ZEB2 mRNA and upregulated collagen 1α1/2 mRNA expression. By western blot analyzes of whole kidney tissue, we found significant reduction of both podocin and nephrin and enhanced expression of mesenchymal protein markers such as desmin, collagen type I and fibronectin. From our present knowledge, these are the first data showing renal miRNA modulation in the protein restriction model of fetal programming. The fetal-programmed adult offspring showed pronounced structural glomerular disorders with an accentuated and advanced stage of fibrosis, which led us to state that the glomerular miR-200 family would be downregulated by TGF-β1 action inducing ZEB 2 expression that may subsequently cause glomeruli epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. PMID:23977013

  6. miR-367 promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells by targeting the Smad7-TGF-β signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Z; Xu, Y; Zhao, J; Liu, Q; Feng, W; Fan, J; Wang, P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aberrant Smad7 expression contributes to the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells. However, the potential mechanism underlying aberrant Smad7 expression in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains largely unknown. Methods: Bioinformatic prediction programmes and luciferase reporter assay were used to identify microRNAs regulating Smad7. The association between miR-367 expression and the overall survival of PDAC patients was evaluated by Kaplan–Meier analysis. The effects of miR-367 and Smad7 on the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Results: We found that miR-367 downregulated Smad7 expression by directly targeting its 3′-UTR in human pancreatic cancer cells. High level of miR-367 expression correlated with poor prognosis of PDAC patients. Functional studies showed that miR-367 promoted pancreatic cancer invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo through downregulating Smad7. In addition, we showed that miR-367 promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by increasing transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced transcriptional activity. Conclusions: The present study identified and characterised a signalling pathway, the miR-367/Smad7-TGF-β pathway, which is involved in the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells. Our results suggest that miR-367 may be a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of human pancreatic cancer. PMID:25867271

  7. SSBP1 Suppresses TGFβ-Driven Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Metastasis in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer by Regulating Mitochondrial Retrograde Signaling.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong-Lin; Sun, He-Fen; Gao, Shui-Ping; Li, Liang-Dong; Huang, Sheng; Hu, Xin; Liu, Sheng; Wu, Jiong; Shao, Zhi-Ming; Jin, Wei

    2016-02-15

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive tumor subtype lacking effective prognostic indicators or therapeutic targets. Mitochondrial function is dysregulated frequently in cancer cells to allow for adaptation to a harsh tumor microenvironment. Targeting mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics is, therefore, an attractive therapeutic strategy. In this study, we performed quantitative proteomic analyses in human parental and metastatic breast cancer cell lines to identify mitochondrial proteins involved in TNBC metastasis. We found that single-strand DNA-binding protein 1 (SSBP1) was downregulated in highly metastatic breast cancer cells. Moreover, SSBP1 downregulation promoted TNBC cell metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, SSBP1 loss decreased mitochondrial DNA copy number, thereby potentiating calcineurin-mediated mitochondrial retrograde signaling that induced c-Rel/p50 nuclear localization, activated TGFβ promoter activity, and TGFβ-driven epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Low SSBP1 expression correlated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in patients. Collectively, our findings identified SSBP1 as a novel metastasis suppressor and elucidated the mechanisms by which dysregulated mitochondrial signaling contributes to metastatic potential, providing potential new prognostic indicators for patients with TNBC. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Network modeling of TGFβ signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition reveals joint sonic hedgehog and Wnt pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Steinway, Steven Nathaniel; Zañudo, Jorge G T; Ding, Wei; Rountree, Carl Bart; Feith, David J; Loughran, Thomas P; Albert, Reka

    2014-11-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental process hijacked by cancer cells to leave the primary tumor site, invade surrounding tissue, and establish distant metastases. A hallmark of EMT is the loss of E-cadherin expression, and one major signal for the induction of EMT is TGFβ, which is dysregulated in up to 40% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We have constructed an EMT network of 70 nodes and 135 edges by integrating the signaling pathways involved in developmental EMT and known dysregulations in invasive HCC. We then used discrete dynamic modeling to understand the dynamics of the EMT network driven by TGFβ. Our network model recapitulates known dysregulations during the induction of EMT and predicts the activation of the Wnt and Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathways during this process. We show, across multiple murine (P2E and P2M) and human HCC cell lines (Huh7, PLC/PRF/5, HLE, and HLF), that the TGFβ signaling axis is a conserved driver of mesenchymal phenotype HCC and confirm that Wnt and SHH signaling are induced in these cell lines. Furthermore, we identify by network analysis eight regulatory feedback motifs that stabilize the EMT process and show that these motifs involve cross-talk among multiple major pathways. Our model will be useful in identifying potential therapeutic targets for the suppression of EMT, invasion, and metastasis in HCC.

  9. An hTERT/ZEB1 complex directly regulates E-cadherin to promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yong; Tang, Bo; Hu, Chang-Jiang; Xiao, Yu-Feng; Xie, Rui; Yong, Xin; Wu, Yu Yun; Dong, Hui; Yang, Shi-Ming

    2016-01-05

    In human cancer, high telomerase expression is correlated with tumor aggressiveness and metastatic potential. Telomerase activation occurs through telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) induction, which contributes to malignant transformation by stabilizing telomeres. Previous studies have shown that hTERT can promote tumor invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer, liver cancer and esophageal cancer. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a requirement for tumor invasion and metastasis, plays a key role in cancer progression. Although hTERT promotes EMT through Wnt signaling in several cancers, it is unknown if other signaling pathways are involved. In the present study, we found that hTERT and ZEB1 form a complex, which directly binds to the E-cadherin promoter, and then inhibits E-cadherin expression and promots EMT in colorectal cancer cells. hTERT overexpression in HCT116 and SW480 cells could induce E-cadherin down-regulation. However, E-cadherin expression was recovered when ZEB1 function was impaired even during hTERT overexpression. Taken together, our findings suggest that hTERT can promote cancer metastasis by stimulating EMT through the ZEB1 pathway and therefore inhibiting them may prevent cancer progression.

  10. Methylation-mediated silencing of microRNA-211 promotes cell growth and epithelial to mesenchymal transition through activation of the AKT/β-catenin pathway in GBM.

    PubMed

    Li, Weidong; Miao, Xiaobo; Liu, Lingling; Zhang, Yue; Jin, Xuejun; Luo, Xiaojun; Gao, Hai; Deng, Xubin

    2017-04-11

    Aberrant expression of miR-211 has frequently been reported in cancer studies; however, its role in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has not been examined in detail. We investigated the function and the underlying mechanism of miR-211 in GBM. We revealed that miR-211 was downregulated in GBM tissues and cell lines. Restoration of miR-211 inhibited GBM cell growth and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype was reversed when miR-211 expression was restored. HMGA2 was identified as a down-stream target of miR-211. MiR-211 had an inhibitory effect on AKT/β-catenin signaling, which was reversed by HMGA2 overexpression or miR-211 restoration. In addition, miR-211 was transcriptionally repressed by EZH2-induced H3K27 trimethylation and promoter methylation. Overall, our findings revealed miR-211 as a tumor suppressor in GBM and mir-211 may be a potential therapeutic target for GBM patients.

  11. Lipid accumulation is ahead of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and therapeutic intervention by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 silence in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Huang, Jing; Xin, Wei; Chen, Liyong; Zhao, Xu; Lv, Zhimei; Liu, Yi; Wan, Qiang

    2014-05-01

    The study investigated the relationship between epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and lipotoxicity in diabetic nephropathy as well as the protective effect of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) silence. High glucose (30mmol/L) cultured human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cells) were used. Triglyceride content, fatty acid β-oxidation rate, malonyl CoA content, and marker proteins of EMT, including E-cadherin (E-cad), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming grow factor-β (TGF-β), were assessed. Silence of ACC2 was achieved by ACC2-shRNA lentivirus transfection. In cultured human proximal tubular cells, high glucose induced fatty acid deposit before phenotypical and morphological changes of EMT. At 48h, more triglyceride content, more malonyl CoA content and lower fatty acid β-oxidation rate were detected. However, increased expression of TGF-β, accompanied by loss of E-cad and acquisition of α-SMA, was observed at 98h but not at 48h. The silence of ACC2 in HK-2 cells led to restored cell morphology with less lipid deposition and less malonyl-CoA content, which resulted from faster β-oxidation rate. The progress of lipotoxicity participates in the development of diabetic nephropathy in early stage before EMT. The manipulation of lipid metabolism might act as a promising therapeutic intervention for diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Characterization in a 3D-cell culture model

    PubMed Central

    Gagliano, Nicoletta; Celesti, Giuseppe; Tacchini, Lorenza; Pluchino, Stefano; Sforza, Chiarella; Rasile, Marco; Valerio, Vincenza; Laghi, Luigi; Conte, Vincenzo; Procacci, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the effect of three-dimensional (3D)-arrangement on the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. METHODS: HPAF-II, HPAC, and PL45 PDAC cells were cultured in either 2D-monolayers or 3D-spheroids. Ultrastructure was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin, N-cadherin, collagen type I (COL-I), vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), and podoplanin was assayed by confocal microscopy in cells cultured on 12-mm diameter round coverslips and in 3D-spheroids. Gene expression for E-cadherin, Snail, Slug, Twist, Zeb1, and Zeb2 was quantified by real-time PCR. E-cadherin protein level and its electrophoretic pattern were studied by Western blot in cell lysates obtained from cells grown in 2D-monolayers and 3D-spheroids. RESULTS: The E-cadherin/β-catenin complex was expressed in a similar way in plasma membrane cell boundaries in both 2D-monolayers and 3D-spheroids. E-cadherin increased in lysates obtained from 3D-spheroids, while cleavage fragments were more evident in 2D-monolayers. N-cadherin expression was observed in very few PDAC cells grown in 2D-monolayers, but was more evident in 3D-spheroids. Some cells expressing COL-I were observed in 3D-spheroids. Podoplanin, expressed in collectively migrating cells, and αSMA were similarly expressed in both experimental conditions. The concomitant maintenance of the E-cadherin/β-catenin complex at cell boundaries supports the hypothesis of a collective migration for these cells, which is consistent with podoplanin expression. CONCLUSION: We show that a 3D-cell culture model could provide deeper insight into understanding the biology of PDAC and allow for the detection of marked differences in the phenotype of PDAC cells grown in 3D-spheroids. PMID:27182158

  13. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: Characterization in a 3D-cell culture model.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, Nicoletta; Celesti, Giuseppe; Tacchini, Lorenza; Pluchino, Stefano; Sforza, Chiarella; Rasile, Marco; Valerio, Vincenza; Laghi, Luigi; Conte, Vincenzo; Procacci, Patrizia

    2016-05-14

    To analyze the effect of three-dimensional (3D)-arrangement on the expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. HPAF-II, HPAC, and PL45 PDAC cells were cultured in either 2D-monolayers or 3D-spheroids. Ultrastructure was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. The expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin, N-cadherin, collagen type I (COL-I), vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), and podoplanin was assayed by confocal microscopy in cells cultured on 12-mm diameter round coverslips and in 3D-spheroids. Gene expression for E-cadherin, Snail, Slug, Twist, Zeb1, and Zeb2 was quantified by real-time PCR. E-cadherin protein level and its electrophoretic pattern were studied by Western blot in cell lysates obtained from cells grown in 2D-monolayers and 3D-spheroids. The E-cadherin/β-catenin complex was expressed in a similar way in plasma membrane cell boundaries in both 2D-monolayers and 3D-spheroids. E-cadherin increased in lysates obtained from 3D-spheroids, while cleavage fragments were more evident in 2D-monolayers. N-cadherin expression was observed in very few PDAC cells grown in 2D-monolayers, but was more evident in 3D-spheroids. Some cells expressing COL-I were observed in 3D-spheroids. Podoplanin, expressed in collectively migrating cells, and αSMA were similarly expressed in both experimental conditions. The concomitant maintenance of the E-cadherin/β-catenin complex at cell boundaries supports the hypothesis of a collective migration for these cells, which is consistent with podoplanin expression. We show that a 3D-cell culture model could provide deeper insight into understanding the biology of PDAC and allow for the detection of marked differences in the phenotype of PDAC cells grown in 3D-spheroids.

  14. Lack of Radiation Dose or Quality Dependence of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Mediated by Transforming Growth Factor {beta}

    SciTech Connect

    Andarawewa, Kumari L.; Costes, Sylvain V.; Fernandez-Garcia, Ignacio; Chou, William S.; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Park, Howard; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a phenotype that alters cell morphology, disrupts morphogenesis, and increases motility. Our prior studies have shown that the progeny of human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) irradiated with 2 Gy undergoes transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF-{beta})-mediated EMT. In this study we determined whether radiation dose or quality affected TGF-{beta}-mediated EMT. Methods and Materials: HMECs were cultured on tissue culture plastic or in Matrigel (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA) and exposed to low or high linear energy transfer (LET) and TGF-{beta} (400 pg/mL). Image analysis was used to measure membrane-associated E-cadherin, a marker of functional epithelia, or fibronectin, a product of mesenchymal cells, as a function of radiation dose and quality. Results: E-cadherin was reduced in TGF-{beta}-treated cells irradiated with low-LET radiation doses between 0.03 and 2 Gy compared with untreated, unirradiated cells or TGF-{beta} treatment alone. The radiation quality dependence of TGF-{beta}-mediated EMT was determined by use of 1 GeV/amu (gigaelectron volt / atomic mass unit) {sup 56}Fe ion particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Radiation Laboratory. On the basis of the relative biological effectiveness of 2 for {sup 56}Fe ion particles' clonogenic survival, TGF-{beta}-treated HMECs were irradiated with equitoxic 1-Gy {sup 56}Fe ion or 2-Gy {sup 137}Cs radiation in monolayer. Furthermore, TGF-{beta}-treated HMECs irradiated with either high- or low-LET radiation exhibited similar loss of E-cadherin and gain of fibronectin and resulted in similar large, poorly organized colonies when embedded in Matrigel. Moreover, the progeny of HMECs exposed to different fluences of {sup 56}Fe ion underwent TGF-{beta}-mediated EMT even when only one-third of the cells were directly traversed by the particle. Conclusions: Thus TGF-{beta}-mediated EMT, like other non-targeted radiation effects, is

  15. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer: a role for insulin-like growth factor I and insulin-like growth factor–binding protein 3?

