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Sample records for induces tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic

  1. Tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons of the hypothalamus are progestin target cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sar, M.

    1986-03-01

    To find out a direct relationship between progestin target neurons and tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons colocalization of /sup 3/H ORG 2058 (a synthetic progestin) and tyrosine hydroxylase, TH, antibodies were studied by combined autoradiography and immunohistochemistry. Eight 23 day-old ovariectomized and adrenalectomized rats were injected s.c. 17-beta estradiol, daily for 4 days. On the 5th day each animal was injected i.v. 1.0 ug per 100g b.w. of /sup 3/H ORG 2058. Two animals each received 1mg of unlabeled ORG 2058 15 min prior to the injection of /sup 3/H ORG 2058 to show the specificity of localization. Animals were sacrificed after 15 or 30 min, brains were dissected, frozen and processed for autoradiography. The autoradiograms were stained immunohistochemically with antibodies to TH. TH-containing cells in the arcuate nucleus and in the hypothalamic periventricular nucleus (Group A12) showed concentration of radioactivity in their nuclei, while TH cells in Group A11, A13, A14, and in the substantia nigra (Group A9), and ventral tegmental area (Group A10) did not show nuclear concentration of /sup 3/H ORG 2058. Competition studies with unlabeled ORG 2058 abolished the nuclear uptake of radioactivity in TH containing neurons. The results suggest a direct affect of progestin on tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons.

  2. Expression of neuropeptide Y precursor-immunoreactivity in the hypothalamic dopaminergic tubero-infundibular system during lactation in rodents.

    PubMed

    Ciofi, P; Fallon, J H; Croix, D; Polak, J M; Tramu, G

    1991-02-01

    Evidence from physiological studies in rats shows that neuropeptide Y (NPY) has marked neuroendocrine effects on anterior pituitary function, and especially on LHRH and LH secretions. However, previous immunohistochemical studies in rats have revealed only scarce NPY-axons of medullary origin in the external zone of the hypothalamic median eminence, the common termination site of neuroendocrine adenohypophysiotropic systems. In view of this apparent contradiction, we used light microscopic immunohistochemistry to reassess the distribution of NPY in the hypothalamus of rodents of both sexes under physiological (estrous cycle in rats, pregnancy in rats, and lactation in both rats and mice) and experimental (gonadectomy in rats and adrenalectomy in both rats and mice) conditions with alterations of reproductive functions. We reasoned that such manipulations could induce changes in immunoreactivity in the NPY system involved in neuroendocrine regulation and would thus make it apparent to us. We show here that immunoreactivity for NPY and its carboxyterminal precursor-associated peptide are dramatically increased in the external median eminence of lactating female animals when compared to the other animal groups. This NYP-precursor-immunoreactivity is present, throughout lactation, in the tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (and therefore possibly dopaminergic) tubero-infundibular system. This immunoreactivity disappears rapidly from the median eminence after pup-removal. These observations suggest a role for NPY-precursor-derived peptides in the control of the suckling-induced PRL secretion and also demonstrate the chemical plasticity of the median eminence during a normal physiological event. Since in nonlactating animals and especially in normal cycling females NPY-precursor-immunoreactivity was detected in the system of medullary origin only, we conclude that, by exclusion, this system might be the one responsible for modulating gonadotropic secretion at the median

  3. Endorphinic neurons are contacting the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Morel, G.; Pelletier, G.

    1986-11-01

    The anatomical relationships between endorphinic neurons and dopaminergic neurons were evaluated in the rat hypothalamus using a combination of immunocytochemistry and autoradiography. In the arcuate nucleus, endorphinic endings were seen making contacts with dopaminergic cell bodies and dendrites. No synapsis could be observed at the sites of contacts. These results strongly suggest that the endorphinic neurons are directly acting on dopaminergic neurons to modify the release of dopamine into the pituitary portal system.

  4. Acute restraint stress decreases dopamine synthesis and turnover in the median eminence: a model for the study of the inhibitory neuronal influences on tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Demarest, K T; Moore, K E; Riegle, G D

    1985-11-01

    The effects of acute stress on serum prolactin concentrations and tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neuronal activity were studied in female rats. TIDA neuronal activity was estimated by measuring the rate of dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) accumulation after the administration of a decarboxylase inhibitor (NSD 1015) and the rate of decline of dopamine (DA) after the administration of a tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor (alpha-methyltyrosine) in the median eminence. Serum prolactin concentrations were increased following 30 min of supine immobilization (restraint stress), but returned to control levels by 2, 8, and 16 h after the onset of this stress. The rate of DOPA accumulation was decreased during the 30 min of restraint; it was still further reduced 2 h later but had returned to control levels 8 and 16 h later. No change in the rate of DOPA accumulation was observed in the striatum or neurointermediate lobe of the pituitary at any time after the start of restraint. Restraint stress also decreased the rate of DA turnover in the median eminence, but was without effect on the rates of DA turnover in the striatum or neurointermediate lobe. These results suggest that restraint stress activates an inhibitory neuronal pathway which decreases the activity of TIDA neurons and may be responsible, at least in part, for the increase in serum prolactin concentrations. The responsiveness of TIDA neurons to the stress-induced decrease in activity was not influenced by the time of day or the stage of the estrous cycle. Not all stressful manipulations decreased TIDA neuronal activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Tuberoinfundibular Peptide of 39 Residues Is Activated during Lactation and Participates in the Suckling-Induced Prolactin Release in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Cservenák, Melinda; Bodnár, Ibolya; Usdin, Ted B.; Palkovits, Miklós; Nagy, György M.; Dobolyi, Arpád

    2010-01-01

    Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) and the PTH-2 receptor (PTH2R) constitute a peptide-receptor neuromodulator system. Based on the abundance of TIP39 fibers and axonal terminals as well as PTH2R-containing neurons and their processes in the hypothalamic para- and periventricular and arcuate nuclei TIP39 has been suggested to play a role in neuroendocrine regulation. We showed previously that TIP39 expression decreased dramatically by adulthood. In the present study, using in situ hybridization histochemistry, real-time RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry, we found that TIP39 mRNA and peptide expression levels are markedly elevated in the posterior intralaminar complex of the thalamus (PIL) of lactating dams, one of the three locations of TIP39-containing cell bodies in the brain. In addition, in mother rats, these TIP39 neurons showed Fos expression in response to pup exposure. Transection of TIP39 fibers originating in the PIL resulted in an ipsilateral disappearance of TIP39 immunoreactivity throughout the mediobasal hypothalamus of mother rats, suggesting that TIP39 fibers there arise from the PIL. To elucidate the function of TIP39 activation in dams, mothers separated from their pups for 4 h on postpartum d 9 received injection of a PTH2R antagonist into the lateral ventricle 5 min before returning the pups. Blood samples were taken seven times during the experimental period through jugular cannulae. The PTH2R antagonist administered in two different concentrations markedly inhibited suckling-induced elevation of plasma prolactin levels in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that TIP39 neurons in the PIL may regulate suckling-induced prolactin release in rat dams. PMID:20861230

  6. Bromocryptine prevents the decline in tuberoinfundibular neuronal release of dopamine after removal of chronic estrogen treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschall, P.E.; Meites, J.

    1987-11-01

    Prolonged exposure to estradiol 17-..beta.. (E/sub 2/) in rats has been shown to decrease dopamine (DA) synthesis in and release from tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons in Fischer 344 rats. The objective of the present study was to determine whether inhibition of the E/sub 2/-induced increase in anterior pituitary (AP) weight and prolactin (PRL) secretion by concomitant administration of the dopaminergic agonist, bromocryptine, could prevent the decrease in TIDA neuronal function produced by chronic E/sub 2/ administration. TIDA neuronal function was evaluated by in vitro superfusion and electrical stimulation of median eminence (ME) tissue after allowing for accumulation of (/sup 3/H) dopamine (DA). The effect of chronic E/sub 2/ and/or bromocryptine treatment on catecholamine content in tuberohypophyseal neurons in the neurointermediate lobe was also measured to determine whether increased pituitary size possibly damaged the tuberohypophyseal neurons.

  7. Tuberoinfundibular transport of intrahypothalamic-administered dopamine in normo- and hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Sim, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    The dopamine transport system in the tuberoinfundibular tract of the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was investigated. The results show that the rate of dopamine transport in this tract is strain-specific. SD rats transported twice as much dopamine (in 30 minutes) as WKY and SHR. The dopamine transport system in the SHR, being at par with that of the WKY, remained intact. These findings suggest that hypertension and the alleged reduced central dopaminergic activity in the SHR is not related to the transport of dopamine in the tuberoinfundibular tract.

  8. Phosphodiesterase 7 Inhibition Induces Dopaminergic Neurogenesis in Hemiparkinsonian Rats

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Garcia, Jose A.; Alonso-Gil, Sandra; Gil, Carmen; Martinez, Ana; Santos, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in a specific brain region, the ventral midbrain. Parkinson’s disease is diagnosed when approximately 50% of the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) have degenerated and the others are already affected by the disease. Thus, it is conceivable that all therapeutic strategies, aimed at neuroprotection, start too late. Therefore, an urgent medical need exists to discover new pharmacological targets and novel drugs with disease-modifying properties. In this regard, modulation of endogenous adult neurogenesis toward a dopaminergic phenotype might provide a new strategy to target Parkinson’s disease by partially ameliorating the dopaminergic cell loss that occurs in this disorder. We have previously shown that a phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7) inhibitor, S14, exerts potent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in different rodent models of Parkinson’s disease, indicating that this compound could represent a novel therapeutic agent to stop the dopaminergic cell loss that occurs during the progression of the disease. In this report we show that, in addition to its neuroprotective effect, the PDE7 inhibitor S14 is also able to induce endogenous neuroregenerative processes toward a dopaminergic phenotype. We describe a population of actively dividing cells that give rise to new neurons in the SNpc of hemiparkinsonian rats after treatment with S14. In conclusion, our data identify S14 as a novel regulator of dopaminergic neuron generation. Significance Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral midbrain. Currently, no cure and no effective disease-modifying therapy are available for Parkinson’s disease; therefore, an urgent medical need exists to discover new pharmacological targets and novel drugs for the treatment of this disorder. The present study reports that an inhibitor of the enzyme

  9. Chronic Nicotine Exposure Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Dopaminergic Deficits.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Brock, Paula L; McFadden, Lisa M; Nielsen, Shannon M; Ellis, Jonathan D; Walters, Elliot T; Stout, Kristen A; McIntosh, J Michael; Wilkins, Diana G; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2015-12-01

    Repeated methamphetamine (METH) administrations cause persistent dopaminergic deficits resembling aspects of Parkinson's disease. Many METH abusers smoke cigarettes and thus self-administer nicotine; yet few studies have investigated the effects of nicotine on METH-induced dopaminergic deficits. This interaction is of interest because preclinical studies demonstrate that nicotine can be neuroprotective, perhaps owing to effects involving α4β2 and α6β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). This study revealed that oral nicotine exposure beginning in adolescence [postnatal day (PND) 40] through adulthood [PND 96] attenuated METH-induced striatal dopaminergic deficits when METH was administered at PND 89. This protection did not appear to be due to nicotine-induced alterations in METH pharmacokinetics. Short-term (i.e., 21-day) high-dose nicotine exposure also protected when administered from PND 40 to PND 61 (with METH at PND 54), but this protective effect did not persist. Short-term (i.e., 21-day) high-dose nicotine exposure did not protect when administered postadolescence (i.e., beginning at PND 61, with METH at PND 75). However, protection was engendered if the duration of nicotine exposure was extended to 39 days (with METH at PND 93). Autoradiographic analysis revealed that nicotine increased striatal α4β2 expression, as assessed using [(125)I]epibatidine. Both METH and nicotine decreased striatal α6β2 expression, as assessed using [(125)I]α-conotoxin MII. These findings indicate that nicotine protects against METH-induced striatal dopaminergic deficits, perhaps by affecting α4β2 and/or α6β2 expression, and that both age of onset and duration of nicotine exposure affect this protection.

  10. Transcriptional comparison of human induced and primary midbrain dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ninuo; Zhang, Pengbo; Fang, Fang; Wang, Zhengyuan; Rothstein, Megan; Angulo, Benjamin; Chiang, Rosaria; Taylor, James; Reijo Pera, Renee A.

    2016-01-01

    Generation of induced dopaminergic (iDA) neurons may provide a significant step forward towards cell replacement therapy for Parkinson’s disease (PD). To study and compare transcriptional programs of induced cells versus primary DA neurons is a preliminary step towards characterizing human iDA neurons. We have optimized a protocol to efficiently generate iDA neurons from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). We then sequenced the transcriptomes of iDA neurons derived from 6 different hPSC lines and compared them to that of primary midbrain (mDA) neurons. We identified a small subset of genes with altered expression in derived iDA neurons from patients with Parkinson’s Disease (PD). We also observed that iDA neurons differ significantly from primary mDA neurons in global gene expression, especially in genes related to neuron maturation level. Results suggest iDA neurons from patient iPSCs could be useful for basic and translational studies, including in vitro modeling of PD. However, further refinement of methods of induction and maturation of neurons may better recapitulate full development of mDA neurons from hPSCs. PMID:26842779

  11. Remote control of induced dopaminergic neurons in parkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Dell'Anno, Maria Teresa; Caiazzo, Massimiliano; Leo, Damiana; Dvoretskova, Elena; Medrihan, Lucian; Colasante, Gaia; Giannelli, Serena; Theka, Ilda; Russo, Giovanni; Mus, Liudmila; Pezzoli, Gianni; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Benfenati, Fabio; Taverna, Stefano; Dityatev, Alexander; Broccoli, Vania

    2014-07-01

    Direct lineage reprogramming through genetic-based strategies enables the conversion of differentiated somatic cells into functional neurons and distinct neuronal subtypes. Induced dopaminergic (iDA) neurons can be generated by direct conversion of skin fibroblasts; however, their in vivo phenotypic and functional properties remain incompletely understood, leaving their impact on Parkinson's disease (PD) cell therapy and modeling uncertain. Here, we determined that iDA neurons retain a transgene-independent stable phenotype in culture and in animal models. Furthermore, transplanted iDA neurons functionally integrated into host neuronal tissue, exhibiting electrically excitable membranes, synaptic currents, dopamine release, and substantial reduction of motor symptoms in a PD animal model. Neuronal cell replacement approaches will benefit from a system that allows the activity of transplanted neurons to be controlled remotely and enables modulation depending on the physiological needs of the recipient; therefore, we adapted a DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) technology for remote and real-time control of grafted iDA neuronal activity in living animals. Remote DREADD-dependent iDA neuron activation markedly enhanced the beneficial effects in transplanted PD animals. These data suggest that iDA neurons have therapeutic potential as a cell replacement approach for PD and highlight the applicability of pharmacogenetics for enhancing cellular signaling in reprogrammed cell-based approaches. PMID:24937431

  12. Rotenone induces degeneration of photoreceptors and impairs the dopaminergic system in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Rudd, Julián; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Lax, Pedro; De Juan, Emilio; Martín-Nieto, José; Cuenca, Nicolás

    2011-10-01

    Rotenone is a widely used pesticide and a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I (NADH-quinone reductase) that elicits the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and thereby the appearance of a parkinsonian syndrome. Here we have addressed the alterations induced by rotenone at the functional, morphological and molecular levels in the retina, including those involving both dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic retinal neurons. Rotenone-treated rats showed abnormalities in equilibrium, postural instability and involuntary movements. In their outer retina we observed a loss of photoreceptors, and a reduced synaptic connectivity between those remaining and their postsynaptic neurons. A dramatic loss of mitochondria was observed in the inner segments, as well as in the axon terminals of photoreceptors. In the inner retina we observed a decrease in the expression of dopaminergic cell molecular markers, including loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity, associated with a reduction of the dopaminergic plexus and cell bodies. An increase in immunoreactivity of AII amacrine cells for parvalbumin, a Ca(2+)-scavenging protein, was also detected. These abnormalities were accompanied by a decrease in the amplitude of scotopic and photopic a- and b-waves and an increase in the b-wave implicit time, as well as by a lower amplitude and greater latency in oscillatory potentials. These results indicate that rotenone induces loss of vision by promoting photoreceptor cell death and impairment of the dopaminergic retinal system.

  13. nNOS inhibitors attenuate methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity but not hyperthermia in mice.

    PubMed

    Itzhak, Y; Martin, J L; Ail, S F

    2000-09-11

    Methamphetamine (METH)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is associated with hyperthermia. We investigated the effect of several neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitors on METH-induced hyperthermia and striatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Administration of METH (5 mg/kg; q. 3 h x 3) to Swiss Webster mice produced marked hyperthermia and 50-60% depletion of striatal dopaminergic markers 72 h after METH administration. Pretreatment with the nNOS inhibitors S-methylthiocitrulline (SMTC; 10 mg/kg) or 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole (3-Br-7-NI; 20 mg/kg) before each METH injection did not affect the persistent hyperthermia produced by METH, but afforded protection against the depletion of dopaminergic markers. A low dose (25 mg/kg) of the nNOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) did not affect METH-induced hyperthermia, but a high dose (50 mg/kg) produced significant hypothermia. These findings indicate that low dose of selective nNOS inhibitors protect against METH-induced neurotoxicity with no effect on body temperature and support the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite have a major role in METH-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

  14. Cypermethrin-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration alters the mitochondrial function: a proteomics study.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sonal; Singh, Ashish; Tripathi, Pratibha; Mishra, Manisha; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar; Singh, Mahendra Pratap

    2015-04-01

    Cypermethrin induces the slow and progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in rats. Postnatal preexposure with low doses of cypermethrin is known to enhance the susceptibility of animals upon adulthood reexposure. The study was undertaken to delineate the role of mitochondria in cypermethrin-induced neurodegeneration. Indexes of dopaminergic neurodegeneration, microglial activation, and mitochondrial dysfunction and its proteome profile were assessed in controls and cypermethrin-treated rats. Cypermethrin increased nigral dopaminergic neurodegeneration and microglial activation while reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and complex I activity. Cypermethrin attenuated striatal dopamine content and differentially regulated the expressions of the nine striatal and ten nigral proteins. Western blot analyses showed that cypermethrin also increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), caspase-3, tumor suppressor protein (p53), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expressions and reduced B cell lymphoma-2 protein (Bcl-2) expression. Syndopa and minocycline rescued from cypermethrin induced augmentation in microglial activation and reductions in mitochondrial membrane potential and complex I activity, striatal dopamine content, and degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons. Syndopa and minocycline, respectively, modulated the expressions of four and six striatal and four and seven nigral proteins. Furthermore, they reinstated the expressions of JNK, caspase-3, Bcl-2, p53, p38 MAPK, TNF-α, and HO-1. The study demonstrates that cypermethrin induces mitochondrial dysfunction and alters mitochondrial proteome leading to oxidative stress and apoptosis, which regulate the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

  15. Nicotine-induced acute hyperactivity is mediated by dopaminergic system in a sexually dimorphic manner.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Guo, Jing; Guo, Aike; Li, Yan

    2016-09-22

    Short-term exposure to nicotine induces positive effects in mice, monkeys and humans, including mild euphoria, hyperactivity, and enhanced cognition. However, the underlying neural basis and molecular mechanisms for these effects remain poorly understood. Here, using a video recording system, we find that acute nicotine administration induces locomotor hyperactivity in Drosophila, similar to observations made in higher model organisms. Suppressing dopaminergic neurons or down-regulating dopamine 1-like receptor (DopR) abolishes this acute nicotine response, but surprisingly, does so only in male flies. Using a GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners (GRASP) approach, we show that dopaminergic neurons possess potential synaptic connections with acetylcholinergic neurons in wide regions of the brain. Furthermore, dopaminergic neurons are widely activated upon nicotine perfusion in both sexes, while the response curve differs significantly between the sexes. Moreover, knockdown of the β1 nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in dopaminergic neurons abolishes the acute nicotine response only in male flies, while panneural knock-down occurs in both sexes. Taken together, our results reveal that in fruit flies, dopaminergic neurons mediate nicotine-induced acute locomotor hyperactivity in a sexually dimorphic manner, and Drosophila β1 nAChR subunit plays a crucial role in this nicotine response. These findings provide important insights into the molecular and neural basis of acute nicotine effects, and the underlying mechanisms may play conserved roles across species. PMID:27365175

  16. Minocycline Rescues from Zinc-Induced Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration: Biochemical and Molecular Interventions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Brajesh Kumar; Chauhan, Amit Kumar; Singh, Deepali; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Chetna

    2016-07-01

    Accumulation of zinc (Zn) in dopaminergic neurons is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD), and microglial activation plays a critical role in toxin-induced Parkinsonism. Oxidative stress is accused in Zn-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration; however, its connection with microglial activation is still not known. This study was undertaken to elucidate the role and underlying mechanism of microglial activation in Zn-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Male Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally with/without zinc sulphate (20 mg/kg) in the presence/absence of minocycline (30 mg/kg), a microglial activation inhibitor, for 2-12 weeks. While neurobehavioral and biochemical indexes of PD and number of dopaminergic neurons were reduced, the number of microglial cells was increased in the substantia nigra of the Zn-exposed animals. Similarly, Zn elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase; however, catalase activity was reduced. Besides, Zn increased an association of NADPH oxidase subunit p67(phox) with membrane, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and cleavage of pro-caspase 3. Zn attenuated the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) while augmented the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Minocycline alleviated Zn-induced behavioural impairments, loss of TH-positive neurons, activated microglial cells and biochemical indexes and modulated the expression of studied genes/proteins towards normalcy. The results demonstrate that minocycline reduces the number of activated microglial cells and oxidative stress, which rescue from Zn-induced changes in the expression of monoamine transporter and nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

  17. Gypenosides protects dopaminergic neurons in primary culture against MPP(+)-induced oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Niu, Le; Guo, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Li; Li, Wei-Xin; Jia, Dong; Wang, Xue-Lian; Ma, Lian-Ting; Gao, Guo-Dong

    2010-10-30

    Oxidative injury has been implicated in the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Gypenosides (GPs), the saponins extract derived from the Gynostemma pentaphyllum, has various bioactivities. In this study, GPs was investigated for its neuroprotective effects on the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+))-induced oxidative injury of dopaminergic neurons in primary nigral culture. It was found that GPs pretreatment, cotreatment or posttreatment significantly and dose-dependently attenuated MPP(+)-induced oxidative damage, reduction of dopamine uptake, loss of tyrosine hydrolase (TH)-immunopositive neurons and degeneration of TH-immunopositive neurites. However, the preventive effect of GPs was more potential than its therapeutical effect. Most importantly, the neuroprotective effect of GPs may be attributed to GPs-induced strengthened antioxidation as manifested by significantly increased glutathione content and enhanced activity of glutathione peroxidase, catalyze and superoxide dismutase in nigral culture. The neuroprotective effects of GPs are specific for dopaminergic neurons and it may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of PD.

  18. Metformin Prevented Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity Induced by 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine Administration.

    PubMed

    Porceddu, Pier Francesca; Ishola, Ismail Ogunbayode; Contu, Liliana; Morelli, Micaela

    2016-07-01

    Metformin, a well-known antidiabetic drug, has recently been proposed to promote neurogenesis and to have a neuroprotective effect on the neurodegenerative processes induced by the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in models of Parkinson's disease. Interestingly, metformin has antioxidant properties and is involved in regulating the production of cytokines released during the neuroinflammatory process. Several studies have reported that 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), a recreational drug mostly consumed by young adults, produces a persistent loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and caudate putamen (CPu) of mice. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of metformin against short- and long-term neurotoxicity induced by MDMA and its role on MDMA-induced hyperthermia. Adult mice received metformin (2 × 200 mg/kg, 11-h intervals, administered orally), MDMA (4 × 20 mg/kg, 2-h interval, administered intraperitoneally), or MDMA plus metformin (2 × 200 mg/kg, 1 h before the first MDMA administration and 4 h after the last). On the second and third day, mice were treated with vehicle or metformin (1 × 200 mg/kg) and sacrificed 48 h and 7 days after the last MDMA administration. The neuroprotective effect of metformin on MDMA-induced dopaminergic damage was evaluated by dopamine transporter (DAT) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry in SNc and CPu. Metformin prevented the MDMA-induced loss of TH-positive neurons in the SNc and TH- and DAT-positive fibers in CPu, both at 48 h and 7 days after the last MDMA administration. These results show that metformin is neuroprotective against the short- and long-lasting dopaminergic neurodegeneration induced by MDMA. PMID:27251371

  19. Involvement of the dopaminergic system in the central orexin-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Toshikatsu; Nozu, Tsukasa; Kumei, Shima; Takakusaki, Kaoru; Miyagishi, Saori; Ohhira, Masumi

    2015-09-25

    We have recently demonstrated that orexin acts centrally in the brain to induce antinociceptive action against colonic distension through orexin 1 receptors in conscious rats. Although the dopaminergic system can induce antinociceptive action for somatic pain, the association between changes in the dopaminergic system and visceral pain perception has not been investigated. In the present study, we hypothesized that the dopaminergic system may be involved in visceral nociception, and if so, the dopaminergic system may mediate the orexin-induced visceral antinociception. Visceral sensation was evaluated using the colonic distension-induced abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in conscious rats. Intracisternal injection of D1 (SKF38398) or D2 (quinpirole) dopamine receptor agonist increased the threshold volume of colonic distension-induced AWR in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with either the D1 or D2 dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH23390 or sulpiride, respectively) potently blocked the centrally injected orexin-A-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension. These results suggest for the first time that dopaminergic signaling via D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in the brain may induce visceral antinociception and that the dopaminergic signaling may be involved in the central orexin-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension.

  20. Neuroprotection of resveratrol against neurotoxicity induced by methamphetamine in mouse mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dong; Yue, Qingwei; Guo, Weihua; Li, Tao; Zhang, Jing; Li, Guibao; Liu, Zengxun; Sun, Jinhao

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is originally extracted from huzhang, a Chinese herbal medicine. Recently, resveratrol has attracted a great of attention due to its antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties. Although the neuroprotection of resveratrol on neural damages in various models has been well characterized, little is known about the role of resveratrol in methamphetamine (MA) induced neurotoxicity in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Dopaminergic neurons were isolated from midbrain of mouse embryos at embryonic day 15 and cultured in the presence of MA and resveratrol. Cell viability was examined by MTT assay and the apoptosis was assessed using Hoechst33342/PI double staining. To evaluate the Oxidative damage, ROS assay was performed. Moreover, the changes of time course of intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i) were analyzed with Fluo-3/AM tracing. The data showed that MA induced the neurotoxicity of cultured cells in a dose-dependent manner. Resveratrol significantly increased cellular viability and retarded cell apoptosis. Furthermore, resveratrol also attenuated MA induced ROS production and intracellular free calcium overload. Our results suggest that resveratrol protects dopaminergic neurons from MA-induced neuronal cytotoxicity, which, at least partly, is mediated by inhibition of [Ca(2+) ]i and oxidative stress. © 2015 BioFactors 41(4):252-260, 2015.

  1. Basal and stress-induced corticosterone secretion is decreased by lesion of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Casolini, P; Kabbaj, M; Leprat, F; Piazza, P V; Rougé-Pont, F; Angelucci, L; Simon, H; Le Moal, M; Maccari, S

    1993-09-17

    There is evidence that certain psychopathological conditions are accompanied by a dysfunction in both the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and dopaminergic systems, although the relationship between these two systems is as yet unclear. In the present study we investigated the effect of a specific lesion of dopamine mesencephalic neurons (Ventral Tegmental Area) on basal and stress-induced corticosterone secretion. Three weeks after injection of 6-OHDA, there was a depletion in dopamine in the frontal cortex and in the ventral and dorsal striatum, whereas norepinephrine and serotonin levels were unchanged. The dopamine-lesioned rats exhibited a lower basal and stress-induced corticosterone secretion than the sham-lesioned animals. The results indicate that the dopaminergic system may have a stimulatory influence on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. PMID:8242373

  2. Isoliquiritigenin isolated from licorice Glycyrrhiza uralensis prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Cheol Kyu; Chun, Hong Sung

    2012-01-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) is a medicinal herb containing various bioactive components implicated in antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and neuroprotective effects, but the effects of licorice against Parkinson's disease (PD)-related dopaminergic cell death have not been studied. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of isoliquiritigenin (ISL) isolated from Glycyrrhiza uralensis on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in a dopaminergic cell line, SN4741. ISL (1 µM) significantly attenuated 6-OHDA (50 µM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation and apoptotic cell death. ISL pretreatment effectively suppressed 6-OHDA-mediated upregulation of Bax, p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p-p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, cytochrome c release, and caspase 3 activation. In addition, ISL significantly attenuated 6-OHDA-induced Bcl-2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) reduction. Pharmacological inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) pathway reversed ISL-mediated neuroprotection against 6-OHDA toxicity in SN4741 cells. These results provide the first evidence that ISL can protect dopaminergic cells under oxidative stress conditions by regulating the apoptotic process.

  3. Dopaminergic Inhibition of Metoclopramide-induced Aldosterone Secretion in Man

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Robert M.; Thorner, Michael O.; Ortt, Elizabeth M.

    1980-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of dopaminergic mechanisms in the control of aldosterone secretion in man. Five normal male subjects in metabolic balance at 150 meq sodium/d and 60 meq potassium/d constant intake received the specific dopamine antagonist, metoclopramide, 10 mg i.v. on 2 consecutive d. On the 1st d, the subjects received an infusion of 5% glucose solution (vehicle) from 60 min before to 60 min after metoclopramide administration; on the 2nd d, an infusion of dopamine 4 μg/kg per min was substituted for vehicle. Metoclopramide in the presence of vehicle increased plasma aldosterone concentrations from 2.4±1.1 to a maximum of 17.2±2.8 ng/100 ml (P < 0.01) and serum prolactin concentrations from 7.5±5.0 to a maximum of 82.2±8.7 ng/ml (P < 0.01). Dopamine 4 μg/kg per min did not alter basal plasma aldosterone concentrations, but blunted the aldosterone responses to metoclopramide significantly; in the presence of dopamine, plasma aldosterone concentrations increased from 3.1±0.5 to 6.2±1.4 ng/100 ml (P < 0.05) in response to metoclopramide. The incremental aldosterone responses to metoclopramide were significantly lower in the presence of dopamine than with vehicle. Dopamine 4 μg/kg per min suppressed basal prolactin to <3 ng/ml and inhibited the prolactin responses to metoclopramide; serum prolactin concentrations increased to a maximum of 8.5±2.3 ng/ml with metoclopramide in the presence of dopamine. The subjects were studied in the same manner except that dopamine 2 μg/kg per min was administered instead of the 4-μg/kg per min dose. Dopamine 2 μg/kg per min attenuated the aldosterone and prolactin responses to metoclopramide, but was less effective than the 4-μg/kg per min dose of dopamine. Metoclopramide 10 mg i.v. was administered to five additional subjects after pretreatment with the dopamine agonist, bromocriptine, 2.5 mg or placebo at 6 p.m., midnight, and 6 a.m. before study. Bromocriptine suppressed basal serum

  4. Molecular mechanism of manganese exposure-induced dopaminergic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Prabhakaran, K; Ghosh, D; Chapman, G D; Gunasekar, P G

    2008-07-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential mineral that is found in varying amounts in aerosols or dust. Exposure to atmospheric Mn at high concentration is a risk factor in humans that can manifest as neuronal degeneration resembling Parkinson's disease (PD). Since the underlying mechanism of Mn and dopamine (DA) interaction-induced cell death remains unclear, here, we showed that Mn exposure alone to mesencephalic cells for 24h induced minimal apoptotic cell death. However, cells pre-exposed to DA for 2h accelerated Mn-induced apoptosis. The vulnerability of Mn-induced apoptotic cell death to DA was determined by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Apoptag TUNEL staining (terminaldeoxynucleotidyl transferase DNA labeling). This was further confirmed by the cell viability assay to support our hypothesis that DA at the cellular level interacts with Mn and causes cells to be more susceptible. Pretreatment with nitric oxide blocker (7-nitroindazole, 7-NI), vitamin E or NF-kappaB inhibitor (SN50) significantly protected the cells from Mn and DA interaction-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that Mn in the presence of DA markedly induced induction of NOS (iNOS) expression. Pretreatment with 7-NI, SN50 or vitamin E significantly attenuated increased iNOS expression indicating that iNOS expression is regulated by ROS and the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Further, the generation of ROS as an early event in Mn and DA interaction is not controlled by NF-kappaB as SN50 pretreatment did not prevent ROS. These findings suggest that NF-kappaB induction and the activation of nitric oxide synthase through ROS represent a proximate mechanism for Mn-induced neurotoxicity.

  5. Role of oxidative stress in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity mediated by protein kinase Cδ.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Duong, Chu Xuan; Nguyen, Xuan-Khanh Thi; Li, Zhengyi; Bing, Guoying; Bach, Jae-Hyung; Park, Dae Hun; Nakayama, Keiichi; Ali, Syed F; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G; Cadet, Jean Lud; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2012-06-15

    This study examined the role of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes in methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. Multiple-dose administration of MA did not significantly alter PKCα, PKCβI, PKCβII, or PKCζ expression in the striatum, but did significantly increase PKCδ expression. Gö6976 (a co-inhibitor of PKCα and -β), hispidin (PKCβ inhibitor), and PKCζ pseudosubstrate inhibitor (PKCζ inhibitor) did not significantly alter MA-induced behavioral impairments. However, rottlerin (PKCδ inhibitor) significantly attenuated behavioral impairments in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, MA-induced behavioral impairments were not apparent in PKCδ knockout (-/-) mice. MA-induced oxidative stress (i.e., lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation) was significantly attenuated in rottlerin-treated mice and was not apparent in PKCδ (-/-) mice. Consistent with this, MA-induced apoptosis (i.e., terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive apoptotic cells) was significantly attenuated in rottlerin-treated mice. Furthermore, MA-induced increases in the dopamine (DA) turnover rate and decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and the expression of TH, dopamine transporter (DAT), and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) were not significantly observed in rottlerin-treated or PKCδ (-/-) mice. Our results suggest that PKCδ gene expression is a key mediator of oxidative stress and dopaminergic damage induced by MA. Thus, inhibition of PKCδ may be a useful target for protection against MA-induced neurotoxicity.

  6. Role of oxidative stress in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity mediated by protein kinase Cδ

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Xuan-Khanh Thi; Li, Zhengyi; Bing, Guoying; Bach, Jae-Hyung; Park, Dae Hun; Nakayama, Keiichi; Ali, Syed F.; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Cadet, Jean Lud; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes in methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. Multiple-dose administration of MA did not significantly alter PKCα, PKCβI, PKCβII, or PKCζ expression in the striatum, but did significantly increase PKCδ expression. Gö6976 (a co-inhibitor of PKCα and -β), hispidin (PKCβ inhibitor), and PKCζ pseudosubstrate inhibitor (PKCζ inhibitor) did not significantly alter MA-induced behavioral impairments. However, rottlerin (PKCδ inhibitor) significantly attenuated behavioral impairments in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, MA-induced behavioral impairments were not apparent in PKCδ knockout (–/–) mice. MA-induced oxidative stress (i.e., lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation) was significantly attenuated in rottlerin-treated mice and was not apparent in PKCδ (–/–) mice. Consistent with this, MA-induced apoptosis (i.e., terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive apoptotic cells) was significantly attenuated in rottlerin-treated mice. Furthermore, MA-induced increases in the dopamine (DA) turnover rate and decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and the expression of TH, dopamine transporter (DAT), and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) were not significantly observed in rottlerin-treated or PKCδ (–/–) mice. Our results suggest that PKCδ gene expression is a key mediator of oxidative stress and dopaminergic damage induced by MA. Thus, inhibition of PKCδ may be a useful target for protection against MA-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:22512859

  7. Rotenone induces cell death in primary dopaminergic culture by increasing ROS production and inhibiting mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Radad, Khaled; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter; Gille, Gabriele

    2006-09-01

    Although the definite etiology of Parkinson's disease is still unclear, increasing evidence has suggested an important role for environmental factors such as exposure to pesticides in increasing the risk of developing Parkinson's disease. In the present study, primary cultures prepared from embryonic mouse mesencephala were applied to investigate the toxic effects and underlying mechanisms of rotenone-induced neuronal cell death relevant to Parkinson's disease. Results revealed that rotenone destroyed dopaminergic neurons in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Consistent with the cytotoxic effect of rotenone as evidenced by dopaminergic cell loss, it significantly increased the release of lactate dehydrogenase into the culture medium, the number of necrotic cells in the culture and the number of nuclei showing apoptotic features. Rotenone exerted toxicity by decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing reactive oxygen species production and shifting respiration to a more anaerobic state.

  8. Progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons induced by unilateral rotenone infusion into the medial forebrain bundle.

    PubMed

    Norazit, Anwar; Meedeniya, Adrian C B; Nguyen, Maria Nga; Mackay-Sim, Alan

    2010-11-11

    Rotenone, a mitochondrial complex 1 inhibitor, causes oxidative damage via production of reactive oxygen species. We examined the pathophysiology of neuronal and glial cells of the nigrostriatal pathway following unilateral infusion of varying doses of rotenone into the substantia nigra or medial forebrain bundle of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, sacrificed 14 and 60 days after infusion. Immunofluorescence techniques were used to qualitatively and quantitatively assay dopaminergic neurons, their projections, glial cells, synapses, and oxidative stress. Rotenone infusion into the substantia nigra at all concentrations caused extensive damage and tissue necrosis, therefore of limited relevance for producing a Parkinson disease model. Infusion of 0.5μg of rotenone targeting the medial forebrain bundle induced oxidative stress in dopaminergic neurons causing ongoing cell stress as defined by an elevation of stress granule and oxidative stress markers. This treatment resulted in the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive cells in the substantia nigra (p≤0.01) and loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve fibres and synaptic specialisations in the striatum (p≤0.01). The infusion of 0.5μg of rotenone also caused an increase in astrocytes and microglial cells in the substantia nigra in comparison to control (p≤0.01). We examined the time-dependent reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive nerve fibres and cell bodies in the striatum and substantia nigra respectively, with a progressive reduction evident 60days after infusion (p≤0.01, p≤0.05). Dopaminergic axons exposed to low-dose rotenone undergo oxidative stress, with a resultant ongoing loss of dopaminergic neurons, providing an animal model relevant to Parkinson disease.

  9. Prostaglandin-dependent modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission elicits inflammation-induced aversion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Michael; Klawonn, Anna M.; Nilsson, Anna; Singh, Anand Kumar; Zajdel, Joanna; Björk Wilhelms, Daniel; Lazarus, Michael; Löfberg, Andreas; Jaarola, Maarit; Örtegren Kugelberg, Unn; Billiar, Timothy R.; Hackam, David J.; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Breyer, Matthew D.; Jakobsson, Johan; Schwaninger, Markus; Schütz, Günther; Rodriguez Parkitna, Jan; Saper, Clifford B.; Blomqvist, Anders; Engblom, David

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammation causes malaise and general feelings of discomfort. This fundamental aspect of the sickness response reduces the quality of life for people suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases and is a nuisance during mild infections like common colds or the flu. To investigate how inflammation is perceived as unpleasant and causes negative affect, we used a behavioral test in which mice avoid an environment that they have learned to associate with inflammation-induced discomfort. Using a combination of cell-type–specific gene deletions, pharmacology, and chemogenetics, we found that systemic inflammation triggered aversion through MyD88-dependent activation of the brain endothelium followed by COX1-mediated cerebral prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. Further, we showed that inflammation-induced PGE2 targeted EP1 receptors on striatal dopamine D1 receptor–expressing neurons and that this signaling sequence induced aversion through GABA-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic cells. Finally, we demonstrated that inflammation-induced aversion was not an indirect consequence of fever or anorexia but that it constituted an independent inflammatory symptom triggered by a unique molecular mechanism. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that PGE2-mediated modulation of the dopaminergic motivational circuitry is a key mechanism underlying the negative affect induced by inflammation. PMID:26690700

  10. Aminochrome induces dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction: a new animal model for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Andrea; Muñoz, Patricia; Paris, Irmgard; Díaz-Veliz, Gabriela; Mora, Sergio; Inzunza, Jose; Hultenby, Kjell; Cardenas, Cesar; Jaña, Fabián; Raisman-Vozari, Rita; Gysling, Katia; Abarca, Jorge; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2016-09-01

    L-Dopa continues to be the gold drug in Parkinson's disease (PD) treatment from 1967. The failure to translate successful results from preclinical to clinical studies can be explained by the use of preclinical models which do not reflect what happens in the disease since these induce a rapid and extensive degeneration; for example, MPTP induces a severe Parkinsonism in only 3 days in humans contrasting with the slow degeneration and progression of PD. This study presents a new anatomy and develops preclinical model based on aminochrome which induces a slow and progressive dysfunction of dopaminergic neurons. The unilateral injection of aminochrome into rat striatum resulted in (1) contralateral rotation when the animals are stimulated with apomorphine; (2) absence of significant loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neuronal elements both in substantia nigra and striatum; (3) cell shrinkage; (4) significant reduction of dopamine release; (5) significant increase in GABA release; (6) significant decrease in the number of monoaminergic presynaptic vesicles; (7) significant increase of dopamine concentration inside of monoaminergic vesicles; (8) significant increase of damaged mitochondria; (9) significant decrease of ATP level in the striatum (10) significant decrease in basal and maximal mitochondrial respiration. These results suggest that aminochrome induces dysfunction of dopaminergic neurons where the contralateral behavior can be explained by aminochrome-induced ATP decrease required both for anterograde transport of synaptic vesicles and dopamine release. Aminochrome could be implemented as a new model neurotoxin to study Parkinson's disease. PMID:27001668

  11. Aminochrome induces dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction: a new animal model for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Andrea; Muñoz, Patricia; Paris, Irmgard; Díaz-Veliz, Gabriela; Mora, Sergio; Inzunza, Jose; Hultenby, Kjell; Cardenas, Cesar; Jaña, Fabián; Raisman-Vozari, Rita; Gysling, Katia; Abarca, Jorge; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2016-09-01

    L-Dopa continues to be the gold drug in Parkinson's disease (PD) treatment from 1967. The failure to translate successful results from preclinical to clinical studies can be explained by the use of preclinical models which do not reflect what happens in the disease since these induce a rapid and extensive degeneration; for example, MPTP induces a severe Parkinsonism in only 3 days in humans contrasting with the slow degeneration and progression of PD. This study presents a new anatomy and develops preclinical model based on aminochrome which induces a slow and progressive dysfunction of dopaminergic neurons. The unilateral injection of aminochrome into rat striatum resulted in (1) contralateral rotation when the animals are stimulated with apomorphine; (2) absence of significant loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neuronal elements both in substantia nigra and striatum; (3) cell shrinkage; (4) significant reduction of dopamine release; (5) significant increase in GABA release; (6) significant decrease in the number of monoaminergic presynaptic vesicles; (7) significant increase of dopamine concentration inside of monoaminergic vesicles; (8) significant increase of damaged mitochondria; (9) significant decrease of ATP level in the striatum (10) significant decrease in basal and maximal mitochondrial respiration. These results suggest that aminochrome induces dysfunction of dopaminergic neurons where the contralateral behavior can be explained by aminochrome-induced ATP decrease required both for anterograde transport of synaptic vesicles and dopamine release. Aminochrome could be implemented as a new model neurotoxin to study Parkinson's disease.

  12. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics induced by tebufenpyrad and pyridaben in a dopaminergic neuronal cell culture model.

    PubMed

    Charli, Adhithiya; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2016-03-01

    Tebufenpyrad and pyridaben are two agro-chemically important acaricides that function like the known mitochondrial toxicant rotenone. Although these two compounds have been commonly used to kill populations of mites and ticks in commercial greenhouses, their neurotoxic profiles remain largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of these two pesticides on mitochondrial structure and function in an in vitro cell culture model using the Seahorse bioanalyzer and confocal fluorescence imaging. The effects were compared with rotenone. Exposing rat dopaminergic neuronal cells (N27 cells) to tebufenpyrad and pyridaben for 3h induced dose-dependent cell death with an EC50 of 3.98μM and 3.77μM, respectively. Also, tebufenpyrad and pyridaben (3μM) exposure induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and m-aconitase damage, suggesting that the pesticide toxicity is associated with oxidative damage. Morphometric image analysis with the MitoTracker red fluorescent probe indicated that tebufenpyrad and pyridaben, as well as rotenone, caused abnormalities in mitochondrial morphology, including reduced mitochondrial length and circularity. Functional bioenergetic experiments using the Seahorse XF96 analyzer revealed that tebufenpyrad and pyridaben very rapidly suppressed the basal mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate similar to that of rotenone. Further analysis of bioenergetic curves also revealed dose-dependent decreases in ATP-linked respiration and respiratory capacity. The luminescence-based ATP measurement further confirmed that pesticide-induced mitochondrial inhibition of respiration is accompanied by the loss of cellular ATP. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to the pesticides tebufenpyrad and pyridaben induces neurotoxicity by rapidly initiating mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Our findings also reveal that monitoring the kinetics of mitochondrial respiration with Seahorse could be used as an

  13. Splenectomy modifies hyperactive states of the dopaminergic system induced by morphine in C57BL/6J-bg(J)/bg(J) (beige-J) mice.

    PubMed

    Funada, Masahiko; Mori, Tomohisa; Maeda, Jun; Tsuda, Yuko; Komiya, Sachiko; Shimizu, Norifumi; Kamei, Junzo; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2014-11-01

    Genetic factors affect the locomotor activity induced by morphine, which mainly depends on the activation of dopaminergic systems, and morphine has distinct pharmacological activities in C57BL/6J-bg(J)bg(J) (beige-J) mice, which have genetic deficiencies in immunological function. We previously showed that beige-J mice exhibited greater locomotor activity and dopamine turnover, whereas splenectomy reduced this hyperlocomotion and dopamine turnover, which suggests that beige-J mice could be an experimental animal model for investigating hyperactivation of the dopaminergic system, and that the spleen may contribute to the susceptibility to activation of the dopaminergic system. Furthermore, morphine can induce hyperlocomotion mediated by activation of the dopaminergic system. Therefore, we examined the effects of splenectomy on the hyperlocomotion and regulation of the dopaminergic system induced by morphine in beige-J mice. Morphine induced hyperlocomotion, which was accompanied by activation of the dopaminergic system, in beige-J mice. Furthermore, splenectomy enhanced the hyperlocomotion and activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system induced by morphine in beige-J mice. Our findings indicate that substances originating from the spleen may regulate both spontaneous activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and the µ-opioidergic system-mediated activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system by morphine through different modes of action. These results imply that beige-J mice could be a practical animal model for investigating the interactions between immune-modulation and the µ-opioidergic system and/or dopaminergic system.

  14. Differential responses in central dopaminergic activity induced by apomorphine in IPL nude rat.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Cecilia Ruth; Bregonzio, Claudia; Cabrera, Ricardo Jorge

    2002-07-18

    The IPL nude rat, derived by spontaneous mutation from the Sprague-Dawley strain, presents alterations in the prolactin synthesis and secretion due to an increased dopaminergic inhibition. However, there are no reports concerned to central dopamine activity. The corpus striatum is a brain area involved in the development of stereotyped behavior after the activation of mesolimbic and/or nigro-striatal dopamine pathways. In order to identify possible mesolimbic and/or nigro-striatal dysfunctions in the IPL nude rat, we study the spontaneous oral behaviors and the effects of apomorphine-induced dopaminergic activation on stereotyped behavior and neurochemical changes. Males from both strains were injected with saline or apomorphine (2 and 5 mg/kgs.c.) and evaluated during 30 min in a stereotypes oral tests. The corpus striatum and nucleus accumbens were used to measure dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) by HPLC. The concentrations were expressed as synthesis rate (DA/DOPA) and turnover rate (DOPAC/DA). We observed that the spontaneous gnaw movements were significantly different between the untreated IPL nude and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Apomophine injection decreased the amount of stereotyped gnawing in IPL nude rats at the two doses used, but it induced an increase in SD rats. Apomorphine also caused an enhancement in the number of biting and sniffing without modifying the licking behavior. In addition, modifications of the dopaminergic activity were also observed. Synthesis rate in the striatum of IPL nude rats was higher than in SD rats after the injection of saline. Apomorphine caused a reduction of the synthesis rate in both strains. Turnover rate was significantly lower in the striatum of IPL nude rats than in the SD rats injected with saline. Apomorphine caused an increase in the turnover rate in both strains. Contrary to observed in the striatum, the 2 mg/kg dose of apomorphine caused a significant

  15. Caspase-11 plays an essential role in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neuron apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiye; Xie, Wei-Bing; Qiao, Dongfang; Qiu, Pingming; Huang, Enping; Li, Bing; Chen, Chuanxiang; Liu, Chao; Wang, Qi; Lin, Zhoumeng; Wang, Huijun

    2015-05-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an extremely addictive stimulant drug that is widely used with high potential of abuse. Previous studies have shown that METH exposure damages the nervous system, especially dopaminergic neurons. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of METH-induced neurotoxicity remain unclear. We hypothesized that caspase-11 is involved in METH-induced neuronal apoptosis. We tested our hypothesis by examining the change of caspase-11 protein expression in dopaminergic neurons (PC12 and SH-SY5Y) and in the midbrain of rats exposed to METH with Western blotting. We also determined the effects of blocking caspase-11 expression with wedelolactone (a specific inhibitor of caspase-11) or siRNA on METH-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells and SH-SY5Y cells using Annexin V and TUNEL staining. Furthermore, we observed the protein expression changes of the apoptotic markers, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP), after silencing the caspase-11 expression in rat midbrain by injecting LV-shcasp11 lentivirus using a stereotaxic positioning system. Results showed that METH exposure increased caspase-11 expression both in vitro and in vivo, with the effects in vitro being dose- and time-dependent. Inhibition of caspase-11 expression with either wedelolactone or siRNAs reduced the number of METH-induced apoptotic cells. In addition, blocking caspase-11 expression inhibited METH-induced activation of caspase-3 and PARP in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that caspase-11/caspase-3 signal pathway is involved in METH-induced neurotoxicity. These results indicate that caspase-11 plays an essential role in METH-induced neuronal apoptosis and may be a potential gene target for therapeutics in METH-caused neurotoxicity.

  16. Rotenone induces oxidative stress and dopaminergic neuron damage in organotypic substantia nigra cultures.

    PubMed

    Testa, Claudia M; Sherer, Todd B; Greenamyre, J Timothy

    2005-03-24

    Rotenone, a pesticide and complex I inhibitor, causes nigrostriatal degeneration similar to Parkinson disease pathology in a chronic, systemic, in vivo rodent model [M. Alam, W.J. Schmidt, Rotenone destroys dopaminergic neurons and induces parkinsonian symptoms in rats, Behav. Brain Res. 136 (2002) 317-324; R. Betarbet, T.B. Sherer, G. MacKenzie, M. Garcia-Osuna, A.V. Panov, J.T. Greenamyre, Chronic systemic pesticide exposure reproduces features of Parkinson's disease, Nat. Neurosci. 3 (2000) 1301-1306; S.M. Fleming, C. Zhu, P.O. Fernagut, A. Mehta, C.D. DiCarlo, R.L. Seaman, M.F. Chesselet, Behavioral and immunohistochemical effects of chronic intravenous and subcutaneous infusions of varying doses of rotenone, Exp. Neurol. 187 (2004) 418-429; T.B. Sherer, J.H. Kim, R. Betarbet, J.T. Greenamyre, Subcutaneous rotenone exposure causes highly selective dopaminergic degeneration and alpha-synuclein aggregation, Exp. Neurol. 179 (2003) 9-16.]. To better investigate the role of mitochondria and complex I inhibition in chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disease, we developed methods for long-term culture of rodent postnatal midbrain organotypic slices. Chronic complex I inhibition over weeks by low dose (10-50 nM) rotenone in this system lead to dose- and time-dependent destruction of substantia nigra pars compacta neuron processes, morphologic changes, some neuronal loss, and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein levels. Chronic complex I inhibition also caused oxidative damage to proteins, measured by protein carbonyl levels. This oxidative damage was blocked by the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). At the same time, alpha-tocopherol also blocked rotenone-induced reductions in TH protein and TH immunohistochemical changes. Thus, oxidative damage is a primary mechanism of mitochondrial toxicity in intact dopaminergic neurons. The organotypic culture system allows close study of this and other interacting mechanisms over a prolonged time period in

  17. Neuromelanin activates microglia and induces degeneration of dopaminergic neurons: implications for progression of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Phillips, Kester; Wielgus, Albert R.; Liu, Jie; Albertini, Alberto; Zucca, Fabio A.; Faust, Rudolph; Qian, Steven Y.; Miller, David S.; Chignell, Colin F.; Wilson, Belinda; Jackson-Lewis, Vernice; Przedborski, Serge; Joset, Danielle; Loike, John; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Sulzer, David; Zecca, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), there is a progressive loss of neuromelanin (NM)-containing dopamine (DA) neurons in substantia nigra (SN) which is associated with microgliosis and presence of extracellular NM. Herein, we have investigated the interplay between microglia and human NM on the degeneration of SN dopaminergic neurons. Although NM particles are phagocytised and degraded by microglia within minutes in vitro, extracellular NM particles induce microglial activation and ensuing production of superoxide, nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and pro-inflammatory factors. Furthermore, NM produces, in a microglia-depended manner, neurodegeneration in primary ventral midbrain cultures. Neurodegeneration was effectively attenuated with microglia derived from mice deficient in macrophage antigen complex-1 (Mac-1), a microglial integrin receptor involved in the initiation of phagocytosis. Neuronal loss was also attenuated with microglia derived from mice deficient in phagocytic oxidase (PHOX), a subunit of NADPH oxidase, that is responsible for superoxide and H2O2 production, or apocyanin, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor. In vivo, NM injected into rat SN produces microgliosis and a loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) neurons. Thus, these results show that extracellular NM can activate microglia, which in turn, may induce dopaminergic neurodegeneration in PD. Our study may have far-reaching implications, both pathogenic and therapeutic. PMID:19957214

  18. Progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons induced by inflammatory responses to fipronil.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyeon; Park, Youn Sun; Koh, Hyun Chul

    2016-09-01

    Inflammatory responses are involved in mechanisms of neuronal cell damage in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the mechanisms whereby inflammatory responses contribute to loss of dopaminergic neurons in fipronil (FPN)-treated rats. After stereotaxic injection of FPN in the substantia nigra (SN), the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons and the levels of TH expression in the SN decreased at 7days, and a significant decrease was observed at 14days with a subsequent reduction in striatal TH expression. Decreases in dopamine (DA) levels, however, began at 3days post-injection, preceding the changes in TH expression. In contrast, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression was significantly increased at 3days and persisted for up to 14days post-lesion; these changes in GFAP expression appeared to be inversely correlated with TH expression. Furthermore, we found that FPN administration induced an inflammatory response characterized by increased levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which was mediated by activated microglia following infusion of FPN unilaterally into the SN. Intranigral injection of FPN underwent an inflammatory response with a resultant ongoing loss of dopaminergic neurons, indicating that pesticides may have important implication for the study of PD.

  19. Inhibition of Drp1 mitochondrial translocation provides neural protection in dopaminergic system in a Parkinson's disease model induced by MPTP.

    PubMed

    Filichia, Emily; Hoffer, Barry; Qi, Xin; Luo, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest mitochondria-mediated pathways play an important role in dopaminergic neuronal cell death in Parkinson's disease (PD). Drp1, a key regulator of mitochondrial fission, has been shown to be activated and translocated to mitochondria under stress, leading to excessive mitochondria fission and dopaminergic neuronal death in vitro. However, whether Drp1 inhibition can lead to long term stable preservation of dopaminergic neurons in PD-related mouse models remains unknown. In this study, using a classical MPTP animal PD model, we showed for the first time Drp1 activation and mitochondrial translocation in vivo after MPTP administration. Inhibition of Drp1 activation by a selective peptide inhibitor P110, blocked MPTP-induced Drp1 mitochondrial translocation and attenuated dopaminergic neuronal loss, dopaminergic nerve terminal damage and behavioral deficits caused by MPTP. MPTP-induced microglial activation and astrogliosis were not affected by P110 treatment. Instead, inhibition of Drp1 mitochondrial translocation diminished MPTP-induced p53, BAX and PUMA mitochondrial translocation. This study demonstrates that inhibition of Drp1 hyperactivation by a Drp1 peptide inhibitor P110 is neuroprotective in a MPTP animal model. Our data also suggest that the protective effects of P110 treatment might be mediated by inhibiting the p53 mediated apoptotic pathways in neurons through inhibition of Drp1-dependent p53 mitochondrial translocation. PMID:27619562

  20. Vanadium induces dopaminergic neurotoxicity via protein kinase Cdelta dependent oxidative signaling mechanisms: Relevance to etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Afeseh Ngwa, Hilary; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Song, Chunjuan; Witte, Travis; Houk, Robert; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2009-10-15

    Environmental exposure to neurotoxic metals through various sources including exposure to welding fumes has been linked to an increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). Welding fumes contain many different metals including vanadium typically present as particulates containing vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}). However, possible neurotoxic effects of this metal oxide on dopaminergic neuronal cells are not well studied. In the present study, we characterized vanadium-induced oxidative stress-dependent cellular events in cell culture models of PD. V{sub 2}O{sub 5} was neurotoxic to dopaminergic neuronal cells including primary nigral dopaminergic neurons and the EC{sub 50} was determined to be 37 {mu}M in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cell model. The neurotoxic effect was accompanied by a time-dependent uptake of vanadium and upregulation of metal transporter proteins Tf and DMT1 in N27 cells. Additionally, vanadium resulted in a threefold increase in reactive oxygen species generation, followed by release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm and subsequent activation of caspase-9 (> fourfold) and caspase-3 (> ninefold). Interestingly, vanadium exposure induced proteolytic cleavage of native protein kinase Cdelta (PKC{delta}, 72-74 kDa) to yield a 41 kDa catalytically active fragment resulting in a persistent increase in PKC{delta} kinase activity. Co-treatment with pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK significantly blocked vanadium-induced PKC{delta} proteolytic activation, indicating that caspases mediate PKC{delta} cleavage. Also, co-treatment with Z-VAD-FMK almost completely inhibited V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-induced DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, PKC{delta} knockdown using siRNA protected N27 cells from V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-induced apoptotic cell death. Collectively, these results demonstrate that vanadium can exert neurotoxic effects in dopaminergic neuronal cells via caspase-3-dependent PKC{delta} cleavage, suggesting that metal exposure may promote nigral

  1. Vanadium Induces Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity Via Protein Kinase C-Delta Dependent Oxidative Signaling Mechanisms: Relevance to Etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Afeseh Ngwa, Hilary; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Song, Chunjuan; Witte, Travis; Houk, R. S.; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental exposure to neurotoxic metals through various sources including exposure to welding fumes has been linked to an increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). Welding fumes contain many different metals including vanadium typically present as particulates containing vanadium pentoxide (V2O5). However, possible neurotoxic effects of this metal oxide on dopaminergic neuronal cells are not well studied. In the present study, we characterized vanadium-induced oxidative stress-dependent cellular events in cell culture models of PD. V2O5 was neurotoxic to dopaminergic neuronal cells including primary nigral dopaminergic neurons and the EC50 was determined to be 37 μM in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cell model. The neurotoxic effect was accompanied by a time-dependent uptake of vanadium and upregulation of metal transporter proteins Tf and DMT1 in N27 cells. Additionally, vanadium resulted in a threefold increase in reactive oxygen species generation, followed by release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm and subsequent activation of caspase-9 (>fourfold) and caspase-3 (>ninefold). Interestingly, vanadium exposure induced proteolytic cleavage of native protein kinase Cdelta (PKCδ, 72-74 kDa) to yield a 41 kDa catalytically active fragment resulting in a persistent increase in PKCδ kinase activity. Co-treatment with pan-caspase inhibitor ZVAD-FMK significantly blocked vanadium-induced PKCδ proteolytic activation, indicating that caspases mediate PKCδ cleavage. Also, co-treatment with Z-VAD-FMK almost completely inhibited V2O5-induced DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, PKCδ knockdown using siRNA protected N27 cells from V2O5-induced apoptotic cell death. Collectively, these results demonstrate vanadium can exert neurotoxic effects in dopaminergic neuronal cells via caspase-3-dependent PKCδ cleavage, suggesting that metal exposure may promote nigral dopaminergic degeneration. PMID:19646462

  2. The effect of CA1 dopaminergic system in harmaline-induced amnesia.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, M; Ketabchi, M; Khakpai, F; Zarrindast, M-R

    2015-01-29

    In the present study, the effects of bilateral injections of dopaminergic drugs into the hippocampal CA1 regions (intra-CA1) on harmaline-induced amnesia were examined in male mice. A one-trial step-down passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention in adult male mice. Pre-training intra-peritoneal (i.p.) administration of harmaline (1 mg/kg) induced impairment of memory retention. Moreover, intra-CA1 administration of dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.02 μg/mouse), dopamine D1 receptor agonist, SKF38393 (0.5 μg/mouse), dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride (1 μg/mouse) and dopamine D2 receptor agonist, quinpirole (0.25 and 0.5 μg/mouse) suppressed the learning of a single-trial passive avoidance task. Also, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of subthreshold doses of SCH23390 (0.001 μg/mouse) or sulpiride (0.25 μg/mouse) with the administration of harmaline (1 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed impairment of memory formation. However, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of SKF38393 (0.1 μg/mouse) or quinpirole (0.1 μg/mouse) increased pre-training harmaline (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced retrieval impairment. Moreover, SKF Ca blocker (SKF) (0.01 μg/mouse) decrease the amnesia induced by harmaline (1 mg/kg), while co-administration of SKF (0.01 μg/mouse)/sulpiride (0.25 μg/mouse) or SCH23390 (0.001 μg/mouse)/sulpiride (0.25 μg/mouse) potentiate amnesia caused by harmaline. These findings implicate the involvement of CA1 dopaminergic mechanism in harmaline-induced impairment of memory acquisition.

  3. The effect of CA1 dopaminergic system in harmaline-induced amnesia.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, M; Ketabchi, M; Khakpai, F; Zarrindast, M-R

    2015-01-29

    In the present study, the effects of bilateral injections of dopaminergic drugs into the hippocampal CA1 regions (intra-CA1) on harmaline-induced amnesia were examined in male mice. A one-trial step-down passive avoidance task was used for the assessment of memory retention in adult male mice. Pre-training intra-peritoneal (i.p.) administration of harmaline (1 mg/kg) induced impairment of memory retention. Moreover, intra-CA1 administration of dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.02 μg/mouse), dopamine D1 receptor agonist, SKF38393 (0.5 μg/mouse), dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride (1 μg/mouse) and dopamine D2 receptor agonist, quinpirole (0.25 and 0.5 μg/mouse) suppressed the learning of a single-trial passive avoidance task. Also, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of subthreshold doses of SCH23390 (0.001 μg/mouse) or sulpiride (0.25 μg/mouse) with the administration of harmaline (1 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed impairment of memory formation. However, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of SKF38393 (0.1 μg/mouse) or quinpirole (0.1 μg/mouse) increased pre-training harmaline (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced retrieval impairment. Moreover, SKF Ca blocker (SKF) (0.01 μg/mouse) decrease the amnesia induced by harmaline (1 mg/kg), while co-administration of SKF (0.01 μg/mouse)/sulpiride (0.25 μg/mouse) or SCH23390 (0.001 μg/mouse)/sulpiride (0.25 μg/mouse) potentiate amnesia caused by harmaline. These findings implicate the involvement of CA1 dopaminergic mechanism in harmaline-induced impairment of memory acquisition. PMID:25446354

  4. Effects of pre- and perinatal exposure to hashish extracts on the ontogeny of brain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Fonseca, F; Cebeira, M; Fernández-Ruiz, J J; Navarro, M; Ramos, J A

    1991-01-01

    The changes induced by maternal exposure to cannabinoids in the maturation of nigrostriatal, tuberoinfundibular and mesolimbic dopaminergic activities of rat offspring 15-40 days old were studied. In the striatum, tyrosine hydroxylase activity was constantly decreased during cannabinoid exposure in males. This decrease was correlative to increased number of D1 and D2 dopaminergic receptors. Both effects were also observed after the drug withdrawal caused by weaning on day 24. In females, the most consistent effect appeared on day 20, when decreased dopamine content and number of D1 receptors were observed. Both effects disappeared after drug withdrawal, but the reduction in the number of D1 receptors was again observed 40 days after birth. In the limbic area, cannabinoid exposure caused a decrease in the number of D1 receptors in 15-day-old females, along with decreases in the content of dopamine and its metabolite, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Changes in receptors disappeared on subsequent days, but increases in L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid content and in its ratio with dopamine (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine) were observed on day 20 followed by a decrease in the neurotransmitter content on day 30. In males, tyrosine hydroxylase activity increased on day 30, followed by an increase in L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid content and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio on day 40. In the hypothalamus, the cannabinoid effects were always manifested after the cessation of drug exposure. Thus, a rise in L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio was observed in 30-day-old females, and it was followed by a decrease on day 40, accompanied by a decrease in the anterior pituitary content of dopamine. Rise in prolactin release was not significant. In males, tyrosine hydroxylase activity was increased 30 days after birth, while L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid content decreased. On day 40, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid content increased

  5. Severe dopaminergic neuron loss in rhesus monkey brain impairs morphine-induced conditioned place preference

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ting; Rizak, Joshua Dominic; Wang, Jianhong; Yang, Shangchuan; Ma, Yuanye; Hu, Xintian

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that dopamine (DA) is critical for reward, but the precise role of DA in reward remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine what percentage of dopaminergic neurons in the primate brain is required for the expression of conditioned reward by measuring the performance of DA-deficient rhesus monkeys in a morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Animals with mild Parkinsonian symptoms successfully developed and retained a morphine preference that was equivalent to control monkeys. However, these monkeys could not maintain the preference as well as controls when they retained severe Parkinsonian symptoms. On the other hand, monkeys initially in a severe Parkinsonian state developed a preference for morphine, but this preference was weaker than that of the controls. Histological results showed that the loss of dopaminergic neurons in monkeys that had severe Parkinsonian symptoms was about 80% in comparison to the control monkeys. All these data suggest that a severely impaired DA system alters rewarding-seeking behavior in non-human primates. PMID:26528155

  6. Parkinson's disease-linked mutations in VPS35 induce dopaminergic neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tsika, Elpida; Glauser, Liliane; Moser, Roger; Fiser, Aris; Daniel, Guillaume; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Lees, Andrew; Troncoso, Juan C.; Lewis, Patrick A.; Bandopadhyay, Rina; Schneider, Bernard L.; Moore, Darren J.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the vacuolar protein sorting 35 homolog (VPS35) gene at the PARK17 locus, encoding a key component of the retromer complex, were recently identified as a new cause of late-onset, autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we explore the pathogenic consequences of PD-associated mutations in VPS35 using a number of model systems. VPS35 exhibits a broad neuronal distribution throughout the rodent brain, including within the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. In the human brain, VPS35 protein levels and distribution are similar in tissues from control and PD subjects, and VPS35 is not associated with Lewy body pathology. The common D620N missense mutation in VPS35 does not compromise its protein stability or localization to endosomal and lysosomal vesicles, or the vesicular sorting of the retromer cargo, sortilin, SorLA and cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, in rodent primary neurons or patient-derived human fibroblasts. In yeast we show that PD-linked VPS35 mutations are functional and can normally complement VPS35 null phenotypes suggesting that they do not result in a loss-of-function. In rat primary cortical cultures the overexpression of human VPS35 induces neuronal cell death and increases neuronal vulnerability to PD-relevant cellular stress. In a novel viral-mediated gene transfer rat model, the expression of D620N VPS35 induces the marked degeneration of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons and axonal pathology, a cardinal pathological hallmark of PD. Collectively, these studies establish that dominant VPS35 mutations lead to neurodegeneration in PD consistent with a gain-of-function mechanism, and support a key role for VPS35 in the development of PD. PMID:24740878

  7. Involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway and nitric oxide synthase in dopaminergic neuronal death induced by 6-hydroxydopamine and lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarika; Kumar, Sachin; Dikshit, Madhu

    2010-01-01

    The primary pathology in Parkinson's disease patients is significant loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra through multiple mechanisms. We previously have demonstrated the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in the dopaminergic neurodegeneration induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats. The present study was undertaken to investigate further the role of NO in the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons during the early time period after administration of 6-OHDA and LPS. Measurement of dopamine and its metabolites, TH immunolabeling, cytochrome-c release, mitochondrial complex-I and caspase-3 activity assessment was performed in both the 6-OHDA- and LPS-induced experimental models of Parkinson's disease. Significant decreases in dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunolabeling and mitochondrial complex-I activity were observed, with increase in cytochrome-c release and caspase-3 activation. Dopmaine and its metabolite levels, mitochondrial complex-I activity and caspase-3 activity were significantly reversed with treatment of the NOS inhibitor, L-NAME. The reduction in the extent of cytochrome-c release responded variably to NOS inhibition in both the models. The results obtained suggest that NO contributes to mitochondria-mediated neuronal apoptosis in the dopaminergic neurodegeneration induced by 6-OHDA and LPS in rats. PMID:20594414

  8. Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1) Phosphorylation Promotes Dopaminergic Neuronal Survival during 6-OHDA-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Asaithambi, Arunkumar; Ay, Muhammet; Jin, Huajun; Gosh, Anamitra; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major pathophysiological mediator of degenerative processes in many neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Aberrant cell signaling governed by protein phosphorylation has been linked to oxidative damage of dopaminergic neurons in PD. Although several studies have associated activation of certain protein kinases with apoptotic cell death in PD, very little is known about protein kinase regulation of cell survival and protection against oxidative damage and degeneration in dopaminergic neurons. Here, we characterized the PKD1-mediated protective pathway against oxidative damage in cell culture models of PD. Dopaminergic neurotoxicant 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) was used to induce oxidative stress in the N27 dopaminergic cell model and in primary mesencephalic neurons. Our results indicated that 6-OHDA induced the PKD1 activation loop (PKD1S744/S748) phosphorylation during early stages of oxidative stress and that PKD1 activation preceded cell death. We also found that 6-OHDA rapidly increased phosphorylation of the C-terminal S916 in PKD1, which is required for PKD1 activation loop (PKD1S744/748) phosphorylation. Interestingly, negative modulation of PKD1 activation by RNAi knockdown or by the pharmacological inhibition of PKD1 by kbNB-14270 augmented 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis, while positive modulation of PKD1 by the overexpression of full length PKD1 (PKD1WT) or constitutively active PKD1 (PKD1S744E/S748E) attenuated 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis, suggesting an anti-apoptotic role for PKD1 during oxidative neuronal injury. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PKD1 signaling plays a cell survival role during early stages of oxidative stress in dopaminergic neurons and therefore, positive modulation of the PKD1-mediated signal transduction pathway can provide a novel neuroprotective strategy against PD. PMID:24806360

  9. Lesion of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway induces trigeminal dynamic mechanical allodynia

    PubMed Central

    Dieb, Wisam; Ouachikh, Omar; Durif, Franck; Hafidi, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain constitutes the major non motor syndrome in Parkinson's disease (PD) and includes neuropathic pain; however current drug therapies used to alleviate it have only limited efficacy. This is probably due to poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying it. Aims We investigated a major class of trigeminal neuropathic pain, dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA), in a rat model of PD and in which a bilateral 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) injection was administered to produce a lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Results and discussion Lesioned animals presented significant DMA in the orofacial area that occurred from 4 days to 5 weeks post-injury. To investigate a segmental implication in the neuropathic pain induced by dopamine depletion, the expression of the isoform gamma of the protein kinase C (PKCg) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (pERK1/2) was explored in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH). There was a high increase in PKCg expression in the III and IIi laminae of the MDH of lesioned-animals compared to shams. pERK1/2 expression was also significantly high in the ipsilateral MDH of lesioned rats in response to non-noxious tactile stimulus of the orofacial region. Since pERK1/2 is expressed only in response to nociceptive stimuli in the dorsal spinal horn, the current study demonstrates that non-noxious stimuli evoke allodynic response. Intraperitoneal and intracisternal administrations of bromocriptine, a dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) agonist, significantly decreased DMA compared to control rats injected with saline. These data demonstrate for the first time that nigrostriatal dopaminergic depletion produces trigeminal neuropathic pain that at least involves a segmental mechanism. In addition, bromocriptine was shown to have a remarkable analgesic effect on this neuropathic pain symptom. PMID:24944866

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyoung Jun; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kang Sik; Jeong, Soyeon; Shin, Soyeon; Lim, Kyu; Heo, Jun Young; Kweon, Gi Ryang

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • DHA prevents PQ-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss via decreasing of excessive ROS. • DHA increases GR and GCLm derivate GSH pool by enhancement of Nrf2 expression. • Protective mechanism is removal of PQ-induced ROS via DHA-dependent GSH pool. • DHA may be a good preventive strategy for Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapy. - Abstract: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson’s disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson’s disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis.

  11. The Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter reduces pesticide-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Hakeem O.; Chang, Hui-Yun; Terrell, Ashley N.; Brooks, Elizabeth S.; Pulido, Dianne; Simon, Anne F.; Krantz, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine is cytotoxic and may play a role in the development of Parkinson’s disease. However, its interaction with environmental risk factors such as pesticides remains poorly understood. The vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) regulates intracellular dopamine content, and we have tested the neuroprotective effects of VMAT in vivo using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We find that Drosophila VMAT (dVMAT) mutants contain fewer dopaminergic neurons than wild type, consistent with a developmental effect, and that dopaminergic cell loss in the mutant is exacerbated by the pesticides rotenone and paraquat. Over-expression of DVMAT protein does not increase the survival of animals exposed to rotenone, but blocks the loss of dopaminergic neurons caused by this pesticide. These results are the first to demonstrate an interaction between a VMAT and pesticides in vivo, and provide an important model to investigate the mechanisms by which pesticides and cellular DA may interact to kill dopaminergic cells. PMID:20472063

  12. Ganoderma Lucidum polysaccharides protect against MPP+ and rotenone-induced apoptosis in primary dopaminergic cell cultures through inhibiting oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shan-Shan; Cui, Xiao-Lan; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the progressive neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD) which is responsible for disabling motor abnormalities in more than 6.5 million people worldwide. Polysaccharides are the main active constituents from Ganoderma lucidum which is characterized with anti-oxidant, antitumor and immunostimulant properties. In the present study, primary dopaminergic cell cultures prepared from embryonic mouse mesencephala were used to investigate the neuroprotective effects and the potential mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) on the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons induced by the neurotoxins methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP+) and rotenone. Results revealed that GLP can protect dopamine neurons against MPP+ and rotenone at the concentrations of 100, 50 and 25 μg/ml in primary mesencephalic cultures in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, either with or without neurotoxin treatment, GLP treatment elevated the survival of THir neurons, and increased the length of neurites of dopaminergic neurons. The Trolox equivalent anti-oxidant capacity (TEAC) of GLP was determined to be 199.53 μmol Trolox/g extract, and the decrease of mitochondrial complex I activity induced by MPP+ and rotenone was elevated by GLP treatment (100, 50, 25 and 12.5 μg/ml) in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, GLP dramatically decreased the relative number of apoptotic cells and increased the declining mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) induced by MPP+ and rotenone in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, GLP treatment reduced the ROS formation induced by MPP+ and rotenone at the concentrations of 100, 50 and 25 μg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. Our study indicates that GLP possesses neuroprotective properties against MPP+ and rotenone neurotoxicity through suppressing oxidative stress in primary mesencephalic dopaminergic cell culture owning to its antioxidant activities. PMID:27335703

  13. Ganoderma Lucidum polysaccharides protect against MPP(+) and rotenone-induced apoptosis in primary dopaminergic cell cultures through inhibiting oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shan-Shan; Cui, Xiao-Lan; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the progressive neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) which is responsible for disabling motor abnormalities in more than 6.5 million people worldwide. Polysaccharides are the main active constituents from Ganoderma lucidum which is characterized with anti-oxidant, antitumor and immunostimulant properties. In the present study, primary dopaminergic cell cultures prepared from embryonic mouse mesencephala were used to investigate the neuroprotective effects and the potential mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) on the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons induced by the neurotoxins methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP(+)) and rotenone. Results revealed that GLP can protect dopamine neurons against MPP(+) and rotenone at the concentrations of 100, 50 and 25 μg/ml in primary mesencephalic cultures in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, either with or without neurotoxin treatment, GLP treatment elevated the survival of THir neurons, and increased the length of neurites of dopaminergic neurons. The Trolox equivalent anti-oxidant capacity (TEAC) of GLP was determined to be 199.53 μmol Trolox/g extract, and the decrease of mitochondrial complex I activity induced by MPP(+) and rotenone was elevated by GLP treatment (100, 50, 25 and 12.5 μg/ml) in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, GLP dramatically decreased the relative number of apoptotic cells and increased the declining mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) induced by MPP(+) and rotenone in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, GLP treatment reduced the ROS formation induced by MPP(+) and rotenone at the concentrations of 100, 50 and 25 μg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. Our study indicates that GLP possesses neuroprotective properties against MPP(+) and rotenone neurotoxicity through suppressing oxidative stress in primary mesencephalic dopaminergic cell culture owning to its antioxidant activities. PMID:27335703

  14. Ganoderma Lucidum polysaccharides protect against MPP(+) and rotenone-induced apoptosis in primary dopaminergic cell cultures through inhibiting oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shan-Shan; Cui, Xiao-Lan; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the progressive neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) which is responsible for disabling motor abnormalities in more than 6.5 million people worldwide. Polysaccharides are the main active constituents from Ganoderma lucidum which is characterized with anti-oxidant, antitumor and immunostimulant properties. In the present study, primary dopaminergic cell cultures prepared from embryonic mouse mesencephala were used to investigate the neuroprotective effects and the potential mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) on the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons induced by the neurotoxins methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP(+)) and rotenone. Results revealed that GLP can protect dopamine neurons against MPP(+) and rotenone at the concentrations of 100, 50 and 25 μg/ml in primary mesencephalic cultures in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, either with or without neurotoxin treatment, GLP treatment elevated the survival of THir neurons, and increased the length of neurites of dopaminergic neurons. The Trolox equivalent anti-oxidant capacity (TEAC) of GLP was determined to be 199.53 μmol Trolox/g extract, and the decrease of mitochondrial complex I activity induced by MPP(+) and rotenone was elevated by GLP treatment (100, 50, 25 and 12.5 μg/ml) in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, GLP dramatically decreased the relative number of apoptotic cells and increased the declining mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) induced by MPP(+) and rotenone in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, GLP treatment reduced the ROS formation induced by MPP(+) and rotenone at the concentrations of 100, 50 and 25 μg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. Our study indicates that GLP possesses neuroprotective properties against MPP(+) and rotenone neurotoxicity through suppressing oxidative stress in primary mesencephalic dopaminergic cell culture owning to its antioxidant activities.

