Science.gov

Sample records for induces tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic

  1. Estimation of in vitro activity of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons by measurement of DOPA synthesis in the median eminence of hypothalamic slices.

    PubMed

    Arita, J; Kimura, F

    1984-12-01

    A new method for estimation of in vitro neurosecretory activity of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons was developed by measuring the rate of synthesis of dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) in the median eminence of hypothalamic slices. Sagittal hypothalamic slices of ovariectomized rats were incubated in a medium containing 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine (NSD 1015), an inhibitor of DOPA decarboxylase. DOPA accumulated in the median eminence following incubation with NSD 1015 was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electro-chemical detection. The amount of DOPA accumulated in vitro in the median eminence was maximal in a medium containing 10 mM NSD 1015 and linear up to 120 min at 37 degrees C. Increasing the concentration of tyrosine in medium stimulated the synthesis of DOPA in the median eminence. The synthesis of DOPA was blocked by 1 mM alpha-methyltyrosine, an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase. The rate of in vitro synthesis of DOPA in the median eminence was 33% of that of in vivo synthesis. Incubation in a medium containing 50 mM K+ to depolarize neurons caused a 2.4-fold increase in DOPA synthesis in the median eminence. The high K+-induced increase in DOPA synthesis was blocked by omission of Ca2+ and addition of 1 mM EGTA into the medium, suggesting Ca2+ dependency of depolarization-activated DOPA synthesis. These results indicate that this in vitro assay is a useful means to study the regulatory mechanisms of TIDA neurons.

  2. Neonatal exposure to estradiol increases dopaminergic transmission in Nucleus Accumbens and morphine-induced conditioned place preference in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Bonansco, Christian; Martínez-Pinto, Jonathan; Silva, Roxana A; Velásquez, Victoria B; Martorell, Andrés; Selva, Mónica V; Espinosa, Pedro; Moya, Pablo R; Cruz, Gonzalo; Andrés, María Estela; Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón

    2018-01-29

    Steroid sex hormones produce physiological effects in reproductive tissues and also in non-reproductive tissues such as the brain, particularly in cortical, limbic and midbrain areas. Dopamine (DA) neurons involved in processes such as prolactin secretion (tuberoinfundibular system), motor circuit regulation (nigrostriatal system) and driving of motivated behavior (mesocorticolimbic system), are specially regulated by sex hormones. Indeed, sex hormones promote neurochemical and behavioral effects induced by drugs of abuse by tuning midbrain DA neurons in adult animals. However, the long-term effects induced by neonatal exposure to sex hormones on dopaminergic neurotransmission have not been fully studied. The focus of this work was to reveal if a single neonatal exposure with estradiol valerate (EV) results in a programming of dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of adult female rats. To answer this question, electrophysiological, neurochemical, cellular, molecular and behavioral techniques were used. The data show that frequency but not amplitude of the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) is significantly increased in NAcc medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of EV-treated rats. In addition, DA content and release are both increased in the NAcc of EV-treated rats, caused by an increased synthesis of this neurotransmitter. These results are functionally associated with a higher percentage of EV-treated rats conditioned to morphine, a drug of abuse, compared with controls. In conclusion, neonatal programming with estradiol increases NAcc dopaminergic neurotransmission in the adulthood, which may be associated with increased reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Phosphodiesterase 7 Inhibition Induces Dopaminergic Neurogenesis in Hemiparkinsonian Rats

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Garcia, Jose A.; Alonso-Gil, Sandra; Gil, Carmen; Martinez, Ana; Santos, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in a specific brain region, the ventral midbrain. Parkinson’s disease is diagnosed when approximately 50% of the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) have degenerated and the others are already affected by the disease. Thus, it is conceivable that all therapeutic strategies, aimed at neuroprotection, start too late. Therefore, an urgent medical need exists to discover new pharmacological targets and novel drugs with disease-modifying properties. In this regard, modulation of endogenous adult neurogenesis toward a dopaminergic phenotype might provide a new strategy to target Parkinson’s disease by partially ameliorating the dopaminergic cell loss that occurs in this disorder. We have previously shown that a phosphodiesterase 7 (PDE7) inhibitor, S14, exerts potent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in different rodent models of Parkinson’s disease, indicating that this compound could represent a novel therapeutic agent to stop the dopaminergic cell loss that occurs during the progression of the disease. In this report we show that, in addition to its neuroprotective effect, the PDE7 inhibitor S14 is also able to induce endogenous neuroregenerative processes toward a dopaminergic phenotype. We describe a population of actively dividing cells that give rise to new neurons in the SNpc of hemiparkinsonian rats after treatment with S14. In conclusion, our data identify S14 as a novel regulator of dopaminergic neuron generation. Significance Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral midbrain. Currently, no cure and no effective disease-modifying therapy are available for Parkinson’s disease; therefore, an urgent medical need exists to discover new pharmacological targets and novel drugs for the treatment of this disorder. The present study reports that an inhibitor of the enzyme