    PubMed Central

    Zielinska, Hanna A; Bahl, Amit; Holly, Jeff MP; Perks, Claire M

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates that for most human cancers the problem is not that gene mutations occur but is more dependent upon how the body deals with damaged cells. It has been estimated that only about 1% of human cancers can be accounted for by unmistakable hereditary cancer syndromes, only up to 5% can be accounted for due to high-penetrance, single-gene mutations, and in total only 5%–15% of all cancers may have a major genetic component. The predominant contribution to the causation of most sporadic cancers is considered to be environmental factors contributing between 58% and 82% toward different cancers. A nutritionally poor lifestyle is associated with increased risk of many cancers, including those of the breast. As nutrition, energy balance, macronutrient composition of the diet, and physical activity levels are major determinants of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) bioactivity, it has been proposed that, at least in part, these increases in cancer risk and progression may be mediated by alterations in the IGF axis, related to nutritional lifestyle. Localized breast cancer is a manageable disease, and death from breast cancer predominantly occurs due to the development of metastatic disease as treatment becomes more complicated with poorer outcomes. In recent years, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition has emerged as an important contributor to breast cancer progression and malignant transformation resulting in tumor cells with increased potential for migration and invasion. Furthermore, accumulating evidence suggests a strong link between components of the IGF pathway, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and breast cancer mortality. Here, we highlight some recent studies highlighting the relationship between IGFs, IGF-binding protein 3, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. PMID:25632238

  16. PARP3 controls TGFβ and ROS driven epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and stemness by stimulating a TG2-Snail-E-cadherin axis

    PubMed Central

    Karicheva, Olga; Rodriguez-Vargas, José Manuel; Wadier, Nadège; Martin-Hernandez, Kathline; Vauchelles, Romain; Magroun, Najat; Tissier, Agnès; Schreiber, Valérie; Dantzer, Françoise

    2016-01-01

    Several members of the Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family are essential regulators of genome integrity, actively prospected as drug targets for cancer therapy. Among them, PARP3 is well characterized for its functions in double-strand break repair and mitotis. Here we report that PARP3 also plays an integral role in TGFβ and reactive oxygen species (ROS) dependent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stem-like cell properties in human mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells. PARP3 expression is higher in breast cancer cells of the mesenchymal phenotype and correlates with the expression of the mesenchymal marker Vimentin while being in inverse correlation with the epithelial marker E-cadherin. Furthermore, PARP3 expression is significantly upregulated during TGFβ-induced EMT in various human epithelial cells. In line with this observation, PARP3 depletion alters TGFβ-dependent EMT of mammary epithelial cells by preventing the induction of the Snail-E-cadherin axis, the dissolution of cell junctions, the acquisition of cell motility and chemoresistance. PARP3 responds to TGFβ-induced ROS to promote a TG2-Snail-E-cadherin axis during EMT. Considering the link between EMT and cancer stem cells, we show that PARP3 promotes stem-like cell properties in mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells by inducing the expression of the stem cell markers SOX2 and OCT4, by increasing the proportion of tumor initiating CD44high/CD24low population and the formation of tumor spheroid bodies, and by promoting stem cell self-renewal. These findings point to a novel role of PARP3 in the control of TGFβ-induced EMT and acquisition of stem-like cell features and further motivate efforts to identify PARP3 specific inhibitors. PMID:27579892

  17. A regulatory loop involving miR-29c and Sp1 elevates the TGF-β1 mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-wei; Wang, En-wen; Li, Li-xian; Yi, Shou-hui; Li, Lu-chun; Xu, Fa-liang; Wang, Dong-lin; Wu, Yong-zhong; Nian, Wei-qi

    2016-01-01

    Specificity protein1 (Sp1) is required for TGF-β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which has been demonstrated to aggravate the progression of cancer including lung cancer. microRNA-29c (miR-29c) is identified to inhibit EMT, but the correlation between miR-29c and Sp1 in human lung cancer remain incompletely clarified. Here, we confirmed decreased expression of miR-29c and enhanced expression of Sp1 in lung cancer tissues (n = 20) and found that Sp1 could be targeted and inhibited by miR-29c. Besides, the expression of miR-29c was down-regulated in high-metastatic lung cancer cell lines and TGF-β1-treated cells. The inhibition of miR-29c or overexpression of Sp1 in 95C and A549 cells dramatically enhanced the cell migration and invasion, and also induced the decrease in the expression of epithelial markers, e.g. thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) and E-cadherin, together with an increase in mesenchymal markers including vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), which could be restored by overexpression of miR-29c mimics during the TGF-β-induced EMT. Moreover, dual-luciferase reporter assay was performed and the results indicated that miR-29c/Sp1 could form an auto-regulatory loop with TGF-β1, which impaired TGFB1 transcription. Furthermore, miR-29c overexpression could abrogate the tumor progression and inhibit the Sp1/TGF-β expressions in vivo, indicating that miR-29c could be a tumor suppressor and repress the Sp1/TGF-β axis-induced EMT in lung cancer. PMID:27829234

  18. Effect of berberine on the renal tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by inhibition of the Notch/snail pathway in diabetic nephropathy model KKAy mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guannan; Zhao, Zongjiang; Zhang, Xinxue; Wu, Amin; Huang, Yawei; Miao, Yonghui; Yang, Meijuan

    2017-01-01

    Renal tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and renal tubular interstitial fibrosis are the main pathological changes of diabetic nephropathy (DN), which is a common cause of end-stage renal disease. Previous studies have suggested that berberine (BBR) has antifibrotic effects in the kidney and can reduce apoptosis and inhibit the EMT of podocytes in DN. However, the effect of BBR on the renal tubular EMT in DN and its mechanisms of action are unknown. This study was performed to explore the effects of BBR on the renal tubular EMT and the molecular mechanisms of BBR in DN model KKAy mice and on the high glucose (HG)-induced EMT in mouse renal tubular epithelial cells. Our results showed that, relative to the model mice, the mice in the treatment group had an improved general state and reduced blood glucose and 24-h urinary protein levels. Degradation of renal function was ameliorated by BBR. We also observed the protective effects of BBR on renal structural changes, including normalization of an index of renal interstitial fibrosis and kidney weight/body weight. Moreover, BBR suppressed the activation of the Notch/snail pathway and upregulated the α-SMA and E-cadherin levels in DN model KKAy mice. BBR was further found to prevent HG-induced EMT events and to inhibit the HG-induced expression of Notch pathway members and snail1 in mouse renal tubular epithelial cells. Our findings indicate that BBR has a therapeutic effect on DN, including its inhibition of the renal tubular EMT and renal interstitial fibrosis. Furthermore, the BBR-mediated EMT inhibition occurs through Notch/snail pathway regulation. PMID:28408805

  19. Proteomic Analysis of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Reveals Cross-talk between SNAIL and HDAC1 Proteins in Breast Cancer Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Camila de Souza; Grassi, Mariana Lopes; Thomé, Carolina Hassibe; Ferreira, Germano Aguiar; Albuquerque, Daniele; Pinto, Mariana Tomazini; Ferreira Melo, Fernanda Ursoli; Kashima, Simone; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Pitteri, Sharon J.; Faça, Vitor M.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)1 occurs naturally during embryogenesis, tissue repair, cancer progression, and metastasis. EMT induces cellular and microenvironmental changes resulting in loss of epithelial and acquisition of mesenchymal phenotypes, which promotes cellular invasive and migratory capabilities. EMT can be triggered by extracellular factors, including TGF-β, HGF, and EGF. Overexpression of transcription factors, such as SNAIL, SLUG, ZEB1/2, and TWIST1, also induces EMT and is correlated to cancer aggressiveness. Here, the breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF7 was transduced with SNAIL to identify specific mechanisms controlled by this transcription factor during EMT. Overexpression of SNAIL led to EMT, which was thoroughly validated by molecular, morphological, and functional experiments. Subcellular proteome enrichment followed by GEL-LC-MS/MS was performed to provide extensive protein fractionation and in-depth proteomic analysis. Quantitative analysis relied on a SILAC strategy, using the invasive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 as a reference for quantitation. Subsets of proteins enriched in each subcellular compartment led to a complementary list of 4289 proteins identified with high confidence. A subset of differentially expressed proteins was validated by Western blot, including regulation in specific cellular compartments, potentially caused by protein translocation. Protein network analysis highlighted complexes involved in cell cycle control and epigenetic regulation. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that SNAIL overexpression led to cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phases. Furthermore, down-regulation of HDAC1 was observed, supporting the involvement of epigenetic processes in SNAIL-induced EMT. When HDAC1 activity was inhibited, MCF7 not only apparently initiated EMT but also up-regulated SNAIL, indicating the cross-talk between these two proteins. Both HDAC1 inhibition and SNAIL overexpression activated the AKT pathway. These

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Reveals Cross-talk between SNAIL and HDAC1 Proteins in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Palma, Camila de Souza; Grassi, Mariana Lopes; Thomé, Carolina Hassibe; Ferreira, Germano Aguiar; Albuquerque, Daniele; Pinto, Mariana Tomazini; Ferreira Melo, Fernanda Ursoli; Kashima, Simone; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Pitteri, Sharon J; Faça, Vitor M

    2016-03-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)(1) occurs naturally during embryogenesis, tissue repair, cancer progression, and metastasis. EMT induces cellular and microenvironmental changes resulting in loss of epithelial and acquisition of mesenchymal phenotypes, which promotes cellular invasive and migratory capabilities. EMT can be triggered by extracellular factors, including TGF-β, HGF, and EGF. Overexpression of transcription factors, such as SNAIL, SLUG, ZEB1/2, and TWIST1, also induces EMT and is correlated to cancer aggressiveness. Here, the breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF7 was transduced with SNAIL to identify specific mechanisms controlled by this transcription factor during EMT. Overexpression of SNAIL led to EMT, which was thoroughly validated by molecular, morphological, and functional experiments. Subcellular proteome enrichment followed by GEL-LC-MS/MS was performed to provide extensive protein fractionation and in-depth proteomic analysis. Quantitative analysis relied on a SILAC strategy, using the invasive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 as a reference for quantitation. Subsets of proteins enriched in each subcellular compartment led to a complementary list of 4289 proteins identified with high confidence. A subset of differentially expressed proteins was validated by Western blot, including regulation in specific cellular compartments, potentially caused by protein translocation. Protein network analysis highlighted complexes involved in cell cycle control and epigenetic regulation. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that SNAIL overexpression led to cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phases. Furthermore, down-regulation of HDAC1 was observed, supporting the involvement of epigenetic processes in SNAIL-induced EMT. When HDAC1 activity was inhibited, MCF7 not only apparently initiated EMT but also up-regulated SNAIL, indicating the cross-talk between these two proteins. Both HDAC1 inhibition and SNAIL overexpression activated the AKT pathway. These

  1. The Tetraindole SK228 Reverses the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition of Breast Cancer Cells by Up-Regulating Members of the miR-200 Family

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chie-Hong; Chen, Chia-Ling; More, Shivaji V.; Hsiao, Pei-Wen; Hung, Wen-Chun; Li, Wen-Shan

    2014-01-01

    The results of recent studies have shown that metastasis, the most common malignancy and primary cause of mortality promoted by breast cancer in women, is associated with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The results of the current study show that SK228, a novel indole containing substance, exhibits anti-cancer activity. In addition, the effects of SK228 on the regulation of EMT in breast cancer cells as well as the underlying mechanism have been explored. SK228 was observed to induce a fibroblastoid to epithelial-like change in the appearance of various breast cancer cell lines and to suppress the migration and invasion of these cancer cells in vitro. Moreover, expression of E-cadherin was found to increase following SK228 treatment whereas ZEB1 expression was repressed. Expression of other major EMT inducers, including ZEB2, Slug and Twist1, is also repressed by SK228 as a consequence of up-regulation of members of the miR-200 family, especially miR-200c. The results of animal studies demonstrate that SK228 treatment leads to effective suppression of breast cancer growth and metastasis in vivo. The observations made in this investigation show that SK228 reverses the EMT process in breast cancer cells via an effect on the miR-200c/ZEB1/E-cadherin signalling pathway. In addition, the results of a detailed analysis of the in vivo anti-cancer activities of SK228, carried out using a breast cancer xenograft animal model, show that this substance is a potential chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:24967704

  2. Conditioned mesenchymal stem cells attenuate progression of chronic kidney disease through inhibition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and immune modulation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jei-Wen; Tsai, Hsin-Lin; Chen, Chang-Wei; Yang, Hui-Wen; Yang, An-Hang; Yang, Ling-Yu; Wang, Paulus S; Ng, Yee-Yung; Lin, Teng-Lung; Lee, Oscar K

    2012-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to improve the outcome of acute renal injury models; but whether MSCs can delay renal failure in chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. In the present study, the were cultured in media containing various concentrations of basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate to investigate whether hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) secretion could be increased by the stimulation of these growth factors. Then, TGF-β1-treated renal interstitial fibroblast (NRK-49F), renal proximal tubular cells (NRK-52E) and podocytes were co-cultured with conditioned MSCs in the absence or presence of ascorbic acid 2-phosphate to quantify the protective effects of conditioned MSCs on renal cells. Moreover, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 1 × 10(6) conditioned MSCs immediately after 5/6 nephrectomy and every other week through the tail vein for 14 weeks. It was found that basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor and ascorbic acid 2-phosphate promoted HGF secretion in MSCs. Besides, conditioned MSCs were found to be protective against TGF-β1 induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of NRK-52E and activation of NRK-49F cells. Furthermore, conditioned MSCs protected podocytes from TGF-β1-induced loss of synaptopodin, fibronectin induction, cell death and apoptosis. Rats transplanted with conditioned human MSCs had a significantly increase in creatinine clearance rate, decrease in glomerulosclerosis, interstitial fibrosis and increase in CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells counts in splenocytes. Together, our studies indicated that conditioned MSCs preserve renal function by their anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects. Transplantation of conditioned MSCs may be useful in treating CKD.

  3. Global and gene specific DNA methylation in breast cancer cells was not affected during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in vitro.

    PubMed

    Smolkova, B; Miklikova, S; Kajabova, V Horvathova; Babelova, A; Yamani, N El; Zduriencikova, M; Fridrichova, I; Zmetakova, I; Krivulcik, T; Kalinkova, L; Matuskova, M; Kucerova, L; Dusinska, M

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) significantly affects the risk of metastasising in breast cancer. Plasticity and reversibility of EMT suggest that epigenetic mechanisms could be the key drivers of these processes, but little is known about the dynamics of EMT-related epigenetic alterations. We hypothesised that EMT, mediated by autocrine and paracrine signals, will be accompanied by changes in DNA methylation profiles. Therefore, conditioned medium from adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells was used for induction of EMT in human breast cancer SK-BR-3 cell line. EMT-related morphological alterations and changes in gene expression of EMT-associated markers were assessed. To reverse EMT, 20 nm size gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesized by the citrate reduction method were applied. Finally, DNA methylation of LINE-1 sequences and promoter methylation of TIMP3, ADAM23 and BRMS1 genes were quantitatively evaluated by pyrosequencing. Despite the presence of EMT-associated morphological and gene expression changes in tumour cells, EMT induced by adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells had almost no effect on LINE-1 and gene-specific DNA methylation patterns of TIMP3, ADAM23 and BRMS1 genes. Although treatment for 24, 48 or 72 hours with 20 nm AuNPs at a concentration of 3 µg/ml slightly decreased gene expression of EMT-associated markers in SK-BR-3 cells, it did not alter global or gene-specific DNA methylation. Our results suggest that changes in DNA methylation are not detectable in vitro in early phases of EMT. Previously published positive findings could represent rather the sustained presence of potent EMT-inducing signals or the synergistic effect of various epigenetic mechanisms. Treatment with AuNPs slightly attenuated EMT, and their therapeutic potential needs to be further investigated.

  4. Accreta complicating complete placenta previa is characterized by reduced systemic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of the invasive trophoblast.

    PubMed

    Wehrum, Mark J; Buhimschi, Irina A; Salafia, Carolyn; Thung, Stephen; Bahtiyar, Mert O; Werner, Erica F; Campbell, Katherine H; Laky, Christine; Sfakianaki, Anna K; Zhao, Guomao; Funai, Edmund F; Buhimschi, Catalin S

    2011-05-01

    We sought to characterize serum angiogenic factor profile of women with complete placenta previa and determine if invasive trophoblast differentiation characteristic of accreta, increta, or percreta shares features of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We analyzed gestational age-matched serum samples from 90 pregnant women with either complete placenta previa (n = 45) or uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 45). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor, and soluble form of fms-like-tyrosine-kinase-1 were immunoassayed. VEGF and phosphotyrosine immunoreactivity was surveyed in histological specimens relative to expression of vimentin and cytokeratin-7. Women with previa and invasive placentation (accreta, n = 5; increta, n = 6; percreta, n = 2) had lower systemic VEGF (invasive previa: median 0.8 [0.02-3.4] vs control 6.5 [2.7-10.5] pg/mL, P = .02). VEGF and phosphotyrosine immunostaining predominated in the invasive extravillous trophoblasts that coexpressed vimentin and cytokeratin-7, an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition feature and tumorlike cell phenotype. Lower systemic free VEGF and a switch of the interstitial extravillous trophoblasts to a metastable cell phenotype characterize placenta previa with excessive myometrial invasion. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  5. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition markers are associated with an increased metastatic risk in primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas but are attenuated in lymph node metastases.