  15. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester protects against the dopaminergic neuronal loss induced by 6-hydroxydopamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Barros Silva, R; Santos, N A G; Martins, N M; Ferreira, D A S; Barbosa, F; Oliveira Souza, V C; Kinoshita, A; Baffa, O; Del-Bel, E; Santos, A C

    2013-03-13

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a botanical compound abundant in honeybees' propolis. It has anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, immunomodulatory and antitumor properties. Its beneficial effects against neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, have also been suggested and some mechanisms have been proposed. Mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress are critical events in neurodegeneration. Release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol and the downstream activation of caspase-3 have been suggested as targets of the protective mechanism of CAPE. Most of the studies addressing the protective effect of CAPE have been performed in cell culture. This is the first study to demonstrate the protective effect of CAPE against the dopaminergic neuronal loss induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rats. It also demonstrates, for the first time, the inhibitory effect of CAPE on mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), a mediator of neuronal death that triggers cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. Scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and metal chelation was demonstrated in the brain-affected areas of the rats treated with 6-OHDA and CAPE. Additionally, we demonstrated that CAPE does not affect brain mitochondrial function. Based on these findings and on its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, CAPE is a promising compound to treat Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Nigrostriatal proteomics of cypermethrin-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration: microglial activation-dependent and -independent regulations.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anand Kumar; Tiwari, Manindra Nath; Dixit, Anubhuti; Upadhyay, Ghanshyam; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Dhirendra; Prakash, Om; Singh, Mahendra Pratap

    2011-08-01

    The study aimed to identify the differentially expressed nigrostriatal proteins in cypermethrin-induced neurodegeneration and to investigate the role of microglial activation therein. Proteomic approaches were used to identify the differentially expressed proteins. Microglial activation, tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (TH-IR), dopamine content, and neurobehavioral changes were measured according to the standard procedures. The expressions of α-internexin intermediate filament (α-IIF), ATP synthase D chain (ATP-SD), heat shock protein (Hsp)-70, truncated connexin-47, Hsp-60, mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated kinase-5, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 24k chain precursor, platelet-activating factor acetyl hydrolase 1b-α2 (PAF-AH 1b-α2), and synaptosomal-associated protein-25 (SNAP-25) were altered in the substantia nigra and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide- specific isocitrate dehydrogenase, phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein-1, prohibitin, protein disulfide isomerase-endoplasmic reticulum 60 protease, stathmin, and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme in the striatum along with motor impairment, decreased dopamine and TH-IR, and increased microglial activation after cypermethrin exposure. Minocycline restored α-IIF, ATP-SD chain, truncated connexin-47, Hsp-60, PAF-AH 1b-α2, stathmin and SNAP-25 expressions, motor impairment, dopamine, TH-IR, and microglial activation. The results suggest that cypermethrin produces microglial activation-dependent and -independent changes in the expression patterns of the nigrostriatal proteins leading to dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

  17. Neurotoxicity effects of atrazine-induced SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells via microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kun; Wu, Hao-Yu; Zhang, Bo; He, Xi; Li, Bai-Xiang

    2015-11-01

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethytlamino-6-isopropylamine-1,3,5-triazine; ATR) is a broad-spectrum herbicide with a wide range of applications worldwide. However, ATR is neurotoxic; it reduces dopamine levels in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum in the midbrain, affects the absorption of synaptic vesicles and synaptic bodies, and interferes with dopamine storage and uptake in synaptic vesicles, leading to neurodegenerative disorders. Microglia are resident immunocompetent and phagocytic cells that regulate and participate in the microenvironment in the central nervous system. They demonstrate macrophage characteristics after activation by releasing inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic substances to increase the inflammatory response, and are thus involved in neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the neurotoxic effects of ATR-activated microglia-mediated neuronal damage in terms of human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell death. ATR was administered to BV-2 microglial cells at 12.5, 25, and 50 μM for 1, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h, respectively. ATR increased activated-microglia-induced overexpression of reactive oxygen species, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, gp91(phox), p47(phox), and the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β, thus reducing SH-SY5Y cell viability. These results suggest that activated microglia may play a critical role in inflammation-mediated dopaminergic neuronal death, and provide the basis for further studies on the mechanisms of ATR-induced dopaminergic system toxicity. PMID:26256823

  18. Neurotoxicity effects of atrazine-induced SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells via microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kun; Wu, Hao-Yu; Zhang, Bo; He, Xi; Li, Bai-Xiang

    2015-11-01

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethytlamino-6-isopropylamine-1,3,5-triazine; ATR) is a broad-spectrum herbicide with a wide range of applications worldwide. However, ATR is neurotoxic; it reduces dopamine levels in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum in the midbrain, affects the absorption of synaptic vesicles and synaptic bodies, and interferes with dopamine storage and uptake in synaptic vesicles, leading to neurodegenerative disorders. Microglia are resident immunocompetent and phagocytic cells that regulate and participate in the microenvironment in the central nervous system. They demonstrate macrophage characteristics after activation by releasing inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic substances to increase the inflammatory response, and are thus involved in neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the neurotoxic effects of ATR-activated microglia-mediated neuronal damage in terms of human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell death. ATR was administered to BV-2 microglial cells at 12.5, 25, and 50 μM for 1, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h, respectively. ATR increased activated-microglia-induced overexpression of reactive oxygen species, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, gp91(phox), p47(phox), and the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β, thus reducing SH-SY5Y cell viability. These results suggest that activated microglia may play a critical role in inflammation-mediated dopaminergic neuronal death, and provide the basis for further studies on the mechanisms of ATR-induced dopaminergic system toxicity.

  19. The role of purinergic and dopaminergic systems on MK-801-induced antidepressant effects in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Raquel Bohrer; Siebel, Anna Maria; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2015-12-01

    Depression is a serious disease characterized by low mood, anhedonia, loss of interest in daily activities, appetite and sleep disturbances, reduced concentration, and psychomotor agitation. There is a growing interest in NMDA antagonists as a promising target for the development of new antidepressants. Considering that purinergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in depression and anxiety states, we characterized the role of these signaling pathways on MK-801-induced antidepressant effects in zebrafish. Animals treated with MK-801 at the doses of 5, 10, 15, or 20μM during 15, 30, or 60min spent longer time in the top area of aquariums in comparison to control group, indicating an anxiolytic/antidepressant effect induced by this drug. Animals treated with MK-801 spent longer time period at top area until 2 (5μM MK-801) and 4 (20μM MK-801) hours after treatment, returning to basal levels from 24h to 7days after exposure. Repeated MK-801 treatment did not induce cumulative effects, since animals treated daily during 7days had the same behavioral response pattern observed since the first until the 7th day. In order to investigate the effects of adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonist and agonist and the influence of modulation of adenosine levels on MK-801 effects, we treated zebrafish with caffeine, DPCPX, CPA, ZM 241385, CGS 21680, AMPCP, EHNA, dipyridamole, and NBTI during 30min before MK-801 exposure. The non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine (50mg/kg) and the selective A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX (15mg/kg) prevented the behavioral changes induced by MK-801. The non-specific nucleoside transporter (NT) inhibitor dipyridamole (10mg/kg) exacerbated the behavioral changes induced by MK-801. Dopamine receptor antagonists (sulpiride and SCH 23390) did not change the behavioral alterations induced by MK-801. Our findings demonstrated that antidepressant-like effects of MK-801 in zebrafish are mediated through adenosine A1 receptor activation.

  20. The role of purinergic and dopaminergic systems on MK-801-induced antidepressant effects in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Raquel Bohrer; Siebel, Anna Maria; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2015-12-01

    Depression is a serious disease characterized by low mood, anhedonia, loss of interest in daily activities, appetite and sleep disturbances, reduced concentration, and psychomotor agitation. There is a growing interest in NMDA antagonists as a promising target for the development of new antidepressants. Considering that purinergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in depression and anxiety states, we characterized the role of these signaling pathways on MK-801-induced antidepressant effects in zebrafish. Animals treated with MK-801 at the doses of 5, 10, 15, or 20μM during 15, 30, or 60min spent longer time in the top area of aquariums in comparison to control group, indicating an anxiolytic/antidepressant effect induced by this drug. Animals treated with MK-801 spent longer time period at top area until 2 (5μM MK-801) and 4 (20μM MK-801) hours after treatment, returning to basal levels from 24h to 7days after exposure. Repeated MK-801 treatment did not induce cumulative effects, since animals treated daily during 7days had the same behavioral response pattern observed since the first until the 7th day. In order to investigate the effects of adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonist and agonist and the influence of modulation of adenosine levels on MK-801 effects, we treated zebrafish with caffeine, DPCPX, CPA, ZM 241385, CGS 21680, AMPCP, EHNA, dipyridamole, and NBTI during 30min before MK-801 exposure. The non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine (50mg/kg) and the selective A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX (15mg/kg) prevented the behavioral changes induced by MK-801. The non-specific nucleoside transporter (NT) inhibitor dipyridamole (10mg/kg) exacerbated the behavioral changes induced by MK-801. Dopamine receptor antagonists (sulpiride and SCH 23390) did not change the behavioral alterations induced by MK-801. Our findings demonstrated that antidepressant-like effects of MK-801 in zebrafish are mediated through adenosine A1 receptor activation. PMID

  1. Inflammatory Animal Model for Parkinson's Disease: The Intranigral Injection of LPS Induced the Inflammatory Process along with the Selective Degeneration of Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Machado, A.; Herrera, A. J.; Venero, J. L.; Santiago, M.; de Pablos, R. M.; Villarán, R. F.; Espinosa-Oliva, A. M.; Argüelles, S.; Sarmiento, M.; Delgado-Cortés, M. J.; Mauriño, R.; Cano, J.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an animal model of degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, the neuronal system involved in Parkinson's disease (PD). The implication of neuroinflammation on this disease was originally established in 1988, when the presence of activated microglia in the substantia nigra (SN) of parkinsonians was reported by McGeer et al. Neuroinflammation could be involved in the progression of the disease or even has more direct implications. We injected 2 μg of the potent proinflammatory compound lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in different areas of the CNS, finding that SN displayed the highest inflammatory response and that dopaminergic (body) neurons showed a special and specific sensitivity to this process with the induction of selective dopaminergic degeneration. Neurodegeneration is induced by inflammation since it is prevented by anti-inflammatory compounds. The special sensitivity of dopaminergic neurons seems to be related to the endogenous dopaminergic content, since it is overcome by dopamine depletion. Compounds that activate microglia or induce inflammation have similar effects to LPS. This model suggest that inflammation is an important component of the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, probably also in PD. Anti-inflammatory treatments could be useful to prevent or slow down the rate of dopaminergic degeneration in this disease. PMID:22389821

  2. Dopaminergic neurons differentiating from LRRK2 G2019S induced pluripotent stem cells show early neuritic branching defects.

    PubMed

    Borgs, Laurence; Peyre, Elise; Alix, Philippe; Hanon, Kevin; Grobarczyk, Benjamin; Godin, Juliette D; Purnelle, Audrey; Krusy, Nathalie; Maquet, Pierre; Lefebvre, Philippe; Seutin, Vincent; Malgrange, Brigitte; Nguyen, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Some mutations of the LRRK2 gene underlie autosomal dominant form of Parkinson's disease (PD). The G2019S is a common mutation that accounts for about 2% of PD cases. To understand the pathophysiology of this mutation and its possible developmental implications, we developed an in vitro assay to model PD with human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) reprogrammed from skin fibroblasts of PD patients suffering from the LRKK2 G2019S mutation. We differentiated the hiPSCs into neural stem cells (NSCs) and further into dopaminergic neurons. Here we show that NSCs bearing the mutation tend to differentiate less efficiently into dopaminergic neurons and that the latter exhibit significant branching defects as compared to their controls. PMID:27640816

  3. Dopaminergic neurons differentiating from LRRK2 G2019S induced pluripotent stem cells show early neuritic branching defects

    PubMed Central

    Borgs, Laurence; Peyre, Elise; Alix, Philippe; Hanon, Kevin; Grobarczyk, Benjamin; Godin, Juliette D.; Purnelle, Audrey; Krusy, Nathalie; Maquet, Pierre; Lefebvre, Philippe; Seutin, Vincent; Malgrange, Brigitte; Nguyen, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Some mutations of the LRRK2 gene underlie autosomal dominant form of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The G2019S is a common mutation that accounts for about 2% of PD cases. To understand the pathophysiology of this mutation and its possible developmental implications, we developed an in vitro assay to model PD with human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) reprogrammed from skin fibroblasts of PD patients suffering from the LRKK2 G2019S mutation. We differentiated the hiPSCs into neural stem cells (NSCs) and further into dopaminergic neurons. Here we show that NSCs bearing the mutation tend to differentiate less efficiently into dopaminergic neurons and that the latter exhibit significant branching defects as compared to their controls. PMID:27640816

  4. Effect of Cell Adhesion Molecules on the Neurite Outgrowth of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Peng, Su-Ping; Schachner, Melitta; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    2016-04-01

    Intrastriatal transplantation of dopaminergic neurons has been shown to be a potentially very effective therapeutic approach for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). With the detection of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), an unlimited source of autologous dopaminergic (DA) neurons became available. Although the iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons exhibited most of the fundamental dopaminergic characteristics, detailed analysis and comparison with primary DA neurons have shown some aberrations in the expression of genes involved in neuronal development and neurite outgrowth. The limited outgrowth of the iPSC-derived DA neurons may hamper their potential application in cell transplantation therapy for PD. In the present study, we examined whether the forced expression of L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) and polysialylated neuronal cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), via gene transduction, can promote the neurite formation and outgrowth of iPSC-derived DA neurons. In cultures on astrocyte layers, both adhesion factors significantly increased neurite formation of the adhesion factor overexpressing iPSC-derived DA neurons in comparison to control iPSC-derived DA neurons. The same tendency was observed when the DA neurons were plated on postnatal organotypic striatal slices; however, this effect did not reach statistical significance. Next, we examined the neurite outgrowth of the L1CAM- or PSA-NCAM-overexpressing iPSC-derived DA neurons after implantation in the striatum of unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats, the animal model for PD. Like the outgrowth on the organotypic striatal slices, no significant L1CAM- and PSA-NCAM-enforced neurite outgrowth of the implanted DA neurons was observed. Apparently, induced expression of L1CAM or PSA-NCAM in the iPSC-derived DA neurons cannot completely restore the neurite outgrowth potential that was reduced in these DA neurons as a consequence of epigenetic aberrations resulting from the i

  5. Protective effects of quercetin on dieldrin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in dopaminergic neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Euteum; Chun, Hong Sung

    2016-10-19

    Dieldrin, an organochlorine pesticide still used in several developing countries, has been proposed as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease. Quercetin is one of the potent bioactive flavonoids present in numerous plants. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of quercetin on neurotoxicity induced by dieldrin in cultured dopaminergic SN4741 cells. Our initial experiments showed that quercetin (10-40 μM) dose dependently prevented dieldrin (20 μM)-induced cytotoxicity in SN4741 cells. Pretreatment for 1 h with quercetin before dieldrin application could significantly suppress dieldrin-induced apoptotic characteristics, including nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3/7 activation. Results showed that dieldrin-induced markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response such as chaperone GRP78, heme oxygenase-1, and phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2. In addition, dieldrin reduced antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression, but significantly elevated a proapoptotic transcription factor CHOP. Furthermore, RNA interference to CHOP almost completely repressed dieldrin-induced apoptotic cell death. Interestingly, quercetin prevented the changes in dieldrin-induced ER stress markers. These results suggest that quercetin may suppress the ER stress-CHOP pathway and dieldrin-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons.

  6. Protective effects of quercetin on dieldrin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in dopaminergic neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Euteum; Chun, Hong Sung

    2016-10-19

    Dieldrin, an organochlorine pesticide still used in several developing countries, has been proposed as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease. Quercetin is one of the potent bioactive flavonoids present in numerous plants. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of quercetin on neurotoxicity induced by dieldrin in cultured dopaminergic SN4741 cells. Our initial experiments showed that quercetin (10-40 μM) dose dependently prevented dieldrin (20 μM)-induced cytotoxicity in SN4741 cells. Pretreatment for 1 h with quercetin before dieldrin application could significantly suppress dieldrin-induced apoptotic characteristics, including nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3/7 activation. Results showed that dieldrin-induced markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response such as chaperone GRP78, heme oxygenase-1, and phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2. In addition, dieldrin reduced antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression, but significantly elevated a proapoptotic transcription factor CHOP. Furthermore, RNA interference to CHOP almost completely repressed dieldrin-induced apoptotic cell death. Interestingly, quercetin prevented the changes in dieldrin-induced ER stress markers. These results suggest that quercetin may suppress the ER stress-CHOP pathway and dieldrin-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons. PMID:27513201

  7. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters ethanol-induced Fos immunoreactivity and dopaminergic activity in the mesocorticolimbic pathway of the adolescent brain.

    PubMed

    Fabio, M C; Vivas, L M; Pautassi, R M

    2015-08-20

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) promotes alcohol intake during adolescence, as shown in clinical and pre-clinical animal models. The mechanisms underlying this effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on postnatal ethanol intake remain, however, mostly unknown. Few studies assessed the effects of moderate doses of prenatal ethanol on spontaneous and ethanol-induced brain activity on adolescence. This study measured, in adolescent (female) Wistar rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (0.0 or 2.0g/kg/day, gestational days 17-20) or non-manipulated (NM group) throughout pregnancy, baseline and ethanol-induced cathecolaminergic activity (i.e., colocalization of c-Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase) in ventral tegmental area (VTA), and baseline and ethanol-induced Fos immunoreactivity (ir) in nucleus accumbens shell and core (AcbSh and AcbC, respectively) and prelimbic (PrL) and infralimbic (IL) prefrontal cortex. The rats were challenged with ethanol (dose: 0.0, 1.25, 2.5 or 3.25g/kg, i.p.) at postnatal day 37. Rats exposed to vehicle prenatally (VE group) exhibited reduced baseline dopaminergic tone in VTA; an effect that was inhibited by prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE group). Dopaminergic activity in VTA after the postnatal ethanol challenge was greater in PEE than in VE or NM animals. Ethanol-induced Fos-ir at AcbSh was found after 1.25g/kg and 2.5g/kg ethanol, in VE and PEE rats, respectively. PEE did not alter ethanol-induced Fos-ir at IL but reduced ethanol-induced Fos-ir at PrL. These results suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure heightens dopaminergic activity in the VTA and alters the response of the mesocorticolimbic pathway to postnatal ethanol exposure. These effects may underlie the enhanced vulnerability to develop alcohol-use disorders of adolescents with a history of in utero ethanol exposure.

  8. Modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission induced by sublethal doses of the organophosphate trichlorfon in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Stürmer, Graziele Daiane; de Freitas, Thiago Carrazoni; Heberle, Marines de Avila; de Assis, Dênis Reis; Vinadé, Lúcia; Pereira, Antônio Batista; Franco, Jeferson Luis; Dal Belo, Cháriston André

    2014-11-01

    Organophosphate (OP) insecticides have been used indiscriminately, based on their high dissipation rates and low residual levels in the environment. Despite the toxicity of OPs to beneficial insects is principally devoted to the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, the physiological mechanisms underlying this activity remain poorly understood. Here we showed the pharmacological pathways that might be involved in severe alterations in the insect locomotion and grooming behaviors following sublethal administration of the OP Trichlorfon (Tn) (0.25, 0.5 and 1 µM) in Phoetalia pallida. Tn inhibited the acetylcholinesterase activity (46±6, 38±3 and 24±6 nmol NADPH/min/mg protein, n=3, p<0.05), respectively. Tn (1 µM) also increased the walking maintenance of animals (46±5 s; n=27; p<0.05). Tn caused a high increase in the time spent for this behavior (344±18 s/30 min, 388±18 s/30 min and 228±12 s/30 min, n=29-30, p<0.05, respectively). The previous treatment of the animals with different cholinergic modulators showed that pirenzepine>atropine>oxotremorine>d-tubocurarine>tropicamide>methoctramine induced a decrease on Tn (0.5 µM)-induced grooming increase, respectively in order of potency. Metoclopramide (0.4 µM), a DA-D2 selective inhibitor decreased the Tn-induced grooming activity (158±12 s/30 min; n=29; p<0.05). Nevertheless, the effect of the selective DA-D1 receptor blocker SCH 23390 (1.85 µM) on the Tn (0.5 µM)-induced grooming increase was significative and more intense than that of metoclopramide (54±6 s/30 min; n=30; p<0.05). Taken together the results suggest that a cross-talking between cholinergic M1/M3 and dopaminergic D1 receptors at the insect nervous system may play a role in the OP-mediated behavioral alterations.

  9. Zhichan decoction induces differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease rats after neural stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Huifen; Song, Jie; Yang, Xuming

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to increase the dopamine content and reduce dopaminergic metabolites in the brain of Parkinson's disease rats. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, we found that dopamine and dopaminergic metabolite (dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid) content in the midbrain of Parkinson's disease rats was increased after neural stem cell transplantation + Zhichan decoction, compared with neural stem cell transplantation alone. Our genetic algorithm results show that dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid levels achieve global optimization. Neural stem cell transplantation + Zhichan decoction increased dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels up to 10-fold, while transplantation alone resulted in a 3-fold increment. Homovanillic acid levels showed no apparent change. Our experimental findings show that after neural stem cell transplantation in Parkinson's disease rats, Zhichan decoction can promote differentiation of neural stem cells into dopaminergic neurons. PMID:25206914

  10. The Role of skn-1 in methylmercury-induced latent dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Finley, Ebany J; Caito, Samuel; Slaughter, James C; Aschner, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a persistent environmental bioaccumulative metal, with developmental exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) resulting in long-term health effects. We examined the impact of early-life exposure to MeHg and knockdown of skn-1 on dopaminergic (DAergic) neurodegeneration in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. SKN-1, a the major stress-activated cytoprotective transcription factors, promotes the transcription of enzymes that scavenge free radicals, synthesizes glutathione and catalyzes reactions that increase xenobiotic excretion. Deletions or mutations in this gene suppress stress resistance. Thus, we hypothesized that the extent of MeHg's toxicity is dependent on intact skn-1 response; therefore skn-1 knockout (KO) worms would show heightened sensitivity to MeHg-induced toxicity compared to wildtype worms. In this study we identified the impact of early-life MeHg exposure on Hg content, stress reactivity and DAergic neurodegeneration in wildtype, and skn-1KO C. elegans. Hg content, measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, showed no strain-dependent differences. Reactive oxygen species generation was dramatically increased in skn-1KO compared to wildtype worms. Structural integrity of DAergic neurons was microscopically assessed by visualization of fluorescently-labeled neurons, and revealed loss of neurons in skn-1KO and MeHg exposed worms compared to wildtype controls. Dopamine levels detected by High-performance liquid chromatography, were decreased in response to MeHg exposure and decreased in skn-1KO worms, and functional behavioral assays showed similar findings. Combined, these studies suggest that knockdown of skn-1 in the nematode increases DAergic sensitivity to MeHg exposure following a period of latency. PMID:24194349

  11. Neuroprotective effects of tetramethylpyrazine against dopaminergic neuron injury in a rat model of Parkinson's disease induced by MPTP.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chen; Zhang, Jin; Shi, Xiaopeng; Miao, Shan; Bi, Linlin; Zhang, Song; Yang, Qian; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Zhang, Meng; Xie, Yanhua; Miao, Qing; Wang, Siwang

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent progressive neurodegenerative disease. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of PD, apoptotic cell death and oxidative stress are the most prevalent mechanisms. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is a biological component that has been extracted from Ligusticum wallichii Franchat (ChuanXiong), which exhibits anti-apoptotic and antioxidant roles. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of TMP against dopaminergic neuron injury in a rat model of Parkinson's disease induced by MPTP and to elucidate probable molecular mechanisms. The results showed that TMP could notably prevent MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurons damage, reflected by improvement of motor deficits, enhancement of TH expression and the content of dopamine and its metabolite, DOPAC. We observed MPTP-induced activation of mitochondrial apoptotic death pathway, evidenced by up-regulation of Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2, release of cytochrome c and cleavage of caspase 3, which was significantly inhibited by TMP. Moreover, TMP could prevent MPTP-increased TBARS level and MPTP-decreased GSH level, indicating the antioxidant role of TMP in PD model. And the antioxidant role of TMP attributes to the prevention of MPTP-induced reduction of Nrf2 and GCLc expression. In conclusion, in MPTP-induced PD model, TMP prevents the down-regulation of Nrf2 and GCLc, maintaining redox balance and inhibiting apoptosis, leading to the attenuation of dopaminergic neuron damage. The effectiveness of TMP in treating PD potentially leads to interesting therapeutic perspectives. PMID:24719552

  12. Orexins contribute to restraint stress-induced cocaine relapse by endocannabinoid-mediated disinhibition of dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Li-Wei; Lu, Guan-Ling; Lee, Yen-Hsien; Yu, Lung; Lee, Hsin-Jung; Leishman, Emma; Bradshaw, Heather; Hwang, Ling-Ling; Hung, Ming-Shiu; Mackie, Ken; Zimmer, Andreas; Chiou, Lih-Chu

    2016-01-01

    Orexins are associated with drug relapse in rodents. Here, we show that acute restraint stress in mice activates lateral hypothalamic (LH) orexin neurons, increases levels of orexin A and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and reinstates extinguished cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP). This stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP depends on type 1 orexin receptors (OX1Rs), type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs) and diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) in the VTA. In dopaminergic neurons of VTA slices, orexin A presynaptically inhibits GABAergic transmission. This effect is prevented by internal GDP-β-S or inhibiting OX1Rs, CB1Rs, phospholipase C or DAGL, and potentiated by inhibiting 2-AG degradation. These results suggest that restraint stress activates LH orexin neurons, releasing orexins into the VTA to activate postsynaptic OX1Rs of dopaminergic neurons and generate 2-AG through a Gq-protein-phospholipase C-DAGL cascade. 2-AG retrogradely inhibits GABA release through presynaptic CB1Rs, leading to VTA dopaminergic disinhibition and reinstatement of cocaine CPP. PMID:27448020

  13. Orexins contribute to restraint stress-induced cocaine relapse by endocannabinoid-mediated disinhibition of dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Li-Wei; Lu, Guan-Ling; Lee, Yen-Hsien; Yu, Lung; Lee, Hsin-Jung; Leishman, Emma; Bradshaw, Heather; Hwang, Ling-Ling; Hung, Ming-Shiu; Mackie, Ken; Zimmer, Andreas; Chiou, Lih-Chu

    2016-01-01

    Orexins are associated with drug relapse in rodents. Here, we show that acute restraint stress in mice activates lateral hypothalamic (LH) orexin neurons, increases levels of orexin A and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and reinstates extinguished cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP). This stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP depends on type 1 orexin receptors (OX1Rs), type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs) and diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) in the VTA. In dopaminergic neurons of VTA slices, orexin A presynaptically inhibits GABAergic transmission. This effect is prevented by internal GDP-β-S or inhibiting OX1Rs, CB1Rs, phospholipase C or DAGL, and potentiated by inhibiting 2-AG degradation. These results suggest that restraint stress activates LH orexin neurons, releasing orexins into the VTA to activate postsynaptic OX1Rs of dopaminergic neurons and generate 2-AG through a Gq-protein-phospholipase C-DAGL cascade. 2-AG retrogradely inhibits GABA release through presynaptic CB1Rs, leading to VTA dopaminergic disinhibition and reinstatement of cocaine CPP. PMID:27448020

  14. Depressive-like phenotype induced by AAV-mediated overexpression of human α-synuclein in midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Caudal, D; Alvarsson, A; Björklund, A; Svenningsson, P

    2015-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and by the presence of aggregates containing α-synuclein called Lewy bodies. Viral vector-induced overexpression of α-synuclein in dopaminergic neurons represents a model of PD which recapitulates disease progression better than commonly used neurotoxin models. Previous studies using this model have reported motor and cognitive impairments, whereas depression, mood and anxiety phenotypes are less described. To investigate these psychiatric phenotypes, Sprague-Dawley rats received bilateral injections of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector expressing human α-synuclein or GFP into the substantia nigra pars compacta. Behavior was assessed at two timepoints: 3 and 8 weeks post-injection. We report that nigral α-synuclein overexpression led to a pronounced nigral dopaminergic cell loss accompanied by a smaller cell loss in the ventral tegmental area, and to a decreased striatal density of dopaminergic fibers. The AAV-α-synuclein group exhibited modest, but significant motor impairments 8 weeks after vector administration. The AAV-α-synuclein group displayed depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test after 3 weeks, and reduced sucrose preference at week 8. At both timepoints, overexpression of α-synuclein was linked to a hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation of corticosterone. The depressive-like phenotype was also correlated with decreased nigral brain-derived neurotrophic factor and spinophilin levels, and with decreased striatal levels of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein. This study demonstrates that AAV-mediated α-synuclein overexpression in dopamine neurons is not only useful to model motor impairments of PD, but also depression. This study also provides evidence that depression in experimental Parkinsonism is correlated to dysregulation of the HPA axis and to

  15. Neuroprotective role of thymoquinone against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced dopaminergic cell death in primary mesencephalic cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Radad, Khaled S.; Al-Shraim, Mubarak M.; Moustafa, Mahmoud F.; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate potential mechanisms mediating the neuroprotective effect of thymoquinone (TQ) on dopaminergic neurons. Methods: This study was conducted in the Chemistry and Biochemistry Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria between June and August 2013. Primary cultures were prepared from embryonic mouse mesencephala (OFI/SPF) at gestation day 14. Four sets of cultures were kept untreated, treated with TQ on the eighth day in vitro (DIV) for 4 days, treated with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) on the tenth DIV for 48 hours and co-treated with thymoquinone and MPP+. On the twelfth DIV, cultures were subjected to immunohistochemistry against tyrosine hydroxylase and fluorescent staining using LysoTracker® Deep Red, 5,5’,6,6’-tetrachloro-1,1’,3,3’-tetraethyl benzimidazolylcarbocyanine (JC-1) and 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole stains. Results: The MPP+ decreased the number of dopaminergic neurons by 40%, and increased the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) into the culture medium. The TQ significantly rescued dopaminergic neurons and decreased the release of LDH at the concentrations of 0.1 and 1 µM. The TQ significantly shifted the red fluorescent intensity of the LysoTracker® Deep Red, increased the mitochondrial membrane potential as it increased the red:green florescent ratio of JC-1, and decreased MPP+-induced apoptotic cell death. Conclusion: The TQ protects dopaminergic neurons in primary mesencephalic culture by enhancing lysosomal degradation that clears damaged mitochondria and inhibits mitochondria-mediated apoptotic cell death. PMID:25630775

  16. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) signaling modulates acute and tonic nociception.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Eugene L; Petrus, Emily; Usdin, Ted B

    2010-11-01

    Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) synthesizing neurons at the caudal border of the thalamus and in the lateral pons project to areas rich in its receptor, the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R). These areas include many involved in processing nociceptive information. Here we examined the potential role of TIP39 signaling in nociception using a PTH2R antagonist (HYWH) and mice with deletion of TIP39's coding sequence or PTH2R null mutation. Intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of HYWH significantly inhibited nociceptive responses in tail-flick and hot-plate tests and attenuated the nociceptive response to hindpaw formalin injection. TIP39-KO and PTH2R-KO had increased response latency in the 55°C hot-plate test and reduced responses in the hindpaw formalin test. The tail-flick test was not affected in either KO line. Thermal hypoalgesia in KO mice was dose-dependently reversed by systemic administration of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonist rimonabant, which did not affect nociception in wild-type (WT). Systemic administration of the cannabinoid agonist CP 55,940 did not affect nociception in KO mice at a dose effective in WT. WT mice administered HYWH icv, and both KOs, had significantly increased stress-induced analgesia (SIA). Rimonabant blocked the increased SIA in TIP39-KO, PTH2R-KO or after HYWH infusion. CB1 and FAAH mRNA were decreased and increased, respectively, in the basolateral amygdala of TIP39-KO mice. These data suggest that TIP39 signaling modulates nociception, very likely by inhibiting endocannabinoid circuitry at a supraspinal level. We infer a new central mechanism for endocannabinoid regulation, via TIP39 acting on the PTH2R in discrete brain regions.

  17. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) signaling modulates acute and tonic nociception

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Eugene L.; Petrus, Emily; Usdin, Ted B.

    2010-01-01

    Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) synthesizing neurons at the caudal border of the thalamus and in the lateral pons project to areas rich in its receptor, the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R). These areas include many involved in processing nociceptive information. Here we examined the potential role of TIP39 signaling in nociception using a PTH2R antagonist (HYWH) and mice with deletion of TIP39's coding sequence or PTH2R null mutation. Intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of HYWH significantly inhibited nociceptive responses in tail-flick and hot-plate tests and attenuated the nociceptive response to hindpaw formalin injection. TIP39-KO and PTH2R-KO had increased response latency in the 55 °C hot-plate test and reduced responses in the hindpaw formalin test. The tail-flick test was not affected in either KO line. Thermal hypoalgesia in KO mice was dose-dependently reversed by systemic administration of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonist rimonabant, which did not affect nociception in wild-type (WT). Systemic administration of the cannabinoid agonist CP 55,940 did not affect nociception in KO mice at a dose effective in WT. WT mice administered HYWH icv, and both KOs, had significantly increased stress-induced analgesia (SIA). Rimonabant blocked the increased SIA in TIP39-KO, PTH2R-KO or after HYWH infusion. CB1 and FAAH mRNA were decreased and increased, respectively, in the basolateral amygdala of TIP39-KO mice. These data suggest that TIP39 signaling modulates nociception, very likely by inhibiting endocannabinoid circuitry at a supraspinal level. We infer a new central mechanism for endocannabinoid regulation, via TIP39 acting on the PTH2R in discrete brain regions. PMID:20696160

  18. Microarray expression profiling in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Park, Bokyung; Oh, Chang-Ki; Choi, Won-Seok; Chung, In Kwon; Youdim, Moussa B H; Oh, Young J

    2011-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. To discover potential key molecules in this process, we utilized cDNA microarray technology to obtain an expression profile of transcripts in MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells treated with 6-hydroxydopamine. Using a self-organizing map algorithm, data mining and clustering were combined to identify distinct functional subgroups of genes. We identified alterations in the expression of 81 genes in eight clusters. Among these genes, we verified protein expression patterns of MAP kinase phosphatase 1 and sequestosome 1 using both cell culture and rat brain models of PD. Immunological analyses revealed increased expression levels as well as aggregated distribution patterns of these gene products in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated dopaminergic neurons. In addition to the identification of other proteins that are known to be associated with protein aggregation, our results raise the possibility that a more widespread set of proteins may be associated with the generation of protein aggregates in dying neurons. Further research to determine the functional roles of other altered gene products within the same cluster as well as the seven remaining clusters may provide new insights into the neurodegeneration that underlies PD pathogenesis.

  19. Endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor protects dopaminergic nigral neurons against transneuronal degeneration induced by striatal excitotoxic injury.

    PubMed

    Canudas, Anna M; Pezzi, Susana; Canals, Josep M; Pallàs, Mercè; Alberch, Jordi

    2005-03-24

    Injury to the central nervous system causes atrophy or death of connecting neurons and can modify the expression of neurotrophic factors. We observed transneuronal upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the rat ipsilateral substantia nigra pars compacta after a striatal lesion induced by kainate. This effect is developmentally regulated because the enhancement of nigral BDNF expression was only observed when striatal lesion was performed on postnatal day (P) 15 and in adulthood, but not at P7. Interestingly, the lack of regulation of BDNF was coincident with the transynaptic degeneration of nigral neurons after striatal excitotoxic injury. Hence, the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta decreased when the lesion was performed at P7, but not at P15 or at P30. The analysis of the functional significance of this BDNF upregulation was done using trkB-IgG fusion proteins. After striatal injury, blockade of endogenous BDNF by trkB fusion proteins induced an atrophy of the dopaminergic neurons of the pars compacta. The injection of trkB-IgG fusion proteins did not modify the effects of kainate in the substantia nigra pars reticulata. Thus, our results show that BDNF exerts an autocrine/paracrine protective effect selectively on dopaminergic neurons against the loss of trophic support from the target striatum.

  20. Inhibition of Drp1 mitochondrial translocation provides neural protection in dopaminergic system in a Parkinson’s disease model induced by MPTP

    PubMed Central

    Filichia, Emily; Hoffer, Barry; Qi, Xin; Luo, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest mitochondria-mediated pathways play an important role in dopaminergic neuronal cell death in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Drp1, a key regulator of mitochondrial fission, has been shown to be activated and translocated to mitochondria under stress, leading to excessive mitochondria fission and dopaminergic neuronal death in vitro. However, whether Drp1 inhibition can lead to long term stable preservation of dopaminergic neurons in PD-related mouse models remains unknown. In this study, using a classical MPTP animal PD model, we showed for the first time Drp1 activation and mitochondrial translocation in vivo after MPTP administration. Inhibition of Drp1 activation by a selective peptide inhibitor P110, blocked MPTP-induced Drp1 mitochondrial translocation and attenuated dopaminergic neuronal loss, dopaminergic nerve terminal damage and behavioral deficits caused by MPTP. MPTP-induced microglial activation and astrogliosis were not affected by P110 treatment. Instead, inhibition of Drp1 mitochondrial translocation diminished MPTP-induced p53, BAX and PUMA mitochondrial translocation. This study demonstrates that inhibition of Drp1 hyperactivation by a Drp1 peptide inhibitor P110 is neuroprotective in a MPTP animal model. Our data also suggest that the protective effects of P110 treatment might be mediated by inhibiting the p53 mediated apoptotic pathways in neurons through inhibition of Drp1-dependent p53 mitochondrial translocation. PMID:27619562

  1. Resveratrol Partially Prevents Rotenone-Induced Neurotoxicity in Dopaminergic SH-SY5Y Cells through Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 Dependent Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tsu-Kung; Chen, Shang-Der; Chuang, Yao-Chung; Lin, Hung-Yu; Huang, Chi-Ren; Chuang, Jiin-Haur; Wang, Pei-Wen; Huang, Sheng-Teng; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Jin-Bor; Liou, Chia-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress or protein misfolding and aggregation may underlie this process. Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic mechanism responsible for protein degradation and recycling of damaged proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. Autophagic dysfunction may hasten the progression of neuronal degeneration. In this study, resveratrol promoted autophagic flux and protected dopaminergic neurons against rotenone-induced apoptosis. In an in vivo PD model, rotenone induced loss of dopaminergic neurons, increased oxidation of mitochondrial proteins and promoted autophagic vesicle development in brain tissue. The natural phytoalexin resveratrol prevented rotenone-induced neuronal apoptosis in vitro, and this pro-survival effect was abolished by an autophagic inhibitor. Although both rotenone and resveratrol promoted LC3-II accumulation, autophagic flux was inhibited by rotenone and augmented by resveratrol. Further, rotenone reduced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, whereas resveratrol increased HO-1 expression. Pharmacological inhibition of HO-1 abolished resveratrol-mediated autophagy and neuroprotection. Notably, the effects of a pharmacological inducer of HO-1 were similar to those of resveratrol, and protected against rotenone-induced cell death in an autophagy-dependent manner, validating the hypothesis of HO-1 dependent autophagy in preventing neuronal death in the in vitro PD model. Collectively, our findings suggest that resveratrol induces HO-1 expression and prevents dopaminergic cell death by regulating autophagic flux; thus protecting against rotenone-induced neuronal apoptosis. PMID:24451142

  2. Metformin Prevents Dopaminergic Neuron Death in MPTP/P-Induced Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease via Autophagy and Mitochondrial ROS Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming; Su, Cunjin; Qiao, Chen; Bian, Yaqi; Ding, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our previous study demonstrated that metabolic inflammation exacerbates dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in type 2 diabetes mice. Metformin, a typical oral hypoglycemic agent for diabetes, has been regarded as an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase and a regulator of systemic energy metabolism. Although metformin plays potential protective effects in many disorders, it is unclear whether metformin has a therapeutic role in dopaminergic neuron degeneration in Parkinson’s disease. Methods: In the present study, a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine plus probenecid-induced mouse model of Parkinson’s disease was established to explore the neuroprotective effect of metformin on dopaminergic neurons in substania nigra compacta. We next cultured SH-SY5Y cells to investigate the mechanisms for the neuroprotective effect of metformin. Results: We showed that treatment with metformin (5mg/mL in drinking water) for 5 weeks significantly ameliorated the degeneration of substania nigra compacta dopaminergic neurons, increased striatal dopaminergic levels, and improved motor impairment induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine plus probenecid. We further found that metformin inhibited microglia overactivation-induced neuroinflammation in substania nigra compacta of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine plus probenecid Parkinson’s disease mice, which might contribute to the protective effect of metformin on neurodegeneration. Furthermore, metformin (2mM) activated AMP-activated protein kinase in SH-SY5Y cells, in turn inducing microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II-mediated autophagy and eliminating mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Consequently, metformin alleviated MPP+-induced cytotoxicity and attenuated neuronal apoptosis. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that metformin may be a pluripotent and promising drug for dopaminergic neuron degeneration, which will give us insight into the potential of

  3. Psychostimulant-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice: Evidence of Cocaine and Caffeine Effects on the Local Dopaminergic System.

    PubMed

    González, Candela R; González, Betina; Matzkin, María E; Muñiz, Javier A; Cadet, Jean Lud; Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Urbano, Francisco J; Vitullo, Alfredo D; Bisagno, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Several organ systems can be affected by psychostimulant toxicity. However, there is not sufficient evidence about the impact of psychostimulant intake on testicular physiology and catecholaminergic systems. The aim of the present study was to further explore potential toxic consequences of chronic exposure to cocaine, caffeine, and their combination on testicular physiology. Mice were injected with a 13-day chronic binge regimen of caffeine (3x5mg/kg), cocaine (3×10mg/kg), or combined administration. Mice treated with cocaine alone or combined with caffeine showed reduced volume of the seminiferous tubule associated to a reduction in the number of spermatogonia. Cocaine-only and combined treatments induced increased lipid peroxidation evaluated by TBARS assay and decreased glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression. Importantly, caffeine-cocaine combination potentiated the cocaine-induced germ cell loss, and induced pro-apoptotic BAX protein expression and diminished adenosine receptor A1 mRNA levels. We analyzed markers of dopaminergic function in the testis and detected the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the cytoplasm of androgen-producing Leydig cells, but also in meiotic germs cells within seminiferous tubules. Moreover, using transgenic BAC-Drd1a-tdTomato and D2R-eGFP mice, we report for the first time the presence of dopamine receptors (DRs) D1 and D2 in testicular mouse Leydig cells. Interestingly, the presence of DRD1 was also detected in the spermatogonia nearest the basal lamina of the seminiferous tubules, which did not show TH staining. We observed that psychostimulants induced downregulation of DRs mRNA expression and upregulation of TH protein expression in the testis. These findings suggest a potential role of the local dopaminergic system in psychostimulant-induced testicular pathology.

  4. Psychostimulant-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice: Evidence of Cocaine and Caffeine Effects on the Local Dopaminergic System

    PubMed Central

    Matzkin, María E.; Muñiz, Javier A.; Cadet, Jean Lud; Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Urbano, Francisco J.; Vitullo, Alfredo D.; Bisagno, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Several organ systems can be affected by psychostimulant toxicity. However, there is not sufficient evidence about the impact of psychostimulant intake on testicular physiology and catecholaminergic systems. The aim of the present study was to further explore potential toxic consequences of chronic exposure to cocaine, caffeine, and their combination on testicular physiology. Mice were injected with a 13-day chronic binge regimen of caffeine (3x5mg/kg), cocaine (3×10mg/kg), or combined administration. Mice treated with cocaine alone or combined with caffeine showed reduced volume of the seminiferous tubule associated to a reduction in the number of spermatogonia. Cocaine-only and combined treatments induced increased lipid peroxidation evaluated by TBARS assay and decreased glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression. Importantly, caffeine-cocaine combination potentiated the cocaine-induced germ cell loss, and induced pro-apoptotic BAX protein expression and diminished adenosine receptor A1 mRNA levels. We analyzed markers of dopaminergic function in the testis and detected the presence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the cytoplasm of androgen-producing Leydig cells, but also in meiotic germs cells within seminiferous tubules. Moreover, using transgenic BAC-Drd1a-tdTomato and D2R-eGFP mice, we report for the first time the presence of dopamine receptors (DRs) D1 and D2 in testicular mouse Leydig cells. Interestingly, the presence of DRD1 was also detected in the spermatogonia nearest the basal lamina of the seminiferous tubules, which did not show TH staining. We observed that psychostimulants induced downregulation of DRs mRNA expression and upregulation of TH protein expression in the testis. These findings suggest a potential role of the local dopaminergic system in psychostimulant-induced testicular pathology. PMID:26560700

  5. Lack of involvement of glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in MPP+ toxicity in striatal dopaminergic terminals: possible involvement of ascorbate

    PubMed Central

    Matarredona, Esperanza R; Santiago, Marti; Machado, Alberto; Cano, Josefina

    1997-01-01

    The present study concerns the possible relationship between glutamate excitotoxicity and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPTP/MPP+) neurotoxicity on striatal dopaminergic terminals. MPP+ neurotoxicity has been studied by means of two MPP+ perfusions separated by 24 h. After the second MPP+ 1 mM perfusion, dopamine extracellular output, measured by microdialysis, was considered to be an index of the dopaminergic neurone damage produced by the first MPP+ 1 mM perfusion. High concentration (10 mM) of glutamate uptake inhibitor L-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (PDC) stimulated basal release of dopamine and protected against the neurotoxic effect of MPP+. PDC 10 mM perfusion produced an increase in the extracellular output of glutamate and aspartate, and a decrease in that of ascorbate. The protective effect against MPP+ toxicity observed with PDC 10 mM was completely abolished when this glutamate uptake inhibitor was co-perfused with ascorbate 0.5 mM. These results suggest that glutamate-induced neurotoxicity is not involved in MPP+ toxicity. The protective effect found with the glutamate uptake inhibitor could be due to a decrease in extracellular ascorbate levels. PMID:9222565

  6. Dopaminergic inhibition by G9a/Glp complex on tyrosine hydroxylase in nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nan; Shen, Xiaofeng; Bao, Senzhu; Feng, Shan-Wu; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yusheng; Wang, Yiquan; Wang, Xian; Guo, Xirong; Shen, Rong; Wu, Haibo; Lei, Liming; Wang, Fuzhou

    2016-01-01

    The neural balance between facilitation and inhibition determines the final tendency of central sensitization. Nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity was considered as the results from the enhanced ascending facilitation and the diminished descending inhibition. The role of dopaminergic transmission in the descending inhibition has been well documented, but its underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Previous studies demonstrated that the lysine dimethyltransferase G9a/G9a-like protein (Glp) complex plays a critical role in cocaine-induced central plasticity, and given cocaine’s role in the nerve system is relied on its function on dopamine system, we herein proposed that the reduced inhibition of dopaminergic transmission was from the downregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase expression by G9a/Glp complex through methylating its gene Th. After approval by the Animal Care and Use Committee, C57BL/6 mice were used for pain behavior using von Frey after spared nerve injury, and Th CpG islands methylation was measured using bisulfite sequencing at different nerve areas. The inhibitor of G9a/Glp, BIX 01294, was administered intraventricularly daily with bolus injection. The protein levels of G9a, Glp, and tyrosine hydroxylase were measured with immunoblotting. Dopamine levels were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography. The expression of G9a but not Glp was upregulated in ventral tegmental area at post-injury day 4 till day 49 (the last day of the behavioral test). Correspondingly, the Th CpG methylation is increased, but the tyrosine hydroxylase expression was downregulated and the dopamine level was decreased. After the intracerebroventriclar injection of BIX 01294 since the post-injury days 7 and 14 for consecutive three days, three weeks, and six weeks, the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase was upregulated with a significant decrease in Th methylation and increase in dopamine level. Moreover, the pain after G9a/Glp inhibitor was attenuated

  7. Dopaminergic inhibition by G9a/Glp complex on tyrosine hydroxylase in nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Shen, Xiaofeng; Bao, Senzhu; Feng, Shan-Wu; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yusheng; Wang, Yiquan; Wang, Xian; Guo, Xirong; Shen, Rong; Wu, Haibo; Lei, Liming; Xu, Shiqin; Wang, Fuzhou

    2016-01-01

    The neural balance between facilitation and inhibition determines the final tendency of central sensitization. Nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity was considered as the results from the enhanced ascending facilitation and the diminished descending inhibition. The role of dopaminergic transmission in the descending inhibition has been well documented, but its underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Previous studies demonstrated that the lysine dimethyltransferase G9a/G9a-like protein (Glp) complex plays a critical role in cocaine-induced central plasticity, and given cocaine's role in the nerve system is relied on its function on dopamine system, we herein proposed that the reduced inhibition of dopaminergic transmission was from the downregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase expression by G9a/Glp complex through methylating its gene Th After approval by the Animal Care and Use Committee, C57BL/6 mice were used for pain behavior using von Frey after spared nerve injury, and Th CpG islands methylation was measured using bisulfite sequencing at different nerve areas. The inhibitor of G9a/Glp, BIX 01294, was administered intraventricularly daily with bolus injection. The protein levels of G9a, Glp, and tyrosine hydroxylase were measured with immunoblotting. Dopamine levels were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography. The expression of G9a but not Glp was upregulated in ventral tegmental area at post-injury day 4 till day 49 (the last day of the behavioral test). Correspondingly, the Th CpG methylation is increased, but the tyrosine hydroxylase expression was downregulated and the dopamine level was decreased. After the intracerebroventriclar injection of BIX 01294 since the post-injury days 7 and 14 for consecutive three days, three weeks, and six weeks, the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase was upregulated with a significant decrease in Th methylation and increase in dopamine level. Moreover, the pain after G9a/Glp inhibitor was attenuated

  8. Paradoxical sleep deprivation modulates tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the nigrostriatal pathway and attenuates motor deficits induced by dopaminergic depletion.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcelo M S; Andersen, Monica L; Reksidler, Angela B; Ferraz, Anete C; Vital, Maria A B F; Tufik, Sergio

    2012-06-01

    The nigrostriatal pathway is very likely involved in sleep regulation, considering the occurrence and high prevalence of sleep-related disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease. Indeed, dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area were recently shown to fire in bursts during paradoxical sleep (PS), but little is known about the activity of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) cells in relation to PS. In view of that we hypothesized that paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) may play a relevant role in nigrostriatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and, subsequently, in sleep rebound. The present study was designed to determine the effects of PSD in the nigrostriatal pathway in mice by means of neurochemical and behavioral approaches. Intraperitoneal reserpine (1 mg/kg) associated to α-methyl-p-tyrosine (αMT) (250 mg/kg) to produce catecholamine depletion, or rotenone (10 mg/kg) to increase striatal DA turnover were injected 30 min before the 24 h of PSD. Catalepsy and open-field tests indicated that motor deficits induced by reserpine-αMT were counteracted by PSD, which, in contrast, potentiated the motor impairment induced by rotenone. Besides, PSD produced down-regulation on TH expression within the substantia nigra pars compacta and striatum, without affecting the number or the optical density of dopaminergic neurons present in the respective areas. Interestingly, PSD potentiated the downregulation of TH expression in the substantia nigra pars compacta and striatum induced by the co-administration of reserpine-αMT. These results reinforce the notion of a strong participation of DA in PS, as a consequence of the modulation of TH protein expression in the nigrostriatal pathway.

  9. Emerging restorative treatments for Parkinson's disease: manipulation and inducement of dopaminergic neurons from adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junpeng; Xu, Qunyuan

    2011-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease, characterized by a selective loss of midbrain Dopaminergic (DA) neurons. To address this problem, various types of stem cells that have potential to differentiate into DA neurons are being investigated as cellular therapies for PD, including cells derived from embryonic or adult donor tissue, and embryonic stem cells. These cell sources, however, have raised certain questions with regard to ethical and rejection issues. Recent progress in adult stems has further proved that the cells derived from adult tissue could be expanded and differentiated into DA precursor cells in vitro, and cell therapy with adult stem cells could produce a clear improvement for PD models. Using adult stem cells for clinic application may not only overcome the ethical problem inherent in using human fetal tissue or embryonic stem cells, but also open the possibility for autologous transplantation. The patient-specific adult stem cell is therefore a potential and prospective candidate for PD treatment.

  10. Midkine regulates amphetamine-induced astrocytosis in striatum but has no effects on amphetamine-induced striatal dopaminergic denervation and addictive effects: functional differences between pleiotrophin and midkine.

    PubMed

    Gramage, E; Martín, Y B; Ramanah, P; Pérez-García, C; Herradón, G

    2011-09-01

    Midkine (MK), a neurotrophic factor with important roles in survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons, is upregulated in different brain areas after administration of different drugs of abuse suggesting MK could modulate drugs of abuse-induced pharmacological or neuroadaptative effects. To test this hypothesis, we have studied the effects of amphetamine administration in MK genetically deficient (MK-/-) and wild-type (MK+/+) mice. In conditioning studies, we found that amphetamine induces conditioned place preference (CPP) similarly in both MK-/- and MK+/+ mice. In immunohistochemistry studies, we found that amphetamine (10 mg/kg, four times, every 2 h) causes a similar striatal dopaminergic denervation in both MK-/- and MK+/+ mice. However, we detected a significant increase of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells in the striatum of amphetamine-treated MK-/- mice compared to MK+/+ mice, suggesting an enhanced amphetamine-induced astrocytosis in absence of endogenous MK. Interestingly, the levels of expression of the MK receptor, receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP) β/ζ, in the striatum were not found to be changed by the drug administration or the mouse genotype. In a similar manner the phosphorylation levels of RPTP β/ζ substrates with important roles in survival of dopaminergic neurons, Fyn kinase and TrkA, and of the MAP kinases ERK1/2, were unaffected by the drug or the genotype. The data clearly suggest that endogenous MK limits amphetamine-induced astrocytosis through Fyn-, TrkA- and ERK1/2-independent mechanisms and identify previously unexpected functional differences between MK and pleiotrophin, the only other member of the MK family of growth factors, in the modulation of effects of drugs of abuse.

  11. Small molecule TrkB agonist deoxygedunin protects nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons from 6-OHDA and MPTP induced neurotoxicity in rodents.

    PubMed

    Nie, Shuke; Xu, Yan; Chen, Guiqin; Ma, Kai; Han, Chao; Guo, Zhenli; Zhang, Zhentao; Ye, Keqiang; Cao, Xuebing

    2015-12-01

    Dopaminergic neurons loss in the substantia nigra (SN) and dopamine (DA) content loss in the striatum correlate well with disease severity in Parkinson's disease (PD). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of neurotrophin family and is necessary for the survival and development of DA neurons in the SN. Deficits in BDNF/TrkB receptors signaling contribute to the dysfunction of PD. Deoxygedunin, a derivative of gedunin produced from Indian neem tree, binds TrkB receptor and activates TrkB and its downstream signaling cascades in a BDNF-independent manner, and possesses neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we tested the neuroprotective effects of deoxygedunin in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mice model of Parkinson's disease. Rats were treated with deoxygedunin 5 mg/kg (i.p.) for one month started two weeks before 6-OHDA lesion (pre-treatment), or for two weeks right after lesion (post-treatment), with isovolumetric vehicle as control and normal. Mice were given deoxygedunin 5 mg/kg (i.p.) for 2 weeks and administrated with MPTP twice at the dose of 20 mg/kg (i.p.) on day 7. The results revealed that pretreatment with deoxygedunin improved PD models' behavioral performance and reduced dopaminergic neurons loss in SN, associated with the activation of TrkB receptors and its two major signaling cascades involving mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Thus, our current study indicates that deoxygedunin, as a small molecule TrkB agonist, displays prominent neuroprotective properties, providing a novel therapeutic strategy for treating Parkinson's disease. PMID:26282118

  12. Loss of dopaminergic neurons occurs in the ventral tegmental area and hypothalamus of rats following chronic stress: Possible pathogenetic loci for depression involved in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sugama, Shuei; Kakinuma, Yoshihiko

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic pathways including ventral tegmental area (VTA). Although several factors for the neuronal loss have been suggested, most of the PD cases are sporadic and idiopathic. In our previous study, we demonstrated the first evidence that solely chronic restraint stress (RS) induced the DA neuronal loss in the substantia nigra (SN). In this study, we further investigated whether chronic stress could affect other major DA systems, VTA and tuberoinfundibular system (TIDA), by using immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. The present study showed that, in the VTA, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive neurons decreased by 9.8% at 2nd week, 19.2% at 4th week, 39.5% at 8th week, and 40.6% at 16th week during chronic RS as compared to control. Similarly, in the TIDA, the TH neurons decreased by 10.9% at 2nd week, 38.2% at 4th week, 56.3% at 8th week, and 57.1% at 16th week. The in situ hybridization results consistently demonstrated decreases in Th mRNA expressing cells in the VTA and TIDA in a comparable time dependent manner. Thus, exposure to chronic stress may simultaneously induce multiple neuronal loss of DA systems.

  13. Dopaminergic neurotoxicant 6-OHDA induces oxidative damage through proteolytic activation of PKC{delta} in cell culture and animal models of Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Anumantha; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2011-11-15

    The neurotoxicant 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is used to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Oxidative stress and caspase activation contribute to the 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death of dopaminergic neurons. In the present study, we sought to systematically characterize the key downstream signaling molecule involved in 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic degeneration in cell culture and animal models of PD. Treatment of mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal N27 cells with 6-OHDA (100 {mu}M) for 24 h significantly reduced mitochondrial activity and increased cytosolic cytochrome c, followed by sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Co-treatment with the free radical scavenger MnTBAP (10 {mu}M) significantly attenuated 6-OHDA-induced caspase activities. Interestingly, 6-OHDA induced proteolytic cleavage and activation of protein kinase C delta (PKC{delta}) was completely suppressed by treatment with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor, Z-DEVD-FMK (50 {mu}M). Furthermore, expression of caspase-3 cleavage site-resistant mutant PKC{delta}{sup D327A} and kinase dead PKC{delta}{sup K376R} or siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKC{delta} protected against 6-OHDA-induced neuronal cell death, suggesting that caspase-3-dependent PKC{delta} promotes oxidative stress-induced dopaminergic degeneration. Suppression of PKC{delta} expression by siRNA also effectively protected N27 cells from 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death. PKC{delta} cleavage was also observed in the substantia nigra of 6-OHDA-injected C57 black mice but not in control animals. Viral-mediated delivery of PKC{delta}{sup D327A} protein protected against 6-OHDA-induced PKC{delta} activation in mouse substantia nigra. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that proteolytic activation of PKC{delta} is a key downstream event in dopaminergic degeneration, and these results may have important translational value for

  14. Trifluoperazine rescues human dopaminergic cells from wild-type α-synuclein-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Höllerhage, Matthias; Goebel, Joachim N; de Andrade, Anderson; Hildebrandt, Tobias; Dolga, Amalia; Culmsee, Carsten; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Hengerer, Bastian; Höglinger, Günter U

    2014-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most frequent neurodegenerative movement disorder. Presently, there is no causal therapy available to slow down or halt disease progression. The presynaptic protein alpha-synuclein aggregates to form intraneuronal Lewy bodies in PD. It is generally believed that intermediates on the way from monomers to the large aggregates would mediate neurotoxicity, but the precise species and mechanism responsible for neuronal death are controversially debated. To study alpha-synuclein-mediated toxicity, we developed a new model in which moderate overexpression of wild-type alpha-synuclein led to gradual death of human postmitotic dopaminergic neurons. In accordance with findings in postmortem PD brains, small oligomeric species occurred and the autophagic flux was impaired in our model. The phenothiazine neuroleptic trifluoperazine, an activator of macroautophagy, selectively reduced one particular alpha-synuclein species and rescued cells. Inversely, blocking of autophagy led to an accumulation of this oligomeric species and increased cell death. These data show that activation of autophagy is a promising approach to protect against alpha-synuclein pathology and likely acts by targeting one specific alpha-synuclein species.

  15. Dopaminergic modulation of affective and social deficits induced by prenatal glucocorticoid exposure.

    PubMed

    Borges, Sónia; Coimbra, Bárbara; Soares-Cunha, Carina; Miguel Pêgo, José; Sousa, Nuno; João Rodrigues, Ana

    2013-09-01

    Prenatal stress or exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) can impair specific neurobehavioral circuits leading to alterations in emotional processes later in life. In turn, emotional deficits may interfere with the quality and degree of social interaction. Here, by using a comprehensive behavioral approach in combination with the measurement of ultrasonic vocalizations, we show that in utero GC (iuGC)-exposed animals present increased immobility in the forced swimming test, pronounced anhedonic behavior (both anticipatory and consummatory), and an impairment in social interaction at different life stages. Importantly, we also found that social behavioral expression is highly dependent on the affective status of the partner. A profound reduction in mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission was found in iuGC animals, suggesting a key role for dopamine (DA) in the etiology of the observed behavioral deficits. Confirming this idea, we present evidence that a simple pharmacological approach-acute L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (L-DOPA) oral administration, is able to normalize DA levels in iuGC animals, with a concomitant amelioration of several dimensions of the emotional and social behaviors. Interestingly, L-DOPA effects in control individuals were not so straightforward; suggesting that both hypo- and hyperdopaminergia are detrimental in the context of such complex behaviors.

  16. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced alterations of glutathione status in immortalized rat dopaminergic neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Drechsel, Derek A.; Liang, L.-P.; Patel, Manisha . E-mail: manisha.patel@uchsc.edu

    2007-05-01

    Decreased glutathione levels associated with increased oxidative stress are a hallmark of numerous neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease. GSH is an important molecule that serves as an anti-oxidant and is also a major determinant of cellular redox environment. Previous studies have demonstrated that neurotoxins can cause changes in reduced and oxidized GSH levels; however, information regarding steady state levels remains unexplored. The goal of this study was to characterize changes in cellular GSH levels and its regulatory enzymes in a dopaminergic cell line (N27) following treatment with the Parkinsonian toxin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP{sup +}). Cellular GSH levels were initially significantly decreased 12 h after treatment, but subsequently recovered to values greater than controls by 24 h. However, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were increased 24 h following treatment, concomitant with a decrease in GSH/GSSG ratio prior to cell death. In accordance with these changes, ROS levels were also increased, confirming the presence of oxidative stress. Decreased enzymatic activities of glutathione reductase and glutamate-cysteine ligase by 20-25% were observed at early time points and partly account for changes in GSH levels after MPP{sup +} exposure. Additionally, glutathione peroxidase activity was increased 24 h following treatment. MPP{sup +} treatment was not associated with increased efflux of glutathione to the medium. These data further elucidate the mechanisms underlying GSH depletion in response to the Parkinsonian toxin, MPP{sup +}.

  17. Aripiprazole-induced Hyperprolactinemia in a Young Female with Delusional Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sam Padamadan

    2016-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse effect of antipsychotic medication. Switching over to aripiprazole or adjunctive aripiprazole has been advocated for optimal management of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. Adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole has been shown to normalize prolactin levels without affecting already achieved improvements in psychotic symptoms. However, here, we present the case of a 36 year old female with delusional disorder who developed symptomatic hyperprolactinemia while on aripiprazole treatment. Dopamine acts as a tonic inhibitor of prolactin secretion through the tubero-infundibular dopaminergic system. Aripiprazole being a partial agonist has a lower intrinsic activity at the D2 receptor than dopamine, allowing it to act as both, a functional agonist and antagonist, depending on the surrounding levels of dopamine. Hence, in the absence of a competing D2 antagonist and the presence of dopamine (the natural agonist), aripiprazole could act as a functional antagonist and thus elevate prolactin levels. PMID:27335526

  18. Chewing prevents stress-induced hippocampal LTD formation and anxiety-related behaviors: a possible role of the dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yumie; Koizumi, So; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of chewing on stress-induced long-term depression (LTD) and anxiogenic behavior. Experiments were performed in adult male rats under three conditions: restraint stress condition, voluntary chewing condition during stress, and control condition without any treatments except handling. Chewing ameliorated LTD development in the hippocampal CA1 region. It also counteracted the stress-suppressed number of entries to the center region of the open field when they were tested immediately, 30 min, or 60 min after restraint. At the latter two poststress time periods, chewing during restraint significantly increased the number of times of open arm entries in the elevated plus maze, when compared with those without chewing. The in vivo microdialysis further revealed that extracellular dopamine concentration in the ventral hippocampus, which is involved in anxiety-related behavior, was significantly greater in chewing rats than in those without chewing from 30 to 105 min after stress exposure. Development of LTD and anxiolytic effects ameliorated by chewing were counteracted by administering the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390, which suggested that chewing may activate the dopaminergic system in the ventral hippocampus to suppress stress-induced anxiogenic behavior. PMID:26075223

  19. 24-Epibrassinolide, a Phytosterol from the Brassinosteroid Family, Protects Dopaminergic Cells against MPP+-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Carange, Julie; Longpré, Fanny; Daoust, Benoit; Martinoli, Maria-Grazia

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and apoptosis are frequently cited to explain neuronal cell damage in various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson' s disease. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are phytosterols recognized to promote stress tolerance of vegetables via modulation of the antioxidative enzyme cascade. However, their antioxidative effects on mammalian neuronal cells have never been examined so far. We analyzed the ability of 24-epibrassinolide (24-Epi), a natural BR, to protect neuronal PC12 cells from 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium- (MPP+-) induced oxidative stress and consequent apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons. Our results demonstrate that 24-Epi reduces the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and modulates superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities. Finally, we determined that the antioxidative properties of 24-Epi lead to the inhibition of MPP+-induced apoptosis by reducing DNA fragmentation as well as the Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio and cleaved caspase-3. This is the first time that the potent antioxidant and neuroprotective role of 24-Epi has been shown in a mammalian neuronal cell line. PMID:21776258

  20. Chewing Prevents Stress-Induced Hippocampal LTD Formation and Anxiety-Related Behaviors: A Possible Role of the Dopaminergic System

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, So; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of chewing on stress-induced long-term depression (LTD) and anxiogenic behavior. Experiments were performed in adult male rats under three conditions: restraint stress condition, voluntary chewing condition during stress, and control condition without any treatments except handling. Chewing ameliorated LTD development in the hippocampal CA1 region. It also counteracted the stress-suppressed number of entries to the center region of the open field when they were tested immediately, 30 min, or 60 min after restraint. At the latter two poststress time periods, chewing during restraint significantly increased the number of times of open arm entries in the elevated plus maze, when compared with those without chewing. The in vivo microdialysis further revealed that extracellular dopamine concentration in the ventral hippocampus, which is involved in anxiety-related behavior, was significantly greater in chewing rats than in those without chewing from 30 to 105 min after stress exposure. Development of LTD and anxiolytic effects ameliorated by chewing were counteracted by administering the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390, which suggested that chewing may activate the dopaminergic system in the ventral hippocampus to suppress stress-induced anxiogenic behavior. PMID:26075223

  1. Desipramine Protects Neuronal Cell Death and Induces Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Mes23.5 Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Yeh, Wei-Lan; Huang, Bor-Ren; Lin, Chingju; Lai, Chih-Ho; Lin, Ho; Lu, Dah-Yuu

    2012-01-01

    Background Desipramine is known principally as a tricyclic antidepressant drug used to promote recovery of depressed patients. It has also been used in a number of other psychiatric and medical conditions. The present study is the first to investigate the neuroprotective effect of desipramine. Methodology/Principal Findings Mes23.5 dopaminergic cells were used to examine neuroprotective effect of desipramine. Western blot, reverse transcription-PCR, MTT assay, siRNA transfection and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) were carried out to assess the effects of desipramine. Desipramine induces endogenous anti-oxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein and mRNA expression in concentration- and time-dependent manners. A different type of antidepressant SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor), fluoxetine also shows similar effects of desipramine on HO-1 expression. Moreover, desipramine induces HO-1 expression through activation of ERK and JNK signaling pathways. Desipramine also increases NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) accumulation in the nucleus and enhances Nrf2-DNA binding activity. Moreover, desipramine-mediated increase of HO-1 expression is reduced by transfection with siRNA against Nrf2. On the other hand, pretreatment of desipramine protects neuronal cells against rotenone- and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neuronal death. Furthermore, inhibition of HO-1 activity by a HO-1 pharmacological inhibitor, ZnPP IX, attenuates the neuroprotective effect of desipramine. Otherwise, activation of HO-1 activity by HO-1 activator and inducer protect 6-OHDA-induced neuronal death. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that desipramine-increased HO-1 expression is mediated by Nrf2 activation through the ERK and JNK signaling pathways. Our results also suggest that desipramine provides a novel effect of neuroprotection, and neurodegenerative process might play an important role in depression disorder. PMID:23209658

  2. Identification of Neurexophilin 3 as a Novel Supportive Factor for Survival of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Murayama, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Successful cell transplantation for Parkinson’s disease (PD) depends on both an optimal host brain environment and ideal donor cells. We report that a secreted peptide, neurexophilin 3 (NXPH3), supports the survival of mouse induced pluripotent stem cell-derived (iPSC-derived) dopaminergic (DA) neurons in vitro and in vivo. We compared the gene expression profiles in the mouse striatum from two different environments: a supportive environment, which we defined as 1 week after acute administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), and a nonsupportive environment, defined as 8 weeks after chronic administration of MPTP. NXPH3 expression was higher in the former condition and lower in the latter compared with untreated controls. When we injected mouse iPSC-derived neural cells along with NXPH3 into the mouse striatum, the ratio of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive DA neurons per graft volume was higher at 8 weeks compared with cell injections that excluded NXPH3. In addition, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses of the postmortem putamen revealed that the expression level of NXPH3 was lower in PD patients compared with normal controls. These findings will contribute to optimizing the host brain environment and patient recruitment in cell therapy for PD. Significance This study identified neurexophilin 3 (NXPH3), a secreted peptide, through comparison of gene expression profiles in the mouse striatum from various environments generated by different doses of dopaminergic (DA) neuron toxin. When mouse induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural cells along with NXPH3 were injected into the mouse striatum, the ratio of DA neurons per graft volume was higher at 8 weeks compared with cell injections without NXPH3. In addition, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses of the postmortem putamen revealed that the expression level of NXPH3 was lower in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) compared with controls without PD. These

  3. Overexpression of alpha-synuclein at non-toxic levels increases dopaminergic cell death induced by copper exposure via modulation of protein degradation pathways.

    PubMed

    Anandhan, Annadurai; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Bohovych, Iryna; Griggs, Amy M; Zavala-Flores, Laura; Reyes-Reyes, Elsa M; Seravalli, Javier; Stanciu, Lia A; Lee, Jaekwon; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Franco, Rodrigo

    2015-09-01

    Gene multiplications or point mutations in alpha (α)-synuclein are associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). An increase in copper (Cu) levels has been reported in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood of PD patients, while occupational exposure to Cu has been suggested to augment the risk to develop PD. We aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by which α-synuclein and Cu regulate dopaminergic cell death. Short-term overexpression of wild type (WT) or mutant A53T α-synuclein had no toxic effect in human dopaminergic cells and primary midbrain cultures, but it exerted a synergistic effect on Cu-induced cell death. Cell death induced by Cu was potentiated by overexpression of the Cu transporter protein 1 (Ctr1) and depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) indicating that the toxic effects of Cu are linked to alterations in its intracellular homeostasis. Using the redox sensor roGFP, we demonstrated that Cu-induced oxidative stress was primarily localized in the cytosol and not in the mitochondria. However, α-synuclein overexpression had no effect on Cu-induced oxidative stress. WT or A53T α-synuclein overexpression exacerbated Cu toxicity in dopaminergic and yeast cells in the absence of α-synuclein aggregation. Cu increased autophagic flux and protein ubiquitination. Impairment of autophagy by overexpression of a dominant negative Atg5 form or inhibition of the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) with MG132 enhanced Cu-induced cell death. However, only inhibition of the UPS stimulated the synergistic toxic effects of Cu and α-synuclein overexpression. Our results demonstrate that α-synuclein stimulates Cu toxicity in dopaminergic cells independent from its aggregation via modulation of protein degradation pathways.

  4. Overexpression of alpha-synuclein at non-toxic levels increases dopaminergic cell death induced by copper exposure via modulation of protein degradation pathways

    PubMed Central

    Anandhan, Annadurai; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Bohovych, Iryna; Griggs, Amy M.; Zavala-Flores, Laura; Reyes-Reyes, Elsa M.; Seravalli, Javier; Stanciu, Lia A.; Lee, Jaekwon; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Franco, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Gene multiplications or point mutations in alpha (α)-synuclein are associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD). An increase in copper (Cu) levels has been reported in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood of PD patients, while occupational exposure to Cu has been suggested to augment the risk to develop PD. We aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by which α-synuclein and Cu regulate dopaminergic cell death. Short-term overexpression of WT or A53T α-synuclein had no toxic effect in human dopaminergic cells and primary midbrain cultures, but it exerted a synergistic effect on Cu-induced cell death. Cell death induced by Cu was potentiated by overexpression of the Cu transporter protein 1 (Ctr1) and depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) indicating that the toxic effects of Cu are linked to alterations in its intracellular homeostasis. Using the redox sensor roGFP, we demonstrated that Cu-induced oxidative stress was primarily localized in the cytosol and not in the mitochondria. However, α-synuclein overexpression had no effect on Cu-induced oxidative stress. WT or A53T α-synuclein overexpression exacerbated Cu toxicity in dopaminergic cells and yeast in the absence of α-synuclein aggregation. Cu increased autophagic flux and protein ubiquitination. Impairment of autophagy by overexpression of a dominant negative Atg5 form or inhibition of the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) with MG132 enhanced Cu-induced cell death. However, only inhibition of the UPS stimulated the synergistic toxic effects of Cu and α-synuclein overexpression. Our results demonstrate that α-synuclein stimulates Cu toxicity in dopaminergic cells independent from its aggregation via modulation of protein degradation pathways. PMID:25497688

  5. POTENTIAL ROLE OF TUBERO-INFUNDIBULAR DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS IN THE DISRUPTION OF PITUITARY HORMONE SECRETION BY ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously, we demonstrated that atrazine suppressed the ovulatory surge of luteininzing hormone and disrupted estrous cycles in the female rat. We also reported that this disruption of ovulation is likely the result of atrazine's effect on hypothalamic gonadotropin hormone rele...