  4. Chronic Nicotine Exposure Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Dopaminergic Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Vieira-Brock, Paula L.; McFadden, Lisa M.; Nielsen, Shannon M.; Ellis, Jonathan D.; Walters, Elliot T.; Stout, Kristen A.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Wilkins, Diana G.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated methamphetamine (METH) administrations cause persistent dopaminergic deficits resembling aspects of Parkinson’s disease. Many METH abusers smoke cigarettes and thus self-administer nicotine; yet few studies have investigated the effects of nicotine on METH-induced dopaminergic deficits. This interaction is of interest because preclinical studies demonstrate that nicotine can be neuroprotective, perhaps owing to effects involving α4β2 and α6β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). This study revealed that oral nicotine exposure beginning in adolescence [postnatal day (PND) 40] through adulthood [PND 96] attenuated METH-induced striatal dopaminergic deficits when METH was administered at PND 89. This protection did not appear to be due to nicotine-induced alterations in METH pharmacokinetics. Short-term (i.e., 21-day) high-dose nicotine exposure also protected when administered from PND 40 to PND 61 (with METH at PND 54), but this protective effect did not persist. Short-term (i.e., 21-day) high-dose nicotine exposure did not protect when administered postadolescence (i.e., beginning at PND 61, with METH at PND 75). However, protection was engendered if the duration of nicotine exposure was extended to 39 days (with METH at PND 93). Autoradiographic analysis revealed that nicotine increased striatal α4β2 expression, as assessed using [125I]epibatidine. Both METH and nicotine decreased striatal α6β2 expression, as assessed using [125I]α-conotoxin MII. These findings indicate that nicotine protects against METH-induced striatal dopaminergic deficits, perhaps by affecting α4β2 and/or α6β2 expression, and that both age of onset and duration of nicotine exposure affect this protection. PMID:26391161

  5. Treadmill exercise alleviates nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Tae-Woon; Lee, Jae-Min; Ji, Eun-Sang; Lim, Baek-Vin

    2017-02-01

    Parkinson disease is one of the common brain diseases caused by dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra and dopaminergic fiber loss in the striatum. In the present study, the effects of treadmill exercise on motor performance, dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers, and α-synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum were evaluated using rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. For the induction of Parkinson rats, 3-mg/kg rotenone was injected, once a day for 14 consecutive days. Treadmill running was conducted for 30 min once a day during 14 consecutive days. Rota-rod test for motor balance and coordination and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase and α-synuclein in the nigrostriatum were performed. In the present study, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers was occurred by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated nigrostriatal dopaminergic loss of neurons and fibers in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. α-Synuclein expression in the nigrostriatum was enhanced by induction of rotenone-induced Parkinson disease, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed α-synuclein expression in the rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. Treadmill exercise improved motor function through preservation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and fibers and suppression of nigrostriatal formation of Lewy bodies in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats.

  6. nNOS inhibitors attenuate methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity but not hyperthermia in mice.

    PubMed

    Itzhak, Y; Martin, J L; Ail, S F

    2000-09-11

    Methamphetamine (METH)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is associated with hyperthermia. We investigated the effect of several neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitors on METH-induced hyperthermia and striatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Administration of METH (5 mg/kg; q. 3 h x 3) to Swiss Webster mice produced marked hyperthermia and 50-60% depletion of striatal dopaminergic markers 72 h after METH administration. Pretreatment with the nNOS inhibitors S-methylthiocitrulline (SMTC; 10 mg/kg) or 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole (3-Br-7-NI; 20 mg/kg) before each METH injection did not affect the persistent hyperthermia produced by METH, but afforded protection against the depletion of dopaminergic markers. A low dose (25 mg/kg) of the nNOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) did not affect METH-induced hyperthermia, but a high dose (50 mg/kg) produced significant hypothermia. These findings indicate that low dose of selective nNOS inhibitors protect against METH-induced neurotoxicity with no effect on body temperature and support the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite have a major role in METH-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

  7. Mitochondrial complex I inhibition is not required for dopaminergic neuron death induced by rotenone, MPP+, or paraquat

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Seok; Kruse, Shane E.; Palmiter, Richard D.; Xia, Zhengui

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of mitochondrial complex I is one of the leading hypotheses for dopaminergic neuron death associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). To test this hypothesis genetically, we used a mouse strain lacking functional Ndufs4, a gene encoding a subunit required for complete assembly and function of complex I. Deletion of the Ndufs4 gene abolished complex I activity in midbrain mesencephalic neurons cultured from embryonic day (E) 14 mice, but did not affect the survival of dopaminergic neurons in culture. Although dopaminergic neurons were more sensitive than other neurons in these cultures to cell death induced by rotenone, MPP+, or paraquat treatments, the absence of complex I activity did not protect the dopaminergic neurons, as would be expected if these compounds act by inhibiting complex 1. In fact, the dopaminergic neurons were more sensitive to rotenone. These data suggest that dopaminergic neuron death induced by treatment with rotenone, MPP+, or paraquat is independent of complex I inhibition. PMID:18812510

  8. Contributions of dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neurons to VTA-stimulation induced neurovascular responses in brain reward circuits.