    PubMed

    Toll, Agustí; Masferrer, Emili; Hernández-Ruiz, M E; Ferrandiz-Pulido, Carla; Yébenes, Mireia; Jaka, Ane; Tuneu, Anna; Jucglà, Anna; Gimeno, Javier; Baró, Teresa; Casado, Beatriz; Gandarillas, Alberto; Costa, Irmgard; Mojal, Sergi; Peña, Raul; de Herreros, Antonio García; García-Patos, Vicenç; Pujol, Ramon M; Hernández-Muñoz, Inmaculada

    2013-11-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common malignancy in humans and approximately 5% metastasize, usually to regional lymph nodes. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process involving loss of intercellular adhesion, acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype and enhanced migratory potential; epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin, are down-regulated and mesenchymal proteins (Vimentin), increased. To investigate the expression of EMT markers in metastatic SCC (MSCC) and their corresponding metastases, and to correlate them with clinico-pathological factors associated with an increased risk of metastasis. We performed a retrospective study that included 146 cSCC samples (51 primary non-metastatic, 56 primary metastatic, 39 lymphatic metastases). Immunohistochemistry for E-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail, beta-catenin, Twist, Zeb1 and Podoplanin was performed. Loss of membranous E-cadherin was observed in 77% cSCCs, with no differences between MSCC and non-MSCC. Among the transcriptional factors controlling EMT, no significant Snail1 expression was detected. Twist, Zeb1, Vimentin, beta-catenin and Podoplanin were significantly overexpressed in MSCCs. Twist ectopic expression in SCC13 cells induced Zeb1, Vimentin and Podoplanin expression and E-cadherin delocalization. These changes resulted in a scattered migration pattern in vitro. Expression of EMT markers was decreased in the metastases when compared with the corresponding primary tumors. These results suggest that a partial EMT, characterized by the expression of Twist but without a total E-cadherin depletion, is involved in the acquisition of invasive traits by cSCC, but the process is downregulated in lymph node metastases. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. IL-6 promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of human peritoneal mesothelial cells possibly through the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jing; Gong, Yanan; Chen, Ying; Yu, Dahai; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Dou, Yanna; Liu, Dong; Cheng, Genyang; Lu, Shan; Yuan, Wenming; Li, Yansheng; Zhao, Zhanzheng

    2017-08-01

    Long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy results in functional and structural alteration of the peritoneal membrane, including epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a local pleiotropic cytokine, hypothesized to play an important role in EMT. This study was designed to investigate the role of IL-6 in EMT and peritoneal membrane dysfunction in long-term PD patients by assessing the level of IL-6 in dialysate and exploring the relationship between IL-6, the related signaling pathway JAK2/STAT3, and EMT, using in vitro cellular and molecular techniques. Plasma and dialysate levels of IL-6 were significantly higher in PD ultrafiltration failure patients compared with patients without ultrafiltration failure and were negatively correlated with measures of PD adequacy. In vitro IL-6 treatment changed human peritoneal mesothelial cell phenotype from a typical cobblestone-like to a fibroblast-like appearance and increased cell viability. IL-6 treatment increased α-smooth muscle actin and vascular endothelial growth factor expression but decreased E-cadherin expression. IL-6 treatment activated the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. However, the JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor WP1066 prevented IL-6-induced activation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway and EMT. We conclude that IL-6 promotes the EMT process, possibly by activating the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. IL-6 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for preventing EMT, and preservation of the peritoneal membrane may arise from these studies. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 vector mediated miR-21 gene editing inhibits the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Huo, Wenying; Zhao, Guannan; Yin, Jinggang; Ouyang, Xuan; Wang, Yinan; Yang, Chuanhe; Wang, Baojing; Dong, Peixin; Wang, Zhixiang; Watari, Hidemichi; Chaum, Edward; Pfeffer, Lawrence M; Yue, Junming

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) mediated genome editing is a powerful approach for loss of function studies. Here we report that lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 vectors are highly efficient in introducing mutations in the precursor miRNA sequence, thus leading to the loss of miRNA expression and function. We constructed four different lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 vectors that target different regions of the precursor miR-21 sequence and found that these lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 miR-21 gRNA vectors induced mutations in the precursor sequences as shown by DNA surveyor mutation assay and Sanger sequencing. Two miR-21 lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 gRNA vectors were selected to probe miR-21 function in ovarian cancer SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cell lines. Our data demonstrate that disruption of pre-miR-21 sequences leads to reduced cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Moreover, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated miR-21 gene editing sensitizes both SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells to chemotherapeutic drug treatment. Disruption of miR-21 leads to the inhibition of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in both SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells as evidenced by the upregulation of epithelial cell marker E-cadherin and downregulation of mesenchymal marker genes, vimentin and Snai2. The miR-21 target genes PDCD4 and SPRY2 were upregulated in cells transduced with miR-21gRNAs compared to controls. Our study indicates that lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9-mediated miRNA gene editing is an effective approach to address miRNA function, and disruption of miR-21 inhibits EMT in ovarian cancer cells.

  8. MIR517C inhibits autophagy and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal (-like) transition phenotype in human glioblastoma through KPNA2-dependent disruption of TP53 nuclear translocation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuntao; Xiao, Limin; Liu, Yawei; Wang, Hai; Li, Hong; Zhou, Qiang; Pan, Jun; Lei, Bingxi; Huang, Annie; Qi, Songtao

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal (-like) transition (EMT), a crucial embryonic development program, has been linked to the regulation of glioblastoma (GBM) progression and invasion. Here, we investigated the role of MIR517C/miR-517c, which belongs to the C19MC microRNA cluster identified in our preliminary studies, in the pathogenesis of GBM. We found that MIR517C was associated with improved prognosis in patients with GBM. Furthermore, following treatment with the autophagy inducer temozolomide (TMZ) and low glucose (LG), MIR517C degraded KPNA2 (karyopherin alpha 2 [RAG cohort 1, importin alpha 1]) and subsequently disturbed the nuclear translocation of TP53 in the GBM cell line U87 in vitro. Interestingly, this microRNA could inhibit autophagy and reduce cell migration and infiltration in U87 cells harboring wild-type (WT) TP53, but not in U251 cells harboring mutant (MU) TP53. Moreover, the expression of epithelial markers (i.e., CDH13/T-cadherin and CLDN1 [claudin 1]) increased, while the expression of mesenchymal markers (i.e., CDH2/N-cadherin, SNAI1/Snail, and VIM [vimentin]) decreased, indicating that the EMT status was blocked by MIR517C in U87 cells. Compared with MIR517C overexpression, MIR517C knockdown promoted infiltration of U87 cells to the surrounding structures in nude mice in vivo. The above phenotypic changes were also observed in TP53+/+ and TP53-/- HCT116 colon cancer cells. In summary, our study provided support for a link between autophagy and EMT status in WT TP53 GBM cells and provided evidence for the signaling pathway (MIR517C-KPNA2-cytoplasmic TP53) involved in attenuating autophagy and eliminating the increased migration and invasion during the EMT. PMID:26553592

  9. Plumbagin suppresses epithelial to mesenchymal transition and stemness via inhibiting Nrf2-mediated signaling pathway in human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Qin, Yiru; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Yang, Yin-Xue; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Qiu, Jia-Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is the most common malignancy in oral and maxillofacial tumors with highly metastatic characteristics. Plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone; PLB), a natural naphthoquinone derived from the roots of Plumbaginaceae plants, exhibits various bioactivities, including anticancer effects. However, the potential molecular targets and underlying mechanisms of PLB in the treatment of TSCC remain elusive. This study employed stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomic approach to investigate the molecular interactome of PLB in human TSCC cell line SCC25 and elucidate the molecular mechanisms. The proteomic data indicated that PLB inhibited cell proliferation, activated death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway, remodeled epithelial adherens junctions pathway, and manipulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated oxidative stress response signaling pathway in SCC25 cells with the involvement of a number of key functional proteins. Furthermore, we verified these protein targets using Western blotting assay. The verification results showed that PLB markedly induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and extrinsic apoptosis, and inhibited epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness in SCC25 cells. Of note, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) and l-glutathione (GSH) abolished the effects of PLB on cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction, EMT inhibition, and stemness attenuation in SCC25 cells. Importantly, PLB suppressed the translocation of Nrf2 from cytosol to nucleus, resulting in an inhibition in the expression of downstream targets. Taken together, these results suggest that PLB may act as a promising anticancer compound via inhibiting Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress signaling pathway in SCC25 cells. This study provides a clue to fully identify the molecular targets and decipher the underlying mechanisms of PLB in the treatment of TSCC. PMID:26491260

  10. Lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 vector mediated miR-21 gene editing inhibits the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Wenying; Zhao, Guannan; Yin, Jinggang; Ouyang, Xuan; Wang, Yinan; Yang, Chuanhe; Wang, Baojing; Dong, Peixin; Wang, Zhixiang; Watari, Hidemichi; Chaum, Edward; Pfeffer, Lawrence M.; Yue, Junming

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) mediated genome editing is a powerful approach for loss of function studies. Here we report that lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 vectors are highly efficient in introducing mutations in the precursor miRNA sequence, thus leading to the loss of miRNA expression and function. We constructed four different lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 vectors that target different regions of the precursor miR-21 sequence and found that these lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 miR-21 gRNA vectors induced mutations in the precursor sequences as shown by DNA surveyor mutation assay and Sanger sequencing. Two miR-21 lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 gRNA vectors were selected to probe miR-21 function in ovarian cancer SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cell lines. Our data demonstrate that disruption of pre-miR-21 sequences leads to reduced cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Moreover, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated miR-21 gene editing sensitizes both SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells to chemotherapeutic drug treatment. Disruption of miR-21 leads to the inhibition of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in both SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells as evidenced by the upregulation of epithelial cell marker E-cadherin and downregulation of mesenchymal marker genes, vimentin and Snai2. The miR-21 target genes PDCD4 and SPRY2 were upregulated in cells transduced with miR-21gRNAs compared to controls. Our study indicates that lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9-mediated miRNA gene editing is an effective approach to address miRNA function, and disruption of miR-21 inhibits EMT in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:28123598

  11. Expression of Cox-2 in human breast cancer cells as a critical determinant of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Bocca, Claudia; Ievolella, Monica; Autelli, Riccardo; Motta, Manuela; Mosso, Luciano; Torchio, Bruno; Bozzo, Francesca; Cannito, Stefania; Paternostro, Claudia; Colombatto, Sebastiano; Parola, Maurizio; Miglietta, Antonella

    2014-02-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in several malignancies and is implicated in breast cancer progression. We investigated whether changes in COX-2 expression may affect epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and then invasive potential of human breast cancer cells, in relationship with hypoxia. COX-2-null MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, MCF-7 cells transiently expressing COX-2 and COX-2-expressing MDA-MB-231 cells were employed. COX-2 overexpression resulted in downregulation of E-cadherin and β-catenin, upregulation of vimentin, N-cadherin and SNAI1, suggesting EMT occurrence. COX-2-overexpressing MCF-7 cells were also characterized by increased invasiveness and release of matrix-metalloproteinase-9. The above-mentioned characteristics, homologous to those detected in highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells, were reverted by treatment of COX-2-overexpressing MCF-7 cells with celecoxib, a COX-2-specific inhibitor, partly through the inhibition of COX-2-related intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species. Hypoxia further exacerbated COX-2 expression, EMT changes and invasive ability in both COX-2-overexpressing MCF-7 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells. Finally, immunohistochemistry performed on samples from normal and neoplastic human breast tissues revealed that COX-2-positive malignant cells were also positive for EMT-related antigens, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α and the oxidative stress marker heme oxygenase. These findings support the existence of a direct link between COX-2 overexpression, EMT and invasiveness in human breast cancer cells, emphasizing the role of hypoxic microenvironment.

  12. [Effect of febuxostat on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of kidney tubules, serum interleukin-6 and transforming growth factor β(1) in hyperuricemic rats].

    PubMed

    Lin, Z M; Zhang, R S; Fan, C X; Liang, Y L; Li, L; Zhao, L; Qu, J C; Xu, X; Zhao, H Y; Liu, X N; Zhu, K S

    2017-05-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of febuxostat on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of kidney tubules and the levels of serum IL-6 nad transforming growth factor (TGF)β(1) in hyperuricemic rats. Methods: Forty male SD rats were divided into 4 groups: normal control group (NC group), oteracil potassium group (OP group), oteracil potassium with febuxostat group (OF group) and oteracil potassium with benzbromarone group (OB group). Each group had 10 rats and balanced in body weights. To induce hyperuricemia, rats were given oteracil potassium by gastric gavage once a day for eight weeks. Rats in OF group and OB group were given either febuxostat or benbromarone starting with oteracil potassium, and rats in NC group was given saline only. Blood samples were taken before, and at the end of 4 and 8 weeks of the treatments and serum uric acid, creatinine, blood usea nitrogen(BUN), IL-6 and TGFβ(1) contents were measured at each time point. Renal pathological changes were observed via HE and Masson staining, and the expression of α-SMA and E-cadherin were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared with those in NC group, the levels of serum uric acid, creatinine, BUN, IL-6 and TGFβ(1) in the another three groups were increased significantly (all P<0.01). However, the IL-6 and TGFβ(1) contents in OF group were much lower than those in OP group (P<0.01). HE and Masson staining showed that OF group had less damage and tubulointerstitial fibrosis than OP group and OB group (P<0.01). Moreover, the expression of α-SMA was significantly down-regulated (P<0.01) and that of E-cadherin was significantly up-regulated in OF group compared with those in OP group. Conclusion: Febuxostat treatment significantly inhibited EMT and reduced the levels of IL-6 and TGFβ(1) in hyperuricemia rats.

  13. Inhibition of ZNF746 suppresses invasion and epithelial to mesenchymal transition in H460 non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bonglee; Sohn, Eun Jung; Jung, Ji Hoon; Shin, Eun Ah; You, Ok Heui; Im, Jinwon; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Although ZNF746, also known as Parkin-interacting substrate (PARIS), has been reported to suppress peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and its target gene NRF-1 leading to the neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease, its function in tumorigenesis has yet to be investigated. Thus, in the present study, the role of ZNF746 in the invasion and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in H460 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells was investigated. Invasion assay showed that inhibition of ZNF746 using siRNA transfection inhibited the invasion of H460 NSCLC cells using Boyden chamber. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that the silencing of ZNF746 attenuated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)1, MMP2 and MMP9, but not MMP7, in H460 NSCLC cells. Immunoblotting assay revealed that the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin of epithelial phenotype was upregulated, while Slug was downregulated in ZNF746 siRNA-transfected H460 NSCLC cells. Accordingly, the mRNA expression of E-cadherin was upregulated while vimentin or Slug, Twist, ZEB as EMT key transcriptional factors were suppressed in ZNF746 siRNA-transfected H460 NSCLC cells. Also, mRNA expression of transcriptional marker Nanog and Octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), known to enhance malignancy and metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma, was suppressed in ZNF746 siRNA-transfected H460 NSCLC cells. Notably, the endogenous expression of ZNF746 was induced in parallel with Twist at the protein level during hypoxia. Overall, our findings suggest that inhibition of ZNF746 suppresses the invasion and EMT molecules in H460 NSCLC cells and ZNF746 may be an important target molecule in lung tumorigenesis.

  14. MIR517C inhibits autophagy and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal (-like) transition phenotype in human glioblastoma through KPNA2-dependent disruption of TP53 nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuntao; Xiao, Limin; Liu, Yawei; Wang, Hai; Li, Hong; Zhou, Qiang; Pan, Jun; Lei, Bingxi; Huang, Annie; Qi, Songtao

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal (-like) transition (EMT), a crucial embryonic development program, has been linked to the regulation of glioblastoma (GBM) progression and invasion. Here, we investigated the role of MIR517C/miR-517c, which belongs to the C19MC microRNA cluster identified in our preliminary studies, in the pathogenesis of GBM. We found that MIR517C was associated with improved prognosis in patients with GBM. Furthermore, following treatment with the autophagy inducer temozolomide (TMZ) and low glucose (LG), MIR517C degraded KPNA2 (karyopherin alpha 2 [RAG cohort 1, importin alpha 1]) and subsequently disturbed the nuclear translocation of TP53 in the GBM cell line U87 in vitro. Interestingly, this microRNA could inhibit autophagy and reduce cell migration and infiltration in U87 cells harboring wild-type (WT) TP53, but not in U251 cells harboring mutant (MU) TP53. Moreover, the expression of epithelial markers (i.e., CDH13/T-cadherin and CLDN1 [claudin 1]) increased, while the expression of mesenchymal markers (i.e., CDH2/N-cadherin, SNAI1/Snail, and VIM [vimentin]) decreased, indicating that the EMT status was blocked by MIR517C in U87 cells. Compared with MIR517C overexpression, MIR517C knockdown promoted infiltration of U87 cells to the surrounding structures in nude mice in vivo. The above phenotypic changes were also observed in TP53(+/+) and TP53(-/-) HCT116 colon cancer cells. In summary, our study provided support for a link between autophagy and EMT status in WT TP53 GBM cells and provided evidence for the signaling pathway (MIR517C-KPNA2-cytoplasmic TP53) involved in attenuating autophagy and eliminating the increased migration and invasion during the EMT.

  15. miR-221/222 targets adiponectin receptor 1 to promote the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Michael S; Yu, Nancy; Stinson, Susanna Y; Yue, Peng; Newman, Robert J; Allan, Bernard B; Dornan, David

    2013-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved physiological program involved in development and tissue repair; however, its aberrant activation has been implicated in accelerating the progression of a variety of cancers. In breast cancer, the microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-221 and miR-222 (miR-221/222) are differentially expressed in the clinically more aggressive basal-like subtype compared to luminal subtype of breast cancer and upregulation of miR-221/222 induces the EMT by targeting the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the GATA family transcriptional repressor TRPS1 (tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome type 1). The complete mechanism through which miR-221/222 promotes the EMT, however, is not fully understood. We identified adiponectin receptor 1 (ADIPOR1), a receptor for the adipocytokine adiponectin, as a direct target of miR-221/222. ADIPOR1 is expressed at higher levels in the luminal compared to the basal-like subtype of breast cancer cell lines, which can be reduced by miR-221/222 targeting of its 3'UTR. In addition, miR-221/222 were negatively correlated with ADIPOR1 expression across breast cancer cell lines and tumors. ADIPOR1 depletion by siRNA in MCF10A cells induced the EMT and increased cell invasion. Depletion of ADIPOR1 by siRNA induced activation of the canonical nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and subsequent phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in an interleukin 6 (IL6)-dependent manner. Finally, overexpression of ADIPOR1 in the basal-like cell line, MDA-MB-231, attenuated cell invasion and promoted the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). We conclude that ADIPOR1 negatively regulates EMT in breast cancer and provides an additional node by which miR-221/222 induces the EMT. These results suggest that ADIPOR1 may play an important role in breast cancer progression and metastasis, and could potentially offer an alternative therapeutic strategy for basal-like breast cancer patients.