  6. Clavulanic acid inhibits MPP⁺-induced ROS generation and subsequent loss of dopaminergic cells.

    PubMed

    Kost, Gina Chun; Selvaraj, Senthil; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Deog Joong; Ahn, Chang-Ho; Singh, Brij B

    2012-08-21

    Clavulanic acid is a psychoactive compound that has been shown to modulate central nervous system activity. Importantly, in neurotoxin-induced animal models, clavulanic acid has been shown to improve motor function (Huh et al., 2010) suggesting that it can be neuroprotective; however, the mechanism as how clavulanic acid can induce neuroprotection is not known. We demonstrate here that clavulanic acid abrogates the effects of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) which mimics Parkinson's disease (PD) by inducing neurodegeneration. To further establish the mechanism we identified that clavulanic acid inhibits neurotoxin-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS production. Consistent with these results, neurotoxin-induced increase in Bax levels was also decreased in clavulanic acid treated cells. Importantly, neurotoxin-induced release of cytochrome c levels as well as caspase activation was also inhibited in clavulanic acid treated cells. In addition, Bcl-xl levels were also restored and the Bcl-xl/Bax ratio that is critical for inducing apoptosis was increased in clavulanic acid treated cells. Overall, these results suggest that clavulanic acid is intimately involved in inhibiting neurotoxin-induced loss of mitochondrial function and induction of apoptosis that contributes towards neuronal survival.

  7. Clavulanic acid inhibits MPP+-induced ROS generation and subsequent loss of dopaminergic cells☆

    PubMed Central

    Kost, Gina Chun; Selvaraj, Senthil; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Deog Joong; Ahn, Chang-Ho; Singh, Brij B.

    2013-01-01

    Clavulanic acid is a psychoactive compound that has been shown to modulate central nervous system activity. Importantly, in neurotoxin-induced animal models, clavulanic acid has been shown to improve motor function (Huh et al., 2010) suggesting that it can be neuroprotective; however, the mechanism as how clavulanic acid can induce neuroprotection is not known. We demonstrate here that clavulanic acid abrogates the effects of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) which mimics Parkinson’s disease (PD) by inducing neurodegeneration. To further establish the mechanism we identified that clavulanic acid inhibits neurotoxin-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS production. Consistent with these results, neurotoxin-induced increase in Bax levels was also decreased in clavulanic acid treated cells. Importantly, neurotoxin-induced release of cytochrome c levels as well as caspase activation was also inhibited in clavulanic acid treated cells. In addition, Bcl-xl levels were also restored and the Bcl-xl/Bax ratio that is critical for inducing apoptosis was increased in clavulanic acid treated cells. Overall, these results suggest that clavulanic acid is intimately involved in inhibiting neurotoxin-induced loss of mitochondrial function and induction of apoptosis that contributes towards neuronal survival. PMID:22750587

  8. Curcumin I protects the dopaminergic cell line SH-SY5Y from 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity through attenuation of p53-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jaisin, Yamaratee; Thampithak, Anusorn; Meesarapee, Benjawan; Ratanachamnong, Piyanee; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Phivthong-Ngam, Laddawal; Phumala-Morales, Noppawan; Chongthammakun, Sukumal; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Sanvarinda, Yupin

    2011-02-11

    Oxidative stress (OS) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a neurotoxin used to induce oxidative cell death of dopaminergic neurons in experimental models of PD. Curcumin I, or diferuloylmethane is a pure compound isolated from Curcuma longa Linn. that has been reported to have neuroprotective properties. The precise mechanism, however, remains unclear. This study aims to elucidate the mechanisms by which curcumin I exerts its effects, using 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in the human dopaminergic cell line SH-SY5Y. In our experiments, pretreatment with curcumin I improved cell viability, and significantly reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Further investigations revealed a reduction of p53 phosphorylation and decrease of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, as measured by mRNA expression and protein level. Taken together, these findings indicate that curcumin I protects dopaminergic neurons from 6-OHDA-induced toxicity via the reduction of ROS production, and subsequent attenuation of p53 phosphorylation and reduction of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. PMID:21167259

  9. Apocyanin, a Microglial NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Prevents Dopaminergic Neuronal Degeneration in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Parkinson's Disease Model.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neha; Nehru, Bimla

    2016-07-01

    Microglia-associated inflammatory processes have been strongly implicated in the development and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Specifically, microglia are activated in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and become chronic source of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex is responsible for extracellular as well as intracellular production of ROS by microglia and its expression is upregulated in PD. Therefore, targeting NADPH oxidase complex activation using an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, i.e., apocyanin seems to be an effective approach. The aim of present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of apocyanin in a LPS-induced PD model. LPS (5 μg) was injected intranigral and apocyanin was administered daily at a dose of 10 mg/kg b.wt (i.p.) during the experiment. LPS when injected into the substantia nigra (SN) reproduced the characteristic hallmark features of PD in rats. It elicited an inflammatory response characterized by glial cell activation (Iba-1, GFAP). Furthermore, LPS upregulated the gene expression of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB), iNOS, and gp91PHOX and resulted in an elevated total ROS production as well as NADPH oxidase activity. Subsequently, this resulted in dopaminergic loss as depicted by decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression with substantial loss in neurotransmitter dopamine and its metabolites, whereas treatment with apocyanin significantly reduced the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Iba-1-positive cells in LPS-treated animals. It also mitigated microglial activation-induced inflammatory response and elevation in NADPH oxidase activity, thus reducing the extracellular as well as intracellular ROS production. The present study indicated that targeting NADPH oxidase can inhibit microglial activation and reduce a broad spectrum of toxic factors generation (i.e., cytokines, ROS, and reactive nitrogen species [RNS

  10. Analysis of dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction in genetic and toxin-induced models of Parkinson's disease in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Juan A; Heßner, Sabina; Yenisetti, Sarat C; Bayersdorfer, Florian; Zhang, Li; Voigt, Aaron; Schneuwly, Stephan; Botella, Jose A

    2014-11-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has contributed significantly to the understanding of disease mechanisms in Parkinson's disease (PD) as it is one of the very few PD model organisms that allow the study of age-dependent behavioral defects, physiology and histology, and genetic interactions among different PD-related genes. However, there have been contradictory results from a number of recent reports regarding the loss of dopaminergic neurons in different PD fly models. In an attempt to re-evaluate and clarify this issue, we have examined three different genetic (α-synuclein, Pink1, parkin) and two toxin-based (rotenone and paraquat) models of the disease for neuronal cell loss. Our results showed no dopaminergic neuronal loss in all models tested. Despite this surprising result, we found additional phenotypes showing the dysfunctional status of the dopaminergic neurons in most of the models analyzed. A common feature found in most models is a quantifiable decrease in the fluorescence of a green-fluorescent protein reporter gene in dopaminergic neurons that correlates well with other phenotypes found for these models and can be reliably used as a hallmark of the neurodegenerative process when modeling diseases affecting the dopaminergic system in Drosophila. Analyzing three genetic and two toxin-based Drosophila models of Parkinson's disease (PD) through green fluorescent protein reporter and α-tyrosine hydroxylase staining, we have found the number of dopaminergic neurons to remain unchanged. Despite the lack of neuronal loss, we have detected a remarkable decrease in a reporter green-fluorescent protein (GFP) signal in dopaminergic neurons, suggesting an abnormal neuronal status that correlates with the phenotypes associated with those PD fly models.

  11. Dopaminergic neurons differentiating from LRRK2 G2019S induced pluripotent stem cells show early neuritic branching defects

    PubMed Central

    Borgs, Laurence; Peyre, Elise; Alix, Philippe; Hanon, Kevin; Grobarczyk, Benjamin; Godin, Juliette D.; Purnelle, Audrey; Krusy, Nathalie; Maquet, Pierre; Lefebvre, Philippe; Seutin, Vincent; Malgrange, Brigitte; Nguyen, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Some mutations of the LRRK2 gene underlie autosomal dominant form of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The G2019S is a common mutation that accounts for about 2% of PD cases. To understand the pathophysiology of this mutation and its possible developmental implications, we developed an in vitro assay to model PD with human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) reprogrammed from skin fibroblasts of PD patients suffering from the LRKK2 G2019S mutation. We differentiated the hiPSCs into neural stem cells (NSCs) and further into dopaminergic neurons. Here we show that NSCs bearing the mutation tend to differentiate less efficiently into dopaminergic neurons and that the latter exhibit significant branching defects as compared to their controls. PMID:27640816

  12. Changes in gene expression linked to methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tao; Tong, Liqiong; Barrett, Tanya; Yuan, Jie; Hatzidimitriou, George; McCann, Una D; Becker, Kevin G; Donovan, David M; Ricaurte, George A

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to examine the role of gene expression in methamphetamine (METH)-induced dopamine (DA) neurotoxicity. First, the effects of the mRNA synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin-D, and the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, were examined. Both agents afforded complete protection against METH-induced DA neurotoxicity and did so independently of effects on core temperature, DA transporter function, or METH brain levels, suggesting that gene transcription and mRNA translation play a role in METH neurotoxicity. Next, microarray technology, in combination with an experimental approach designed to facilitate recognition of relevant gene expression patterns, was used to identify gene products linked to METH-induced DA neurotoxicity. This led to the identification of several genes in the ventral midbrain associated with the neurotoxic process, including genes for energy metabolism [cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 2, and phosphoglycerate mutase B], ion regulation (members of sodium/hydrogen exchanger and sodium/bile acid cotransporter family), signal transduction (adenylyl cyclase III), and cell differentiation and degeneration (N-myc downstream-regulated gene 3 and tau protein). Of these differentially expressed genes, we elected to further examine the increase in COX1 expression, because of data implicating energy utilization in METH neurotoxicity and the known role of COX1 in energy metabolism. On the basis of time course studies, Northern blot analyses, in situ hybridization results, and temperature studies, we now report that increased COX1 expression in the ventral midbrain is linked to METH-induced DA neuronal injury. The precise role of COX1 and other genes in METH neurotoxicity remains to be elucidated.

  13. Dopaminergic Actions of D-Amphetamine on Schedule-Induced Polydipsia in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellon, Ricardo; Ruiz, Ana; Rodriguez, Cilia; Flores, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    Schedule-induced polydipsia in rats was developed by means of a fixed-time 60-s schedule of food presentation. The acute administration of d-amphetamine sulfate (0.1-3.0 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent decrease in the rate of licking. D-Amphetamine shifted to the left the temporal distribution of adjunctive drinking within interfood intervals.…

  14. Harmaline-induced amnesia: Possible role of the amygdala dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, M; Meskarian, M; Khakpai, F; Zarrindast, M-R

    2016-01-15

    In this study, we examined the effect of bilateral intra-basolateral amygdala (intra-BLA) microinjections of dopamine receptor agents on amnesia induced by a β-carboline alkaloid, harmaline in mice. We used a step-down method to assess memory and then, hole-board method to assess exploratory behaviors. The results showed that pre-training intra-BLA injections of dopamine D1 receptor antagonist and agonist (SCH23390 (0.5μg/mouse) and SKF38393 (0.5μg/mouse), respectively) impaired memory acquisition. In contrast, pre-training intra-BLA injections of dopamine D2 receptor antagonist and agonist (sulpiride and quinpirole, respectively) have no significant effect on memory acquisition. Pre-training intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection of harmaline (1mg/kg) decreased memory acquisition. However, co-administration of SCH 23390 (0.01μg/mouse) with different doses of harmaline did not alter amnesia. Conversely, pre-training intra-BLA injection of SKF38393 (0.1μg/mouse), sulpiride (0.25μg/mouse) or quinpirole (0.1μg/mouse) reversed harmaline (1mg/kg, i.p.)-induced amnesia. Furthermore, all above doses of drugs had no effect on locomotor activity. In conclusion, the dopamine D1 and D2 receptors of the BLA may be involved in the impairment of memory acquisition induced by harmaline.

  15. TRPC1 inhibits apoptotic cell degeneration induced by dopaminergic neurotoxin MPTP/MPP+

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Senthil; Watt, John A; Singh, Brij B

    2010-01-01

    Disturbances in Ca2+ homeostasis have been implicated in a variety of neuropathological conditions including Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the importance of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) channels in PD remains to be investigated. In the present study, we have scrutinized the significance of TRPC1 in 1-methyl- 4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6 -tetrahyrdro-pyridine (MPTP)-induced PD using C57BL/6 animal model or PC12 cell culture model. Both sub-acute and sub-chronic treatments of MPTP significantly reduced TRPC1, and tyrosine hydroxylase levels, but not TRPC3, along with increased neuronal death. Furthermore, MPTP induces mitochondrial dysfunction, which was associated with reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased level of Bcl2, Bcl-xl, and an altered Bcl-xl/Bax ratio thereby initiating apoptosis. Importantly, TRPC1 overexpression in PC12 cells showed significant protection against MPP+ induced neuronal apoptosis, which was attributed to the restoration of cytosolic Ca2+ and preventing loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Silencing of TRPC1 or addition of TRPC1 channel blockers decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, whereas activation of TRPC1 restored mitochondrial membrane potential in cells overexpressing TRPC1. TRPC1 overexpression also inhibited Bax translocation to the mitochondria and thereby prevented cytochrome c release and mitochondrial mediated apoptosis. Overall, these results provide compelling evidence for the role of TRPC1 in either onset/progression of PD and restoration of TRPC1 levels could limit neuronal degeneration in MPTP mediated PD. PMID:19695701

  16. Intranasal insulin protects against substantia nigra dopaminergic neuronal loss and alleviates motor deficits induced by 6-OHDA in rats.

    PubMed

    Pang, Y; Lin, S; Wright, C; Shen, J; Carter, K; Bhatt, A; Fan, L-W

    2016-03-24

    Protection of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic (DA) neurons by neurotrophic factors (NTFs) is one of the promising strategies in Parkinson's disease (PD) therapy. A major clinical challenge for NTF-based therapy is that NTFs need to be delivered into the brain via invasive means, which often shows limited delivery efficiency. The nose to brain pathway is a non-invasive brain drug delivery approach developed in recent years. Of particular interest is the finding that intranasal insulin improves cognitive functions in Alzheimer's patients. In vitro, insulin has been shown to protect neurons against various insults. Therefore, the current study was designed to test whether intranasal insulin could afford neuroprotection in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-based rat PD model. 6-OHDA was injected into the right side of striatum to induce a progressive DA neuronal lesion in the ipsilateral SN pars compact (SNc). Recombinant human insulin was applied intranasally to rats starting from 24h post lesion, once per day, for 2 weeks. A battery of motor behavioral tests was conducted on day 8 and 15. The number of DA neurons in the SNc was estimated by stereological counting. Our results showed that 6-OHDA injection led to significant motor deficits and 53% of DA neuron loss in the ipsilateral side of injection. Treatment with insulin significantly ameliorated 6-OHDA-induced motor impairments, as shown by improved locomotor activity, tapered/ledged beam-walking performance, vibrissa-elicited forelimb-placing, initial steps, as well as methamphetamine-induced rotational behavior. Consistent with behavioral improvements, insulin treatment provided a potent protection of DA neurons in the SNc against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity, as shown by a 74.8% increase in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons compared to the vehicle group. Intranasal insulin treatment did not affect body weight and blood glucose levels. In conclusion, our study showed that intranasal insulin provided strong

  17. Intranasal insulin protects against substantia nigra dopaminergic neuronal loss and alleviates motor deficits induced by 6-OHDA in rats.

    PubMed

    Pang, Y; Lin, S; Wright, C; Shen, J; Carter, K; Bhatt, A; Fan, L-W

    2016-03-24

    Protection of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic (DA) neurons by neurotrophic factors (NTFs) is one of the promising strategies in Parkinson's disease (PD) therapy. A major clinical challenge for NTF-based therapy is that NTFs need to be delivered into the brain via invasive means, which often shows limited delivery efficiency. The nose to brain pathway is a non-invasive brain drug delivery approach developed in recent years. Of particular interest is the finding that intranasal insulin improves cognitive functions in Alzheimer's patients. In vitro, insulin has been shown to protect neurons against various insults. Therefore, the current study was designed to test whether intranasal insulin could afford neuroprotection in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-based rat PD model. 6-OHDA was injected into the right side of striatum to induce a progressive DA neuronal lesion in the ipsilateral SN pars compact (SNc). Recombinant human insulin was applied intranasally to rats starting from 24h post lesion, once per day, for 2 weeks. A battery of motor behavioral tests was conducted on day 8 and 15. The number of DA neurons in the SNc was estimated by stereological counting. Our results showed that 6-OHDA injection led to significant motor deficits and 53% of DA neuron loss in the ipsilateral side of injection. Treatment with insulin significantly ameliorated 6-OHDA-induced motor impairments, as shown by improved locomotor activity, tapered/ledged beam-walking performance, vibrissa-elicited forelimb-placing, initial steps, as well as methamphetamine-induced rotational behavior. Consistent with behavioral improvements, insulin treatment provided a potent protection of DA neurons in the SNc against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity, as shown by a 74.8% increase in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons compared to the vehicle group. Intranasal insulin treatment did not affect body weight and blood glucose levels. In conclusion, our study showed that intranasal insulin provided strong

  18. Dopamine as a potent inducer of cellular glutathione and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 in PC12 neuronal cells: a potential adaptive mechanism for dopaminergic neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhenquan; Zhu, Hong; Misra, Bhaba R; Li, Yunbo; Misra, Hara P

    2008-11-01

    Dopamine auto-oxidation and the consequent formation of reactive oxygen species and electrophilic quinone molecules have been implicated in dopaminergic neuronal cell death in Parkinson's disease. We reported here that in PC12 dopaminergic neuronal cells dopamine at noncytotoxic concentrations (50-150 muM) potently induced cellular glutathione (GSH) and the phase 2 enzyme NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), two critical cellular defenses in detoxification of ROS and electrophilic quinone molecules. Incubation of PC12 cells with dopamine also led to a marked increase in the mRNA levels for gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and NQO1. In addition, treatment of PC12 cells with dopamine resulted in a significant elevation of GSH content in the mitochondrial compartment. To determine whether treatment with dopamine at noncytotoxic concentrations, which upregulated the cellular defenses could protect the neuronal cells against subsequent lethal oxidative and electrophilic injury, PC12 cells were pretreated with dopamine (150 muM) for 24 h and then exposed to various cytotoxic concentrations of dopamine or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). We found that pretreatment of PC12 cells with dopamine at a noncytotoxic concentration led to a remarkable protection against cytotoxicity caused by dopamine or 6-OHDA at lethal concentrations, as detected by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium reduction assay. In view of the critical roles of GSH and NQO1 in protecting against dopaminergic neuron degeneration, the above findings implicate that upregulation of both GSH and NQO1 by dopamine at noncytotoxic concentrations may serve as an important adaptive mechanism for dopaminergic neuroprotection. PMID:18368484

  19. Methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity in mice. Role of environmental temperature and pharmacological agents.

    PubMed

    Ali, S F; Newport, G D; Slikker, W

    1996-10-31

    1. Multiple injections of METH (4 x 10 mg/kg, i.p.) at room temperature (23 degrees C) produced a significant depletion of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites DOPAC and HVA in striatum at 24 and 72 hr, and 1 and 2 wk. 2. Three days post 4 x 10 mg/kg METH at 23 degrees C, an 80% decrease in striatal dopamine (DA) occurred, while the same dose at 4 degrees C produced only a 20% DA decrease, and 4 x 20 mg/kg METH at 4 degrees C produced a 54% DA decrease. A similar pattern in the decreases of the DA metabolites DOPAC and HVA was observed after METH administration. 3. At 23 degrees C (+)MK-801 completely blocked while phenobarbital (40% decrease) and diazepam (65% decrease) partially blocked decreases in striatal DA produced by 4 x 10 mg/kg METH. Decreases in DOPAC and HVA were similar to the decreases in DA after METH and antagonists. 4. Multiple injections of METH (4 x 10 mg/kg, i.p.) at room temperature also produced a significant depletion of serotonin (5-HT) in striatum at 24 and 72 hr, and 1 and 2 wk. The depletion of 5-HT metabolite 5-HIAA was found only at 72 hr post-dosing. 5. This depletion of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-HIAA at room temperature was blocked either by changing the environmental temperature to 4 degrees C, or by pretreatment with MK-801, diazepam and phenobarbital after METH treatment. 6. Therefore, these data suggest that drugs that block METH toxicity, such as haloperidol (D2 receptors), pentobarbital and phenobarbital (chloride channels) and MK-801 (NMDA/glutamate receptors), do not necessarily have the same mechanism of action but may either induce hypothermia or block induction of hyperthermia. 7. In summary, these studies show that in the mouse, environmental temperature greatly influences METH neurotoxicity, and that the protective effects of compounds such as diazepam, phenobarbital and MK-801 may be mediated by blockade of METH-induced hyperthermia.

  20. Histone hyperacetylation up-regulates protein kinase Cδ in dopaminergic neurons to induce cell death: relevance to epigenetic mechanisms of neurodegeneration in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huajun; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Harischandra, Dilshan S; Kondru, Naveen; Ghosh, Anamitra; Panicker, Nikhil; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Rana, Ajay; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2014-12-12

    The oxidative stress-sensitive protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) has been implicated in dopaminergic neuronal cell death. However, little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms regulating PKCδ expression in neurons. Here, we report a novel mechanism by which the PKCδ gene can be regulated by histone acetylation. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaBu) induced PKCδ expression in cultured neurons, brain slices, and animal models. Several other HDAC inhibitors also mimicked NaBu. The chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that hyperacetylation of histone H4 by NaBu is associated with the PKCδ promoter. Deletion analysis of the PKCδ promoter mapped the NaBu-responsive element to an 81-bp minimal promoter region. Detailed mutagenesis studies within this region revealed that four GC boxes conferred hyperacetylation-induced PKCδ promoter activation. Cotransfection experiments and Sp inhibitor studies demonstrated that Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 regulated NaBu-induced PKCδ up-regulation. However, NaBu did not alter the DNA binding activities of Sp proteins or their expression. Interestingly, a one-hybrid analysis revealed that NaBu enhanced transcriptional activity of Sp1/Sp3. Overexpression of the p300/cAMP-response element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP) potentiated the NaBu-mediated transactivation potential of Sp1/Sp3, but expressing several HDACs attenuated this effect, suggesting that p300/CBP and HDACs act as coactivators or corepressors in histone acetylation-induced PKCδ up-regulation. Finally, using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we showed that NaBu up-regulation of PKCδ sensitizes neurons to cell death in a human dopaminergic cell model and brain slice cultures. Together, these results indicate that histone acetylation regulates PKCδ expression to augment nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell death, which could contribute to the progressive neuropathogenesis of Parkinson disease.

  1. Metformin, besides exhibiting strong in vivo anti-inflammatory properties, increases mptp-induced damage to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Ismaiel, Afrah A K; Espinosa-Oliva, Ana M; Santiago, Martiniano; García-Quintanilla, Albert; Oliva-Martín, María J; Herrera, Antonio J; Venero, José L; de Pablos, Rocío M

    2016-05-01

    Metformin is a widely used oral antidiabetic drug with known anti-inflammatory properties due to its action on AMPK protein. This drug has shown a protective effect on various tissues, including cortical neurons. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of metformin on the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra of mice using the animal model of Parkinson's disease based on the injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial complex I. In vivo and in vitro experiments were used to study the activation of microglia and the damage of the dopaminergic neurons. Our results show that metformin reduced microglial activation measured both at cellular and molecular levels. Rather than protecting, metformin exacerbated dopaminergic damage in response to MPTP. Our data suggest that, contrary to other brain structures, metformin treatment could be deleterious for the dopaminergic system. Hence, metformin treatment may be considered as a risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease. PMID:26971375

  2. Metformin, besides exhibiting strong in vivo anti-inflammatory properties, increases mptp-induced damage to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Ismaiel, Afrah A K; Espinosa-Oliva, Ana M; Santiago, Martiniano; García-Quintanilla, Albert; Oliva-Martín, María J; Herrera, Antonio J; Venero, José L; de Pablos, Rocío M

    2016-05-01

    Metformin is a widely used oral antidiabetic drug with known anti-inflammatory properties due to its action on AMPK protein. This drug has shown a protective effect on various tissues, including cortical neurons. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of metformin on the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra of mice using the animal model of Parkinson's disease based on the injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial complex I. In vivo and in vitro experiments were used to study the activation of microglia and the damage of the dopaminergic neurons. Our results show that metformin reduced microglial activation measured both at cellular and molecular levels. Rather than protecting, metformin exacerbated dopaminergic damage in response to MPTP. Our data suggest that, contrary to other brain structures, metformin treatment could be deleterious for the dopaminergic system. Hence, metformin treatment may be considered as a risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease.

  3. Rewarding brain stimulation induces only sparse Fos-like immunoreactivity in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Hunt, G E; McGregor, I S

    1998-03-01

    ) and pontine tegmental area (A7) were Fos positive. Overall, the results show that rewarding, brain stimulation induces Fos-like immunoreactivity in many forebrain regions but only sparsely in mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine neurons. The similar patterns of Fos-like immunoreactivity seen in the self-stimulation and yoked-stimulation groups suggests that the operant responding for brain stimulation causes minimal Fos expression in itself.

  4. The glutaminergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic but not cholinergic neurons are susceptible to anaesthesia-induced cell death in the rat developing brain.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z-W; Shu, Y; Li, M; Guo, X; Pac-Soo, C; Maze, M; Ma, D

    2011-02-01

    Neuronal cell death induced by anaesthetics in the developing brain was evident in previous pre-clinical studies. However, the neuronal cell types involved in anaesthesia-induced neuronal cell death remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate glutamatergic, GABAergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic neuronal cell apoptosis induced by anaesthetic exposure in specific brain regions in rats. Separate cohorts of 7-day-old Sprague Dawley (SD) rat pups were randomly assigned to two groups: Naive and anaesthetics alone (70% nitrous oxide and 0.75% isoflurane exposure for 6 h). The brains were sectioned and the slices that contained the basal forebrain, substantia nigra, cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1) subarea of hippocampus or cingulate cortex were selected and subsequently subjected to double-labelled fluorescent immunohistochemistry for choline acetyltransferase, dopamine, vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGLUT1) or glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) together with caspase 3, respectively. Compared to the naive control, anaesthetic exposure significantly increased the number of caspase-3 positive cells in the CA1 subarea of hippocampus, cingulate cortex, and substantia nigra, but not in the basal forebrain. 54% and 14% of apoptotic cells in the CA1 subarea of hippocampus were GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons respectively. In the cingulate cortex, 30% and 37% of apoptotic cells were GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons respectively. In the substantia nigra, 22% of apoptotic cells were dopaminergic neurons. Our data suggests, anaesthetic exposure significantly increases neuroapoptosis of glutamatergic, GABAergic and dopaminergic neurons in the developing brain but not that of the cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. PMID:21056635

  5. Dopaminergic neurotransmission dysfunction induced by amyloid-β transforms cortical long-term potentiation into long-term depression and produces memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Castilla, Perla; Rodriguez-Duran, Luis F; Guzman-Ramos, Kioko; Barcenas-Femat, Alejandro; Escobar, Martha L; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition manifested by synaptic dysfunction and memory loss, but the mechanisms underlying synaptic failure are not entirely understood. Although dopamine is a key modulator of synaptic plasticity, dopaminergic neurotransmission dysfunction in AD has mostly been associated to noncognitive symptoms. Thus, we aimed to study the relationship between dopaminergic neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity in AD models. We used a transgenic model of AD (triple-transgenic mouse model of AD) and the administration of exogenous amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers into wild type mice. We found that Aβ decreased cortical dopamine levels and converted in vivo long-term potentiation (LTP) into long-term depression (LTD) after high-frequency stimulation delivered at basolateral amygdaloid nucleus-insular cortex projection, which led to impaired recognition memory. Remarkably, increasing cortical dopamine and norepinephrine levels rescued both high-frequency stimulation -induced LTP and memory, whereas depletion of catecholaminergic levels mimicked the Aβ-induced shift from LTP to LTD. Our results suggest that Aβ-induced dopamine depletion is a core mechanism underlying the early synaptopathy and memory alterations observed in AD models and acts by modifying the threshold for the induction of cortical LTP and/or LTD. PMID:27103531

  6. Dopaminergic neurotransmission dysfunction induced by amyloid-β transforms cortical long-term potentiation into long-term depression and produces memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Castilla, Perla; Rodriguez-Duran, Luis F; Guzman-Ramos, Kioko; Barcenas-Femat, Alejandro; Escobar, Martha L; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition manifested by synaptic dysfunction and memory loss, but the mechanisms underlying synaptic failure are not entirely understood. Although dopamine is a key modulator of synaptic plasticity, dopaminergic neurotransmission dysfunction in AD has mostly been associated to noncognitive symptoms. Thus, we aimed to study the relationship between dopaminergic neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity in AD models. We used a transgenic model of AD (triple-transgenic mouse model of AD) and the administration of exogenous amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers into wild type mice. We found that Aβ decreased cortical dopamine levels and converted in vivo long-term potentiation (LTP) into long-term depression (LTD) after high-frequency stimulation delivered at basolateral amygdaloid nucleus-insular cortex projection, which led to impaired recognition memory. Remarkably, increasing cortical dopamine and norepinephrine levels rescued both high-frequency stimulation -induced LTP and memory, whereas depletion of catecholaminergic levels mimicked the Aβ-induced shift from LTP to LTD. Our results suggest that Aβ-induced dopamine depletion is a core mechanism underlying the early synaptopathy and memory alterations observed in AD models and acts by modifying the threshold for the induction of cortical LTP and/or LTD.

  7. Function of opioidergic and dopaminergic antagonists on both spatial and object novelty detection deficits induced in rodent model of hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Mafi, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-10-15

    Liver disease has been known for a long time to affect brain function. We now report the function of opioidergic and dopaminergic antagonists on both spatial and object novelty detection deficits induced by hepatic encephalopathy (HE) following bile duct ligation (BDL), a model of chronic liver disease. Assessment of spatial and object novelty detection memories was carried out in the non-associative task. It consists of placing mice in an open field containing five objects and, after three sessions of habituation, examining their reactivity to object displacement (spatial novelty) and object substitution (object novelty). Both spatial and object novelty detection memories were impaired by BDL after 4 weeks. In the BDL mice, pre-test intraperitoneal administration of naloxone (μ-opioidergic receptor antagonist) at dose of 0.9mg/kg restored while sulpiride (D2-like dopamine receptor antagonist) at dose of 40mg/kg potentiated object novelty detection memory deficit. However, SCH23390 (D1-like dopamine receptor antagonist) at dose of 0.04mg/kg or sulpiride (20mg/kg) restored spatial novelty detection memory deficit. Moreover, SCH23390 or sulpiride impaired while naloxone did not alter both memories in sham-operated mice. Furthermore, subthreshold dose co-administration of dopaminergic antagonists together or each one plus naloxone did not alter both memory impairments in BDL mice, while all of three co-administration groups impaired object novelty detection and co-administration of naloxone plus sulpiride impaired spatial detection memory in sham-operated mice. In conclusion, we suggest that opioidergic and dopaminergic systems through separate pathways may contribute in memory impairments induced by BDL in the non-associative task. PMID:27401106

  8. Emotional memory impairments induced by AAV-mediated overexpression of human α-synuclein in dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Alvarsson, A; Caudal, D; Björklund, A; Svenningsson, P

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with extensive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons originating in the substantia nigra pars compacta, but neuronal loss is also found in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA projects to areas involved in cognitive and emotional processes, including hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex, and has thus been proposed to play a role in emotional memory impairments in PD. Since the formation of α-synuclein inclusions throughout the central nervous system is a pathological hallmark of PD, we studied the progressive effects of α-synuclein overexpression in the VTA on motor functions, emotional behaviour and emotional memory. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors encoding either human α-synuclein or green fluorescent protein (GFP) were injected stereotactically into the VTA, and behaviour was monitored 3 and 8 weeks following AAV injection. At week 8, there was a 22% reduction of TH+ neurons in the VTA. We demonstrate that α-synuclein overexpression in dopaminergic neurons of the VTA induced mild motor deficits that appeared 3 weeks following AAV-α-synuclein injection and were aggravated at week 8. No depressive- or anxiety-like behaviours were found. To address emotional memory, we used the passive avoidance test, a one-trial associative learning paradigm based on contextual conditioning which requires minimal training. Interestingly, emotional memory impairments were found in α-synuclein overexpressing animals at week 8. These findings indicate that α-synuclein overexpression induces progressive memory impairments likely caused by a loss of function of mesolimbic dopaminergic projections.

  9. Decreased expression of organic cation transporters, Oct1 and Oct2, in brain microvessels and its implication to MPTP-induced dopaminergic toxicity in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kuo-Chen; Lu, Ya-Hsuan; Peng, Yi-Hsuan; Tsai, Ting-Fen; Kao, Yu-Han; Yang, Hui-Ting; Lin, Chun-Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate the influence of age on the expression of organic cation transporters (OCTs) that belong to the SLC22 family in brain microvessels (BMVs) and its implications for 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic toxicity in mice. Here, we showed that Oct1 and Oct2, but not Oct3, mRNAs were detected and enriched (compared with cerebral cortex) in BMVs of C57BL/6 (B6) mice using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), and immunofluorescence analysis further revealed that Oct1 and Oct2 proteins were colocalized with endothelial markers. Both the mRNA and protein levels of Oct1 and Oct2 were reduced in aged mice. After an intraperitoneal administration of MPTP, brain extracellular levels of MPTP and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP(+)) were much lower in aged mice and in Oct1/2(-/-) mice compared with younger mice and wild-type control mice, respectively. Knockout of Oct1/Oct2 protected Oct1/2(-/-) mice from MPTP-induced neurotoxicity, whereas the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons was slightly greater in aged than in younger mice. However, intrastriatal infusion of low-dose MPTP caused more severe dopaminergic toxicity in the substantia nigra of both aged mice and Oct1/2(-/-) mice. These findings show that age-dependent downregulation or knockout of Oct1/Oct2 in BMVs may reduce the transport of MPTP, which, in part, affects its dopaminergic toxicity. PMID:25248837

  10. Microglia-Derived Cytokines/Chemokines Are Involved in the Enhancement of LPS-Induced Loss of Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons in DJ-1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Chia-Hung; Lee, Ming-Jen; Liou, Houng-Chi; Liou, Horng-Huei; Fu, Wen-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of DJ-1 (PARK7) has been linked to the development of early-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. This study is aimed to compare the sensitivity of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge between DJ-1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice, and explore the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Our results found that the basal levels of interferon (IFN)-γ (the hub cytokine) and interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC) (a downstream mediator) were elevated in the substantia nigra of DJ-1 KO mice and in microglia cells with DJ-1 deficiency, and the release of cytokine/chemokine was greatly enhanced following LPS administration in the DJ-1 deficient conditions. In addition, direct intranigral LPS challenge caused a greater loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and striatal dopamine content in DJ-1 KO mice than in WT mice. Furthermore, the sensitization of microglia cells to LPS challenge to release IFN-γ and I-TAC was via the enhancement of NF-κB signaling, which was antagonized by NF-κB inhibitors. LPS-induced increase in neuronal death in the neuron-glia co-culture was enhanced by DJ-1 deficiency in microglia, which was antagonized by the neutralizing antibodies against IFN-γ or I-TAC. These results indicate that DJ-1 deficiency sensitizes microglia cells to release IFN-γ and I-TAC and causes inflammatory damage to dopaminergic neurons. The interaction between the genetic defect (i.e. DJ-1) and inflammatory factors (e.g. LPS) may contribute to the development of PD. PMID:26982707

  11. The Parathyroid Hormone Second Receptor PTH2R and its Ligand Tuberoinfundibular Peptide of 39 Residues TIP39 Regulate Intracellular Calcium and Influence Keratinocyte Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Emi; Muto, Jun; Zhang, Ling-Juan; Adase, Christopher A; Sanford, James A; Takahashi, Toshiya; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Usdin, Ted B; Gallo, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    Genes related to the parathyroid hormone (PTH) influence cutaneous immune defense and development, but the full functions of the PTH family in cutaneous biology remain incompletely understood. In this study, we examined the expression and potential functions of the PTH second receptor (PTH2R) and its ligand, the tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39), in the skin. TIP39 and PTH2R mRNA and protein were detectable in both human and mouse skin, and in cultured keratinocytes and adipocytes. TIP39 was observed in the basal layer of human skin, whereas PTH2R was detected in the spinous to granular layer. The subcellular localization of TIP39 in keratinocytes changed during calcium-induced differentiation and shifted to colocalize with PTH2R at the membrane. The addition of recombinant TIP39 to normal human keratinocytes in culture induced an increase in intercellular calcium and triggered aspects of terminal differentiation including decreased keratin-14 and increased involucrin expression. Consistent with these observations, PTH2R(-/-) mice were observed to have increased epidermal thickness. In summary, identification of TIP39 and its receptor in the epidermis reveals an additional PTH family member that is expressed in the skin and may influence keratinocyte function.

  12. D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway are not involved in the decreased postoperative nociceptive threshold induced by plantar incision in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Ohtani, Norimasa; Masaki, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately half of all patients who undergo surgery develop postoperative pain, the mechanisms of which are not well understood by anesthesiologists. D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway play an important role in regulation of pain transmission in the spinal cord. Impairment of inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord is suggested as part of the mechanism for neuropathic pain, which is one component of postoperative pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether impairment of D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway in the spinal cord is involved in the decreased postoperative nociceptive threshold in rats. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250–300 g) were anesthetized with sevoflurane and an intrathecal (IT) catheter was implanted. Six days later, a plantar incision was made. On the following day, saline, a D2-like receptor agonist (quinpirole), or a D2-like receptor antagonist (sulpiride) was administered intrathecally. Thermal and mechanical nociceptive responses were assessed by exposure to infrared radiant heat and the von Frey filament test before and after plantar incision. Results Plantar incision decreased both thermal latency and the mechanical nociceptive threshold. IT administration of quinpirole inhibited the nociceptive responses induced by plantar incision, but sulpiride had no effect. Conclusion A D2-like receptor agonist had antinociceptive effects on the hypersensitivity response triggered by a surgical incision, but a D2-like receptor antagonist had no effect on this response. These results suggest that impairment and/or modification of D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway in the spinal cord is not involved in the postoperative decrease in nociceptive threshold. PMID:27799818

  13. Post-trial dopaminergic modulation of conditioned catalepsy: A single apomorphine induced increase/decrease in dopaminergic activation immediately following a conditioned catalepsy response can reverse/enhance a haloperidol conditioned and sensitized catalepsy response.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lucas Rangel; Dias, Flávia Regina Cruz; Santos, Breno Garone; Silva, Jade Leal Loureiro; Carey, Robert J; Carrera, Marinete Pinheiro

    2016-09-15

    Haloperidol can induce catalepsy and this drug effect can be conditioned as well as sensitized to contextual cues. We used a paired/unpaired Pavlovian conditioning protocol to establish haloperidol catalepsy conditioned and sensitized responses. Groups of rats were given 10 daily catalepsy tests following administration of vehicle (n=24) or haloperidol (1.0mg/kg) either paired (n=18) or unpaired (n=18) to testing. Subsequently, testing for conditioning was conducted and conditioning and sensitization of catalepsy were observed selectively in the paired group. Immediately following a second test for catalepsy conditioning, the groups were subdivided into 4 vehicle groups, 3 unpaired haloperidol groups and 3 paired haloperidol groups and were given one of three post-trial treatments (vehicle, 0.05mg/kg or 2.0mg/kg apomorphine). One day later the conditioned catalepsy test 3 was carried out and on the next day, a haloperidol challenge test was performed. The post-trial apomorphine treatments had major effects on the paired groups upon both conditioning and the haloperidol challenge test. The low dose apomorphine post-trial treatment enhanced both the conditioned and the haloperidol sensitized catalepsy responses. The high dose apomorphine post-trial treatment eliminated conditioned catalepsy and eliminated the initial acute catalepsy response to haloperidol that was induced in the vehicle control groups. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of conditioned drug cues to modification by increases/decreases in activity of the dopamine system in the immediate post-trial interval after a conditioning trial. This demonstration that post-trial dopaminergic drug treatments can modify conditioned drug behavior has broad implications for conditioned drug effects.

  14. Model of the complex of Parathyroid hormone-2 receptor and Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We aim to propose interactions between the parathyroid hormone-2 receptor (PTH2R) and its ligand the tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) by constructing a homology model of their complex. The two related peptides parathyroid hormone (PTH) and parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP) are compared with the complex to examine their interactions. Findings In the model, the hydrophobic N-terminus of TIP39 is buried in a hydrophobic part of the central cavity between helices 3 and 7. Comparison of the peptide sequences indicates that the main discriminator between the agonistic peptides TIP39 and PTH and the inactive PTHrP is a tryptophan-phenylalanine replacement. The model indicates that the smaller phenylalanine in PTHrP does not completely occupy the binding site of the larger tryptophan residue in the other peptides. As only TIP39 causes internalisation of the receptor and the primary difference being an aspartic acid in position 7 of TIP39 that interacts with histidine 396 in the receptor, versus isoleucine/histidine residues in the related hormones, this might be a trigger interaction for the events that cause internalisation. Conclusions A model is constructed for the complex and a trigger interaction for full agonistic activation between aspartic acid 7 of TIP39 and histidine 396 in the receptor is proposed. PMID:20979597

  15. Protective effects of a polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis on dopaminergic neurons in an MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Ji-Guo; Xie, Jun-Xia

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether a polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis shows protective effects on dopaminergic neurons. A Parkinson's disease model was established through the intraperitoneal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in C57BL/6J mice. Prior to the MPTP injection, some mice were pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of a polysaccharide derived from Spirulina platensis once daily for 10 days. The results showed that the immunoreactive staining and mRNA expression of the dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, in the substantia nigra, were significantly increased in mice pretreated with 800 mg/kg of the polysaccharide compared with those in MPTP-treated mice. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and midbrain were also increased significantly in mice injected with MPTP after pretreatment with the polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis. By contrast, the activity of monoamine oxidase B in serum and midbrain maintained unchanged. These experimental findings indicate that the polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis plays a protective role against the MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in C57BL/6J mice, and that the antioxidative properties of this polysaccharide likely underlie its neuroprotective effect. PMID:25883632

  16. Auraptene and Other Prenyloxyphenylpropanoids Suppress Microglial Activation and Dopaminergic Neuronal Cell Death in a Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Okuyama, Satoshi; Semba, Tomoki; Toyoda, Nobuki; Epifano, Francesco; Genovese, Salvatore; Fiorito, Serena; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Sawamoto, Atsushi; Nakajima, Mitsunari; Furukawa, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    In patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD), hyperactivated inflammation in the brain, particularly microglial hyperactivation in the substantia nigra (SN), is reported to be one of the triggers for the delayed loss of dopaminergic neurons and sequential motor functional impairments. We previously reported that (1) auraptene (AUR), a natural prenyloxycoumain, suppressed inflammatory responses including the hyperactivation of microglia in the ischemic brain and inflamed brain, thereby inhibiting neuronal cell death; (2) 7-isopentenyloxycoumarin (7-IP), another natural prenyloxycoumain, exerted anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects against excitotoxicity; and (3) 4′-geranyloxyferulic acid (GOFA), a natural prenyloxycinnamic acid, also exerted anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, using an intranigral lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced PD-like mouse model, we investigated whether AUR, 7-IP, and GOFA suppress microglial activation and protect against dopaminergic neuronal cell death in the SN. We successfully showed that these prenyloxyphenylpropanoids exhibited these prospective abilities, suggesting the potential of these compounds as neuroprotective agents for patients with PD. PMID:27763495

  17. Protective effects of a polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis on dopaminergic neurons in an MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Ji-guo; Xie, Jun-xia

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether a polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis shows protective effects on dopaminergic neurons. A Parkinson's disease model was established through the intraperitoneal injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in C57BL/6J mice. Prior to the MPTP injection, some mice were pretreated with intraperitoneal injections of a polysaccharide derived from Spirulina platensis once daily for 10 days. The results showed that the immunoreactive staining and mRNA expression of the dopamine transporter and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, in the substantia nigra, were significantly increased in mice pretreated with 800 mg/kg of the polysaccharide compared with those in MPTP-treated mice. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the serum and midbrain were also increased significantly in mice injected with MPTP after pretreatment with the polysaccharide from Spirulina platensis. By contrast, the activity of monoamine oxidase B in serum and midbrain maintained unchanged. These experimental findings indicate that the polysaccharide obtained from Spirulina platensis plays a protective role against the MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in C57BL/6J mice, and that the antioxidative properties of this polysaccharide likely underlie its neuroprotective effect. PMID:25883632

  18. Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Induces Maternal Hypozincemia, and Prenatal Zinc Treatment Prevents Autistic-Like Behaviors and Disturbances in the Striatal Dopaminergic and mTOR Systems of Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Kirsten, Thiago Berti; Chaves-Kirsten, Gabriela P.; Bernardes, Suene; Scavone, Cristoforo; Sarkis, Jorge E.; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Felicio, Luciano F.

    2015-01-01

    Autism is characterized by social deficits, repetitive behaviors, and cognitive inflexibility. The risk factors appear to include genetic and environmental conditions, such as prenatal infections and maternal dietary factors. Previous investigations by our group have demonstrated that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, induces autistic-like behaviors. To understand the causes of autistic-like behaviors, we evaluated maternal serum metal concentrations, which are involved in intrauterine development and infection/inflammation. We identified reduced maternal levels of zinc, magnesium, selenium and manganese after LPS exposure. Because LPS induced maternal hypozincemia, we treated dams with zinc in an attempt to prevent or ease the impairments in the offspring. We evaluated the social and cognitive autistic-like behaviors and brain tissues of the offspring to identify the central mechanism that triggers the development of autism. Prenatal LPS exposure impaired play behaviors and T-maze spontaneous alternations, i.e., it induced autistic-like behaviors. Prenatal LPS also decreased tyrosine hydroxylase levels and increased the levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the striatum. Thus, striatal dopaminergic impairments may be related to autism. Moreover, excessive signaling through the mTOR pathway has been considered a biomarker of autism, corroborating our rat model of autism. Prenatal zinc treatment prevented these autistic-like behaviors and striatal dopaminergic and mTOR disturbances in the offspring induced by LPS exposure. The present findings revealed a possible relation between maternal hypozincemia during gestation and the onset of autism. Furthermore, prenatal zinc administration appears to have a beneficial effect on the prevention of autism. PMID:26218250

  19. Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Induces Maternal Hypozincemia, and Prenatal Zinc Treatment Prevents Autistic-Like Behaviors and Disturbances in the Striatal Dopaminergic and mTOR Systems of Offspring.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, Thiago Berti; Chaves-Kirsten, Gabriela P; Bernardes, Suene; Scavone, Cristoforo; Sarkis, Jorge E; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Felicio, Luciano F

    2015-01-01

    Autism is characterized by social deficits, repetitive behaviors, and cognitive inflexibility. The risk factors appear to include genetic and environmental conditions, such as prenatal infections and maternal dietary factors. Previous investigations by our group have demonstrated that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, induces autistic-like behaviors. To understand the causes of autistic-like behaviors, we evaluated maternal serum metal concentrations, which are involved in intrauterine development and infection/inflammation. We identified reduced maternal levels of zinc, magnesium, selenium and manganese after LPS exposure. Because LPS induced maternal hypozincemia, we treated dams with zinc in an attempt to prevent or ease the impairments in the offspring. We evaluated the social and cognitive autistic-like behaviors and brain tissues of the offspring to identify the central mechanism that triggers the development of autism. Prenatal LPS exposure impaired play behaviors and T-maze spontaneous alternations, i.e., it induced autistic-like behaviors. Prenatal LPS also decreased tyrosine hydroxylase levels and increased the levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the striatum. Thus, striatal dopaminergic impairments may be related to autism. Moreover, excessive signaling through the mTOR pathway has been considered a biomarker of autism, corroborating our rat model of autism. Prenatal zinc treatment prevented these autistic-like behaviors and striatal dopaminergic and mTOR disturbances in the offspring induced by LPS exposure. The present findings revealed a possible relation between maternal hypozincemia during gestation and the onset of autism. Furthermore, prenatal zinc administration appears to have a beneficial effect on the prevention of autism.

  20. Gastrodin protects against MPP(+)-induced oxidative stress by up regulates heme oxygenase-1 expression through p38 MAPK/Nrf2 pathway in human dopaminergic cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Genling; Hu, Yuqin; Liu, Lanlan; Cai, Jiali; Peng, Cheng; Li, Qinglin

    2014-09-01

    Although the etiology of PD remains unclear, increasing evidence has shown that oxidative stress plays an important role in its pathogenesis and that of other neurodegenerative disorders. The phenolic glucoside gastrodin, a main constituent of a Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata (GE) Blume, has been known to display antioxidant activity. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of gastrodin on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced oxidative cytotoxicity in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells and the underlying mechanism for this neuroprotection. Results indicate that pre-treatment with gastrodin for 1h significantly reduced the MPP(+)-induced viability loss, apoptotic rate and attenuated MPP(+)-mediated ROS production. In addition, gastrodin inhibited MPP(+)-induced lowered membrane potential, decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Moreover, we have revealed the gastrodin increased Nrf2 nuclear translocation, which is upstream of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and for the first time revealed gastrodin could increased antioxidant enzyme HO-1 expression in concentration-dependent and time-dependent manners. HO-1 siRNA transfection was employed, and confirmed gastrodin could active the expression of HO-1. And the increase in HO-1 expression was correlated with the protective effect of gastrodin against MPP(+)-induced injury. Because the inhibitor of HO-1 activity, ZnPP reversed the protective effect of gastrodin against MPP(+)-induced cell death. We also demonstrated that the specific p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580, concentration-dependently blocked on gastrodin-induced HO-1 expression, and meanwhile SB203580 reversed the protective effect of gastrodin against MPP(+)-induced cell death. Taken together, these findings suggest that gastrodin can induce HO-1 expression through activation of p38 MAPK/Nrf2 signaling pathway, thereby protecting the SH-SY5Y cells from MPP(+)-induced oxidative cell death. Thus our study indicates that gastrodin has a

  1. Human neuromelanin: an endogenous microglial activator for dopaminergic neuron death

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Zecca, Luigi; Wilson, Belinda; Ren, RW; Wang, Yong-jun; Wang, Xiao-min; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that neuroinflammation caused by over-activation of microglial in the substantia nigra is critical in the pathogenesis of dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Increasing data demonstrates that environmental factors such as rotenone, paraquat play pivotal roles in the death of dopaminergic neurons. Here, potential role and mechanism of neuromelanin (NM), a major endogenous component in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, on microglial activation and associated dopaminergic neurotoxicity were investigated. Using multiple well-established primary mesencephalic cultures, we tested whether human NM (HNM) could activate microglia, thereby provoking dopaminergic neurodegeneration. The results demonstrated that in primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures, HNM caused dopaminergic neuronal damage characterized by the decreased dopamine uptake and reduced numbers and shorted dendrites of dopaminergic neurons. HNM-induced degeneration was relatively selective to dopaminergic neurons since the other types of neurons determined by either gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake and total neuronal numbers after staining showed smaller decrease. We demonstrated that HNM produced modest dopaminergic neurotoxicity in neuron-enriched cultures; in contrast, much greater neurotoxicity was observed in the presence of microglia. HNM-induced microglial activation was shown by morphological changes and production of proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors. These results suggest that HNM, once released from damaged dopaminergic neurons, can be an potent endogenous activator involved in the reactivation of microglia, which may mediate disease progression. Thus, inhibition of reactive microglia can be a useful strategy for PD therapy. PMID:23276965

  2. Virtually-induced threat in Parkinson's: Dopaminergic interactions between anxiety and sensory-perceptual processing while walking.

    PubMed

    Ehgoetz Martens, Kaylena A; Ellard, Colin G; Almeida, Quincy J

    2015-12-01

    Research evidence has suggested that anxiety influences gait in PD, with an identified dopa-sensitive gait response in highly anxious PD. It has been well-established that accurate perception of the environment and sensory feedback is essential for gait. Arguably since sensory and perceptual deficits have been noted in PD, anxiety has the potential to exacerbate movement impairments, since one might expect that reducing resources needed to overcome or compensate for sensory-perceptual deficits may lead to even more severe gait impairments. It is possible that anxiety in threatening situations might consume more processing resources, limiting the ability to process information about the environment or one's own movement (sensory feedback) especially in highly anxious PD. Therefore, the current study aimed to (i) evaluate whether processing of threat-related aspects of the environment was influenced by anxiety, (ii) evaluate whether anxiety influences the ability to utilize sensory feedback in PD while walking in threatening situations, and (iii) further understand the role of dopaminergic medication on these processes in threatening situations in PD. Forty-eight participants (24 HC; 12 Low Anxious [LA-PD], 12 Highly Anxious [HA-PD]) completed 20 walking trials in virtual reality across a plank that was (i) located on the ground (GROUND) (ii) located above a deep pit (ELEVATED); while provided with or without visual feedback about their lower limbs (+VF; -VF). After walking across the plank, participants were asked to judge the width of the plank they had just walked across. The plank varied in size from 60-100 cm. Both ON and OFF dopaminergic medication states were evaluated in PD. Gait parameters, judgment error and self-reported anxiety levels were measured. Results showed that HA-PD reported greater levels of anxiety overall (p<0.001) compared to HC and LA-PD, and all participants reported greater anxiety during the ELEVATED condition compared to GROUND (p=0

  3. Virtually-induced threat in Parkinson's: Dopaminergic interactions between anxiety and sensory-perceptual processing while walking.

    PubMed

    Ehgoetz Martens, Kaylena A; Ellard, Colin G; Almeida, Quincy J

    2015-12-01

    Research evidence has suggested that anxiety influences gait in PD, with an identified dopa-sensitive gait response in highly anxious PD. It has been well-established that accurate perception of the environment and sensory feedback is essential for gait. Arguably since sensory and perceptual deficits have been noted in PD, anxiety has the potential to exacerbate movement impairments, since one might expect that reducing resources needed to overcome or compensate for sensory-perceptual deficits may lead to even more severe gait impairments. It is possible that anxiety in threatening situations might consume more processing resources, limiting the ability to process information about the environment or one's own movement (sensory feedback) especially in highly anxious PD. Therefore, the current study aimed to (i) evaluate whether processing of threat-related aspects of the environment was influenced by anxiety, (ii) evaluate whether anxiety influences the ability to utilize sensory feedback in PD while walking in threatening situations, and (iii) further understand the role of dopaminergic medication on these processes in threatening situations in PD. Forty-eight participants (24 HC; 12 Low Anxious [LA-PD], 12 Highly Anxious [HA-PD]) completed 20 walking trials in virtual reality across a plank that was (i) located on the ground (GROUND) (ii) located above a deep pit (ELEVATED); while provided with or without visual feedback about their lower limbs (+VF; -VF). After walking across the plank, participants were asked to judge the width of the plank they had just walked across. The plank varied in size from 60-100 cm. Both ON and OFF dopaminergic medication states were evaluated in PD. Gait parameters, judgment error and self-reported anxiety levels were measured. Results showed that HA-PD reported greater levels of anxiety overall (p<0.001) compared to HC and LA-PD, and all participants reported greater anxiety during the ELEVATED condition compared to GROUND (p=0

  4. Cyanide-induced death of dopaminergic cells is mediated by uncoupling protein-2 up-regulation and reduced Bcl-2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Li, L.; Zhang, L.; Borowitz, J.L.; Isom, G.E.

    2009-07-01

    Cyanide is a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and produces mitochondria-mediated death of dopaminergic neurons and sublethal intoxications that are associated with a Parkinson-like syndrome. Cyanide toxicity is enhanced when mitochondrial uncoupling is stimulated following up-regulation of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2). In this study, the role of a pro-survival protein, Bcl-2, in cyanide-mediated cell death was determined in a rat dopaminergic immortalized mesencephalic cell line (N27 cells). Following pharmacological up-regulation of UCP-2 by treatment with Wy14,643, cyanide reduced cellular Bcl-2 expression by increasing proteasomal degradation of the protein. The increased turnover of Bcl-2 was mediated by an increase of oxidative stress following UCP-2 up-regulation. The oxidative stress involved depletion of mitochondrial glutathione (mtGSH) and increased H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation. Repletion of mtGSH by loading cells with glutathione ethyl ester reduced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation and in turn blocked the cyanide-induced decrease of Bcl-2. To determine if UCP-2 mediated the response, RNAi knock down was conducted. The RNAi decreased cyanide-induced depletion of mtGSH, reduced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accumulation, and inhibited down-regulation of Bcl-2, thus blocking cell death. To confirm the role of Bcl-2 down-regulation in the cell death, it was shown that over-expression of Bcl-2 by cDNA transfection attenuated the enhancement of cyanide toxicity after UCP-2 up-regulation. It was concluded that UCP-2 up-regulation sensitizes cells to cyanide by increasing cellular oxidative stress, leading to an increase of Bcl-2 degradation. Then the reduced Bcl-2 levels sensitize the cells to cyanide-mediated cell death.

  5. Long Withdrawal of Methylphenidate Induces a Differential Response of the Dopaminergic System and Increases Sensitivity to Cocaine in the Prefrontal Cortex of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Pereira, Maurício; Sathler, Matheus Figueiredo; Valli, Thais da Rosa; Marques, Richard Souza; Ventura, Ana Lucia Marques; Peccinalli, Ney Ronner; Fraga, Mabel Carneiro; Manhães, Alex C.; Kubrusly, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is one of the most prescribed drugs for alleviating the symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, changes in the molecular mechanisms related to MPD withdrawal and susceptibility to consumption of other psychostimulants in normal individuals or individuals with ADHD phenotype are not completely understood. The aims of the present study were: (i) to characterize the molecular differences in the prefrontal dopaminergic system of SHR and Wistar strains, (ii) to establish the neurochemical consequences of short- (24 hours) and long-term (10 days) MPD withdrawal after a subchronic treatment (30 days) with Ritalin® (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride; 2.5 mg/kg orally), (iii) to investigate the dopaminergic synaptic functionality after a cocaine challenge in adult MPD-withdrawn SHR and Wistar rats. Our results indicate that SHR rats present reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and cAMP accumulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and are not responsive to dopaminergic stimuli in when compared to Wistar rats. After a 24-hour withdrawal of MPD, SHR did not present any alterations in [3H]-Dopamine Uptake, [3H]-SCH 23390 binding and cAMP production; nonetheless, after a 10-day MPD withdrawal, the results showed a significant increase of [3H]-Dopamine uptake, of the quantity of [3H]-SCH 23390 binding sites and of cAMP levels in these animals. Finally, SHR that underwent a 10-day MPD withdrawal and were challenged with cocaine (10 mg/kg i.p.) presented reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and increased cAMP production. Wistar rats were affected by the 10-day withdrawal of MPD in [3H]-dopamine uptake but not in cAMP accumulation; in addition, cocaine was unable to induce significant modifications in [3H]-dopamine uptake and in cAMP levels after the 10-day withdrawal of MPD. These results indicate a mechanism that could explain the high comorbidity between ADHD adolescent patients under methylphenidate treatment and substance abuse in adult life

  6. Long Withdrawal of Methylphenidate Induces a Differential Response of the Dopaminergic System and Increases Sensitivity to Cocaine in the Prefrontal Cortex of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Pereira, Maurício; Sathler, Matheus Figueiredo; Valli, Thais da Rosa; Marques, Richard Souza; Ventura, Ana Lucia Marques; Peccinalli, Ney Ronner; Fraga, Mabel Carneiro; Manhães, Alex C; Kubrusly, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is one of the most prescribed drugs for alleviating the symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, changes in the molecular mechanisms related to MPD withdrawal and susceptibility to consumption of other psychostimulants in normal individuals or individuals with ADHD phenotype are not completely understood. The aims of the present study were: (i) to characterize the molecular differences in the prefrontal dopaminergic system of SHR and Wistar strains, (ii) to establish the neurochemical consequences of short- (24 hours) and long-term (10 days) MPD withdrawal after a subchronic treatment (30 days) with Ritalin® (Methylphenidate Hydrochloride; 2.5 mg/kg orally), (iii) to investigate the dopaminergic synaptic functionality after a cocaine challenge in adult MPD-withdrawn SHR and Wistar rats. Our results indicate that SHR rats present reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and cAMP accumulation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and are not responsive to dopaminergic stimuli in when compared to Wistar rats. After a 24-hour withdrawal of MPD, SHR did not present any alterations in [3H]-Dopamine Uptake, [3H]-SCH 23390 binding and cAMP production; nonetheless, after a 10-day MPD withdrawal, the results showed a significant increase of [3H]-Dopamine uptake, of the quantity of [3H]-SCH 23390 binding sites and of cAMP levels in these animals. Finally, SHR that underwent a 10-day MPD withdrawal and were challenged with cocaine (10 mg/kg i.p.) presented reduced [3H]-Dopamine uptake and increased cAMP production. Wistar rats were affected by the 10-day withdrawal of MPD in [3H]-dopamine uptake but not in cAMP accumulation; in addition, cocaine was unable to induce significant modifications in [3H]-dopamine uptake and in cAMP levels after the 10-day withdrawal of MPD. These results indicate a mechanism that could explain the high comorbidity between ADHD adolescent patients under methylphenidate treatment and substance abuse in adult life.

  7. beta2 Adrenergic receptor activation induces microglial NADPH oxidase activation and dopaminergic neurotoxicity through an ERK-dependent/protein kinase A-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Qian, Li; Hu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Dan; Snyder, Amanda; Wu, Hung-Ming; Li, Yachen; Wilson, Belinda; Lu, Ru-Band; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Flood, Patrick M

    2009-11-15

    Activation of the beta2 adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) on immune cells has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties, however, the pro-inflammatory properties of beta2AR activation remain unclear. In this study, using rat primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures, we report that salmeterol, a long-acting beta2AR agonist, selectively induces dopaminergic (DA) neurotoxicity through its ability to activate microglia. Salmeterol selectively increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase (PHOX), the major superoxide-producing enzyme in microglia. A key role of PHOX in mediating salmeterol-induced neurotoxicity was demonstrated by the inhibition of DA neurotoxicity in cultures pretreated with diphenylene-iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of PHOX activity. Mechanistic studies revealed the activation of microglia by salmeterol results in the selective phosphorylation of ERK, a signaling pathway required for the translocation of the PHOX cytosolic subunit p47(phox) to the cell membrane. Furthermore, we found ERK inhibition, but not protein kinase A (PKA) inhibition, significantly abolished salmeterol-induced superoxide production, p47(phox) translocation, and its ability to mediate neurotoxicity. Together, these findings indicate that beta2AR activation induces microglial PHOX activation and DA neurotoxicity through an ERK-dependent/PKA-independent pathway.

  8. Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis protects human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line against rotenone-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Diêgo Madureira; Barreto, George; Galeano, Pablo; Romero, Juan Ignacio; Holubiec, Mariana Inés; Badorrey, Maria Sol; Capani, Francisco; Alvarez, Lisandro Diego Giraldez

    2011-09-01

    Paullinia cupana Mart. var. Sorbilis, commonly known as Guaraná, is a Brazilian plant frequently cited for its antioxidant properties and different pharmacological activities on the central nervous system. The potential beneficial uses of Guaraná in neurodegenerative disorders, such as in Parkinson's disease (PD), the pathogenesis of which is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, has not yet been assessed. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to evaluate if an extract of commercial powdered seeds of Guaraná could protect human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line against rotenone-induced cytotoxicity. Two concentration of Guaraná dimethylsulfoxide extract (0.312 and 0.625 mg/mL) were added to SH-SY5Y cells treated with 300 nM rotenone for 48 h, and the cytoprotective effects were assessed by means of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, and analyzing nuclear integrity with Hoechst33258 stain. Results showed that the addition of Guaraná extract significantly increased the cell viability of SH-SY5Y cells treated with rotenone, in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, LDH levels were significantly reduced by addition of 0.312 mg/mL of Guaraná, but unexpectedly, no changes were observed with the higher concentration. Moreover, chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were significantly reduced by addition of any of both concentrations of the extract. The results obtained in this work could provide relevant information about the mechanisms underlying the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in PD and precede in vivo experiments. Further studies are needed to investigate which active constituent is responsible for the cytoprotective effect produced by Paullinia cupana.

  9. Klotho Protects Dopaminergic Neuron Oxidant-Induced Degeneration by Modulating ASK1 and p38 MAPK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Brobey, Reynolds K.; German, Dwight; Sonsalla, Patricia K.; Gurnani, Prem; Pastor, Johanne; Hsieh, C-C; Papaconstantinou, John; Foster, Philip P.; Kuro-o, Makoto; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Klotho transgenic mice exhibit resistance to oxidative stress as measured by their urinal levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, albeit this anti-oxidant defense mechanism has not been locally investigated in the brain. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-sensitive apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)/p38 MAPK pathway regulates stress levels in the brain of these mice and showed that: 1) the ratio of free ASK1 to thioredoxin (Trx)-bound ASK1 is relatively lower in the transgenic brain whereas the reverse is true for the Klotho knockout mice; 2) the reduced p38 activation level in the transgene corresponds to higher level of ASK1-bound Trx, while the KO mice showed elevated p38 activation and lower level of–bound Trx; and 3) that 14-3-3ζ is hyper phosphorylated (Ser-58) in the transgene which correlated with increased monomer forms. In addition, we evaluated the in vivo robustness of the protection by challenging the brains of Klotho transgenic mice with a neurotoxin, MPTP and analyzed for residual neuron numbers and integrity in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Our results show that Klotho overexpression significantly protects dopaminergic neurons against oxidative damage, partly by modulating p38 MAPK activation level. Our data highlight the importance of ASK1/p38 MAPK pathway in the brain and identify Klotho as a possible anti-oxidant effector. PMID:26452228

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid promotes dopaminergic differentiation in induced pluripotent stem cells and inhibits teratoma formation in rats with Parkinson-like pathology.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuh-Lih; Chen, Shih-Jen; Kao, Chung-Lan; Hung, Shih-Chieh; Ding, Dah-Ching; Yu, Cheng-Chia; Chen, Yi-Jen; Ku, Hung-Hai; Lin, Chin-Po; Lee, Kun-Hsiung; Chen, Yu-Chih; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Chen, Liang-Kung; Li, Hsin-Yang; Chiou, Shih-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the midbrain. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have shown potential for differentiation and may become a resource of functional neurons for the treatment of PD. However, teratoma formation is a major concern for transplantation-based therapies. This study examined whether functional neurons could be efficiently generated from iPS cells using a five-step induction procedure combined with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) treatment. We demonstrated that DHA, a ligand for the RXR/Nurr1 heterodimer, significantly activated expression of the Nurr1 gene and the Nurr1-related pathway in iPS cells. DHA treatment facilitated iPS differentiation into tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in vitro and in vivo and functionally increased dopamine release in transplanted grafts in PD-like animals. Furthermore, DHA dramatically upregulated the endogenous expression levels of neuroprotective genes (Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor) and protected against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced apoptosis in iPS-derived neuronal precursor cells. DHA-treated iPS cells significantly improved the behavior of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-treated PD-like rats compared to control or eicosapentaenoic acid-treated group. Importantly, the in vivo experiment suggests that DHA induces the differentiation of functional dopaminergic precursors and improves the abnormal behavior of 6-OHDA-treated PD-like rats by 4 months after transplantation. Furthermore, we found that DHA treatment in iPS cell-grafted rats significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of embryonic stem cell-specific genes (Oct-4 and c-Myc) in the graft and effectively blocked teratoma formation. Importantly, 3 Tesla-magnetic resonance imaging and ex vivo green fluorescence protein imaging revealed that no teratomas were present

  11. Regulatory effects of costunolide on dopamine metabolism-associated genes inhibit dopamine-induced apoptosis in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Ham, Ahrom; Lee, Sung-Jin; Shin, Jongheon; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Mar, Woongchon

    2012-01-24

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra and the subsequent depletion of dopamine (DA). This study assessed the protective effects of costunolide on DA-induced apoptosis in human DAergic SH-SY5Y cells, and its regulation of DA metabolism-associated gene and protein expression. Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) staining using flow cytometric analysis (FACS) revealed that costunolide significantly protected human DAergic SH-SY5Y cells against DA-induced apoptosis. In addition, co-treatment of costunolide with DA in SH-SY5Y cells regulated DA metabolism-associated gene expression, as we observed an increase in both mRNA and protein levels of nuclear receptor related-1 (Nurr1), DA transporter (DAT), and vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2). In contrast, α-synuclein (ASYN) protein levels were decreased. Our findings suggest that costunolide has anti-apoptotic activity, presumably due to its regulatory effects on DA metabolism-associated genes. Therefore, costunolide could be considered as a candidate therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. PMID:22040670

  12. Conditioned medium from human amniotic epithelial cells may induce the differentiation of human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells into dopaminergic neuron-like cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu; Sun, Hai-Mei; Yan, Ji-Hong; Xue, Hong; Wu, Bo; Dong, Fang; Li, Wen-Shuai; Ji, Feng-Qing; Zhou, De-Shan

    2013-07-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neuron therapy has been established as a new clinical tool for treating Parkinson's disease (PD). Prior to cell transplantation, there are two primary issues that must be resolved: one is the appropriate seed cell origin, and the other is the efficient inducing technique. In the present study, human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) were used as the available seed cells, and conditioned medium from human amniotic epithelial cells (ACM) was used as the inducing reagent. Results showed that the proportion of DA neuron-like cells from hUCB-MSCs was significantly increased after cultured in ACM, suggested by the upregulation of DAT, TH, Nurr1, and Pitx3. To identify the process by which ACM induces DA neuron differentiation, we pretreated hUCB-MSCs with k252a, the Trk receptor inhibitor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), and found that the proportion of DA neuron-like cells was significantly decreased compared with ACM-treated hUCB-MSCs, suggesting that NGF and BDNF in ACM were involved in the differentiation process. However, we could not rule out the involvement of other unidentified factors in the ACM, because ACM + k252a treatment does not fully block DA neuron-like cell differentiation compared with control. The transplantation of ACM-induced hUCB-MSCs could ameliorate behavioral deficits in PD rats, which may be associated with the survival of engrafted DA neuron-like cells. In conclusion, we propose that hUCB-MSCs are a good source of DA neuron-like cells and that ACM is a potential inducer to obtain DA neuron-like cells from hUCB-MSCs in vitro for an ethical and legal cell therapy for PD.

  13. Norepinephrine content in the paraventicular nucleus of the hypothalamus as a function of photoperiod and dopaminergic tone.

    PubMed

    Woods, K A; Buechi, K A; Illig, A M; Badura, L L

    1998-02-01

    The decline in the release of various anterior pituitary hormones, particularly prolactin (PRL), as a result of exposure to inhibitory, short-day photoperiods in long-day breeders is a well-documented phenomenon. This alteration in the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal axis is largely controlled by changes in the duration of the nocturnal melatonin pulse secreted by the pineal gland. Increased duration of melatonin secretion serves to increase the inhibitory activity of the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons, which in turn suppress PRL release and synthesis. However, other hypothalamic factors also appear to stimulate anterior pituitary function, working in concert with changes in TIDA activity to modulate circulating PRL levels under different photoperiod conditions. Past work from this laboratory has suggested that neurochemical changes at the level of the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN), particularly changes in norepinephrine (NE) activity, may represent one of these modulatory influences. The current study investigated potential alterations in NF, content within the PVN during the early stages of short-day exposure in Siberian hamsters. In addition, the interaction of NE content with the modulatory dopamine (DA) system was investigated via administration of a DA agonist (CD154) or antagonist (pimozide). Hamsters received CB 154 (500 micrograms), pimozide (45 micrograms), or control solution via the drinking water under either long days (16L:8D) or short days (10L:14D), and were sacrificed at 1, 3, or 5 wk of photoperiod and drug treatment. The brains were removed, and the PVN microdissected from the hypothalamus and analyzed for catecholamine content using high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC). The results revealed the expected stimulation of circulating PRL under both photoperiods following pimozide administration, as well as the expected trend toward an accelerated suppression of PRL under short days

  14. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2, a Novel Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cell Inducer, Protects Dopaminergic Neurons by Modulating Neuroinflammatory Responses in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eun Sook; Lee, Gihyun; Lee, Chanju; Ye, Minsook; Chung, Hwan-suck; Kim, Hyunseong; Bae, Sung-joo S; Hwang, Deok-Sang; Bae, Hyunsu

    2015-11-15

    Foxp3-expressing CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are vital for maintaining immune tolerance in animal models of various immune diseases. In the present study, we demonstrated that bee venom phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) is the major BV compound capable of inducing Treg expansion and promotes the survival of dopaminergic neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson's disease. We associated this neuroprotective effect of bvPLA2 with microglial deactivation and reduction of CD4(+) T cell infiltration. Interestingly, bvPLA2 had no effect on mice depleted of Tregs by injecting anti-CD25 Ab. This finding indicated that Treg-mediated modulation of peripheral immune tolerance is strongly involved in the neuroprotective effects of bvPLA2. Furthermore, our results showed that bvPLA2 directly bound to CD206 on dendritic cells and consequently promoted the secretion of PGE2, which resulted in Treg differentiation via PGE2 (EP2) receptor signaling in Foxp3(-)CD4(+) T cells. These observations suggest that bvPLA2-CD206-PGE2-EP2 signaling promotes immune tolerance through Treg differentiation and contributes to the prevention of various neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease. PMID:26453752

  15. Pleiotrophin is involved in the amniotic epithelial cell-induced differentiation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells into dopaminergic neuron-like cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu; Xue, Dan-Dan; Wu, Bo; Sun, Hai-Mei; Li, Xiao-Shuang; Dong, Fang; Li, Wen-Shuai; Ji, Feng-Qing; Zhou, De-Shan

    2013-02-28

    We have reported that human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) are capable of differentiating into dopaminergic (DA) neuron-like cells upon being induced by amniotic epithelial cells (AECs). However, what factor(s) is involved in the differentiation process has not been explored out thoroughly. Because pleiotrophin (PTN) is known to exert important trophic effects on DA neurons, in the present study, we investigated whether PTN is released by AECs and whether it is involved in the differentiation of hUCB-MSCs into DA neuron-like cells. The expression and secretion of PTN by AECs were detected by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR and ELISA. The hUCB-MSCs were isolated and treated with AEC-conditioned medium (ACM) or recombinant human PTN. Compared to the controls, a higher proportion of treated cells differentiated into DA neuron-like cells, indicated by the increased expression of TH and DAT and the increased dopamine content. These results indicate that PTN released by AECs acts as a synergetic factor with other neurotrophic factors and is involved in the differentiation of hUCB-MSCs into DA neuron-like cells. We suggest that ACM, which contains PTN and other neurotrophic factors, could potentially be used as an agent to promote the differentiation of DA neuron-like cells from hUCB-MSCs for cell therapy of Parkinson's disease without creating legal or ethical issues.

  16. HIF1α is necessary for exercise-induced neuroprotection while HIF2α is needed for dopaminergic neuron survival in the substantia nigra pars compacta.