    PubMed

    Brocka, Marta; Helbing, Cornelia; Vincenz, Daniel; Scherf, Thomas; Montag, Dirk; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Angenstein, Frank; Lippert, Michael

    2018-04-30

    Mapping the activity of the human mesolimbic dopamine system by BOLD-fMRI is a tempting approach to non-invasively study the action of the brain reward system during different experimental conditions. However, the contribution of dopamine release to the BOLD signal is disputed. To assign the actual contribution of dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic VTA neurons to the formation of BOLD responses in target regions of the mesolimbic system, we used two optogenetic approaches in rats. We either activated VTA dopaminergic neurons selectively, or dopaminergic and mainly glutamatergic projecting neurons together. We further used electrical stimulation to non-selectively activate neurons in the VTA. All three stimulation conditions effectively activated the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and triggered dopamine releases into the NAcc as measured by in vivo fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Furthermore, both optogenetic stimulation paradigms led to indistinguishable self-stimulation behavior. In contrast to these similarities, however, the BOLD response pattern differed greatly between groups. In general, BOLD responses were weaker and sparser with increasing stimulation specificity for dopaminergic neurons. In addition, repetitive stimulation of the VTA caused a progressive decoupling of dopamine release and BOLD signal strength, and dopamine receptor antagonists were unable to block the BOLD signal elicited by VTA stimulation. To exclude that the sedation during fMRI is the cause of minimal mesolimbic BOLD in response to specific dopaminergic stimulation, we repeated our experiments using CBF SPECT in awake animals. Again, we found activations only for less-specific stimulation. Based on these results we conclude that canonical BOLD responses in the reward system represent mainly the activity of non-dopaminergic neurons. Thus, the minor effects of projecting dopaminergic neurons are concealed by non-dopaminergic activity, a finding which highlights the importance of a careful

  9. Chronic Hypergravity Induces Changes in the Dopaminergic Neuronal System in Drosophila Melanogaster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelos, Andrew; Hosamani, Ravikumar; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2017-01-01

    Upon atmospheric exitre-entry and during training, astronauts are subjected to temporary periods of hypergravity, which has been implicated in the activation of oxidative stress pathways contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal degeneration. The pathogenesis of Parkinsons disease and other neurodegenerative disorders is associated with oxidative damage to neurons involved in dopamine systems of the brain. Our study aims to examine the effects of a hypergravitational developmental environment on the degeneration of dopaminergic systems in Drosophila melanogaster. Male and female flies (Gal4-UAS transgenic line) were hatched and raised to adulthood in centrifugal hypergravity (97rpm, 3g). The nuclear expression of the reporter, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is driven by the dopaminergic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter, allowing for the targeted visualization of dopamine producing neurons. After being raised to adulthood and kept in hypergravity until 18 days of age, flies were dissected and the expression of TH was measured by fluorescence confocal microscopy. TH expression in the fly brains was used to obtain counts of healthy dopaminergic neurons for flies raised in chronic hypergravity and control groups. Dopaminergic neuron expression data were compared with those of previous studies that limited hypergravity exposure to late life in order to determine the flies adaptability to the gravitational environment when raised from hatching through adulthood. Overall, we observed a significant effect of chronic hypergravity exposure contributing to deficits in dopaminergic neuron expression (p 0.003). Flies raised in 3g had on average lower dopaminergic neuron counts (mean 97.7) when compared with flies raised in 1g (mean 122.8). We suspect these lower levels of TH expression are a result of oxidative dopaminergic cell loss in flies raised in hypergravity. In future studies, we hope to further elucidate the mechanism by which hypergravity-induced

  10. Lithium Chloride can Induce Differentiation of Human Immortalized RenVm Cells into Dopaminergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Mitra; Ghasemi, Nazem

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapy is a novel strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The transplantation of fully differentiated cells instead of stem cells in order to decrease serious adverse complications of stem cell therapy is a new idea. In this study, the effect of lithium chloride on dopaminergic differentiation of human immortalized RenVm cells was investigated in order to access a population of fully differentiated cells for transplantation in Parkinson disease. The immortalized RenVm cells were induced to dopaminergic differentiation using a neurobasal medium supplemented with N2 and different concentrations (1, 3, 6 mM ) of Lithium Chloride (LiCl) for 4, 8 and 12 days. The efficiency of dopaminergic differentiation was evaluated using immunocytochemistry and western blot techniques for tyrosine hydroxylase and β-catenin marker expression. Our results indicated that LiCl can promote dopaminergic differentiation of RenVm cells in a dose-dependent manner. It can be concluded that LiCl is able to facilitate dopaminergic differentiation of cultured cells by affecting Wnt-frizzled signaling pathway.