  16. Green Tea Catechins Reduce Invasive Potential of Human Melanoma Cells by Targeting COX-2, PGE2 Receptors and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tripti; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2011-01-01

    /migration, an essential step of metastasis, by targeting the endogenous expression of COX-2, PGE2 receptors and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. PMID:22022384

  17. Phenolic secoiridoids in extra virgin olive oil impede fibrogenic and oncogenic epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition: extra virgin olive oil as a source of novel antiaging phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Cufí, Sílvia; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Vellón, Luciano; Micol, Vicente; Joven, Jorge; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Menendez, Javier A

    2012-02-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) genetic program is a molecular convergence point in the life-threatening progression of organ fibrosis and cancer toward organ failure and metastasis, respectively. Here, we employed the EMT process as a functional screen for testing crude natural extracts for accelerated drug development in fibrosis and cancer. Because extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) (i.e., the juice derived from the first cold pressing of the olives without any further refining process) naturally contains high levels of phenolic compounds associated with the health benefits derived from consuming an EVOO-rich Mediterranean diet, we have tested the ability of an EVOO-derived crude phenolic extract to regulate fibrogenic and oncogenic EMT in vitro. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry assays revealed that the EVOO phenolic extract was mainly composed (∼70%) of two members of the secoiridoid family of complex polyphenols, namely oleuropein aglycone-the bitter principle of olives-and its derivative decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone. EVOO secoiridoids efficiently prevented loss of proteins associated with polarized epithelial phenotype (i.e., E-cadherin) as well as de novo synthesis of proteins associated with mesenchymal migratory morphology of transitioning cells (i.e., vimentin). The ability of EVOO to impede transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced disintegration of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts apparently occurred as a consequence of the ability of EVOO phenolics to prevent the upregulation of SMAD4-a critical mediator of TGF-β signaling-and of the SMAD transcriptional cofactor SNAIL2 (Slug)-a well-recognized epithelial repressor. Indeed, EVOO phenolics efficiently prevented crucial TGF-β-induced EMT transcriptional events, including upregulation of SNAI2, TCF4, VIM (Vimentin), FN (fibronectin), and SERPINE1 genes. While awaiting a better mechanistic understanding of how

  18. Phenolic Secoiridoids in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Impede Fibrogenic and Oncogenic Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition: Extra Virgin Olive Oil As a Source of Novel Antiaging Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Cufí, Sílvia; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Vellón, Luciano; Micol, Vicente; Joven, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) genetic program is a molecular convergence point in the life-threatening progression of organ fibrosis and cancer toward organ failure and metastasis, respectively. Here, we employed the EMT process as a functional screen for testing crude natural extracts for accelerated drug development in fibrosis and cancer. Because extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) (i.e., the juice derived from the first cold pressing of the olives without any further refining process) naturally contains high levels of phenolic compounds associated with the health benefits derived from consuming an EVOO-rich Mediterranean diet, we have tested the ability of an EVOO-derived crude phenolic extract to regulate fibrogenic and oncogenic EMT in vitro. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry assays revealed that the EVOO phenolic extract was mainly composed (∼70%) of two members of the secoiridoid family of complex polyphenols, namely oleuropein aglycone—the bitter principle of olives—and its derivative decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone. EVOO secoiridoids efficiently prevented loss of proteins associated with polarized epithelial phenotype (i.e., E-cadherin) as well as de novo synthesis of proteins associated with mesenchymal migratory morphology of transitioning cells (i.e., vimentin). The ability of EVOO to impede transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)–induced disintegration of E-cadherin-mediated cell–cell contacts apparently occurred as a consequence of the ability of EVOO phenolics to prevent the upregulation of SMAD4—a critical mediator of TGF-β signaling—and of the SMAD transcriptional cofactor SNAIL2 (Slug)—a well-recognized epithelial repressor. Indeed, EVOO phenolics efficiently prevented crucial TGF-β–induced EMT transcriptional events, including upregulation of SNAI2, TCF4, VIM (Vimentin), FN (fibronectin), and SERPINE1 genes. While awaiting a better

  19. Knockdown of Collagen Triple Helix Repeat Containing-1 Inhibits the Proliferation and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xue-Fei; Li, Hai; Zong, Shi; Li, Hong-Yan

    2016-10-27

    Collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 (CTHRC1), a secreted glycoprotein, is frequently upregulated in human cancers. However, the functional role of CTHRC1 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the role of CTHRC1 in RCC. Our results demonstrated that CTHRC1 was upregulated in RCC tissues and cell lines. Knockdown of CTHRC1 significantly inhibits the proliferation in RCCs. Furthermore, knockdown of CTHRC1 significantly inhibited the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in RCCs, as well as suppressed RCC cell migration and invasion. Mechanistically, knockdown of CTHRC1 inhibited the expression of β-catenin, c-Myc, and cyclin D1 in RCC cells. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that CTHRC1 downregulation inhibited proliferation, migration, EMT, and β-catenin expression in RCC cells. Therefore, CTHRC1 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of RCC.

  20. Reversible epithelial to mesenchymal transition and acquired resistance to sunitinib in patients with renal cell carcinoma: evidence from a xenograft study

    PubMed Central

    Hammers, Hans J; Verheul, Henk M; Salumbides, Brenda; Sharma, Rajni; Rudek, Michelle; Jaspers, Janneke; Shah, Preeti; Ellis, Leigh; Shen, Li; Paesante, Silvia; Dykema, Karl; Furge, Kyle; Teh, Bin T; Netto, George; Pili, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting angiogenesis via inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway have changed the medical management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. While the treatment with TKIs has demonstrated clinical benefit these drugs will eventually fail patients. The potential mechanisms of resistance to TKIs are poorly understood. To address this question we obtained an excisional biopsy of a skin metastasis from a patient with clear cell renal carcinoma who initially had a response on sunitinib and eventually progressed on therapy. Tumor pieces were grafted subcutaneously in athymic nude mice. Established xenografts were treated with sunitinib. Tumor size, microvascular density and pericyte coverage were determined. Plasma as well as tissue levels for sunitinib were assessed. A tumor derived cell line was established and assessed in vitro for a potential direct antitumor effects of sunitinib. To our surprise, xenografts from the patient who progressed on sunitinib regained sensitivity to the drug. At a dose of 40 mg/kg sunitinib caused regression of the subcutaneous tumors. Histology showed a marked reduction in microvascular density and pericyte dysfunction. More interestingly, histological examination of the original skin metastasis revealed evidence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition while the xenografts showed reversion to the clear cell phenotype. In vitro studies showed no inhibitory effect on tumor cell growth at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. In conclusion, the histological examination in this xenograft study suggests that reversible epithelial-to mesenchymal-transition may be associated with acquired tumor resistance to TKIs in patients with clear cell renal carcinoma. PMID:20501804

  1. CYR61 and TAZ Upregulation and Focal Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition May Be Early Predictors of Barrett’s Esophagus Malignant Progression

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Marta; Dias Pereira, António; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica; Chaves, Paula; Pereira-Leal, José B.

    2016-01-01

    Barrett’s esophagus is the major risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. It has a low but non-neglectable risk, high surveillance costs and no reliable risk stratification markers. We sought to identify early biomarkers, predictive of Barrett’s malignant progression, using a meta-analysis approach on gene expression data. This in silico strategy was followed by experimental validation in a cohort of patients with extended follow up from the Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa de Francisco Gentil EPE (Portugal). Bioinformatics and systems biology approaches singled out two candidate predictive markers for Barrett’s progression, CYR61 and TAZ. Although previously implicated in other malignancies and in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotypes, our experimental validation shows for the first time that CYR61 and TAZ have the potential to be predictive biomarkers for cancer progression. Experimental validation by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry confirmed the up-regulation of both genes in Barrett’s samples associated with high-grade dysplasia/adenocarcinoma. In our cohort CYR61 and TAZ up-regulation ranged from one to ten years prior to progression to adenocarcinoma in Barrett’s esophagus index samples. Finally, we found that CYR61 and TAZ over-expression is correlated with early focal signs of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Our results highlight both CYR61 and TAZ genes as potential predictive biomarkers for stratification of the risk for development of adenocarcinoma and suggest a potential mechanistic route for Barrett’s esophagus neoplastic progression. PMID:27583562

  2. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit the invasiveness of human HNSCC cells by targeting EGFR and reversing the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Prasad, Ram; Rosenthal, Eben; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2012-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is responsible for approximately 20,000 deaths per year in the United States. Most of the deaths are due to the metastases. To develop more effective strategies for the prevention of metastasis of HNSCC cells, we have determined the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on the invasive potential of HNSCC cell and the mechanisms underlying these effects using OSC19 cells as an in vitro model. Using cell invasion assays, we established that treatment of the OSC19 cells with GSPs resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell invasion. EGFR is over-expressed in 90% of HNSCCs and the EGFR inhibitors, erlotinib and gefitinib, are being explored as therapies for this disease. We found that GSPs treatment reduced the levels of expression of EGFR in the OSC19 cells as well as reducing the activation of NF-κB/p65, a downstream target of EGFR, and the expression of NF-κB-responsive proteins. GSPs treatment also reduced the activity of ERK1/2, an upstream regulator of NF-κB and treatment of the cells with caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an inhibitor of NF-κB, inhibited cell invasion. Overexpression of EGFR and high NF-κB activity play a key role in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, which is of critical importance in the processes underlying metastasis, and we found treatment with GSPs enhanced the levels of epithelial (E-cadherin, cytokeratins and desmoglein-2) and reduced the levels of mesenchymal (vimentin, fibronectin, N-cadherin and Slug) biomarkers in the OSC19 cells. These results indicate that GSPs have the ability to inhibit HNSCC cell invasion, and do so by targeting the expression of EGFR and activation of NF-κB as well as inhibiting the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

  3. αB-crystallin is essential for the TGF-β2-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition of lens epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Nahomi, Rooban B.; Pantcheva, Mina B.; Nagaraj, Ram H.

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2-mediated pathways play a major role in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs) during secondary cataract formation, which is also known as posterior capsule opacification (PCO). Although αB-crystallin is a major protein in LEC, its role in the EMT remains unknown. In a human LEC line (FHL124), TGF-β2 treatment resulted in changes in the EMT-associated proteins at the mRNA and protein levels. This was associated with nuclear localization of αB-crystallin, phosphorylated Smad2 (pSmad2) (S245/250/255), pSmad3 (S423/425), Smad4 and Snail and the binding of αB-crystallin to these transcription factors, all of which were reduced by the down-regulation of αB-crystallin. Expression of the functionally defective R120G mutant of αB-crystallin reduced TGF-β2-induced EMT in LECs of αB-crystallin knockout (KO) mice. Treatment of bovine lens epithelial explants and mouse LEC with TGF-β2 resulted in changes in the EMT-associated proteins at the mRNA and protein levels. This was accompanied by increase in phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) (T202/Y204), p38 MAPK (T180/Y182), protein kinase B (Akt) (S473) and Smad2 when compared with untreated cells. These changes were significantly reduced in αB-crystallin depleted or knocked out LEC. The removal of the fibre cell mass from the lens of wild-type (WT) mice resulted in the up-regulation of EMT-associated genes in the capsule-adherent epithelial cells, which was reduced in the αB-crystallin KO mice. Together, our data show that αB-crystallin plays a central role in the TGF-β2-induced EMT of LEC. αB-Crystallin could be targeted to prevent PCO and pathological fibrosis in other tissues. PMID:26987815

  4. Afatinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer involves the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK signalling pathways and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Coco, Simona; Truini, Anna; Alama, Angela; Dal Bello, Maria Giovanna; Venè, Roberta; Garuti, Anna; Carminati, Enrico; Rijavec, Erika; Genova, Carlo; Barletta, Giulia; Sini, Claudio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Boccardo, Francesco; Grossi, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling is one of the most deregulated pathways in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recently, the development of novel irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), such as afatinib, has significantly improved the survival of advanced NSCLC patients harbouring activated EGFR mutations. However, treatment with TKI is not always curative due to the development of resistance. In the present study, we investigated the sensitivity to afatinib in two NSCLC EGFR mutated cell lines (NCI-H1650 and NCI-H1975) by expression profile analysis of 92 genes involved in the EGF pathway. Thereafter, the established afatinib resistant clones were evaluated at different biological levels: genomic, by array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH) and deep sequencing; transcriptomic, by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and proteomic, by Western blot and immunofluorescence. The baseline gene expression of the two cell lines revealed that NCI-H1650, the less afatinib-responsive cell, showed activation of two main EGFR downstream pathways such as PI3K/AKT and PLCγ/PKC axes. Analysis of the afatinib-resistant cells showed PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathways activation together with a biological switch from an epithelial-to-mesenchymal phenotype might confer afatinib-resistant properties to this cell line. Our data suggest that the activation of EGFR-dependent downstream pathways might be involved in the occurrence of resistance to afatinib assuming that the EGFR mutational status should not be exclusively considered when selecting TKI treatments. In particular, the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition might provide a new basis for understanding afatinib resistance.

  5. Adiponectin as a potential tumor suppressor inhibiting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition but frequently silenced in prostate cancer by promoter methylation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Weiwei; Wang, Lin; Ma, Quanping; Qi, Mei; Lu, Ning; Zhang, Lili; Han, Bo

    2015-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests a particular role for obesity in prostate cancer (PCa) progression. Adiponectin (ADN) is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue and has a variety of functions including the inhibition of PCa cell proliferation. Although serum ADN levels have been identified to be related with carcinogenesis in a tissue-specific context, the exact role of endogenous ADN in PCa cells remains largely unknown. Two tissue microarrays were constructed and immunohistochemistry (IHC) was utilized to detect ADN's expression in a cohort of 96 Chinese PCa patients with radical prostatectomy as well as 15 cases with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). MTS and transwell assays were applied to validate the effects of ADN on proliferation and invasive capacity of PCa cells. Real-time PCR and Western blot were performed to evaluate the expression at transcript and protein levels. Epigenetic modifications of ADN's promoter after TGF-β1 treatment in 22RV1 cells was monitored by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Methylation-Specific PCR (MSP) was performed to determine the methylation status of ADN's promoter. IHC showed decreased levels of ADN in 1 of 15 (6.7%) BPH cases, 6 of 27 (22.2%) PCa cases with low Gleason score (<7), 18 of 26 (69.2%) cases with Gleason score 7, but 32 of 43 (74.4%) cases with high Gleason score (>7). Silencing endogenous ADN could promote proliferation and invasion of 22RV1 cells via orchestrating Epithelial-to-mesenchymal Transition (EMT) process. TGF-β1, a potent EMT inducer, could decrease levels of chromatin markers associated with active genes (H3K4me3, H4acetylK16), and increase levels of repressive marker (H3K27me3) at ADN promoter in 22RV1 cells. Additionally, 5-aza and TSA treatment restored ADN expression in LNCaP cells in which the ADN expression was almost absent. MSP analysis revealed that methylation in the promoter might be involved in decreased expression of ADN in PCa tissues. Our findings indicated that endogenous ADN may

  6. Influence of Bicarbonate/Low-GDP Peritoneal Dialysis Fluid (Bicavera) on In Vitro and Ex Vivo Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition of Mesothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fernández–Perpén, Antonio; Pérez–Lozano, María Luisa; Bajo, María–Auxiliadora; Albar–Vizcaino, Patricia; Correa, Pilar Sandoval; del Peso, Gloria; Castro, María–José; Aguilera, Abelardo; Ossorio, Marta; Peter, Mirjam E.; Passlick–Deetjen, Jutta; Aroeira, Luiz S.; Selgas, Rafael; López–Cabrera, Manuel; Sánchez–Tomero, J. Antonio