    PubMed

    Smeyne, M; Sladen, P; Jiao, Y; Dragatsis, I; Smeyne, R J

    2015-06-01

    Exercise reduces the risk of developing a number of neurological disorders and increases the efficiency of cellular energy production. However, overly strenuous exercise produces oxidative stress. Proper oxygenation is crucial for the health of all tissues, and tight regulation of cellular oxygen is critical to balance O2 levels and redox homeostasis in the brain. Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF)1α and HIF2α are transcription factors regulated by cellular oxygen concentration that initiate gene regulation of vascular development, redox homeostasis, and cell cycle control. HIF1α and HIF2α contribute to important adaptive mechanisms that occur when oxygen and ROS homeostasis become unbalanced. It has been shown that preconditioning by exposure to a stressor prior to a hypoxic event reduces damage that would otherwise occur. Previously we reported that 3 months of exercise protects SNpc dopaminergic (DA) neurons from toxicity caused by Complex I inhibition. Here, we identify the cells in the SNpc that express HIF1α and HIF2α and show that running exercise produces hypoxia in SNpc DA neurons, and alters the expression of HIF1α and HIF2α. In mice carrying a conditional knockout of Hif1α in postnatal neurons we observe that exercise alone produces SNpc TH+ DA neuron loss. Loss of HIF1α also abolishes exercise-induced neuroprotection. In mice lacking Hif2α in postnatal neurons, the number of TH+ DA neurons in the adult SNpc is diminished, but 3months of exercise rescues this loss. We conclude that HIF1α is necessary for exercise-induced neuroprotection and both HIF1α and HIF2α are necessary for the survival and function of adult SNpc DA neurons. PMID:25796140

  17. Cannabinoid-induced depression of synaptic transmission is switched to stimulation when dopaminergic tone is increased in the globus pallidus of the rodent.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Florán, Rene Nahum; Conde-Rojas, Israel; Oviedo Chávez, Aldo; Cortes-Calleja, Hernán; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F; Isom, Lori L; Aceves, Jorge; Erlij, David; Florán, Benjamín

    2016-11-01

    Because activation of D2 receptors reverses the neurochemical effects of cannabinoids, we examined whether increasing dopaminergic tone in the globus pallidus (GPe) switches cannabinoid induced depression of synaptic transmission. GABAergic synaptic currents evoked in pallidal neurons by stimulation of striatal projections (IPSCs) were depressed by perfusion with the CB1R agonist ACEA. Coactivation of D2Rs with quinpirole converted the depression into stimulation. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX) to limit Gi/o protein coupling also switched the CB1R-induced depression of IPSCs. The stimulation of IPSCs was blocked by the selective PKA blocker H89. Changes in the paired pulse ratio during both inhibitory and stimulatory responses indicate that the effects are due to changes in transmitter release. Postsynaptic depolarization induces endocannabinoid release that inhibits transmitter release (DSI). When D2Rs were activated with quinpirole, depolarization increased transmission instead of depressing it. This increase was blocked by AM251. We also examined the effects of CB1R/D2R coactivation on cAMP accumulation in the GPe to further verify that the AC/PKA cascade is involved. CB1R/D2R coactivation converted the inhibition of cAMP seen when each receptor is stimulated alone into a stimulation. We also determined the effects on turning behavior of unilateral injection of ACEA into the GPe of awake animals and its modification by dopamine antagonists. Blockade of D2 family receptors with sulpiride antagonized the motor effects of ACEA. We show, for the first time, that cannabinoid-inhibition of synaptic transmission in the GPe becomes a stimulation after D2Rs or PTX treatment and that the switch is probably relevant for the control of motor behavior.

  18. Cannabinoid-induced depression of synaptic transmission is switched to stimulation when dopaminergic tone is increased in the globus pallidus of the rodent.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Florán, Rene Nahum; Conde-Rojas, Israel; Oviedo Chávez, Aldo; Cortes-Calleja, Hernán; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F; Isom, Lori L; Aceves, Jorge; Erlij, David; Florán, Benjamín

    2016-11-01

    Because activation of D2 receptors reverses the neurochemical effects of cannabinoids, we examined whether increasing dopaminergic tone in the globus pallidus (GPe) switches cannabinoid induced depression of synaptic transmission. GABAergic synaptic currents evoked in pallidal neurons by stimulation of striatal projections (IPSCs) were depressed by perfusion with the CB1R agonist ACEA. Coactivation of D2Rs with quinpirole converted the depression into stimulation. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX) to limit Gi/o protein coupling also switched the CB1R-induced depression of IPSCs. The stimulation of IPSCs was blocked by the selective PKA blocker H89. Changes in the paired pulse ratio during both inhibitory and stimulatory responses indicate that the effects are due to changes in transmitter release. Postsynaptic depolarization induces endocannabinoid release that inhibits transmitter release (DSI). When D2Rs were activated with quinpirole, depolarization increased transmission instead of depressing it. This increase was blocked by AM251. We also examined the effects of CB1R/D2R coactivation on cAMP accumulation in the GPe to further verify that the AC/PKA cascade is involved. CB1R/D2R coactivation converted the inhibition of cAMP seen when each receptor is stimulated alone into a stimulation. We also determined the effects on turning behavior of unilateral injection of ACEA into the GPe of awake animals and its modification by dopamine antagonists. Blockade of D2 family receptors with sulpiride antagonized the motor effects of ACEA. We show, for the first time, that cannabinoid-inhibition of synaptic transmission in the GPe becomes a stimulation after D2Rs or PTX treatment and that the switch is probably relevant for the control of motor behavior. PMID:27506997

  19. Involvement of dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems of the basolateral amygdala in amnesia induced by the stimulation of dorsal hippocampal cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Rezayof, A; Habibi, P; Zarrindast, M-R

    2011-02-23

    The present study intended to investigate the involvement of dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems of the basolateral amygdala in amnesia induced by the stimulation of dorsal hippocampal cannabinoid receptors in male Wistar rats. The animals were stereotaxically implanted with guide cannulas in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus and basolateral amygdala (BLA), trained in a step-through type passive avoidance task, and tested 24 h after training to measure memory retrieval. Post-training intra-CA1 microinjection of the nonselective CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) (0.1-0.5 μg/rat) dose-dependently induced amnesia. Post-training intra-BLA administration of the D1/D2 dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine (0.3 and 0.5 μg/rat) plus intra-CA1 administration of 0.1 μg/rat of WIN, which alone did not induce amnesia, inhibited memory formation. The inhibitory effect of 0.5 μg/rat of WIN (intra-CA1) on memory formation was significantly decreased by the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0.1-0.5 μg/rat, intra-BLA) or the D2 dopamine receptor antagonist sulpiride (0.02-0.5 μg/rat, intra-BLA) given 5 min before post-training intra-CA1 microinjection of WIN. It is important to note that single intra-BLA microinjection of the same doses of apomorphine, SCH23390 or sulpiride had no effect on memory retrieval in passive avoidance task. On the other hand, post-training co-administration of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA; 0.03 and 0.05 μg/rat, intra-BLA) plus an ineffective dose of WIN (0.1 μg/rat, intra-CA1) induced amnesia. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of 0.5 μg/rat of intra-CA1 microinjection of WIN on memory formation was significantly decreased by pre-treatment with intra-BLA microinjection of the NMDA receptor antagonist d-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (d-AP5; 0.1 and 0.5 μg/rat, intra-BLA). Intra-BLA microinjection of the same doses of NMDA or d-AP5 by itself did not induce any response on memory retrieval. Taken together, these

  20. Partial dopaminergic denervation-induced impairment in stimulus discrimination acquisition in parkinsonian rats: a model for early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Andrew L; Olumolade, Oluyemi O; Otani, Hajime

    2015-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) produces progressive nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) denervation resulting in cognitive and motor impairment. However, it is unknown whether cognitive impairments, such as instrumental learning deficits, are associated with the early stage PD-induced mild DA denervation. The current study sought to model early PD-induced instrumental learning impairments by assessing the effects of low dose (5.5μg), bilateral 6OHDA-induced striatal DA denervation on acquisition of instrumental stimulus discrimination in rats. 6OHDA (n=20) or sham (n=10) lesioned rats were tested for stimulus discrimination acquisition either 1 or 2 weeks post surgical lesion. Stimulus discrimination acquisition across 10 daily sessions was used to assess discriminative accuracy, or a probability measure of the shift toward reinforced responding under one stimulus condition (Sd) away from extinction, when reinforcement was withheld, under another (S(d) phase). Striatal DA denervation was assayed by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) staining intensity. Results indicated that 6OHDA lesions produced significant loss of dorsal striatal TH staining intensity and marked impairment in discrimination acquisition, without inducing akinetic motor deficits. Rather 6OHDA-induced impairment was associated with perseveration during extinction (S(Δ) phase). These findings suggest that partial, bilateral striatal DA denervation produces instrumental learning deficits, prior to the onset of gross motor impairment, and suggest that the current model is useful for investigating mild nigrostriatal DA denervation associated with early stage clinical PD.

  1. Not only serotonergic system, but also dopaminergic system involved in albiflorin against chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depression-like behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Jingjing; Hou, Xintong; Hu, Xinyu; Lu, Chengyu; Liu, Chungang; Wang, Juan; Liu, Wei; Teng, Lirong; Wang, Di

    2015-12-01

    Albiflorin (AF), separated from the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, possesses neuro-protective and anti-inflammatory activities. Based on previous results, our present research aims to investigate the antidepressant-like activity of AF in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced rat model of depression. Eight weeks of CUMS process successfully established depression-like rat model, as evidenced by the enhanced immobility time in forced swimming test and the reduced sucrose preference, which were reversed to near normal by AF (20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (3 mg/kg; positive drug) treated. Compared to non-treated depression-like rats, the increased levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HTAA) in serum and hypothalamus, and the reduced expressions of 5-HT1A receptor and 5-HT2A receptor in hypothalamus were observed after AF and fluoxetine oral administration indicating that AF-mediated antidepressant-like effect may be related to the normalization of serotonergic system. Additionally, four-week AF treated rats significantly showed improvement in the reduced dopamine and noradrenalin concentration in serum and hypothalamus as observed on depression-like rats. Altered levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine D2 receptor and dopamine transporter in hypothalamus reverted to the normal level after treatment with both AF and fluoxetine. All these data demonstrate that not only serotonergic system, but also dopaminergic system is involved in AF-mediated antidepressant-like effect in CUMS-induced rat model of depression. PMID:26475043

  2. Involvement of dopaminergic and cholinergic systems in social isolation-induced deficits in social affiliation and conditional fear memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Okada, R; Fujiwara, H; Mizuki, D; Araki, R; Yabe, T; Matsumoto, K

    2015-07-23

    , when analyzed 30 min after the administration of the test drugs, tacrine significantly attenuated the SI-induced decrease in p-CaMKII, p-CREB, and Egr-1 in a manner reversible by scopolamine. Our results suggest that SI-induced deficits in social affiliation and conditioned fear memory were mediated by functional alterations to central dopaminergic and cholinergic systems, respectively.

  3. Influence of caffeine on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neuron degeneration and neuroinflammation is age-dependent.

    PubMed

    Frau, Lucia; Costa, Giulia; Porceddu, Pier Francesca; Khairnar, Amit; Castelli, Maria Paola; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Madeddu, Camilla; Wardas, Jadwiga; Morelli, Micaela

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that caffeine administration to adult mice potentiates glial activation induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). As neuroinflammatory response seems to correlate with neurodegeneration, and the young brain is particularly vulnerable to neurotoxicity, we evaluated dopamine neuron degeneration and glial activation in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of adolescent and adult mice. Mice were treated with MDMA (4 × 20 mg/kg), alone or with caffeine (10 mg/kg). Interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were evaluated in CPu, whereas tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), glial fibrillary acidic protein, and CD11b were evaluated in CPu and SNc by immunohistochemistry. MDMA decreased TH in SNc of both adolescent and adult mice, whereas TH-positive fibers in CPu were only decreased in adults. In CPu of adolescent mice, caffeine potentiated MDMA-induced glial fibrillary acidic protein without altering CD11b, whereas in SNc caffeine did not influence MDMA-induced glial activation. nNOS, IL-1β, and TNF-α were increased by MDMA in CPu of adults, whereas in adolescents, levels were only elevated after combined MDMA plus caffeine. Caffeine alone modified only nNOS. Results suggest that the use of MDMA in association with caffeine during adolescence may exacerbate the neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation elicited by MDMA. Previous studies have demonstrated that caffeine potentiated glial activation induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in adult mice. In this study, caffeine was shown to potentiate MDMA-induced dopamine neuron degeneration in substantia nigra pars compacta, astrogliosis, and TNF-α levels in caudate-putamen of adolescent mice. Results suggest that combined use of MDMA plus caffeine during adolescence may worsen the neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation elicited by MDMA. PMID:26442661

  4. Influence of caffeine on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neuron degeneration and neuroinflammation is age-dependent.

    PubMed

    Frau, Lucia; Costa, Giulia; Porceddu, Pier Francesca; Khairnar, Amit; Castelli, Maria Paola; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Madeddu, Camilla; Wardas, Jadwiga; Morelli, Micaela

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that caffeine administration to adult mice potentiates glial activation induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). As neuroinflammatory response seems to correlate with neurodegeneration, and the young brain is particularly vulnerable to neurotoxicity, we evaluated dopamine neuron degeneration and glial activation in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of adolescent and adult mice. Mice were treated with MDMA (4 × 20 mg/kg), alone or with caffeine (10 mg/kg). Interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were evaluated in CPu, whereas tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), glial fibrillary acidic protein, and CD11b were evaluated in CPu and SNc by immunohistochemistry. MDMA decreased TH in SNc of both adolescent and adult mice, whereas TH-positive fibers in CPu were only decreased in adults. In CPu of adolescent mice, caffeine potentiated MDMA-induced glial fibrillary acidic protein without altering CD11b, whereas in SNc caffeine did not influence MDMA-induced glial activation. nNOS, IL-1β, and TNF-α were increased by MDMA in CPu of adults, whereas in adolescents, levels were only elevated after combined MDMA plus caffeine. Caffeine alone modified only nNOS. Results suggest that the use of MDMA in association with caffeine during adolescence may exacerbate the neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation elicited by MDMA. Previous studies have demonstrated that caffeine potentiated glial activation induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in adult mice. In this study, caffeine was shown to potentiate MDMA-induced dopamine neuron degeneration in substantia nigra pars compacta, astrogliosis, and TNF-α levels in caudate-putamen of adolescent mice. Results suggest that combined use of MDMA plus caffeine during adolescence may worsen the neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation elicited by MDMA.

  5. Effect of temperature on dopamine transporter function and intracellular accumulation of methamphetamine: implications for methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Xie, T; McCann, U D; Kim, S; Yuan, J; Ricaurte, G A

    2000-10-15

    Hyperthermia exacerbates and hypothermia attenuates methamphetamine (METH)-induced dopamine (DA) neurotoxicity. The mechanisms underlying these temperature effects are unknown. Given the essential role of the DA transporter (DAT) in the expression of METH-induced DA neurotoxicity, we hypothesized that the effect of temperature on METH-induced DA neurotoxicity is mediated, at least in part, at the level of the DAT. To test this hypothesis, the effects of small, physiologically relevant temperature changes on DAT function were evaluated in two types of cultured neuronal cells: (1) a neuroblastoma cell line stably transfected with human DAT cDNA and (2) rat embryonic mesencephalic primary cells that naturally express the DAT. Temperatures for studies of DAT function were selected based on core temperature measurements in animals exposed to METH under usual ambient (22 degrees C) and hypothermic (6 degrees C) temperature conditions, where METH neurotoxicity was fully expressed and blocked, respectively. DAT function, determined by measuring accumulation of radiolabeled DA and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), was found to directly correlate with temperature, with higher levels of substrate uptake at 40 degrees C, intermediate levels at 37 degrees C, and lower levels at 34 degrees C. DAT-mediated accumulation of METH also directly correlated with temperature, with greater accumulation at higher temperatures. These findings indicate that relatively small, physiologically relevant changes in temperature significantly alter DAT function and intracellular METH accumulation, and suggest that the effect of temperature on METH-induced DA neurotoxicity is mediated, at least in part, at the level of the DAT.

  6. Dopaminergic Neuronal Differentiation from the Forebrain-Derived Human Neural Stem Cells Induced in Cultures by Using a Combination of BMP-7 and Pramipexole with Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, HongNa; Wang, Jing; Wang, Feng; Liu, XiaoDun; Chen, Heng; Duan, WeiMing; Qu, TingYu

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons is considered to be the most promising therapeutic strategy for replacing degenerated dopamine cells in the midbrain of Parkinson's disease (PD), thereby restoring normal neural circuit function and slow clinical progression of the disease. Human neural stem cells (hNSCs) derived from fetal forebrain are thought to be the important cell sources for producing DA neurons because of their multipotency for differentiation and long-term expansion property in cultures. However, low DA differentiation of the forebrain-derived hNSCs limited their therapeutic potential in PD. In the current study, we explored a combined application of Pramipexole (PRX), bone morphogenetic proteins 7 (BMP-7), and growth factors, including acidic fibroblast factor (aFGF), forskolin, and phorbol-12-myristae-13-acetate (TPA), to induce differentiation of forebrain-derived hNSCs toward DA neurons in cultures. We found that DA neuron-associated genes, including Nurr1, Neurogenin2 (Ngn2), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were significantly increased after 24 h of differentiation by RT-PCR analysis (p < 0.01). Fluorescent examination showed that about 25% of cells became TH-positive neurons at 24 h, about 5% of cells became VMAT2 (vascular monoamine transporter 2)-positive neurons, and less than 5% of cells became DAT (dopamine transporter)-positive neurons at 72 h following differentiation in cultures. Importantly, these TH-, VMAT2-, and DAT-expressing neurons were able to release dopamine into cultures under both of the basal and evoked conditions. Dopamine levels released by DA neurons produced using our protocol were significantly higher compared to the control groups (P < 0.01), as examined by ELISA. Our results demonstrated that the combination of PRX, BMP-7, and growth factors was able to greatly promote differentiation of the forebrain-derived hNSCs into DA-releasing neurons. PMID:27147976

  7. Involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in early retinal neuropathy of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats: therapeutic potential of brain-derived neurotrophic factor for dopaminergic amacrine cells.

    PubMed

    Seki, Masaaki; Tanaka, Takayuki; Nawa, Hiroyuki; Usui, Tomoaki; Fukuchi, Takeo; Ikeda, Kazuhito; Abe, Haruki; Takei, Nobuyuki

    2004-09-01

    Although neurotrophins have been assessed as candidate therapeutic agents for neural complications of diabetes, their involvement in diabetic retinopathy has not been fully characterized. We found that the protein and mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat retinas were reduced to 49% (P < 0.005) and 74% (P < 0.05), respectively, of those of normal control animals. In addition, dopaminergic amacrine cells appeared to be degenerating in the diabetic rat retinas, as revealed by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity. Overall TH protein levels in the retina were decreased to one-half that of controls (P < 0.01), reflecting reductions in the density of dopaminergic amacrine cells and the intensity of TH immunoreactivity within them. To confirm the neuropathological implications of BDNF reduction, we administered BDNF protein into the vitreous cavities of diabetic rats. Intraocular administration of BDNF rescued dopaminergic amacrine cells from neurodegeneration and counteracted the downregulation of TH expression, demonstrating its therapeutic potential. These findings suggest that the early retinal neuropathy of diabetes involves the reduced expression of BDNF and can be ameliorated by an exogenous supply of this neurotrophin. PMID:15331553

  8. Dopaminergic neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells survive and integrate into 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jingli; Yang, Ming; Poremsky, Elizabeth; Kidd, Sarah; Schneider, Jay S; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2010-07-01

    Cell replacement therapy could be an important treatment strategy for Parkinson's disease (PD), which is caused by the degeneration of dopamine neurons in the midbrain (mDA). The success of this approach greatly relies on the discovery of an abundant source of cells capable of mDAergic function in the brain. With the paucity of available human fetal tissue, efforts have increasingly focused on renewable stem cells. Human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells offer great promise in this regard. If hiPS cells can be differentiated into authentic mDA neuron, hiPS could provide a potential autologous source of transplant tissue when generated from PD patients, a clear advantage over human embryonic stem (hES) cells. Here, we report that mDA neurons can be derived from a commercially available hiPS cell line, IMR90 clone 4, using a modified hES differentiation protocol established in our lab. These cells express all the markers (Lmx1a, Aldh1a1, TH, TrkB), follow the same mDA lineage pathway as H9 hES cells, and have similar expression levels of DA and DOPAC. Moreover, when hiPS mDA progenitor cells are transplanted into 6-OHDA-lesioned PD rats, they survive long term and many develop into bona fide mDA neurons. Despite their differentiation and integration into the brain, many Nestin+ tumor-like cells remain at the site of the graft. Our data suggest that as with hES cells, selecting the appropriate population of mDA lineage cells and eliminating actively dividing hiPS cells before transplantation will be critical for the future success of hiPS cell replacement therapy in PD patients.

  9. Nifedipine and nimodipine protect dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons against axotomy-induced cell death in rat vibrosections via modulating inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Daschil, Nina; Humpel, Christian

    2014-09-18

    Neurodegeneration of cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons is a major hallmark in Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, respectively. A dysregulation in calcium homeostasis may be part of this process and counteracting calcium influx may have neuroprotective properties in both diseases. Therefore, we investigated the putative neuroprotective or neurotoxic activity of L-type calcium channel (LTCC) inhibitors on cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons in a rat organotypic vibrosection model. Sagittal or coronal vibrosections (200 μm thick) of postnatal day 10 rats were cultured on 0.4 μm semipermeable membranes for 2 weeks with 10 ng/ml nerve growth factor (NGF) and/or glial-cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to maintain survival of cholinergic or dopaminergic neurons, respectively. Thereafter, sections were incubated with 0.1, 1 or 10 μM isradipine, nicardipine or verapamil for 2 weeks to explore cytotoxicity. Alternatively, in order to explore neuroprotective activity, vibrosections were incubated without growth factors but with isradipine or verapamil or with nicardipine, nimodipine or nifedipine from the beginning for 4 weeks. Our data show that all LTCC inhibitors exhibited no neurotoxic effect on cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons. Further, LTCC inhibitors did not have any neuroprotective activity on cholinergic neurons. However, nimodipine and nifedipine significantly enhanced the survival of dopaminergic substantia nigra (SN) but not ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons, while nicardipine, isradipine and verapamil had no effect. Nifedipine (and more potently GDNF) reduced inflammatory cytokines (macrophage inflammatory protein-2, tumor necrosis factor-α), but did not influence oxidative stress or caspase-3 activity and did not interfere with iron-mediated overload. Our data show that nifedipine and nimodipine are very potent to enhance the survival of axotomized SN neurons, possibly influencing inflammatory processes.

  10. Chronic administration of cholesterol oximes in mice increases transcription of cytoprotective genes and improves transcriptome alterations induced by alpha-synuclein overexpression in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Franziska; Gao, Fuying; Medvedeva, Vera; Lee, Patrick; Bove, Nicholas; Fleming, Sheila M.; Michaud, Magali; Lemesre, Vincent; Patassini, Stefano; De La Rosa, Krystal; Mulligan, Caitlin K.; Sioshansi, Pedrom; Zhu, Chunni; Coppola, Giovanni; Bordet, Thierry; Pruss, Rebecca; Chesselet, Marie-Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol-oximes TRO19622 and TRO40303 target outer mitochondrial membrane proteins and have beneficial effects in preclinical models of neurodegenerative diseases leading to their advancement to clinical trials. Dopaminergic neurons degenerate in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and are prone to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In order to provide insights into the neuroprotective potential of TRO19622 and TRO40303 for dopaminergic neurons in vivo, we assessed their effects on gene expression in laser captured nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons of wildtype mice and of mice that over-express alpha-synuclein, a protein involved in both familial and sporadic forms of PD (Thy1-aSyn mice). Young mice were fed the drugs in food pellets or a control diet from 1 to 4 months of age, approximately 10 months before the appearance of striatal dopamine loss in this model. Unbiased weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of transcriptional changes revealed effects of cholesterol oximes on transcripts related to mitochondria, cytoprotection and anti-oxidant response in wild-type and transgenic mice, including increased transcription of stress defense (e.g. Prdx1, Prdx2, Glrx2, Hspa9, Pink1, Drp1, Trak1) and dopamine-related (Th, Ddc, Gch1, Dat, Vmat2, Drd2, Chnr6a) genes. Even at this young age transgenic mice showed alterations in transcripts implicated in mitochondrial function and oxidative stress (e.g. Bcl-2, Bax, Casp3, Nos2), and both drugs normalized about 20% of these alterations. Young Thy1-aSyn mice exhibit motor deficits that differ from parkinsonism and are established before the onset of treatment; these deficits were not improved by cholesterol oximes. However, high doses of TRO40303 improved olfaction and produced the same effects as dopamine agonists on a challenging beam test, specifically an increase in footslips, an observation congruent with its effects on transcripts involved in dopamine synthesis. High doses of TRO19622 increased

  11. [Anhedonia--a general nosology surmounting correlate of a dysfunctional dopaminergic reward system?].

    PubMed

    Heinz, A

    1999-05-01

    The dopaminergic reward system is activated by primary rewarding factors such as food, sexual activity and parental care. Its activation enhances the occurrence of behaviors which induced the stimulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Indications of a dysfunction of the dopaminergic reward system are found in major depression, schizophrenia, and addictive disorders. It has been hypothesized that dysfunction of the dopaminergic reward system is associated with anhedonia, the inability to experience pleasure. However, animal studies indicate that a reduction of central dopaminergic neurotransmission is associated with a decrease in incentive salience of reward-indicating stimuli and not with anhedonia per se. Sensitization of dopaminergic neurotransmission, on the other hand, seems to induce cue-dependent craving in addicted patients. In schizophrenia, phasic, stimulus-dependent dopamine release in the striatum may play a role in the abnormal attribution of salience to previously neutral stimuli.

  12. Necrostatin-1 protection of dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing-ru; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Sheng-kui; Yang, Long; Yin, Jia-le; Cao, Jun-ping; Cheng, Yan-bo

    2015-01-01

    Necroptosis is characterized by programmed necrotic cell death and autophagic activation and might be involved in the death process of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. We hypothesized that necrostatin-1 could block necroptosis and give protection to dopaminergic neurons. There is likely to be crosstalk between necroptosis and other cell death pathways, such as apoptosis and autophagy. PC12 cells were pretreated with necroststin-1 1 hour before exposure to 6-hydroxydopamine. We examined cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential and expression patterns of apoptotic and necroptotic death signaling proteins. The results showed that the autophagy/lysosomal pathway is involved in the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced death process of PC12 cells. Mitochondrial disability induced overactive autophagy, increased cathepsin B expression, and diminished Bcl-2 expression. Necrostatin-1 within a certain concentration range (5–30 μM) elevated the viability of PC12 cells, stabilized mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibited excessive autophagy, reduced the expression of LC3-II and cathepsin B, and increased Bcl-2 expression. These findings suggest that necrostatin-1 exerted a protective effect against injury on dopaminergic neurons. Necrostatin-1 interacts with the apoptosis signaling pathway during this process. This pathway could be a new neuroprotective and therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease. PMID:26330837

  13. Distribution of Tuberoinfundibular Peptide of 39 Residues and Its Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone 2 Receptor, in the Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    FABER, CATHERINE A.; DOBOLYI, ARPÁD; SLEEMAN, MARK; USDIN, TED B.

    2010-01-01

    Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) was identified as a potent parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R) agonist. Existing anatomical data also support the suggestion that TIP39 is the PTH2R’s endogenous ligand, but a comprehensive comparison of TIP39 and PTH2R distributions has not been performed. In the present study, we compared the distributions of TIP39 and PTH2R on adjacent mouse brain sections. In addition, we determined the locations of PTH2R-expressing cell bodies by in situ hybridization histochemistry and by labeling β-galactosidase driven by the PTH2R promoter in knockin mice. An excellent correlation was found between the distributions of TIP39-containing fibers and PTH2R-containing cell bodies and fibers throughout the brain. TIP39 and the PTH2R are abundant in medial prefrontal, insular, and ectorhinal cortices, the lateral septal nucleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the fundus striati, the amygdala, the ventral subiculum, the hypothalamus, midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei, the medial geniculate body, the periaqueductal gray, the ventral tegmental area, the superior and inferior colliculi, the parabrachial nuclei, the locus coeruleus, subcoeruleus and periolivary areas, and the nucleus of the solitary tract. Furthermore, even the subregional distribution of TIP39- and PTH2R-immunoreactive fibers in these regions showed remarkable similarities, providing anatomical evidence that TIP39 may act on the PTH2R. Based on these observations and on previous pharmacological data, we propose that TIP39 is an endogenous ligand of the PTH2R and that they form a neuromodulator system, which is optimally positioned to regulate limbic, endocrine, and auditory brain functions. PMID:17394159

  14. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues modulates the mouse hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis via paraventricular glutamatergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Eugene; Usdin, Ted Björn

    2010-11-01

    Neurons in the subparafascicular area at the caudal border of the thalamus that contain the neuropeptide tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) densely innervate several hypothalamic areas, including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). These areas contain a matching distribution of TIP39's receptor, the parathyroid hormone receptor 2 (PTH2R). Frequent PTH2R coexpression with a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGlut2) suggests that TIP39 could presynaptically regulate glutamate release. By using immunohistochemistry we found CRH-ir neurons surrounded by PTH2R-ir fibers and TIP39-ir axonal projections in the PVN area of the mouse brain. Labeling hypothalamic neuroendocrine neurons by peripheral injection of fluorogold in PTH2R-lacZ knock-in mice showed that most PTH2Rs are on PVN and peri-PVN interneurons and not on neuroendocrine cells. Double fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed a high level of coexpression between PTH2R and VGlut2 mRNA by cells located in the PVN and nearby brain areas. Local TIP39 infusion (100 pmol) robustly increased pCREB-ir in the PVN and adjacent perinuclear zone. It also increased plasma corticosterone and decreased plasma prolactin. These effects of TIP39 on pCREB-ir, corticosterone, and prolactin were abolished by coinfusion of the ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and DL-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5; 30 pmol each) and were absent in PTH2R knockout mice. Basal plasma corticosterone was slightly decreased in TIP39 knockout mice just before onset of their active phase. The present data indicate that the TIP39 ligand/PTH2 receptor system provides facilitatory regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis via hypothalamic glutamatergic neurons and that it may regulate other neuroendocrine systems by a similar mechanism.

  15. Tuberoinfundibular Peptide of 39 Residues Modulates the Mouse Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal Axis Via Paraventricular Glutamatergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Eugene; Usdin, Ted Björn

    2010-01-01

    Neurons in the subparafascicular area at the caudal border of the thalamus that contain the neuropeptide tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) densely innervate several hypothalamic areas, including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). These areas contain a matching distribution of TIP39’s receptor, the parathyroid hormone receptor 2 (PTH2R). Frequent PTH2R coexpression with a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGlut2) suggests that TIP39 could presynaptically regulate glutamate release. By using immunohistochemistry we found CRH-ir neurons surrounded by PTH2R-ir fibers and TIP39-ir axonal projections in the PVN area of the mouse brain. Labeling hypothalamic neuroendocrine neurons by peripheral injection of fluorogold in PTH2R-lacZ knock-in mice showed that most PTH2Rs are on PVN and peri-PVN interneurons and not on neuroendocrine cells. Double fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed a high level of coexpression between PTH2R and VGlut2 mRNA by cells located in the PVN and nearby brain areas. Local TIP39 infusion (100 pmol) robustly increased pCREB-ir in the PVN and adjacent perinuclear zone. It also increased plasma corticosterone and decreased plasma prolactin. These effects of TIP39 on pCREB-ir, corticosterone, and prolactin were abolished by coinfusion of the ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and DL-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5; 30 pmol each) and were absent in PTH2R knockout mice. Basal plasma corticosterone was slightly decreased in TIP39 knockout mice just before onset of their active phase. The present data indicate that the TIP39 ligand/PTH2 receptor system provides facilitatory regulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis via hypothalamic glutamatergic neurons and that it may regulate other neuroendocrine systems by a similar mechanism. PMID:20853513

  16. Distribution of tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues and its receptor, parathyroid hormone 2 receptor, in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Faber, Catherine A; Dobolyi, Arpád; Sleeman, Mark; Usdin, Ted B

    2007-06-01

    Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) was identified as a potent parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R) agonist. Existing anatomical data also support the suggestion that TIP39 is the PTH2R's endogenous ligand, but a comprehensive comparison of TIP39 and PTH2R distributions has not been performed. In the present study, we compared the distributions of TIP39 and PTH2R on adjacent mouse brain sections. In addition, we determined the locations of PTH2R-expressing cell bodies by in situ hybridization histochemistry and by labeling beta-galactosidase driven by the PTH2R promoter in knockin mice. An excellent correlation was found between the distributions of TIP39-containing fibers and PTH2R-containing cell bodies and fibers throughout the brain. TIP39 and the PTH2R are abundant in medial prefrontal, insular, and ectorhinal cortices, the lateral septal nucleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the fundus striati, the amygdala, the ventral subiculum, the hypothalamus, midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei, the medial geniculate body, the periaqueductal gray, the ventral tegmental area, the superior and inferior colliculi, the parabrachial nuclei, the locus coeruleus, subcoeruleus and periolivary areas, and the nucleus of the solitary tract. Furthermore, even the subregional distribution of TIP39- and PTH2R-immunoreactive fibers in these regions showed remarkable similarities, providing anatomical evidence that TIP39 may act on the PTH2R. Based on these observations and on previous pharmacological data, we propose that TIP39 is an endogenous ligand of the PTH2R and that they form a neuromodulator system, which is optimally positioned to regulate limbic, endocrine, and auditory brain functions. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Brain renin-angiotensin system and dopaminergic cell vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Labandeira-García, Jose L.; Garrido-Gil, Pablo; Rodriguez-Pallares, Jannette; Valenzuela, Rita; Borrajo, Ana; Rodríguez-Perez, Ana I.

    2014-01-01

    Although the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was classically considered as a circulating system that regulates blood pressure, many tissues are now known to have a local RAS. Angiotensin, via type 1 receptors, is a major activator of the NADPH-oxidase complex, which mediates several key events in oxidative stress (OS) and inflammatory processes involved in the pathogenesis of major aging-related diseases. Several studies have demonstrated the presence of RAS components in the basal ganglia, and particularly in the nigrostriatal system. In the nigrostriatal system, RAS hyperactivation, via NADPH-oxidase complex activation, exacerbates OS and the microglial inflammatory response and contributes to progression of dopaminergic degeneration, which is inhibited by angiotensin receptor blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Several factors may induce an increase in RAS activity in the dopaminergic system. A decrease in dopaminergic activity induces compensatory upregulation of local RAS function in both dopaminergic neurons and glia. In addition to its role as an essential neurotransmitter, dopamine may also modulate microglial inflammatory responses and neuronal OS via RAS. Important counterregulatory interactions between angiotensin and dopamine have also been observed in several peripheral tissues. Neurotoxins and proinflammatory factors may also act on astrocytes to induce an increase in RAS activity, either independently of or before the loss of dopamine. Consistent with a major role of RAS in dopaminergic vulnerability, increased RAS activity has been observed in the nigra of animal models of aging, menopause and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which also showed higher dopaminergic vulnerability. Manipulation of the brain RAS may constitute an effective neuroprotective strategy against dopaminergic vulnerability and progression of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25071471

  18. [The influence of L-glutamate and carbachol on burst firing of dopaminergic neurons in ventral tegmental area].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan-shan; Wei, Chun-ling; Liu, Zhi-qiang; Ren, Wei

    2011-02-25

    Burst firing of dopaminergic neurons in ventral tegmental area (VTA) induces a large transient increase in synaptic dopamine (DA) release and thus is considered the reward-related signal. But the mechanisms of burst generation of dopaminergic neuron still remain unclear. This experiment investigated the burst firing of VTA dopaminergic neurons in rat midbrain slices perfused with carbachol and L-glutamate individually or simultaneously to understand the neurotransmitter mechanism underlying burst generation. The results showed that bath application of carbachol (10 μmol/L) and pulse application of L-glutamate (3 mmol/L) both induced burst firing in dopaminergic neuron. Co-application of carbachol and L-glutamate induced burst firing in VTA dopaminergic cells which couldn't be induced to burst by the two chemicals separately. The result indicates that carbachol and L-glutamate co-regulate burst firing of dopaminergic neuron.

  19. Naringin: a protector of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection.

    PubMed

    Jung, Un Ju; Leem, Eunju; Kim, Sang Ryong

    2014-06-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and a biochemical reduction of striatal dopamine levels. Despite the lack of fully understanding of the etiology of Parkinson's disease, accumulating evidences suggest that Parkinson's disease may be caused by the insufficient support of neurotrophic factors, and by microglial activation, resident immune cells in the brain. Naringin, a major flavonone glycoside in grapefruits and citrus fruits, is considered as a protective agent against neurodegenerative diseases because it can induce not only anti-oxidant effects but also neuroprotective effects by the activation of anti-apoptotic pathways and the induction of neurotrophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. We have recently reported that naringin has neuroprotective effects in a neurotoxin model of Parkinson's disease. Our observations show that intraperitoneal injection of naringin induces increases in glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activity in dopaminergic neurons of rat brains with anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, the production of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor by naringin treatment contributes to the protection of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection in a neurotoxin model of Parkinson's disease. Although the effects of naringin on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in human brains are largely unknown, these results suggest that naringin may be a beneficial natural product for the prevention of dopaminergic degeneration in the adult brain. PMID:24963276

  20. Ginsenoside Rb1 protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative stress by increasing heme oxygenase-1 expression through an estrogen receptor-related PI3K/Akt/Nrf2-dependent pathway in human dopaminergic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2010-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are polyphenolic non-steroidal plant compounds with estrogen-like biological activity. Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae), is a popular traditional herbal medicine. Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), an active component commonly found in ginseng root, is a phytoestrogen that exerts estrogen-like activity. In this study, we demonstrate that the phytoestrogen Rb1 inhibits 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced oxidative injury via an ER-dependent Gbeta1/PI3K/Akt and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway. Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with Rb1 significantly reduced 6-OHDA-induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent cell death. Rb1 also up-regulated HO-1 expression, which conferred cytoprotection against 6-OHDA-induced oxidative injury. Moreover, Rb1 induced both Nrf2 nuclear translocation, which is upstream of HO-1 expression and PI3K activation, a pathway that is involved in induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, HO-1 expression and cytoprotection. Also, Rb1-mediated increases in PI3K activation and HO-1 induction were reversed by co-treatment with ICI 182,780 and pertussis toxin. Taken together, these results suggest that Rb1 augments the cellular antioxidant defenses through ER-dependent HO-1 induction via the Gbeta1/PI3K/Akt-Nrf2 signaling pathway, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress. Thus our study indicates that Rb1 has a partial cytoprotective role in dopaminergic cell culture systems.

  1. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities in the arcuate-median eminence complex and their link to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Romero-Fernandez, W; Borroto-Escuela, D O; Vargas-Barroso, V; Narváez, M; Di Palma, M; Agnati, L F; Larriva Sahd, J; Fuxe, K

    2014-07-18

    Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunohistochemistry and Golgi techniques were used to study the structure of the adult rat arcuate-median eminence complex, and determine the distribution of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities therein, particularly in relation to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons. Punctate dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities, likely located on nerve terminals, were enriched in the lateral palisade zone built up of nerve terminals, while the densities were low to modest in the medial palisade zone. A codistribution of dopamine D1 receptor or dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactive puncta with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve terminals was demonstrated in the external layer. Dopamine D1 receptor but not dopamine D2 receptor immnunoreactivites nerve cell bodies were found in the ventromedial part of the arcuate nucleus and in the lateral part of the internal layer of the median eminence forming a continuous cell mass presumably representing neuropeptide Y immunoreactive nerve cell bodies. The major arcuate dopamine/ tyrosine hydroxylase nerve cell group was found in the dorsomedial part. A large number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve cell bodies in this region demonstrated punctate dopamine D1 receptor immunoreactivity but only a few presented dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactivity which were mainly found in a substantial number of tyrosine hydroxylase cell bodies of the ventral periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, also belonging to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons. Structural evidence for projections of the arcuate nerve cells into the median eminence was also obtained. Distal axons formed horizontal axons in the internal layer issuing a variable number of collaterals classified into single or multiple strands located in the external layer increasing our understanding of the dopamine nerve terminal networks in this region.  Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors may therefore directly and differentially

  2. Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor Immunoreactivities in the Arcuate-Median Eminence Complex and their Link to the Tubero-Infundibular Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Fernandez, W.; Borroto-Escuela, D.O.; Vargas-Barroso, V.; Narváez, M.; Di Palma, M.; Agnati, L.F.; Sahd, J. Larriva

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunohistochemistry and Golgi techniques were used to study the structure of the adult rat arcuate-median eminence complex, and determine the distribution of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities therein, particularly in relation to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons. Punctate dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities, likely located on nerve terminals, were enriched in the lateral palisade zone built up of nerve terminals, while the densities were low to modest in the medial palisade zone. A codistribution of dopamine D1 receptor or dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactive puncta with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve terminals was demonstrated in the external layer. Dopamine D1 receptor but not dopamine D2 receptor immnunoreactivites nerve cell bodies were found in the ventromedial part of the arcuate nucleus and in the lateral part of the internal layer of the median eminence forming a continuous cell mass presumably representing neuropeptide Y immunoreactive nerve cell bodies. The major arcuate dopamine/ tyrosine hydroxylase nerve cell group was found in the dorsomedial part. A large number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve cell bodies in this region demonstrated punctate dopamine D1 receptor immunoreactivity but only a few presented dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactivity which were mainly found in a substantial number of tyrosine hydroxylase cell bodies of the ventral periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, also belonging to the tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons. Structural evidence for projections of the arcuate nerve cells into the median eminence was also obtained. Distal axons formed horizontal axons in the internal layer issuing a variable number of collaterals classified into single or multiple strands located in the external layer increasing our understanding of the dopamine nerve terminal networks in this region. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors may therefore directly and differentially

  3. Methylmercury can induce Parkinson's-like neurotoxicity similar to 1-methyl-4- phenylpyridinium: a genomic and proteomic analysis on MN9D dopaminergic neuron cells.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yueting; Figeys, Daniel; Ning, Zhibin; Mailloux, Ryan; Chan, Hing Man

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals has been implicated as a possible risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Our previous study showed that methylmercury (MeHg) exposure can disrupt synthesis, uptake and metabolism of dopamine similar to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of MeHg exposure on gene and protein profiles in a dopaminergic MN9D cell line. MN9D cells were treated with MeHg (1-5 μM) and MPP(+) (10-40 μM) for 48 hr. Real-time PCR Parkinson's disease (PD) arrays and high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) were performed for the analysis. PD PCR array results showed that 19% genes were significantly changed in the 2.5 μM MeHg treated cells, and 39% genes were changed in the 5 μM MeHg treated cells. In comparison, MPP(+) treatment (40 µM) resulted in significant changes in 25% genes. A total of 15 common genes were altered by both MeHg and MPP(+), and dopaminergic signaling transduction was the most affected pathway. Proteomic analysis identified a total of 2496 proteins, of which 188, 233 and 395 proteins were differentially changed by 1 μM and 2.5 μM MeHg, and MPP(+) respectively. A total of 61 common proteins were changed by both MeHg and MPP(+) treatment. The changed proteins were mainly involved in energetic generation-related metabolism pathway (propanoate metabolism, pyruvate metabolism and fatty acid metabolism), oxidative phosphorylation, proteasome, PD and other neurodegenerative disorders. A total of 7 genes/proteins including Ube2l3 (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 L3) and Th (Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase) were changed in both genomic and proteomic analysis. These results suggest that MeHg and MPP(+) share many similar signaling pathways leading to the pathogenesis of PD and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26558463

  4. Dose-response effects of estrogen and tamoxifen upon methamphetamine-induced behavioral responses and neurotoxicity of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in female mice.

    PubMed

    Mickley, Katherine R; Dluzen, Dean E

    2004-01-01

    In the present experiment we evaluated the dose-response effects of estrogen (estradiol benzoate; EB) and tamoxifen (TMX) in modulating the acute behavioral and chronic effects of methamphetamine (MA) upon the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) system in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. EB over a range of doses from 1-40 microg resulted in a neuroprotective effect upon the NSDA system as defined by both a preservation of striatal dopamine (DA) concentrations and a decrease in DOPAC/DA ratios. Interestingly, the neuroprotective effect of the 1-microg EB dose occurred in the absence of any statistically significant effect upon the bioassay parameter of uterine weight. With the exception of an increase in stereotypy time as a response to the 40-microg dose, EB at any of the doses tested failed to alter any acute behavioral responses evoked by MA. In response to TMX, a statistically significant NSDA neuroprotectant response was obtained for DOPAC/DA ratios, but not DA concentrations, to doses ranging from 12.5 to 500 microg. No statistically significant effects upon uterine weights were obtained for any of the doses of TMX tested. Behaviorally, TMX at 500 microg had the effect of increasing the amount of time spent in the center of the cage. Taken together these results demonstrate: (1) EB and TMX at relatively low doses can exert a neuroprotective effect against MA; (2) these neuroprotective effects of EB and TMX can occur in the absence of an effect upon the bioassay parameter--uterine weights; (3) the parameter of DOPAC/DA ratio may indicate a more sensitive index of NSDA neuroprotection, and (4) modulatory effects of EB and TMX upon acute behavioral responses of the NSDA system to MA can be distinguished from their neuroprotective actions.

  5. Extrastriatal dopaminergic abnormalities of DA homeostasis in Parkinson’s patients with medication-induced pathological gambling: A [11C] FLB-457 and PET study

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Nicola J.; Miyasaki, Janis M.; Zurowski, Mateusz; Ko, Ji Hyun; Cho, Sang Soo; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Antonelli, Francesca; Houle, Sylvain; Lang, Anthony E.; Strafella, Antonio P.

    2012-01-01

    Impulse control disorders such as pathological gambling (PG) are a serious and common adverse effect of dopamine (DA) replacement medication in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Patients with PG have increased impulsivity and abnormalities in striatal DA, in common with behavioural and substance addictions in the non-PD population. To date, no studies have investigated the role of extrastriatal dopaminergic abnormalities in PD patients with PG. We used the PET radiotracer, [11C] FLB-457, with high-affinity for extrastriatal DA D2/3 receptors. 14 PD patients on DA agonists were imaged while they performed a gambling task involving real monetary reward and a control task. Trait impulsivity was measured with the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS). Seven of the patients had a history of PG that developed subsequent to DA agonist medication. Change in [11C] FLB-457 binding potential (BP) during gambling was reduced in PD with PG patients in the midbrain, where D2/D3 receptors are dominated by autoreceptors. The degree of change in [11C] FLB-457 binding in this region correlated with impulsivity. In the cortex, [11C] FLB-457 BP was significantly greater in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in PD patients with PG during the control task, and binding in this region was also correlated with impulsivity. Our findings provide the first evidence that PD patients with PG have dysfunctional activation of DA autoreceptors in the midbrain and low DA tone in the ACC. Thus, altered striatal and cortical DA homeostasis may incur vulnerability for the development of PG in PD, linked with the impulsive personality trait. PMID:22766031

  6. alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on dopaminergic neurons mediate nicotine reward and anxiety relief

    PubMed Central

    McGranahan, Tresa M.; Patzlaff, Natalie E.; Grady, Sharon R.; Heinemann, Stephen F.; Booker, T.K.

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine is the primary psychoactive substance in tobacco and it exerts its effects by interaction with various subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the brain. One of the major subtypes expressed in brain, the alpha4beta2-nAChR, endogenously modulates neuronal excitability and thereby, modifies certain normal, as well as nicotine-induced, behaviors. Although alpha4-containing nAChRs are widely expressed across the brain, a major focus has been on their roles within midbrain dopaminergic regions involved in drug addition, mental illness and movement control in humans. We developed a unique model system to examine the role of alpha4-nAChRs within dopaminergic neurons by a targeted genetic deletion of the alpha4 subunit from dopaminergic neurons in mice. The loss alpha4 mRNA and alpha4beta2-nAChRs from dopaminergic neurons was confirmed, as well as selective loss of alpha4beta2-nAChR function from dopaminergic but not GABAergic neurons. Two behaviors central to nicotine dependence, reward and anxiety relief, were examined. Alpha4-nAChRs specifically on dopaminergic neurons were demonstrated to be necessary for nicotine reward as measured by nicotine place preference, but not for another drug of addiction, cocaine. Alpha4-nAChRs are necessary for the anxiolytic effects of nicotine in the elevated plus maze and elimination of alpha4-beta2-nAChRs specifically from dopaminergic neurons decreased sensitivity to the anxiolytic effects of nicotine. Deletion of alpha4-nAChRs specifically from dopaminergic neurons also increased sensitivity to nicotine-induced locomotor depression, however nicotine-induced hypothermia was unaffected. This is the first work to develop a dopaminergic specific deletion of a nAChR subunit and examine resulting changes in nicotine behaviors. PMID:21795541

  7. The effect of different durations of morphine exposure on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in morphine dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Weibo; Ma, Chunling; Qi, Qian; Liu, Lizhe; Bi, Haitao; Cong, Bin; Li, Yingmin

    2015-12-01

    Mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons are heavily involved in the development of drug dependence. Thyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, plays an important role in the survival of dopaminergic neurons. Therefore, this study investigated TH changes in dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN), as well as the morphine effects on dopaminergic neurons induced by different durations of morphine dependence. Models of morphine dependence were established in rats, and paraffin-embedded sections, immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to observe the changes in the expression of TH protein. Fluoro-Jade B staining was used to detect degeneration and necrosis, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling (TUNEL) detected the apoptosis of mesencephalic dopaminergic nerve cells. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting showed that the number of TH positive cells and the protein levels in the VTA and SN were significantly decreased in the rats with a long period of morphine dependency. With prolonged morphine exposure, the dopaminergic nerve cells in the VTA and SN showed degeneration and necrosis, while apoptotic cells were not observed. The number of VTA and SN dopaminergic nerve cells decreased with increasing periods of morphine dependence, which was most likely attributable to the degeneration and necrosis of nerve cells induced by morphine toxicity.

  8. Dopaminergic Contributions to Vocal Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Lukas A.; Saravanan, Varun; Wood, Alynda N.; He, Li

    2016-01-01

    Although the brain relies on auditory information to calibrate vocal behavior, the neural substrates of vocal learning remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that lesions of the dopaminergic inputs to a basal ganglia nucleus in a songbird species (Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata var. domestica) greatly reduced the magnitude of vocal learning driven by disruptive auditory feedback in a negative reinforcement task. These lesions produced no measureable effects on the quality of vocal performance or the amount of song produced. Our results suggest that dopaminergic inputs to the basal ganglia selectively mediate reinforcement-driven vocal plasticity. In contrast, dopaminergic lesions produced no measurable effects on the birds' ability to restore song acoustics to baseline following the cessation of reinforcement training, suggesting that different forms of vocal plasticity may use different neural mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT During skill learning, the brain relies on sensory feedback to improve motor performance. However, the neural basis of sensorimotor learning is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in regulating vocal learning in the Bengalese finch, a songbird with an extremely precise singing behavior that can nevertheless be reshaped dramatically by auditory feedback. Our findings show that reduction of dopamine inputs to a region of the songbird basal ganglia greatly impairs vocal learning but has no detectable effect on vocal performance. These results suggest a specific role for dopamine in regulating vocal plasticity. PMID:26888928

  9. Oxygen Tension Within the Neurogenic Niche Regulates Dopaminergic Neurogenesis in the Developing Midbrain.

    PubMed

    Wagenführ, Lisa; Meyer, Anne Karen; Marrone, Lara; Storch, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Oxygen tension is an important factor controlling stem cell proliferation and maintenance in various stem cell populations with a particular relevance in midbrain dopaminergic progenitors. Further studies have shown that the oxygen-dependent transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is involved in these processes. However, all available studies on oxygen effects in dopaminergic neuroprogenitors were performed in vitro and thus it remains unclear whether tissue oxygen tension in the embryonic midbrain is also relevant for the regulation of dopaminergic neurogenesis in vivo. We thus dissect here the effects of oxygen tension in combination with HIF-1α conditional knockout on dopaminergic neurogenesis by using a novel experimental design allowing for the control of oxygen tension within the microenvironment of the neurogenic niche of the murine fetal midbrain in vivo. The microenvironment of the midbrain dopaminergic neurogenic niche was detected as hypoxic with oxygen tensions below 1.1%. Maternal oxygen treatment of 10%, 21%, and 75% atmospheric oxygen tension for 48 h translates into robust changes in fetal midbrain oxygenation. Fetal midbrain hypoxia hampered the generation of dopaminergic neurons and is accompanied with restricted fetal midbrain development. In contrast, induced hyperoxia stimulated proliferation and differentiation of dopaminergic progenitors during early and late embryogenesis. Oxygen effects were not directly mediated through HIF-1α signaling. These data--in agreement with in vitro data-indicate that oxygen is a crucial regulator of developmental dopaminergic neurogenesis. Our study provides the initial framework for future studies on molecular mechanisms mediating oxygen regulation of dopaminergic neurogenesis within the fetal midbrain as its natural environment.

  10. Effect of parasitic infection on dopamine biosynthesis in dopaminergic cells

    PubMed Central

    Martin, H.L.; Alsaady, I.; Howell, G.; Prandovszky, E.; Peers, C.; Robinson, P.; McConkey, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    Infection by the neurotropic agent Toxoplasma gondii alters rodent behavior and can result in neuropsychiatric symptoms in humans. Little is understood regarding the effects of infection on host neural processes but alterations to dopaminergic neurotransmission are implicated. We have previously reported elevated levels of dopamine (DA) in infected dopaminergic cells however the involvement of the host enzymes and fate of the produced DA were not defined. In order to clarify the effects of infection on host DA biosynthetic enzymes and DA packaging we examined enzyme levels and activity and DA accumulation and release in T. gondii-infected neurosecretory cells. Although the levels of the host tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DOPA decarboxylase and AADC (DDC) did not change significantly in infected cultures, DDC was found within the parasitophorous vacuole (PV), the vacuolar compartment where the parasites reside, as well as in the host cytosol in infected dopaminergic cells. Strikingly, DDC was found within the intracellular parasite cysts in infected brain tissue. This finding could provide some explanation for observations of DA within tissue cysts in infected brain as a parasite-encoded enzyme with TH activity was also localized within tissue cysts. In contrast, cellular DA packaging appeared unchanged in single-cell microamperometry experiments and only a fraction of the increased DA was accessible to high potassium-induced release. This study provides some understanding of how this parasite produces elevated DA within dopaminergic cells without the toxic ramifications of free cytosolic DA. The mechanism for synthesis and packaging of DA by T. gondii-infected dopaminergic cells may have important implications for the effects of chronic T. gondii infection on humans and animals. PMID:26297895

  11. Renalase regulates peripheral and central dopaminergic activities

    PubMed Central

    Serrão, Maria Paula; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Fernandes-Cerqueira, Cátia; Simões-Silva, Liliana; Pinho, Maria João; Remião, Fernando; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Desir, Gary V.; Pestana, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Renalase is a recently identified FAD/NADH-dependent amine oxidase mainly expressed in kidney that is secreted into blood and urine where it was suggested to metabolize catecholamines. The present study evaluated central and peripheral dopaminergic activities in the renalase knockout (KO) mouse model and examined the changes induced by recombinant renalase (RR) administration on plasma and urine catecholamine levels. Compared with wild-type (WT) mice, KO mice presented increased plasma levels of epinephrine (Epi), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA) that were accompanied by increases in the urinary excretion of Epi, NE, DA. In addition, the KO mice presented an increase in urinary DA-to-l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) ratios without changes in renal tubular aromatic-l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) activity. By contrast, the in vivo administration of RR (1.5 mg/kg sc) to KO mice was accompanied by significant decreases in plasma levels of Epi, DA, and l-DOPA as well as in urinary excretion of Epi, DA, and DA-to-l-DOPA ratios notwithstanding the accompanied increase in renal AADC activity. In addition, the increase in renal DA output observed in renalase KO mice was accompanied by an increase in the expression of the L-type amino acid transporter like (LAT) 1 that is reversed by the administration of RR in these animals. These results suggest that the overexpression of LAT1 in the renal cortex of the renalase KO mice might contribute to the enhanced l-DOPA availability/uptake and consequently to the activation of the renal dopaminergic system in the presence of renalase deficiency. PMID:25411385

  12. HIF1α is Necessary for Exercise-Induced Neuroprotection while HIF2α is Needed for Dopaminergic Neuron Survival in the Substantia Nigra pars compacta

    PubMed Central

    Smeyne, Michelle; Sladen, Paul; Jiao, Yun; Dragatsis, Ioannis; Smeyne, Richard Jay

    2015-01-01

    Exercise reduces the risk of developing a number of neurological disorders and increases the efficiency of cellular energy production. However, overly strenuous exercise produces oxidative stress. Proper oxygenation is crucial for the health of all tissues, and tight regulation of cellular oxygen is critical to balance O2 levels and redox homeostasis in the brain. Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF)1α and HIF2α are transcription factors regulated by cellular oxygen concentration that initiate gene regulation of vascular development, redox homeostasis, and cell cycle control. HIF1α and HIF2α contribute to important adaptive mechanisms that occur when oxygen and ROS homeostasis become unbalanced. It has been shown that preconditioning by exposure to a stressor prior to a hypoxic event reduces damage that would otherwise occur. Previously we reported that three months of exercise protects SNpc DA neurons from toxicity caused by Complex I inhibition. Here, we identify the cells in the SNpc that express HIF1α and HIF2α and show that running exercise produces hypoxia in SNpc DA neurons, and alters the expression of HIF1α and HIF2α. In mice carrying a conditional knockout of Hif1α in postnatal neurons we observe that exercise alone produces SNpc TH+ DA neuron loss. Loss of HIF1α also abolishes exercise-induced neuroprotection. In mice lacking Hif2α in postnatal neurons, the number of TH+ DA neurons in the adult SNpc is diminished, but three months of exercise rescues this loss. We conclude that HIF1α is necessary for exercise-induced neuroprotection and both HIF1α and HIF2α are necessary for the survival and function of adult SNpc DA neurons. PMID:25796140

  13. Atrazine Causes Autophagy- and Apoptosis-Related Neurodegenerative Effects in Dopaminergic Neurons in the Rat Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic System.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Yao; Li, Jia-Nan; Wu, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Bo; Li, Bai-Xiang

    2015-06-12

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethytlamino-6-isopropylamine-1,3,5-triazine; ATR) is widely used as a broad-spectrum herbicide. Animal studies have demonstrated that ATR exposure can cause cell death in dopaminergic neurons. The molecular mechanisms underlying ATR-induced neuronal cell death, however, are unknown. In this study, we investigated the autophagy and apoptosis induced by ATR in dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Wistar rats were administered with ATR at doses of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage for three months. In terms of histopathology, the expression of autophagy- and apoptosis-related genes as well as proteins related to the Beclin-1/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) autophagy and apoptosis pathways were examined in the rat nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. We observed degenerative micromorphology indicative of neuronal apoptosis and mitochondrial autophagy by electron microscopy in ATR-exposed rat striatum. The rat ventral mesencephalon in the ATR-exposed groups also showed increased expression of Beclin-1, LC3-II, Bax and Caspase-9, and decreased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), Bcl-xl and Bcl-2. These findings indicate that ATR may induce autophagy- and apoptosis-related changes in doparminergic neurons. Furthermore, this induction may be regulated by the Beclin-1 and Bcl-2 autophagy and apoptosis pathways, and this may help to better understand the mechanism underlying the neurotoxicity of ATR.

  14. Atrazine Causes Autophagy- and Apoptosis-Related Neurodegenerative Effects in Dopaminergic Neurons in the Rat Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic System

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiao-Yao; Li, Jia-Nan; Wu, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Bo; Li, Bai-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethytlamino-6-isopropylamine-1,3,5-triazine; ATR) is widely used as a broad-spectrum herbicide. Animal studies have demonstrated that ATR exposure can cause cell death in dopaminergic neurons. The molecular mechanisms underlying ATR-induced neuronal cell death, however, are unknown. In this study, we investigated the autophagy and apoptosis induced by ATR in dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Wistar rats were administered with ATR at doses of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage for three months. In terms of histopathology, the expression of autophagy- and apoptosis-related genes as well as proteins related to the Beclin-1/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) autophagy and apoptosis pathways were examined in the rat nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. We observed degenerative micromorphology indicative of neuronal apoptosis and mitochondrial autophagy by electron microscopy in ATR-exposed rat striatum. The rat ventral mesencephalon in the ATR-exposed groups also showed increased expression of Beclin-1, LC3-II, Bax and Caspase-9, and decreased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), Bcl-xl and Bcl-2. These findings indicate that ATR may induce autophagy- and apoptosis-related changes in doparminergic neurons. Furthermore, this induction may be regulated by the Beclin-1 and Bcl-2 autophagy and apoptosis pathways, and this may help to better understand the mechanism underlying the neurotoxicity of ATR. PMID:26075868

  15. Dopaminergic Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells on PA6-Derived Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Guloglu, M Oktar; Larsen, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a promising source for cell replacement therapies. Parkinson's disease is one of the candidate diseases for the cell replacement therapy since the motor manifestations of the disease are associated with the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA) is the most commonly used method for the dopaminergic differentiation of hESCs. This chapter describes a simple, reliable, and scalable dopaminergic induction method of hESCs using PA6-derived adipocytes. Coculturing hESCs with PA6-derived adipocytes markedly reduces the variable outcomes among experiments. Moreover, the colony differentiation step of this method can also be used for the dopaminergic induction of mouse embryonic stem cells and NTERA2 cells as well.

  16. Impaired learning in a spatial working memory version and in a cued version of the water maze in rats with MPTP-induced mesencephalic dopaminergic lesions.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Edmar; Wietzikoski, Samantha; Camplessei, Milton; Silveira, Rodolfo; Takahashi, Reinaldo N; Da Cunha, Claudio

    2002-05-01

    A lesion in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of rats induced by intra-nigral administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) caused specific loss of dopamine and its nonconjugated metabolites in the dorsal striatum and in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), but not in the hippocampus or the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens). This lesion did not alter the motor performance of the rats or learning of a spatial reference memory task in the water maze but impaired learning of a spatial working memory task and also of a cued version of the water maze. The results are discussed by relating the selective memory deficits observed in these water maze tasks to the PFC, dorsal striatum, and hippocampus. Some parallels between the memory deficits in these SNc-lesioned rats and Parkinson's disease patients are also discussed.

  17. Dopaminergic Circuitry Underlying Mating Drive.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Stephen X; Rogulja, Dragana; Crickmore, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    We develop a new system for studying how innate drives are tuned to reflect current physiological needs and capacities, and how they affect sensory-motor processing. We demonstrate the existence of male mating drive in Drosophila, which is transiently and cumulatively reduced as reproductive capacity is depleted by copulations. Dopaminergic activity in the anterior of the superior medial protocerebrum (SMPa) is also transiently and cumulatively reduced in response to matings and serves as a functional neuronal correlate of mating drive. The dopamine signal is transmitted through the D1-like DopR2 receptor to P1 neurons, which also integrate sensory information relevant to the perception of females, and which project to courtship motor centers that initiate and maintain courtship behavior. Mating drive therefore converges with sensory information from the female at the point of transition to motor output, controlling the propensity of a sensory percept to trigger goal-directed behavior. PMID:27292538

  18. Role of dopamine in the recruitment of immune cells to the nigro-striatal dopaminergic structures.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Oliva, Ana M; de Pablos, Rocío M; Sarmiento, Manuel; Villarán, Ruth F; Carrillo-Jiménez, Alejandro; Santiago, Marti; Venero, José L; Herrera, Antonio J; Cano, Josefina; Machado, Alberto

    2014-03-01

    Research indicates that inflammation and microglial activation are involved in the initiation and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Neuroinflammation contributes to the infiltration of peripheral immune cells and blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage, linking peripheral and central inflammatory events in the pathogenesis of PD. Dopamine (DA) likely plays a role in this process. In the present study, the dopaminergic toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was used to damage dopaminergic neurons. Injection of 6-OHDA within the nigrostriatal pathway produced loss of astrocytes, disruption of the BBB, microglia activation and a reduction in osteopontin (OPN) immunoreactivity. Depletion of DA content by alpha-methylparatyrosine (α-MPT, a tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor) reduced the infiltration of peripheral macrophages as well as the 6-OHDA-induced increase in microglial cells. DA could therefore be relevant in sustaining inflammation and lymphocyte recruitment induced by 6-OHDA, supporting DA implication in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons induced by inflammatory processes.

  19. Regulation Of Hypothalamic Signaling By Tuberoinfundibular Peptide Of 39 Residues Is Critical For The Response To Cold: A Novel Peptidergic Mechanism Of Thermoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Eugene L.; Kim, Yoon Yi; Usdin, Ted B.

    2012-01-01

    Euthermia is critical for mammalian homeostasis. Circuits within the preoptic hypothalamus regulate temperature, with fine control exerted via descending GABAergic inhibition of presympathetic motor neurons that control brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and cutaneous vascular tone. The thermoregulatory role of hypothalamic excitatory neurons is less clear. Here we report peptidergic regulation of preoptic glutamatergic neurons that contributes to temperature regulation. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) is a ligand for the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R). Both peptide and receptor are abundant in the preoptic hypothalamus. Based on PTH2R and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGlut2) immunolabeling in animals with retrograde tracer injection, PTH2R containing glutamatergic fibers are presynaptic to neurons projecting from the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) to the dorsomedial hypothalamus. Transneuronal retrograde pathway tracing with pseudorabies virus revealed connectivity between MnPO VGlut2 and PTH2R neurons and BAT. MnPO injection of TIP39 increased body temperature by 2° C for several hours. Mice lacking TIP39 signaling, either because of PTH2R null mutation or brain delivery of a PTH2R antagonist had impaired heat production upon cold exposure, but no change in basal temperature and no impairment in response to a hot environment. Thus, TIP39 appears to act on PTH2Rs present on MnPO glutamatergic terminals to regulate their activation of projection neurons and subsequent sympathetic BAT activation. This excitatory mechanism of heat production appears to be activated on demand, during cold exposure, and parallels the tonic inhibitory GABAergic control of body temperature. PMID:22159128

  20. Regulation of hypothalamic signaling by tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues is critical for the response to cold: a novel peptidergic mechanism of thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Eugene L; Kim, Yoon Yi; Usdin, Ted B

    2011-12-01

    Euthermia is critical for mammalian homeostasis. Circuits within the preoptic hypothalamus regulate temperature, with fine control exerted via descending GABAergic inhibition of presympathetic motor neurons that control brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and cutaneous vascular tone. The thermoregulatory role of hypothalamic excitatory neurons is less clear. Here we report peptidergic regulation of preoptic glutamatergic neurons that contributes to temperature regulation. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) is a ligand for the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R). Both peptide and receptor are abundant in the preoptic hypothalamus. Based on PTH2R and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGlut2) immunolabeling in animals with retrograde tracer injection, PTH2R-containing glutamatergic fibers are presynaptic to neurons projecting from the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) to the dorsomedial hypothalamus. Transneuronal retrograde pathway tracing with pseudorabies virus revealed connectivity between MnPO VGlut2 and PTH2R neurons and BAT. MnPO injection of TIP39 increased body temperature by 2°C for several hours. Mice lacking TIP39 signaling, either because of PTH2R-null mutation or brain delivery of a PTH2R antagonist had impaired heat production upon cold exposure, but no change in basal temperature and no impairment in response to a hot environment. Thus, TIP39 appears to act on PTH2Rs present on MnPO glutamatergic terminals to regulate their activation of projection neurons and subsequent sympathetic BAT activation. This excitatory mechanism of heat production appears to be activated on demand, during cold exposure, and parallels the tonic inhibitory GABAergic control of body temperature.

  1. Primary Culture of Mouse Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gaven, Florence; Marin, Philippe; Claeysen, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons represent less than 1% of the total number of neurons in the brain. This low amount of neurons regulates important brain functions such as motor control, motivation, and working memory. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons selectively degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD). This progressive neuronal loss is unequivocally associated with the motors symptoms of the pathology (bradykinesia, resting tremor, and muscular rigidity). The main agent responsible of dopaminergic neuron degeneration is still unknown. However, these neurons appear to be extremely vulnerable in diverse conditions. Primary cultures constitute one of the most relevant models to investigate properties and characteristics of dopaminergic neurons. These cultures can be submitted to various stress agents that mimic PD pathology and to neuroprotective compounds in order to stop or slow down neuronal degeneration. The numerous transgenic mouse models of PD that have been generated during the last decade further increased the interest of researchers for dopaminergic neuron cultures. Here, the video protocol focuses on the delicate dissection of embryonic mouse brains. Precise excision of ventral mesencephalon is crucial to obtain neuronal cultures sufficiently rich in dopaminergic cells to allow subsequent studies. This protocol can be realized with embryonic transgenic mice and is suitable for immunofluorescence staining, quantitative PCR, second messenger quantification, or neuronal death/survival assessment. PMID:25226064

  2. Odour enrichment increases adult-born dopaminergic neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Bonzano, Sara; Bovetti, Serena; Fasolo, Aldo; Peretto, Paolo; De Marchis, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) is the first brain region involved in the processing of olfactory information. In adult mice, the OB is highly plastic, undergoing cellular/molecular dynamic changes that are modulated by sensory experience. Odour deprivation induces down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in OB dopaminergic interneurons located in the glomerular layer (GL), resulting in decreased dopamine in the OB. Although the effect of sensory deprivation is well established, little is known about the influence of odour enrichment on dopaminergic cells. Here we report that prolonged odour enrichment on C57BL/6J strain mice selectively increases TH-immunopositive cells in the GL by nearly 20%. Following odour enrichment on TH-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, in which GFP identified both mature TH-positive cells and putative immature dopaminergic cells expressing TH mRNA but not TH protein, we found a similar 20% increase in GFP-expressing cells, with no changes in the ratio between TH-positive and TH-negative cells. These data suggest that enriched conditions induce an expansion in the whole dopaminergic lineage. Accordingly, by using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine injections to label adult-generated cells in the GL of TH-GFP mice, we found an increase in the percentage of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-positive dopaminergic cells in enriched compared with control conditions, whereas no differences were found for calretinin- and calbindin-positive subtypes. Strikingly, the fraction of newborn cells among the dopaminergic population doubled in enriched conditions. On the whole, our results demonstrate that odour enrichment drives increased integration of adult-generated dopaminergic cells that could be critical to adapt the OB circuits to the environmental incoming information.

  3. Pleiotrophin over-expression provides trophic support to dopaminergic neurons in parkinsonian rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pleiotrophin is known to promote the survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in vitro and is up-regulated in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease patients. To establish whether pleiotrophin has a trophic effect on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in vivo, we injected a recombinant adenovirus expressing pleiotrophin in the substantia nigra of 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats. Results The viral vector induced pleiotrophin over-expression by astrocytes in the substantia nigra pars compacta, without modifying endogenous neuronal expression. The percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells as well as the area of their projections in the lesioned striatum was higher in pleiotrophin-treated animals than in controls. Conclusions These results indicate that pleiotrophin over-expression partially rescues tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cell bodies and terminals of dopaminergic neurons undergoing 6-hydroxydopamine-induced degeneration. PMID:21649894

  4. Self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds enhance dopaminergic differentiation of mouse pluripotent stem cells in 3-dimensional culture.

    PubMed

    Ni, Na; Hu, Yaohua; Ren, Huixia; Luo, Chuanming; Li, Peng; Wan, Jian-Bo; Su, Huanxing

    2013-01-01

    Dopaminergic differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) gains more and more attention worldwide owing to its potential use for neurorestorative therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The conventional 2D cell culture on petri dishes with various animal derived substrata such as collagen gels, laminin, and Matrigel is widely used to induce dopaminergic differentiation and it may limit the efficiency in the generation of dopaminergic neurons from ESCs and prevent their application for human therapies. Here, we reported that a self-assembling peptide made from natural amino acids has a property to generate a true 3D environment for dopaminergic differentiation. Mouse ESCs (R1) and mouse iPSCs (TTF-1) embedded in RADA16-I peptide-derived nanofiber scaffolds led to a marked increase in dopaminergic differentiation compared to the laminin-coated 2D culture or Matrigel-encapsulated 3D culture. These differentiated neurons expressed specific dopaminergic markers and produced appropriate patterns of action potential firing. Consistent with the increase in the number of dopaminergic neurons differentiated from R1 or TTF-1 in the self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffold (SAPNS), both the expression levels of genes that involve in dopaminergic differentiation and maturation and the dopamine release in SAPNS culture were significantly elevated. The results of the study suggest that SAPNS provides a promising 3D culture system for dopaminergic differentiation. PMID:24376815

  5. Disruption in dopaminergic innervation during photoreceptor degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elena; Yee, Christopher W; Sagdullaev, Botir T

    2016-04-15

    Dopaminergic amacrine cells (DACs) release dopamine in response to light-driven synaptic inputs, and are critical to retinal light adaptation. Retinal degeneration (RD) compromises the light responsiveness of the retina and, subsequently, dopamine metabolism is impaired. As RD progresses, retinal neurons exhibit aberrant activity, driven by AII amacrine cells, a primary target of the retinal dopaminergic network. Surprisingly, DACs are an exception to this physiological change; DACs exhibit rhythmic activity in healthy retina, but do not burst in RD. The underlying mechanism of this divergent behavior is not known. It is also unclear whether RD leads to structural changes in DACs, impairing functional regulation of AII amacrine cells. Here we examine the anatomical details of DACs in three mouse models of human RD to determine how changes to the dopaminergic network may underlie physiological changes in RD. By using rd10, rd1, and rd1/C57 mice we were able to dissect the impacts of genetic background and the degenerative process on DAC structure in RD retina. We found that DACs density, soma size, and primary dendrite length are all significantly reduced. Using a novel adeno-associated virus-mediated technique to label AII amacrine cells in mouse retina, we observed diminished dopaminergic contacts to AII amacrine cells in RD mice. This was accompanied by changes to the components responsible for dopamine synthesis and release. Together, these data suggest that structural alterations of the retinal dopaminergic network underlie physiological changes during RD.

  6. Dopaminergic Dysregulation, Artistic Expressiveness, and Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    López-Pousa, S.; Lombardía-Fernández, C.; Olmo, J. Garre; Monserrat-Vila, S.; Vilalta-Franch, J.; Calvó-Perxas, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The most frequent behavioral manifestations in Parkinson's disease (PD) are attributed to the dopaminergic dysregulation syndrome (DDS), which is considered to be secondary to the iatrogenic effects of the drugs that replace dopamine. Over the past few years some cases of patients improving their creative abilities after starting treatment with dopaminergic pharmaceuticals have been reported. These effects have not been clearly associated to DDS, but a relationship has been pointed out. Methods Case study of a patient with PD. The evolution of her paintings along medication changes and disease advance has been analyzed. Results The patient showed a compulsive increase of pictorial production after the diagnosis of PD was made. She made her best paintings when treated with cabergolide, and while painting, she reported a feeling of well-being, with loss of awareness of the disease and reduction of physical limitations. Conclusions Dopaminergic antagonists (DA) trigger a dopaminergic dysfunction that alters artistic creativity in patients having a predisposition for it. The development of these skills might be due to the dopaminergic overstimulation due to the therapy with DA, which causes a neurophysiological alteration that globally determines DDS. PMID:23185168

  7. A Stem Cell-Derived Platform for Studying Single Synaptic Vesicles in Dopaminergic Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Haigang; Lazarenko, Roman M.; Koktysh, Dmitry; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    The exocytotic release of dopamine is one of the most characteristic but also one of the least appreciated processes in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Fluorescence imaging has yielded rich information about the properties of synaptic vesicles and the release of neurotransmitters in excitatory and inhibitory neurons. In contrast, imaging-based studies for in-depth understanding of synaptic vesicle behavior in dopamine neurons are lagging largely because of a lack of suitable preparations. Midbrain culture has been one of the most valuable preparations for the subcellular investigation of dopaminergic transmission; however, the paucity and fragility of cultured dopaminergic neurons limits their use for live cell imaging. Recent developments in stem cell technology have led to the successful production of dopamine neurons from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells. Although the dopaminergic identity of these stem cell-derived neurons has been characterized in different ways, vesicle-mediated dopamine release from their axonal terminals has been barely assessed. We report a more efficient procedure to reliably generate dopamine neurons from embryonic stem cells, and it yields more dopamine neurons with more dopaminergic axon projections than midbrain culture does. Using a collection of functional measurements, we show that stem cell-derived dopamine neurons are indistinguishable from those in midbrain culture. Taking advantage of this new preparation, we simultaneously tracked the turnover of hundreds of synaptic vesicles individually using pH-sensitive quantum dots. By doing so, we revealed distinct fusion kinetics of the dopamine-secreting vesicles, which is consistent within both preparations. Significance For the use of stem cell-derived neurons in clinical applications, improved differentiation efficiency and more careful characterization of resultant cells are needed. A procedure has been refined for differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into

  8. Diversity of Dopaminergic Neural Circuits in Response to Drug Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Juarez, Barbara; Han, Ming-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Addictive substances are known to increase dopaminergic signaling in the mesocorticolimbic system. The origin of this dopamine (DA) signaling originates in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which sends afferents to various targets, including the nucleus accumbens, the medial prefrontal cortex, and the basolateral amygdala. VTA DA neurons mediate stimuli saliency and goal-directed behaviors. These neurons undergo robust drug-induced intrinsic and extrinsic synaptic mechanisms following acute and chronic drug exposure, which are part of brain-wide adaptations that ultimately lead to the transition into a drug-dependent state. Interestingly, recent investigations of the differential subpopulations of VTA DA neurons have revealed projection-specific functional roles in mediating reward, aversion, and stress. It is now critical to view drug-induced neuroadaptations from a circuit-level perspective to gain insight into how differential dopaminergic adaptations and signaling to targets of the mesocorticolimbic system mediates drug reward. This review hopes to describe the projection-specific intrinsic characteristics of these subpopulations, the differential afferent inputs onto these VTA DA neuron subpopulations, and consolidate findings of drug-induced plasticity of VTA DA neurons and highlight the importance of future projection-based studies of this system. PMID:26934955

  9. Prepulse inhibition modulation by contextual conditioning of dopaminergic activity.

    PubMed

    Mena, Auxiliadora; De la Casa, Luis G

    2013-09-01

    When a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a drug, an association is established between them that can induce two different responses: either an opponent response that counteracts the effect of the drug, or a response that is similar to that induced by the drug. In this paper, we focus on the analysis of the associations that can be established between the contextual cues and the administration of dopamine agonists or antagonists. Our hypothesis suggests that repeated administration of drugs that modulate dopaminergic activity in the presence of a specific context leads to the establishment of an association that subsequently results in a conditioned response to the context that is similar to that induced by the drug. To test this hypothesis, we conducted two experiments that revealed that contextual cues acquired the property to modulate pre-pulse inhibition by prior pairings of such context with the dopamine antagonist haloperidol (Experiment 1), and with the dopamine agonist d-amphetamine (Experiment 2). The implications of these results are discussed both at a theoretical level, and attending to the possibilities that could involve the use of context cues for the therapeutic administration of dopaminergic drugs.