  11. Role for excitatory amino acids in methamphetamine-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sonsalla, P K; Nicklas, W J; Heikkila, R E

    1989-01-20

    The systemic administration of either methamphetamine or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to experimental animals produces degenerative changes in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons or their axon terminals. This study was conducted to determine if excitatory amino acids, which appear to be involved in various neurodegenerative disorders, might also contribute to the dopaminergic neurotoxicity produced in mice by either methamphetamine or MPTP. MK-801, phencyclidine, and ketamine, noncompetitive antagonists of one subtype of excitatory amino acid receptor, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, provided substantial protection against neurotoxicity produced by methamphetamine but not that produced by MPTP. These findings indicate that excitatory amino acids play an important role in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic damage induced by methamphetamine.

  12. Role and Mechanism of Microglial Activation in Iron-Induced Selective and Progressive Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhao-fen; Gao, Jun-hua; Sun, Li; Huang, Xi-yan; Liu, Zhuo; Yu, Shu-yang; Cao, Chen-Jie; Zuo, Li-jun; Chen, Ze-Jie; Hu, Yang; Wang, Fang; Hong, Jau-shyong; Wang, Xiao-min

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients have excessive iron depositions in substantia nigra (SN). Neuroinflammation characterized by microglial activation is pivotal for dopaminergic neurodegeneration in PD. However, the role and mechanism of microglial activation in iron-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in SN remain unclear yet. This study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of microglial β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2 (NOX2) activation in iron-induced selective and progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Multiple primary midbrain cultures from rat, NOX2+/+ and NOX2−/− mice were used. Dopaminergic neurons, total neurons, and microglia were visualized by immunostainings. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Superoxide (O2·−) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) were determined by measuring SOD-inhibitable reduction of tetrazolium salt WST-1 and DCFH-DA assay. mRNA and protein were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot. Iron induces selective and progressive dopaminergic neurotoxicity in rat neuron–microglia–astroglia cultures and microglial activation potentiates the neurotoxicity. Activated microglia produce a magnitude of O2·− and iROS, and display morphological alteration. NOX2 inhibitor diphenylene iodonium protects against iron-elicited dopaminergic neurotoxicity through decreasing microglial O2·− generation, and NOX2−/− mice are resistant to the neurotoxicity by reducing microglial O2·− production, indicating that iron-elicited dopaminergic neurotoxicity is dependent of NOX2, a O2·−-generating enzyme. NOX2 activation is indicated by the increased mRNA and protein levels of subunits P47 and gp91. Molecules relevant to NOX2 activation include PKC-σ, P38, ERK1/2, JNK, and NF-ΚBP65 as their mRNA and protein levels are enhanced by NOX2 activation. Iron causes selective and progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration, and microglial NOX2 activation potentiates the

  13. Minocycline Rescues from Zinc-Induced Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration: Biochemical and Molecular Interventions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Brajesh Kumar; Chauhan, Amit Kumar; Singh, Deepali; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Chetna

    2016-07-01

    Accumulation of zinc (Zn) in dopaminergic neurons is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD), and microglial activation plays a critical role in toxin-induced Parkinsonism. Oxidative stress is accused in Zn-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration; however, its connection with microglial activation is still not known. This study was undertaken to elucidate the role and underlying mechanism of microglial activation in Zn-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Male Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally with/without zinc sulphate (20 mg/kg) in the presence/absence of minocycline (30 mg/kg), a microglial activation inhibitor, for 2-12 weeks. While neurobehavioral and biochemical indexes of PD and number of dopaminergic neurons were reduced, the number of microglial cells was increased in the substantia nigra of the Zn-exposed animals. Similarly, Zn elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase; however, catalase activity was reduced. Besides, Zn increased an association of NADPH oxidase subunit p67(phox) with membrane, cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and cleavage of pro-caspase 3. Zn attenuated the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2) while augmented the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Minocycline alleviated Zn-induced behavioural impairments, loss of TH-positive neurons, activated microglial cells and biochemical indexes and modulated the expression of studied genes/proteins towards normalcy. The results demonstrate that minocycline reduces the number of activated microglial cells and oxidative stress, which rescue from Zn-induced changes in the expression of monoamine transporter and nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

  14. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 (JNK3) Mediates Paraquat- and Rotenone-Induced Dopaminergic Neuron Death

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won Seok; Abel, Glen; Klintworth, Heather; Flavell, Richard A.; Xia, Zhengui