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Background: Peritoneal membrane damage induced by peritoneal dialysis (PD) is largely associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of mesothelial cells (MCs), which is believed to be a result mainly of the glucose degradation products (GDPs) present in PD solutions. ♦ Objectives: This study investigated the impact of bicarbonate-buffered, low-GDP PD solution (BicaVera: Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, Germany) on EMT of MCs in vitro and ex vivo. ♦ Methods: In vitro studies: Omentum-derived MCs were incubated with lactate-buffered standard PD fluid or BicaVera fluid diluted 1:1 with culture medium. Ex vivo studies: From 31 patients randomly distributed to either standard or BicaVera solution and followed for 24 months, effluents were collected every 6 months for determination of EMT markers in effluent MCs. ♦ Results: Culturing of MCs with standard fluid in vitro resulted in morphology change to a non-epithelioid shape, with downregulation of E-cadherin (indicative of EMT) and strong induction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. By contrast, in vitro exposure of MCs to bicarbonate/low-GDP solution had less impact on both EMT parameters. Ex vivo studies partially confirmed the foregoing results. The BicaVera group, with a higher prevalence of the non-epithelioid MC phenotype at baseline (for unknown reasons), showed a clear and significant trend to gain and maintain an epithelioid phenotype at medium- and longer-term and to show fewer fibrogenic characteristics. By contrast, the standard solution group demonstrated a progressive and significantly higher presence of the non-epithelioid phenotype. Compared with effluent MCs having an epithelioid phenotype, MCs with non-epithelioid morphology showed significantly lower levels of E-cadherin and greater levels of fibronectin and VEGF. In comparing the BicaVera and standard solution groups, MCs from the standard solution group showed significantly higher secretion of

  7. miR-409-3p/-5p promotes tumorigenesis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and bone metastasis of human prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Josson, Sajni; Gururajan, Murali; Hu, Peizhen; Shao, Chen; Chu, Gina Chia-Yi; Zhau, Haiyen E.; Liu, Chunyan; Lao, Kaiqin; Lu, Chia-Lun; Lu, Yi-Tsung; Lichterman, Jake; Nandana, Srinivas; Li, Quanlin; Rogatko, Andre; Berel, Dror; Posadas, Edwin M.; Fazli, Ladan; Sareen, Dhruv; Chung, Leland W. K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose miR-409-3p/-5p is a microRNA expressed by embryonic stem cells and its role in cancer biology and metastasis is unknown. Our pilot studies demonstrated elevated miR-409-3p/-5p expression in human prostate cancer bone metastatic cell lines, therefore we defined the biological impact of manipulation of miR-409-3p/-5p in prostate cancer progression and correlated the levels of its expression with clinical human prostate cancer bone metastatic specimens. Experimental Design miRNA profiling of prostate cancer bone metastatic EMT cell line model was performed. Gleason score human tissue array was probed for validation of specific miRNAs. Additionally, genetic manipulation of miR-409-3p/-5p was performed to determine its role in tumor growth, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and bone metastasis in mouse models. Results Elevated expression of miR-409-3p/-5p was observed in bone metastatic prostate cancer cell lines and human prostate cancer tissues with higher Gleason scores. Elevated miR-409-3p expression levels correlated with prostate cancer patient progression free survival. Orthotopic delivery of miR-409-3p/-5p in the murine prostate gland induced tumors where the tumors expressed, EMT and stemness markers. Intracardiac inoculation (to mimic systemic dissemination) of miR-409-5p inhibitor treated bone metastatic ARCaPM prostate cancer cells in mice, led to decreased bone metastasis and increased survival compared to control vehicle-treated cells. Conclusion miR-409-3p/-5p plays an important role in prostate cancer biology by facilitating tumor growth, EMT and bone metastasis. This finding bear’s particular translational importance since miR-409-3p/-5p appears to be an attractive biomarker and/or possibly a therapeutic target to treat bones metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:24963047

  8. Loss of zfp36 expression in colorectal cancer correlates to wnt/ β-catenin activity and enhances epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition through upregulation of zeb1, sox9 and macc1

    PubMed Central

    Montorsi, Lucia; Guizzetti, Filippo; Alecci, Claudia; Caporali, Andrea; Martello, Andrea; Atene, Claudio Giacinto; Parenti, Sandra; Pizzini, Silvia; Zanovello, Paola; Bortoluzzi, Stefania; Ferrari, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    The mRNA-destabilizing protein ZFP36 has been previously described as a tumor suppressor whose expression is lost during colorectal cancer development. In order to evaluate its role in this disease, we restored ZFP36 expression in different cell contexts, showing that the presence of this protein impairs the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and induces a higher susceptibility to anoikis. Consistently, we found that ZFP36 inhibits the expression of three key transcription factors involved in EMT: ZEB1, MACC1 and SOX9. Finally, we observed for the first time that its expression negatively correlates with the activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which is constitutively activated in colorectal cancer. This evidence provides a clue on the mechanism leading to the loss of ZFP36 in CRC. PMID:27463018

  9. Epstein–Barr virus latent antigens EBNA3C and EBNA1 modulate epithelial to mesenchymal transition of cancer cells associated with tumor metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Nivedita; Gandhi, Jaya; Robertson, Erle S.; Verma, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition is an important mechanism in cancer invasiveness and metastasis. We had previously reported that cancer cells expressing Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) latent viral antigens EBV nuclear antigen EBNA3C and/ or EBNA1 showed higher motility and migration potential and had a propensity for increased metastases when tested in nude mice model. We now show that both EBNA3C and EBNA1 can modulate cellular pathways critical for epithelial to mesenchymal transition of cancer cells. Our data confirms that presence of EBNA3C or EBNA1 result in upregulation of transcriptional repressor Slug and Snail, up-regulation of intermediate filament of mesenchymal origin vimentin, upregulation of transcription factor TCF8/ZEB1, downregulation as well as disruption of tight junction zona occludens protein ZO-1, downregulation of cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin, and nuclear translocation of β-catenin. We further show that the primary tumors as well as metastasized lesions derived from EBV antigen-expressing cancer cells in nude mice model display EMT markers expression pattern suggesting their greater propensity to mesenchymal transition. PMID:25501510

  10. A short-term intervention with selenium affects expression of genes implicated in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Dieuwertje E.G.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.L.M.; Verhaegh, Gerald W.; Schalken, Jack A.; van Lin, Emile N.J.T.; Michiel Sedelaar, J.P.; Alfred Witjes, J.; Hulsbergen - van de Kaa, Christina A.; van't Veer, Pieter; Kampman, Ellen; Afman, Lydia A.

    2017-01-01

    In parallel with the inconsistency in observational studies and chemoprevention trials, the mechanisms by which selenium affects prostate cancer risk have not been elucidated. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to examine the effects of a short-term intervention with selenium on gene expression in non-malignant prostate tissue. Twenty-three men received 300 μg selenium per day in the form of selenized yeast (n=12) or a placebo (n=11) during 5 weeks. Prostate biopsies collected from the transition zone before and after intervention were analysed for 15 participants (n=8 selenium, n=7 placebo). Pathway analyses revealed that the intervention with selenium was associated with down-regulated expression of genes involved in cellular migration, invasion, remodeling and immune responses. Specifically, expression of well-established epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin and epithelial cell adhesion molecule EPCAM, was up-regulated, while the mesenchymal markers vimentin and fibronectin were down-regulated after intervention with selenium. This implies an inhibitory effect of selenium on the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, selenium was associated with down-regulated expression of genes involved in wound healing and inflammation; processes which are both related to EMT. In conclusion, our explorative data showed that selenium affected expression of genes implicated in EMT in the transition zone of the prostate. PMID:28076331

  11. A short-term intervention with selenium affects expression of genes implicated in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in the prostate.

    PubMed

    Kok, Dieuwertje E G; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Verhaegh, Gerald W; Schalken, Jack A; van Lin, Emile N J T; Sedelaar, J P Michiel; Witjes, J Alfred; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina A; van 't Veer, Pieter; Kampman, Ellen; Afman, Lydia A

    2017-02-07

    In parallel with the inconsistency in observational studies and chemoprevention trials, the mechanisms by which selenium affects prostate cancer risk have not been elucidated. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to examine the effects of a short-term intervention with selenium on gene expression in non-malignant prostate tissue. Twenty-three men received 300 µg selenium per day in the form of selenized yeast (n=12) or a placebo (n=11) during 5 weeks. Prostate biopsies collected from the transition zone before and after intervention were analysed for 15 participants (n=8 selenium, n=7 placebo). Pathway analyses revealed that the intervention with selenium was associated with down-regulated expression of genes involved in cellular migration, invasion, remodeling and immune responses. Specifically, expression of well-established epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin and epithelial cell adhesion molecule EPCAM, was up-regulated, while the mesenchymal markers vimentin and fibronectin were down-regulated after intervention with selenium. This implies an inhibitory effect of selenium on the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, selenium was associated with down-regulated expression of genes involved in wound healing and inflammation; processes which are both related to EMT. In conclusion, our explorative data showed that selenium affected expression of genes implicated in EMT in the transition zone of the prostate.

  12. Epstein-Barr virus latent antigens EBNA3C and EBNA1 modulate epithelial to mesenchymal transition of cancer cells associated with tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Nivedita; Gandhi, Jaya; Robertson, Erle S; Verma, Subhash C; Kaul, Rajeev

    2015-04-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is an important mechanism in cancer invasiveness and metastasis. We had previously reported that cancer cells expressing Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent viral antigens EBV nuclear antigen EBNA3C and/ or EBNA1 showed higher motility and migration potential and had a propensity for increased metastases when tested in nude mice model. We now show that both EBNA3C and EBNA1 can modulate cellular pathways critical for epithelial to mesenchymal transition of cancer cells. Our data confirms that presence of EBNA3C or EBNA1 result in upregulation of transcriptional repressor Slug and Snail, upregulation of intermediate filament of mesenchymal origin vimentin, upregulation of transcription factor TCF8/ZEB1, downregulation as well as disruption of tight junction zona occludens protein ZO-1, downregulation of cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin, and nuclear translocation of β-catenin. We further show that the primary tumors as well as metastasized lesions derived from EBV antigen-expressing cancer cells in nude mice model display EMT markers expression pattern suggesting their greater propensity to mesenchymal transition.

  13. Grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibit the invasive potential of head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cells by targeting EGFR expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Prasad, Ram; Rosenthal, Eben; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2011-12-21

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is responsible for over 20,000 deaths every year in United States. Most of the deaths are due, in large part, to its propensity to metastasize. We have examined the effect of bioactive component grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on human cutaneous HNSCC cell invasion and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using SCC13 cell line as an in vitro model. The therapeutic effects of GSPs on cancer cell invasion were studied using Boyden chamber and wound healing assays. The effects of GSPs on the levels of various proteins related with cancer cell invasion were determined using western blot analysis. Using in vitro cell invasion assays, we observed that treatment of SCC13 cells with GSPs resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of cell invasion of these cells, which was associated with a reduction in the levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Treatment of cells with gefitinib and erlotinib, inhibitors of EGFR, or transient transfection of SCC13 cells with EGFR small interfering RNA, also inhibited invasion of these cells. The inhibition of cell invasion by GSPs was associated with the inhibition of the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase family. Treatment of cells with UO126, an inhibitor of MEK, also inhibited the invasion potential of SCC13 cells. Additionally, inhibition of human cutaneous HNSCC cell invasion by GSPs was associated with reversal of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, which resulted in an increase in the levels of epithelial biomarker (E-cadherin) while loss of mesenchymal biomarkers (vimentin, fibronectin and N-cadherin) in cells. Similar effect on EMT biomarkers was also observed when cells were treated with erlotinib. The results obtained from this study indicate that grape seed proanthocyanidins have the ability to inhibit the invasion of human cutaneous HNSCC cells by targeting the EGFR expression and reversing the

  14. Salvianolic acid B prevents epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition through the TGF-β1 signal transduction pathway in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Salvianolic Acid B (Sal B) is a water-soluble component from Danshen (a traditional Chinese herb widely used for chronic renal diseases) with anti-oxidative and cell protective properties. Sal B also has potential protective effects on renal diseases. Tubular epithelial cells can undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) and is mainly regulated by TGF-β1/Smads pathway. The aims of the study are to investigate the effect of Sal B on tubular EMT in vivo and in vitro, and to elucidate its underlying mechanism against EMT related to TGF-β1/Smads pathway. Results For in vivo experiments, RIF was induced in rats by oral administration of HgCl2 and prophylaxised with Sal B and vitamin E. The protein expression of E-cadherin was down-regulated, while the expression of α-SMA, TGF-β1, TβR-I, p-Smad2/3 and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were up-regulated in kidneys of model rats when compared with those of normal rats. In contrast, Sal B and vitamin E significantly attenuated the expression of α-SMA, TGF-β1, TβR-I, p-Smad2/3, and MMP-2 activity, but increased E-cadherin expression. For in vitro experiments, HK-2 cells were incubated with TGF-β1 to induce EMT, and the cells were co-cultured with 1 and 10 μM Sal B or SB-431542 (a specific inhibitor of TβR-I kinase). TGF-β1 induced a typical EMT in HK-2 cells, while it was blocked by Sal B and SB-431542, as evidenced by blocking morphologic transformation, restoring E-cadherin and CK-18 expression, inhibiting α-SMA expression and F-actin reorganization, and down-regulating MMP-2/9 activities in TGF-β1 mediated HK-2 cells. Furthermore, Sal B and SB-431542 profoundly down-regulated the expressions of TβR-I and p-Smad2/3 but prevented the decreased expression of Smad7 in TGF-β1 stimulated HK-2 cells. Conclusions Sal B can prevent tubular EMT in the fibrotic kidney induced by HgCl2 as well

  15. Neuropilin-2 Expression Promotes TGF-β1-Mediated Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grandclement, Camille; Pallandre, Jean René; Valmary Degano, Séverine; Viel, Erika; Bouard, Adeline; Balland, Jérémy; Rémy-Martin, Jean-Paul; Simon, Benoit; Rouleau, Alain; Boireau, Wilfrid; Klagsbrun, Michael; Ferrand, Christophe; Borg, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Neuropilins, initially characterized as neuronal receptors, act as co-receptors for cancer related growth factors and were recently involved in several signaling pathways leading to cytoskeletal organization, angiogenesis and cancer progression. Then, we sought to investigate the ability of neuropilin-2 to orchestrate epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer cells. Using specific siRNA to target neuropilin-2 expression, or gene transfer, we first observed that neuropilin-2 expression endows HT29 and Colo320 for xenograft formation. Moreover, neuropilin-2 conferred a fibroblastic-like shape to cancer cells, suggesting an involvement of neuropilin-2 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Indeed, the presence of neuropilin-2 in colorectal carcinoma cell lines was correlated with loss of epithelial markers such as cytokeratin-20 and E-cadherin and with acquisition of mesenchymal molecules such as vimentin. Furthermore, we showed by surface plasmon resonance experiments that neuropilin-2 is a receptor for transforming-growth factor-β1. The expression of neuropilin-2 on colon cancer cell lines was indeed shown to promote transforming-growth factor-β1 signaling, leading to a constitutive phosphorylation of the Smad2/3 complex. Treatment with specific TGFβ-type1 receptor kinase inhibitors restored E-cadherin levels and inhibited in part neuropilin-2-induced vimentin expression, suggesting that neuropilin-2 cooperates with TGFβ-type1 receptor to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer cells. Our results suggest a direct role of NRP2 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and highlight a cross-talk between neuropilin-2 and TGF-β1 signaling to promote cancer progression. These results suggest that neuropilin-2 fulfills all the criteria of a therapeutic target to disrupt multiple oncogenic functions in solid tumors. PMID:21747928

  16. Tension Monitoring during Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Links the Switch of Phenotype to Expression of Moesin and Cadherins in NMuMG Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, David; Baronsky, Thilo; Pietuch, Anna; Rother, Jan; Oelkers, Marieelen; Fichtner, Dagmar; Wedlich, Doris; Janshoff, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Structural alterations during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pose a substantial challenge to the mechanical response of cells and are supposed to be key parameters for an increased malignancy during metastasis. Herein, we report that during EMT, apical tension of the epithelial cell line NMuMG is controlled by cell-cell contacts and the architecture of the underlying actin structures reflecting the mechanistic interplay between cellular structure and mechanics. Using force spectroscopy we find that tension in NMuMG cells slightly increases 24 h after EMT induction, whereas upon reaching the final mesenchymal-like state characterized by a complete loss of intercellular junctions and a concerted down-regulation of the adherens junction protein E-cadherin, the overall tension becomes similar to that of solitary adherent cells and fibroblasts. Interestingly, the contribution of the actin cytoskeleton on apical tension increases significantly upon EMT induction, most likely due to the formation of stable and highly contractile stress fibers which dominate the elastic properties of the cells after the transition. The structural alterations lead to the formation of single, highly motile cells rendering apical tension a good indicator for the cellular state during phenotype switching. In summary, our study paves the way towards a more profound understanding of cellular mechanics governing fundamental morphological programs such as the EMT. PMID:24339870

  17. Tension monitoring during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition links the switch of phenotype to expression of moesin and cadherins in NMuMG cells.