  10. Adolescent exposure to MDMA induces dopaminergic toxicity in substantia nigra and potentiates the amyloid plaque deposition in the striatum of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice.

    PubMed

    Abad, Sonia; Ramon, Carla; Pubill, David; Camarasa, Jorge; Camins, Antonio; Escubedo, Elena

    2016-09-01

    MDMA is one of the most used drugs by adolescents and its consumption has been associated with many psychobiological problems, among them psychomotor problems. Moreover, some authors described that early exposure to MDMA may render the dopaminergic neurons more vulnerable to the effects of future neurotoxic insults. Alzheimer disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia in the elderly and a percentage of the patients have predisposition to suffer nigrostriatal alterations, developing extrapyramidal signs. Nigrostriatal dysfunction in the brain of aged APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1), a mouse model of familiar AD (FAD), has also been described. The aim of the present study was to investigate the consequences of adolescent exposure to MDMA in APP/PS1 mice, on nigrostriatal function on early adulthood. We used a MDMA schedule simulating weekend binge abuse of this substance. Our MDMA schedule produced a genotype-independent decrease in dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra that remained at least 3months. Shortly after the injury, wild-type animals showed a decrease in the locomotor activity and apparent DA depletion in striatum, however in the APP/PS1 mice neither the locomotor activity nor the DA levels were modified, but a reduction in dopamine transporter (DAT) expression and a higher levels of oxidative stress were observed. We found that these disturbances are age-related characteristics that this APP/PS1 mice develops spontaneously much later. Therefore, MDMA administration seems to anticipate the striatal dopaminergic dysfunction in this FAD model. The most important outcome lies in a potentiation, by MDMA, of the amyloid beta deposition in the striatum. PMID:27344237

  11. [Impact of opiates on dopaminergic neurons].

    PubMed

    Kaufling, Jennifer; Freund-Mercier, Marie-José; Barrot, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Since the work of Johnson and North, it is known that opiates increase the activity of dopaminergic neurons by a GABA neuron-mediated desinhibition. This model should however be updated based on recent advances. Thus, the neuroanatomical location of the GABA neurons responsible for this desinhibition has been recently detailed: they belong to a brain structure in continuity with the posterior part of the ventral tegmental area and discovered this past decade. Other data also highlighted the critical role played by glutamatergic transmission in the opioid regulation of dopaminergic neuron activity. During protracted opiate withdrawal, the inhibitory/excitatory balance exerted on dopaminergic neurons is altered. These results are now leading to propose an original hypothesis for explaining the impact of protracted opiate withdrawal on mood. PMID:27406773

  12. Dopaminergic dysfunction in schizophrenia: salience attribution revisited.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Andreas; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2010-05-01

    A dysregulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system in schizophrenia patients may lead to aberrant attribution of incentive salience and contribute to the emergence of psychopathological symptoms like delusions. The dopaminergic signal has been conceptualized to represent a prediction error that indicates the difference between received and predicted reward. The incentive salience hypothesis states that dopamine mediates the attribution of "incentive salience" to conditioned cues that predict reward. This hypothesis was initially applied in the context of drug addiction and then transferred to schizophrenic psychosis. It was hypothesized that increased firing (chaotic or stress associated) of dopaminergic neurons in the striatum of schizophrenia patients attributes incentive salience to otherwise irrelevant stimuli. Here, we review recent neuroimaging studies directly addressing this hypothesis. They suggest that neuronal functions associated with dopaminergic signaling, such as the attribution of salience to reward-predicting stimuli and the computation of prediction errors, are indeed altered in schizophrenia patients and that this impairment appears to contribute to delusion formation.

  13. Manganese nanoparticle activates mitochondrial dependent apoptotic signaling and autophagy in dopaminergic neuronal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Afeseh Ngwa, Hilary; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Gu, Yan; Fang, Ning; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2011-11-15

    The production of man-made nanoparticles for various modern applications has increased exponentially in recent years, but the potential health effects of most nanoparticles are not well characterized. Unfortunately, in vitro nanoparticle toxicity studies are extremely limited by yet unresolved problems relating to dosimetry. In the present study, we systematically characterized manganese (Mn) nanoparticle sizes and examined the nanoparticle-induced oxidative signaling in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed that Mn nanoparticles range in size from single nanoparticles ({approx} 25 nM) to larger agglomerates when in treatment media. Manganese nanoparticles were effectively internalized in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cells, and they induced a time-dependent upregulation of the transporter protein transferrin. Exposure to 25-400 {mu}g/mL Mn nanoparticles induced cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Mn nanoparticles also significantly increased ROS, accompanied by a caspase-mediated proteolytic cleavage of proapoptotic protein kinase C{delta} (PKC{delta}), as well as activation loop phosphorylation. Blocking Mn nanoparticle-induced ROS failed to protect against the neurotoxic effects, suggesting the involvement of other pathways. Further mechanistic studies revealed changes in Beclin 1 and LC3, indicating that Mn nanoparticles induce autophagy. Primary mesencephalic neuron exposure to Mn nanoparticles induced loss of TH positive dopaminergic neurons and neuronal processes. Collectively, our results suggest that Mn nanoparticles effectively enter dopaminergic neuronal cells and exert neurotoxic effects by activating an apoptotic signaling pathway and autophagy, emphasizing the need for assessing possible health risks associated with an increased use of Mn nanoparticles in modern applications. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn nanoparticles

  14. Effect of total flavonoids from Scutellaria baicalensis on dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-Li; Xu, Xiao-Fan; Bu, Qing-Xia; Jin, Wei-Rong; Sun, Qian-Ru; Feng, De-Peng; Zhang, Qing-Jv; Wang, Le-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid (SSTF) on the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The mouse model was established by intravenous injection of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). SSTF (5 mg/kg) was administered to the mice before or after MPTP injection, and the effects of SSTF on the behavior of the mice and the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra were assessed. In addition, the level of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured. Following injection of MPTP, the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra was decreased and the neurons appeared atrophic. In addition, the level of serum MDA in the MPTP mice increased. The mean behavioral scores and the number of dopaminergic neurons in the SSTF treatment groups were significantly higher than in the MPTP group (P<0.05), and the mean serum MDA levels were significantly lower (P<0.05). Thus, SSTF improves the behaviors and the numbers of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra in MPTP-induced PD in mice. These beneficial effects appear to be associated with the reduction in serum MDA. PMID:27446544

  15. Control of dopaminergic neuron survival by the unfolded protein response transcription factor XBP1

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Pamela; Mercado, Gabriela; Vidal, Rene L.; Molina, Claudia; Parsons, Geoffrey; Court, Felipe A.; Martinez, Alexis; Galleguillos, Danny; Armentano, Donna; Schneider, Bernard L.; Hetz, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Although growing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a hallmark of PD, its exact contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Here we report that developmental ablation of X-Box binding protein 1 (XBP1) in the nervous system, a key regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), protects dopaminergic neurons against a PD-inducing neurotoxin. This survival effect was associated with a preconditioning condition that resulted from induction of an adaptive ER stress response in dopaminergic neurons of the SNpc, but not in other brain regions. In contrast, silencing XBP1 in adult animals triggered chronic ER stress and dopaminergic neuron degeneration. Supporting this finding, gene therapy to deliver an active form of XBP1 provided neuroprotection and reduced striatal denervation in animals injected with 6-hydroxydopamine. Our results reveal a physiological role of the UPR in the maintenance of protein homeostasis in dopaminergic neurons that may help explain the differential neuronal vulnerability observed in PD. PMID:24753614

  16. Limitations of In Vivo Reprogramming to Dopaminergic Neurons via a Tricistronic Strategy.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, Marina; Rauser, Benedict; Zhang, Jingzhong; Prakash, Nilima; Wurst, Wolfgang; Schick, Joel A

    2015-08-01

    Parkinson's disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders characterized by cell death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Recent research has focused on cellular replacement through lineage reprogramming as a potential therapeutic strategy. This study sought to use genetics to define somatic cell types in vivo amenable to reprogramming. To stimulate in vivo reprogramming to dopaminergic neurons, we generated a Rosa26 knock-in mouse line conditionally overexpressing Mash1, Lmx1a, and Nurr1. These proteins are characterized by their role in neuronal commitment and development of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and have previously been shown to convert fibroblasts to dopaminergic neurons in vitro. We show that a tricistronic construct containing these transcription factors can reprogram astrocytes and fibroblasts in vitro. However, cassette overexpression triggered cell death in vivo, in part through endoplasmic reticulum stress, while we also detected "uncleaved" forms of the polyprotein, suggesting poor "cleavage" efficiency of the 2A peptides. Based on our results, the cassette overexpression induced apoptosis and precluded reprogramming in our mouse model. Therefore, we suggest that alternatives must be explored to balance construct design with efficacious reprogramming. It is evident that there are still biological obstacles to overcome for in vivo reprogramming to dopaminergic neurons.

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulates dopaminergic deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Pineda, José R; Canals, Josep M; Bosch, Miquel; Adell, Albert; Mengod, Guadalupe; Artigas, Francesc; Ernfors, Patrik; Alberch, Jordi

    2005-06-01

    Dysfunction of dopaminergic neurons may contribute to motor impairment in Huntington's disease. Here, we study the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in alterations of the nigrostriatal system associated with transgenics carrying mutant huntingtin. Using huntingtin-BDNF+/- double-mutant mice, we analyzed the effects of reducing the levels of BDNF expression in a model of Huntington's disease (R6/1). When compared with R6/1 mice, these mice exhibit an increased number of aggregates in the substantia nigra pars compacta. In addition, reduction of BDNF expression exacerbates the dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction seen in mutant huntingtin mice, such as the decrease in retrograde labelling of dopaminergic neurons and striatal dopamine content. However, mutant huntingtin mice with normal or lowered BDNF expression show the same decrease in the anterograde transport, number of dopaminergic neurons and nigral volume. In addition, reduced BDNF expression causes decreased dopamine receptor expression in mutant huntingtin mice. Examination of changes in locomotor activity induced by dopamine receptor agonists revealed that, in comparison with R6/1 mice, the double mutant mice exhibit lower activity in response to amphetamine, but not to apomorphine. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the decreased BDNF expression observed in Huntington's disease exacerbates dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction, which may participate in the motor disturbances associated with this neurodegenerative disorder.

  18. Mesocortical dopaminergic function and human cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, D.R.; Berman, K.F.; Chase, T.N.

    1988-01-01

    In summary, we have reviewed rCBF data in humans that suggest that mesoprefrontal dopaminergic activity is involved in human cognition. In patients with Parkinson's disease and possibly in patients with schizophrenia, prefrontal physiological activation during a cognitive task that appears to depend on prefrontal neural systems correlates positively with cognitive performance on the task and with clinical signs of dopaminergic function. It may be possible in the future to examine prefrontal dopamine metabolism directly during prefrontal cognition using positron emission tomography and tracers such as F-18 DOPA. 21 references.

  19. The role of growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) in the induction and survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurones: relevance to Parkinson's disease treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Aideen M; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2005-01-01

    Growth/differentiation factor-5 (GDF5) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily which has potent effects on dopaminergic neurones in vitro and in vivo. GDF5 is under investigation as a potential therapeutic agent for Parkinson's disease (PD), which is caused by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurones projecting from the substantia nigra (SN) to the striatum. In the rat ventral mesencephalon (VM; the developing SN), GDF5 expression peaks at embryonic day 14, the time at which dopaminergic neurones undergo terminal differentiation. Addition of GDF5 protein to cultures of embryonic rat VM increases the survival and improves the morphology of dopaminergic neurones in these cultures. GDF5 treatment also increases the number of cells which adopt a dopaminergic phenotype in cultures of VM progenitor cells. Intracerebral administration of GDF5 has potent neuroprotective and restorative effects on the nigrostriatal pathway in animal models of PD. Furthermore, addition of GDF5 protein to embryonic rat dopaminergic neuronal transplants improves their survival and function in a rat model of PD. Thus, GDF5 has potential applications to PD therapy as a dopaminergic neuroprotective agent and as a factor that may induce a dopaminergic neuronal fate in unrestricted progenitor cells. PMID:16185246

  20. Modulation of motor functions involving central dopaminergic system by L-histidine.

    PubMed

    Paul, V N; Chopra, K; Kulkarni, S K

    2000-10-01

    There exists a possibility of interactions of histaminergic system with other neurotransmitters and their receptors in the central nervous system. Experimental evidences suggest a possible inhibitory influence of histaminergic system on the dopaminergic system. To elucidate the possible interaction between the histaminergic and dopaminergic pathways, we devised a strategy to study their effects on locomotor function and stereotypy behaviour. We investigated the effect of L-histidine, the precursor of histamine, on apomorphine-induced stereotypy and perphenazine-induced catalepsy. Histidine antagonised apomorphine-induced stereotypy. This inhibitory effect of histidine was abolished by both H1- and H2-receptor antagonists, chlorpheniramine and cimetidine, respectively. Perphenazine-induced catalepsy was potentiated by histidine and this effect was inhibited by chlorpheniramine alone but not by cimetidine. These results confirm a possible histamine-dopamine interaction in the modulation of motor functions by the central nervous system.

  1. Extensive graft-derived dopaminergic innervation is maintained 24 years after transplantation in the degenerating parkinsonian brain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen; Englund, Elisabet; Widner, Håkan; Mattsson, Bengt; van Westen, Danielle; Lätt, Jimmy; Rehncrona, Stig; Brundin, Patrik; Björklund, Anders; Lindvall, Olle; Li, Jia-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials using cells derived from embryonic ventral mesencephalon have shown that transplanted dopaminergic neurons can survive and function in the long term, as demonstrated by in vivo brain imaging using 18F-fluorodopa and 11C-raclopride positron emission tomography. Here we report the postmortem analysis of a patient with Parkinson’s disease who 24 y earlier underwent unilateral transplantation of embryonic dopaminergic neurons in the putamen and subsequently exhibited major motor improvement and recovery of striatal dopaminergic function. Histopathological analysis showed that a dense, near-normal graft-derived dopaminergic reinnervation of the putamen can be maintained for a quarter of a century despite severe host brain pathology and with no evidence of immune response. In addition, ubiquitin- and α-synuclein–positive inclusions were seen, some with the appearance of typical Lewy bodies, in 11–12% of the grafted dopaminergic neurons, reflecting the spread of pathology from the host brain to the transplants. Because the clinical benefits induced by transplantation in this patient were gradually lost after 14 y posttransplantation, our findings provide the first reported evidence, to our knowledge, that even a viable dopaminergic graft giving rise to extensive striatal reinnervation may lose its efficacy if widespread degenerative changes develop in the host brain. PMID:27140603

  2. Extensive graft-derived dopaminergic innervation is maintained 24 years after transplantation in the degenerating parkinsonian brain.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Englund, Elisabet; Widner, Håkan; Mattsson, Bengt; van Westen, Danielle; Lätt, Jimmy; Rehncrona, Stig; Brundin, Patrik; Björklund, Anders; Lindvall, Olle; Li, Jia-Yi

    2016-06-01

    Clinical trials using cells derived from embryonic ventral mesencephalon have shown that transplanted dopaminergic neurons can survive and function in the long term, as demonstrated by in vivo brain imaging using (18)F-fluorodopa and (11)C-raclopride positron emission tomography. Here we report the postmortem analysis of a patient with Parkinson's disease who 24 y earlier underwent unilateral transplantation of embryonic dopaminergic neurons in the putamen and subsequently exhibited major motor improvement and recovery of striatal dopaminergic function. Histopathological analysis showed that a dense, near-normal graft-derived dopaminergic reinnervation of the putamen can be maintained for a quarter of a century despite severe host brain pathology and with no evidence of immune response. In addition, ubiquitin- and α-synuclein-positive inclusions were seen, some with the appearance of typical Lewy bodies, in 11-12% of the grafted dopaminergic neurons, reflecting the spread of pathology from the host brain to the transplants. Because the clinical benefits induced by transplantation in this patient were gradually lost after 14 y posttransplantation, our findings provide the first reported evidence, to our knowledge, that even a viable dopaminergic graft giving rise to extensive striatal reinnervation may lose its efficacy if widespread degenerative changes develop in the host brain. PMID:27140603

  3. Treatment of Parkinson's disease: what's in the non-dopaminergic pipeline?

    PubMed

    Hung, Albert Y; Schwarzschild, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine depletion resulting from degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons is the primary neurochemical basis of the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). While dopaminergic replacement strategies are effective in ameliorating these symptoms early in the disease process, more advanced stages of PD are associated with the development of treatment-related motor complications and dopamine-resistant symptoms. Other neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems are expressed in the basal ganglia and contribute to the extrapyramidal refinement of motor function. Furthermore, neuropathological studies suggest that they are also affected by the neurodegenerative process. These non-dopaminergic systems provide potential targets for treatment of motor fluctuations, levodopa-induced dyskinesias, and difficulty with gait and balance. This review summarizes recent advances in the clinical development of novel pharmacological approaches for treatment of PD motor symptoms. Although the non-dopaminergic pipeline has been slow to yield new drugs, further development will likely result in improved treatments for PD symptoms that are induced by or resistant to dopamine replacement.

  4. Pramipexole protects against apoptotic cell death by non-dopaminergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gu, Mei; Iravani, M M; Irvani, M; Cooper, J Mark; King, Diane; Jenner, Peter; Schapira, Anthony H V

    2004-12-01

    We have investigated the ability of pramipexole, a dopamine agonist used in the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), to protect against cell death induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and rotenone in dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic cells. Pre-incubation with either the active (-)- or inactive (+)-enantiomer forms of pramipexole (10 microm) decreased cell death in response to MPP+ and rotenone in dopaminergic SHSY-5Y cells and in non-dopaminergic JK cells. The protective effect was not prevented by dopamine receptor blockade using sulpiride or clozapine. Protection occurred at concentrations at which pramipexole did not demonstrate antioxidant activity, as shown by the failure to maintain aconitase activity. However, pramipexole reduced caspase-3 activation, decreased the release of cytochrome c and prevented the fall in the mitochondrial membrane potential induced by MPP+ and rotenone. This suggests that pramipexole has anti-apoptotic actions. The results extend the evidence for the neuroprotective effects of pramipexole and indicate that this is not dependent on dopamine receptor occupation or antioxidant activity. Further evaluation is required to determine whether the neuroprotective action of pramipexole is translated to a disease-modifying effect in PD patients. PMID:15569251

  5. Contribution of dopamine to mitochondrial complex I inhibition and dopaminergic deficits caused by methylenedioxymethamphetamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Barros-Miñones, L; Goñi-Allo, B; Suquia, V; Beitia, G; Aguirre, N; Puerta, E

    2015-06-01

    Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) causes a persistent loss of dopaminergic cell bodies in the substantia nigra of mice. Current evidence indicates that MDMA-induced neurotoxicity is mediated by oxidative stress probably due to the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity. In this study we investigated the contribution of dopamine (DA) to such effects. For this, we modulated the dopaminergic system of mice at the synthesis, uptake or metabolism levels. Striatal mitochondrial complex I activity was decreased 1 h after MDMA; an effect not observed in the striatum of DA depleted mice or in the hippocampus, a dopamine spare region. The DA precursor, L-dopa, caused a significant reduction of mitochondrial complex I activity by itself and exacerbated the dopaminergic deficits when combined with systemic MDMA. By contrast, no damage was observed when L-dopa was combined with intrastriatal injections of MDMA. On the other hand, dopamine uptake blockade using GBR 12909, inhibited both, the acute inhibition of complex I activity and the long-term dopaminergic toxicity caused by MDMA. Moreover, the inhibition of DA metabolism with the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor, pargyline, afforded a significant protection against MDMA-induced complex I inhibition and neurotoxicity. Taken together, these findings point to the formation of hydrogen peroxide subsequent to DA metabolism by MAO, rather than a direct DA-mediated mitochondrial complex I inhibition, and the contribution of a peripheral metabolite of MDMA, as the key steps in the chain of biochemical events leading to DA neurotoxicity caused by MDMA in mice.

  6. Endogenous dynorphin protects against neurotoxin-elicited nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuron damage and motor deficits in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The striato-nigral projecting pathway contains the highest concentrations of dynorphin in the brain. The functional role of this opioid peptide in the regulation of mesencephalic dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons is not clear. We reported previously that exogenous dynorphin exerts potent neuroprotective effects against inflammation-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in vitro. The present study was performed to investigate whether endogenous dynorphin has neuroprotective roles in vivo. Methods 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and methamphetamine (MA), two commonly used neurotoxins in rodent models of Parkinson’s disease, were administered to wild-type (Dyn+/+) and prodynorphin-deficient mice (Dyn−/−). We examined dopaminergic neurotoxicity by using an automated video tracking system, HPLC, immunocytochemistry, and reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results Treatment with MPTP resulted in behavioral impairments in both strains. However, these impairments were more pronounced in Dyn-l- than in Dyn+/+. Dyn−/− showed more severe MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra and striatum than Dyn+/+. Similarly, the levels of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum were depleted to a greater extent in Dyn−/− than in Dyn+/+. Additional mechanistic studies revealed that MPTP treatment caused a higher degree of microglial activation and M1 phenotype differentiation in Dyn−/− than in Dyn+/+. Consistent with these observations, prodynorphin deficiency also exacerbated neurotoxic effects induced by MA, although this effect was less pronounced than that of MPTP. Conclusions The in vivo results presented here extend our previous in vitro findings and further indicate that endogenous dynorphin plays a critical role in protecting dopaminergic neurons through its anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:22695044

  7. Effects of manganese on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and TH-phosphorylation in a dopaminergic neural cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Danhui; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha

    2011-07-15

    Manganese (Mn) exposure causes manganism, a neurological disorder similar to Parkinson's disease. However, the cellular mechanism by which Mn impairs the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta (PKC{delta}) plays a key role in Mn-induced apoptotic cell death in dopaminergic neurons. Recently, we showed that PKC{delta} negatively regulates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, by enhancing protein phosphatase-2A activity in dopaminergic neurons. Here, we report that Mn exposure can affect the enzymatic activity of TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, by activating PKC{delta}-PP2A signaling pathway in a dopaminergic cell model. Low dose Mn (3-10 {mu}M) exposure to differentiated mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cells for 3 h induced a significant increase in TH activity and phosphorylation of TH-Ser40. The PKC{delta} specific inhibitor rottlerin did not prevent Mn-induced TH activity or TH-Ser40 phosphorylation. On the contrary, chronic exposure to 0.1-1 {mu}M Mn for 24 h induced a dose-dependent decrease in TH activity. Interestingly, chronic Mn treatment significantly increased PKC{delta} kinase activity and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) enzyme activity. Treatment with the PKC{delta} inhibitor rottlerin almost completely prevented chronic Mn-induced reduction in TH activity, as well as increased PP2A activity. Neither acute nor chronic Mn exposures induced any cytotoxic cell death or altered TH protein levels. Collectively, these results demonstrate that low dose Mn exposure impairs TH activity in dopaminergic cells through activation of PKC{delta} and PP2A activity.

  8. How to make a mesodiencephalic dopaminergic neuron.

    PubMed

    Smidt, Marten P; Burbach, J Peter H

    2007-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons located in the ventral mesodiencephalon are essential for the control of voluntary movement and the regulation of emotion, and are severely affected in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Recent advances in molecular biology and mouse genetics have helped to unravel the mechanisms involved in the development of mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) neurons, including their specification, migration and differentiation, as well as the processes that govern axonal pathfinding and their specific patterns of connectivity and maintenance. Here, we follow the developmental path of these neurons with the goal of generating a molecular code that could be exploited in cell-replacement strategies to treat diseases such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:17180160

  9. Are striatal tyrosine hydroxylase interneurons dopaminergic?

    PubMed

    Xenias, Harry S; Ibáñez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Koós, Tibor; Tepper, James M

    2015-04-22

    Striatal GABAergic interneurons that express the gene for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) have been identified previously by several methods. Although generally assumed to be dopaminergic, possibly serving as a compensatory source of dopamine (DA) in Parkinson's disease, this assumption has never been tested directly. In TH-Cre mice whose nigrostriatal pathway had been eliminated unilaterally with 6-hydroxydopamine, we injected a Cre-dependent virus coding for channelrhodopsin-2 and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein unilaterally into the unlesioned midbrain or bilaterally into the striatum. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in striatal slices revealed that both optical and electrical stimulation readily elicited DA release in control striata but not from contralateral striata when nigrostriatal neurons were transduced. In contrast, neither optical nor electrical stimulation could elicit striatal DA release in either the control or lesioned striata when the virus was injected directly into the striatum transducing only striatal TH interneurons. This demonstrates that striatal TH interneurons do not release DA. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry in enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-TH mice revealed colocalization of DA, l-amino acid decarboxylase, the DA transporter, and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 with EGFP in midbrain dopaminergic neurons but not in any of the striatal EGFP-TH interneurons. Optogenetic activation of striatal EGFP-TH interneurons produced strong GABAergic inhibition in all spiny neurons tested. These results indicate that striatal TH interneurons are not dopaminergic but rather are a type of GABAergic interneuron that expresses TH but none of the other enzymes or transporters necessary to operate as dopaminergic neurons and exert widespread GABAergic inhibition onto direct and indirect spiny neurons. PMID:25904808

  10. Are striatal tyrosine hydroxylase interneurons dopaminergic?

    PubMed

    Xenias, Harry S; Ibáñez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Koós, Tibor; Tepper, James M

    2015-04-22

    Striatal GABAergic interneurons that express the gene for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) have been identified previously by several methods. Although generally assumed to be dopaminergic, possibly serving as a compensatory source of dopamine (DA) in Parkinson's disease, this assumption has never been tested directly. In TH-Cre mice whose nigrostriatal pathway had been eliminated unilaterally with 6-hydroxydopamine, we injected a Cre-dependent virus coding for channelrhodopsin-2 and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein unilaterally into the unlesioned midbrain or bilaterally into the striatum. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in striatal slices revealed that both optical and electrical stimulation readily elicited DA release in control striata but not from contralateral striata when nigrostriatal neurons were transduced. In contrast, neither optical nor electrical stimulation could elicit striatal DA release in either the control or lesioned striata when the virus was injected directly into the striatum transducing only striatal TH interneurons. This demonstrates that striatal TH interneurons do not release DA. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry in enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-TH mice revealed colocalization of DA, l-amino acid decarboxylase, the DA transporter, and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 with EGFP in midbrain dopaminergic neurons but not in any of the striatal EGFP-TH interneurons. Optogenetic activation of striatal EGFP-TH interneurons produced strong GABAergic inhibition in all spiny neurons tested. These results indicate that striatal TH interneurons are not dopaminergic but rather are a type of GABAergic interneuron that expresses TH but none of the other enzymes or transporters necessary to operate as dopaminergic neurons and exert widespread GABAergic inhibition onto direct and indirect spiny neurons.

  11. Dopaminergic System Dysfunction in Recreational Dexamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Schrantee, Anouk; Václavů, Lena; Heijtel, Dennis F R; Caan, Matthan W A; Gsell, Willy; Lucassen, Paul J; Nederveen, Aart J; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2015-01-01

    Dexamphetamine (dAMPH) is a stimulant drug that is widely used recreationally as well as for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although animal studies have shown neurotoxic effects of dAMPH on the dopaminergic system, little is known about such effects on the human brain. Here, we studied the dopaminergic system at multiple physiological levels in recreational dAMPH users and age, gender, and IQ-matched dAMPH-naïve healthy controls. We assessed baseline D2/3 receptor availability, in addition to changes in dopamine (DA) release using single-photon emission computed tomography and DA functionality using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging, following a dAMPH challenge. Also, the subjective responses to the challenge were determined. dAMPH users displayed significantly lower striatal DA D2/3 receptor binding compared with healthy controls. In dAMPH users, we further observed a blunted DA release and DA functionality to an acute dAMPH challenge, as well as a blunted subjective response. Finally, the lower D2/3 availability, the more pleasant the dAMPH administration was experienced by control subjects, but not by dAMPH users. Thus, in agreement with preclinical studies, we show that the recreational use of dAMPH in human subjects is associated with dopaminergic system dysfunction. These findings warrant further (longitudinal) investigations and call for caution when using this drug recreationally and for ADHD. PMID:25394786

  12. Dopaminergic System in Birdsong Learning and Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Kubikova, Lubica; Košt’ál, L’ubor

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine function in birdsong has been studied extensively in recent years. Several song and auditory nuclei are innervated by midbrain dopaminergic fibers and contain neurons with various dopamine receptors. During sexually motivated singing, activity of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area and dopamine release in the striatal Area X, involved in song learning and maintenance, are higher. In this review we provide an overview of the dopaminergic system and neurotransmission in songbirds and the outline of possible involvement of dopamine in control of song learning, production, and maintenance. Based on both behavioral and computational biology data, we describe several models of song learning and the proposed role of dopamine in them. Special attention is given to possible role of dopamine in incentive salience (wanting) and reward prediction error signaling during song learning and maintenance, as well as the role of dopamine-mediated synaptic plasticity in reward processing. Finally, the role of dopamine in determination of personality traits in relation to birdsong is discussed. PMID:19900537

  13. A natural compound macelignan protects midbrain dopaminergic neurons from inflammatory degeneration via microglial arginase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Kiyofuji, Kana; Kurauchi, Yuki; Hisatsune, Akinori; Seki, Takahiro; Mishima, Satoshi; Katsuki, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory events involving activated microglia have been recognized to play an important role in pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson disease. Compounds regulating activation profiles of microglia may provide therapeutic benefits for Parkinson disease characterized by degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Here we examined the effect of macelignan, a compound derived from nutmeg, on inflammatory degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Treatment of midbrain slice cultures with interferon (IFN)-γ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused a substantial decrease in viable dopaminergic neurons and an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production indicated by extracellular nitrite accumulation. Application of macelignan (10 μM) concomitantly with LPS prevented the loss of dopaminergic neurons. Besides nitrite accumulation, up-regulation of inducible NO synthase protein expression in response to IFN-γ/LPS was confirmed by Western blotting, and immunohistochemical examination revealed expression of inducible NO synthase in a subpopulation of Iba-1-poitive microglia. However, macelignan did not affect any of these NO-related parameters. On the other hand, macelignan promoted expression of arginase-1 in midbrain slice cultures irrespective of the presence or the absence of IFN-γ/LPS treatment. Arginase-1 expression was mainly localized in a subpopulation of Iba-1-positive cells. Importantly, the neuroprotective effect of macelignan was antagonized by N(ω)-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine, a specific arginase inhibitor. The neuroprotective effect of macelignan was also prevented by GW9662, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonist. Overall, these results indicate that macelignan, a compound with PPARγ agonist activity, can provide neuroprotective effect on dopaminergic neurons in an arginase-dependent but NO-independent manner. PMID:25917324

  14. A natural compound macelignan protects midbrain dopaminergic neurons from inflammatory degeneration via microglial arginase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Kiyofuji, Kana; Kurauchi, Yuki; Hisatsune, Akinori; Seki, Takahiro; Mishima, Satoshi; Katsuki, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory events involving activated microglia have been recognized to play an important role in pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson disease. Compounds regulating activation profiles of microglia may provide therapeutic benefits for Parkinson disease characterized by degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Here we examined the effect of macelignan, a compound derived from nutmeg, on inflammatory degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Treatment of midbrain slice cultures with interferon (IFN)-γ and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused a substantial decrease in viable dopaminergic neurons and an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production indicated by extracellular nitrite accumulation. Application of macelignan (10 μM) concomitantly with LPS prevented the loss of dopaminergic neurons. Besides nitrite accumulation, up-regulation of inducible NO synthase protein expression in response to IFN-γ/LPS was confirmed by Western blotting, and immunohistochemical examination revealed expression of inducible NO synthase in a subpopulation of Iba-1-poitive microglia. However, macelignan did not affect any of these NO-related parameters. On the other hand, macelignan promoted expression of arginase-1 in midbrain slice cultures irrespective of the presence or the absence of IFN-γ/LPS treatment. Arginase-1 expression was mainly localized in a subpopulation of Iba-1-positive cells. Importantly, the neuroprotective effect of macelignan was antagonized by N(ω)-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine, a specific arginase inhibitor. The neuroprotective effect of macelignan was also prevented by GW9662, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) antagonist. Overall, these results indicate that macelignan, a compound with PPARγ agonist activity, can provide neuroprotective effect on dopaminergic neurons in an arginase-dependent but NO-independent manner.

  15. Effect of non-selective dopaminergic receptor agonist on disrupted maternal behavior in olfactory bulbectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsushi; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Tan-No, Koichi; Onogi, Hiroshi; Niijima, Fukie; Tadano, Takeshi

    2010-07-11

    Olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) animals are considered a putative model of depression that produces behavioral, physiological, and neurochemical alterations resembling clinical depression. Depression is a critical cause of child abuse and neglect, and it has been reported that maternal behavior involves dopaminergic neurons of the mesolimbic pathway. In this study, we investigated the effect of apomorphine, a non-selective dopaminergic receptor agonist, on maternal behavior to examine the influence of activated brain dopaminergic function in OBX mice. In addition, we conducted the sucrose preference test to examine the reward system which has a critical relationship to mesolimbic dopaminergic function and maternal behavior. Maternal behavior was observed on postnatal day (PND) 0 and 4. OBX female mice showed a reduction in sucrose preference 2 weeks post surgery. OBX dams showed maternal behavior deficits on PND 0, and these deficits were ameliorated by administration of apomorphine. These results suggest that maternal behavior deficits in OBX dams may involve brain hypodopaminergic function in the central nervous system induced by OBX. PMID:20219556

  16. Influence of olfactory bulbectomy on maternal behavior and dopaminergic function in nucleus accumbens in mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsushi; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Tan-No, Koichi; Onogi, Hiroshi; Niijima, Fukie; Tadano, Takeshi

    2010-12-20

    Olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) induces behavioral, physiological, and neurochemical alterations resembling clinical depression and is widely used as an animal model of depression. It has been reported that depression is a critical cause of child abuse and neglect and that maternal behavior involves dopaminergic neurons of the mesolimbic pathway. In a previous study we found that OBX mice show maternal behavior deficits which are improved by administration of apomorphine, a non-selective dopamine agonist. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) on maternal behavior deficits to examine the influence of pre-synaptic dopaminergic function in OBX mice. Furthermore, we measured tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels using microphotometry and quantified dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors using autoradiography in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). As a result, 25mg/kg l-DOPA with 12.5mg/kg benserazide improved disrupted maternal behavior in OBX mice and there are no changes in TH levels or number of D1- and D2-like receptors between sham and OBX mothers. The behavioral data support the hypothesis that changed dopaminergic function may contribute to maternal behavior deficits in OBX mice. However, our findings concerning dopaminergic function suggest that the deficits in OBX mice are not simply due to changes in TH levels or dopamine receptor number in the NAc. PMID:20638419

  17. Autologous mesenchymal stem cell–derived dopaminergic neurons function in parkinsonian macaques

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takuya; Wakao, Shohei; Kitada, Masaaki; Ose, Takayuki; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Mitsunaga, Kanae; Matsuse, Dai; Shigemoto, Taeko; Ito, Akihito; Ikeda, Hironobu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Onoe, Hirotaka; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Dezawa, Mari

    2012-01-01

    A cell-based therapy for the replacement of dopaminergic neurons has been a long-term goal in Parkinson’s disease research. Here, we show that autologous engraftment of A9 dopaminergic neuron-like cells induced from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) leads to long-term survival of the cells and restoration of motor function in hemiparkinsonian macaques. Differentiated MSCs expressed markers of A9 dopaminergic neurons and released dopamine after depolarization in vitro. The differentiated autologous cells were engrafted in the affected portion of the striatum. Animals that received transplants showed modest and gradual improvements in motor behaviors. Positron emission tomography (PET) using [11C]-CFT, a ligand for the dopamine transporter (DAT), revealed a dramatic increase in DAT expression, with a subsequent exponential decline over a period of 7 months. Kinetic analysis of the PET findings revealed that DAT expression remained above baseline levels for over 7 months. Immunohistochemical evaluations at 9 months consistently demonstrated the existence of cells positive for DAT and other A9 dopaminergic neuron markers in the engrafted striatum. These data suggest that transplantation of differentiated autologous MSCs may represent a safe and effective cell therapy for Parkinson’s disease. PMID:23202734

  18. Prokineticin-2 upregulation during neuronal injury mediates a compensatory protective response against dopaminergic neuronal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Richard; Neal, Matthew L.; Luo, Jie; Langley, Monica R.; Harischandra, Dilshan S.; Panicker, Nikhil; Charli, Adhithiya; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Woodruff, Trent M.; Zhou, Qun-Yong; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2016-01-01

    Prokineticin-2 (PK2), a recently discovered secreted protein, regulates important physiological functions including olfactory biogenesis and circadian rhythms in the CNS. Interestingly, although PK2 expression is low in the nigral system, its receptors are constitutively expressed on nigrostriatal neurons. Herein, we demonstrate that PK2 expression is highly induced in nigral dopaminergic neurons during early stages of degeneration in multiple models of Parkinson's disease (PD), including PK2 reporter mice and MitoPark mice. Functional studies demonstrate that PK2 promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and activates ERK and Akt survival signalling pathways, thereby driving neuroprotection. Importantly, PK2 overexpression is protective whereas PK2 receptor antagonism exacerbates dopaminergic degeneration in experimental PD. Furthermore, PK2 expression increased in surviving nigral dopaminergic neurons from PD brains, indicating that PK2 upregulation is clinically relevant to human PD. Collectively, our results identify a paradigm for compensatory neuroprotective PK2 signalling in nigral dopaminergic neurons that could have important therapeutic implications for PD. PMID:27703142

  19. Ceftriaxone Ameliorates Motor Deficits and Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Lesioned Rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is caused by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. There is no current promising treatment for neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons. Ceftriaxone is a beta-lactam antibiotic and has been reported to offer neuroprotective effects (Rothstein, J.-D., Patel, S., Regan, M.-R., Haenggeli, C., Huang, Y.-H., Bergles, D.-E., Jin, L., Dykes, H.-M., Vidensky, S., Chung, D.-S., Toan, S.-V., Bruijn, L.-I., Su, Z.-Z., Gupta, P., and Fisher, P.-B. (2005) Beta-lactam antibiotics offer neuroprotection by increasing glutamate transporter expression Nature433, 73–77). In the present study, efficacy of ceftriaxone in neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons and amelioration of motor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease were investigated. Ceftriaxone was administrated in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. Using behavioral tests, grip strength and numbers of apomorphine-induced contralateral rotation were declined in the ceftriaxone-treated group. More importantly, cell death of dopaminergic neurons was found to decrease. In addition, both the protein expression and immunoreactivity for GLT-1 were up-regulated. The present results strongly indicate that ceftriaxone is a potential agent in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:22860178

  20. Thymoquinone protects dopaminergic neurons against MPP+ and rotenone.

    PubMed

    Radad, Khaled; Moldzio, Rudolf; Taha, Mokhtar; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter

    2009-05-01

    Thymoquinone is the main active constituent of Nigella sativa seeds with antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. In the present study, primary dopaminergic cultures from mouse mesencephala were used to investigate the neuroprotective effects of thymoquinone against MPP(+) and rotenone toxicities. MPP(+) (10 microm on day 10 in vitro (i.v.) for 48 h) significantly decreased the number of THir by 40% compared with untreated control cultures. Rotenone at both short (20 nm on day 10 i.v. for 48 h) and long-term (1 nm on day 6 i.v. for 6 consecutive days) toxicities reduced the number of THir neurons by 33% and 24%, respectively. Treatment of cultures with thymoquinone (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 microm on day 8 i.v. for 4 days) rescued about 25% of THir neurons at concentrations of 0.1 microm and 1 microm against MPP(+)-induced cell death. Against rotenone, thymoquinone afforded significant protection in both short- and long-term models. In short-term rotenone toxicity, thymoquinone (from days 8-12 i.v.) saved about 65%, 74% and 79% of THir neurons at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1 and 1 microm, respectively, compared with cell loss induced by rotenone. In long-term rotenone toxicity, concomitant treatment of cultures with thymoquinone significantly rescued about 83-100% of THir neurons compared with rotenone-treated cultures. In conclusion, the current study presents for the first time the potential of thymoquinone to protect primary dopaminergic neurons against MPP(+) and rotenone relevant to Parkinson's disease.

  1. Cross interaction of melanocortinergic and dopaminergic systems in neural modulation

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Bao-Wen; Xiang, Hong-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Melanocortinergic and dopaminergic systems are widely distributed in the CNS and have been established as a crucial regulatory component in diverse physiological functions. The pharmacology of both melanocortinergic and dopaminergic systems including their individual receptors, signaling mechanisms, agonists and antagonists has been extensively studied. Several lines of evidence showed that there existed a cross interaction between the receptors of melanocortinergic and dopaminergic systems. The data available at present had expanded our understanding of melanocortinergic and dopaminergic system interaction in neural modulation, which will be main discussed in this paper. PMID:26823964

  2. Glucocorticoids have state-dependent stimulant effects on the mesencephalic dopaminergic transmission.

    PubMed

    Piazza, P V; Rougé-Pont, F; Deroche, V; Maccari, S; Simon, H; Le Moal, M

    1996-08-01

    An increase in the activity of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons has been implicated in the appearance of pathological behaviors such as psychosis and drug abuse. Several observations suggest that glucocorticoids might contribute to such an increase in dopaminergic activity. The present experiments therefore analyzed the effects of corticosterone, the major glucocorticoid in the rat, both on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving animals by means of microdialysis, and on locomotor activity, a behavior dependent on accumbens dopamine. Given that glucocorticoids have certain state-dependent neuronal effects, their action on dopamine was studied in situations differing in dopaminergic tonus, including during the light and dark phases of the circadian cycle, during eating, and in groups of animals differing in their locomotor reactivity to novelty. Dopaminergic activity is increased in the dark period, further increased during food-intake, and is higher in rats defined as high responders to novelty than in low responders. Corticosterone, peripherally administered in a dose that approximates stress-induced plasma concentrations, increased extracellular concentrations of dopamine, and this increase was augmented in the dark phase, during eating, and in high responder rats. Corticosterone had little or no effects in the light phase and in low responder rats. Corticosterone also stimulated locomotor activity, an effect that paralleled the release of dopamine and was abolished by neurochemical (6-hydroxydopamine) depletion of accumbens dopamine. In conclusion, glucocorticoids have state-dependent stimulant effects on mesencephalic dopaminergic transmission, and an interaction between these two factors might be involved in the appearance of behavioral disturbances. PMID:8710937

  3. Glucocorticoids have state-dependent stimulant effects on the mesencephalic dopaminergic transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, P V; Rougé-Pont, F; Deroche, V; Maccari, S; Simon, H; Le Moal, M

    1996-01-01

    An increase in the activity of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons has been implicated in the appearance of pathological behaviors such as psychosis and drug abuse. Several observations suggest that glucocorticoids might contribute to such an increase in dopaminergic activity. The present experiments therefore analyzed the effects of corticosterone, the major glucocorticoid in the rat, both on dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving animals by means of microdialysis, and on locomotor activity, a behavior dependent on accumbens dopamine. Given that glucocorticoids have certain state-dependent neuronal effects, their action on dopamine was studied in situations differing in dopaminergic tonus, including during the light and dark phases of the circadian cycle, during eating, and in groups of animals differing in their locomotor reactivity to novelty. Dopaminergic activity is increased in the dark period, further increased during food-intake, and is higher in rats defined as high responders to novelty than in low responders. Corticosterone, peripherally administered in a dose that approximates stress-induced plasma concentrations, increased extracellular concentrations of dopamine, and this increase was augmented in the dark phase, during eating, and in high responder rats. Corticosterone had little or no effects in the light phase and in low responder rats. Corticosterone also stimulated locomotor activity, an effect that paralleled the release of dopamine and was abolished by neurochemical (6-hydroxydopamine) depletion of accumbens dopamine. In conclusion, glucocorticoids have state-dependent stimulant effects on mesencephalic dopaminergic transmission, and an interaction between these two factors might be involved in the appearance of behavioral disturbances. PMID:8710937

  4. Dopaminergic modulation of emotional conflict in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Vanessa; Cousin, Emilie; Czernecki, Virginie; Schmitt, Emmanuelle; Lhommée, Eugénie; Poncet, Antoine; Fraix, Valérie; Troprès, Irène; Pollak, Pierre; Krainik, Alexandre; Krack, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric fluctuations in Parkinson's disease (PD) are frequent and disabling. One way to investigate them is to assess the ability to inhibit distractive emotional information by a modified emotional Stroop (ES) task. We compared non-depressed, non-demented PD patients with healthy controls. During an acute levodopa challenge, patients performed a modified ES task during functional MRI and a neuropsychological assessment including Visual Analog Mood (VAMS) and Apathy scales. Ten patients and 12 controls completed the study. The VAMS scores were significantly improved by the acute intake of levodopa (p = 0.02), as was the apathy score (p = 0.03). Negative ES task (i.e. fearful facial expressions with the words “happy” or “fear” written across them), induced a lengthening of the mean reaction time during the incongruent trials compared with the congruent trials in controls (relative difference = 2.7%, p < 0.001) and in ON patients (relative difference = 5.9%, p < 0.001), but not in OFF patients (relative difference = 1.7%, p = 0.28). Controls and ON patients displayed greater activation than OFF patients within the right pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC), an area specifically involved in emotional conflict resolution (p < 0.001 and p < 0.008 respectively, k > 5 uncorrected). No difference in the activation of the pACC was found between controls and ON patients, suggesting a normalization of the activation following levodopa administration. These results suggest that emotional conflict processes could be dopamine-dependent. Pregenual ACC hypoactivation could be directly due to the degeneration of dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic pathway. Our results propose that neuropsychiatric fluctuations in PD patients could be partially explained by pACC hypoactivation and that adjustments of dopaminergic medication might be helpful for their treatment. PMID:25100991

  5. Conditional Expression of Parkinson's Disease-Related R1441C LRRK2 in Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons of Mice Causes Nuclear Abnormalities without Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tsika, Elpida; Kannan, Meghna; Foo, Caroline Shi-Yan; Dikeman, Dustin; Glauser, Liliane; Gellhaar, Sandra; Galter, Dagmar; Knott, Graham W.; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.; Moore, Darren J.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene cause late-onset, autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). The clinical and neurochemical features of LRRK2-linked PD are similar to idiopathic disease although neuropathology is somewhat heterogeneous. Dominant mutations in LRRK2 precipitate neurodegeneration through a toxic gain-of-function mechanism which can be modeled in transgenic mice overexpressing human LRRK2 variants. A number of LRRK2 transgenic mouse models have been developed that display abnormalities in dopaminergic neurotransmission and alterations in tau metabolism yet without consistently inducing dopaminergic neurodegeneration. To directly explore the impact of mutant LRRK2 on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, we developed conditional transgenic mice that selectively express human R1441C LRRK2 in dopaminergic neurons from the endogenous murine ROSA26 promoter. The expression of R1441C LRRK2 does not induce the degeneration of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons or striatal dopamine deficits in mice up to 2 years of age, and fails to precipitate abnormal protein inclusions containing alpha-synuclein, tau, ubiquitin or autophagy markers (LC3 and p62). Furthermore, mice expressing R1441C LRRK2 exhibit normal motor activity and olfactory function with increasing age. Intriguingly, the expression of R1441C LRRK2 induces age-dependent abnormalities of the nuclear envelope in nigral dopaminergic neurons including reduced nuclear circularity and increased invaginations of the nuclear envelope. In addition, R1441C LRRK2 mice display increased neurite complexity of cultured midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Collectively, these novel R1441C LRRK2 conditional transgenic mice reveal altered dopaminergic neuronal morphology with advancing age, and provide a useful tool for exploring the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the R1441C LRRK2 mutation in PD. PMID:25174890

  6. Molecular manipulation targeting regulation of dopaminergic differentiation and proliferation of neural stem cells or pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yin-Xiu; Wei, Li-Chun; Wang, Ya-Zhou; Cao, Rong; Wang, Xi; Chen, Liang-Wei

    2011-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a severe deliberating neurological disease caused by progressive degenerative death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of midbrain. While cell replacement strategy by transplantation of neural stem cells and inducement of dopaminergic neurons is recommended for the treatment of PD, understanding the differentiation mechanism and controlled proliferation of grafted stem cells remain major concerns in their clinical application. Here we review recent studies on molecular signaling pathways in regulation of dopaminergic differentiation and proliferation of stem cells, particularly Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in stimulating formation of the dopaminergic phenotype, Notch signaling in inhibiting stem cell differentiation, and Sonic hedgehog functioning in neural stem cell proliferation and neuronal cell production. Activation of oncogenes involved in uncontrolled proliferation or tumorigenicity of stem cells is also discussed. It is proposed that a selective molecular manipulation targeting strategy will greatly benefit cell replacement therapy for PD by effectively promoting dopaminergic neuronal cell generation and reducing risk of tumorigenicity of in vivo stem cell applications.

  7. Do substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons differentiate between reward and punishment?

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael J; Surmeier, D James

    2009-10-01

    The activity of dopaminergic neurons are thought to be increased by stimuli that predict reward and decreased by stimuli that predict aversive outcomes. Recent work by Matsumoto and Hikosaka challenges this model by asserting that stimuli associated with either rewarding or aversive outcomes increase the activity of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta.

  8. Establishing diversity in the dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Bodea, Gabriela O; Blaess, Sandra

    2015-12-21

    Midbrain dopaminergic neurons (MbDNs) modulate cognitive processes, regulate voluntary movement, and encode reward prediction errors and aversive stimuli. While the degeneration of MbDNs underlies the motor defects in Parkinson's disease, imbalances in dopamine levels are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, schizophrenia and substance abuse. In recent years, progress has been made in understanding how MbDNs, which constitute a relatively small neuronal population in the brain, can contribute to such diverse functions and dysfunctions. In particular, important insights have been gained regarding the distinct molecular, neurochemical and network properties of MbDNs. How this diversity of MbDNs is established during brain development is only starting to be unraveled. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the diversity in MbDN progenitors and differentiated MbDNs in the developing rodent brain. We discuss the signaling pathways, transcription factors and transmembrane receptors that contribute to setting up these diverse MbDN subpopulations. A better insight into the processes that establish diversity in MbDNs will ultimately improve the understanding of the architecture and function of the dopaminergic system in the adult brain. PMID:26431946

  9. Cystamine/cysteamine rescues the dopaminergic system and shows neurorestorative properties in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cisbani, G; Drouin-Ouellet, J; Gibrat, C; Saint-Pierre, M; Lagacé, M; Badrinarayanan, S; Lavallée-Bourget, M H; Charest, J; Chabrat, A; Boivin, L; Lebel, M; Bousquet, M; Lévesque, M; Cicchetti, F

    2015-10-01

    The neuroprotective properties of cystamine identified in pre-clinical studies have fast-tracked this compound to clinical trials in Huntington's disease, showing tolerability and benefits on motor symptoms. We tested whether cystamine could have such properties in a Parkinson's disease murine model and now provide evidence that it can not only prevent the neurodegenerative process but also can reverse motor impairments created by a 6-hydroxydopamine lesion 3 weeks post-surgery. Importantly, we report that cystamine has neurorestorative properties 5 weeks post-lesion as seen on the number of nigral dopaminergic neurons which is comparable with treatments of cysteamine, the reduced form of cystamine used in the clinic, as well as rasagiline, increasingly prescribed in early parkinsonism. All three compounds induced neurite arborization of the remaining dopaminergic cells which was further confirmed in ex vivo dopaminergic explants derived from Pitx3-GFP mice. The disease-modifying effects displayed by cystamine/cysteamine would encourage clinical testing.

  10. Enhancing the efficiency of direct reprogramming of human primary fibroblasts into dopaminergic neuron-like cells through p53 suppression.

    PubMed

    Liu, XinJian; Huang, Qian; Li, Fang; Li, Chuan-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neuron-like cells obtained through direct reprogramming of primary human fibroblasts offer exciting opportunities for treatment of Parkinson's disease. A significant obstacle is the low efficiency of conversion during the reprogramming process. Here, we demonstrate that the suppression of p53 significantly enhances the efficiency of transcription factor-mediated conversion of human fibroblasts into functional dopaminergic neurons. In particular, blocking p53 activity using a dominant-negative p53 (p53-DN) in IMR90 cells increases the conversion efficiency by 5-20 fold. The induced DA neuron-like cells exhibit dopamine neuron-specific gene expression, significant dopamine uptake and production capacities, and enables symptomatic relief in a rat Parkinson's disease model. Taken together, our findings suggest that p53 is a critical barrier in direct reprogramming of fibroblast into dopaminergic neurons. PMID:25129808

  11. Disrupted iron homeostasis causes dopaminergic neurodegeneration in mice

    PubMed Central

    Matak, Pavle; Matak, Andrija; Moustafa, Sarah; Aryal, Dipendra K.; Benner, Eric J.; Wetsel, William; Andrews, Nancy C.

    2016-01-01

    Disrupted brain iron homeostasis is a common feature of neurodegenerative disease. To begin to understand how neuronal iron handling might be involved, we focused on dopaminergic neurons and asked how inactivation of transport proteins affected iron homeostasis in vivo in mice. Loss of the cellular iron exporter, ferroportin, had no apparent consequences. However, loss of transferrin receptor 1, involved in iron uptake, caused neuronal iron deficiency, age-progressive degeneration of a subset of dopaminergic neurons, and motor deficits. There was gradual depletion of dopaminergic projections in the striatum followed by death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Damaged mitochondria accumulated, and gene expression signatures indicated attempted axonal regeneration, a metabolic switch to glycolysis, oxidative stress, and the unfolded protein response. We demonstrate that loss of transferrin receptor 1, but not loss of ferroportin, can cause neurodegeneration in a subset of dopaminergic neurons in mice. PMID:26929359

  12. Disrupted iron homeostasis causes dopaminergic neurodegeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Matak, Pavle; Matak, Andrija; Moustafa, Sarah; Aryal, Dipendra K; Benner, Eric J; Wetsel, William; Andrews, Nancy C

    2016-03-29

    Disrupted brain iron homeostasis is a common feature of neurodegenerative disease. To begin to understand how neuronal iron handling might be involved, we focused on dopaminergic neurons and asked how inactivation of transport proteins affected iron homeostasis in vivo in mice. Loss of the cellular iron exporter, ferroportin, had no apparent consequences. However, loss of transferrin receptor 1, involved in iron uptake, caused neuronal iron deficiency, age-progressive degeneration of a subset of dopaminergic neurons, and motor deficits. There was gradual depletion of dopaminergic projections in the striatum followed by death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Damaged mitochondria accumulated, and gene expression signatures indicated attempted axonal regeneration, a metabolic switch to glycolysis, oxidative stress, and the unfolded protein response. We demonstrate that loss of transferrin receptor 1, but not loss of ferroportin, can cause neurodegeneration in a subset of dopaminergic neurons in mice.

  13. Lithium fails to protect dopaminergic neurons in the 6-OHDA model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Yong, Yue; Ding, Hanqing; Fan, Zhiqin; Luo, Jia; Ke, Zun-Ji

    2011-03-01

    Lithium has been used for the treatment of bipolar mood disorder and is shown to have neuroprotective properties. Since lithium inhibits the activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) which is implicated in various human diseases, particularly neurodegenerative diseases, the therapeutic potential of lithium receives great attention. Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, characterized by the pathological loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Intranigral injection of the catecholaminergic neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) causes selective and progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in SNpc, and is a commonly used animal model of PD. The current study was designated to determine whether lithium is effective in alleviating 6-OHDA-induced neurodegeneration in the SNpc of rats. We demonstrated that chronic subcutaneous administration of lithium inhibited GSK3 activity in the SNpc, which was evident by an increase in phosphorylation of GSK3β at serine 9, cyclin D1 expression, and a decrease in tau phosphorylation. 6-OHDA did not affect GSK3 activity in the SNpc. Moreover, lithium was unable to alleviate 6-OHDA-induced degeneration of SNpc dopaminergic neurons. The results suggest that GSK3 is minimally involved in the neurodegeneration in the rat 6-OHDA model of PD.

  14. Mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways in fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Pezze, Marie A; Feldon, Joram

    2004-12-01

    One of the most common paradigms used to study the biological basis of emotion, as well as of learning and memory, is Pavlovian fear conditioning. In the acquisition phase of a fear conditioning experiment, an emotionally neutral conditioned stimulus (CS)--which can either be a discrete stimulus, such as a tone, or a contextual stimulus, such as a specific environment--is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US), for example a foot shock. As a result, the CS elicits conditioned fear responses when subsequently presented alone during the expression phase of the experiment. While considerable work has been done in relating specific circuits of the brain to fear conditioning, less is known about its regulation by neuromodulators; the understanding of which would be of therapeutic relevance for fear related diseases such as phobia, panic attacks, post traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, or generalized anxiety disorder. Dopamine is one of the neuromodulators most potently acting on the mechanisms underlying states of fear and anxiety. Recently, a growing body of evidence has suggested that dopaminergic mechanisms are significant for different aspects of affective memory, namely its formation, expression, retrieval, and extinction. The aim of this review is to clarify the complex actions of dopamine in fear conditioning with respect to the wide-spread distribution of dopaminergic innervation over structures constituting the fear related circuitry. A particular effort is made to understand how dopamine in the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens--target structures of the mesolimbic dopamine system originating from the ventral tegmental area--could relate to different aspects of fear conditioning.

  15. Liposomal melatonin rescues methamphetamine-elicited mitochondrial burdens, pro-apoptosis, and dopaminergic degeneration through the inhibition PKCδ gene.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Xuan-Khanh Thi; Lee, Jaehwi; Shin, Eun-Joo; Dang, Duy-Khanh; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Nguyen, Thuy-Ty Lan; Nam, Yunsung; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Jae-Chul; Park, Dae Hun; Jang, Choon-Gon; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated that mitochondrial oxidative damage and PKCδ overexpression contribute to methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic degeneration. Although it is recognized that antioxidant melatonin is effective in preventing neurotoxicity induced by methamphetamine, its precise mechanism remains elusive. C57BL/6J wild-type mice exhibited a similar degree of dopaminergic deficit when methamphetamine was administered during light and dark phases. Furthermore, dopaminergic neuroprotection by genetic inhibition of PKCδ during the light phase was comparable to that during the dark phase. Thus, we have focused on the light phase to examine whether melatonin modulates PKCδ-mediated neurotoxic signaling after multiple high doses of methamphetamine. To enhance the bioavailability of melatonin, we applied liposomal melatonin. Treatment with methamphetamine resulted in hyperthermia, mitochondrial translocation of PKCδ, oxidative damage (mitochondria > cytosol), mitochondrial dysfunction, pro-apoptotic changes, ultrastructural mitochondrial degeneration, dopaminergic degeneration, and behavioral impairment in wild-type mice. Treatment with liposomal melatonin resulted in a dose-dependent attenuation against degenerative changes induced by methamphetamine in wild-type mice. Attenuation by liposomal melatonin might be comparable to that by genetic inhibition (using PKCδ((-/-)) mice or PKCδ antisense oligonucleotide). However, liposomal melatonin did not show any additional protective effects on the attenuation by genetic inhibition of PKCδ. Our results suggest that the circadian cycle cannot be a key factor in modulating methamphetamine toxicity under the current experimental condition and that PKCδ is one of the critical target genes for melatonin-mediated protective effects against mitochondrial burdens (dysfunction), oxidative stress, pro-apoptosis, and dopaminergic degeneration induced by methamphetamine.

  16. Sex-dependent diversity in ventral tegmental dopaminergic neurons and developmental programing: A molecular, cellular and behavioral analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gillies, G.E.; Virdee, K.; McArthur, S.; Dalley, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge that diverse populations of dopaminergic neurons within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) can be distinguished in terms of their molecular, electrophysiological and functional properties, as well as their differential projections to cortical and subcortical regions has significance for key brain functions, such as the regulation of motivation, working memory and sensorimotor control. Almost without exception, this understanding has evolved from landmark studies performed in the male sex. However, converging evidence from both clinical and pre-clinical studies illustrates that the structure and functioning of the VTA dopaminergic systems are intrinsically different in males and females. This may be driven by sex differences in the hormonal environment during adulthood (‘activational’ effects) and development (perinatal and/or pubertal ‘organizational’ effects), as well as genetic factors, especially the SRY gene on the Y chromosome in males, which is expressed in a sub-population of adult midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Stress and stress hormones, especially glucocorticoids, are important factors which interact with the VTA dopaminergic systems in order to achieve behavioral adaptation and enable the individual to cope with environmental change. Here, also, there is male/female diversity not only during adulthood, but also in early life when neurobiological programing by stress or glucocorticoid exposure differentially impacts dopaminergic developmental trajectories in male and female brains. This may have enduring consequences for individual resilience or susceptibility to pathophysiological change induced by stressors in later life, with potential translational significance for sex bias commonly found in disorders involving dysfunction of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic systems. These findings highlight the urgent need for a better understanding of the sexual dimorphism in the VTA if we are to improve strategies for the prevention and

  17. Prostaglandin E2-Mediated Attenuation of Mesocortical Dopaminergic Pathway Is Critical for Susceptibility to Repeated Social Defeat Stress in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kohei; Furuyashiki, Tomoyuki; Kitaoka, Shiho; Senzai, Yuta; Imoto, Yuki; Segi-Nishida, Eri; Deguchi, Yuichi; Breyer, Richard M.; Breyer, Matthew D.; Narumiya, Shuh

    2013-01-01

    Various kinds of stress are thought to precipitate psychiatric disorders, such as major depression. Whereas studies in rodents have suggested a critical role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in stress susceptibility, the mechanism of how stress susceptibility is determined through mPFC remains unknown. Here we show a critical role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a bioactive lipid derived from arachidonic acid, in repeated social defeat stress in mice. Repeated social defeat increased the PGE2 level in the subcortical region of the brain, and mice lacking either COX-1, a prostaglandin synthase, or EP1, a PGE receptor, were impaired in induction of social avoidance by repeated social defeat. Given the reported action of EP1 that augments GABAergic inputs to midbrain dopamine neurons, we analyzed dopaminergic response upon social defeat. Analyses of c-Fos expression of VTA dopamine neurons and dopamine turnover in mPFC showed that mesocortical dopaminergic pathway is activated upon social defeat and attenuated with repetition of social defeat in wild-type mice. EP1 deficiency abolished such repeated stress-induced attenuation of mesocortical dopaminergic pathway. Blockade of dopamine D1-like receptor during social defeat restored social avoidance in EP1-deficient mice, suggesting that disinhibited dopaminergic response during social defeat blocks induction of social avoidance. Furthermore, mPFC dopaminergic lesion by local injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, which mimicked the action of EP1 during repeated stress, facilitated induction of social avoidance upon social defeat. Taken together, our data suggest that PGE2-EP1 signaling is critical for susceptibility to repeated social defeat stress in mice through attenuation of mesocortical dopaminergic pathway. PMID:22442093

  18. Death receptors and caspases but not mitochondria are activated in the GDNF- or BDNF-deprived dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li-ying; Saarma, Mart; Arumäe, Urmas

    2008-07-23

    Neurotrophic factors, including glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), promote survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, but the death pathways activated in the dopaminergic neurons by deprivation of these factors are poorly studied. We show here that deprivation of GDNF or BDNF triggers a novel mitochondria-independent death pathway in the cultured embryonic dopaminergic neurons: cytochrome c was not released from the mitochondria to cytosol, proapoptotic protein Bax was not activated, and overexpressed Bcl-xL did not block the death. Caspases were critically required, because the death was completely blocked by caspase inhibitor BAF [boc-aspartyl(OMe)-fluoromethylketone] and overexpression of dominant-negative mutants of caspase-9, -3, and -7 significantly blocked the death. Also, the death receptor pathway was involved, because blockage of caspase-8 or FADD (Fas-associated protein with death domain), an adapter required for caspase-8 activation, inhibited death induced by GDNF or BDNF deprivation. Ligation of Fas by agonistic anti-Fas antibody induced apoptosis in the GDNF- or BDNF-maintained neurons, and inhibition of Fas by Fas-Fc chimera blocked the death of GDNF- or BDNF-deprived neurons, whereas FAIM(L) (long isoform of Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule) could control the activity of Fas in the dopaminergic neurons.

  19. Dopaminergic parameters during social isolation in low- and high-active mice.

    PubMed

    Rilke, O; Jähkel, M; Oehler, J

    1998-06-01

    Alterations induced by social isolation (1 day to 18 weeks) in low- and high-active mice (LAM and HAM) were studied in respect to locomotor activity, [3H]-spiperone binding in the striatum, striatal, and cortical dopamine metabolism, and presynaptic dopaminergic sensitivity to apomorphine (0.75 mg/kg; i.p.). Isolated HAM and LAM showed increased locomotor activity compared to group-housed mice after long-term isolation (6-18 weeks). Considering the studied dopaminergic parameters, it has been found that social isolation did not affect striatal D2 receptors, striatal and cortical dopamine metabolism, and apomorphine-mediated reduction of dopaminergic metabolism. The change of housing conditions was generally associated with an increase of cortical dopamine metabolism after 1 week. Activity type specific differences in group-housed LAM and HAM were found in the basal striatal dopamine metabolism and in the sensitivity of the nigrostriatal system to autoreceptor activation. The reduced striatal dopamine metabolism and the higher presynaptic sensitivity of HAM may be related to their high active running wheel behavior.

  20. Oleuropein Prevents Neuronal Death, Mitigates Mitochondrial Superoxide Production and Modulates Autophagy in a Dopaminergic Cellular Model

    PubMed Central

    Achour, Imène; Arel-Dubeau, Anne-Marie; Renaud, Justine; Legrand, Manon; Attard, Everaldo; Germain, Marc; Martinoli, Maria-Grazia

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, primarily affecting dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. There is currently no cure for PD and present medications aim to alleviate clinical symptoms, thus prevention remains the ideal strategy to reduce the prevalence of this disease. The goal of this study was to investigate whether oleuropein (OLE), the major phenolic compound in olive derivatives, may prevent neuronal degeneration in a cellular dopaminergic model of PD, differentiated PC12 cells exposed to the potent parkinsonian toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). We also investigated OLE’s ability to mitigate mitochondrial oxidative stress and modulate the autophagic flux. Our results obtained by measuring cytotoxicity and apoptotic events demonstrate that OLE significantly decreases neuronal death. OLE could also reduce mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species resulting from blocking superoxide dismutase activity. Moreover, quantification of autophagic and acidic vesicles in the cytoplasm alongside expression of specific autophagic markers uncovered a regulatory role for OLE against autophagic flux impairment induced by bafilomycin A1. Altogether, our results define OLE as a neuroprotective, anti-oxidative and autophagy-regulating molecule, in a neuronal dopaminergic cellular model. PMID:27517912

  1. Oleuropein Prevents Neuronal Death, Mitigates Mitochondrial Superoxide Production and Modulates Autophagy in a Dopaminergic Cellular Model.

    PubMed

    Achour, Imène; Arel-Dubeau, Anne-Marie; Renaud, Justine; Legrand, Manon; Attard, Everaldo; Germain, Marc; Martinoli, Maria-Grazia

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, primarily affecting dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. There is currently no cure for PD and present medications aim to alleviate clinical symptoms, thus prevention remains the ideal strategy to reduce the prevalence of this disease. The goal of this study was to investigate whether oleuropein (OLE), the major phenolic compound in olive derivatives, may prevent neuronal degeneration in a cellular dopaminergic model of PD, differentiated PC12 cells exposed to the potent parkinsonian toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). We also investigated OLE's ability to mitigate mitochondrial oxidative stress and modulate the autophagic flux. Our results obtained by measuring cytotoxicity and apoptotic events demonstrate that OLE significantly decreases neuronal death. OLE could also reduce mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species resulting from blocking superoxide dismutase activity. Moreover, quantification of autophagic and acidic vesicles in the cytoplasm alongside expression of specific autophagic markers uncovered a regulatory role for OLE against autophagic flux impairment induced by bafilomycin A1. Altogether, our results define OLE as a neuroprotective, anti-oxidative and autophagy-regulating molecule, in a neuronal dopaminergic cellular model. PMID:27517912

  2. Social Isolation Blunted the Response of Mesocortical Dopaminergic Neurons to Chronic Ethanol Voluntary Intake

    PubMed Central

    Lallai, Valeria; Manca, Letizia; Dazzi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that stress can increase the response of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons to acute administration of drugs of abuse included ethanol. In this study, we investigated the possible involvement of the mesocortical dopaminergic pathway in the development of ethanol abuse under stress conditions. To this aim we trained both socially isolated (SI) and group housed (GH) rats to self administer ethanol which was made available only 2 ha day (from 11:00 to 13:00 h). Rats have been trained for 3 weeks starting at postnatal day 35. After training, rats were surgically implanted with microdialysis probes under deep anesthesia, and 24 hlater extracellular dopamine concentrations were monitored in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) for the 2 hpreceding ethanol administration (anticipatory phase), during ethanol exposure (consummatory phase) and for 2 hafter ethanol removal. Results show that, in GH animals, dopamine extracellular concentration in the mPFC increased as early as 80 min before ethanol presentation (+50% over basal values) and remained elevated for 80 min during ethanol exposure. In SI rats, on the contrary, dopamine extracellular concentration did not show any significant change at any time point. Ethanol consumption was significantly higher in SI than in GH rats. Moreover, mesocortical dopaminergic neurons in SI animals also showed a decreased sensitivity to an acute administration of ethanol with respect to GH rats. Our results show that prolonged exposure to stress, as in social isolation, is able to induce significant changes in the response of mesocortical dopaminergic neurons to ethanol exposure and suggest that these changes might play an important role in the compulsivity observed in ethanol addiction. PMID:27378852

  3. Social Isolation Blunted the Response of Mesocortical Dopaminergic Neurons to Chronic Ethanol Voluntary Intake.

    PubMed

    Lallai, Valeria; Manca, Letizia; Dazzi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that stress can increase the response of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons to acute administration of drugs of abuse included ethanol. In this study, we investigated the possible involvement of the mesocortical dopaminergic pathway in the development of ethanol abuse under stress conditions. To this aim we trained both socially isolated (SI) and group housed (GH) rats to self administer ethanol which was made available only 2 ha day (from 11:00 to 13:00 h). Rats have been trained for 3 weeks starting at postnatal day 35. After training, rats were surgically implanted with microdialysis probes under deep anesthesia, and 24 hlater extracellular dopamine concentrations were monitored in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) for the 2 hpreceding ethanol administration (anticipatory phase), during ethanol exposure (consummatory phase) and for 2 hafter ethanol removal. Results show that, in GH animals, dopamine extracellular concentration in the mPFC increased as early as 80 min before ethanol presentation (+50% over basal values) and remained elevated for 80 min during ethanol exposure. In SI rats, on the contrary, dopamine extracellular concentration did not show any significant change at any time point. Ethanol consumption was significantly higher in SI than in GH rats. Moreover, mesocortical dopaminergic neurons in SI animals also showed a decreased sensitivity to an acute administration of ethanol with respect to GH rats. Our results show that prolonged exposure to stress, as in social isolation, is able to induce significant changes in the response of mesocortical dopaminergic neurons to ethanol exposure and suggest that these changes might play an important role in the compulsivity observed in ethanol addiction. PMID:27378852

  4. Celecoxib reduces brain dopaminergic neuronaldysfunction, and improves sensorimotor behavioral performance in neonatal rats exposed to systemic lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is induced in inflammatory cells in response to cytokines and pro-inflammatory molecules, suggesting that COX-2 has a role in the inflammatory process. The objective of the current study was to examine whether celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, could ameliorate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced brain inflammation, dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction and sensorimotor behavioral impairments. Methods Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of LPS (2 mg/kg) was performed in rat pups on postnatal Day 5 (P5), and celecoxib (20 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered (i.p.) five minutes after LPS injection. Sensorimotor behavioral tests were carried out 24 h after LPS exposure, and brain injury was examined on P6. Results Our results showed that LPS exposure resulted in impairment in sensorimotor behavioral performance and injury to brain dopaminergic neurons, as indicated by loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity, as well as decreases in mitochondria activity in the rat brain. LPS exposure also led to increases in the expression of α-synuclein and dopamine transporter proteins and enhanced [3H]dopamine uptake. Treatment with celecoxib significantly reduced LPS-induced sensorimotor behavioral disturbances and dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction. Celecoxib administration significantly attenuated LPS-induced increases in the numbers of activated microglia and astrocytes and in the concentration of IL-1β in the neonatal rat brain. The protective effect of celecoxib was also associated with an attenuation of LPS-induced COX-2+ cells, which were double labeled with TH + (dopaminergic neuron) or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) + (astrocyte) cells. Conclusion Systemic LPS administration induced brain inflammatory responses in neonatal rats; these inflammatory responses included induction of COX-2 expression in TH neurons and astrocytes. Application of the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib after LPS treatment attenuated the inflammatory

  5. Functional Reorganization of the Presynaptic Dopaminergic Terminal in Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Bergstrom, Brian P.; Sanberg, Stefan G.; Andersson, Magnus; Mithyantha, Jahnavi; Carroll, F. Ivy; Garris, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Whether dopamine release is compensated during the presymptomatic phase of Parkinson's disease is controversial. Here we use in vivo voltammetry in the parkinsonian rat and an electrical stimulation protocol established to fatigue nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons to investigate the plasticity of dopamine release mechanisms. Amplitudes of evoked voltammetric signals recorded in intact rat striata decreased with repetitive, high-frequency stimulation (60 Hz, every 5 min. / 60 min.). Strikingly, dopamine levels were maintained during an identical “fatiguing” protocol in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned (<40% denervation) striata in the absence of enhanced dopamine synthesis. In contrast, more severely lesioned striata (>55% denervation) also appeared to sustain DA release, however, this was demonstrated in the presence of enhanced synthesis. Sustained release was replicated in intact animals after irreversible blockade of the dopamine transporter via RTI-76, implicating neuronal uptake as a trigger. We further demonstrate through kinetic analysis that lesions and compromised uptake target a “long-term” (time constant of minutes) presynaptic depression, which underlies the maintenance of release. Taken together, our findings identify a denervation-induced maintenance of dopamine release that was independent of activated synthesis and driven by altered uptake. This novel neuroadaptation may contribute to early preclinical normalization of function and help resolve discrepant findings regarding compensatory changes in dopamine release during progression of the parkinsonian state. PMID:21787843

  6. Dopaminergic Modulation of Medial Prefrontal Cortex Deactivation in Parkinson Depression

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Anders H.; Smith, Charles D.; Slevin, John T.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Martin, Catherine A.; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Blonder, Lee X.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with emotional abnormalities. Dopaminergic medications ameliorate Parkinsonian motor symptoms, but less is known regarding the impact of dopaminergic agents on affective processing, particularly in depressed PD (dPD) patients. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of dopaminergic pharmacotherapy on brain activation to emotional stimuli in depressed versus nondepressed Parkinson disease (ndPD) patients. Participants included 18 ndPD patients (11 men, 7 women) and 10 dPD patients (7 men, 3 women). Patients viewed photographs of emotional faces during functional MRI. Scans were performed while the patient was taking anti-Parkinson medication and the day after medication had been temporarily discontinued. Results indicate that dopaminergic medications have opposite effects in the prefrontal cortex depending upon depression status. DPD patients show greater deactivation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) on dopaminergic medications than off, while ndPD patients show greater deactivation in this region off drugs. The VMPFC is in the default-mode network (DMN). DMN activity is negatively correlated with activity in brain systems used for external visual attention. Thus dopaminergic medications may promote increased attention to external visual stimuli among dPD patients but impede normal suppression of DMN activity during external stimulation among ndPD patients. PMID:26793404

  7. Discovery of nigral dopaminergic neurogenesis in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Brad E.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. As a result, intensive efforts have focused upon mechanisms that facilitate the death of mature dopaminergic neurons. Unfortunately, these efforts have been unsuccessful in providing an effective treatment to address neurodegeneration in this disease. Therefore, alternative theories of pathogenesis are being explored. Adult neurogenesis of dopaminergic neurons is an attractive concept that would provide a possible mechanism of neurodegeneration as well as offer an endogenous means to replenish affected neurons. To determine whether dopaminergic neurons experience neurogenesis in adult mice we developed a novel cell lineage tracing model that permitted detection of neurogenesis without many of the issues associated with popular techniques. Remarkably, we discovered that dopaminergic neurons are replenished in adult mice by Nestin+/Sox2- progenitor cells. What's more, the rate of neurogenesis is similar to the rate of dopaminergic neuron loss reported using a chronic, systemic inflammatory response mouse model. This observation may indicate that neuron loss in Parkinson's disease results from inhibition of neurogenesis. PMID:27482200

  8. Deficits in Sustained Attention and Changes in Dopaminergic Protein Levels following Exposure to Proton Radiation Are Related to Basal Dopaminergic Function.