    2011-01-01

    Mechanistic studies underlying dopaminergic neuron death may identify new drug targets for the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD). Epidemiological studies have linked pesticide exposure to increased risk for sporadic PD. Here, we investigated the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 (JNK3), a neural-specific JNK isoform, in dopaminergic neuron death induced by the pesticides rotenone and paraquat. The role of JNK3 was evaluated using RNA silencing and gene deletion to block JNK3 signaling. Using an antibody that recognizes all isoforms of activated JNKs, we found that paraquat and rotenone stimulate JNK phosphorylation in primary cultured dopaminergic neurons. In cultured neurons transfected with Jnk3-specific siRNA and in neurons from Jnk3−/− mice, JNK phosphorylation was nearly abolished, suggesting that JNK3 is the main JNK isoform activated in dopaminergic neurons by these pesticides. Paraquat- and rotenone-induced death of dopaminergic neurons was also significantly reduced by Jnk3 siRNA or Jnk3 gene deletion and deletion of the Jnk3 gene completely attenuated paraquat-induced dopaminergic neuron death and motor-deficits in vivo. Our data identify JNK3 as a common and critical mediator of dopaminergic neuron death induced by paraquat and rotenone, suggesting that it is a potential drug target for PD treatment. PMID:20418776

  15. Dopaminergic Neurons Respond to Iron-Induced Oxidative Stress by Modulating Lipid Acylation and Deacylation Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez Campos, Sofía; Rodríguez Diez, Guadalupe; Oresti, Gerardo Martín; Salvador, Gabriela Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Metal-imbalance has been reported as a contributor factor for the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson Disease (PD). Specifically, iron (Fe)-overload and copper (Cu) mis-compartmentalization have been reported to be involved in the injury of dopaminergic neurons in this pathology. The aim of this work was to characterize the mechanisms of membrane repair by studying lipid acylation and deacylation reactions and their role in oxidative injury in N27 dopaminergic neurons exposed to Fe-overload and Cu-supplementation. N27 dopaminergic neurons incubated with Fe (1mM) for 24 hs displayed increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and elevated plasma membrane permeability. Cu-supplemented neurons (10, 50 μM) showed no evidence of oxidative stress markers. A different lipid acylation profile was observed in N27 neurons pre-labeled with [3H] arachidonic acid (AA) or [3H] oleic acid (OA). In Fe-exposed neurons, AA uptake was increased in triacylglycerols (TAG) whereas its incorporation into the phospholipid (PL) fraction was diminished. TAG content was 40% higher in Fe-exposed neurons than in controls. This increase was accompanied by the appearance of Nile red positive lipid bodies. Contrariwise, OA incorporation increased in the PL fractions and showed no changes in TAG. Lipid acylation profile in Cu-supplemented neurons showed AA accumulation into phosphatidylserine and no changes in TAG. The inhibition of deacylation/acylation reactions prompted an increase in oxidative stress markers and mitochondrial dysfunction in Fe-overloaded neurons. These findings provide evidence about the participation of lipid acylation mechanisms against Fe-induced oxidative injury and postulate that dopaminergic neurons cleverly preserve AA in TAG in response to oxidative stress. PMID:26076361

  16. Role of oxidative stress in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity mediated by protein kinase Cδ

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Xuan-Khanh Thi; Li, Zhengyi; Bing, Guoying; Bach, Jae-Hyung; Park, Dae Hun; Nakayama, Keiichi; Ali, Syed F.; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Cadet, Jean Lud; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes in methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. Multiple-dose administration of MA did not significantly alter PKCα, PKCβI, PKCβII, or PKCζ expression in the striatum, but did significantly increase PKCδ expression. Gö6976 (a co-inhibitor of PKCα and -β), hispidin (PKCβ inhibitor), and PKCζ pseudosubstrate inhibitor (PKCζ inhibitor) did not significantly alter MA-induced behavioral impairments. However, rottlerin (PKCδ inhibitor) significantly attenuated behavioral impairments in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, MA-induced behavioral impairments were not apparent in PKCδ knockout (–/–) mice. MA-induced oxidative stress (i.e., lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation) was significantly attenuated in rottlerin-treated mice and was not apparent in PKCδ (–/–) mice. Consistent with this, MA-induced apoptosis (i.e., terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive apoptotic cells) was significantly attenuated in rottlerin-treated mice. Furthermore, MA-induced increases in the dopamine (DA) turnover rate and decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and the expression of TH, dopamine transporter (DAT), and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) were not significantly observed in rottlerin-treated or PKCδ (–/–) mice. Our results suggest that PKCδ gene expression is a key mediator of oxidative stress and dopaminergic damage induced by MA. Thus, inhibition of PKCδ may be a useful target for protection against MA-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:22512859

  17. Role of oxidative stress in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity mediated by protein kinase Cδ.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Duong, Chu Xuan; Nguyen, Xuan-Khanh Thi; Li, Zhengyi; Bing, Guoying; Bach, Jae-Hyung; Park, Dae Hun; Nakayama, Keiichi; Ali, Syed F; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G; Cadet, Jean Lud; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2012-06-15