    PubMed

    Schneider, David; Baronsky, Thilo; Pietuch, Anna; Rother, Jan; Oelkers, Marieelen; Fichtner, Dagmar; Wedlich, Doris; Janshoff, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Structural alterations during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pose a substantial challenge to the mechanical response of cells and are supposed to be key parameters for an increased malignancy during metastasis. Herein, we report that during EMT, apical tension of the epithelial cell line NMuMG is controlled by cell-cell contacts and the architecture of the underlying actin structures reflecting the mechanistic interplay between cellular structure and mechanics. Using force spectroscopy we find that tension in NMuMG cells slightly increases 24 h after EMT induction, whereas upon reaching the final mesenchymal-like state characterized by a complete loss of intercellular junctions and a concerted down-regulation of the adherens junction protein E-cadherin, the overall tension becomes similar to that of solitary adherent cells and fibroblasts. Interestingly, the contribution of the actin cytoskeleton on apical tension increases significantly upon EMT induction, most likely due to the formation of stable and highly contractile stress fibers which dominate the elastic properties of the cells after the transition. The structural alterations lead to the formation of single, highly motile cells rendering apical tension a good indicator for the cellular state during phenotype switching. In summary, our study paves the way towards a more profound understanding of cellular mechanics governing fundamental morphological programs such as the EMT.

  18. Determination of a Comprehensive Alternative Splicing Regulatory Network and Combinatorial Regulation by Key Factors during the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yueqin; Park, Juw Won; Bebee, Thomas W.; Warzecha, Claude C.; Guo, Yang; Shang, Xuequn

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential biological process during embryonic development that is also implicated in cancer metastasis. While the transcriptional regulation of EMT has been well studied, the role of alternative splicing (AS) regulation in EMT remains relatively uncharacterized. We previously showed that the epithelial cell-type-specific proteins epithelial splicing regulatory proteins 1 (ESRP1) and ESRP2 are important for the regulation of many AS events that are altered during EMT. However, the contributions of the ESRPs and other splicing regulators to the AS regulatory network in EMT require further investigation. Here, we used a robust in vitro EMT model to comprehensively characterize splicing switches during EMT in a temporal manner. These investigations revealed that the ESRPs are the major regulators of some but not all AS events during EMT. We determined that the splicing factor RBM47 is downregulated during EMT and also regulates numerous transcripts that switch splicing during EMT. We also determined that Quaking (QKI) broadly promotes mesenchymal splicing patterns. Our study highlights the broad role of posttranscriptional regulation during the EMT and the important role of combinatorial regulation by different splicing factors to fine tune gene expression programs during these physiological and developmental transitions. PMID:27044866

  19. Uric acid activates NRLP3 inflammasome in an in-vivo model of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Romero, César Andrés; Remor, Aline; Latini, Alexandra; De Paul, Ana Lucía; Torres, Alicia Inés; Mukdsi, Jorge Humberto

    2017-06-01

    Uric acid (UA) has been associated with renal fibrosis and progression of chronic kidney disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of this process have still not been identified. Here, we studied the role of the innate imunity receptor NLRP3/ASC in UA induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in kidney. Wistar rats were fed with oxonic acid 2% and UA 2% (OXA + U), OXA + U plus allopurinol (ALL) or regular chow (C) for 7 weeks. We analyzed the presence of EMT markers, the expression of NLRP3, ASC, Caspase-1 and Smad 2/3 molecules and the mitochondrial morphological and functional characteristics. High UA induced renal fibrosis, mild chronic inflammation, as well as morphological and biochemical evidence of EMT. High UA also increased the expression of NLRP3/ASC with activation of both inflammasome related caspase-1 and inflammasome unrelated Smad 2/3 pathways. Ultrastructural co-localization of NLRP3 and Smad 2/3 indicated physical interaction between the two molecules. No morphological or functional changes were found between mitochondria exposed to high UA. In conclusion, kidney epithelial NLRP3/ASC expression was increased in high UA state in rats and both inflammasome related caspase-1 and non-inflammasome related P-Smad 2/3 pathways were associated with the observed EMT, inflammation and fibrosis induced by UA in the kidney.

  20. Regulation of Na,K-ATPase β1-subunit in TGF-β2-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human retinal pigmented epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mony, Sridevi; Lee, Seung Joon; Harper, Jeffrey F; Barwe, Sonali P; Langhans, Sigrid A

    2013-10-01

    Proliferative vitreo retinopathy (PVR) is associated with extracellular matrix membrane (ECM) formation on the neural retina and disruption of the multilayered retinal architecture leading to distorted vision and blindness. During disease progression in PVR, retinal pigmented epithelial cells (RPE) lose cell-cell adhesion, undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and deposit ECM leading to tissue fibrosis. The EMT process is mediated via exposure to vitreous cytokines and growth factors such as TGF-β2. Previous studies have shown that Na,K-ATPase is required for maintaining a normal polarized epithelial phenotype and that decreased Na,K-ATPase function and subunit levels are associated with TGF-β1-mediated EMT in kidney cells. In contrast to the basolateral localization of Na,K-ATPase in most epithelia, including kidney, Na,K-ATPase is found on the apical membrane in RPE cells. We now show that EMT is also associated with altered Na,K-ATPase expression in RPE cells. TGF-β2 treatment of ARPE-19 cells resulted in a time-dependent decrease in Na,K-ATPase β1 mRNA and protein levels while Na,K-ATPase α1 levels, Na,K-ATPase activity, and intracellular sodium levels remained largely unchanged. In TGF-β2-treated cells reduced Na,K-ATPase β1 mRNA inversely correlated with HIF-1α levels and analysis of the Na,K-ATPase β1 promoter revealed a putative hypoxia response element (HRE). HIF-1α bound to the Na,K-ATPase β1 promoter and inhibiting the activity of HIF-1α blocked the TGF-β2 mediated Na,K-ATPase β1 decrease suggesting that HIF-1α plays a potential role in Na,K-ATPase β1 regulation during EMT in RPE cells. Furthermore, knockdown of Na,K-ATPase β1 in ARPE-19 cells was associated with a change in cell morphology from epithelial to mesenchymal and induction of EMT markers such as α-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin, suggesting that loss of Na,K-ATPase β1 is a potential contributor to TGF-β2-mediated EMT in RPE cells.

  1. Silencing Snail suppresses tumor cell proliferation and invasion by reversing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and arresting G2/M phase in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xueying; Han, Mengmeng; Han, Haibo; Wang, Bingjing; Li, Sheng; Zhang, Zhiqian; Zhao, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is essential for tumor invasion and metastasis. Snail has been proven to be a key regulator of EMT. Several studies have shown compelling evidence that Snail is also an important regulator of tumor growth and aggression; however, the role of Snail in the cell cycle has not been clarified. We decreased Snail expression by siRNA transfection and lentiviral‑mediated RNAi, to explore the effect of silencing Snail on the tumorigenicity and migration of lung carcinoma (lung cancer) cells. The results showed that silencing Snail conferred significant anti-proliferative activity and inhibited cell migration, tumor growth and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. To understand the mechanism of these effects, we further investigated correlations among Snail expression, EMT and cell cycle. Significantly, Snail knockdown reversed EMT processes in lung cancer cells. Furthermore, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor P21 was upregulated after silencing Snail. P21 upregulation manifested its tumor suppressor effects and arrested cells in the G2/M phase, not the G1/S phase following Snail depletion in lung cancer cells. These data suggest that silencing Snail decreases the malignant behaviors of lung cancer cells by reversing EMT processes and causing cell cycle defects.

  2. Reprogramming of cell junction modules during stepwise epithelial to mesenchymal transition and accumulation of malignant features in vitro in a prostate cell model

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Xi-song; Li, Wen-cheng; Hovland, Randi; Qu, Yi; Liu, Run-hui; McCormack, Emmet; Thorsen, Frits; Olsen, Jan Roger; Molven, Anders; Kogan-Sakin, Ira; Rotter, Varda; Akslen, Lars A.; Oyan, Anne Margrete; Kalland, Karl-Henning

    2011-01-15

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is pivotal in tumor metastasis. Our previous work reported an EMT model based on primary prostate epithelial cells (EP156T) which gave rise to cells with mesenchymal phenotype (EPT1) without malignant transformation. To promote prostate cell transformation, cells were maintained in saturation density cultures to select for cells overriding quiescence. Foci formed repeatedly following around 8 weeks in confluent EPT1 monolayers. Only later passage EPT1, but not EP156T cells of any passage, could form foci. Cells isolated from the foci were named EPT2 and formed robust colonies in soft agar, a malignant feature present neither in EP156T nor in EPT1 cells. EPT2 cells showed additional malignant traits in vitro, including higher ability to proliferate following confluence, higher resistance to apoptosis and lower dependence on exogenous growth factors than EP156T and EPT1 cells. Microarray profiling identified gene sets, many of which belong to cell junction modules, that changed expression from EP156T to EPT1 cells and continued to change from EPT1 to EPT2 cells. Our findings provide a novel stepwise cell culture model in which EMT emerges independently of transformation and is associated with subsequent accumulation of malignant features in prostate cells. Reprogramming of cell junction modules is involved in both steps.

  3. Transforming growth factor-β, matrix metalloproteinases, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator interaction in the cancer epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Santibanez, Juan F; Obradović, Hristina; Kukolj, Tamara; Krstić, Jelena

    2017-07-19

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic factor that acts as a tumor suppressor in the early stages, while it exerts tumor promoting activities in advanced stages of cancer development. One of the hallmarks of cancer progression is the capacity of cancer cells to migrate and invade surrounding tissues with subsequent metastasis to different organs. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) together with urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR), whose main original function described is the proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix, play key cellular roles in the enhancement of cell malignancy during cancer progression. TGF-β tightly regulates the expression of several MMPs and uPA/uPAR in cancer cells, which in return can participate in TGF-β activation, thus contributing to tumor malignancy. TGF-β is one of the master factors in the induction of cancer-associated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and recently both MMPs and uPA/uPAR have also been shown to be implicated in the cancer-associated EMT process. In this review, we analyze the main molecular mechanisms underlying MMPs and uPA/uPAR regulation by TGF-β, as well as their mutual implication in the development of EMT in cancer cells. Developmental Dynamics, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Snail repressor recruits EZH2 to specific genomic sites through the enrollment of the lncRNA HOTAIR in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Battistelli, C; Cicchini, C; Santangelo, L; Tramontano, A; Grassi, L; Gonzalez, F J; de Nonno, V; Grassi, G; Amicone, L; Tripodi, M

    2017-01-01

    The transcription factor Snail is a master regulator of cellular identity and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) directly repressing a broad repertoire of epithelial genes. How chromatin modifiers instrumental to its activity are recruited to Snail-specific binding sites is unclear. Here we report that the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) HOTAIR (for HOX Transcript Antisense Intergenic RNA) mediates a physical interaction between Snail and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), an enzymatic subunit of the polycomb-repressive complex 2 and the main writer of chromatin-repressive marks. The Snail-repressive activity, here monitored on genes with a pivotal function in epithelial and hepatic morphogenesis, differentiation and cell-type identity, depends on the formation of a tripartite Snail/HOTAIR/EZH2 complex. These results demonstrate an lncRNA-mediated mechanism by which a transcriptional factor conveys a general chromatin modifier to specific genes, thereby allowing the execution of hepatocyte transdifferentiation; moreover, they highlight HOTAIR as a crucial player in the Snail-mediated EMT. PMID:27452518

  5. The lncRNA H19 promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition by functioning as miRNA sponges in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wei-Cheng; Fu, Wei-Ming; Wong, Cheuk-Wa; Wang, Yan; Wang, Wei-Mao; Hu, Guo-Xin; Zhang, Li; Xiao, Li-Jia; Wan, David Chi-Cheong; Zhang, Jin-Fang; Waye, Mary Miu-Yee

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) H19 has been identified as an oncogenic gene in multiple cancer types and elevated expression of H19 was tightly linked to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. However, the molecular basis for this observation has not been characterized in colorectal cancer (CRC) especially during epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) progression. In our studies, H19 was characterized as a novel regulator of EMT in CRC. We found that H19 was highly expressed in mesenchymal-like cancer cells and primary CRC tissues. Stable expression of H19 significantly promotes EMT progression and accelerates in vivo and in vitro tumor growth. Furthermore, by using bioinformatics study and RNA immunoprecipitation combined with luciferase reporter assays, we demonstrated that H19 functioned as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for miR-138 and miR-200a, antagonized their functions and led to the de-repression of their endogenous targets Vimentin, ZEB1, and ZEB2, all of which were core marker genes for mesenchymal cells. Taken together, these observations imply that the lncRNA H19 modulated the expression of multiple genes involved in EMT by acting as a competing endogenous RNA, which may build up the missing link between the regulatory miRNA network and EMT progression. PMID:26068968

  6. Effects of matrix stiffness on epithelial to mesenchymal transition-like processes of endometrial epithelial cells: Implications for the pathogenesis of endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Sachiko; Darcha, Claude; Pouly, Jean-Luc; Canis, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma within extrauterine sites. Our previous study revealed an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like process in red peritoneal endometriosis, whereas membrane localization of E-cadherin was well maintained in epithelial cells of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Here we show that endometrial epithelial cells (EEE) grown on polyacrylamide gel substrates (PGS) of 2 kilopascal (kPa), a soft matrix, initiate a partial EMT-like process with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) stimulation. Increasing matrix stiffness with TGF-β1 stimulation reduced the number of cell-cell contacts. Cells that retained cell-cell contacts showed decreased expression of E-cadherin and zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) to cell-cell junctions. Few deep endometriotic epithelial cells (DEE) grown on 30-kPa PGS, which may mimic in vivo tissue compliance of DIE, retained localization of E-cadherin to cell-cell junctions with TGF-β1 treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis showed no phosphorylated Smad 2/3 nuclear localization in E-cadherin+ epithelial cells of DIE. We hypothesize that EEE may undergo an EMT-like process after attachment of endometrium to peritoneum in a TGF-β1–rich microenvironment. However, TGF-β1 signaling may be absent in DIE, resulting in a more epithelial cell-like phenotype in a rigid microenvironment. PMID:28303918

  7. SET-mediated NDRG1 inhibition is involved in acquisition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotype and cisplatin resistance in human lung cancer cell.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Gu, Yixue; Yin, Jiang; Zheng, Guopei; Wang, Chenkun; Zhang, Zhijie; Deng, Min; Liu, Jifang; Jia, Xiaoting; He, Zhimin

    2014-12-01

    Development of resistance to therapy continues to be a serious clinical problem in lung cancer management. Cancer cells undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) have been shown to play roles in resistance to chemotherapy. Here, we utilized a proteomics-based method and identified a significant downregulation of the metastasis suppressor NDRG1 in drug resistant lung cancer cells. We showed that downregulation of DNRG1 constitutes a mechanism for acquisition of EMT phenotype and endows lung cancer cells with an increased resistance to cisplatin. We also identified a signal cascade, namely, SET--| PP2A--| c-myc--| NDRG1, in which upregulation of SET is critical for inhibition of NDRG1. We also found that blockade of SET (or reactivation of PP2A) by FTY720 reverted EMT, restored drug sensitivity, and inhibited invasiveness and growth of lung tumor xenografts. Together, our results indicated a functional link between SET-mediated NDRG1 regulation and acquisition of EMT phenotype and drug resistance, and provided an evidence that blockade of SET-driven EMT can overcome drug resistance and inhibit tumor progression.