    PubMed

    Davis, Catherine M; DeCicco-Skinner, Kathleen L; Hienz, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    The current report assessed the effects of low-level proton irradiation in inbred adult male Fischer 344 and Lewis rats performing an analog of the human Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), commonly utilized as an object risk assessment tool to quantify fatigue and sustained attention in laboratory, clinical, and operational settings. These strains were used to determine if genetic differences in dopaminergic function would impact radiation-induced deficits in sustained attention. Exposure to head-only proton irradiation (25 or 100 cGy) disrupted rPVT performance in a strain-specific manner, with 25 cGy-exposed Fischer 344 rats displaying the most severe deficits in sustained attention (i.e., decreased accuracy and increased premature responding); Lewis rats did not display behavioral deficits following radiation. Fischer 344 rats displayed greater tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter levels in the frontal cortex compared to the Lewis rats, even though radiation exposure increased both of these proteins in the Lewis rats only. Tyrosine hydroxylase was decreased in the parietal cortex of both rat strains following radiation exposure, regardless of proton dose. Strain-specific cytokine changes were also found in the frontal cortex, with the Lewis rats displaying increased levels of putative neurotrophic cytokines (e.g., CNTF). These data support the hypothesis that basal dopaminergic function impacts the severity of radiation-induced deficits in sustained attention.

  9. Deficits in Sustained Attention and Changes in Dopaminergic Protein Levels following Exposure to Proton Radiation Are Related to Basal Dopaminergic Function

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Catherine M.; DeCicco-Skinner, Kathleen L.; Hienz, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    The current report assessed the effects of low-level proton irradiation in inbred adult male Fischer 344 and Lewis rats performing an analog of the human Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), commonly utilized as an object risk assessment tool to quantify fatigue and sustained attention in laboratory, clinical, and operational settings. These strains were used to determine if genetic differences in dopaminergic function would impact radiation-induced deficits in sustained attention. Exposure to head-only proton irradiation (25 or 100 cGy) disrupted rPVT performance in a strain-specific manner, with 25 cGy-exposed Fischer 344 rats displaying the most severe deficits in sustained attention (i.e., decreased accuracy and increased premature responding); Lewis rats did not display behavioral deficits following radiation. Fischer 344 rats displayed greater tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter levels in the frontal cortex compared to the Lewis rats, even though radiation exposure increased both of these proteins in the Lewis rats only. Tyrosine hydroxylase was decreased in the parietal cortex of both rat strains following radiation exposure, regardless of proton dose. Strain-specific cytokine changes were also found in the frontal cortex, with the Lewis rats displaying increased levels of putative neurotrophic cytokines (e.g., CNTF). These data support the hypothesis that basal dopaminergic function impacts the severity of radiation-induced deficits in sustained attention. PMID:26658810

  10. How to make a midbrain dopaminergic neuron.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Ernest; Denham, Mark; Villaescusa, J Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neuron development has been an intense area of research during recent years. This is due in part to a growing interest in regenerative medicine and the hope that treatment for diseases affecting mDA neurons, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), might be facilitated by a better understanding of how these neurons are specified, differentiated and maintained in vivo. This knowledge might help to instruct efforts to generate mDA neurons in vitro, which holds promise not only for cell replacement therapy, but also for disease modeling and drug discovery. In this Primer, we will focus on recent developments in understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate the development of mDA neurons in vivo, and how they have been used to generate human mDA neurons in vitro from pluripotent stem cells or from somatic cells via direct reprogramming. Current challenges and future avenues in the development of a regenerative medicine for PD will be identified and discussed.

  11. Effects of mafoprazine, a phenylpiperazine derivative, on the central dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, M; Nakagawa, H; Maeda, K; Kinoshita, K; Ishida, R

    1989-07-01

    The effects of mafoprazine, a new phenylpiperazine derivative, on the central dopaminergic system were studied. Mafoprazine, like chlorpromazine and haloperidol, reduced the apomorphine-induced cage-climbing behavior in mice, emesis in dogs and stereotyped behavior in monkeys; methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion and group toxicity in mice; and agitation in rats. Mafoprazine inhibited the unilateral circling behavior induced by methamphetamine and apomorphine in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesions in the unilateral nigrostriatal neuronal tract. The potency of mafoprazine in these experiments was almost equal to that of chlorpromazine and about one-tenth that of haloperidol. The cataleptogenic activity of mafoprazine was lower than those of chlorpromazine and haloperidol. Mafoprazine potentiated clonidine-induced hypothermia. These results suggest that mafoprazine has a relatively selective postsynaptic dopamine D2-receptor blocking action in the nucleus accumbens compared with chlorpromazine and haloperidol and suggest that mafoprazine also has alpha 2-adrenoceptor-stimulating actions.

  12. Acrylamide increases dopamine levels by affecting dopamine transport and metabolism related genes in the striatal dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoqi; Guo, Xiongxiong; Xiong, Fei; Cheng, Guihong; Lu, Qing; Yan, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Dopaminergic system dysfunction is proved to be a possible mechanism in acrylamide (ACR) -induced neurotoxicity. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) has an increasingly important role in the dopaminergic system. Thus, the goal of this study is to evaluate effects of ACR on dopamine and its metabolite levels, dopamine transport and metabolic gene expression in dopaminergic neurons. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were dosed orally with ACR at 0 (saline), 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg/day for 20 days. Splayed hind limbs, reduced tail flick time and abnormal gait which preceded other neurologic parameters were observed in the above rats. ACR significantly increased dopamine levels, decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanilic acid (HVA) contents in an area dependent manner in rat striatum. Immunohistochemical staining of the striatum revealed that the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive cells significantly increased, while monoamine oxidase (MAO) positive cells were drastically reduced, which was consistent with changes in their mRNA and protein expressions. In addition, dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) expression levels were both down-regulated in the striatum. These results suggest that dopamine levels increase significantly in response to ACR, presumably due to changes in the dopamine transport and metabolism related genes expression in the striatal dopaminergic neurons.

  13. The Neurotoxic Effects of Manganese on the Dopaminergic Innervation of the Gill of the Bivalve Mollusc, Crassostrea virginica

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kesha; Huggins, Turkesha; King, Candice; Carroll, Margaret A.; Catapane, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    We examined effects of manganese on the nervous system and innervation of lateral cilia of Crassostrea virginica. While essential in trace amounts, tissue manganese accumulation is neurotoxic, inducing Manganism, a Parkinson’s-like disease in humans. Lateral cilia of the gill of C. virginica are controlled by a reciprocal serotonergic-dopaminergic innervation from their ganglia. Oysters were incubated 3 days in the presence of up to 1 mM manganese, followed by superfusion of the cerebral ganglia, visceral ganglia or gill with dopamine or serotonin. Beating rates of cilia were measured by stroboscopic microscopy of isolated gill preparations or gill preparations with the ipsilateral cerebral and/or visceral ganglia attached. Acute manganese treatments impaired the dopaminergic, cilio-inhibitory system, while having no effect on the serotonergic, cilio-excitatory system, which is in agreement with the proposed mechanism of manganese toxicity in humans. Manganese treatments also decreased endogenous dopamine levels in the cerebral and visceral ganglia, and gills, but not serotonin levels. We demonstrated that manganese disrupts the animal’s dopaminergic system, and also that this preparation can be used to investigate mechanisms that underlie manganese neurotoxcity. It also may serve as a model in pharmacological studies of drugs to treat or prevent Manganism and other dopaminergic cell disorders. PMID:18547869

  14. Differentiation of human epidermal neural crest stem cells (hEPI-NCSC) into virtually homogenous populations of dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Narytnyk, Alla; Verdon, Bernard; Loughney, Andrew; Sweeney, Michele; Clewes, Oliver; Taggart, Michael J; Sieber-Blum, Maya

    2014-04-01

    Here we provide a protocol for the directed differentiation of hEPI-NCSC into midbrain dopaminergic neurons, which degenerate in Parkinson's disease. hEPI-NCSC are neural crest-derived multipotent stem cells that persist into adulthood in the bulge of hair follicles. The experimental design is distinctly different from conventional protocols for embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. It includes pre-differentiation of the multipotent hEPI-NCSC into neural stem cell-like cells, followed by ventralizing, patterning, continued exposure to the TGFβ receptor inhibitor, SB431542, and at later stages of differentiation the presence of the WNT inhibitor, IWP-4. All cells expressed A9 midbrain dopaminergic neuron progenitor markers with gene expression levels comparable to those in normal human substantia nigra. The current study shows for the first time that virtually homogeneous populations of dopaminergic neurons can be derived ex vivo from somatic stem cells without the need for purification, with useful timeliness and high efficacy. This novel development is an important first step towards the establishment of fully functional dopaminergic neurons from an ontologically relevant stem cell type, hEPI-NCSC. PMID:24399192

  15. The neurotoxic effects of manganese on the dopaminergic innervation of the gill of the bivalve mollusc, Crassostrea virginica.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kesha; Huggins, Turkesha; King, Candice; Carroll, Margaret A; Catapane, Edward J

    2008-08-01

    We examined effects of manganese on the nervous system and innervation of lateral cilia of Crassostrea virginica. While essential in trace amounts, tissue manganese accumulation is neurotoxic, inducing Manganism, a Parkinson's-like disease in humans. Lateral cilia of the gill of C. virginica are controlled by a reciprocal serotonergic-dopaminergic innervation from their ganglia. Oysters were incubated 3 days in the presence of up to 1 mM manganese, followed by superfusion of the cerebral ganglia, visceral ganglia or gill with dopamine or serotonin. Beating rates of cilia were measured by stroboscopic microscopy of isolated gill preparations or gill preparations with the ipsilateral cerebral and/or visceral ganglia attached. Acute manganese treatments impaired the dopaminergic, cilio-inhibitory system, while having no effect on the serotonergic, cilio-excitatory system, which is in agreement with the proposed mechanism of manganese toxicity in humans. Manganese treatments also decreased endogenous dopamine levels in the cerebral and visceral ganglia, and gills, but not serotonin levels. We demonstrated that manganese disrupts the animal's dopaminergic system, and also that this preparation can be used to investigate mechanisms that underlie manganese neurotoxicity. It also may serve as a model in pharmacological studies of drugs to treat or prevent Manganism and other dopaminergic cell disorders. PMID:18547869

  16. REM sleep deprivation promotes a dopaminergic influence in the striatal MT2 anxiolytic-like effects.

    PubMed

    Noseda, Ana Carolina D; Targa, Adriano D S; Rodrigues, Lais S; Aurich, Mariana F; Lima, Marcelo M S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible anxiolytic-like effects of striatal MT2 activation, and its counteraction induced by the selective blockade of this receptor. Furthermore, we analyzed this condition under the paradigm of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (REMSD) and the animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD) induced by rotenone. Male Wistar rats were infused with intranigral rotenone (12 μg/μL), and 7 days later were subjected to 24 h of REMSD. Afterwards the rats underwent striatal micro-infusions of selective melatonin MT2 receptor agonist, 8-M-PDOT (10 μg/μL) or selective melatonin MT2 receptor antagonist, 4-P-PDOT (5 μg/μL) or vehicle. Subsequently, the animals were tested in the open-field (OP) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. Results indicated that the activation of MT2 receptors produced anxiolytic-like effects. In opposite, the MT2 blockade did not show an anxiogenic-like effect. Besides, REMSD induced anxiolytic-like effects similar to 8-M-PDOT. MT2 activation generated a prevalent locomotor increase compared to MT2 blockade in the context of REMSD. Together, these results suggest a striatal MT2 modulation associated to the REMSD-induced dopaminergic supersensitivity causing a possible dopaminergic influence in the MT2 anxiolytic-like effects in the intranigral rotenone model of PD.

  17. REM sleep deprivation promotes a dopaminergic influence in the striatal MT2 anxiolytic-like effects.

    PubMed

    Noseda, Ana Carolina D; Targa, Adriano D S; Rodrigues, Lais S; Aurich, Mariana F; Lima, Marcelo M S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible anxiolytic-like effects of striatal MT2 activation, and its counteraction induced by the selective blockade of this receptor. Furthermore, we analyzed this condition under the paradigm of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (REMSD) and the animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD) induced by rotenone. Male Wistar rats were infused with intranigral rotenone (12 μg/μL), and 7 days later were subjected to 24 h of REMSD. Afterwards the rats underwent striatal micro-infusions of selective melatonin MT2 receptor agonist, 8-M-PDOT (10 μg/μL) or selective melatonin MT2 receptor antagonist, 4-P-PDOT (5 μg/μL) or vehicle. Subsequently, the animals were tested in the open-field (OP) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. Results indicated that the activation of MT2 receptors produced anxiolytic-like effects. In opposite, the MT2 blockade did not show an anxiogenic-like effect. Besides, REMSD induced anxiolytic-like effects similar to 8-M-PDOT. MT2 activation generated a prevalent locomotor increase compared to MT2 blockade in the context of REMSD. Together, these results suggest a striatal MT2 modulation associated to the REMSD-induced dopaminergic supersensitivity causing a possible dopaminergic influence in the MT2 anxiolytic-like effects in the intranigral rotenone model of PD. PMID:27226821

  18. Withania somnifera alleviates parkinsonian phenotypes by inhibiting apoptotic pathways in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jay; Chouhan, Shikha; Yadav, Satyndra Kumar; Westfall, Susan; Rai, Sachchida Nand; Singh, Surya Pratap

    2014-12-01

    Maneb (MB) and paraquat (PQ) are environmental toxins that have been experimentally used to induce selective damage of dopaminergic neurons leading to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the mechanism of this selective neuronal toxicity in not fully understood, oxidative stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of PD. The present study investigates the mechanisms of neuroprotection elicited by Withania somnifera (Ws), a herb traditionally recognized by the Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda. An ethanolic root extract of Ws was co-treated with the MB-PQ induced mouse model of PD and was shown to significantly rescue canonical indicators of PD including compromised locomotor activity, reduced dopamine in the substantia nigra and various aspects of oxidative damage. In particular, Ws reduced the expression of iNOS, a measure of oxidative stress. Ws also significantly improved the MB + PQ mediated induction of a pro-apoptotic state by reducing Bax and inducing Bcl-2 protein expression, respectively. Finally, Ws reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory marker of astrocyte activation, GFAP. Altogether, the present study suggests that Ws treatment provides nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuroprotection against MB-PQ induced Parkinsonism by the modulation of oxidative stress and apoptotic machinery possibly accounting for the behavioural effects.

  19. REM sleep deprivation promotes a dopaminergic influence in the striatal MT2 anxiolytic-like effects

    PubMed Central

    Noseda, Ana Carolina D.; Targa, Adriano D.S.; Rodrigues, Lais S.; Aurich, Mariana F.; Lima, Marcelo M.S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible anxiolytic-like effects of striatal MT2 activation, and its counteraction induced by the selective blockade of this receptor. Furthermore, we analyzed this condition under the paradigm of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (REMSD) and the animal model of Parkinson’s disease (PD) induced by rotenone. Male Wistar rats were infused with intranigral rotenone (12 μg/μL), and 7 days later were subjected to 24 h of REMSD. Afterwards the rats underwent striatal micro-infusions of selective melatonin MT2 receptor agonist, 8-M-PDOT (10 μg/μL) or selective melatonin MT2 receptor antagonist, 4-P-PDOT (5 μg/μL) or vehicle. Subsequently, the animals were tested in the open-field (OP) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. Results indicated that the activation of MT2 receptors produced anxiolytic-like effects. In opposite, the MT2 blockade did not show an anxiogenic-like effect. Besides, REMSD induced anxiolytic-like effects similar to 8-M-PDOT. MT2 activation generated a prevalent locomotor increase compared to MT2 blockade in the context of REMSD. Together, these results suggest a striatal MT2 modulation associated to the REMSD-induced dopaminergic supersensitivity causing a possible dopaminergic influence in the MT2 anxiolytic-like effects in the intranigral rotenone model of PD. PMID:27226821

  20. Dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic pharmacological hypotheses for gait disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Devos, David; Defebvre, L; Bordet, R

    2010-08-01

    Gait disorders form one component of the axial disorders observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Indeed, short steps with a forward-leaning stance are diagnostic criteria for PD in the early stages of the condition. Gait disorders also represent a major source of therapeutic failure in the advanced stages of PD (with the appearance of freezing of gait and falls) because they do not respond optimally to the two hand late-stage therapeutics--levodopa and electrical subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation. The late onset of doparesistance in these disorders may be linked to propagation of neurodegeneration to structures directly involved in gait control and to non-dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems. The coeruleus locus (a source of noradrenaline) is rapidly and severely affected, leading to a major motor impact. The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and lateral pontine tegmentum (rich in acetylcholine) are both involved in gait. Degenerative damage to the serotoninergic raphe nuclei appears to be less severe, although serotonin-dopamine interactions are numerous and complex. Lastly, dopaminergic depletion leads to glutamatergic hyperactivity of the efferent pathways from the the STN to the PPN. However, the relationships between the various parkinsonian symptoms (and particularly gait disorders) and these pharmacological targets have yet to be fully elucidated. The goal of this review is to develop the various pathophysiological hypotheses published to date, in order to underpin and justify ongoing fundamental research and clinical trials in this disease area.

  1. Dopaminergic modulation of phase reversal in desert locusts

    PubMed Central

    Alessi, Ahmad M.; O'Connor, Vincent; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Newland, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity allows animals to modify their behavior, physiology, and morphology to adapt to environmental change. The global pest, the desert locust, shows two extreme phenotypes; a solitarious phase that is relatively harmless and a gregarious phase that forms swarms and causes extensive agricultural and economic damage. In the field, environmental conditions can drive isolated animals into crowded populations and previous studies have identified the biogenic amine serotonin as a key determinant of this transition. Here we take an integrated approach to investigate the neurochemical, physiological, and behavioral correlates defined by a laboratory based paradigm that mimics facets of swarm break down as gregarious locusts become isolated. Following isolation there was an increased propensity of locusts to avoid conspecifics, and show a reduced locomotion. Changes in choice behavior occurred within 1 h of isolation although isolation-related changes progressed with increased isolation time. Isolation was accompanied by changes in the levels of the biogenic amines dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin within the CNS within 1 h. Dopamine levels were higher in isolated animals and we focused on the role played by this transmitter in synaptic changes that may underpin solitarization. Dopamine reduced synaptic efficacy at a key central synapse between campaniform sensilla (CS) and a fast extensor tibiae motor neuron that is involved in limb movement. We also show that dopamine injection into the haemocoel was sufficient to induce solitarious-like behavior in otherwise gregarious locusts. Further, injection of a dopamine antagonist, fluphenazine, into isolated locusts induced gregarious-like behavior. This highlights that dopaminergic modulation plays an important role in the plasticity underpinning phase transition and sets a context to deepen the understanding of the complementary role that distinct neuromodulators play in polyphenism in locusts. PMID:25426037

  2. Dopaminergic modulation of phase reversal in desert locusts.

    PubMed

    Alessi, Ahmad M; O'Connor, Vincent; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Newland, Philip L

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity allows animals to modify their behavior, physiology, and morphology to adapt to environmental change. The global pest, the desert locust, shows two extreme phenotypes; a solitarious phase that is relatively harmless and a gregarious phase that forms swarms and causes extensive agricultural and economic damage. In the field, environmental conditions can drive isolated animals into crowded populations and previous studies have identified the biogenic amine serotonin as a key determinant of this transition. Here we take an integrated approach to investigate the neurochemical, physiological, and behavioral correlates defined by a laboratory based paradigm that mimics facets of swarm break down as gregarious locusts become isolated. Following isolation there was an increased propensity of locusts to avoid conspecifics, and show a reduced locomotion. Changes in choice behavior occurred within 1 h of isolation although isolation-related changes progressed with increased isolation time. Isolation was accompanied by changes in the levels of the biogenic amines dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin within the CNS within 1 h. Dopamine levels were higher in isolated animals and we focused on the role played by this transmitter in synaptic changes that may underpin solitarization. Dopamine reduced synaptic efficacy at a key central synapse between campaniform sensilla (CS) and a fast extensor tibiae motor neuron that is involved in limb movement. We also show that dopamine injection into the haemocoel was sufficient to induce solitarious-like behavior in otherwise gregarious locusts. Further, injection of a dopamine antagonist, fluphenazine, into isolated locusts induced gregarious-like behavior. This highlights that dopaminergic modulation plays an important role in the plasticity underpinning phase transition and sets a context to deepen the understanding of the complementary role that distinct neuromodulators play in polyphenism in locusts. PMID:25426037

  3. Fate of midbrain dopaminergic neurons controlled by the engrailed genes.

    PubMed

    Simon, H H; Saueressig, H; Wurst, W; Goulding, M D; O'Leary, D D

    2001-05-01

    Deficiencies in neurotransmitter-specific cell groups in the midbrain result in prominent neural disorders, including Parkinson's disease, which is caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. We have investigated in mice the role of the engrailed homeodomain transcription factors, En-1 and En-2, in controlling the developmental fate of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. En-1 is highly expressed by essentially all dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmentum, whereas En-2 is highly expressed by a subset of them. These neurons are generated and differentiate their dopaminergic phenotype in En-1/En-2 double null mutants, but disappear soon thereafter. Use of an En-1/tau-LacZ knock-in mouse as an autonomous marker for these neurons indicates that they are lost, rather than that they change their neurotransmitter phenotype. A single allele of En-1 on an En-2 null background is sufficient to produce a wild type-like substantia nigra and ventral tegmentum, whereas in contrast a single allele of En-2 on an En-1 null background results in the survival of only a small proportion of these dopaminergic neurons, a finding that relates to the differential expression of En-1 and En-2. Additional findings indicate that En-1 and En-2 regulate expression of alpha-synuclein, a gene that is genetically linked to Parkinson's disease. These findings show that the engrailed genes are expressed by midbrain dopaminergic neurons from their generation to adulthood but are not required for their specification. However, the engrailed genes control the survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in a gene dose-dependent manner. Our findings also suggest a link between engrailed and Parkinson's disease.

  4. Fate of midbrain dopaminergic neurons controlled by the engrailed genes.

    PubMed

    Simon, H H; Saueressig, H; Wurst, W; Goulding, M D; O'Leary, D D

    2001-05-01

    Deficiencies in neurotransmitter-specific cell groups in the midbrain result in prominent neural disorders, including Parkinson's disease, which is caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. We have investigated in mice the role of the engrailed homeodomain transcription factors, En-1 and En-2, in controlling the developmental fate of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. En-1 is highly expressed by essentially all dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmentum, whereas En-2 is highly expressed by a subset of them. These neurons are generated and differentiate their dopaminergic phenotype in En-1/En-2 double null mutants, but disappear soon thereafter. Use of an En-1/tau-LacZ knock-in mouse as an autonomous marker for these neurons indicates that they are lost, rather than that they change their neurotransmitter phenotype. A single allele of En-1 on an En-2 null background is sufficient to produce a wild type-like substantia nigra and ventral tegmentum, whereas in contrast a single allele of En-2 on an En-1 null background results in the survival of only a small proportion of these dopaminergic neurons, a finding that relates to the differential expression of En-1 and En-2. Additional findings indicate that En-1 and En-2 regulate expression of alpha-synuclein, a gene that is genetically linked to Parkinson's disease. These findings show that the engrailed genes are expressed by midbrain dopaminergic neurons from their generation to adulthood but are not required for their specification. However, the engrailed genes control the survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in a gene dose-dependent manner. Our findings also suggest a link between engrailed and Parkinson's disease. PMID:11312297

  5. The role of alpha-synuclein in melanin synthesis in melanoma and dopaminergic neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tianhong; Zhu, Julie; Hwu, Wen-Jen; Jankovic, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The relatively high co-occurrence of Parkinson's disease (PD) and melanoma has been established by a large number of epidemiological studies. However, a clear biological explanation for this finding is still lacking. Ultra-violet radiation (UVR)-induced skin melanin synthesis is a defense mechanism against UVR-induced damage relevant to the initiation of melanoma, whereas, increased neuromelanin (NM), the melanin synthesized in dopaminergic neurons, may enhance the susceptibility to oxidative stress-induced neuronal injury relevant to PD. SNCA is a PD-causing gene coding for alpha-Synuclein (α-Syn) that expresses not only in brain, but also in skin as well as in tumors, such as melanoma. The findings that α-Syn can interact with tyrosinase (TYR) and inhibit tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), both of which are enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of melanin and dopamine (DA), led us to propose that α-Syn may participate in the regulation of melanin synthesis. In this study, by applying ultraviolet B (UVB) light, a physiologically relevant stimulus of melanogenesis, we detected melanin synthesis in A375 and SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells and in SH-SY5Y and PC12 dopaminergic neuronal cells and determined effects of α-Syn on melanin synthesis. Our results showed that UVB light exposure increased melanin synthesis in all 4 cell lines. However, we found that α-Syn expression reduced UVB light-induced increase of melanin synthesis and that melanin content was lower when melanoma cells were expressed with α-Syn, indicating that α-Syn may have inhibitory effects on melanin synthesis in melanoma cells. Different from melanoma cells, the melanin content was higher in α-Syn-over-expressed dopaminergic neuronal SH-SY5Y and PC12 cells, cellular models of PD, than that in non-α-Syn-expressed control cells. We concluded that α-Syn could be one of the points responsible for the positive association between PD and melanoma via its differential roles in melanin synthesis in melanoma

  6. Evidence for a modulatory effect of sulbutiamine on glutamatergic and dopaminergic cortical transmissions in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Trovero, F; Gobbi, M; Weil-Fuggaza, J; Besson, M J; Brochet, D; Pirot, S

    2000-09-29

    Chronic treatment of rats by sulbutiamine induced no change in density of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and (+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors in the cingular cortex, but a significant decrease of the kainate binding sites, as measured by quantitative autoradiography. In the same treated animals, an increase of D1 dopaminergic (DA) binding sites was measured both in the prefrontal and the cingular cortex, while no modification of the D2 binding sites was detected. Furthermore, an acute sulbutiamine administration induced a decrease of kainate binding sites but no change of the density of D1 and D2 DA receptors. Acute sulbutiamine injection led to a decrease of the DA levels in the prefrontal cortex and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in both the cingular and the prefrontal cortex. These observations are discussed in terms of a modulatory effect of sulbutiamine on both dopaminergic and glutamatergic cortical transmissions. PMID:10996447

  7. Associated degeneration of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons in the rat nigrostriatal lactacystin model of parkinsonism and their neuroprotection by valproate

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Ian F.; Anis, Hiba K.; Dexter, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) manifests clinically as bradykinesia, rigidity, and development of a resting tremor, primarily due to degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathways in the brain. Intranigral administration of the irreversible ubiquitin proteasome system inhibitor, lactacystin, has been used extensively to model nigrostriatal degeneration in rats, and study the effects of candidate neuroprotective agents on the integrity of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system. Recently however, adjacent extra-nigral brain regions such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have been noted to also become affected in this model, yet their integrity in studies of candidate neuroprotective agents in the model have largely been overlooked. Here we quantify the extent and distribution of dopaminergic degeneration in the VTA of rats intranigrally lesioned with lactacystin, and quantify the extent of VTA dopaminergic neuroprotection after systemic treatment with an epigenetic therapeutic agent, valproate, shown previously to protect dopaminergic SNpc neurons in this model. We found that unilateral intranigral administration of lactacystin resulted in a 53.81% and 31.72% interhemispheric loss of dopaminergic SNpc and VTA neurons, respectively. Daily systemic treatment of lactacystin lesioned rats with valproate however resulted in dose-dependant neuroprotection of VTA neurons. Our findings demonstrate that not only is the VTA also affected in the intranigral lactacystin rat model of PD, but that this extra-nigral brain region is substrate for neuroprotection by valproate, an agent shown previously to induce neuroprotection and neurorestoration of SNpc dopaminergic neurons in this model. Our results therefore suggest that valproate is a candidate for extra-nigral as well as intra-nigral neuroprotection. PMID:26742637

  8. Neuroprotective effects of tadalafil on gerbil dopaminergic neurons following cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Taek; Chung, Kyung Jin; Lee, Han Sae; Ko, Il Gyu; Kim, Chang Ju; Na, Yong Gil; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2013-03-15

    Impairment of dopamine function, which is known to have major effects on behaviors and cognition, is one of the main problems associated with cerebral ischemia. Tadalafil, a long-acting phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, is known to ameliorate neurologic impairment induced by brain injury, but not in dopaminergic regions. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of treatment with tadalafil on cyclic guanosine monophosphate level and dopamine function following cerebral ischemia. Forty adult Mongolian gerbils were randomly and evenly divided into five groups (n = 8 in each group): Sham-operation group, cerebral ischemia-induced and 0, 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg tadalafil-treated groups, respectively. Tadalafil dissolved in distilled water was administered orally for 7 consecutive days, starting 1 day after surgery. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate assay and immunohistochemistry were performed for thyrosine hydroxylase expression and western blot analysis for dopamine D2 receptor expression. A decrease in cyclic guanosine monophosphate level following cerebral ischemia was found with an increase in thyrosine hydroxylase activity and a decrease in dopamine D2 receptor expression in the striatum and substantia nigra region. However, treatment with tadalafil increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate expression, suppressed thyrosine hydroxylase expression and increased dopamine D2 receptor expression in the striatum and substantia nigra region in a dose-dependent manner. Tadalafil might ameliorate cerebral ischemia-induced dopaminergic neuron injury. Therefore, tadalafil has the potential as a new neuroprotective treatment strategy for cerebral ischemic injury. PMID:25206715

  9. Decreased vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) and dopamine transporter (DAT) function in knockout mice affects aging of dopaminergic systems

    PubMed Central

    Hall, F. S.; Itokawa, K.; Schmitt, A.; Moessner, R.; Sora, I.; Lesch, K. P.; Uhl, G. R.

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is accumulated and compartmentalized by the dopamine transporter (DAT; SLC3A6) and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2; SLC18A2). These transporters work at the plasma and vesicular membranes of dopaminergic neurons, respectively, and thus regulate levels of DA in neuronal compartments that include the extravesicular cytoplasmic compartment. DA in this compartment has been hypothesized to contribute to oxidative damage that can reduce the function of dopaminergic neurons in aging brains and may contribute to reductions in dopaminergic neurochemical markers, locomotor behavior and responses to dopaminergic drugs that are found in aged animals. The studies reported here examined aged mice with heterozygous deletions of VMAT2 or of DAT, which each reduce transporter expression to about 50% of levels found in wild-type (WT) mice. Aged mice displayed reduced locomotor responses under a variety of circumstances, including in response to locomotor stimulants, as well as changes in monoamine levels and metabolites in a regionally dependent manner. Several effects of aging were more pronounced in heterozygous VMAT2 knockout (KO) mice, including aging induced reductions in locomotion and reduced locomotor responses to cocaine. By contrast, some effects of aging were reduced or not observed in heterozygous DAT KO mice. These findings support the idea that altered DAT and VMAT2 expression affect age-related changes in dopaminergic function. These effects are most likely mediated by alterations in DA compartmentalization, and might be hypothesized to be more exacerbated by other factors that affect the metabolism of cytosolic DA. PMID:23978383

  10. Contribution of dopaminergic and adenosinergic systems in the antinociceptive effect of p-chloro-selenosteroid.

    PubMed

    Marcondes Sari, Marcel Henrique; Guerra Souza, Ana Cristina; Gonçalves Rosa, Suzan; Souza, Diego; Dorneles Rodrigues, Oscar Endrigo; Wayne Nogueira, Cristina

    2014-02-15

    This study investigated the antinociceptive action of p-chloro-selenosteroid (PCS), administered by intragastric route (i.g.) to mice against acute models. The contribution of adenosinergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, nitric oxide and opioid systems was investigated. It was evaluated if the administration of PCS triggers toxic effect. Treatment with PCS (10mg/kg) reduced writhing induced by acetic acid and its effect lasts up to 48 h after treatment. The compound caused an inhibition in neurogenic and inflammatory phases of nociception and in paw edema induced by formalin. The licking behavior triggered by glutamate was reduced by PCS. In the tail-immersion test, PCS elicited an increase in delta latency response. Pretreatment with caffeine (3mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) and SCH58261 (3mg/kg, i.p.), antagonist at adenosinergic receptors, SCH23390 (0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) and sulpiride (5mg/kg, i.p.), antagonist at dopaminergic receptors, caused a reduction in the antinociceptive action of PCS in the glutamate test. By contrast, pretreatment with WAY100635 (0.7 mg/kg, i.p.), ketanserin (0.3mg/kg, i.p.), ondasentron (0.5mg/kg, i.p.), l-arginine (600 mg/kg, i.p.) and naloxone (1mg/kg, subcutaneous [s.c.]) did not abolish the antinociceptive effect caused by PCS (10mg/kg, i.g.) administration. The animals treated with PCS did not show alterations in locomotor and exploratory activities, in biochemical parameters evaluated, food and water consumption, as well as in the body weight. These results clearly showed the antinociceptive action of PCS in different animal models without causing acute toxic effects in mice. Adenosinergic and dopaminergic systems seem to be related to the mechanisms by which PCS elicits antinociception. PMID:24440690

  11. Dopaminergic modulation of sucrose acceptance behavior in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Marella, Sunanda; Mann, Kevin; Scott, Kristin

    2012-03-01

    For an animal to survive in a constantly changing environment, its behavior must be shaped by the complex milieu of sensory stimuli it detects, its previous experience, and its internal state. Although taste behaviors in the fly are relatively simple, with sugars eliciting acceptance behavior and bitter compounds avoidance, these behaviors are also plastic and are modified by intrinsic and extrinsic cues, such as hunger and sensory stimuli. Here, we show that dopamine modulates a simple taste behavior, proboscis extension to sucrose. Conditional silencing of dopaminergic neurons reduces proboscis extension probability, and increased activation of dopaminergic neurons increases extension to sucrose, but not to bitter compounds or water. One dopaminergic neuron with extensive branching in the primary taste relay, the subesophageal ganglion, triggers proboscis extension, and its activity is altered by satiety state. These studies demonstrate the marked specificity of dopamine signaling and provide a foundation to examine neural mechanisms of feeding modulation in the fly. PMID:22405204

  12. Engrailed Homeoprotein Protects Mesencephalic Dopaminergic Neurons from Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Rekaik, Hocine; Blaudin de Thé, François-Xavier; Fuchs, Julia; Massiani-Beaudoin, Olivia; Prochiantz, Alain; Joshi, Rajiv L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Engrailed homeoproteins are expressed in adult dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. In Engrailed1 heterozygous mice, these neurons start dying at 6 weeks, are more sensitive to oxidative stress, and progressively develop traits similar to those observed following an acute and strong oxidative stress inflected to wild-type neurons. These changes include DNA strand breaks and the modification (intensity and distribution) of several nuclear and nucleolar heterochromatin marks. Engrailed1 and Engrailed2 are biochemically equivalent transducing proteins previously used to antagonize dopaminergic neuron death in Engrailed1 heterozygous mice and in mouse models of Parkinson disease. Accordingly, we show that, following an acute oxidative stress, a single Engrailed2 injection restores all nuclear and nucleolar heterochromatin marks, decreases the number of DNA strand breaks, and protects dopaminergic neurons against apoptosis. PMID:26411690

  13. Dopaminergic modulation of sucrose acceptance behavior in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Marella, Sunanda; Mann, Kevin; Scott, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    For an animal to survive in a constantly changing environment, its behavior must be shaped by the complex milieu of sensory stimuli it detects, its previous experience and its internal state. Although taste behaviors in the fly are relatively simple, with sugars eliciting acceptance behavior and bitter compounds avoidance, these behaviors are also plastic and modified by intrinsic and extrinsic cues such as hunger and sensory stimuli. Here, we show that dopamine modulates a simple taste behavior, proboscis extension to sucrose. Conditional silencing of dopaminergic neurons reduces proboscis extension probability and increased activation of dopaminergic neurons increases extension to sucrose but not to bitter compounds or water. One dopaminergic neuron with extensive branching in the primary taste relay, the subesophageal ganglion, triggers proboscis extension and its activity is altered by satiety state. These studies demonstrate the marked specificity of dopamine signaling and provide a foundation to examine neural mechanisms of feeding modulation in the fly. PMID:22405204

  14. Dopaminergic modulation of sucrose acceptance behavior in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Marella, Sunanda; Mann, Kevin; Scott, Kristin

    2012-03-01

    For an animal to survive in a constantly changing environment, its behavior must be shaped by the complex milieu of sensory stimuli it detects, its previous experience, and its internal state. Although taste behaviors in the fly are relatively simple, with sugars eliciting acceptance behavior and bitter compounds avoidance, these behaviors are also plastic and are modified by intrinsic and extrinsic cues, such as hunger and sensory stimuli. Here, we show that dopamine modulates a simple taste behavior, proboscis extension to sucrose. Conditional silencing of dopaminergic neurons reduces proboscis extension probability, and increased activation of dopaminergic neurons increases extension to sucrose, but not to bitter compounds or water. One dopaminergic neuron with extensive branching in the primary taste relay, the subesophageal ganglion, triggers proboscis extension, and its activity is altered by satiety state. These studies demonstrate the marked specificity of dopamine signaling and provide a foundation to examine neural mechanisms of feeding modulation in the fly.

  15. Oxytocin action at the lactotroph is required for prolactin surges in cervically stimulated ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    McKee, De'Nise T.; Poletini, Maristela O.; Bertram, Richard; Freeman, Marc E.

    2007-01-01

    Cervical stimulation induces two daily rhythmic prolactin surges, nocturnal and diurnal, which persist for several days. We have shown that a bolus injection of oxytocin initiates a similar prolactin rhythm, which persists despite low levels of oxytocin following injection. This suggests that oxytocin may trigger the cervical stimulated-induced rhythmic prolactin surges. To investigate this hypothesis, we infused an oxytocin antagonist that does not cross the blood brain barrier for 24h before and after cervical stimulation and measured serum prolactin. We also measured dopaminergic neuronal activity, since mathematical modeling predicted that this activity would be low in the presence of the oxytocin antagonist. We thus tested this hypothesis by measuring dopaminergic neuronal activity in the tuberoinfundibular, periventricular hypophyseal, and tuberohypophyseal dopaminergic neurons. Infusion of oxytocin antagonist before cervical stimulation abolished prolactin surges and infusion of oxytocin antagonist after cervical stimulation abolished the diurnal and significantly decreased the nocturnal surges of prolactin. The rhythmic prolactin surges returned after the clearance of the oxytocin antagonist. Hypothalamic dopaminergic activity was elevated in anti-phase with prolactin surges and the anti-phase elevation was abolished by the oxytocin antagonist in the tuberoinfundibular and tuberohypophyseal dopaminergic neurons, consistent with the mathematical model. These findings suggest that oxytocin is a physiologically relevant prolactin-releasing factor. However, the cervical stimulated-induced prolactin surges are maintained even in the absence of oxytocin actions at the lactotroph which strongly suggests the maintenance of prolactin surges are not dependent upon oxytocin actions at the pituitary gland. PMID:17615142

  16. The Dopaminergic System in the Aging Brain of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    White, Katherine E.; Humphrey, Dickon M.; Hirth, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Drosophila models of Parkinson's disease are characterized by two principal phenotypes: the specific loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the aging brain and defects in motor behavior. However, an age-related analysis of these baseline parameters in wildtype Drosophila is lacking. Here we analyzed the DA system and motor behavior in aging Drosophila. DA neurons in the adult brain can be grouped into bilateral symmetric clusters, each comprising a stereotypical number of cells. Analysis of TH > mCD8::GFP and cell type-specific MARCM clones revealed that DA neurons show cluster-specific, stereotypical projection patterns with terminal arborization in target regions that represent distinct functional areas of the adult brain. Target areas include the mushroom bodies, involved in memory formation and motivation, and the central complex, involved in the control of motor behavior, indicating that similar to the mammalian brain, DA neurons in the fly brain are involved in the regulation of specific behaviors. Behavioral analysis revealed that Drosophila show an age-related decline in startle-induced locomotion and negative geotaxis. Motion tracking however, revealed that walking activity, and exploration behavior, but not centrophobism increase at late stages of life. Analysis of TH > Dcr2, mCD8::GFP revealed a specific effect of Dcr2 expression on walking activity but not on exploratory or centrophobic behavior, indicating that the siRNA pathway may modulate distinct DA behaviors in Drosophila. Moreover, DA neurons were maintained between early- and late life, as quantified by TH > mCD8::GFP and anti-TH labeling, indicating that adult onset, age-related degeneration of DA neurons does not occur in the aging brain of Drosophila. Taken together, our data establish baseline parameters in Drosophila for the study of Parkinson's disease as well as other disorders affecting DA neurons and movement control. PMID:21165178

  17. Cocaine selectively increases striatonigral dynorphin levels by a dopaminergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sivam, S P

    1989-09-01

    The influence of the acute (single dose) or subchronic (one dose daily for 4 days) administration of cocaine to Sprague-Dawley rats on striatal enkephalin (Met5-enkephalin) and striatonigral tachykinin (substance P) and dynorphin [dynorphin A (1-8), DYN] levels was investigated. The peptide levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The concentrations of the striatal levels of dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine and their acid metabolites were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. An acute administration of cocaine (20 or 30 mg/kg i.p.) did not affect the peptide levels in the striatum or in the substantia nigra. A regimen of subchronic administration of cocaine (20 mg/kg/day for 4 days) increased the striatonigral DYN levels, without altering the levels of Met5-enkephalin or substance P. The increase in DYN levels were persistent for at least 4 days after the last dose of the subchronic administration of cocaine. The DYN levels returned to control values by 12 days after the last dose. The DA levels in the striatum were increased 30 min after a single dose of cocaine. None of the other treatments elicited any changes in DA or 5-hydroxytryptamine or their metabolites. The subchronic cocaine administration to dopaminergic denervated rats with 6-hydroxydopamine failed to evoke any increase in DYN levels in the striatum or substantia nigra. The concurrent administration of the D1 DA antagonist, SCH-23390, or the D2 DA antagonist, spiperone, to the subchronic regimen of cocaine also blocked the cocaine-induced increase in DYN levels. These results indicate that cocaine selectively enhances the synthesis or decreases the release of DYN in the striatonigral neurons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Dopaminergic Influences on Emotional Decision Making in Euthymic Bipolar Patients

    PubMed Central

    Burdick, Katherine E; Braga, Raphael J; Gopin, Chaya B; Malhotra, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that the D2/D3 agonist pramipexole may have pro-cognitive effects in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (BPD); however, the emergence of impulse-control disorders has been documented in Parkinson's disease (PD) after pramipexole treatment. Performance on reward-based tasks is altered in healthy subjects after a single dose of pramipexole, but its potential to induce abnormalities in BPD patients is unknown. We assessed reward-dependent decision making in euthymic BPD patients pre- and post 8 weeks of treatment with pramipexole or placebo by using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The IGT requires subjects to choose among four card decks (two risky and two conservative) and is designed to promote learning to make advantageous (conservative) choices over time. Thirty-four BPD patients completed both assessments (18 placebo and 16 pramipexole). Baseline performance did not differ by treatment group (F=0.63; p=0.64); however, at week 8, BPD patients on pramipexole demonstrated a significantly greater tendency to make increasingly high-risk, high-reward choices across the five blocks, whereas the placebo group's pattern was similar to that reported in healthy individuals (treatment × time × block interaction, p<0.05). Analyses of choice strategy using the expectancy valence model revealed that after 8 weeks on pramipexole, BPD patients attended more readily to feedback related to gains than to losses, which could explain the impaired learning. There were no significant changes in mood symptoms over the 8 weeks, and no increased propensity toward manic-like behaviors were reported. Our results suggest that the enhancement of dopaminergic activity influences risk-associated decision-making performance in euthymic BPD. The clinical implications remain unknown. PMID:23884342

  19. Single dopaminergic neurons that modulate aggression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Alekseyenko, Olga V; Chan, Yick-Bun; Li, Ran; Kravitz, Edward A

    2013-04-01

    Monoamines, including dopamine (DA), have been linked to aggression in various species. However, the precise role or roles served by the amine in aggression have been difficult to define because dopaminergic systems influence many behaviors, and all can be altered by changing the function of dopaminergic neurons. In the fruit fly, with the powerful genetic tools available, small subsets of brain cells can be reliably manipulated, offering enormous advantages for exploration of how and where amine neurons fit into the circuits involved with aggression. By combining the GAL4/upstream activating sequence (UAS) binary system with the Flippase (FLP) recombination technique, we were able to restrict the numbers of targeted DA neurons down to a single-cell level. To explore the function of these individual dopaminergic neurons, we inactivated them with the tetanus toxin light chain, a genetically encoded inhibitor of neurotransmitter release, or activated them with dTrpA1, a temperature-sensitive cation channel. We found two sets of dopaminergic neurons that modulate aggression, one from the T1 cluster and another from the PPM3 cluster. Both activation and inactivation of these neurons resulted in an increase in aggression. We demonstrate that the presynaptic terminals of the identified T1 and PPM3 dopaminergic neurons project to different parts of the central complex, overlapping with the receptor fields of DD2R and DopR DA receptor subtypes, respectively. These data suggest that the two types of dopaminergic neurons may influence aggression through interactions in the central complex region of the brain involving two different DA receptor subtypes. PMID:23530210

  20. Dopaminergic expression of the Parkinsonian gene LRRK2-G2019S leads to non-autonomous visual neurodegeneration, accelerated by increased neural demands for energy

    PubMed Central

    Hindle, Samantha; Afsari, Farinaz; Stark, Meg; Middleton, C. Adam; Evans, Gareth J.O.; Sweeney, Sean T.; Elliott, Christopher J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with loss of dopaminergic signalling, and affects not just movement, but also vision. As both mammalian and fly visual systems contain dopaminergic neurons, we investigated the effect of LRRK2 mutations (the most common cause of inherited PD) on Drosophila electroretinograms (ERGs). We reveal progressive loss of photoreceptor function in flies expressing LRRK2-G2019S in dopaminergic neurons. The photoreceptors showed elevated autophagy, apoptosis and mitochondrial disorganization. Head sections confirmed extensive neurodegeneration throughout the visual system, including regions not directly innervated by dopaminergic neurons. Other PD-related mutations did not affect photoreceptor function, and no loss of vision was seen with kinase-dead transgenics. Manipulations of the level of Drosophila dLRRK suggest G2019S is acting as a gain-of-function, rather than dominant negative mutation. Increasing activity of the visual system, or of just the dopaminergic neurons, accelerated the G2019S-induced deterioration of vision. The fly visual system provides an excellent, tractable model of a non-autonomous deficit reminiscent of that seen in PD, and suggests that increased energy demand may contribute to the mechanism by which LRRK2-G2019S causes neurodegeneration. PMID:23396536

  1. Structure-activity relationship of sulfated hetero/galactofucan polysaccharides on dopaminergic neuron.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Huaide; Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Quanbin

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons and more-widespread neuronal changes that cause complex symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure-activity relationship of sulfated hetero-polysaccharides (DF1) and sulfated galactofucan polysaccharides (DF2) on dopaminergic neuron in vivo and in vitro. Treatment with samples significantly ameliorated the depletion of both DA and TH-, Bcl-2- and Bax-positive neurons in MPTP-induced PD mice, DF1 showed the highest activity. The in vitro results found that DF1 and DF2 could reverse the decreased mitochondrial activity and the increased LDL release induced by MPP(+) (P<0.01 or P<0.001) which provides further evidence that DF1 and DF2 also exerts a direct protection against the neuronal injury caused by MPP(+). Furthermore, the administration of samples effectively decreased lipid peroxidation and increased the level/activities of GSH, GSH-PX, MDA and CAT in MPTP mice. Thus, the neuron protective effect may be mediated, in part, through antioxidant activity and the prevention of cell apoptosis. The chemical composition of DF1, DF2 and DF differed markedly, the DF1 fraction had the most complex chemical composition and showed the highest neuron protective activity. These results suggest that diverse monosaccharides and uronic acid might contribute to neuron protective activity.

  2. Cell cycle and p53 gate the direct conversion of human fibroblasts to dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Houbo; Xu, Zhimin; Zhong, Ping; Ren, Yong; Liang, Gaoyang; Schilling, Haley A; Hu, Zihua; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xiaomin; Chen, Shengdi; Yan, Zhen; Feng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The direct conversion of fibroblasts to induced dopaminergic (iDA) neurons and other cell types demonstrates the plasticity of cell fate. The low efficiency of these relatively fast conversions suggests that kinetic barriers exist to safeguard cell-type identity. Here we show that suppression of p53, in conjunction with cell cycle arrest at G1 and appropriate extracellular environment, markedly increase the efficiency in the transdifferentiation of human fibroblasts to iDA neurons by Ascl1, Nurr1, Lmx1a and miR124. The conversion is dependent on Tet1, as G1 arrest, p53 knockdown or expression of the reprogramming factors induces Tet1 synergistically. Tet1 knockdown abolishes the transdifferentiation while its overexpression enhances the conversion. The iDA neurons express markers for midbrain DA neurons and have active dopaminergic transmission. Our results suggest that overcoming these kinetic barriers may enable highly efficient epigenetic reprogramming in general and will generate patient-specific midbrain DA neurons for Parkinson's disease research and therapy. PMID:26639555

  3. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is selectively toxic to primary dopaminergic neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Amy M; Agim, Zeynep S; Mishra, Vartika R; Tambe, Mitali A; Director-Myska, Alison E; Turteltaub, Kenneth W; McCabe, George P; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Cannon, Jason R

    2014-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Much data has linked the etiology of PD to a variety of environmental factors. The majority of cases are thought to arise from a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Chronic exposures to dietary factors, including meat, have been identified as potential risk factors. Although heterocyclic amines that are produced during high-temperature meat cooking are known to be carcinogenic, their effect on the nervous system has yet to be studied in depth. In this study, we investigated neurotoxic effects of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a highly abundant heterocyclic amine in cooked meat, in vitro. We tested toxicity of PhIP and the two major phase I metabolites, N-OH-PhIP and 4'-OH-PhIP, using primary mesencephalic cultures from rat embryos. This culture system contains both dopaminergic and nondopaminergic neurons, which allows specificity of neurotoxicity to be readily examined. We find that exposure to PhIP or N-OH-PhIP is selectively toxic to dopaminergic neurons in primary cultures, resulting in a decreased percentage of dopaminergic neurons. Neurite length is decreased in surviving dopaminergic neurons. Exposure to 4'-OH-PhIP did not produce significant neurotoxicity. PhIP treatment also increased formation of oxidative damage markers, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and 3-nitrotyrosine in dopaminergic neurons. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine was protective. Finally, treatment with blueberry extract, a dietary factor with known antioxidant and other protective mechanisms, prevented PhIP-induced toxicity. Collectively, our study suggests, for the first time, that PhIP is selectively toxic to dopaminergic neurons likely through inducing oxidative stress. PMID:24718704

  4. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) Is Selectively Toxic to Primary Dopaminergic Neurons In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Amy M.; Agim, Zeynep S.; Mishra, Vartika R.; Tambe, Mitali A.; Director-Myska, Alison E.; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; McCabe, George P.; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Cannon, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Much data has linked the etiology of PD to a variety of environmental factors. The majority of cases are thought to arise from a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Chronic exposures to dietary factors, including meat, have been identified as potential risk factors. Although heterocyclic amines that are produced during high-temperature meat cooking are known to be carcinogenic, their effect on the nervous system has yet to be studied in depth. In this study, we investigated neurotoxic effects of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a highly abundant heterocyclic amine in cooked meat, in vitro. We tested toxicity of PhIP and the two major phase I metabolites, N-OH-PhIP and 4′-OH-PhIP, using primary mesencephalic cultures from rat embryos. This culture system contains both dopaminergic and nondopaminergic neurons, which allows specificity of neurotoxicity to be readily examined. We find that exposure to PhIP or N-OH-PhIP is selectively toxic to dopaminergic neurons in primary cultures, resulting in a decreased percentage of dopaminergic neurons. Neurite length is decreased in surviving dopaminergic neurons. Exposure to 4′-OH-PhIP did not produce significant neurotoxicity. PhIP treatment also increased formation of oxidative damage markers, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and 3-nitrotyrosine in dopaminergic neurons. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine was protective. Finally, treatment with blueberry extract, a dietary factor with known antioxidant and other protective mechanisms, prevented PhIP-induced toxicity. Collectively, our study suggests, for the first time, that PhIP is selectively toxic to dopaminergic neurons likely through inducing oxidative stress. PMID:24718704

  5. THE ROLE OF MICROGLIA IN PARAQUAT INDUCED DOPAMINERGIC NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript relates oxidative stress conveyed by a widely used pesticide (paraquat) to selective neurodegeneration of the in vitro models of the mouse brain. As such, it represents a provocative link to the conditions of oxidative stress, environmental chemical exposures and...

  6. Pathophysiological basis of vulnerability to drug abuse: role of an interaction between stress, glucocorticoids, and dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Piazza, P V; Le Moal, M L

    1996-01-01

    Research on drug abuse has recently focused on understanding the vulnerability to develop addiction that is present in certain individuals. These investigations suggest that addiction results from an interaction between drugs and specific individual substrates. Differences in the propensity to develop drug intake can be demonstrated in animals with equal access to drugs under stable laboratory conditions and can be predicted by drug-independent behaviors. Stress, corticosterone, and mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons seem to be organized in a pathophysiological chain determining such a vulnerability. An increased corticosterone secretion, or a higher sensitivity to the effects of this hormone, either naturally present in certain individuals or induced by stress in others, increases the vulnerability to develop drug intake, via an enhancement of the activity of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. These findings suggest that addiction therapies should counteract the biological peculiarity that leads some individuals to respond in a pathophysiological way to drugs. PMID:8725394

  7. Dopaminergic Input to the Inferior Colliculus in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nevue, Alexander A; Elde, Cameron J; Perkel, David J; Portfors, Christine V

    2015-01-01

    The response of sensory neurons to stimuli can be modulated by a variety of factors including attention, emotion, behavioral context, and disorders involving neuromodulatory systems. For example, patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have disordered speech processing, suggesting that dopamine alters normal representation of these salient sounds. Understanding the mechanisms by which dopamine modulates auditory processing is thus an important goal. The principal auditory midbrain nucleus, the inferior colliculus (IC), is a likely location for dopaminergic modulation of auditory processing because it contains dopamine receptors and nerve terminals immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. However, the sources of dopaminergic input to the IC are unknown. In this study, we iontophoretically injected a retrograde tracer into the IC of mice and then stained the tissue for TH. We also immunostained for dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), an enzyme critical for the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, to differentiate between dopaminergic and noradrenergic inputs. Retrogradely labeled neurons that were positive for TH were seen bilaterally, with strong ipsilateral dominance, in the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus (SPF). All retrogradely labeled neurons that we observed in other brain regions were TH-negative. Projections from the SPF were confirmed using an anterograde tracer, revealing TH-positive and DBH-negative anterogradely labeled fibers and terminals in the IC. While the functional role of this dopaminergic input to the IC is not yet known, it provides a potential mechanism for context dependent modulation of auditory processing. PMID:26834578

  8. Imaging beyond the striatonigral dopaminergic system in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Giza, Evangelia; Gotzamani-Psarrakou, Anna; Bostantjopoulou, Sevasti

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson 's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway, but this seems to constitute only part of the whole pathological process of the disease. Accumulating data have documented the concomitant degeneration of other dopaminergic pathways and of the serotonergic, cholinergic and noradrenergic neurotransmitter systems. In addition, pathologic process is not only restricted in the brain, since the spinal cord and the peripheral autonomic nervous system are also affected. The pathogenesis of PD remains unclear. The use of positron emission tomography and single photon emission tomography may contribute to the understanding of these aspects of the disease. This review will discuss the role of PET and SPET in imaging the extrastriatal dopaminergic system and other neurotransmitter systems as well as the imaging of microglial activation and cardiac sympathetic denervation in PD. In conclusion, several PET and SPET ligands can detect changes in extrastriatal dopaminergic system as well as in the serotonergic, cholinergic and noradrenergic systems in PD and also explore its possible correlation with motor and non motor symptoms. The use of PET scintigraphy allows the detection of microglial activation in PD, while (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy depicts cardiac sympathetic denervation in PD and is a useful imaging tool for differentiating PD from other types of parkinsonism.

  9. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

  10. Dopaminergic Input to the Inferior Colliculus in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nevue, Alexander A.; Elde, Cameron J.; Perkel, David J.; Portfors, Christine V.

    2016-01-01

    The response of sensory neurons to stimuli can be modulated by a variety of factors including attention, emotion, behavioral context, and disorders involving neuromodulatory systems. For example, patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have disordered speech processing, suggesting that dopamine alters normal representation of these salient sounds. Understanding the mechanisms by which dopamine modulates auditory processing is thus an important goal. The principal auditory midbrain nucleus, the inferior colliculus (IC), is a likely location for dopaminergic modulation of auditory processing because it contains dopamine receptors and nerve terminals immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis. However, the sources of dopaminergic input to the IC are unknown. In this study, we iontophoretically injected a retrograde tracer into the IC of mice and then stained the tissue for TH. We also immunostained for dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), an enzyme critical for the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine, to differentiate between dopaminergic and noradrenergic inputs. Retrogradely labeled neurons that were positive for TH were seen bilaterally, with strong ipsilateral dominance, in the subparafascicular thalamic nucleus (SPF). All retrogradely labeled neurons that we observed in other brain regions were TH-negative. Projections from the SPF were confirmed using an anterograde tracer, revealing TH-positive and DBH-negative anterogradely labeled fibers and terminals in the IC. While the functional role of this dopaminergic input to the IC is not yet known, it provides a potential mechanism for context dependent modulation of auditory processing. PMID:26834578

  11. Dopaminergic projections to the medial preoptic area of postpartum rats

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Stephanie M.; Lonstein, Joseph S.

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine receptor activity in the rodent medial preoptic area (mPOA) is crucial for the display of maternal behaviors, as well as numerous other physiological and behavioral functions. However, the origin of dopaminergic input to the mPOA has not been identified through neuroanatomical tracing. To accomplish this, the retrograde tracer Fluorogold was iontophoretically applied to the mPOA of postpartum laboratory rats, and dual-label immunocytochemistry for Fluorogold and tyrosine hydroxylase later performed to identify dopaminergic cells of the forebrain and midbrain projecting to the mPOA. Results indicate that the number of dopaminergic cells projecting to the mPOA is moderate (~90 cells to one hemisphere), and that these cells have an unexpectedly wide distribution. Even so, more than half of the dual-labeled cells were found in what has been considered extensions of the A10 dopamine group (particularly the ventrocaudal posterior hypothalamus and adjacent medial supramammillary nucleus), or in the A10 cells of the ventral tegmental area. The rostral hypothalamus and surrounding region also contained numerous dual-labeled cells, with the greatest number found within the mPOA itself (including in the AVPV and PVpo). Notably, dual-labeled cells were rare in the zona incerta (A13), a site previously suggested to provide dopaminergic input to the mPOA. This study is the first to use anatomical tracing to detail the dopaminergic projections to the mPOA in the laboratory rat, and indicates that much of this projection originates more caudally than previously suggested. PMID:19409227

  12. Mitoapocynin Treatment Protects Against Neuroinflammation and Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in a Preclinical Animal Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anamitra; Langley, Monica R; Harischandra, Dilshan; Neal, Matthew L; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Joseph, Joy; Brenza, Timothy; Narasimhan, Balaji; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have been implicated as key mediators contributing to the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Currently, we lack a pharmacological agent that can intervene in all key pathological mechanisms, which would offer better neuroprotective efficacy than a compound that targets a single degenerative mechanism. Herein, we investigated whether mito-apocynin (Mito-Apo), a newly-synthesized and orally available derivative of apocynin that targets mitochondria, protects against oxidative damage, glial-mediated inflammation and nigrostriatal neurodegeneration in cellular and animal models of PD. Mito-Apo treatment in primary mesencephalic cultures significantly attenuated the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neuronal cells and neurites. Mito-Apo also diminished MPP+-induced increases in glial cell activation and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Additionally, Mito-Apo decreased nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and 4-hydroxynonenol (4-HNE) levels in primary mesencephalic cultures. Importantly, we assessed the neuroprotective property of Mito-Apo in the MPTP mouse model of PD, wherein it restored the behavioral performance of MPTP-treated mice. Immunohistological analysis of nigral dopaminergic neurons and monoamine measurement further confirmed the neuroprotective effect of Mito-Apo against MPTP-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal loss. Mito-Apo showed excellent brain bioavailability and also markedly attenuated MPTP-induced oxidative markers in the substantia nigra (SN). Furthermore, oral administration of Mito-Apo significantly suppressed MPTP-induced glial cell activation, upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, iNOS and gp91phox in IBA1-positive cells of SN. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the novel mitochondria-targeted compound Mito-Apo exhibits profound neuroprotective effects in

  13. Dopaminergic inputs in the dentate gyrus direct the choice of memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Du, Huiyun; Deng, Wei; Aimone, James B; Ge, Minyan; Parylak, Sarah; Walch, Keenan; Zhang, Wei; Cook, Jonathan; Song, Huina; Wang, Liping; Gage, Fred H; Mu, Yangling

    2016-09-13

    Rewarding experiences are often well remembered, and such memory formation is known to be dependent on dopamine modulation of the neural substrates engaged in learning and memory; however, it is unknown how and where in the brain dopamine signals bias episodic memory toward preceding rather than subsequent events. Here we found that photostimulation of channelrhodopsin-2-expressing dopaminergic fibers in the dentate gyrus induced a long-term depression of cortical inputs, diminished theta oscillations, and impaired subsequent contextual learning. Computational modeling based on this dopamine modulation indicated an asymmetric association of events occurring before and after reward in memory tasks. In subsequent behavioral experiments, preexposure to a natural reward suppressed hippocampus-dependent memory formation, with an effective time window consistent with the duration of dopamine-induced changes of dentate activity. Overall, our results suggest a mechanism by which dopamine enables the hippocampus to encode memory with reduced interference from subsequent experience. PMID:27573822

  14. Dopaminergic inputs in the dentate gyrus direct the choice of memory encoding

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Du, Huiyun; Deng, Wei; Aimone, James B.; Ge, Minyan; Parylak, Sarah; Walch, Keenan; Zhang, Wei; Cook, Jonathan; Song, Huina; Wang, Liping; et al

    2016-09-13

    Rewarding experiences are often well remembered, and such memory formation is known to be dependent on dopamine modulation of the neural substrates engaged in learning and memory; however, it is unknown how and where in the brain dopamine signals bias episodic memory toward preceding rather than subsequent events. Here we found that photostimulation of channelrhodopsin-2–expressing dopaminergic fibers in the dentate gyrus induced a long-term depression of cortical inputs, diminished theta oscillations, and impaired subsequent contextual learning. Computational modeling based on this dopamine modulation indicated an asymmetric association of events occurring before and after reward in memory tasks. In subsequent behavioralmore » experiments, preexposure to a natural reward suppressed hippocampus-dependent memory formation, with an effective time window consistent with the duration of dopamine-induced changes of dentate activity. Altogether, our results suggest a mechanism by which dopamine enables the hippocampus to encode memory with reduced interference from subsequent experience.« less

  15. Loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons accounts for the motivational and affective deficits in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Drui, G; Carnicella, S; Carcenac, C; Favier, M; Bertrand, A; Boulet, S; Savasta, M

    2014-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) involves the degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) that is thought to cause the classical motor symptoms of this disease. However, motivational and affective impairments are also often observed in PD patients. These are usually attributed to a psychological reaction to the general motor impairment and to a loss of some of the neurons within the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We induced selective lesions of the VTA and SNc DA neurons that did not provoke motor deficits, and showed that bilateral dopamine loss within the SNc, but not within the VTA, induces motivational deficits and affective impairments that mimicked the symptoms of PD patients. Thus, motivational and affective deficits are a core impairment of PD, as they stem from the loss of the major group of neurons that degenerates in this disease (DA SNc neurons) and are independent of motor deficits.

  16. Dopaminergic inputs in the dentate gyrus direct the choice of memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Du, Huiyun; Deng, Wei; Aimone, James B; Ge, Minyan; Parylak, Sarah; Walch, Keenan; Zhang, Wei; Cook, Jonathan; Song, Huina; Wang, Liping; Gage, Fred H; Mu, Yangling

    2016-09-13

    Rewarding experiences are often well remembered, and such memory formation is known to be dependent on dopamine modulation of the neural substrates engaged in learning and memory; however, it is unknown how and where in the brain dopamine signals bias episodic memory toward preceding rather than subsequent events. Here we found that photostimulation of channelrhodopsin-2-expressing dopaminergic fibers in the dentate gyrus induced a long-term depression of cortical inputs, diminished theta oscillations, and impaired subsequent contextual learning. Computational modeling based on this dopamine modulation indicated an asymmetric association of events occurring before and after reward in memory tasks. In subsequent behavioral experiments, preexposure to a natural reward suppressed hippocampus-dependent memory formation, with an effective time window consistent with the duration of dopamine-induced changes of dentate activity. Overall, our results suggest a mechanism by which dopamine enables the hippocampus to encode memory with reduced interference from subsequent experience.

  17. Immunocytochemical identification of proteins involved in dopamine release from the somatodendritic compartment of nigral dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Witkovsky, Paul; Patel, Jyoti C.; Lee, Christian R.; Rice, Margaret E.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the somatodendritic compartment of nigral dopaminergic neurons by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy, with the aim of identifying proteins that participate in dopamine packaging and release. Nigral dopaminergic neurons were identified by location, cellular features and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity. Immunoreactive puncta of vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 and proton ATPase, both involved in the packaging of dopamine for release, were located primarily in dopaminergic cell bodies, but were absent in distal dopaminergic dendrites. Many presynaptic proteins associated with transmitter release at fast synapses were absent in nigral dopaminergic neurons, including synaptotagmin 1, syntaxin1, synaptic vesicle proteins 2a and 2b, synaptophysin and synaptobrevin 1 (VAMP 1). On the other hand, syntaxin 3, synaptobrevin 2 (VAMP 2) and SNAP-25-immunoreactivities were found in dopaminergic somata and dendrites Our data imply that the storage and exocytosis of dopamine from the somatodendritic compartment of nigral dopaminergic neurons is mechanistically distinct from transmitter release at axon terminals utilizing amino acid neurotransmitters. PMID:19682556

  18. Anti-dopaminergic effect of the methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Adhikrao V.; Nade, Vandana S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves on dopaminergic function. Materials and Methods: The effect of the methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves was evaluated on haloperidol and metoclopramide induced catalepsy, foot shock-induced aggression, amphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior and phenobarbitone induced sleeping in mice. In each of these tests, the extract was administered in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min before performing the test in mice. Further, the inhibitory effect of the extract on dopamine was studied using isolated rat vas deferens. Results: The extract produced significant dose dependent potentiation of haloperidol (1 mg/kg, i.p.) and metoclopramide (20 mg/kg, i.p.) induced catalepsy in mice. The extract significantly reduced number of fights and increased latency to fights in foot shock-induced aggression; it also decreased amphetamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) induced stereotyped behavior in a dose dependent manner. The sleeping time induced by phenobarbitone (50 mg/kg, i.p.) too was prolonged. The extract inhibited contractions produced by dopamine on isolated rat vas deferens. Conclusion: The results suggest that the methanolic extract of Morus alba L. possesses antidopaminergic activity. Further neurochemical investigation can explore the mechanism of action of the plant drug with respect to antidopaminergic functions and help to establish the plant as an antipsychotic agent. PMID:20040961

  19. A critical period of vulnerability to adolescent stress: epigenetic mediators in mesocortical dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Minae; Lee, Richard S; Tanaka, Teppei; Okada, Kinya; Kano, Shin-Ichi; Sawa, Akira

    2016-04-01

    The molecular basis of vulnerability to stress during the adolescent period is largely unknown. To identify potential molecular mediators that may play a role in stress-induced behavioral deficits, we imposed social isolation on a genetically vulnerable mouse model. We report that 3-week (5-8 weeks of age) adolescent stress in combination with disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (Disc1) genetic risk elicits alterations in DNA methylation of a specific set of genes, tyrosine hydroxylase, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and FK506 binding protein 5. The epigenetic changes in the mesocortical dopaminergic neurons were prevented when animals were treated with a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU486 during social isolation, which implicates the role for glucocorticoid signaling in this pathological event. We define the critical period of GR intervention as the first 1-week period during the stress regimen, suggesting that this particular week in adolescence may be a specific period of maturation and function of mesocortical dopaminergic neurons and their sensitivity to glucocorticoids. Our study may also imply the clinical significance of early detection and prophylactic intervention against conditions associated with adolescent social stress in individuals with genetic risk. PMID:26908623

  20. Daytime spikes in dopaminergic activity drive rapid mood-cycling in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sidor, Michelle M.; Spencer, Sade M.; Dzirasa, Kafui; Parekh, Puja K.; Tye, Kay M.; Warden, Melissa R.; Arey, Rachel N.; Enwright, John F; Jacobsen, Jacob PR; Kumar, Sunil; Remillard, Erin M; Caron, Marc G.; Deisseroth, Karl; McClung, Colleen A

    2014-01-01

    Disruptions in circadian rhythms and dopaminergic activity are involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, though their interaction remains unclear. Moreover, a lack of animal models that display spontaneous cycling between mood states has hindered our mechanistic understanding of mood switching. Here we find that mice with a mutation in the circadian Clock gene (ClockΔ19) exhibit rapid mood-cycling, with a profound manic-like phenotype emerging during the day following a period of euthymia at night. Mood cycling coincides with abnormal daytime spikes in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminergic activity, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels, and dopamine synthesis. To determine the significance of daytime increases in VTA dopamine activity to manic behaviors, we developed a novel optogenetic stimulation paradigm that produces a sustained increase in dopamine neuronal activity and find that this induces a manic-like behavioral state. Time-dependent dampening of TH activity during the day reverses manic-related behaviours in ClockΔ19 mice. Finally, we show that CLOCK acts as a negative regulator of TH transcription, revealing a novel molecular mechanism underlying cyclic changes in mood-related behaviour. Taken together, these studies have identified a mechanistic connection between circadian gene disruption and the precipitation of manic episodes in bipolar disorder. PMID:25560763

  1. Chronic stress enhances microglia activation and exacerbates death of nigral dopaminergic neurons under conditions of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease linked to progressive movement disorders and is accompanied by an inflammatory reaction that is believed to contribute to its pathogenesis. Since sensitivity to inflammation is not the same in all brain structures, the aim of this work was to test whether physiological conditions as stress could enhance susceptibility to inflammation in the substantia nigra, where death of dopaminergic neurons takes place in Parkinson’s disease. Methods To achieve our aim, we induced an inflammatory process in nonstressed and stressed rats (subject to a chronic variate stress) by a single intranigral injection of lipopolysaccharide, a potent proinflammogen. The effect of this treatment was evaluated on inflammatory markers as well as on neuronal and glial populations. Results Data showed a synergistic effect between inflammation and stress, thus resulting in higher microglial activation and expression of proinflammatory markers. More important, the higher inflammatory response seen in stressed animals was associated with a higher rate of death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, the most characteristic feature seen in Parkinson’s disease. This effect was dependent on glucocorticoids. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that stress sensitises midbrain microglia to further inflammatory stimulus. This suggests that stress may be an important risk factor in the degenerative processes and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:24565378

  2. Amygdala kindling modifies interhemispheric dopaminergic asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Mintz, M; Tomer, R; Houpt, S; Herberg, L J

    1987-04-01

    Brain dopamine is known to retard the development of kindled seizures, but it is uncertain whether kindling affects dopamine function. In the present study, rats were screened for cerebral dominance by recording their preferred direction of rotation when injected with d-amphetamine. Bipolar stimulating electrodes were then implanted in the amygdaloid complex of either the dominant or nondominant hemisphere (i.e., respectively, contra- and ipsilateral to the preferred direction of rotation; the dominant hemisphere identified in this way has been shown to contain higher concentrations of dopamine than the nondominant hemisphere). Kindling stimulation (or sham-kindling, in control rats) was applied through the electrodes two or three times daily for 21 days, and the rats were reassessed for amphetamine- and apomorphine-induced rotation, during and after the course of treatment. Kindling of the originally dominant hemisphere caused a diminution of rotational asymmetry as measured in tests 2 to 3 h after stimulation sessions, and in some rats led to a reversal in the preferred direction of amphetamine-induced rotation. Kindling of the nondominant hemisphere tended to accentuate the original amphetamine-induced asymmetry. The direction of rotation induced by a direct postsynaptic DA-receptor agonist (apomorphine) was not significantly affected by kindling of either hemisphere. It appears that kindling stimulation brings about a relatively inferior level of DA function on the stimulated vs. the nonstimulated side of the brain, and that this process depends mainly on changes occurring at a presynaptic level.

  3. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 up-regulation and proapoptotic function in dopaminergic neurons: relevance to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anamitra; Saminathan, Hariharan; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Jin, Huajun; Sondarva, Gautam; Harischandra, Dilshan S; Qian, Ziqing; Rana, Ajay; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2013-07-26

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by a slow and progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PD remain unclear. Pin1, a major peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, has recently been associated with certain diseases. Notably, Ryo et al. (Ryo, A., Togo, T., Nakai, T., Hirai, A., Nishi, M., Yamaguchi, A., Suzuki, K., Hirayasu, Y., Kobayashi, H., Perrem, K., Liou, Y. C., and Aoki, I. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 4117-4125) implicated Pin1 in PD pathology. Therefore, we sought to systematically characterize the role of Pin1 in PD using cell culture and animal models. To our surprise we observed a dramatic up-regulation of Pin1 mRNA and protein levels in dopaminergic MN9D neuronal cells treated with the parkinsonian toxicant 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) as well as in the substantia nigra of the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mouse model. Notably, a marked expression of Pin1 was also observed in the substantia nigra of human PD brains along with a high co-localization of Pin1 within dopaminergic neurons. In functional studies, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Pin1 almost completely prevented MPP(+)-induced caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation, indicating that Pin1 plays a proapoptotic role. Interestingly, multiple pharmacological Pin1 inhibitors, including juglone, attenuated MPP(+)-induced Pin1 up-regulation, α-synuclein aggregation, caspase-3 activation, and cell death. Furthermore, juglone treatment in the MPTP mouse model of PD suppressed Pin1 levels and improved locomotor deficits, dopamine depletion, and nigral dopaminergic neuronal loss. Collectively, our findings demonstrate for the first time that Pin1 is up-regulated in PD and has a pathophysiological role in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system and suggest that modulation of Pin1 levels may be a useful translational therapeutic strategy in PD.