    This study examined the role of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes in methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. Multiple-dose administration of MA did not significantly alter PKCα, PKCβI, PKCβII, or PKCζ expression in the striatum, but did significantly increase PKCδ expression. Gö6976 (a co-inhibitor of PKCα and -β), hispidin (PKCβ inhibitor), and PKCζ pseudosubstrate inhibitor (PKCζ inhibitor) did not significantly alter MA-induced behavioral impairments. However, rottlerin (PKCδ inhibitor) significantly attenuated behavioral impairments in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, MA-induced behavioral impairments were not apparent in PKCδ knockout (-/-) mice. MA-induced oxidative stress (i.e., lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation) was significantly attenuated in rottlerin-treated mice and was not apparent in PKCδ (-/-) mice. Consistent with this, MA-induced apoptosis (i.e., terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive apoptotic cells) was significantly attenuated in rottlerin-treated mice. Furthermore, MA-induced increases in the dopamine (DA) turnover rate and decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity and the expression of TH, dopamine transporter (DAT), and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) were not significantly observed in rottlerin-treated or PKCδ (-/-) mice. Our results suggest that PKCδ gene expression is a key mediator of oxidative stress and dopaminergic damage induced by MA. Thus, inhibition of PKCδ may be a useful target for protection against MA-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Caffeine induces differential cross tolerance to the amphetamine-like discriminative stimulus effects of dopaminergic agonists.

    PubMed

    Jain, Raka; Holtzman, Stephen G

    2005-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine if caffeine induces cross tolerance to the amphetamine-like discriminative stimulus effects of dopaminergic drugs that act through distinct mechanisms (e.g., release, uptake inhibition, direct activation of dopamine D(1)- or D(2)-family receptors). Rats were trained to discriminate 1.0 mg/kg d-amphetamine from saline in a two-choice discrete-trial procedure. Stimulus-generalization curves were generated by cumulative dosing for d-amphetamine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg), methylphenidate (0.3-5.6 mg/kg), SKF 81297 (0.3-3.0 mg/kg), and R-(-)-propylnorapomorphine (NPA; 0.001-1.78 mg/kg), as well as for caffeine (3.0-56 mg/kg); curves were re-determined after twice daily injections of caffeine (30 mg/kg) for 3.5 days. The rats generalized dose dependently to the four dopaminergic drugs, but only to a limited extent to caffeine. Twice daily injections of caffeine induced significant cross tolerance (i.e., increased ED(50)) to the amphetamine-like discriminative effects of methylphenidate and SKF 81297, attenuated non-significantly the effects of NPA, and did not alter the effects of amphetamine. Thus, caffeine produces differential cross tolerance to the amphetamine-like discriminative effects of dopaminergic drugs, a phenomenon in which the dopamine D(1) receptor appears to have an important role.

  19. Geldanamycin induces heat shock protein 70 and protects against MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hai-Ying; He, Jin-Cai; Wang, Yumei; Huang, Qing-Yuan; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2005-12-02

    As key molecular chaperone proteins, heat shock proteins (HSPs) represent an important cellular protective mechanism against neuronal cell death in various models of neurological disorders. In this study, we investigated the effect as well as the molecular mechanism of geldanamycin (GA), an inhibitor of Hsp90, on 1-methyl-4-pheny-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity, a mouse model of Parkinson disease. Neurochemical analysis showed that pretreatment with GA (via intracerebral ventricular injection 24 h prior to MPTP treatment) increased residual dopamine content and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the striatum 24 h after MPTP treatment. To dissect out the molecular mechanism underlying this neuroprotection, we showed that the GA-mediated protection against MPTP was associated with a reduction of cytosolic Hsp90 and an increase in Hsp70, with no significant changes in Hsp40 and Hsp25 levels. Furthermore, in parallel with the induction of Hsp70, striatal nuclear HSF1 levels and HSF1 binding to heat shock element sites in the Hsp70 promoter were significantly enhanced by the GA pretreatment. Together these results suggested that the molecular cascade leading to the induction of Hsp70 is critical to the neuroprotection afforded by GA against MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in the brain and that pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for Parkinson disease.

  20. Abnormal dopaminergic modulation of striato-cortical networks underlies levodopa-induced dyskinesias in humans

    PubMed Central

    Haagensen, Brian N.; Christensen, Mark S.; Madsen, Kristoffer H.; Rowe, James B.; Løkkegaard, Annemette; Siebner, Hartwig R.

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic signalling in the striatum contributes to reinforcement of actions and motivational enhancement of motor vigour. Parkinson's disease leads to progressive dopaminergic denervation of the striatum, impairing the function of cortico-basal ganglia networks. While levodopa therapy alleviates basal ganglia dysfunction in Parkinson's disease, it often elicits involuntary movements, referred to as levodopa-induced peak-of-dose dyskinesias. Here, we used a novel pharmacodynamic neuroimaging approach to identify the changes in cortico-basal ganglia connectivity that herald the emergence of levodopa-induced dyskinesias. Twenty-six patients with Parkinson's disease (age range: 51–84 years; 11 females) received a single dose of levodopa and then performed a task in which they had to produce or suppress a movement in response to visual cues. Task-related activity was continuously mapped with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Dynamic causal modelling was applied to assess levodopa-induced modulation of effective connectivity between the pre-supplementary motor area, primary motor cortex and putamen when patients suppressed a motor response. Bayesian model selection revealed that patients who later developed levodopa-induced dyskinesias, but not patients without dyskinesias, showed a linear increase in connectivity between the putamen and primary motor cortex after levodopa intake during movement suppression. Individual dyskinesia severity was predicted by levodopa-induced modulation of striato-cortical feedback connections from putamen to the pre-supplementary motor area (Pcorrected = 0.020) and primary motor cortex (Pcorrected = 0.044), but not feed-forward connections from the cortex to the putamen. Our results identify for the first time, aberrant dopaminergic modulation of striatal-cortical connectivity as a neural signature of levodopa-induced dyskinesias in humans. We argue that excessive striato-cortical connectivity in response to levodopa produces an