  8. Expression Distribution of Cancer Stem Cells, Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition, and Telomerase Activity in Breast Cancer and Their Association with Clinicopathologic Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Makki, Jaafar; Myint, Ohnmar; Wynn, Aye Aye; Samsudin, Ahmad Toha; John, Daisy Vanitha

    2015-01-01

    A total of 167 surgically resected primary invasive breast carcinomas and 63 metastatic lymph node lesions were analyzed for immunohistochemical (IHC) localization of the CD44+CD24−low breast cancer stem cell (CSC) markers, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, and telomerase activity by double-staining IHC technique, in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, the results were validated by double-staining immunofluorescent and flow cytometry techniques. The results showed that CSCs with CD44+CD24−low phenotype were significantly increased in node-positive tumors, high-grade tumors, and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). There was a high incidence of telomerase expression in metastatic lymph node lesion. There were considerably high number of tumor cells with EMT expression in metastatic lymph node lesion, and triple-negative tumor. The occurrence of EMT phenomena was usually accompanied by the co-existence of CSCs of CD44+CD24−low phenotype. There was no association between the existence of CSCs and detection of telomerase activity in tumor cells. Increased numbers of both CSCs of CD44+CD24−low phenotype and cells underwent EMT in DCIS lesion might be an initial step in the stromal invasion and propagation of breast cancer, and occurrence of EMT in the breast tumor associated with high prevalence of CSCs, promoting tumor invasiveness and metastasis. PMID:25624778

  9. Berberine inhibits the metastatic ability of prostate cancer cells by suppressing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated genes with predictive and prognostic relevance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Hung; Tang, Wan-Chun; Sia, Peik; Huang, Chi-Chen; Yang, Pei-Ming; Wu, Ming-Heng; Lai, I-Lu; Lee, Kuen-Haur

    2015-01-01

    Over 70% of cancer metastasis from prostate cancer develops bone metastases that are not sensitive to hormonal therapy, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) genetic program is implicated as a significant contributor to prostate cancer progression. As such, targeting the EMT represents an important therapeutic strategy for preventing or treating prostate cancer metastasis. Berberine is a natural alkaloid with significant antitumor activities against many types of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which berberine represses the metastatic potential of prostate cancer. The effects of berberine on cell migration and invasion were determined by transwell migration assay and Matrigel invasion assay. Expressions of EMT-related genes were determined by an EMT PCR Array and a quantitative RT-PCR. The prognostic relevance of berberine's modulation of EMT-related genes in prostate cancer was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Berberine exerted inhibitory effects on the migratory and invasive abilities of highly metastatic prostate cancer cells. These inhibitory effects of berberine resulted in significant repression of a panel of mesenchymal genes that regulate the developmental EMT. Among EMT-related genes downregulated by berberine, high BMP7, NODAL and Snail gene expressions of metastatic prostate cancer tissues were associated with shorter survival of prostate cancer patients and provide potential therapeutic interventions. We concluded that berberine should be developed as a pharmacological agent for use in combination with other anticancer drug for treating metastatic prostate cancer.

  10. Revisiting Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Liver Fibrosis: Clues for a Better Understanding of the “Reactive” Biliary Epithelial Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Fabris, Luca; Brivio, Simone; Cadamuro, Massimiliano; Strazzabosco, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Whether liver epithelial cells contribute to the development of hepatic scarring by undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a controversial issue. Herein, we revisit the concept of EMT in cholangiopathies, a group of severe hepatic disorders primarily targeting the bile duct epithelial cell (cholangiocyte), leading to progressive portal fibrosis, the main determinant of liver disease progression. Unfortunately, therapies able to halt this process are currently lacking. In cholangiopathies, fibrogenesis is part of ductular reaction, a reparative complex involving epithelial, mesenchymal, and inflammatory cells. Ductular reactive cells (DRC) are cholangiocytes derived from the activation of the hepatic progenitor cell compartment. These cells are arranged into irregular strings and express a “reactive” phenotype, which enables them to extensively crosstalk with the other components of ductular reaction. We will first discuss EMT in liver morphogenesis and then highlight how some of these developmental programs are partly reactivated in DRC. Evidence for “bona fide” EMT changes in cholangiocytes is lacking, but expression of some mesenchymal markers represents a fundamental repair mechanism in response to chronic biliary damage with potential harmful fibrogenetic effects. Understanding microenvironmental cues and signaling perturbations promoting these changes in DRC may help to identify potential targets for new antifibrotic therapies in cholangiopathies. PMID:26880950

  11. Small molecule/ML327 mediated transcriptional de-repression of E-cadherin and inhibition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    An, Hanbing; Stoops, Sydney L.; Deane, Natasha G.; Zhu, Jing; Zi, Jinghuan; Weaver, Connie; Waterson, Alex G.; Zijlstra, Andries; Lindsley, Craig W.; Beauchamp, Robert Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional repression of E-cadherin is a hallmark of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and is associated with cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Understanding the mechanisms underlying E-cadherin repression during EMT may provide insights into the development of novel targeted therapeutics for cancer. Here, we report on the chemical probe, ML327, which de-represses E-cadherin transcription, partially reverses EMT, and inhibits cancer cell invasiveness and tumor cell migration in vitro and in vivo. Induction of E-cadherin mRNA expression by ML327 treatment does not require de novo protein synthesis. RNA sequencing analysis revealed that ML327 treatment significantly alters expression of over 2,500 genes within three hours in the presence of the translational inhibitor, cycloheximide. Network analysis reveals Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4-alpha (HNF4α) as the most significant upstream transcriptional regulator of multiple genes whose expressions were altered by ML327 treatment. Further, small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of HNF4α markedly attenuates the E-cadherin expression response to ML327. In summary, ML327 represents a valuable tool to understand mechanisms of EMT and may provide the basis for a novel targeted therapeutic strategy for carcinomas. PMID:26082441

  12. A ZIP6-ZIP10 heteromer controls NCAM1 phosphorylation and integration into focal adhesion complexes during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Brethour, Dylan; Mehrabian, Mohadeseh; Williams, Declan; Wang, Xinzhu; Ghodrati, Farinaz; Ehsani, Sepehr; Rubie, Elizabeth A.; Woodgett, James R.; Sevalle, Jean; Xi, Zhengrui; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2017-01-01

    The prion protein (PrP) evolved from the subbranch of ZIP metal ion transporters comprising ZIPs 5, 6 and 10, raising the prospect that the study of these ZIPs may reveal insights relevant for understanding the function of PrP. Building on data which suggested PrP and ZIP6 are critical during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), we investigated ZIP6 in an EMT paradigm using ZIP6 knockout cells, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic methods. Reminiscent of PrP, ZIP6 levels are five-fold upregulated during EMT and the protein forms a complex with NCAM1. ZIP6 also interacts with ZIP10 and the two ZIP transporters exhibit interdependency during their expression. ZIP6 contributes to the integration of NCAM1 in focal adhesion complexes but, unlike cells lacking PrP, ZIP6 deficiency does not abolish polysialylation of NCAM1. Instead, ZIP6 mediates phosphorylation of NCAM1 on a cluster of cytosolic acceptor sites. Substrate consensus motif features and in vitro phosphorylation data point toward GSK3 as the kinase responsible, and interface mapping experiments identified histidine-rich cytoplasmic loops within the ZIP6/ZIP10 heteromer as a novel scaffold for GSK3 binding. Our data suggests that PrP and ZIP6 inherited the ability to interact with NCAM1 from their common ZIP ancestors but have since diverged to control distinct posttranslational modifications of NCAM1. PMID:28098160

  13. Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols alleviate insulin resistance and renal epithelial to mesenchymal transition: a novel action mechanism mediated by type 4 dipeptidyl peptidase.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chiung-Huei; Yang, Yi-Sun; Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Wang, Chau-Jong; Chen, Mu-Lin; Huang, Chien-Ning

    2014-10-08

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is important in renal fibrosis. Ser307 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 (S307)) is a hallmark of insulin resistance. We report that polyphenol extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HPE) ameliorate diabetic nephropathy and EMT. Recently it has been observed that type 4 dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP-4) inhibitor linagliptin is effective for treating type 2 diabetes and albuminuria. We investigated if DPP-4 and insulin resistance are involved in renal EMT and explored the role of HPE. In high glucose-stimulated tubular cells, HPE, like linagliptin, inhibited DPP-4 activation, thereby regulating vimentin (EMT marker) and IRS-1 (S307). IRS-1 knockdown revealed its essential role in mediating downstream EMT. In type 2 diabetic rats, pIRS-1 (S307) abundantly surrounds the tubular region, with increased vimentin in kidney. Both the expressions were reduced by HPE. In conclusion, HPE exerts effects similar to those of linagliptin, which improves insulin resistance and EMT, and could be an adjuvant to prevent diabetic nephropathy.

  14. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in a fistula-associated anal adenocarcinoma in a patient with long-standing Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Scharl, Michael; Frei, Pascal; Frei, Sandra M; Biedermann, Luc; Weber, Achim; Rogler, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Anal adenocarcinomas arising from perianal fistulae represent a rare complication in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. We have previously demonstrated the involvement of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the pathogenesis of CD-associated fistulae. Although EMT has also been implicated in the development of colorectal and anal carcinoma, the molecular link from fistula to carcinoma is unclear. We present a case of a 48-year-old White woman who developed a mucinous anal adenocarcinoma originating from a perianal, CD-associated fistula 24 years after being diagnosed with CD. To characterize the expression of EMT-associated molecules in fistula and carcinoma tissue, immunohistochemical analysis for Snail1, Slug, β-catenin and E-cadherin was performed. A mucinous anal adenocarcinoma developed on a perianal fistula in a patient with long-standing CD. After neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy, the fistula-associated tumour was resected and the patient is presently in remission. Using immunohistochemical analysis, we detected a remarkable staining of the Slug transcription factor in transitional cells lining the fistula tract. This observation is unique to this 'carcinoma'-fistula: we had previously shown Slug expression in cells surrounding the fistula tract but not in transitional cells. Expression of Snail1, β-catenin and E-cadherin in this case was comparable with our previous findings. We describe a rare case of a CD fistula-associated adenocarcinoma within an area of squamous epithelium of the perianal area and an unusual expression pattern of EMT markers in this fistula. This case seems to underline the relevance of our previous findings demonstrating that EMT plays an important role for fistula pathogenesis and likely carcinogenesis in CD patients.

  15. Small interfering RNA targeting ILK inhibits metastasis in human tongue cancer cells through repression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yu; Qi, Jin; Deng, Shixiong; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Luyu; Chen, Junxia

    2013-08-01

    Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase. Accumulating evidences suggest that ILK are involved in cell-matrix interactions, cell proliferation, invasion, migration, angiogenesis and Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. EMT has been postulated as a prerequisite for metastasis. The reports have demonstrated that EMT was implicated in metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Therefore, here we further postulate that ILK might participate in EMT of tongue cancer. We showed that ILK siRNA inhibited EMT with low N-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail, Slug and Twist as well as high E-cadherin expression in vivo and in vitro. We found that knockdown of ILK inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion as well as changed cell morphology. We also demonstrated that ILK siRNA inhibited phosphorylation of downstream signaling targets Akt and GSK3β as well as reduced expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Furthermore, we found that the tongue tumor with high metastasis capability showed higher ILK, Vimentin, Snail, Slug and Twist as well as lower E-cadherin expression in clinical specimens. Finally, ILK siRNA led to the suppression for tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. Our findings suggest that ILK could be a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for tongue cancer.

  16. Simvastatin Inhibits Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Through Induction of HO-1 in Cultured Renal Proximal Tubule Cells.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jeb S; Carter, Anthony J; Dixit, Mehul; Arany, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that simvastatin (SIM) inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key step in fibrosis, and activates the anti-fibrotic heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene in renal proximal tubule cells independent of its lipid-lowering. We tested the hypothesis that SIM inhibits EMT via HO-1-dependent suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) release. Renal proximal tubule cells were treated with either 10 μM SIM or 10 ng/ml transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) or with their combination and promoter activity of the alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) gene, stress fiber formation (markers of EMT), as well as ROS production were determined. HO-1 was manipulated via genetic and pharmacologic means. SIM prevented TGFβ1-dependent EMT and ROS production. Inhibition/knockdown of HO-1 reversed, while induction/overexpression of HO-1 emulated beneficial effects of SIM. SIM, via HO-1, suppresses TGFβ1-dependent ROS production and, hence, EMT. Further evaluation of the anti-fibrotic nature of SIM in the kidney would be useful in the treatment of chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Doxycycline reverses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and suppresses the proliferation and metastasis of lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuan; Zhang, Qiang; Lee, Shan; Zhong, Wei-Long; Liu, Yan-Rong; Liu, Hui-Juan; Zhao, Dong; Chen, Shuang; Xiao, Ting; Meng, Jing; Jing, Xue-Shuang; Wang, Jing; Sun, Bo; Dai, Ting-Ting; Yang, Cheng; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Hong-Gang

    2015-12-01

    The gelatinase inhibitor doxycycline is the prototypical antitumor antibiotic. We investigated the effects of doxycycline on the migration, invasion, and metastasis of human lung cancer cell lines and in a mouse model. We also measured the effect of doxycycline on the transcription of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, and used immunohistochemistry to determine whether EMT reversal was associated with doxycycline inhibition. Doxycycline dose-dependently inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion of NCI-H446 human small cell lung cancer cells. It also suppressed tumor growth from NCI-H446 and A549 lung cancer cell xenografts without altering body weight, inhibited Lewis lung carcinoma cell migration, and prolonged survival. The activities of the transcription factors Twist1/2, SNAI1/2, AP1, NF-κB, and Stat3 were suppressed by doxycycline, which reversed EMT and inhibited signal transduction, thereby suppressing tumor growth and metastasis. Our data demonstrate functional targeting of transcription factors by doxycycline to reverse EMT and suppress tumor proliferation and metastasis. Thus, doxycycline selectively targets malignant tumors and reduces its metastatic potential with less cytotoxicity in lung cancer patients.

  18. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition in arsenic-transformed cells promotes angiogenesis through activating β-catenin-vascular endothelial growth factor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhishan; Humphries, Brock; Xiao, Hua; Jiang, Yiguo; Yang, Chengfeng

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic exposure represents a major health concern increasing cancer risks, yet the mechanism of arsenic carcinogenesis has not been elucidated. We and others recently reported that cell malignant transformation by arsenic is accompanied by epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the role of EMT in arsenic carcinogenesis is not well understood. Although previous studies showed that short term exposure of endothelial cells to arsenic stimulated angiogenesis, it remains to be determined whether cells that were malignantly transformed by long term arsenic exposure have a pro-angiogenic effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of arsenic-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells that underwent EMT on angiogenesis and the underlying mechanism. It was found that the conditioned medium from arsenic-transformed cells strongly stimulated tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Moreover, enhanced angiogenesis was detected in mouse xenograft tumor tissues resulting from inoculation of arsenic-transformed cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that β-catenin was activated in arsenic-transformed cells up-regulating its target gene expression including angiogenic-stimulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Stably expressing microRNA-200b in arsenic-transformed cells that reversed EMT inhibited β-catenin activation, decreased VEGF expression and reduced tube formation by HUVECs. SiRNA knockdown β-catenin decreased VEGF expression. Adding a VEGF neutralizing antibody into the conditioned medium from arsenic-transformed cells impaired tube formation by HUVECs. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA levels of canonical Wnt ligands were not increased in arsenic-transformed cells. These findings suggest that EMT in arsenic-transformed cells promotes angiogenesis through activating β-catenin-VEGF pathway. PMID:23643801

  19. Loss of PTPN12 Stimulates Progression of ErbB2-Dependent Breast Cancer by Enhancing Cell Survival, Migration, and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Davidson, Dominique; Martins Souza, Cleiton; Zhong, Ming-Chao; Wu, Ning; Park, Morag; Muller, William J; Veillette, André

    2015-12-01

    PTPN12 is a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) reported to be a tumor suppressor in breast cancer, through its capacity to dephosphorylate oncogenic receptor protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), such as ErbB2. However, the precise molecular and cellular impact of PTPN12 deficiency in breast cancer progression remains to be fully clarified. Here, we addressed this issue by examining the effect of PTPN12 deficiency on breast cancer progression in vivo, in a mouse model of ErbB2-dependent breast cancer using a conditional PTPN12-deficient mouse. Our studies showed that lack of PTPN12 in breast epithelial cells accelerated breast cancer development and lung metastases in vivo. PTPN12-deficient breast cancer cells displayed enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of the adaptor Cas, the adaptor paxillin, and the kinase Pyk2. They exhibited no detectable increase in ErbB2 tyrosine phosphorylation. PTPN12-deficient cells were more resistant to anoikis and had augmented migratory and invasive properties. Enhanced migration was corrected by inhibiting Pyk2. PTPN12-deficient breast cancer cells also acquired partial features of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a feature of more aggressive forms of breast cancer. Hence, loss of PTPN12 promoted tumor progression in a mouse model of breast cancer, supporting the notion that PTPN12 is a tumor suppressor in human breast cancer. This function was related to the ability of PTPN12 to suppress cell survival, migration, invasiveness, and EMT and to inhibit tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas, Pyk2, and paxillin. These findings enhance our understanding of the role and mechanism of action of PTPN12 in the control of breast cancer progression.