  4. Selenoprotein T Exerts an Essential Oxidoreductase Activity That Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boukhzar, Loubna; Hamieh, Abdallah; Cartier, Dorthe; Tanguy, Yannick; Alsharif, Ifat; Castex, Matthieu; Arabo, Arnaud; Hajji, Sana El; Bonnet, Jean-Jacques; Errami, Mohammed; Falluel-Morel, Anthony; Chagraoui, Abdeslam; Lihrmann, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Oxidative stress is central to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms involved in the control of this stress in dopaminergic cells are not fully understood. There is increasing evidence that selenoproteins play a central role in the control of redox homeostasis and cell defense, but the precise contribution of members of this family of proteins during the course of neurodegenerative diseases is still elusive. Results: We demonstrated first that selenoprotein T (SelT) whose gene disruption is lethal during embryogenesis, exerts a potent oxidoreductase activity. In the SH-SY5Y cell model of dopaminergic neurons, both silencing and overexpression of SelT affected oxidative stress and cell survival. Treatment with PD-inducing neurotoxins such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or rotenone triggered SelT expression in the nigrostriatal pathway of wild-type mice, but provoked rapid and severe parkinsonian-like motor defects in conditional brain SelT-deficient mice. This motor impairment was associated with marked oxidative stress and neurodegeneration and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine levels in the nigrostriatal system. Finally, in PD patients, we report that SelT is tremendously increased in the caudate putamen tissue. Innovation: These results reveal the activity of a novel selenoprotein enzyme that protects dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress and prevents early and severe movement impairment in animal models of PD. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that selenoproteins such as SelT play a crucial role in the protection of dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress and cell death, providing insight into the molecular underpinnings of this stress in PD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 557–574. PMID:26866473

  5. Dopaminergic Neurons Exhibit an Age-Dependent Decline in Electrophysiological Parameters in the MitoPark Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Sarah Y.; Chen, Cang; Sharma, Ramaswamy; Lechleiter, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) play a vital role in everyday tasks, such as reward-related behavior and voluntary movement, and excessive loss of these neurons is a primary hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been implicated in PD and many animal models induce parkinsonian features by disrupting mitochondrial function. MitoPark mice are a recently developed genetic model of PD that lacks the gene for mitochondrial transcription factor A specifically in dopaminergic neurons. This model mimics many distinct characteristics of PD including progressive and selective loss of SN dopamine neurons, motor deficits that are improved by l-DOPA, and development of inclusion bodies. Here, we used brain slice electrophysiology to construct a timeline of functional decline in SN dopaminergic neurons from MitoPark mice. Dopaminergic neurons from MitoPark mice exhibited decreased cell capacitance and increased input resistance that became more severe with age. Pacemaker firing regularity was disrupted in MitoPark mice and ion channel conductances associated with firing were decreased. Additionally, dopaminergic neurons from MitoPark mice showed a progressive decrease of endogenous dopamine levels, decreased dopamine release, and smaller D2 dopamine receptor-mediated outward currents. Interestingly, expression of ion channel subunits associated with impulse activity (Cav1.2, Cav1.3, HCN1, Nav1.2, and NavB3) was upregulated in older MitoPark mice. The results describe alterations in intrinsic and synaptic properties of dopaminergic neurons in MitoPark mice occurring at ages both before and concurrent with motor impairment. These findings may help inform future investigations into treatment targets for prodromal PD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most diagnosed neurodegenerative disorder, and the classic motor symptoms of the disease are attributed to selective loss of dopaminergic neurons of the

  6. NMDA Receptors in Dopaminergic Neurons are Crucial for Habit Learning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei Phillip; Li, Fei; Wang, Dong; Xie, Kun; Wang, Deheng; Shen, Xiaoming; Tsien, Joe Z.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Dopamine is crucial for habit learning. Activities of midbrain dopaminergic neurons are regulated by the cortical and subcortical signals among which glutamatergic afferents provide excitatory inputs. Cognitive implications of glutamatergic afferents in regulating and engaging dopamine signals during habit learning however remain unclear. Here we show that mice with dopaminergic neuron-specific NMDAR1 deletion are impaired in a variety of habit learning tasks while normal in some other dopamine-modulated functions such as locomotor activities, goal directed learning, and spatial reference memories. In vivo neural recording revealed that DA neurons in these mutant mice could still develop the cue-reward association responses, but their conditioned response robustness was drastically blunted. Our results suggest that integration of glutamatergic inputs to DA neurons by NMDA receptors, likely by regulating associative activity patterns, is a crucial part of the cellular mechanism underpinning habit learning. PMID:22196339

  7. Full anatomical recovery of the dopaminergic system after a complete spinal cord injury in lampreys.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, Blanca; Romaus-Sanjurjo, Daniel; Cornide-Petronio, María Eugenia; Gómez-Fernández, Sonia; Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Rodicio, María Celina

    2015-01-01

    Following a spinal injury, lampreys at first are paralyzed below the level of transection. However, they recover locomotion after several weeks, and this is accompanied by the regeneration of descending axons from the brain and the production of new neurons in the spinal cord. Here, we aimed to analyse the changes in the dopaminergic system of the sea lamprey after a complete spinal transection by studying the changes in dopaminergic cell numbers and dopaminergic innervation in the spinal cord. Changes in the expression of the D2 receptor were also studied. We report the full anatomical regeneration of the dopaminergic system after an initial decrease in the number of dopaminergic cells and fibres. Numbers of dopaminergic cells were recovered rostrally and caudally to the site of injury. Quantification of dopaminergic profiles revealed the full recovery of the dopaminergic innervation of the spinal cord rostral and caudal to the site of injury. Interestingly, no changes in the expression of the D2 receptor were observed at time points in which a reduced dopaminergic innervation of the spinal cord was observed. Our observations reveal that in lampreys a spinal cord injury is followed by the full anatomical recovery of the dopaminergic system.

  8. In vitro dopaminergic neurotoxicity of pesticides: a link with neurodegeneration?

    PubMed

    Heusinkveld, Harm J; van den Berg, Martin; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-01-01

    Around the globe, chemical compounds are used to treat or repel pests and plagues that pose a threat to food and feed production. From epidemiological studies, it is known that there is a link between exposure to certain chemical classes of these so-called pesticides and the prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease in humans. However, which particular compound(s) account for this link or what underlying mechanisms are involved is still largely unresolved. The degenerative process in Parkinson's disease is largely limited to the dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia. Cellular mechanisms that are implicated in parkinsonian neurodegeneration include mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, disturbance of intracellular calcium homeostasis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. A major characteristic that distinguishes the dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia from other dopaminergic neurons is a particular reliance on intracellular calcium for spontaneous activity. Considering the energy consuming nature of maintenance of the intracellular calcium homeostasis and its involvement in life and death of a neuron, this may explain the specific vulnerability of this neuronal population. Despite a large variation in primary mechanism of action it has been demonstrated that pesticides from different classes disturb intracellular calcium homeostasis, thus interfering with intracellular calcium signalling. This relates to altered dopaminergic signalling, disturbed protein homeostasis and increased oxidative stress. Therefore, effects of (mixtures of) pesticides on the intracellular calcium homeostasis may play a role in the development of Parkinson's disease in humans. Although human exposure to pesticides via e.g. food often occurs in complex mixtures, (human) risk assessment is largely based on the assessment of single compounds. The discovery of common modes of action across different classes of pesticides therefore underpins the

  9. Neuromelanin Imaging and Dopaminergic Loss in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Isaias, Ioannis U.; Trujillo, Paula; Summers, Paul; Marotta, Giorgio; Mainardi, Luca; Pezzoli, Gianni; Zecca, Luigi; Costa, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in which the major pathologic substrate is a loss of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra. Our main objective was to determine the correspondence between changes in the substantia nigra, evident in neuromelanin and iron sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and dopaminergic striatal innervation loss in patients with PD. Eighteen patients and 18 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Using neuromelanin-MRI, we measured the volume of the substantia nigra and the contrast-to-noise-ratio between substantia nigra and a background region. The apparent transverse relaxation rate and magnetic susceptibility of the substantia nigra were calculated from dual-echo MRI. Striatal dopaminergic innervation was measured as density of dopamine transporter (DAT) by means of single-photon emission computed tomography and [123I] N-ω-fluoropropyl-2b-carbomethoxy-3b-(4-iodophenyl) tropane. Patients showed a reduced volume of the substantia nigra and contrast-to-noise-ratio and both positively correlated with the corresponding striatal DAT density. The apparent transverse relaxation rate and magnetic susceptibility values of the substantia nigra did not differ between patients and healthy controls. The best predictor of DAT reduction was the volume of the substantia nigra. Clinical and imaging correlations were also investigated for the locus coeruleus. Our results suggest that neuromelanin-MRI can be used for quantifying substantia nigra pathology in PD where it closely correlates with dopaminergic striatal innervation loss. Longitudinal studies should further explore the role of Neuromelanin-MRI as an imaging biomarker of PD, especially for subjects at risk of developing the disease.

  10. Neuromelanin Imaging and Dopaminergic Loss in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Isaias, Ioannis U; Trujillo, Paula; Summers, Paul; Marotta, Giorgio; Mainardi, Luca; Pezzoli, Gianni; Zecca, Luigi; Costa, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in which the major pathologic substrate is a loss of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra. Our main objective was to determine the correspondence between changes in the substantia nigra, evident in neuromelanin and iron sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and dopaminergic striatal innervation loss in patients with PD. Eighteen patients and 18 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Using neuromelanin-MRI, we measured the volume of the substantia nigra and the contrast-to-noise-ratio between substantia nigra and a background region. The apparent transverse relaxation rate and magnetic susceptibility of the substantia nigra were calculated from dual-echo MRI. Striatal dopaminergic innervation was measured as density of dopamine transporter (DAT) by means of single-photon emission computed tomography and [(123)I] N-ω-fluoropropyl-2b-carbomethoxy-3b-(4-iodophenyl) tropane. Patients showed a reduced volume of the substantia nigra and contrast-to-noise-ratio and both positively correlated with the corresponding striatal DAT density. The apparent transverse relaxation rate and magnetic susceptibility values of the substantia nigra did not differ between patients and healthy controls. The best predictor of DAT reduction was the volume of the substantia nigra. Clinical and imaging correlations were also investigated for the locus coeruleus. Our results suggest that neuromelanin-MRI can be used for quantifying substantia nigra pathology in PD where it closely correlates with dopaminergic striatal innervation loss. Longitudinal studies should further explore the role of Neuromelanin-MRI as an imaging biomarker of PD, especially for subjects at risk of developing the disease. PMID:27597825

  11. Neuromelanin Imaging and Dopaminergic Loss in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Isaias, Ioannis U.; Trujillo, Paula; Summers, Paul; Marotta, Giorgio; Mainardi, Luca; Pezzoli, Gianni; Zecca, Luigi; Costa, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder in which the major pathologic substrate is a loss of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra. Our main objective was to determine the correspondence between changes in the substantia nigra, evident in neuromelanin and iron sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and dopaminergic striatal innervation loss in patients with PD. Eighteen patients and 18 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Using neuromelanin-MRI, we measured the volume of the substantia nigra and the contrast-to-noise-ratio between substantia nigra and a background region. The apparent transverse relaxation rate and magnetic susceptibility of the substantia nigra were calculated from dual-echo MRI. Striatal dopaminergic innervation was measured as density of dopamine transporter (DAT) by means of single-photon emission computed tomography and [123I] N-ω-fluoropropyl-2b-carbomethoxy-3b-(4-iodophenyl) tropane. Patients showed a reduced volume of the substantia nigra and contrast-to-noise-ratio and both positively correlated with the corresponding striatal DAT density. The apparent transverse relaxation rate and magnetic susceptibility values of the substantia nigra did not differ between patients and healthy controls. The best predictor of DAT reduction was the volume of the substantia nigra. Clinical and imaging correlations were also investigated for the locus coeruleus. Our results suggest that neuromelanin-MRI can be used for quantifying substantia nigra pathology in PD where it closely correlates with dopaminergic striatal innervation loss. Longitudinal studies should further explore the role of Neuromelanin-MRI as an imaging biomarker of PD, especially for subjects at risk of developing the disease. PMID:27597825

  12. The medial prefrontal cortex plays an important role in the excitation of A10 dopaminergic neurons following intravenous muscimol administration.

    PubMed

    Lokwan, S J; Overton, P G; Berry, M S; Clark, D

    2000-01-01

    Intravenous muscimol administration increases the activity of dopaminergic neurons of the A10 cell group, located in the ventral tegmental area. Evidence suggests that this increase in activity is produced by disinhibition following the inhibition of GABAergic ("non-dopaminergic") cells in the ventral tegmental area. We hypothesized that the activation of A10 cells by muscimol is likely to be at least partly caused by the action of excitatory afferents. To verify this, A10 cells were isolated from ipsilateral afferent sources which utilise excitatory amino acids (which play an important role in the activity of these neurons), using hemisections at the level of the subthalamic nucleus (or just anterior to the subthalamic nucleus), electrolytic lesions of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, or a combination of both. Following hemisections, and hemisections combined with lesions of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, muscimol inhibited rather than excited A10 dopaminergic neurons. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus itself appeared to make little intrinsic contribution to muscimol-induced excitation, although the results suggested that part of the excitation which originates in the forebrain may be conducted to A10 cells via the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. The source of the effective forebrain excitation was investigated using electrolytic lesions of documented sources of excitatory amino acidergic afferents to the ventral tegmental area: the medial prefrontal cortex, certain nuclei of the amygdalar complex and the lateral habenular nucleus. In the medial prefrontal cortex-lesioned group, muscimol again produced inhibition, an effect qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that in the hemisected groups. Habenular lesions blocked muscimol-induced excitation without producing inhibition, whilst amygdalar lesions produced no significant change in the effects of muscimol. The results suggest that under normal circumstances, an active excitation

  13. Neurofeedback-mediated self-regulation of the dopaminergic midbrain.

    PubMed

    Sulzer, James; Sitaram, Ranganatha; Blefari, Maria Laura; Kollias, Spyros; Birbaumer, Niels; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Luft, Andreas; Gassert, Roger

    2013-12-01

    The dopaminergic system is involved in reward encoding and reinforcement learning. Dopaminergic neurons from this system in the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area complex (SN/VTA) fire in response to unexpected reinforcing cues. The goal of this study was to investigate whether individuals can gain voluntary control of SN/VTA activity, thereby potentially enhancing dopamine release to target brain regions. Neurofeedback and mental imagery were used to self-regulate the SN/VTA. Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) provided abstract visual feedback of the SN/VTA activity while the subject imagined rewarding scenes. Skin conductance response (SCR) was recorded as a measure of emotional arousal. To examine the effect of neurofeedback, subjects were assigned to either receiving feedback directly proportional (n=15, veridical feedback) or inversely proportional (n=17, inverted feedback) to SN/VTA activity. Both groups of subjects were able to up-regulate SN/VTA activity initially without feedback. Veridical feedback improved the ability to up-regulate SN/VTA compared to baseline while inverted feedback did not. Additional dopaminergic regions were activated in both groups. The ability to self-regulate SN/VTA was differentially correlated with SCR depending on the group, suggesting an association between emotional arousal and neurofeedback performance. These findings indicate that SN/VTA can be voluntarily activated by imagery and voluntary activation is further enhanced by neurofeedback. The findings may lead the way towards a non-invasive strategy for endogenous control of dopamine.

  14. Sensation-seeking: Dopaminergic modulation and risk for psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Norbury, Agnes; Husain, Masud

    2015-07-15

    Sensation-seeking (SS) is a personality trait that refers to individual differences in motivation for intense and unusual sensory experiences. It describes a facet of human behaviour that has direct relevance for several psychopathologies associated with high social cost. Here, we first review ways of measuring SS behaviour in both humans and animals. We then present convergent evidence that implicates dopaminergic neurotransmission (particularly via D2-type receptors) in individual differences in SS trait. Both high tonic dopamine levels and hyper-reactive midbrain dopaminergic responses to signals of forthcoming reward are evident in higher sensations-seekers. We propose that differences in the efficacy of striatal dopaminergic transmission may result in differential expression of approach-avoidance reactions to same intensity stimuli. This constitutes a quantitative trait of intensity preference for sensory stimulation that may underlie core features of the SS personality. We review the evidence that high trait SS is a vulnerability factor for psychopathologies related to changes in brain dopamine function, in particular substance and gambling addictions. Conversely, we consider the possibility that increased tolerance of high intensity stimulation may represent a protective mechanism against the development of trauma-related psychopathologies (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) in high sensation-seeking individuals. Further understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying SS trait might not only to shed light on the aetiology of these disorders, but also aid in developing individualised therapies and prevention strategies for psychopathologies. PMID:25907745

  15. Parkinson's Disease Severity and Use of Dopaminergic Medications

    PubMed Central

    Fang, John Y.; Pérez, Adriana; Christine, Chadwick W.; Leehey, Maureen; Aminoff, Michael J.; Boyd, James T.; Morgan, John C.; Dhall, Rohit; Nicholas, Anthony P; Bodis-Wollner, Ivan; Zweig, Richard M.; Goudreau, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The effects of dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) can vary depending on the class of medication selected. Objective The aim of this post hoc study was to determine if the class of dopaminergic therapy correlated with disease severity in persons with early, treated PD. Methods A non-parametric global statistical test (GST) was used to assess the status of participants treated with dopamine agonist (DA) monotherapy, levodopa (LD) monotherapy or combined LD and DA therapy on multiple PD outcomes encompassing motor, cognitive, psychiatric and autonomic function, as well as disability and quality of life. Results The outcomes measured at the beginning of the study showed lower disease burden for participants on initial DA monotherapy compared to those taking combined LD and DA therapy after controlling for age, education, taking cogmeds and amantadine. Conclusion This observation suggests that clinicians treating early PD patients favor combined LD and DA therapy in patients with more disabling features over DA monotherapy. As such, studies of PD progression in treated PD patients may be affected by the class of symptomatic dopaminergic therapy. PMID:25541182

  16. Rapid signalling in distinct dopaminergic axons during locomotion and reward.

    PubMed

    Howe, M W; Dombeck, D A

    2016-07-28

    Dopaminergic projection axons from the midbrain to the striatum are crucial for motor control, as their degeneration in Parkinson disease results in profound movement deficits. Paradoxically, most recording methods report rapid phasic dopamine signalling (~100-ms bursts) in response to unpredicted rewards, with little evidence for movement-related signalling. The leading model posits that phasic signalling in striatum-targeting dopamine neurons drives reward-based learning, whereas slow variations in firing (tens of seconds to minutes) in these same neurons bias animals towards or away from movement. However, current methods have provided little evidence to support or refute this model. Here, using new optical recording methods, we report the discovery of rapid phasic signalling in striatum-targeting dopaminergic axons that is associated with, and capable of triggering, locomotion in mice. Axons expressing these signals were largely distinct from those that responded to unexpected rewards. These results suggest that dopaminergic neuromodulation can differentially impact motor control and reward learning with sub-second precision, and indicate that both precise signal timing and neuronal subtype are important parameters to consider in the treatment of dopamine-related disorders. PMID:27398617

  17. Rapid signalling in distinct dopaminergic axons during locomotion and reward.

    PubMed

    Howe, M W; Dombeck, D A

    2016-07-28

    Dopaminergic projection axons from the midbrain to the striatum are crucial for motor control, as their degeneration in Parkinson disease results in profound movement deficits. Paradoxically, most recording methods report rapid phasic dopamine signalling (~100-ms bursts) in response to unpredicted rewards, with little evidence for movement-related signalling. The leading model posits that phasic signalling in striatum-targeting dopamine neurons drives reward-based learning, whereas slow variations in firing (tens of seconds to minutes) in these same neurons bias animals towards or away from movement. However, current methods have provided little evidence to support or refute this model. Here, using new optical recording methods, we report the discovery of rapid phasic signalling in striatum-targeting dopaminergic axons that is associated with, and capable of triggering, locomotion in mice. Axons expressing these signals were largely distinct from those that responded to unexpected rewards. These results suggest that dopaminergic neuromodulation can differentially impact motor control and reward learning with sub-second precision, and indicate that both precise signal timing and neuronal subtype are important parameters to consider in the treatment of dopamine-related disorders.

  18. Dopaminergic augmentation of sleep deprivation effects in bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, F; Campori, E; Barbini, B; Fulgosi, M C; Colombo, C

    2001-11-30

    Total sleep deprivation (TSD) has been used in association with lithium salts and with serotonergic and noradrenergic antidepressants, leading to sustained improvements in patients affected by major depression. Current theories on the neurobiological mechanism of action of TSD propose a major role for enhanced dopamine activity. To test the clinical relevance of dopaminergic enhancement in TSD, we treated a homogeneous sample of 28 bipolar depressed patients with three cycles of TSD combined with placebo or with the dopaminergic antidepressant amineptine. Changes in mood over time were rated with self-administered visual analogue scales and with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Patients showed improved mean daily-mood scores after TSD, an effect that was highest at the first cycle and decreased with treatment repetition. Amineptine enhanced the effects of TSD on perceived mood during the first two TSD cycles, but patients in the placebo and amineptine groups showed comparable results at the end of the treatment. Despite its theoretical importance, the clinical usefulness of combining TSD with a dopaminergic agent must be questioned.

  19. Parkin protects dopaminergic neurons from excessive Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Rawal, Nina; Corti, Olga; Sacchetti, Paola; Ardilla-Osorio, Hector; Sehat, Bita; Brice, Alexis; Arenas, Ernest

    2009-10-23

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra but the molecular mechanisms underlying the degenerative process remain elusive. Several reports suggest that cell cycle deregulation in post-mitotic neurons could lead to neuronal cell death. We now show that Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase linked to familial PD, regulates {beta}-catenin protein levels in vivo. Stabilization of {beta}-catenin in differentiated primary ventral midbrain neurons results in increased levels of cyclin E and proliferation, followed by increased levels of cleaved PARP and loss of DA neurons. Wnt3a signaling also causes death of post-mitotic DA neurons in parkin null animals, suggesting that both increased stabilization and decreased degradation of {beta}-catenin results in DA cell death. These findings demonstrate a novel regulation of Wnt signaling by Parkin and suggest that Parkin protects DA neurons against excessive Wnt signaling and {beta}-catenin-induced cell death.

  20. Dose-dependent on reversible effects of lead on rat dopaminergic system

    SciTech Connect

    Memo, M.; Lucchi, L.; Spano, P.F.; Trabucchi, M.

    1981-02-16

    It has been suggested that hyperactivity and mental retardation, the most serious clinical aspects observed in children during lead intoxication, may occur as consequence of specific alterations of neurotransmitter functions. In our experiments we indicate that the behavioural patterns observed in chronically lead exposed rats may be correlated with an impairment of the dopaminergic system. Performing our study at two different levels of lead exposure, we found a dose-dependent change in dopamine turnover. Moreover, 30 days after the last assumption of lead we observed a complete disappearance of these neurochemical variations. Our findings suggest that lead affects dopamine function in different brain areas in reversible manner, inducing effects which are dose-dependent.

  1. [Mechanism of nootropic digam action in hypofunction of brain dopaminergic system].

    PubMed

    Gerstein, L M; Dovedova, E L; Popova, N S

    2003-01-01

    Using microchemical methods for detection of dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), serotonin (S) and its metabolite--5'-hydroxyindolilacetic acid (5'-HIAA) as well as the activity of neuromediator-utilising enzymes--MAO A and B and enzymes of acetylcholine metabolism--cholinacetyltranspherase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), we revealed that synthetic GABA-derivative compound diagram (250 mg/kg during 10 days) normalized functioning of dopaminergic and acetylcholinergic systems in sensormotor cortex and caudate nucleus of Wistar rats with haloperidol-induced (0.5 mg/kg during 30 days) bradykinesia. Measured by quantitative interpherometric method, a specific response of functionally different sensomotor cortex (layers III and V) neurons and caudate nucleus by such characteristics as cytoplasm and nuclei sizes, protein content and concentration was found. Control for rat's behavior in open field revealed that diagram restored emotional activity disturbed by haloperidol injections and improved the indices of the animals searching activity.

  2. Inhibitory effect of A10 dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area on the orienting response evoked by acoustic stimulation in the cat.

    PubMed

    Crescimanno, G; Sorbera, F; Emmi, A; Amato, G

    1998-01-01

    The effect of bilateral electric stimulation of A10 dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (80-300 microA, 20-50 Hz, 0.1-0.5 ms, 2 s duration) on latency and duration of the orienting response, evoked by acoustic stimuli (4500-8000 Hz, 2 s), was studied in the cat. A10 neuron stimulation, simultaneous with the acoustic one, was performed with threshold parameters inducing minimal behavioral signs (head searching movement, sniffing, increase in alertness). By means of a videoanalysis system, a statistically significant increase, both of latency and duration of the response, was observed. The possible role of dopamine was studied administrating sulpiride (20 mg/kg i.p.), a dopaminergic antagonist prevalently acting on the mesolimbic-mesocortical system. In this condition, the disappearance of A10 neuron effect occurred. Sulpiride injection did not affect the parameters of the orienting response to acoustic stimulus alone, suggesting a direct effect on A10 dopaminergic neurons. Moreover, when saline administration was carried out, no significant modification of the effects, obtained following A10 neuron activation, was observed. The data suggest that A10 dopaminergic neurons, origin of the mesolimbic-mesocortical system, may be involved in the control of the response to sensory stimuli, likely by influencing sensorimotor integration processes. An involvement in the inhibitory regulation of the switching of attention is also discussed. PMID:9434203

  3. Involvement of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of yawning and genital grooming by the aqueous extract of Saccharum officinarum L. (sugarcane) in rats.

    PubMed

    Gamberini, Maria T; Gamberini, Maria C; Nasello, Antonia G

    2015-01-01

    Yawning, associated with genital grooming, is a physiological response that may be used for elucidating the mechanism of action of drugs. Preliminary analysis showed that aqueous extract (AE) of Saccharum induced yawns in rats. So, we aimed to quantify these behavioral responses and investigate the pharmacological mechanisms involved in these actions. During 120 min, after AE administration, the yawns and the genital grooming were quantified at 10 min intervals. Since dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways are implied in these responses, AE were evaluated in the presence of haloperidol 0.5 mg/kg and atropine 2 mg/kg. AE 0.5 g/kg increased the yawns, effect that was blocked both by haloperidol and atropine. Genital grooming could only be stimulated by AE 0.5 g/kg when dopaminergic receptors were blocked by haloperidol. However, it was inhibited when atropine was previously administered. So, we demonstrated a central action of Saccharum and it was postulated that neural circuits with the participation of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways are involved. The fact that AE is comprised of innumerous compounds could justify the extract's distinct responses. Also, we cannot disregard the presence of different neural circuits that count on the participation of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways and could be activated by the same induction agent.

  4. Involvement of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of yawning and genital grooming by the aqueous extract of Saccharum officinarum L. (sugarcane) in rats.

    PubMed

    Gamberini, Maria T; Gamberini, Maria C; Nasello, Antonia G

    2015-01-01

    Yawning, associated with genital grooming, is a physiological response that may be used for elucidating the mechanism of action of drugs. Preliminary analysis showed that aqueous extract (AE) of Saccharum induced yawns in rats. So, we aimed to quantify these behavioral responses and investigate the pharmacological mechanisms involved in these actions. During 120 min, after AE administration, the yawns and the genital grooming were quantified at 10 min intervals. Since dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways are implied in these responses, AE were evaluated in the presence of haloperidol 0.5 mg/kg and atropine 2 mg/kg. AE 0.5 g/kg increased the yawns, effect that was blocked both by haloperidol and atropine. Genital grooming could only be stimulated by AE 0.5 g/kg when dopaminergic receptors were blocked by haloperidol. However, it was inhibited when atropine was previously administered. So, we demonstrated a central action of Saccharum and it was postulated that neural circuits with the participation of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways are involved. The fact that AE is comprised of innumerous compounds could justify the extract's distinct responses. Also, we cannot disregard the presence of different neural circuits that count on the participation of dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways and could be activated by the same induction agent. PMID:25459296

  5. Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in the Mouse Is Associated with Decrease of Viscoelasticity of Substantia Nigra Tissue.

    PubMed

    Hain, Elisabeth G; Klein, Charlotte; Munder, Tonia; Braun, Juergen; Riek, Kerstin; Mueller, Susanne; Sack, Ingolf; Steiner, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The biomechanical properties of brain tissue are altered by histopathological changes due to neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease (PD). Such alterations can be measured by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) as a non-invasive technique to determine viscoelastic parameters of the brain. Until now, the correlation between histopathological mechanisms and observed alterations in tissue viscoelasticity in neurodegenerative diseases is still not completely understood. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate (1) the validity of MRE to detect viscoelastic changes in small and specific brain regions: the substantia nigra (SN), midbrain and hippocampus in a mouse model of PD, and (2) if the induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration and inflammation in the SN is reflected by local changes in viscoelasticity. Therefore, MRE measurements of the SN, midbrain and hippocampus were performed in adult female mice before and at five time points after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin hydrochloride (MPTP) treatment specifically lesioning dopaminergic neurons in the SN. At each time point, additional mice were utilized for histological analysis of the SN. After treatment cessation, we observed opposed viscoelastic changes in the midbrain, hippocampus and SN with the midbrain showing a gradual rise and the hippocampus a distinct transient increase of viscous and elastic parameters, while viscosity and-to a lesser extent-elasticity in the SN decreased over time. The decrease in viscosity and elasticity in the SN was paralleled by a reduced number of neurons due to the MPTP-induced neurodegeneration. In conclusion, MRE is highly sensitive to detect local viscoelastic changes in specific and even small brain regions. Moreover, we confirmed that neuronal cells likely constitute the backbone of the adult brain mainly accounting for its viscoelasticity. Therefore, MRE could be established as a new potential instrument for clinical evaluation and diagnostics

  6. Modulation of the action of stress by ethanol on dopaminergic activity in the rat prefrontal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Hegarty, A.A.; Vogel, W.H. )

    1992-02-26

    Both stress and ethanol, when administered individually, have been shown to affect dopamine (DA) and its metabolite (DOPAC) in the central nervous system. Stress can increase DA efflux in several areas of the brain, whereas ethanol has been shown to have variable effects on extracellular DA, either increasing DA or having no apparent effect. Furthermore, ethanol has been shown in microdissection studies to antagonize the effect of stress on the dopaminergic system, indicating an anxiety-reducing property of ethanol. However, the influence of the combination of stress and ethanol on the dopaminergic system has not been studied extensively with the newer technique of microdialysis. In this study, microdialysis was again used to characterize the interaction of immobilization stress and ethanol in the prefrontal cortex. Two groups of rats received either ethanol or saline in the resting state. A third group was immobilization stress and ethanol in the prefrontal cortex. Two groups of rats received either ethanol or saline in the resting state. A third group was immobilization Saline-treated animals showed essentially no changes in levels of DA or DOPAC. Ethanol had no effect on DA overflow in resting animals and caused only a small increase in DOPAC levels. Immobilization caused marked increases in DA levels and smaller increases in DOPAC. Ethanol pretreatment strongly reduced and antagonized the stress-induced increases in DA. However, ethanol potentiated the stress-induced increase in extracellular DOPAC. The authors data add biochemical evidence to the tension-reduction hypothesis of ethanol by perhaps implicating a reduction in the DA stress response by ethanol as a contributing factor in the development of alcoholism.

  7. Neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide enhances vulnerability of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons to rotenone neurotoxicity in later life.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lir-Wan; Tien, Lu-Tai; Lin, Rick C S; Simpson, Kimberly L; Rhodes, Philip G; Cai, Zhengwei

    2011-12-01

    Brain inflammation in early life has been proposed to play important roles in the development of neurodegenerative disorders in adult life. To test this hypothesis, we used a neonatal rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure (1000 EU/g body weight, intracerebral injection on P5) to produce brain inflammation. By P70, when LPS-induced behavioral deficits were spontaneously recovered, animals were challenged with rotenone, a commonly used pesticide, through subcutaneous mini-pump infusion at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg per day for 14 days. This rotenone treatment regimen ordinarily does not produce toxic effects on behaviors in normal adult rats. Our results show that neonatal LPS exposure enhanced the vulnerability of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons to rotenone neurotoxicity in later life. Rotenone treatment resulted in motor neurobehavioral impairments in rats with the neonatal LPS exposure, but not in those without the neonatal LPS exposure. Rotenone induced losses of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra and decreased mitochondrial complex I activity in the striatum of rats with neonatal LPS exposure, but not in those without this exposure. Neonatal LPS exposure with later exposure to rotenone decreased retrogradely labeled nigrostriatal dopaminergic projecting neurons. The current study suggests that perinatal brain inflammation may enhance adult susceptibility to the development of neurodegenerative disorders triggered later on by environmental toxins at an ordinarily non-toxic or sub-toxic dose. Our model may be useful for studying mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of nonfamilial Parkinson's disease and the development of potential therapeutic treatments.

  8. Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in the Mouse Is Associated with Decrease of Viscoelasticity of Substantia Nigra Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Hain, Elisabeth G.; Klein, Charlotte; Munder, Tonia; Braun, Juergen; Riek, Kerstin; Mueller, Susanne; Sack, Ingolf; Steiner, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The biomechanical properties of brain tissue are altered by histopathological changes due to neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease (PD). Such alterations can be measured by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) as a non-invasive technique to determine viscoelastic parameters of the brain. Until now, the correlation between histopathological mechanisms and observed alterations in tissue viscoelasticity in neurodegenerative diseases is still not completely understood. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate (1) the validity of MRE to detect viscoelastic changes in small and specific brain regions: the substantia nigra (SN), midbrain and hippocampus in a mouse model of PD, and (2) if the induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration and inflammation in the SN is reflected by local changes in viscoelasticity. Therefore, MRE measurements of the SN, midbrain and hippocampus were performed in adult female mice before and at five time points after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin hydrochloride (MPTP) treatment specifically lesioning dopaminergic neurons in the SN. At each time point, additional mice were utilized for histological analysis of the SN. After treatment cessation, we observed opposed viscoelastic changes in the midbrain, hippocampus and SN with the midbrain showing a gradual rise and the hippocampus a distinct transient increase of viscous and elastic parameters, while viscosity and–to a lesser extent—elasticity in the SN decreased over time. The decrease in viscosity and elasticity in the SN was paralleled by a reduced number of neurons due to the MPTP-induced neurodegeneration. In conclusion, MRE is highly sensitive to detect local viscoelastic changes in specific and even small brain regions. Moreover, we confirmed that neuronal cells likely constitute the backbone of the adult brain mainly accounting for its viscoelasticity. Therefore, MRE could be established as a new potential instrument for clinical evaluation and

  9. Allopregnanolone enhances the neurogenesis of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in APPswe/PSEN1 mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, P; Xie, M Q; Ding, Y-Q; Liao, M; Qi, S S; Chen, S X; Gu, Q Q; Zhou, P; Sun, C Y

    2015-04-01

    An earlier study has demonstrated that exogenous allopregnanolone (APα) can reverse the reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of 3-month-old male triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse (3xTgAD). This paper is focused on further clarifying the origin of these new-born TH-positive neurons induced by exogenous APα treatment. We performed a deeper research in another AD mouse model, 4-month-old male APPswe/PSEN1 double transgenic AD mouse (2xTgAD) by measuring APα concentration and counting immunopositive neurons using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and unbiased stereology. It was found that endogenous APα level and the number of TH-positive neurons were reduced in the 2xTgAD mice, and these reductions were present prior to the appearance of β-amyloid (Aβ)-positive plaques. Furthermore, a single 20mg/kg of exogenous APα treatment prevented the decline of total neurons, TH-positive neurons and TH/bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) double-positive neurons in the SNpc of 2xTgAD mice although the decreased intensity of TH-positive fibers was not rescued in the striatum. It was also noted that exogenous APα administration had an apparent increase in the doublecortin (DCX)-positive neurons and DCX/BrdU double-positive neurons of subventricular zone (SVZ), as well as in the percentage of neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN)/BrdU double-positive neurons of the SNpc in the 2xTgAD mice. These findings indicate that a lower level of endogenous APα is implicated in the loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in the 2xTgAD mice, and exogenous APα-induced a significant increase in the new-born dopaminergic neurons might be derived from the proliferating and differentiation of neural stem niche of SVZ.

  10. Neonatal systemic exposure to lipopolysaccharide enhances susceptibility of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons to rotenone neurotoxicity in later life

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhengwei; Fan, Lir-Wan; Kaizaki, Asuka; Tien, Lu-Tai; Ma, Tangeng; Pang, Yi; Lin, Shuying; Lin, Rick C. S.; Simpson, Kimberly L.

    2013-01-01

    Brain inflammation via intracerebral injection with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in early life has been shown to increase risks for the development of neurodegenerative disorders in adult rats. To determine if neonatal systemic LPS exposure has the same effects on enhancement of adult dopaminergic neuron susceptibility to rotenone neurotoxicity as centrally-injected LPS does, LPS (2 μg/g body weight) was administered intraperitoneally into post-natal day 5 (P5) rats and when grown to P70, rats were challenged with rotenone, a commonly used pesticide, through subcutaneous mini-pump infusion at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg per day for 14 days. Systemically administered LPS can penetrate into the neonatal rat brain and cause acute and chronic brain inflammation, as evidenced by persistent increases in IL-1β levels, cyclooxygenase-2 expression and microglial activation in the substantia nigra (SN) of P70 rats. Neonatal LPS exposure resulted in suppression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, but not actual death of dopaminergic neurons in the SN, as indicated by the reduced number of TH+ cells and unchanged total number of neurons (NeuN+) in the SN. Neonatal LPS exposure also caused motor function deficits, which were spontaneously recoverable by P70. A small dose of rotenone at P70 induced loss of dopaminergic neurons, as indicated by reduced numbers of both TH+ and NeuN+ cells in the SN, and Parkinson’s disease (PD)-like motor impairment in P98 rats that had experienced neonatal LPS exposure, but not in those without the LPS exposure. These results indicate that although neonatal systemic LPS exposure may not necessarily lead to death of dopaminergic neurons in the SN, such an exposure could cause persistent functional alterations in the dopaminergic system and indirectly predispose the nigrostriatal system in the adult brain more vulnerable to be damaged by environmental toxins at an ordinarily non-toxic or sub-toxic dose to develop PD-like pathological features and

  11. Thyrotoxic and dopaminergic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Perturbations in the developing nervous system have been associated with perinatal exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To determine which PCBs accumulate in brain following perinatal exposure, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by gavage to Aroclor 1242 (4 or 16 mg/kg/day) during days 10-16 of gestation. At weaning (day 21), analysis of pup brain (frontal cortex, hippocampus, and caudate putamen) by gas chromatography revealed ten peaks representing 10-14 congeners in PCB-exposed animals. Brain PCB concentrations were greatest in high-dose pups for all congeners except for 2,4,4[prime]-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 28) which had a higher concentration in the low-dose group. Congeners differed significantly in their degree of bioaccumulation, but no significant differences among brain regions were found. A lack of regionalization of PCB residues in the brain was also demonstrated by autoradiography in weanling rats treated iv with [[sup 14]C]-3,3[prime],4,4[prime]-tetrachlorobiphenyl or [[sup 14]C]-2,2[prime],4,4[prime]-tetrachlorobiphenyl. Time-mated Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed on days 10-16 of gestation to three environmentally-relevant PCBs: 2,4,4[prime]-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 28), 8 or 32 mg/kg/day; 2,3[prime],4,4[prime],5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118), 4 or 16 mg/kg/day; or 2,2[prime],4,4[prime],5,5[prime]-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), 16 or 64 mg/kg/day. At weaning, serum total thyroxin, but not triiodothyronine, was markedly depressed in pups exposed perinatally to PCB 118 or 153; and thyroid glands from PCB 118-treated pups revealed histologic changes suggestive of sustained TSH stimulation. No significant PCB-induced changes were detected in the activity of the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines, tyrosine hydroxylase, in the caudate putamen at weaning or in adulthood. Likewise no significant changes were detected in dopamine receptor (D1 and D2) concentrations in several regions in the mesocortical and nigrostriatal pathways.

  12. GDNF Overexpression from the Native Locus Reveals its Role in the Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic System Function

    PubMed Central

    Porokuokka, Lauriina L.; Panhelainen, Anne; Kuure, Satu; Marshall, Pepin; Karalija, Nina; Härma, Mari-Anne; Vilenius, Carolina; Lilleväli, Kersti; Tekko, Triin; Mijatovic, Jelena; Pulkkinen, Nita; Jakobson, Madis; Jakobson, Maili; Ola, Roxana; Palm, Erik; Lindahl, Maria; Strömberg, Ingrid; Võikar, Vootele; Piepponen, T. Petteri; Saarma, Mart; Andressoo, Jaan-Olle

    2015-01-01

    Degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is the principal lesion in Parkinson’s disease. Because glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes survival of dopamine neurons in vitro and in vivo, intracranial delivery of GDNF has been attempted for Parkinson’s disease treatment but with variable success. For improving GDNF-based therapies, knowledge on physiological role of endogenous GDNF at the sites of its expression is important. However, due to limitations of existing genetic model systems, such knowledge is scarce. Here, we report that prevention of transcription of Gdnf 3’UTR in Gdnf endogenous locus yields GDNF hypermorphic mice with increased, but spatially unchanged GDNF expression, enabling analysis of postnatal GDNF function. We found that increased level of GDNF in the central nervous system increases the number of adult dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the number of dopaminergic terminals in the dorsal striatum. At the functional level, GDNF levels increased striatal tissue dopamine levels and augmented striatal dopamine release and re-uptake. In a proteasome inhibitor lactacystin-induced model of Parkinson’s disease GDNF hypermorphic mice were protected from the reduction in striatal dopamine and failure of dopaminergic system function. Importantly, adverse phenotypic effects associated with spatially unregulated GDNF applications were not observed. Enhanced GDNF levels up-regulated striatal dopamine transporter activity by at least five fold resulting in enhanced susceptibility to 6-OHDA, a toxin transported into dopamine neurons by DAT. Further, we report how GDNF levels regulate kidney development and identify microRNAs miR-9, miR-96, miR-133, and miR-146a as negative regulators of GDNF expression via interaction with Gdnf 3’UTR in vitro. Our results reveal the role of GDNF in nigrostriatal dopamine system postnatal development and adult function, and highlight the importance of correct

  13. Transduced PEP-1-PON1 proteins regulate microglial activation and dopaminergic neuronal death in a Parkinson's disease model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Jin; Park, Meeyoung; Kim, Dae Won; Shin, Min Jea; Son, Ora; Jo, Hyo Sang; Yeo, Hyeon Ji; Cho, Su Bin; Park, Jung Hwan; Lee, Chi Hern; Kim, Duk-Soo; Kwon, Oh-Shin; Kim, Joon; Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an oxidative stress-mediated neurodegenerative disorder caused by selective dopaminergic neuronal death in the midbrain substantia nigra. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a potent inhibitor of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) against oxidation by destroying biologically active phospholipids with potential protective effects against oxidative stress-induced inflammatory disorders. In a previous study, we constructed protein transduction domain (PTD) fusion PEP-1-PON1 protein to transduce PON1 into cells and tissue. In this study, we examined the role of transduced PEP-1-PON1 protein in repressing oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory response in microglial BV2 cells after exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, we identified the functions of transduced PEP-1-PON1 proteins which include, mitigating mitochondrial damage, decreasing reactive oxidative species (ROS) production, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression and protecting against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, transduced PEP-1-PON1 protein reduced MMP-9 expression and protected against dopaminergic neuronal cell death in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mice model. Taken together, these results suggest a promising therapeutic application of PEP-1-PON1 proteins against PD and other inflammation and oxidative stress-related neuronal diseases.

  14. Dopaminergic differentiation of stem cells from human deciduous teeth and their therapeutic benefits for Parkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hiromi; Matsubara, Kohki; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Ito, Mikako; Ohno, Kinji; Ueda, Minoru; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2015-07-10

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons and the depletion of striatal dopamine. Here we show that DAergic-neuron-like cells could be efficiently induced from stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), and that these induced cells had therapeutic benefits in a 6-OHDA-induced Parkinsonian rat model. In our protocol, EGF and bFGF signaling activated the SHED's expression of proneural genes, Ngn2 and Mash1, and subsequent treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoted their maturation into DAergic neuron-like SHEDs (dSHEDs). A hypoxic DAergic differentiation protocol improved cell viability and enhanced the expression of multiple neurotrophic factors, including BDNF, GDNF, NT-3, and HGF. Engrafted dSHEDs survived in the striatum of Parkinsonian rats, improved the DA level more efficiently than engrafted undifferentiated SHEDs, and promoted the recovery from neurological deficits. Our findings further suggested that paracrine effects of dSHEDs contributed to neuroprotection against 6-OHDA-induced neurodegeneration and to nigrostriatal tract restoration. In addition, we found that the conditioned medium derived from dSHEDs protected primary neurons against 6-OHDA toxicity and accelerated neurite outgrowth in vitro. Thus, our data suggest that stem cells derived from dental pulp may have therapeutic benefits for PD.

  15. Functional properties of dopaminergic neurones in the mouse olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Pignatelli, Angela; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Okano, Hideyuki; Belluzzi, Ottorino

    2005-01-01

    The olfactory bulb of mammals contains a large population of dopaminergic interneurones within the glomerular layer. Dopamine has been shown both in vivo and in vitro to modulate several aspects of olfactory information processing, but the functional properties of dopaminergic neurones have never been described due to the inability to recognize these cells in living preparations. To overcome this difficulty, we used a transgenic mouse strain harbouring an eGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) reporter construct under the promoter of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for cathecolamine synthesis. As a result, we were able to identify dopaminergic neurones (TH-GFP cells) in living preparations and, for the first time, we could study the functional properties of such neurones in the olfactory bulb, in both slices and dissociated cells. The most prominent feature of these cells was the autorhythmicity. In these cells we identified five main voltage-dependent conductances: the two having largest amplitude were a fast transient Na+ current and a delayed rectifier K+ current. In addition, we observed three smaller inward currents, sustained by Na+ ions (persistent type) and by Ca2+ ions (LVA and HVA). Using pharmacological tools and ion substitution methods we showed that the pacemaking process is supported by the interplay of the persistent Na+ current and of a T-type Ca2+ current. We carried out a complete kinetical analysis of the five conductances present in these cells, and developed a Hodgkin-Huxley model of TH-GFP cells, capable of reproducing accurately the properties of living cells, including autorhytmicity, and allowing a precise understanding of the process. PMID:15731185

  16. Dual effects of L-DOPA on nigral dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Guatteo, Ezia; Yee, Andrew; McKearney, James; Cucchiaroni, Maria L; Armogida, Marta; Berretta, Nicola; Mercuri, Nicola B; Lipski, Janusz

    2013-09-01

    L-DOPA (Levodopa) remains the gold standard for the treatment of motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), despite indications that the drug may have detrimental effects in cell culture. Classically, l-DOPA increases the production of dopamine (DA) in nigral dopaminergic neurons, while paradoxically inhibiting the firing of these neurons due to activation of D2 autoreceptors by extracellularly released DA. Using a combination of electrophysiology and calcium microfluorometry in brain slices, we have identified a novel effect of L-DOPA on dopaminergic neurons when D2 receptors were blocked. Under these conditions, L-DOPA (0.03-3 mM) evoked an excitatory effect consisting of two components. The 'early' component observed during and immediately after application of the drug, was associated with increased firing, membrane depolarization and inward current. This excitatory response was strongly attenuated by CNQX (10 μM), pointing to the involvement of TOPA quinone, an auto-oxidation product of L-DOPA and a potent activator of AMPA/kainate receptors. The 'late' phase of excitation persisted >30 min after brief L-DOPA application and was not mediated by ionotropic glutamate receptors, nor by D1, α1-adrenergic, mGluR1 or GABAB receptors. It was eliminated by carbidopa, demonstrating its dependence on conversion of L-DOPA to DA. Exogenous DA (50 μM) also evoked a glutamate-receptor independent increase in firing and an inward current when D2 receptors were blocked. In voltage-clamped neurons, both L-DOPA and DA produced a long-lasting increase in [Ca(2+)]i which was unaffected by block of ionotropic glutamate receptors. These results demonstrate that L-DOPA has dual, inhibitory and excitatory, effects on nigral dopaminergic neurons, and suggest that the excitation and calcium rise may have long-lasting consequences for the activity and survival of these neurons when the expression or function of D2 receptors is impaired. PMID:23481547

  17. Concurrent maternal and pup postnatal tobacco smoke exposure in Wistar rats changes food preference and dopaminergic reward system parameters in the adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C R; Moura, E G; Manhães, A C; Fraga, M C; Claudio-Neto, S; Abreu-Villaça, Y; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C

    2015-08-20

    Children from pregnant smokers are more susceptible to become obese adults and to become drug or food addicts. Drugs and food activate the mesolimbic reward pathway, causing a sense of pleasure that induces further consumption. Here, we studied the relationship between tobacco smoke exposure during lactation with feeding, behavior and brain dopaminergic reward system parameters at adulthood. Nursing Wistar rats and their pups were divided into two groups: tobacco smoke-exposed (S: 4times/day, from the 3rd to the 21th day of lactation), and ambient air-exposed (C). On PN175, both offspring groups were subdivided for a food challenge: S and C that received standard chow (SC) or that chose between high-fat (HFD) and high-sucrose diets (HSDs). Food intake was recorded after 30min and 12h. Offspring were tested in the elevated plus maze and open field on PN178-179; they were euthanized for dopaminergic analysis on PN180. SSD (self-selected diet) animals presented a higher food intake compared to SC ones. S-SSD animals ate more than C-SSD ones at 30min and 12h. Both groups preferred the HFD. However, S-SSD animals consumed relatively more HFD than C-SSD at 30min. No behavioral differences were observed between groups. S animals presented lower tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) content in the ventral tegmental area, lower TH, dopaminergic receptor 2, higher dopaminergic receptor 1 contents in the nucleus accumbens and lower OBRb in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Tobacco-smoke exposure during lactation increases preference for fat in the adult progeny possibly due to alterations in the dopaminergic system.

  18. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a partial agonist of D2 dopaminergic receptors and it potentiates dopamine-mediated prolactin secretion in lactotrophs in vitro.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, S; Palmery, M; Romanelli, L; Cheng, C Y; Silvestrini, B

    1998-01-01

    The hallucinogenic effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) have mainly been attributed to the interaction of this drug with the serotoninergic system, but it seems more likely that they are the result of the complex interactions of the drug with both the serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional actions of LSD at dopaminergic receptors using prolactin secretion by primary cultures of rat pituitary cells as a model. LSD produced a dose-dependent inhibition of prolactin secretion in vitro with an IC50 at 1.7x10(-9) M. This action was antagonized by spiperone but not by SKF83566 or cyproheptadine, which indicates that LSD has a specific effect on D2 dopaminergic receptors. The maximum inhibition of prolactin secretion achieved by LSD was lower than that by dopamine (60% versus 80%). Moreover, the fact that LSD at 10(-8)-10(-6) M antagonized the inhibitory effect of dopamine (10(-7) M) and bromocriptine (10(-11) M) suggests that LSD acts as a partial agonist at D2 receptors on lactotrophs in vitro. Interestingly, LSD at 10(-13)-10(-10) M, the concentrations which are 10-1000-fold lower than those required to induce direct inhibition on pituitary prolactin secretion, potentiated the dopamine (10(-10)-2.5x10(-9) M)-mediated prolactin secretion by pituitary cells in vitro. These results suggest that LSD not only interacts with dopaminergic receptors but also has a unique capacity for modulating dopaminergic transmission. These findings may offer new insights into the hallucinogenic effect of LSD.

  19. Effect of Early Overfeeding on Palatable Food Preference and Brain Dopaminergic Reward System at Adulthood: Role of Calcium Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Conceição, E P S; Carvalho, J C; Manhães, A C; Guarda, D S; Figueiredo, M S; Quitete, F T; Oliveira, E; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2016-05-01

    Rats raised in small litters (SL) are obese and hyperphagic. In the present study, we evaluated whether obesity is associated with changes in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic reward system in these animals at adulthood. We also assessed the anti-obesity effects of dietary calcium supplementation. To induce early overfeeding, litters were adjusted to three pups on postnatal day (PN)3 (SL group). Control litters were kept with 10 pups each until weaning (NL group). On PN120, SL animals were subdivided into two groups: SL (standard diet) and SL-Ca [SL with calcium supplementation (10 g calcium carbonate/kg rat chow) for 60 days]. On PN175, animals were subjected to a food challenge: animals could choose between a high-fat (HFD) or a high-sugar diet (HSD). Food intake was recorded after 30 min and 12 h. Euthanasia occurred on PN180. SL rats had higher food intake, body mass and central adiposity. Sixty days of dietary calcium supplementation (SL-Ca) prevented these changes. Only SL animals preferred the HFD at 12 h. Both SL groups had lower tyrosine hydroxylase content in the ventral tegmental area, lower dopaminergic transporter content in the nucleus accumbens, and higher type 2 dopamine receptor (D2R) content in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). They also had higher neuropeptide Y (NPY) and lower pro-opiomelanocortin contents in the ARC. Calcium treatment normalised only D2R and NPY contents. Precocious obesity induces long-term effects in the brain dopaminergic system, which can be associated with an increased preference for fat at adulthood. Calcium treatment prevents this last alteration, partially through its actions on ARC D2R and NPY proteins.

  20. Methamphetamine Self-Administration Causes Persistent Striatal Dopaminergic Alterations and Mitigates the Deficits Caused by a Subsequent Methamphetamine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Lisa M.; Hadlock, Greg C.; Allen, Scott C.; Vieira-Brock, Paula L.; Stout, Kristen A.; Ellis, Jonathan D.; Hoonakker, Amanda J.; Andrenyak, David M.; Nielsen, Shannon M.; Wilkins, Diana G.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated that repeated methamphetamine (METH) injections (referred to herein as a “binge” treatment) cause persistent dopaminergic deficits. A few studies have also examined the persistent neurochemical impact of METH self-administration in rats, but with variable results. These latter studies are important because: 1) they have relevance to the study of METH abuse; and 2) the effects of noncontingent METH treatment do not necessarily predict effects of contingent exposure. Accordingly, the present study investigated the impact of METH self-administration on dopaminergic neuronal function. Results revealed that self-administration of METH, given according to a regimen that produces brain METH levels comparable with those reported postmortem in human METH abusers (0.06 mg/infusion; 8-h sessions for 7 days), decreased striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) uptake and/or immunoreactivity as assessed 8 or 30 days after the last self-administration session. Increasing the METH dose per infusion did not exacerbate these deficits. These deficits were similar in magnitude to decreases in DAT densities reported in imaging studies of abstinent METH abusers. It is noteworthy that METH self-administration mitigated the persistent deficits in dopaminergic neuronal function, as well as the increases in glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity, caused by a subsequent binge METH exposure. This protection was independent of alterations in METH pharmacokinetics, but may have been attributable (at least in part) to a pretreatment-induced attenuation of binge-induced hyperthermia. Taken together, these results may provide insight into the neurochemical deficits reported in human METH abusers. PMID:22034657

  1. A glycoside of Nicotina tabacum affects mouse dopaminergic behavior.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Y; Ohnuma, S; Kawagoe, M; Sugiyama, T

    2003-01-01

    Climbing in the forced swimming test is considered a dopaminergic-specific behavior. A substance of Nicotina tabacum affecting dopamine neuronal activity was investigated using the mouse behavioral system. The substance was found to be a glycoside with the peripheral sugar chain structures Fuc alpha 1-2Gal, Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc and GalNAc alpha 1-3GalNAc and with basic polymannoses. The glycoside dose-dependently increased behavior via D2 neuronal activity, but not D1 activity. This suggests that smoking can affect human brain function not only via the nicotinic cholinergic neuron, but also via the D2 neuron.

  2. Nimodipine enhances neurite outgrowth in dopaminergic brain slice co-cultures.

    PubMed

    Sygnecka, Katja; Heine, Claudia; Scherf, Nico; Fasold, Mario; Binder, Hans; Scheller, Christian; Franke, Heike

    2015-02-01

    Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) play important roles in neuroplasticity and the regeneration of nerves. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations are regulated by Ca(2+) channels, among them L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, which are inhibited by dihydropyridines like nimodipine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of nimodipine on neurite growth during development and regeneration. As an appropriate model to study neurite growth, we chose organotypic brain slice co-cultures of the mesocortical dopaminergic projection system, consisting of the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra and the prefrontal cortex from neonatal rat brains. Quantification of the density of the newly built neurites in the border region (region between the two cultivated slices) of the co-cultures revealed a growth promoting effect of nimodipine at concentrations of 0.1μM and 1μM that was even more pronounced than the effect of the growth factor NGF. This beneficial effect was absent when 10μM nimodipine were applied. Toxicological tests revealed that the application of nimodipine at this higher concentration slightly induced caspase 3 activation in the cortical part of the co-cultures, but did neither affect the amount of lactate dehydrogenase release or propidium iodide uptake nor the ratio of bax/bcl-2. Furthermore, the expression levels of different genes were quantified after nimodipine treatment. The expression of Ca(2+) binding proteins, immediate early genes, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin components did not change significantly after treatment, indicating that the regulation of their expression is not primarily involved in the observed nimodipine mediated neurite growth. In summary, this study revealed for the first time a neurite growth promoting effect of nimodipine in the mesocortical dopaminergic projection system that is highly dependent on the applied concentrations.

  3. Nimodipine enhances neurite outgrowth in dopaminergic brain slice co-cultures.

    PubMed

    Sygnecka, Katja; Heine, Claudia; Scherf, Nico; Fasold, Mario; Binder, Hans; Scheller, Christian; Franke, Heike

    2015-02-01

    Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) play important roles in neuroplasticity and the regeneration of nerves. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations are regulated by Ca(2+) channels, among them L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, which are inhibited by dihydropyridines like nimodipine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of nimodipine on neurite growth during development and regeneration. As an appropriate model to study neurite growth, we chose organotypic brain slice co-cultures of the mesocortical dopaminergic projection system, consisting of the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra and the prefrontal cortex from neonatal rat brains. Quantification of the density of the newly built neurites in the border region (region between the two cultivated slices) of the co-cultures revealed a growth promoting effect of nimodipine at concentrations of 0.1μM and 1μM that was even more pronounced than the effect of the growth factor NGF. This beneficial effect was absent when 10μM nimodipine were applied. Toxicological tests revealed that the application of nimodipine at this higher concentration slightly induced caspase 3 activation in the cortical part of the co-cultures, but did neither affect the amount of lactate dehydrogenase release or propidium iodide uptake nor the ratio of bax/bcl-2. Furthermore, the expression levels of different genes were quantified after nimodipine treatment. The expression of Ca(2+) binding proteins, immediate early genes, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin components did not change significantly after treatment, indicating that the regulation of their expression is not primarily involved in the observed nimodipine mediated neurite growth. In summary, this study revealed for the first time a neurite growth promoting effect of nimodipine in the mesocortical dopaminergic projection system that is highly dependent on the applied concentrations. PMID:25447789

  4. Age-related changes in midbrain dopaminergic regulation of the human reward system

    PubMed Central

    Dreher, Jean-Claude; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kohn, Philip; Berman, Karen Faith

    2008-01-01

    The dopamine system, which plays a crucial role in reward processing, is particularly vulnerable to aging. Significant losses over a normal lifespan have been reported for dopamine receptors and transporters, but very little is known about the neurofunctional consequences of this age-related dopaminergic decline. In animals, a substantial body of data indicates that dopamine activity in the midbrain is tightly associated with reward processing. In humans, although indirect evidence from pharmacological and clinical studies also supports such an association, there has been no direct demonstration of a link between midbrain dopamine and reward-related neural response. Moreover, there are no in vivo data for alterations in this relationship in older humans. Here, by using 6-[18F]FluoroDOPA (FDOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) and event-related 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the same subjects, we directly demonstrate a link between midbrain dopamine synthesis and reward-related prefrontal activity in humans, show that healthy aging induces functional alterations in the reward system, and identify an age-related change in the direction of the relationship (from a positive to a negative correlation) between midbrain dopamine synthesis and prefrontal activity. These results indicate an age-dependent dopaminergic tuning mechanism for cortical reward processing and provide system-level information about alteration of a key neural circuit in healthy aging. Taken together, our findings provide an important characterization of the interactions between midbrain dopamine function and the reward system in healthy young humans and older subjects, and identify the changes in this regulatory circuit that accompany aging. PMID:18794529

  5. Ascending midbrain dopaminergic axons require descending GAD65 axon fascicles for normal pathfinding

    PubMed Central

    García-Peña, Claudia M.; Kim, Minkyung; Frade-Pérez, Daniela; Ávila-González, Daniela; Téllez, Elisa; Mastick, Grant S.; Tamariz, Elisa; Varela-Echavarría, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The Nigrostriatal pathway (NSP) is formed by dopaminergic axons that project from the ventral midbrain to the dorsolateral striatum as part of the medial forebrain bundle. Previous studies have implicated chemotropic proteins in the formation of the NSP during development but little is known of the role of substrate-anchored signals in this process. We observed in mouse and rat embryos that midbrain dopaminergic axons ascend in close apposition to descending GAD65-positive axon bundles throughout their trajectory to the striatum. To test whether such interaction is important for dopaminergic axon pathfinding, we analyzed transgenic mouse embryos in which the GAD65 axon bundle was reduced by the conditional expression of the diphtheria toxin. In these embryos we observed dopaminergic misprojection into the hypothalamic region and abnormal projection in the striatum. In addition, analysis of Robo1/2 and Slit1/2 knockout embryos revealed that the previously described dopaminergic misprojection in these embryos is accompanied by severe alterations in the GAD65 axon scaffold. Additional studies with cultured dopaminergic neurons and whole embryos suggest that NCAM and Robo proteins are involved in the interaction of GAD65 and dopaminergic axons. These results indicate that the fasciculation between descending GAD65 axon bundles and ascending dopaminergic axons is required for the stereotypical NSP formation during brain development and that known guidance cues may determine this projection indirectly by instructing the pathfinding of the axons that are part of the GAD65 axon scaffold. PMID:24926237

  6. Representation of spontaneous movement by dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective and disrupted in parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Paul D; Dreyer, Jakob K; Jennings, Katie A; Syed, Emilie C J; Wade-Martins, Richard; Cragg, Stephanie J; Bolam, J Paul; Magill, Peter J

    2016-04-12

    Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are essential for appropriate voluntary movement, as epitomized by the cardinal motor impairments arising in Parkinson's disease. Understanding the basis of such motor control requires understanding how the firing of different types of dopaminergic neuron relates to movement and how this activity is deciphered in target structures such as the striatum. By recording and labeling individual neurons in behaving mice, we show that the representation of brief spontaneous movements in the firing of identified midbrain dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective. Most dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), but not in ventral tegmental area or substantia nigra pars lateralis, consistently represented the onset of spontaneous movements with a pause in their firing. Computational modeling revealed that the movement-related firing of these dopaminergic neurons can manifest as rapid and robust fluctuations in striatal dopamine concentration and receptor activity. The exact nature of the movement-related signaling in the striatum depended on the type of dopaminergic neuron providing inputs, the striatal region innervated, and the type of dopamine receptor expressed by striatal neurons. Importantly, in aged mice harboring a genetic burden relevant for human Parkinson's disease, the precise movement-related firing of SNc dopaminergic neurons and the resultant striatal dopamine signaling were lost. These data show that distinct dopaminergic cell types differentially encode spontaneous movement and elucidate how dysregulation of their firing in early Parkinsonism can impair their effector circuits.

  7. Representation of spontaneous movement by dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective and disrupted in parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Jakob K.; Jennings, Katie A.; Syed, Emilie C. J.; Wade-Martins, Richard; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Bolam, J. Paul; Magill, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are essential for appropriate voluntary movement, as epitomized by the cardinal motor impairments arising in Parkinson’s disease. Understanding the basis of such motor control requires understanding how the firing of different types of dopaminergic neuron relates to movement and how this activity is deciphered in target structures such as the striatum. By recording and labeling individual neurons in behaving mice, we show that the representation of brief spontaneous movements in the firing of identified midbrain dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective. Most dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), but not in ventral tegmental area or substantia nigra pars lateralis, consistently represented the onset of spontaneous movements with a pause in their firing. Computational modeling revealed that the movement-related firing of these dopaminergic neurons can manifest as rapid and robust fluctuations in striatal dopamine concentration and receptor activity. The exact nature of the movement-related signaling in the striatum depended on the type of dopaminergic neuron providing inputs, the striatal region innervated, and the type of dopamine receptor expressed by striatal neurons. Importantly, in aged mice harboring a genetic burden relevant for human Parkinson’s disease, the precise movement-related firing of SNc dopaminergic neurons and the resultant striatal dopamine signaling were lost. These data show that distinct dopaminergic cell types differentially encode spontaneous movement and elucidate how dysregulation of their firing in early Parkinsonism can impair their effector circuits. PMID:27001837

  8. Effect of dopaminergic medication on speech dysfluency in Parkinson's disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tykalová, Tereza; Rusz, Jan; Čmejla, Roman; Klempíř, Jiří; Růžičková, Hana; Roth, Jan; Růžička, Evžen

    2015-08-01

    Although speech dysfluencies have been hypothesized to be associated with abnormal function of dopaminergic system, the effects of dopaminergic medication on speech fluency in Parkinson's disease (PD) have not been systematically studied. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate the long-term effect of dopaminergic medication on speech fluency in PD. Fourteen de novo PD patients with no history of developmental stuttering and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited. PD subjects were examined three times; before the initiation of dopaminergic treatment and twice in following 6 years. The percentage of dysfluent words was calculated from reading passage and monolog. The amount of medication was expressed by cumulative doses of L-dopa equivalent. After 3-6 years of dopaminergic therapy, PD patients exhibited significantly more dysfluent events compared to healthy subjects as well as to their own speech performance before the introduction of dopaminergic therapy (p < 0.05). In addition, we found a strong positive correlation between the increased occurrence of dysfluent words and the total cumulative dose of L-dopa equivalent (r = 0.75, p = 0.002). Our findings indicate an adverse effect of prolonged dopaminergic therapy contributing to the development of stuttering-like dysfluencies in PD. These findings may have important implication in clinical practice, where speech fluency should be taken into account to optimize dopaminergic therapy. PMID:25583417

  9. Effect of dopaminergic medication on speech dysfluency in Parkinson's disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tykalová, Tereza; Rusz, Jan; Čmejla, Roman; Klempíř, Jiří; Růžičková, Hana; Roth, Jan; Růžička, Evžen

    2015-08-01

    Although speech dysfluencies have been hypothesized to be associated with abnormal function of dopaminergic system, the effects of dopaminergic medication on speech fluency in Parkinson's disease (PD) have not been systematically studied. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate the long-term effect of dopaminergic medication on speech fluency in PD. Fourteen de novo PD patients with no history of developmental stuttering and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited. PD subjects were examined three times; before the initiation of dopaminergic treatment and twice in following 6 years. The percentage of dysfluent words was calculated from reading passage and monolog. The amount of medication was expressed by cumulative doses of L-dopa equivalent. After 3-6 years of dopaminergic therapy, PD patients exhibited significantly more dysfluent events compared to healthy subjects as well as to their own speech performance before the introduction of dopaminergic therapy (p < 0.05). In addition, we found a strong positive correlation between the increased occurrence of dysfluent words and the total cumulative dose of L-dopa equivalent (r = 0.75, p = 0.002). Our findings indicate an adverse effect of prolonged dopaminergic therapy contributing to the development of stuttering-like dysfluencies in PD. These findings may have important implication in clinical practice, where speech fluency should be taken into account to optimize dopaminergic therapy.

  10. The Transcription Factor Orthodenticle Homeobox 2 Influences Axonal Projections and Vulnerability of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Chee Yeun; Licznerski, Pawel; Alavian, Kambiz N.; Simeone, Antonio; Lin, Zhicheng; Martin, Eden; Vance, Jeffery; Isacson, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Two adjacent groups of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, A9 (substantia nigra pars compacta) and A10 (ventral tegmental area), have distinct projections and exhibit differential vulnerability in Parkinson's disease. Little is known about transcription factors that influence midbrain dopaminergic subgroup phenotypes or their potential role in disease.…

  11. Dopaminergic genes predict individual differences in susceptibility to confirmation bias

    PubMed Central

    Doll, Bradley B.; Hutchison, Kent E.; Frank, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The striatum is critical for the incremental learning of values associated with behavioral actions. The pre-frontal cortex (PFC) represents abstract rules and explicit contingencies to support rapid behavioral adaptation in the absence of cumulative experience. Here we test two alternative models of the interaction between these systems, and individual differences thereof, when human subjects are instructed with prior information about reward contingencies that may or may not be accurate. Behaviorally, subjects are overly influenced by prior instructions, at the expense of learning true reinforcement statistics. Computational analysis found that this pattern of data is best accounted for by a confirmation bias mechanism in which prior beliefs - putatively represented in PFC - influence the learning that occurs in the striatum such that reinforcement statistics are distorted. We assessed genetic variants affecting prefrontal and striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. A polymorphism in the COMT gene (rs4680), associated with prefrontal dopaminergic function, was predictive of the degree to which participants persisted in responding in accordance with prior instructions even as evidence against their veracity accumulated. Polymorphisms in genes associated with striatal dopamine function (DARPP-32, rs907094, and DRD2, rs6277), were predictive of learning from positive and negative outcomes. Notably, these same variants were predictive of the degree to which such learning was overly inflated or neglected when outcomes are consistent or inconsistent with prior instructions. These findings indicate dissociable neurocomputational and genetic mechanisms by which initial biases are strengthened by experience. PMID:21508242

  12. Dopaminergic Genetic Polymorphisms Predict Rule-Based Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Kaileigh A.; Davis, Tyler; Worthy, Darrell A.

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic genes play an important role in cognitive function. DRD2 and DARPP-32 dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms affect striatal dopamine binding potential, while the Val158Met single nucleotide polymorphism of the COMT gene moderates dopamine availability in the prefrontal cortex. Our study assesses the role of these gene polymorphisms on performance in two rule-based category learning tasks. Participants completed unidimensional and conjunctive rule-based tasks. In the unidimensional task, a rule along a single stimulus dimension can be used to distinguish category members. In contrast, a conjunctive rule utilizes a combination of two dimensions to distinguish category members. DRD2 C957T TT homozygotes outperformed C allele carriers on both tasks, and DARPP-32 AA homozygotes outperformed G allele carriers on both tasks. However, we found an interaction between COMT and task-type where Met allele carriers outperformed Val homozygotes in the conjunctive rule task, but both groups performed equally well in the unidimensional task. Thus, striatal dopamine binding may play a critical role in both types of rule-based tasks, while prefrontal dopamine binding is important for learning more complex conjunctive rule tasks. Modeling results suggest that striatal dopaminergic genes influence selective attention processes while cortical genes mediate the ability to update complex rule-representations. PMID:26918585

  13. Advances in non-dopaminergic treatments for Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Stayte, Sandy; Vissel, Bryce

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1960's treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) have traditionally been directed to restore or replace dopamine, with L-Dopa being the gold standard. However, chronic L-Dopa use is associated with debilitating dyskinesias, limiting its effectiveness. This has resulted in extensive efforts to develop new therapies that work in ways other than restoring or replacing dopamine. Here we describe newly emerging non-dopaminergic therapeutic strategies for PD, including drugs targeting adenosine, glutamate, adrenergic, and serotonin receptors, as well as GLP-1 agonists, calcium channel blockers, iron chelators, anti-inflammatories, neurotrophic factors, and gene therapies. We provide a detailed account of their success in animal models and their translation to human clinical trials. We then consider how advances in understanding the mechanisms of PD, genetics, the possibility that PD may consist of multiple disease states, understanding of the etiology of PD in non-dopaminergic regions as well as advances in clinical trial design will be essential for ongoing advances. We conclude that despite the challenges ahead, patients have much cause for optimism that novel therapeutics that offer better disease management and/or which slow disease progression are inevitable. PMID:24904259

  14. Orosensory self-stimulation by sucrose involves brain dopaminergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Schneider, L H

    1989-01-01

    The most convincing body of evidence supporting a role for brain dopaminergic mechanisms in sweet taste reward has been obtained using the sham-feeding rat. In rats prepared with a chronic gastric fistula and tested with the cannula open, intake is a direct function of the palatability of the solution offered as well as of the state of food deprivation. Because essentially none of the ingested fluid passes on to the intestine, negative postingestive feedback is eliminated. Thus, the relative orosensory/hedonic potency of the food determines and sustains the rate of sham intake; long periods of food deprivation are not required. In this way, the sham feeding of sweet solutions may be considered a form of oral self-stimulation behavior and afford a preparation through which the neurochemical and neuranatomical substrates of sweet taste reward may be identified. The results obtained in the series of experiments summarized in this paper clearly indicate that central D-1 and D-2 receptor mechanisms are critical for the orosensory self-stimulation by sucrose in the rat. In conclusion, I suggest that such investigations of the roles of brain dopaminergic mechanisms in the sucrose sham-feeding rat preparation may further our understanding of normal and aberrant attractions to sweet fluids in humans (see Cabanac, Drewnowski, and Halmi, this volume), as an innate, positive affective response of human neonates to sucrose and the sustained positive hedonic ratings for glucose when tasted but not when consumed have demonstrated. PMID:2699194

  15. Minireview: Dopaminergic Regulation of Insulin Secretion from the Pancreatic Islet

    PubMed Central

    Ustione, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous dopamine inhibits insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, but the lack of dopaminergic neurons in pancreatic islets has led to controversy regarding the importance of this effect. Recent data, however, suggest a plausible physiologic role for dopamine in the regulation of insulin secretion. We review the literature underlying our current understanding of dopaminergic signaling that can down-regulate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. In this negative feedback loop, dopamine is synthesized in the β-cells from circulating l-dopa, serves as an autocrine signal that is cosecreted with insulin, and causes a tonic inhibition on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. On the whole animal scale, l-dopa is produced by cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and its concentration in the blood plasma increases following a mixed meal. By reviewing the outcome of certain types of bariatric surgery that result in rapid amelioration of glucose tolerance, we hypothesize that dopamine serves as an “antiincretin” signal that counterbalances the stimulatory effect of glucagon-like peptide 1. PMID:23744894

  16. Estrogen-related receptor gamma regulates dopaminergic neuronal phenotype by activating GSK3β/NFAT signaling in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Juhee; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Choi, Hyun Jin

    2015-05-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) is highly expressed in the nervous system during embryogenesis and in adult brains, but its physiological role in neuronal development remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the relevance of ERRγ in regulating dopaminergic (DAergic) phenotype and the corresponding signaling pathway. We used retinoic acid (RA) to differentiate human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. RA induced neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y cells with an increase in DAergic neuron-like properties, including up-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine transporter, and vesicular monoamine transporter 2. ERRγ, but not ERRα, was up-regulated by RA, and participated in RA effect on SH-SY5Y cells. ERRγ over-expression enhanced mature DAergic neuronal phenotype with neurite outgrowth as with RA treatment; and RA-induced increase in DAergic phenotype was attenuated by silencing ERRγ expression. ERRγ appears to have a crucial role in morphological and functional regulation of cells that is selective for DAergic neurons. Polo-like kinase 2 was up-regulated in ERRγ-over-expressing SH-SY5Y cells, which was involved in phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β and resulting downstream activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells. The likely involvement of ERRγ in regulating the DAergic neuronal phenotype makes this orphan nuclear receptor a novel target for understanding DAergic neuronal differentiation. We propose the relevance of estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) in regulating dopaminergic neuronal phenotype: ERRγ is up-regulated by retinoic acid in SH-SY5Y cells, and enhances dopaminergic phenotypes and induces neurite outgrowth; Polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta/nuclear factor of activated T cells (GSK3β/NFAT) signaling are responsible for the ERRγ effect. Our findings provide the first insights into the role of ERRγ in the brain, as a novel approach toward understanding

  17. Effects of Exposure to Heavy Particles on a Behavior Mediated by the Dopaminergic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; McEwen, J.