  1. The role of system Xc- in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Dang, Duy-Khanh; Shin, Eun-Joo; Tran, Hai-Quyen; Kim, Dae-Joong; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Jang, Choon-Gon; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Sato, Hideyo; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yoneda, Yukio; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2017-09-01

    The cystine/glutamate antiporter (system Xc - , Sxc) transports cystine into cell in exchange for glutamate. Since xCT is a specific subunit of Sxc, we employed xCT knockout mice and investigated whether this antiporter affected methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. MA treatment significantly increased striatal oxidative burdens in wild type mice. xCT inhibitor [i.e., S-4-carboxy-phenylglycine (CPG), sulfasalazine] or an xCT knockout significantly protected against these oxidative burdens. MA-induced increases in Iba-1 expression and Iba-1-labeled microglial immunoreactivity (Iba-1-IR) were significantly attenuated by CPG or sulfasalazine administration or xCT knockout. CPG or sulfasalazine significantly attenuated MA-induced TUNEL-positive cell populations in the striatum of Taconic ICR mice. The decrease in excitatory amino acid transporter-2 (or glutamate transporter-1) expression and increase in glutamate release were attenuated by CPG, sulfasalazine or xCT knockout. In addition, CPG, sulfasalazine or xCT knockout significantly protected against dopaminergic loss (i.e., decreases in tyrosine hydroxylase expression and immunoreactivity, and an increase in dopamine turnover rate) induced by MA. However, CPG, sulfasalazine or xCT knockout did not significantly affect the impaired glutathione system [i.e., decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) and increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG)] induced by MA. Our results suggest that Sxc mediates MA-induced neurotoxicity via facilitating oxidative stress, microgliosis, proapoptosis, and glutamate-related toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Protection against MDMA-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice by methyllycaconitine: involvement of nicotinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Chipana, C; Camarasa, J; Pubill, D; Escubedo, E

    2006-09-01

    Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a relatively selective dopaminergic neurotoxin in mice. Previous studies demonstrated the participation of alpha-7 nicotinic receptors (nAChR) in the neurotoxic effect of methamphetamine. The aim of this paper was to study the role of this receptor type in the acute effects and neurotoxicity of MDMA in mice. In vivo, methyllycaconitine (MLA), a specific alpha-7 nAChR antagonist, significantly prevented MDMA-induced neurotoxicity at dopaminergic but not at serotonergic level, without affecting MDMA-induced hyperthermia. Glial activation was also fully prevented by MLA. In vitro, MDMA induced intrasynaptosomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which was calcium-, nitric-oxide synthase-, and protein kinase C-dependent. Also, the increase in ROS was prevented by MLA and alpha-bungarotoxin. Experiments with reserpine point to endogenous dopamine (DA) as the main source of MDMA-induced ROS. MLA also brought the MDMA-induced inhibition of [3H]DA uptake down, from 73% to 11%. We demonstrate that a coordinated activation of alpha-7 nAChR, blockade of DA transporter function and displacement of DA from intracellular stores induced by MDMA produces a neurotoxic effect that can be prevented by MLA, suggesting that alpha-7 nAChR have a key role in the MDMA neurotoxicity in mice; however, the involvement of nicotinic receptors containing the beta2 subunit cannot be conclusively ruled out.

  3. Protection against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity to neostriatal dopaminergic neurons by adenosine receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Delle Donne, K T; Sonsalla, P K

    1994-12-01

    Methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in experimental animals appears to have a glutamatergic component because blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors prevents the neuropathologic consequences. Because adenosine affords neuroprotection against various forms of glutamate-mediated neuronal damage, the present studies were performed to investigate whether adenosine plays a protective role in METH-induced toxicity. METH-induced decrements in neostriatal dopamine content and tyrosine hydroxylase activity in mice were potentiated by concurrent treatment with caffeine, a nonselective adenosine antagonist that blocks both A1 and A2 adenosine receptors. In contrast, chronic treatment of mice with caffeine through their drinking water for 4 weeks, which increased the number of adenosine A1 receptors in the neostriatum and frontal cortex, followed by drug washout, prevented the neurochemical changes produced by the treatment of mice with METH treatment. In contrast, this treatment did not prevent 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Furthermore, concurrent administration of cyclopentyladenosine, an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, attenuated the METH-induced neurochemical changes. This protection by cyclopentyladenosine was blocked by cyclopentyltheophylline, an A1 receptor antagonist. These results indicate that activation of A1 receptors can protect against METH-induced neurotoxicity in mice.