  20. MicroRNA-21 links epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and inflammatory signals to confer resistance to neoadjuvant trastuzumab and chemotherapy in HER2-positive breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Nuciforo, Paolo G.; Di Tommaso, Luca; Giovannetti, Elisa; Peg, Vicente; Losurdo, Agnese; Pérez-Garcia, José; Masci, Giovanna; Corsi, Fabio; Cortés, Javier; Seoane, Joan; Calin, George A.; Santarpia, Libero

    2015-01-01

    Patients with primary HER2-positive breast cancer benefit from HER2-targeted therapies. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of these patients die of disease progression due to mechanisms of drug resistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as critical core regulators of drug resistance that act by modulating the epithelial- to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer-related immune responses. In this study, we investigated the association between the expression of a specific subset of 14 miRNAs involved in EMT processes and immune functions and the response to neoadjuvant trastuzumab and chemotherapy in 52 patients with HER2-overexpressing breast tumors. The expression of only a single miRNA, miR-21, was significantly associated with residual disease (p = 0.030) and increased after trastuzumab-chemotherapy (p = 0.012). A target prediction analysis coupled with in vitro and in vivo validations revealed that miR-21 levels inversely correlated with the expression of PTEN (rs = −0.502; p = 0.005) and PDCD4 (rs = −0.426; p = 0.019), which differentially influenced the drug sensitivity of HER2-positive breast cancer cells. However, PTEN expression was only marginally associated with residual disease. We further demonstrated that miR-21 was able to affect the response to both trastuzumab and chemotherapy, triggering an IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB-mediated signaling loop and activating the PI3K pathway. Our findings support the ability of miR-21 signaling to sustain EMT and shape the tumor immune microenvironment in HER2-positive breast cancer. Collectively, these data provide a rationale for using miR-21 expression as a biomarker to select trastuzumab-chemotherapy-resistant HER2-positive breast cancer patients who may benefit from treatments containing PI3K inhibitors or immunomodulatory drugs. PMID:26452030

  1. Tetraspanin18 is a FoxD3-responsive antagonist of cranial neural crest epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition that maintains cadherin-6B protein

    PubMed Central

    Fairchild, Corinne L.; Gammill, Laura S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary During epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tightly associated, polarized epithelial cells become individual mesenchymal cells capable of migrating. Here, we investigate the role of the transmembrane protein tetraspanin18 (Tspan18) in chick cranial neural crest EMT. Tspan18 mRNA is expressed in premigratory cranial neural crest cells, but is absent from actively migrating neural crest cells. Tspan18 knockdown leads to a concomitant loss of cadherin-6B (Cad6B) protein, whereas Cad6B protein persists when Tspan18 expression is extended. The temporal profile of Cad6B mRNA downregulation is unaffected in these embryos, which indicates that Tspan18 maintains Cad6B protein levels and reveals that Cad6B is regulated by post-translational mechanisms. Although downregulation of Tspan18 is necessary, it is not sufficient for neural crest migration: the timing of neural crest emigration, basal lamina breakdown and Cad7 upregulation proceed normally in Tspan18-deficient cells. This emphasizes the need for coordinated transcriptional and post-translational regulation of Cad6B during EMT and illustrates that Tspan18-antagonized remodeling of cell–cell adhesions is only one step in preparation for cranial neural crest migration. Unlike Cad6B, which is transcriptionally repressed by Snail2, Tspan18 expression is downstream of the winged-helix transcription factor FoxD3, providing a new transcriptional input into cranial neural crest EMT. Together, our data reveal post-translational regulation of Cad6B protein levels by Tspan18 that must be relieved by a FoxD3-dependent mechanism in order for cranial neural crest cells to migrate. These results offer new insight into the molecular mechanisms of cranial neural crest EMT and expand our understanding of tetraspanin function relevant to metastasis. PMID:23418345

  2. Syndecan-1 up-regulates microRNA-331-3p and mediates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tomomi; Shimada, Keiji; Tatsumi, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Konishi, Noboru

    2016-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs with a length of approximately 19-24 nucleotides that regulate gene expression through translational inhibition and contribute to the progression of various tumors including prostate cancer. Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been implicated in the progression and metastasis of prostate cancer. The present study aimed to investigate whether miR-331-3p controlled by syndecan-1 positively affects the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Overexpression of miR-331-3p upregulated mesenchymal markers such as vimentin, N-cadherin, and snail and downregulated epithelial markers such as E-cadherin and desmoplakin in the prostate cancer cell line PC3. We identified Neuropilin 2 and nucleus accumbens-associated protein 1 as putative target molecules in silico, as they were closely associated with the expression of miR-331-3p and TGF-β/Smad 4 signals. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry of radical prostatectomy samples revealed miR-331-3p in cancer cells with high Gleason patterns, in which EMT was demonstrated by decreased E-cadherin, and increased vimentin staining. Syndecan-1 gene silencing decreased levels of Dicer, which is involved in miRNA maturation. MiR-331-3p-mediated miRNA maturation and enhanced EMT via effects on TGF-β/Smad 4 and Dicer are essential for the development of prostate cancer mediated by syndecan-1. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is correlated with COX-2 expression but not with the presence of stromal macrophages or CD10-expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Tae Jung

    2012-05-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an intricate process by which epithelial cells loose epithelial characteristics and acquire a mesenchymal-like phenotype. EMT and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression are related to tumor invasion and metastasis. The tumor microenvironment plays a major role in tumor progression and the induction of EMT. Here, we investigated the relationship between EMT and COX-2 expression as well as tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and CD10-positive stromal cells during the development of cutaneous squamous neoplastic lesion. We performed immunohistochemical staining for vimentin, E-cadherin, β-catenin, COX-2, CD68, and CD10 in 41 cases of squamous cell cancers (SCC), 20 of Bowen's disease, 30 of actinic keratosis, and 30 samples of normal skin. SCC cells showed significantly increased vimentin expression and reduced expression of membranous E-cadherin and β-catenin compared with cells in precursor lesions and in normal skin. COX-2 expression was also markedly increased in SCC cells. E-cadherin expression was positively correlated with β-catenin expression and inversely correlated with COX-2 expression in SCC cells. The number of TAM and CD10-positive stromal cells increased from the normal skin to precursor lesions and SCC cells. The number of TAM and of CD10-positive stromal cells did not correlate with the expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin, COX-2, and vimentin in SCC cells. We suggest that cutaneous SCC cells show EMT, which appears to be correlated with COX-2 expression but not with stromal CD10 expression and TAM.

  4. Relevance of MicroRNA200 Family and MicroRNA205 for Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Clinical Outcome in Biliary Tract Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Urbas, Romana; Mayr, Christian; Klieser, Eckhard; Fuereder, Julia; Bach, Doris; Stättner, Stefan; Primavesi, Florian; Jaeger, Tarkan; Stanzer, Stefanie; Ress, Anna Lena; Löffelberger, Magdalena; Wagner, Andrej; Berr, Frieder; Ritter, Markus; Pichler, Martin; Neureiter, Daniel; Kiesslich, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Extensive stromal interaction is one reason for the dismal outcome of biliary tract cancer (BTC) patients. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in tumor invasion and metastasis and is partly regulated by microRNAs (miRs). This study explores the expression of anti-EMT miR200 family (miR141, −200a/b/c, −429) and miR205 as well as the EMT-related proteins E-cadherin and vimentin in a panel of BTC cell lines and clinical specimens by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and immunohistochemistry, respectively. MicroRNA expression was correlated to (i) the expression patterns of E-cadherin and vimentin; (ii) clinicopathological characteristics; and (iii) survival data. MicroRNA-200 family and miR205 were expressed in all BTC cells and clinical specimens. E-cadherin and vimentin showed a mutually exclusive expression pattern in both, in vitro and in vivo. Expression of miR200 family members positively correlated with E-cadherin and negatively with vimentin expression in BTC cells and specimens. High expression of miR200 family members (but not miR205) and E-cadherin was associated with longer survival, while low miR200 family and high vimentin expression was a predictor of unfavorable survival. Overall, the current study demonstrates the relevance of the miR200 family in EMT of BTC tumors and suggests these miRs as predictors for positive outcome. PMID:27941621

  5. The role of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, Kristine Raaby; Demuth, Christina; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important strategy when treating non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, intrinsic resistance or development of resistance during the course of treatment constitutes a major challenge. The knowledge on EGFR-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and their biological effect keeps increasing. Within the group of patients with EGFR mutations some benefit to a much higher degree than others, and for patients lacking EGFR mutations a subset experience an effect. Up to 70% of patients with EGFR mutations and 10–20% of patients without EGFR mutations initially respond to the EGFR-TKI erlotinib, but there is a severe absence of good prognostic markers. Despite initial effect, all patients acquire resistance to EGFR-TKIs. Multiple mechanisms have implications in resistance development, but much is still to be explored. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a transcriptionally regulated phenotypic shift rendering cells more invasive and migratory. Within the EMT process lays a need for external or internal stimuli to give rise to changes in central signaling pathways. Expression of mesenchymal markers correlates to a bad prognosis and an inferior response to EGFR-TKIs in NSCLC due to the contribution to a resistant phenotype. A deeper understanding of the role of EMT in NSCLC and especially in EGFR-TKI resistance-development constitute one opportunity to improve the benefit of TKI treatment for the individual patient. Many scientific studies have linked the EMT process to EGFR-TKI resistance in NSCLC and our aim is to review the role of EMT in both intrinsic and acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs. PMID:27186512

  6. MiR-30c-5p suppresses migration, invasion and epithelial to mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer via targeting MTA1.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jing-Mei; Li, Gao-Zhong; Han, Mei; Xu, Hui-Ling; Huang, Kun-Ming

    2017-09-01

    In China, gastric cancer (GC) is an ordinary malignant tumor. Recent literatures have shown that microRNA is critical during tumorigenesis. This study focuses on the influence of miR-30c-5p on the metastasis of GC and further explores its underlying mechanism. Before the study, expression level of miR-30c-5p and targeted protein was detected in 40 GC tissue samples and 5 GC cells by RT-qPCR. Meanwhile, correlation analysis was conducted between miR-30c-5p expression level and clinicopathological features. In addition, wound healing assay and cell invasion assay were utilized to identify whether miR-30c-5p could affect the migrated and invaded ability of GC cells. Western blotting assay and luciferase assay were used to explore the potential mechanism. In GC tissues, miR-30c-5p expression level was significantly lower and was remarkably related with clinical features such as tumor node metastasis(TNM) stage and lymphatic metastasis. Moreover, the migrated and invaded ability of GC cells was enhanced through knockdown of miR-30c-5p, while overexpression of miR-30c-5p presented with reversed effect. Further study showed that miR-30c-5p inhibited the expression of its target spot, metastasis-associated protein 1(MTA1), and then suppressed the process of epithelial to mesenchymal transition(EMT) which was important in the metastasis of GC. The results indicate that miR-30c-5p, a novel suppressor in tumorigenesis, could inhibit the metastasis and EMT via MTA1, which may offer a possible therapeutic target in GC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. MicroRNA-21 links epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and inflammatory signals to confer resistance to neoadjuvant trastuzumab and chemotherapy in HER2-positive breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    De Mattos-Arruda, Leticia; Bottai, Giulia; Nuciforo, Paolo G; Di Tommaso, Luca; Giovannetti, Elisa; Peg, Vicente; Losurdo, Agnese; Pérez-Garcia, José; Masci, Giovanna; Corsi, Fabio; Cortés, Javier; Seoane, Joan; Calin, George A; Santarpia, Libero

    2015-11-10

    Patients with primary HER2-positive breast cancer benefit from HER2-targeted therapies. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of these patients die of disease progression due to mechanisms of drug resistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as critical core regulators of drug resistance that act by modulating the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer-related immune responses. In this study, we investigated the association between the expression of a specific subset of 14 miRNAs involved in EMT processes and immune functions and the response to neoadjuvant trastuzumab and chemotherapy in 52 patients with HER2-overexpressing breast tumors. The expression of only a single miRNA, miR-21, was significantly associated with residual disease (p = 0.030) and increased after trastuzumab-chemotherapy (p = 0.012). A target prediction analysis coupled with in vitro and in vivo validations revealed that miR-21 levels inversely correlated with the expression of PTEN (rs = -0.502; p = 0.005) and PDCD4 (rs = -0.426; p = 0.019), which differentially influenced the drug sensitivity of HER2-positive breast cancer cells. However, PTEN expression was only marginally associated with residual disease. We further demonstrated that miR-21 was able to affect the response to both trastuzumab and chemotherapy, triggering an IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB-mediated signaling loop and activating the PI3K pathway. Our findings support the ability of miR-21 signaling to sustain EMT and shape the tumor immune microenvironment in HER2-positive breast cancer. Collectively, these data provide a rationale for using miR-21 expression as a biomarker to select trastuzumab-chemotherapy-resistant HER2-positive breast cancer patients who may benefit from treatments containing PI3K inhibitors or immunomodulatory drugs.

  8. Emodin inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition in epithelial ovarian cancer cells by regulation of GSK-3β/β-catenin/ZEB1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chen; Dong, Taotao; Li, Rui; Lu, Jingjing; Wei, Xuan; Liu, Peishu

    2016-04-01

    Emodin (EMO) has been shown to possess pleiotropic anticancer capabilities in many types of cancer, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Inhibitory efficacy of EMO on EOC invasion and migration was previously observed, however, the underlying mechanisms have not been completely elucidated. The present study is aimed to explore the mechanisms. Transwell assay demonstrated that EMO significantly inhibited A2780 and SK-OV-3 cell invasion. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression levels of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related markers. We found that EMO treatment dose-dependently upregulated E-cadherin, keratin and downregulated N-cadherin, vimentin, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) to repress EMT. Mechanistically, EMO could inhibit glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) phosphorylation, decrease total β-catenin protein levels and subsequently downregulate transcription factor zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) expression. These effects of EMO were weakened when the cells were pretreated with SB216763, an inhibitor of GSK-3β kinase. Besides, we utilized small interfering RNA (siRNA) to downregulate ZEB1 expression. We found that treatment of ZEB1-knockdown cells with EMO, ZEB1 levels were lowest and cell invasion was weakest but ZEB1 knockdown had no effect on the expression of phospho-Ser9-GSK-3β (p-GSK-3βSer9), β-catenin. In conclusion, our results suggested that EMO inhibited EOC cell invasion by regulation of GSK-3β/β-catenin/ZEB1 signaling pathway to suppress EMT in vitro.

  9. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition leads to disease-stage differences in circulating tumor cell detection and metastasis in pre-clinical models of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lowes, Lori E.; Goodale, David; Xia, Ying; Postenka, Carl; Piaseczny, Matthew M.; Paczkowski, Freeman; Allan, Alison L.

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the cause of most prostate cancer (PCa) deaths and has been associated with circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The presence of ≥5 CTCs/7.5mL of blood is a poor prognosis indicator in metastatic PCa when assessed by the CellSearch® system, the “gold standard” clinical platform. However, ~35% of metastatic PCa patients assessed by CellSearch® have undetectable CTCs. We hypothesize that this is due to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and subsequent loss of necessary CTC detection markers, with important implications for PCa metastasis. Two pre-clinical assays were developed to assess human CTCs in xenograft models; one comparable to CellSearch® (EpCAM-based) and one detecting CTCs semi-independent of EMT status via combined staining with EpCAM/HLA (human leukocyte antigen). In vivo differences in CTC generation, kinetics, metastasis and EMT status were determined using 4 PCa models with progressive epithelial (LNCaP, LNCaP-C42B) to mesenchymal (PC-3, PC-3M) phenotypes. Assay validation demonstrated that the CellSearch®-based assay failed to detect a significant number (~40-50%) of mesenchymal CTCs. In vivo, PCa with an increasingly mesenchymal phenotype shed greater numbers of CTCs more quickly and with greater metastatic capacity than PCa with an epithelial phenotype. Notably, the CellSearch®-based assay captured the majority of CTCs shed during early-stage disease in vivo, and only after establishment of metastases were a significant number of undetectable CTCs present. This study provides important insight into the influence of EMT on CTC generation and subsequent metastasis, and highlights that novel technologies aimed at capturing mesenchymal CTCs may only be useful in the setting of advanced metastatic disease. PMID:27764810

  10. A Patient-Derived, Pan-Cancer EMT Signature Identifies Global Molecular Alterations and Immune Target Enrichment Following Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Mak, Milena P; Tong, Pan; Diao, Lixia; Cardnell, Robert J; Gibbons, Don L; William, William N; Skoulidis, Ferdinandos; Parra, Edwin R; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Heymach, John V; Weinstein, John N; Coombes, Kevin R; Wang, Jing; Byers, Lauren Averett

    2016-02-01

    We previously demonstrated the association between epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and drug response in lung cancer using an EMT signature derived in cancer cell lines. Given the contribution of tumor microenvironments to EMT, we extended our investigation of EMT to patient tumors from 11 cancer types to develop a pan-cancer EMT signature. Using the pan-cancer EMT signature, we conducted an integrated, global analysis of genomic and proteomic profiles associated with EMT across 1,934 tumors including breast, lung, colon, ovarian, and bladder cancers. Differences in outcome and in vitro drug response corresponding to expression of the pan-cancer EMT signature were also investigated. Compared with the lung cancer EMT signature, the patient-derived, pan-cancer EMT signature encompasses a set of core EMT genes that correlate even more strongly with known EMT markers across diverse tumor types and identifies differences in drug sensitivity and global molecular alterations at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels. Among those changes associated with EMT, pathway analysis revealed a strong correlation between EMT and immune activation. Further supervised analysis demonstrated high expression of immune checkpoints and other druggable immune targ