    The effects of exposure to heavy particles on behaviors mediated by the central nervous system (CNS) are qualitatively different than the effects produced by exposure to other types of radiation. One behavior mediated by the CNS is the amphetamine-induced taste aversion, which is produced by pairing a novel tasting solution with injection of amphetamine. When the conditioning day is three days following irradiation, exposing rats to low doses of 56Fe particles (600 MeV/n or 1 GeV/n) eliminates the taste aversion produced by injection of amphetamine, which is dependent upon the integrity of the central dopaminergic system, but has no effect on the aversion produced by injection of lithium chloride which is mediated by the gastrointestinal system. In contrast to the effects obtained using heavy particles, exposing rats to 60Co gamma rays or to fission spectrum neutrons has no selective effect upon the acquisition of either amphetamine- or lithium chloride-induced taste aversions. When the conditioning day occurs four months following exposure to 1 GeV/n 56Fe particles, there is an enhancement of the amphetamine-induced taste aversion. The implications of these findings for approaches to risk assessment are considered

  18. Modulating dopamine release by optogenetics in transgenic mice reveals terminal dopaminergic dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yao; Driscoll, Nicolette; Ozden, Ilker; Yu, Zeyang; Nurmikko, Arto V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Dopamine (DA) release and uptake dynamics in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have important implications for neurological diseases and mammalian animal behaviors. We demonstrate here the use of cell-type-specific optogenetic targeting in conjunction with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry applied to brain slices prepared from specifically tailored transgenic mice, which conditionally express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) through dopamine transporter (DAT)-Cre. Terminal dopaminergic dynamics and the direct manipulation of induced DA release level by controlling light intensity, pulse width, and the shape of stimulation waveforms were studied. Effective cell terminal-targeting optogenetic induction of DA release at physiological levels in NAc is demonstrated and discussed. It was found that delivering more light energy by increasing stimulation intensity and length is not the only way to control DA release; the temporal shape of the stimulus waveform at light onset is also critically related to induced DA concentrations. In addition, DA uptake dynamics as well as the recovery of the presynaptic releasable DA pool are studied and modeled. More broadly, our experimental findings provide important further evidence for effectively applying optogenetics to induce neurotransmitter release in the behaviorally relevant region of the brain in a highly cell-type selective context. PMID:26171413

  19. Modulating dopamine release by optogenetics in transgenic mice reveals terminal dopaminergic dynamics.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yao; Driscoll, Nicolette; Ozden, Ilker; Yu, Zeyang; Nurmikko, Arto V

    2015-07-01

    Dopamine (DA) release and uptake dynamics in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have important implications for neurological diseases and mammalian animal behaviors. We demonstrate here the use of cell-type-specific optogenetic targeting in conjunction with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry applied to brain slices prepared from specifically tailored transgenic mice, which conditionally express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) through dopamine transporter (DAT)-Cre. Terminal dopaminergic dynamics and the direct manipulation of induced DA release level by controlling light intensity, pulse width, and the shape of stimulation waveforms were studied. Effective cell terminal-targeting optogenetic induction of DA release at physiological levels in NAc is demonstrated and discussed. It was found that delivering more light energy by increasing stimulation intensity and length is not the only way to control DA release; the temporal shape of the stimulus waveform at light onset is also critically related to induced DA concentrations. In addition, DA uptake dynamics as well as the recovery of the presynaptic releasable DA pool are studied and modeled. More broadly, our experimental findings provide important further evidence for effectively applying optogenetics to induce neurotransmitter release in the behaviorally relevant region of the brain in a highly cell-type selective context.

  20. Correlation between automated writing movements and striatal dopaminergic innervation in patients with Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Wieland; Eggers, Birk; Barthel, Henryk; Clark, Daniel; Villmann, Thomas; Hesse, Swen; Grahmann, Friedrich; Kühn, Hans-Jürgen; Sabri, Osama; Wagner, Armin

    2002-08-01

    Handwriting defects are an early sign of motor impairment in patients with Wilson's disease. The basal ganglia being the primary site of copper accumulation in the brain suggests a correlation with lesions in the nigrostiatal dopaminergic system. We have analysed and correlated striatal dopaminergic innervation using [(123)I]beta-CIT-SPECT and automated handwriting movements in 37 patients with Wilson's disease. There was a significant correlation of putaminal dopaminergic innervation with fine motor ability (p < 0,05 for NIV [number of inversion in velocity], NIA [number of inversion in acceleration], frequency). These data suggest that loss of dorsolateral striatal dopaminergic innervation has a pathophysiological function for decreased automated motor control in Wilson's disease. Furthermore analysis of automated handwriting movements could be useful for therapy monitoring and evaluation of striatal dopaminergic innervation. PMID:12195459

  1. Protein Kinase Cδ Upregulation in Microglia Drives Neuroinflammatory Responses and Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in Experimental Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Richard; Singh, Neeraj; Lawana, Vivek; Ghosh, Anamitra; Harischandra, Dilshan S.; Jin, Huajun; Hogan, Colleen; Sarkar, Souvarish; Rokad, Dharmin; Panicker, Nikhil; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2016-01-01

    at Ser536. Furthermore, both genetic ablation and siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKCδ attenuated NFκB activation, suggesting that PKCδ regulates NFκB activation subsequent to microglial exposure to inflammatory stimuli. To further investigate the pivotal role of PKCδ in microglial activation in vivo, we utilized pre-clinical models of PD. We found that PKCδ deficiency attenuated the proinflammatory response in the mouse substantia nigra, reduced locomotor deficits and recovered mice from sickness behavior in an LPS-induced neuroinflammation model of PD. Likewise, we found that PKCδ knockout mice treated with MPTP displayed a dampened microglial inflammatory response. Moreover, PKCδ knockout mice exhibited reduced susceptibility to the neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration and associated motor impairments. Taken together, our studies propose a pivotal role for PKCδ in PD pathology, whereby sustained PKCδ activation drives sustained microglial inflammatory responses and concomitant dopaminergic neurotoxicity consequently leading to neurobehavioral deficits. We conclude that inhibiting PKCδ activation may represent a novel therapeutic strategy in PD treatment. PMID:27151770

  2. Protein kinase Cδ upregulation in microglia drives neuroinflammatory responses and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in experimental models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Richard; Singh, Neeraj; Lawana, Vivek; Ghosh, Anamitra; Harischandra, Dilshan S; Jin, Huajun; Hogan, Colleen; Sarkar, Souvarish; Rokad, Dharmin; Panicker, Nikhil; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2016-09-01

    at Ser536. Furthermore, both genetic ablation and siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKCδ attenuated NFκB activation, suggesting that PKCδ regulates NFκB activation subsequent to microglial exposure to inflammatory stimuli. To further investigate the pivotal role of PKCδ in microglial activation in vivo, we utilized pre-clinical models of PD. We found that PKCδ deficiency attenuated the proinflammatory response in the mouse substantia nigra, reduced locomotor deficits and recovered mice from sickness behavior in an LPS-induced neuroinflammation model of PD. Likewise, we found that PKCδ knockout mice treated with MPTP displayed a dampened microglial inflammatory response. Moreover, PKCδ knockout mice exhibited reduced susceptibility to the neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration and associated motor impairments. Taken together, our studies propose a pivotal role for PKCδ in PD pathology, whereby sustained PKCδ activation drives sustained microglial inflammatory responses and concomitant dopaminergic neurotoxicity consequently leading to neurobehavioral deficits. We conclude that inhibiting PKCδ activation may represent a novel therapeutic strategy in PD treatment. PMID:27151770

  3. Dopaminergic neuron-specific deletion of p53 gene is neuroprotective in an experimental Parkinson's disease model.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin; Davis, Brandon; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Filichia, Emily; Barnett, Austin; Greig, Nigel H; Hoffer, Barry; Luo, Yu

    2016-09-01

    p53, a stress response gene, is involved in diverse cell death pathways and its activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, whether the neuronal p53 protein plays a direct role in regulating dopaminergic (DA) neuronal cell death is unknown. In this study, in contrast to the global inhibition of p53 function by pharmacological inhibitors and in traditional p53 knock-out (KO) mice, we examined the effect of DA specific p53 gene deletion in DAT-p53KO mice. These DAT-p53KO mice did not exhibit apparent changes in the general structure and neuronal density of DA neurons during late development and in aging. However, in DA-p53KO mice treated with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), we found that the induction of Bax and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) mRNA and protein levels by MPTP were diminished in both striatum and substantia nigra of these mice. Notably, deletion of the p53 gene in DA neurons significantly reduced dopaminergic neuronal loss in substantia nigra, dopaminergic neuronal terminal loss at striatum and, additionally, decreased motor deficits in mice challenged with MPTP. In contrast, there was no difference in astrogliosis between WT and DAT-p53KO mice in response to MPTP treatment. These findings demonstrate a specific contribution of p53 activation in DA neuronal cell death by MPTP challenge. Our results further support the role of programmed cell death mediated by p53 in this animal model of PD and identify Bax, BAD and PUMA genes as downstream targets of p53 in modulating DA neuronal death in the in vivo MPTP-induced PD model. We deleted p53 gene in dopaminergic neurons in late developmental stages and found that DA specific p53 deletion is protective in acute MPTP animal model possibly through blocking MPTP-induced BAX and PUMA up-regulation. Astrocyte activation measured by GFAP positive cells and GFAP gene up-regulation in the striatum shows no difference

  4. Dopaminergic neuron-specific deletion of p53 gene is neuroprotective in an experimental Parkinson's disease model.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin; Davis, Brandon; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Filichia, Emily; Barnett, Austin; Greig, Nigel H; Hoffer, Barry; Luo, Yu

    2016-09-01

    p53, a stress response gene, is involved in diverse cell death pathways and its activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, whether the neuronal p53 protein plays a direct role in regulating dopaminergic (DA) neuronal cell death is unknown. In this study, in contrast to the global inhibition of p53 function by pharmacological inhibitors and in traditional p53 knock-out (KO) mice, we examined the effect of DA specific p53 gene deletion in DAT-p53KO mice. These DAT-p53KO mice did not exhibit apparent changes in the general structure and neuronal density of DA neurons during late development and in aging. However, in DA-p53KO mice treated with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), we found that the induction of Bax and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) mRNA and protein levels by MPTP were diminished in both striatum and substantia nigra of these mice. Notably, deletion of the p53 gene in DA neurons significantly reduced dopaminergic neuronal loss in substantia nigra, dopaminergic neuronal terminal loss at striatum and, additionally, decreased motor deficits in mice challenged with MPTP. In contrast, there was no difference in astrogliosis between WT and DAT-p53KO mice in response to MPTP treatment. These findings demonstrate a specific contribution of p53 activation in DA neuronal cell death by MPTP challenge. Our results further support the role of programmed cell death mediated by p53 in this animal model of PD and identify Bax, BAD and PUMA genes as downstream targets of p53 in modulating DA neuronal death in the in vivo MPTP-induced PD model. We deleted p53 gene in dopaminergic neurons in late developmental stages and found that DA specific p53 deletion is protective in acute MPTP animal model possibly through blocking MPTP-induced BAX and PUMA up-regulation. Astrocyte activation measured by GFAP positive cells and GFAP gene up-regulation in the striatum shows no difference

  5. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide protects dopaminergic neurons and improves behavioral deficits in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Reglodi, Dóra; Lubics, Andrea; Tamás, Andrea; Szalontay, Luca; Lengvári, István

    2004-05-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide, exerting different actions in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Among others, it has neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of PACAP in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Rats were given unilateral injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the substantia nigra. PACAP-treated animals received 0.1 microg PACAP as a pretreatment. Control animals without PACAP treatment displayed severe hypokinesia at 1 and 10 days postlesion when compared to animals receiving saline only. In only 1 day postlesion, by contrast, PACAP-treated rats showed no hypokinesia. Asymmetrical signs, such as turning, rearing and biased thigmotaxic scanning were observed in all lesioned animals 1 day postlesion. PACAP-treated animals, however, showed better recovery as they ceased to display asymmetrical signs 10 days later and showed markedly less apomorphine-induced rotations. Tyrosine-hydroxylase immunohistochemistry revealed that control animals had more than 95% loss of the dopaminergic cells in the ipsilateral substantia nigra, while PACAP-treated animals had only approximately 50% loss of dopaminergic cells. In summary, the present results show the neuroprotective effect of PACAP in 6-OHDA-induced lesion of substantia nigra, with less severe acute neurological symptoms and a more rapid amelioration of behavioral deficits.

  6. Cell therapy for Parkinson's disease: Functional role of the host immune response on survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neuroblasts.

    PubMed

    Wenker, Shirley D; Leal, María Celeste; Farías, María Isabel; Zeng, Xianmin; Pitossi, Fernando J

    2016-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, whose cardinal pathology is the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Current treatments for PD have side effects in the long term and do not halt disease progression or regenerate dopaminergic cell loss. Attempts to compensate neuronal cell loss by transplantation of dopamine-producing cells started more than 30 years ago, leading to several clinical trials. These trials showed safety and variable efficacy among patients. In addition to variability in efficacy, several patients developed graft-induced dyskinesia. Nevertheless, they have provided a proof of concept that motor symptoms could be improved by cell transplantation. Cell transplantation in the brain presents several immunological challenges. The adaptive immune response should be abolished to avoid graft rejection by the host. In addition, the innate immune response will always be present after transplanting cells into the brain. Remarkably, the innate immune response can have dramatic effects on the survival, differentiation and proliferation of the transplanted cells, but has been hardly investigated. In this review, we analyze data on the functional effects of signals from the innate immune system on dopaminergic differentiation, survival and proliferation. Then, we discussed efforts on cell transplantation in animal models and PD patients, highlighting the immune response and the immunomodulatory treatment strategies performed. The analysis of the available data lead us to conclude that the modulation of the innate immune response after transplantation can increase the success of future clinical trials in PD by enhancing cell differentiation and survival. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: PSC and the brain. PMID:26239914

  7. Smoking-Relevant Nicotine Concentration Attenuates the Unfolded Protein Response in Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Rahul; Henley, Beverley M.; Henderson, Brandon J.; Indersmitten, Tim; Cohen, Bruce N.; Kim, Charlene H.; McKinney, Sheri; Deshpande, Purnima; Xiao, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective epidemiological studies show an inverse correlation between susceptibility to Parkinson's disease and a person's history of tobacco use. Animal model studies suggest nicotine as a neuroprotective agent and nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) as targets for neuroprotection, but the underlying neuroprotective mechanism(s) are unknown. We cultured mouse ventral midbrain neurons for 3 weeks. Ten to 20% of neurons were dopaminergic (DA), revealed by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity. We evoked mild endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with tunicamycin (Tu), producing modest increases in the level of nuclear ATF6, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α, nuclear XBP1, and the downstream proapoptotic effector nuclear C/EBP homologous protein. We incubated cultures for 2 weeks with 200 nm nicotine, the approximate steady-state concentration between cigarette smoking or vaping, or during nicotine patch use. Nicotine incubation suppressed Tu-induced ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). Study of mice with fluorescent nAChR subunits showed that the cultured TH+ neurons displayed α4, α6, and β3 nAChR subunit expression and ACh-evoked currents. Gene expression profile in cultures from TH-eGFP mice showed that the TH+ neurons also express several other genes associated with DA release. Nicotine also upregulated ACh-induced currents in DA neurons by ∼2.5-fold. Thus, nicotine, at a concentration too low to activate an appreciable fraction of plasma membrane nAChRs, induces two sequelae of pharmacological chaperoning in the ER: UPR suppression and nAChR upregulation. Therefore, one mechanism of neuroprotection by nicotine is pharmacological chaperoning, leading to UPR suppression. Measuring this pathway may help in assessing neuroprotection. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Parkinson's disease (PD) cannot yet be cured or prevented. However, many retrospective epidemiological studies reveal that PD is diagnosed less frequently in

  8. Glucose Levels in Culture Medium Determine Cell Death Mode in MPP+-treated Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, So-Young

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) causes caspase-independent, non-apoptotic death of dopaminergic (DA) neuronal cells. Here, we specifically examined whether change of glucose concentration in culture medium may play a role for determining cell death modes of DA neurons following MPP+ treatment. By incubating MN9D cells in medium containing varying concentrations of glucose (5~35 mM), we found that cells underwent a distinct cell death as determined by morphological and biochemical criteria. At 5~10 mM glucose concentration (low glucose levels), MPP+ induced typical of the apoptotic dell death accompanied with caspase activation and DNA fragmentation as well as cell shrinkage. In contrast, MN9D cells cultivated in medium containing more than 17.5 mM (high glucose levels) did not demonstrate any of these changes. Subsequently, we observed that MPP+ at low glucose levels but not high glucose levels led to ROS generation and subsequent JNK activation. Therefore, MPP+-induced cell death only at low glucose levels was significantly ameliorated following co-treatment with ROS scavenger, caspase inhibitor or JNK inhibitor. We basically confirmed the quite similar pattern of cell death in primary cultures of DA neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that a biochemically distinct cell death mode is recruited by MPP+ depending on extracellular glucose levels. PMID:26412968

  9. Cocaine self-administration disrupts mesolimbic dopamine circuit function and attenuates dopaminergic responsiveness to cocaine.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Cody A; Ferris, Mark J; Jones, Sara R

    2015-08-01

    Dopaminergic projections from the ventral midbrain to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have long been implicated in encoding associations between reward availability and environmental stimuli. As such, this circuit is instrumental in guiding behaviors towards obtaining maximal rewards based on previous experience. Cocaine acts on the dopamine system to exert its reinforcing effects and it is thought that cocaine-induced dysregulation of dopamine neurotransmission contributes to the difficulty that cocaine addicts exhibit in selecting environmentally appropriate behaviors. Here we used cocaine self-administration combined with in vivo fast scan cyclic voltammetry in anesthetised rats to examine the function of the ventral tegmental area to NAc projection neurons. Over 5 days of cocaine self-administration (fixed-ratio 1; 1.5 mg/kg/injection; 40 injections/day), animals increased their rate of intake. Following cocaine self-administration, there was a marked reduction in ventral tegmental area-stimulated NAc dopamine release. Additionally, there was a decreased augmentation of stimulated dopamine overflow in response to a cocaine challenge. These findings demonstrate that cocaine induces a hypodopaminergic state, which may contribute to the inflexible drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors observed in cocaine abusers. Additionally, tolerance to the ability of cocaine to elevate dopamine may lead to increased cocaine intake in order to overcome decreased effects, another hallmark of cocaine abuse. PMID:26037018

  10. Dopaminergic neurons generated from monkey embryonic stem cells function in a Parkinson primate model.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Yasushi; Takahashi, Jun; Saiki, Hidemoto; Morizane, Asuka; Hayashi, Takuya; Kishi, Yo; Fukuda, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Yo; Koyanagi, Masaomi; Ideguchi, Makoto; Hayashi, Hideki; Imazato, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Suemori, Hirofumi; Omachi, Shigeki; Iida, Hidehiko; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Nakatsuji, Norio; Sasai, Yoshiki; Hashimoto, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. ES cells are currently the most promising donor cell source for cell-replacement therapy in PD. We previously described a strong neuralizing activity present on the surface of stromal cells, named stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA). In this study, we generated neurospheres composed of neural progenitors from monkey ES cells, which are capable of producing large numbers of DA neurons. We demonstrated that FGF20, preferentially expressed in the substantia nigra, acts synergistically with FGF2 to increase the number of DA neurons in ES cell-derived neurospheres. We also analyzed the effect of transplantation of DA neurons generated from monkey ES cells into 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-treated (MPTP-treated) monkeys, a primate model for PD. Behavioral studies and functional imaging revealed that the transplanted cells functioned as DA neurons and attenuated MPTP-induced neurological symptoms.

  11. The Shh coreceptor Cdo is required for differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yu-Rim; Jeong, Myong-Ho; Leem, Young-Eun; Lee, Sang-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Bae, Gyu-Un; Kang, Jong-Sun

    2014-09-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is required for numerous developmental processes including specification of ventral cell types in the central nervous system such as midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. The multifunctional coreceptor Cdo increases the signaling activity of Shh which is crucial for development of forebrain and neural tube. In this study, we investigated the role of Cdo in midbrain DA neurogenesis. Cdo and Shh signaling components are induced during neurogenesis of embryonic stem (ES) cells. Cdo(-/-) ES cells show reduced neuronal differentiation accompanied by increased cell death upon neuronal induction. In addition, Cdo(-/-) ES cells form fewer tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2)-positive DA neurons correlating with the decreased expression of key regulators of DA neurogenesis, such as Shh, Neurogenin2, Mash1, Foxa2, Lmx1a, Nurr1 and Pitx3, relative to the Cdo(+/+) ES cells. Consistently, the Cdo(-/-) embryonic midbrain displays a reduction in expression of TH and Nurr1. Furthermore, activation of Shh signaling by treatment with Purmorphamine (Pur) restores the DA neurogenesis of Cdo(-/-) ES cells, suggesting that Cdo is required for the full Shh signaling activation to induce efficient DA neurogenesis.

  12. Dopaminergic control of cognitive flexibility in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    Klanker, Marianne; Feenstra, Matthijs; Denys, Damiaan

    2013-01-01

    Striatal dopamine (DA) is thought to code for learned associations between cues and reinforcers and to mediate approach behavior toward a reward. Less is known about the contribution of DA to cognitive flexibility—the ability to adapt behavior in response to changes in the environment. Altered reward processing and impairments in cognitive flexibility are observed in psychiatric disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients with this disorder show a disruption of functioning in the frontostriatal circuit and alterations in DA signaling. In this review we summarize findings from animal and human studies that have investigated the involvement of striatal DA in cognitive flexibility. These findings may provide a better understanding of the role of dopaminergic dysfunction in cognitive inflexibility in psychiatric disorders, such as OCD. PMID:24204329

  13. Abuse potential and dopaminergic effect of alkyl nitrites.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seo Young; Kim, Yun Ji; Kim, Young-Hoon; Shin, Jisoon; Yun, Jaesuk; Han, Kyoungmoon; Park, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Hyung Soo; Cha, Hye Jin

    2016-08-26

    The abuse of alkyl nitrites is common among adolescents and young adults worldwide. However, the information regarding the effects of alkyl nitrites on the central nervous system and the associated psychological abuse potential is scarce. The abuse potential of 3 representative alkyl nitrites - isobutyl nitrite, isoamyl nitrite, and butyl nitrite - was evaluated in mice using conditioned place preference tests with an unbiased method. The dopamine levels released by synaptosomes extracted from the striatal region were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Mice treated with the test substances (50mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited a significantly increased drug-paired place preference. Moreover, greater levels of dopamine were released by striatal region synaptosomes in response to isobutyl nitrite treatment in mice. Thus, our findings suggest that alkyl nitrites could lead to psychological dependence and dopaminergic effects. Furthermore, these results provide scientific evidence to support the regulation of alkyl nitrites as psychoactive substances in the future.

  14. Disrupted Functional Connectivity with Dopaminergic Midbrain in Cocaine Abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi, D.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, R.; Carrillo, J.; Maloney, T.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Telang, F.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-06-01

    Chronic cocaine use is associated with disrupted dopaminergic neurotransmission but how this disruption affects overall brain function (other than reward/motivation) is yet to be fully investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that cocaine addicted subjects will have disrupted functional connectivity between the midbrain (where dopamine neurons are located) and cortical and subcortical brain regions during the performance of a sustained attention task. We measured brain activation and functional connectivity with fMRI in 20 cocaine abusers and 20 matched controls. When compared to controls, cocaine abusers had lower positive functional connectivity of midbrain with thalamus, cerebellum, and rostral cingulate, and this was associated with decreased activation in thalamus and cerebellum and enhanced deactivation in rostral cingulate. These findings suggest that decreased functional connectivity of the midbrain interferes with the activation and deactivation signals associated with sustained attention in cocaine addicts.

  15. Renal dopaminergic system: Pathophysiological implications and clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Marcelo Roberto; Kouyoumdzian, Nicolás Martín; Rukavina Mikusic, Natalia Lucía; Kravetz, María Cecilia; Rosón, María Inés; Rodríguez Fermepin, Martín; Fernández, Belisario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Fluid homeostasis, blood pressure and redox balance in the kidney are regulated by an intricate interaction between local and systemic anti-natriuretic and natriuretic systems. Intrarenal dopamine plays a central role on this interactive network. By activating specific receptors, dopamine promotes sodium excretion and stimulates anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways. Different pathological scenarios where renal sodium excretion is dysregulated, as in nephrotic syndrome, hypertension and renal inflammation, can be associated with impaired action of renal dopamine including alteration in biosynthesis, dopamine receptor expression and signal transduction. Given its properties on the regulation of renal blood flow and sodium excretion, exogenous dopamine has been postulated as a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent renal failure in critically ill patients. The aim of this review is to update and discuss on the most recent findings about renal dopaminergic system and its role in several diseases involving the kidneys and the potential use of dopamine as a nephroprotective agent. PMID:25949933

  16. The Influence of Dopaminergic Striatal Innervation on Upper Limb Locomotor Synergies

    PubMed Central

    Isaias, Ioannis U.; Volkmann, Jens; Marzegan, Alberto; Marotta, Giorgio; Cavallari, Paolo; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    To determine the role of striatal dopaminergic innervation on upper limb synergies during walking, we measured arm kinematics in 13 subjects with Parkinson disease. Patients were recruited according to several inclusion criteria to represent the best possible in vivo model of dopaminergic denervation. Of relevance, we included only subjects with normal spatio-temporal parameters of the stride and gait speed to avoid an impairment of upper limbs locomotor synergies as a consequence of gait impairment per se. Dopaminergic innervation of the striatum was measured by FP-CIT and SPECT. All patients showed a reduction of gait-associated arms movement. No linear correlation was found between arm ROM reduction and contralateral dopaminergic putaminal innervation loss. Still, a partition analysis revealed a 80% chance of reduced arm ROM when putaminal dopamine content loss was >47%. A significant correlation was described between the asymmetry indices of the swinging of the two arms and dopaminergic striatal innervation. When arm ROM was reduced, we found a positive correlation between upper-lower limb phase shift modulation (at different gait velocities) and striatal dopaminergic innervation. These findings are preliminary evidence that dopaminergic striatal tone plays a modulatory role in upper-limb locomotor synergies and upper-lower limb coupling while walking at different velocities. PMID:23236504

  17. Evidence for, and nature of, the tonic inhibitory influence of habenulointerpeduncular pathways upon cerebral dopaminergic transmission in the rat.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, T; Fage, D; Scatton, B

    1986-05-14

    The potential role of the habenula in the transsynaptic regulation of the activity of ascending dopaminergic systems has been investigated in the rat by studying the effect of an acute interruption of impulse traffic in the diencephalic conduction system (stria medullaris-habenula-fasciculus retroflexus) and of pharmacological manipulation of various neurotransmitter systems in the interpeduncular nucleus on dopamine metabolism in several dopaminergic projection fields. The bilateral infusion of tetrodotoxin into the fasciculus retroflexus (which conveys the habenulointerpeduncular tract) of conscious rats markedly increased homovanillic acid levels and dopamine synthesis and utilization in the medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle and striatum. Similar changes in dopamine metabolism were observed in these areas after bilateral infusion of tetrodotoxin into the stria medullaris (which conveys most of the afferents to the habenula). Infusion of atropine (0.4-1 micrograms) into the interpeduncular nucleus increased homovanillic acid concentrations and dopamine utilization in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens but not in the olfactory tubercle and striatum. Moreover, intra-interpeduncular injection of oxotremorine (17 micrograms) antagonized the increase in dopamine utilization in the nucleus accumbens (but not in the olfactory tubercle) induced by an intrafasciculus retroflexus infusion of tetrodotoxin. Local infusion of naloxone (20 micrograms) into the interpeduncular nucleus increased homovanillic acid concentrations in the nucleus accumbens and olfactory tubercle but not in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum. In contrast, intra-interpeduncular nucleus infusion of the substance P antagonist D-Arg1, D-Pro2, D-Trp7,9, Leu11-substance P or of substance P antiserum failed to alter homovanillic acid levels in the 4 dopamine-rich areas investigated. Finally, intraraphé medianus (but not intraraphé dorsalis) infusion of

  18. Anatomical and functional characterisation of a dopaminergic system in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the neonatal Siberian hamster.

    PubMed

    Duffield, G E; McNulty, S; Ebling, F J

    1999-05-24

    In altricial rodents, maternal influences entrain the developing circadian system in the perinatal period before the capacity to respond directly to photic cues develops. The aim of these studies was to investigate the potential role of dopamine in this process in the Siberian hamster. An initial study investigated the ontogeny of retinal innervation of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) by using cholera toxin B subunit as a tracer. This revealed that retinal fibres first innervate the SCN on postnatal day 3 (PD3), and ingrowth of fibres is extensive by PD6. In situ hybridisation studies revealed the presence of D1-dopamine receptor (D1-R) mRNA in the SCN on PD2, and levels of expression were similar in PD6 pups and adult hamsters. Immunocytochemical staining for tyrosine hydroxylase revealed abundant catecholaminergic fibres within the ventromedial zone of the SCN from the day of birth through PD20; however, in contrast, few fibres were present in adult SCN. Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibres were absent from the neonatal and adult SCN, suggesting that the fibres in the SCN are dopaminergic. The function of this dopaminergic system was investigated by determining the effects of D1-R agonists on the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos in the SCN. This was assessed in pups ages PD1- PD5 by in situ hybridisation and immunocytochemical localisation of its protein product. No induction was seen in the SCN, in marked contrast to studies in the developing rat. A final series of studies investigated dopaminergic function by determining whether a D1-agonist could induce phosphorylation of Ca2+/cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) on Ser133. Hypothalamic slices containing SCN taken from PD1 and PD2 hamsters were treated with D1-R agonists, and levels of phosphorylated CREB were assayed by Western blots. Phosphorylation of CREB was stimulated by D1-R agonists in both Syrian and Siberian hamster hypothalamus, but the response was far greater

  19. Dopaminergic modulation of motor coordinaton in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaebum; Lewis, Mechelle M.; Huang, Xuemei; Latash, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Background We applied the idea of synergies and the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to explore the effects of dopamine replacement therapy on finger interaction and coordination in patients with early-stage Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods Eight patients performed single-finger and multi-finger force production tasks with both the dominant and non-dominant hand before (off-drug) and after (on-drug) taking their dopaminergic medications. Synergy indices were defined as co-varied adjustments of commands to fingers that stabilized the total force produced by the hand. Results PD patients showed significantly lower maximal finger forces off-drug compared to the on-drug condition, while indices of finger individuation (enslaving) were unchanged. The synergy indices were weaker during steady-state force production off-drug compared to on-drug. Anticipatory adjustments of synergies prior to the quick force pulse initiation were delayed and reduced off-drug as compared to the on-drug condition. These drug effects were observed in both the symptomatic and asymptomatic hands of the patients whose symptoms were limited to one side of the body. Conclusions The study demonstrates dopaminergic modulation of motor coordination in PD and supports that the analysis of different components of multi-finger synergies offers a set of indices sensitive to the effects of dopamine replacement therapy in early-stage PD. The results suggest an important role of the basal ganglia in synergy formation and in feed-forward synergy adjustments. Future studies using these methods may yield more objective, quantitative biomarker(s) of motor coordination impairments in PD, and better understanding of subcortical involvement in the neural control of natural actions. PMID:24090949

  20. GLUTAMATERGIC SIGNALING BY MIDBRAIN DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS: RECENT INSIGHTS FROM OPTOGENETIC, MOLECULAR AND BEHAVIORAL STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Koos, Tibor; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Tepper, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Although the notion that dopaminergic neurons utilize glutamate as a co-transmitter has long been supported by tantalizing molecular, immunocytochemical and electrophysiological evidence it has only been with the recent addition of optogenetic and other approaches that the existence and functional relevance of this mechanism could be unambiguously demonstrated. Here we discuss the possible mechanisms of action of glutamate released from mesoaccumbens dopaminergic neurons based on recently accumulated evidence. Surprisingly, rather then to confirm a role in conventional fast excitatory transmission, the latest evidence suggests that glutamate released from dopaminergic neurons may primarily act through different unconventional pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. PMID:21632236

  1. The Neuroprotective Mechanism of Low-Frequency rTMS on Nigral Dopaminergic Neurons of Parkinson's Disease Model Mice.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiaoyun; Wang, Yanyong; Gu, Ping; Shao, Rusheng; Zhao, Li; Liu, Xiqi; Wang, Zhanqiang; Wang, Mingwei

    2015-01-01

    Background. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease in elder people, pathophysiologic basis of which is the severe deficiency of dopamine in the striatum. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of low-frequency rTMS on Parkinson's disease in model mice. Methods. The effects of low-frequency rTMS on the motor function, cortex excitability, neurochemistry, and neurohistopathology of MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease mice were investigated through behavioral detection, electrophysiologic technique, high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection, immunohistochemical staining, and western blot. Results. Low-frequency rTMS could improve the motor coordination impairment of Parkinson's disease mice: the resting motor threshold significantly decreased in the Parkinson's disease mice; the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neuron and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase were significantly improved by low-frequency rTMS; moreover, the expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor were also improved by low-frequency rTMS. Conclusions. Low-frequency rTMS had a neuroprotective effect on the nigral dopaminergic neuron which might be due to the improved expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. The present study provided a theoretical basis for the application of low-frequency rTMS in the clinical treatment and recovery of Parkinson's disease.

  2. Effect of prenatal lead exposure on nigrostriatal neurotransmission and hydroxyl radical formation in rat neostriatum: dopaminergic-nitrergic interaction.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Przemysław; Szczerbak, Grazyna; Nitka, Dariusz; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Sitkiewicz, Tomasz; Brus, Ryszard

    2008-04-01

    The present study was designed to explore the role of ontogenetic lead (Pb(2+)) exposure on a putative dopaminergic-nitrergic interaction in the nigrostriatal pathway. Pregnant Wistar rats were given tap water containing 250-ppm lead acetate, for the duration of pregnancy, with regular tap water (without Pb(2+)) being substituted at birth. Control rats were derived from dams that consumed tap water throughout pregnancy, and had no exposure to Pb(2+) afterwards. At 12 weeks after birth in vivo microdialysis of the neostriatum was employed to demonstrate that maternal Pb(2+) exposure was without effect on the baseline dopamine (DA) microdialysate concentration as well as amphetamine (AMPH, 1.0mg/kg i.p.)-evoked release of striatal DA. Also, prenatal Pb(2+) exposure did not enhance AMPH- and 7-nitroindazole (neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) (7-NI, 20mg/kg i.p.)-induced hydroxyl radical (HO) formation in the striatum, as indicated by analysis of the salicylate spin-trap product 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. However, in rats exposed prenatally to Pb(2+), the facilitatory effect of 7-NI on DA exocytosis was attenuated. On the basis of the current study we conclude that maternal Pb(2+) exposure distorts the dopaminergic-nitrergic interaction in the nigrostriatal pathway, but without involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  3. Influence of a long-term powdered diet on the social interaction test and dopaminergic systems in mice.

    PubMed

    Niijima-Yaoita, Fukie; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Saito, Hiroko; Nagasawa, Yuka; Murai, Shigeo; Arai, Yuichiro; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Nemoto, Wataru; Tadano, Takeshi; Tan-No, Koichi

    2013-10-01

    It is well known that the characteristics of mastication are important for the maintenance of our physical well-being. In this study, to assess the importance of the effects of food hardness during mastication, we investigated whether a long-term powdered diet might cause changes in emotional behavior tests, including spontaneous locomotor activity and social interaction (SI) tests, and the dopaminergic system of the frontal cortex and hippocampus in mice. Mice fed a powdered diet for 17 weeks from weaning were compared with mice fed a standard diet (control). The dopamine turnover and expression of dopamine receptors mRNA in the frontal cortex were also evaluated. Spontaneous locomotor activity, SI time and dopamine turnover of the frontal cortex were increased in powdered diet-fed mice. On the other hand, the expression of dopamine-4 (D4) receptors mRNA in the frontal cortex was decreased in powdered diet-fed mice. Moreover, we examined the effect of PD168077, a selective D4 agonist, on the increased SI time in powdered diet-fed mice. Treatment with PD168077 decreased the SI time. These results suggest that the masticatory dysfunction induced by long-term powdered diet feeding may cause the increased SI time and the changes in the dopaminergic system, especially dopamine D4 receptor subtype in the frontal cortex.

  4. Bone marrow-derived microglia-based neurturin delivery protects against dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Biju, K.C.; Santacruz, Rene A.; Chen, Cang; Zhou, Qing; Yao, Jiemin; Rohrabaugh, Sara L.; Clark, Robert A.; Roberts, James L.; Phillips, Kimberley A.; Imam, Syed Z.; Li, Senlin

    2013-01-01

    Although neurotrophic factors have long been recognized as potent agents for protecting against neuronal degeneration, clinical success in treating Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders has been hindered by difficulties in delivery of trophic factors across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell-based gene therapy is emerging as a promising tool for overcoming drug delivery problems, as myeloid cells can cross the BBB and are recruited in large numbers to sites of neurodegeneration, where they become activated microglia that can secrete trophic factors. We tested the efficacy of bone marrow-derived microglial delivery of neurturin (NTN) in protecting dopaminergic neurons against neurotoxin-induced death in mice. Bone marrow cells were transduced ex vivo with lentivirus expressing the NTN gene driven by a synthetic macrophage-specific promoter. Infected bone marrow cells were then collected and transplanted into recipient animals. Eight weeks after transplantation, the mice were injected with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropuridine (MPTP) for seven days to induce dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Microglia-mediated NTN delivery dramatically ameliorated MPTP-induced degeneration of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons of the substantia nigra and their terminals in the striatum. Microglia-mediated NTN delivery also induced significant recovery of synaptic marker staining in the striatum of MPTP-treated animals. Functionally, NTN treatment restored MPTP-induced decline in general activity, rearing behavior, and food intake. Thus, bone marrow-derived microglia can serve as cellular vehicles for sustained delivery of neurotrophic factors capable of mitigating dopaminergic injury. PMID:23295906

  5. Effect of dopaminergic D1 receptors on plasticity is dependent of serotoninergic 5-HT1A receptors in L5-pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Claire Nicole Jeanne; Callebert, Jacques; Cancela, José-Manuel; Fossier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Major depression and schizophrenia are associated with dysfunctions of serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems mainly in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Both serotonin and dopamine are known to modulate synaptic plasticity. 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1ARs) and dopaminergic type D1 receptors are highly represented on dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PyNs) in PFC. How these receptors interact to tune plasticity is poorly understood. Here we show that D1-like receptors (D1Rs) activation requires functional 5HT1ARs to facilitate LTP induction at the expense of LTD. Using 129/Sv and 5-HT1AR-KO mice, we recorded post-synaptic currents evoked by electrical stimulation in layer 2/3 after activation or inhibition of D1Rs. High frequency stimulation resulted in the induction of LTP, LTD or no plasticity. The D1 agonist markedly enhanced the NMDA current in 129/Sv mice and the percentage of L5PyNs displaying LTP was enhanced whereas LTD was reduced. In 5-HT1AR-KO mice, the D1 agonist failed to increase the NMDA current and orientated the plasticity towards L5PyNs displaying LTD, thus revealing a prominent role of 5-HT1ARs in dopamine-induced modulation of plasticity. Our data suggest that in pathological situation where 5-HT1ARs expression varies, dopaminergic treatment used for its ability to increase LTP could turn to be less and less effective. PMID:25775449

  6. Effect of Dopaminergic D1 Receptors on Plasticity Is Dependent of Serotoninergic 5-HT1A Receptors in L5-Pyramidal Neurons of the Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Claire Nicole Jeanne; Callebert, Jacques; Cancela, José-Manuel; Fossier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Major depression and schizophrenia are associated with dysfunctions of serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems mainly in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Both serotonin and dopamine are known to modulate synaptic plasticity. 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT1ARs) and dopaminergic type D1 receptors are highly represented on dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PyNs) in PFC. How these receptors interact to tune plasticity is poorly understood. Here we show that D1-like receptors (D1Rs) activation requires functional 5HT1ARs to facilitate LTP induction at the expense of LTD. Using 129/Sv and 5-HT1AR-KO mice, we recorded post-synaptic currents evoked by electrical stimulation in layer 2/3 after activation or inhibition of D1Rs. High frequency stimulation resulted in the induction of LTP, LTD or no plasticity. The D1 agonist markedly enhanced the NMDA current in 129/Sv mice and the percentage of L5PyNs displaying LTP was enhanced whereas LTD was reduced. In 5-HT1AR-KO mice, the D1 agonist failed to increase the NMDA current and orientated the plasticity towards L5PyNs displaying LTD, thus revealing a prominent role of 5-HT1ARs in dopamine-induced modulation of plasticity. Our data suggest that in pathological situation where 5-HT1ARs expression varies, dopaminergic treatment used for its ability to increase LTP could turn to be less and less effective. PMID:25775449

  7. Neuron-derived IgG protects dopaminergic neurons from insult by 6-OHDA and activates microglia through the FcγR I and TLR4 pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Niu, Na; Wang, Mingyu; McNutt, Michael A; Zhang, Donghong; Zhang, Baogang; Lu, Shijun; Liu, Yuqing; Liu, Zhihui

    2013-08-01

    Oxidative and immune attacks from the environment or microglia have been implicated in the loss of dopaminergic neurons of Parkinson's disease. The role of IgG which is an important immunologic molecule in the process of Parkinson's disease has been unclear. Evidence suggests that IgG can be produced by neurons in addition to its traditionally recognized source B lymphocytes, but its function in neurons is poorly understood. In this study, extensive expression of neuron-derived IgG was demonstrated in dopaminergic neurons of human and rat mesencephalon. With an in vitro Parkinson's disease model, we found that neuron-derived IgG can improve the survival and reduce apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity, and also depress the release of NO from microglia triggered by 6-hydroxydopamine. Expression of TNF-α and IL-10 in microglia was elevated to protective levels by neuron-derived IgG at a physiologic level via the FcγR I and TLR4 pathways and microglial activation could be attenuated by IgG blocking. All these data suggested that neuron-derived IgG may exert a self-protective function by activating microglia properly, and IgG may be involved in maintaining immunity homeostasis in the central nervous system and serve as an active factor under pathological conditions such as Parkinson's disease.

  8. 3D cultures of human neural progenitor cells: dopaminergic differentiation and genetic modification. [corrected].

    PubMed

    Brito, Catarina; Simão, Daniel; Costa, Inês; Malpique, Rita; Pereira, Cristina I; Fernandes, Paulo; Serra, Margarida; Schwarz, Sigrid C; Schwarz, Johannes; Kremer, Eric J; Alves, Paula M

    2012-03-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) disorders remain a formidable challenge for the development of efficient therapies. Cell and gene therapy approaches are promising alternatives that can have a tremendous impact by treating the causes of the disease rather than the symptoms, providing specific targeting and prolonged duration of action. Hampering translation of gene-based therapeutic treatments of neurodegenerative diseases from experimental to clinical gene therapy is the lack of valid and reliable pre-clinical models that can contribute to evaluate feasibility and safety. Herein we describe a robust and reproducible methodology for the generation of 3D in vitro models of the human CNS following a systematic technological approach based on stirred culture systems. We took advantage of human midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells (hmNPCs) capability to differentiate into the various neural phenotypes and of their commitment to the dopaminergic lineage to generate differentiated neurospheres enriched in dopaminergic neurons. Furthermore, we describe a protocol for efficient gene transfer into differentiated neurospheres using CAV-2 viral vectors and stable expression of the transgene for at least 10 days. CAV-2 vectors, derived from canine adenovirus type 2, are promising tools to understand and treat neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Parkinson's disease. CAV-2 vectors preferentially transduce neurons and have an impressive level of axonal retrograde transport in vivo. Our model provides a practical and versatile in vitro approach to study the CNS in a 3D cellular context. With the successful differentiation and subsequent genetic modification of neurospheres we are increasing the collection of tools available for neuroscience research and contributing for the implementation and widespread utilization of 3D cellular CNS models. These can be applied to study neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease; to study the interaction of viral vectors of

  9. 3D cultures of human neural progenitor cells: dopaminergic differentiation and genetic modification. [corrected].

    PubMed

    Brito, Catarina; Simão, Daniel; Costa, Inês; Malpique, Rita; Pereira, Cristina I; Fernandes, Paulo; Serra, Margarida; Schwarz, Sigrid C; Schwarz, Johannes; Kremer, Eric J; Alves, Paula M

    2012-03-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) disorders remain a formidable challenge for the development of efficient therapies. Cell and gene therapy approaches are promising alternatives that can have a tremendous impact by treating the causes of the disease rather than the symptoms, providing specific targeting and prolonged duration of action. Hampering translation of gene-based therapeutic treatments of neurodegenerative diseases from experimental to clinical gene therapy is the lack of valid and reliable pre-clinical models that can contribute to evaluate feasibility and safety. Herein we describe a robust and reproducible methodology for the generation of 3D in vitro models of the human CNS following a systematic technological approach based on stirred culture systems. We took advantage of human midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells (hmNPCs) capability to differentiate into the various neural phenotypes and of their commitment to the dopaminergic lineage to generate differentiated neurospheres enriched in dopaminergic neurons. Furthermore, we describe a protocol for efficient gene transfer into differentiated neurospheres using CAV-2 viral vectors and stable expression of the transgene for at least 10 days. CAV-2 vectors, derived from canine adenovirus type 2, are promising tools to understand and treat neurodegenerative diseases, in particular Parkinson's disease. CAV-2 vectors preferentially transduce neurons and have an impressive level of axonal retrograde transport in vivo. Our model provides a practical and versatile in vitro approach to study the CNS in a 3D cellular context. With the successful differentiation and subsequent genetic modification of neurospheres we are increasing the collection of tools available for neuroscience research and contributing for the implementation and widespread utilization of 3D cellular CNS models. These can be applied to study neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease; to study the interaction of viral vectors of

  10. Progressive dopaminergic alterations and mitochondrial abnormalities in LRRK2 G2019S knock in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yue, M.; Hinkle, K.; Davies, P.; Trushina, E.; Fiesel, F.; Christenson, T.; Schroeder, A.; Zhang, L.; Bowles, E.; Behrouz, B.; Lincoln, S.; Beevers, J.; Milnerwood, A.; Kurti, A.; McLean, P. J.; Fryer, J. D.; Springer, W.; Dickson, D.; Farrer, M.; Melrose, H.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the LRRK2 gene represent the most common genetic cause of late onset Parkinson’s disease. The physiological and pathological roles of LRRK2 are yet to be fully determined but evidence points towards LRRK2 mutations causing a gain in kinase function, impacting on neuronal maintenance, vesicular dynamics and neurotransmitter release. To explore the role of physiological levels of mutant LRRK2, we created knock in mice harboring the most common LRRK2 mutation G2019S in their own genome. We have performed comprehensive dopaminergic, behavioral and neuropathological analyses in this model up to 24 months of age. We find elevated kinase activity in the brain of both heterozygous and homozygous mice. Although normal at 6 months, by 12 months of age, basal and pharmacologically induced extracellular release of dopamine is impaired in both heterozygous and homozygous mice, corroborating previous findings in transgenic models over-expressing mutant LRRK2. Via in vivo microdialysis measurement of basal and drug- evoked extracellular release of dopamine and its metabolites, our findings indicate that exocytotic release from the vesicular pool is impaired. Furthermore, profound mitochondrial abnormalities are evident in the striatum of older homozygous G2019S mice, which are consistent with mitochondrial fission arrest. We anticipate the G2019S will be a useful pre-clinical model for further evaluation of early mechanistic events in LRRK2 pathogenesis and for second-hit approaches to model disease progression. PMID:25836420

  11. Purification of functional human ES and iPSC-derived midbrain dopaminergic progenitors using LRTM1

    PubMed Central

    Samata, Bumpei; Doi, Daisuke; Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Kikuchi, Tetsuhiro; Watanabe, Akira; Sakamoto, Yoshimasa; Kakuta, Jungo; Ono, Yuichi; Takahashi, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can provide a promising source of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons for cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, iPSC-derived donor cells inevitably contain tumorigenic or inappropriate cells. To eliminate these unwanted cells, cell sorting using antibodies for specific markers such as CORIN or ALCAM has been developed, but neither marker is specific for ventral midbrain. Here we employ a double selection strategy for cells expressing both CORIN and LMX1A::GFP, and report a cell surface marker to enrich mDA progenitors, LRTM1. When transplanted into 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, human iPSC-derived LRTM1+ cells survive and differentiate into mDA neurons in vivo, resulting in a significant improvement in motor behaviour without tumour formation. In addition, there was marked survival of mDA neurons following transplantation of LRTM1+ cells into the brain of an MPTP-treated monkey. Thus, LRTM1 may provide a tool for efficient and safe cell therapy for PD patients. PMID:27739432

  12. Progranulin Gene Delivery Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in a Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Van Kampen, Jackalina M.; Baranowski, David; Kay, Denis G.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity and akinesia/bradykinesia resulting from the progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. To date, only symptomatic treatment is available for PD patients, with no effective means of slowing or stopping the progression of the disease. Progranulin (PGRN) is a 593 amino acid multifunction protein that is widely distributed throughout the CNS, localized primarily in neurons and microglia. PGRN has been demonstrated to be a potent regulator of neuroinflammation and also acts as an autocrine neurotrophic factor, important for long-term neuronal survival. Thus, enhancing PGRN expression may strengthen the cells resistance to disease. In the present study, we have used the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD to investigate the possible use of PGRN gene delivery as a therapy for the prevention or treatment of PD. Viral vector delivery of the PGRN gene was an effective means of elevating PGRN expression in nigrostriatal neurons. When PGRN expression was elevated in the SNC, nigrostriatal neurons were protected from MPTP toxicity in mice, along with a preservation of striatal dopamine content and turnover. Further, protection of nigrostriatal neurons by PGRN gene therapy was accompanied by reductions in markers of MPTP-induced inflammation and apoptosis as well as a complete preservation of locomotor function. We conclude that PGRN gene therapy may have beneficial effects in the treatment of PD. PMID:24804730

  13. Detailed Analysis of the Genetic and Epigenetic Signatures of iPSC-Derived Mesodiencephalic Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Roessler, Reinhard; Smallwood, Sebastien A.; Veenvliet, Jesse V.; Pechlivanoglou, Petros; Peng, Su-Ping; Chakrabarty, Koushik; Groot-Koerkamp, Marian J.A.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Wesseling, Evelyn; Kelsey, Gavin; Boddeke, Erik; Smidt, Marten P.; Copray, Sjef

    2014-01-01

    Summary Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for in vitro generation of disease-relevant cell types, such as mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) neurons involved in Parkinson’s disease. Although iPSC-derived midbrain DA neurons have been generated, detailed genetic and epigenetic characterizations of such neurons are lacking. The goal of this study was to examine the authenticity of iPSC-derived DA neurons obtained by established protocols. We FACS purified mdDA (Pitx3Gfp/+) neurons derived from mouse iPSCs and primary mdDA (Pitx3Gfp/+) neurons to analyze and compare their genetic and epigenetic features. Although iPSC-derived DA neurons largely adopted characteristics of their in vivo counterparts, relevant deviations in global gene expression and DNA methylation were found. Hypermethylated genes, mainly involved in neurodevelopment and basic neuronal functions, consequently showed reduced expression levels. Such abnormalities should be addressed because they might affect unambiguous long-term functionality and hamper the potential of iPSC-derived DA neurons for in vitro disease modeling or cell-based therapy. PMID:24749075

  14. Dopaminergic neurons expressing Fos during waking and paradoxical sleep in the rat.

    PubMed

    Léger, Lucienne; Sapin, Emilie; Goutagny, Romain; Peyron, Christelle; Salvert, Denise; Fort, Patrice; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé

    2010-07-01

    Formerly believed to contribute to behavioural waking (W) alone, dopaminergic (DA) neurons are now also known to participate in the regulation of paradoxical sleep (PS or REM) in mammals. Indeed, stimulation of postsynaptic DA1 receptors with agonists induces a reduction in the daily amount of PS. DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area were recently shown to fire in bursts during PS, but nothing is known about the activity of the other DA cell groups in relation to waking or PS. To fulfil this gap, we used a protocol in which rats were maintained in continuous W for 3h in a novel environment, or specifically deprived of PS for 3 days with some of them allowed to recover from this deprivation. A double immunohistochemical labeling with Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase was then performed. DA neurons in the substantia nigra (A9) and ventral tegmental area (A10), and its dorsocaudal extension in the periaqueductal gray (A10dc), almost never showed a Fos-immunoreactive nucleus, regardless of the experimental condition. The caudal hypothalamic (A11) group showed a moderate activation after PS deprivation and novel environment. During PS-recovery, the zona incerta (A13) group contained a significant number and percentage of double-labeled neurons. These results suggest that some DA neurons (A11) could participate in waking and/or the inhibition of PS during PS deprivation whereas others (A13) would be involved in the control of PS.

  15. Dicer expression is essential for adult midbrain dopaminergic neuron maintenance and survival.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xueyan; Hogan, Eric M; Casserly, Alison; Gao, Guangping; Gardner, Paul D; Tapper, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    The type III RNAse, Dicer, is responsible for the processing of microRNA (miRNA) precursors into functional miRNA molecules, non-coding RNAs that bind to and target messenger RNAs for repression. Dicer expression is essential for mouse midbrain development and dopaminergic (DAergic) neuron maintenance and survival during the early post-natal period. However, the role of Dicer in adult mouse DAergic neuron maintenance and survival is unknown. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we selectively knocked-down Dicer expression in individual DAergic midbrain areas, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) via viral-mediated expression of Cre in adult floxed Dicer knock-in mice (Dicer(flox/flox)). Bilateral Dicer loss in the VTA resulted in progressive hyperactivity that was significantly reduced by the dopamine agonist, amphetamine. In contrast, decreased Dicer expression in the SNpc did not affect locomotor activity but did induce motor-learning impairment on an accelerating rotarod. Knock-down of Dicer in both midbrain regions of adult Dicer(flox/flox) mice resulted in preferential, progressive loss of DAergic neurons likely explaining motor behavior phenotypes. In addition, knock-down of Dicer in midbrain areas triggered neuronal death via apoptosis. Together, these data indicate that Dicer expression and, as a consequence, miRNA function, are essential for DAergic neuronal maintenance and survival in adult midbrain DAergic neuron brain areas.

  16. Nicotinic, glutamatergic and dopaminergic synaptic transmission and plasticity in the mesocorticolimbic system: focus on nicotine effects.

    PubMed

    Pistillo, Francesco; Clementi, Francesco; Zoli, Michele; Gotti, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is currently the leading cause of preventable deaths and disability throughout the world, being responsible for about five million premature deaths/year. Unfortunately, fewer than 10% of tobacco users who try to stop smoking actually manage to do so. The main addictive agent delivered by cigarette smoke is nicotine, which induces psychostimulation and reward, and reduces stress and anxiety. The use of new technologies (including optogenetics) and the development of mouse models characterised by cell-specific deletions of receptor subtype genes or the expression of gain-of-function nAChR subunits has greatly increased our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and neural substrates of nicotine addiction first revealed by classic electrophysiological, neurochemical and behavioural approaches. It is now becoming clear that various aspects of nicotine dependence are mediated by close interactions of the glutamatergic, dopaminergic and γ-aminobutyric acidergic systems in the mesocorticolimbic system. This review is divided into two parts. The first provides an updated overview of the circuitry of the ventral tegmental area, ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex, the neurotransmitter receptor subtypes expressed in these areas, and their physiological role in the mesocorticolimbic system. The second will focus on the molecular, functional and behavioural mechanisms involved in the acute and chronic effects of nicotine on the mesocorticolimbic system.

  17. In actio optophysiological analyses reveal functional diversification of dopaminergic neurons in the nematode C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Tanimoto, Yuki; Zheng, Ying Grace; Fei, Xianfeng; Fujie, Yukako; Hashimoto, Koichi; Kimura, Koutarou D.

    2016-01-01

    Many neuronal groups such as dopamine-releasing (dopaminergic) neurons are functionally divergent, although the details of such divergence are not well understood. Dopamine in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans modulates various neural functions and is released from four left-right pairs of neurons. The terminal identities of these dopaminergic neurons are regulated by the same genetic program, and previous studies have suggested that they are functionally redundant. In this study, however, we show functional divergence within the dopaminergic neurons of C. elegans. Because dopaminergic neurons of the animals were supposedly activated by mechanical stimulus upon entry into a lawn of their food bacteria, we developed a novel integrated microscope system that can auto-track a freely-moving (in actio) C. elegans to individually monitor and stimulate the neuronal activities of multiple neurons. We found that only head-dorsal pair of dopaminergic neurons (CEPD), but not head-ventral or posterior pairs, were preferentially activated upon food entry. In addition, the optogenetic activation of CEPD neurons alone exhibited effects similar to those observed upon food entry. Thus, our results demonstrated functional divergence in the genetically similar dopaminergic neurons, which may provide a new entry point toward understanding functional diversity of neurons beyond genetic terminal identification. PMID:27193056

  18. In actio optophysiological analyses reveal functional diversification of dopaminergic neurons in the nematode C. elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Yuki; Zheng, Ying Grace; Fei, Xianfeng; Fujie, Yukako; Hashimoto, Koichi; Kimura, Koutarou D.

    2016-05-01

    Many neuronal groups such as dopamine-releasing (dopaminergic) neurons are functionally divergent, although the details of such divergence are not well understood. Dopamine in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans modulates various neural functions and is released from four left-right pairs of neurons. The terminal identities of these dopaminergic neurons are regulated by the same genetic program, and previous studies have suggested that they are functionally redundant. In this study, however, we show functional divergence within the dopaminergic neurons of C. elegans. Because dopaminergic neurons of the animals were supposedly activated by mechanical stimulus upon entry into a lawn of their food bacteria, we developed a novel integrated microscope system that can auto-track a freely-moving (in actio) C. elegans to individually monitor and stimulate the neuronal activities of multiple neurons. We found that only head-dorsal pair of dopaminergic neurons (CEPD), but not head-ventral or posterior pairs, were preferentially activated upon food entry. In addition, the optogenetic activation of CEPD neurons alone exhibited effects similar to those observed upon food entry. Thus, our results demonstrated functional divergence in the genetically similar dopaminergic neurons, which may provide a new entry point toward understanding functional diversity of neurons beyond genetic terminal identification.

  19. Reactive microgliosis: extracellular μ-calpain and microglia-mediated dopaminergic neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Levesque, Shannon; Wilson, Belinda; Gregoria, Vincent; Thorpe, Laura B.; Dallas, Shannon; Polikov, Vadim S.; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2010-01-01

    Microglia, the innate immune cells in the brain, can become chronically activated in response to dopaminergic neuron death, fuelling a self-renewing cycle of microglial activation followed by further neuron damage (reactive microgliosis), which is implicated in the progressive nature of Parkinson’s disease. Here, we use an in vitro approach to separate neuron injury factors from the cellular actors of reactive microgliosis and discover molecular signals responsible for chronic and toxic microglial activation. Upon injury with the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, N27 cells (dopaminergic neuron cell line) released soluble neuron injury factors that activated microglia and were selectively toxic to dopaminergic neurons in mixed mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. μ-Calpain was identified as a key signal released from damaged neurons, causing selective dopaminergic neuron death through activation of microglial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and superoxide production. These findings suggest that dopaminergic neurons may be inherently susceptible to the pro-inflammatory effects of neuron damage, i.e. reactive microgliosis, providing much needed insight into the chronic nature of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:20123724

  20. Sweet Taste and Nutrient Value Subdivide Rewarding Dopaminergic Neurons in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Huetteroth, Wolf; Perisse, Emmanuel; Lin, Suewei; Klappenbach, Martín; Burke, Christopher; Waddell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dopaminergic neurons provide reward learning signals in mammals and insects [1–4]. Recent work in Drosophila has demonstrated that water-reinforcing dopaminergic neurons are different to those for nutritious sugars [5]. Here, we tested whether the sweet taste and nutrient properties of sugar reinforcement further subdivide the fly reward system. We found that dopaminergic neurons expressing the OAMB octopamine receptor [6] specifically convey the short-term reinforcing effects of sweet taste [4]. These dopaminergic neurons project to the β′2 and γ4 regions of the mushroom body lobes. In contrast, nutrient-dependent long-term memory requires different dopaminergic neurons that project to the γ5b regions, and it can be artificially reinforced by those projecting to the β lobe and adjacent α1 region. Surprisingly, whereas artificial implantation and expression of short-term memory occur in satiated flies, formation and expression of artificial long-term memory require flies to be hungry. These studies suggest that short-term and long-term sugar memories have different physiological constraints. They also demonstrate further functional heterogeneity within the rewarding dopaminergic neuron population. PMID:25728694

  1. The Polg Mutator Phenotype Does Not Cause Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in DJ-1-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Hauser, David N; Primiani, Christopher T; Langston, Rebekah G; Kumaran, Ravindran; Cookson, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the DJ-1 gene cause autosomal recessive parkinsonism in humans. Several mouse models of DJ-1 deficiency have been developed, but they do not have dopaminergic neuron cell death in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage occurs frequently in the aged human SNpc but not in the mouse SNpc. We hypothesized that the reason DJ-1-deficient mice do not have dopaminergic cell death is due to an absence of mtDNA damage. We tested this hypothesis by crossing DJ-1-deficient mice with mice that have similar amounts of mtDNA damage in their SNpc as aged humans (Polg mutator mice). At 1 year of age, we counted the amount of SNpc dopaminergic neurons in the mouse brains using both colorimetric and fluorescent staining followed by unbiased stereology. No evidence of dopaminergic cell death was observed in DJ-1-deficient mice with the Polg mutator mutation. Furthermore, we did not observe any difference in dopaminergic terminal immunostaining in the striatum of these mice. Finally, we did not observe any changes in the amount of GFAP-positive astrocytes in the SNpc of these mice, indicative of a lack of astrogliosis. Altogether, our findings demonstrate the DJ-1-deficient mice, Polg mutator mice, and DJ-1-deficient Polg mutator mice have intact nigrastriatal pathways. Thus, the lack of mtDNA damage in the mouse SNpc does not underlie the absence of dopaminergic cell death in DJ-1-deficient mice.

  2. Selective vulnerability of late-generated dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra in weaver mutant mice.

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, S A; Wills, K V; Triarhou, L C; Verina, T; Thomas, J D; Ghetti, B

    1995-01-01

    In homozygous weaver (wv/wv) mutant mice, nearly 50% of the dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons degenerate by postnatal day 20. We have now determined that the total number of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral midbrains of a litter of obligatory homozygous weaver pups and a litter of normal wild-type control pups indicates that no significant differences are present between groups at birth. To test the hypothesis that the subsequent degeneration of these neurons is linked to their time of origin, [3H]thymidine autoradiography was combined with tyrosine hydroxylase immunocytochemistry to construct neurogenetic timetables on postnatal day 20 in wild-type mice and weaver homozygotes. Both groups have the same span of neurogenesis but have statistically different proportions of neurons generated on specific days. In wild-type mice, more than half of the dopaminergic neurons originate on or after embryonic day 12. In contrast, over two-thirds of the surviving dopaminergic neurons in homozygous weaver mice originate on or before embryonic day 11. Our data suggest that the weaver gene does not interfere with the generation of dopaminergic neurons, but it preferentially kills late-generated dopaminergic neurons between birth and postnatal day 20. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7568088

  3. Sweet taste and nutrient value subdivide rewarding dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Huetteroth, Wolf; Perisse, Emmanuel; Lin, Suewei; Klappenbach, Martín; Burke, Christopher; Waddell, Scott

    2015-03-16

    Dopaminergic neurons provide reward learning signals in mammals and insects [1-4]. Recent work in Drosophila has demonstrated that water-reinforcing dopaminergic neurons are different to those for nutritious sugars [5]. Here, we tested whether the sweet taste and nutrient properties of sugar reinforcement further subdivide the fly reward system. We found that dopaminergic neurons expressing the OAMB octopamine receptor [6] specifically convey the short-term reinforcing effects of sweet taste [4]. These dopaminergic neurons project to the β'2 and γ4 regions of the mushroom body lobes. In contrast, nutrient-dependent long-term memory requires different dopaminergic neurons that project to the γ5b regions, and it can be artificially reinforced by those projecting to the β lobe and adjacent α1 region. Surprisingly, whereas artificial implantation and expression of short-term memory occur in satiated flies, formation and expression of artificial long-term memory require flies to be hungry. These studies suggest that short-term and long-term sugar memories have different physiological constraints. They also demonstrate further functional heterogeneity within the rewarding dopaminergic neuron population.

  4. Prothrombin Kringle-2: A Potential Inflammatory Pathogen in the Parkinsonian Dopaminergic System.

    PubMed

    Leem, Eunju; Jeong, Kyoung Hoon; Won, So-Yoon; Shin, Won-Ho; Kim, Sang Ryong

    2016-08-01

    Although accumulating evidence suggests that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation may be crucial for the initiation and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD), and that the control of neuroinflammation may be a useful strategy for preventing the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) projections in the adult brain, it is still unclear what kinds of endogenous biomolecules initiate microglial activation, consequently resulting in neurodegeneration. Recently, we reported that the increase in the levels of prothrombin kringle-2 (pKr-2), which is a domain of prothrombin that is generated by active thrombin, can lead to disruption of the nigrostriatal DA projection. This disruption is mediated by neurotoxic inflammatory events via the induction of microglial Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in vivo , thereby resulting in less neurotoxicity in TLR4-deficient mice. Moreover, inhibition of microglial activation following minocycline treatment, which has anti-inflammatory activity, protects DA neurons from pKr-2-induced neurotoxicity in the substantia nigra (SN) in vivo. We also found that the levels of pKr-2 and microglial TLR4 were significantly increased in the SN of PD patients compared to those of age-matched controls. These observations suggest that there may be a correlation between pKr-2 and microglial TLR4 in the initiation and progression of PD, and that inhibition of pKr-2-induced microglial activation may be protective against the degeneration of the nigrostriatal DA system in vivo. To describe the significance of pKr-2 overexpression, which may have a role in the pathogenesis of PD, we have reviewed the mechanisms of pKr-2-induced microglial activation, which results in neurodegeneration in the SN of the adult brain. PMID:27574481

  5. The activation sequence of cellular protein handling systems after proteasomal inhibition in dopaminergic cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Rui; Siegel, David; Ross, David

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunction of protein handling has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases and inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been linked to the formation of protein aggregates and proteinopathies in such diseases. While proteasomal inhibition could trigger an array of downstream protein handling changes including up-regulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs), induction of molecular chaperones, activation of the ER stress/unfolded protein response (UPR), autophagy and aggresome formation, little is known of the relationship of proteasomal inhibition to the sequence of activation of these diverse protein handling systems. In this study we utilized the reversible proteasome inhibitor MG132 and examined the activity of several major protein handling systems in the immortalized dopaminergic neuronal N27 cell line. In the early phase (up to 6 hours after proteasomal inhibition), MG132 induced time-dependent proteasomal inhibition which resulted in stimulation of the UPR, increased autophagic flux and stimulated heat shock protein response as determined by increased levels of phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)/GADD153, turnover of autophagy related microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and increased levels of Hsp70 respectively. After prolonged proteasomal inhibition induced by MG132, we observed the formation of vimentin-caged aggresome-like inclusion bodies. A recovery study after MG132-induced proteasomal inhibition indicated that the autophagy-lysosomal pathway participated in the clearance of aggresomes. Our data characterizes the relationship between proteasome inhibition and activation of other protein handling systems. These data also indicated that the induction of alternate protein handling systems and their temporal relationships may be important factors that determine the extent of accumulation of misfolded proteins in cells as a result of

  6. Prothrombin Kringle-2: A Potential Inflammatory Pathogen in the Parkinsonian Dopaminergic System

    PubMed Central

    Leem, Eunju; Jeong, Kyoung Hoon; Won, So-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Although accumulating evidence suggests that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation may be crucial for the initiation and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD), and that the control of neuroinflammation may be a useful strategy for preventing the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) projections in the adult brain, it is still unclear what kinds of endogenous biomolecules initiate microglial activation, consequently resulting in neurodegeneration. Recently, we reported that the increase in the levels of prothrombin kringle-2 (pKr-2), which is a domain of prothrombin that is generated by active thrombin, can lead to disruption of the nigrostriatal DA projection. This disruption is mediated by neurotoxic inflammatory events via the induction of microglial Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in vivo , thereby resulting in less neurotoxicity in TLR4-deficient mice. Moreover, inhibition of microglial activation following minocycline treatment, which has anti-inflammatory activity, protects DA neurons from pKr-2-induced neurotoxicity in the substantia nigra (SN) in vivo. We also found that the levels of pKr-2 and microglial TLR4 were significantly increased in the SN of PD patients compared to those of age-matched controls. These observations suggest that there may be a correlation between pKr-2 and microglial TLR4 in the initiation and progression of PD, and that inhibition of pKr-2-induced microglial activation may be protective against the degeneration of the nigrostriatal DA system in vivo. To describe the significance of pKr-2 overexpression, which may have a role in the pathogenesis of PD, we have reviewed the mechanisms of pKr-2-induced microglial activation, which results in neurodegeneration in the SN of the adult brain. PMID:27574481

  7. Epothilone D prevents binge methamphetamine-mediated loss of striatal dopaminergic markers.

    PubMed

    Killinger, Bryan A; Moszczynska, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to binge methamphetamine (METH) can result in a permanent or transient loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) markers such as dopamine (DA), dopamine transporter, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the striatum. We hypothesized that the METH-induced loss of striatal DAergic markers was, in part, due to a destabilization of microtubules (MTs) in the nigrostriatal DA pathway that ultimately impedes anterograde axonal transport of these markers. To test this hypothesis, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with binge METH or saline in the presence or absence of epothilone D (EpoD), a MT-stabilizing compound, and assessed 3 days after the treatments for the levels of several DAergic markers as well as for the levels of tubulins and their post-translational modifications (PMTs). Binge METH induced a loss of stable long-lived MTs within the striatum but not within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Treatment with a low dose of EpoD increased the levels of markers of stable MTs and prevented METH-mediated deficits in several DAergic markers in the striatum. In contrast, administration of a high dose of EpoD appeared to destabilize MTs and potentiated the METH-induced deficits in several DAergic markers. The low-dose EpoD also prevented the METH-induced increase in striatal DA turnover and increased behavioral stereotypy during METH treatment. Together, these results demonstrate that MT dynamics plays a role in the development of METH-induced losses of several DAergic markers in the striatum and may mediate METH-induced degeneration of terminals in the nigrostriatal DA pathway. Our study also demonstrates that MT-stabilizing drugs such as EpoD have a potential to serve as useful therapeutic agents to restore function of DAergic nerve terminals following METH exposure when administered at low doses. Administration of binge methamphetamine (METH) negatively impacts neurotransmission in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system. The effects of METH include

  8. Dopaminergic and cholinergic learning mechanisms in nicotine addiction

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniyan, Manivannan

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine addiction drives tobacco use by one billion people worldwide, causing nearly six million deaths a year. Nicotine binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that are normally activated by the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The widespread expression of nicotinic receptors throughout the nervous system accounts for the diverse physiological effects triggered by nicotine. A crucial influence of nicotine is on the synaptic mechanisms underlying learning that contribute to the addiction process. Here, we focus on the acquisition phase of smoking addiction and review animal model studies on how nicotine modifies dopaminergic and cholinergic signaling in key nodes of the reinforcement circuitry: ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens (NAc), amygdala, and hippocampus. Capitalizing on mechanisms that subserve natural rewards, nicotine activates midbrain dopamine neurons directly and indirectly, and nicotine causes dopamine release in very broad target areas throughout the brain, including the NAc, amygdala, and hippocampus. In addition, nicotine orchestrates local changes within those target structures, alters the release of virtually all major neurotransmitters, and primes the nervous system to the influence of other addictive drugs. Hence, understanding how nicotine affects the circuitry for synaptic plasticity and learning may aid in developing reasoned therapies to treat nicotine addiction. PMID:26301866

  9. Cellular manganese content is developmentally regulated in human dopaminergic neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Kevin K.; Lowe, Edward W., Jr.; Aboud, Asad A.; Neely, M. Diana; Redha, Rey; Bauer, Joshua A.; Odak, Mihir; Weaver, C. David; Meiler, Jens; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2014-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) is both an essential biological cofactor and neurotoxicant. Disruption of Mn biology in the basal ganglia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as parkinsonism and Huntington's disease. Handling of other essential metals (e.g. iron and zinc) occurs via complex intracellular signaling networks that link metal detection and transport systems. However, beyond several non-selective transporters, little is known about the intracellular processes regulating neuronal Mn homeostasis. We hypothesized that small molecules that modulate intracellular Mn could provide insight into cell-level Mn regulatory mechanisms. We performed a high throughput screen of 40,167 small molecules for modifiers of cellular Mn content in a mouse striatal neuron cell line. Following stringent validation assays and chemical informatics, we obtained a chemical `toolbox' of 41 small molecules with diverse structure-activity relationships that can alter intracellular Mn levels under biologically relevant Mn exposures. We utilized this toolbox to test for differential regulation of Mn handling in human floor-plate lineage dopaminergic neurons, a lineage especially vulnerable to environmental Mn exposure. We report differential Mn accumulation between developmental stages and stage-specific differences in the Mn-altering activity of individual small molecules. This work demonstrates cell-level regulation of Mn content across neuronal differentiation.

  10. The Dopaminergic Midbrain Encodes the Expected Certainty about Desired Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Schwartenbeck, Philipp; FitzGerald, Thomas H B; Mathys, Christoph; Dolan, Ray; Friston, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Dopamine plays a key role in learning; however, its exact function in decision making and choice remains unclear. Recently, we proposed a generic model based on active (Bayesian) inference wherein dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about optimal policies. Put simply, dopamine discharges reflect the confidence that a chosen policy will lead to desired outcomes. We designed a novel task to test this hypothesis, where subjects played a "limited offer" game in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Subjects had to decide how long to wait for a high offer before accepting a low offer, with the risk of losing everything if they waited too long. Bayesian model comparison showed that behavior strongly supported active inference, based on surprise minimization, over classical utility maximization schemes. Furthermore, midbrain activity, encompassing dopamine projection neurons, was accurately predicted by trial-by-trial variations in model-based estimates of precision. Our findings demonstrate that human subjects infer both optimal policies and the precision of those inferences, and thus support the notion that humans perform hierarchical probabilistic Bayesian inference. In other words, subjects have to infer both what they should do as well as how confident they are in their choices, where confidence may be encoded by dopaminergic firing. PMID:25056572

  11. Dopaminergic modulation of the default mode network in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Delaveau, Pauline; Salgado-Pineda, Pilar; Fossati, Philippe; Witjas, Tatiana; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Blin, Olivier

    2010-11-01

    Default mode network (DMN) is characterized by a deactivation of several cortical areas (including medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex) during goal-directed experimental tasks. Few findings are reported on DMN and the involvement of dopaminergic medication on this network in Parkinson's disease (PD). To evaluate the effect of levodopa on DMN deactivation, we conducted a randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled experiment consisting of two fMRI assessments in fourteen non-demented, non-depressed PD patients compared to thirteen healthy volunteers. They received either acute doses of levodopa or placebo in two fMRI sessions. Brain deactivation was evaluated during a facial emotion recognition task. While the control subjects showed a classical brain deactivation pattern during the emotional task, the PD patients taking placebo only deactivated the ventral medial prefrontal cortex. Patients failed to deactivate the posterior midline and lateral parts of DMN network. After levodopa administration, this network was restored conjointly with the improvement of motor dysfunction in PD patients. The levodopa effect on DMN is probably the consequence of a beneficial dopamine (DA) medication effect which leads to a fine tuning of the dopamine level in the motor part of striatum, resulting to a global improvement of physical state of PD patients and consequently an increased attentional resource to external stimuli. The absence of medial prefrontal deactivation impairment may suggest a preserved mesocortical DA system in these patients.

  12. Generation and survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in weaver mice.

    PubMed

    Martí, Joaquín; Santa-Cruz, M C; Bayer, Shirley A; Ghetti, Bernardino; Hervás, José P

    2007-08-01

    Generation and survival of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons were investigated using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunocytochemistry combined with tritiated thymidine autoradiography at appropriate anatomical levels throughout the anteroposterior (A/P) axes of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The wild-type (+/+) and homozygous weaver (wv/wv) mice used here were the offspring of pregnant dams injected with the radioactive precursor when the mesencephalic neurons were being produced (gestational days 11-15). Data reveal that, at postnatal day 90, depletion of TH-stained cells in the wv/wv presented an A/P pattern of increasing severity and, therefore, the DA cells located in posterior parts of the SNc or the VTA appear to be more vulnerable than the settled anterior neurons. When the time of neuron origin is inferred for each level of these cell groups, it is found that the neurogenesis span is similar for both experimental groups, although significant deficits in the frequency of wv/wv late-generated neurons were observed in any level considered. On the other hand, it has been found that TH-positive neurons were settled along the extent of the SNc and the VTA following precise and differential neurogenetic gradients. Thus, the acute rostrocaudal increase in the proportion of late-generated neurons detected in both+/+DA-cell groups is disturbed in the weaver homozygotes due to the indicated A/P depletion.

  13. Cocaine exposure alters dopaminergic modulation of prefronto-accumbens transmission.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiusong; Liu, Lei; Adams, Wendy; Li, Shouxin; Zhang, Qian; Li, Bingjin; Wang, Min; Cui, Ranji

    2015-06-01

    In the nucleus accumbens (NAc), dopamine transmission modulates glutamatergic input from the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This neuromodulatory action of dopamine can be disrupted by repeated exposure to psychostimulants such as cocaine. However, it is unclear whether this modulation depends