  4. Heptachlor induced nigral dopaminergic neuronal loss and Parkinsonism-like movement deficits in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seokheon; Hwang, Joohyun; Kim, Joo Yeon; Shin, Ki Soon; Kang, Shin Jung

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between pesticide exposure and Parkinson's disease. In this study, we examined the neurotoxicity of an organochlorine pesticide, heptachlor, in vitro and in vivo. In cultured SH-SY5Y cells, heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. When injected into mice intraperitoneally on a subchronic schedule, heptachlor induced selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. In addition, the heptachlor injection induced gliosis of microglia and astrocytes selectively in the ventral midbrain area. When the general locomotor activities were monitored by open field test, the heptachlor injection did not induce any gross motor dysfunction. However, the compound induced Parkinsonism-like movement deficits when assessed by a gait and a pole test. These results suggest that heptachlor can induce Parkinson's disease-related neurotoxicities in vivo. PMID:24577234

  5. Prostaglandin-dependent modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission elicits inflammation-induced aversion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Michael; Klawonn, Anna M.; Nilsson, Anna; Singh, Anand Kumar; Zajdel, Joanna; Björk Wilhelms, Daniel; Lazarus, Michael; Löfberg, Andreas; Jaarola, Maarit; Örtegren Kugelberg, Unn; Billiar, Timothy R.; Hackam, David J.; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Breyer, Matthew D.; Jakobsson, Johan; Schwaninger, Markus; Schütz, Günther; Rodriguez Parkitna, Jan; Saper, Clifford B.; Blomqvist, Anders; Engblom, David

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammation causes malaise and general feelings of discomfort. This fundamental aspect of the sickness response reduces the quality of life for people suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases and is a nuisance during mild infections like common colds or the flu. To investigate how inflammation is perceived as unpleasant and causes negative affect, we used a behavioral test in which mice avoid an environment that they have learned to associate with inflammation-induced discomfort. Using a combination of cell-type–specific gene deletions, pharmacology, and chemogenetics, we found that systemic inflammation triggered aversion through MyD88-dependent activation of the brain endothelium followed by COX1-mediated cerebral prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. Further, we showed that inflammation-induced PGE2 targeted EP1 receptors on striatal dopamine D1 receptor–expressing neurons and that this signaling sequence induced aversion through GABA-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic cells. Finally, we demonstrated that inflammation-induced aversion was not an indirect consequence of fever or anorexia but that it constituted an independent inflammatory symptom triggered by a unique molecular mechanism. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that PGE2-mediated modulation of the dopaminergic motivational circuitry is a key mechanism underlying the negative affect induced by inflammation. PMID:26690700

  6. Dopaminergic system in CA1 modulates MK-801 induced anxiolytic-like responses.

    PubMed

    Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza; Nasehi, Mohammad; Pournaghshband, Mahnaz; Yekta, Batool Ghorbani

    2012-11-01

    Today, there is relatively no debate on the notion that NMDA receptor antagonist agents in the hippocampus induce anxiolytic-like effects through distinct mechanisms. There is also a bulk of studies showing the involvement of the dopaminergic system in NMDA induced behaviors. Thus, on the basis of the involvement of dopaminergic system in anxiety-related behaviors, the present study aimed to investigate the involvement of the dorsal hippocampal (CA1) dopaminergic system in anxiolytic-like responses induced by MK801 (NMDA receptor antagonist) in male Wistar rats. We used the elevated plus maze to test anxiety. This apparatus has widely been employed to test parameters of anxiety-related behaviors including the open arm time percentage (%OAT), open arm entries percentage (%OAE), locomotor activity, grooming (the rat rubs its face), rearing (the rat maintains an erect posture) and defecation (the number of boli defection). The data showed that, intra-CA1 injection of MK801 (2 μg/rat) increases %OAT and %OAE but not other exploratory behaviors, indicating an anxiolytic-like effect. Moreover, sole intra-CA1 injection of SCH23390, dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, (0.25, 0.5 and 1 μg/rat) and sulpiride, dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, (0.25,0.5 and 0.75 μg/rat) did not alter anxiety-like behaviors. Co-administration of subthreshold doses of SCH23390 (0.5 μg/rat) and MK801 (0.5 g/rat), induced anxiolytic-like behaviors. Furthermore, intra-CA1 administration of different doses of sulpiride (0.12, 0.5 and 0.75 μg/rat), 5 min before the injection of an effective dose of MK801 (2 μg/rat), decreased %OAT and %OAE, however did not alter other exploratory behaviors induced by MK801. Our results suggested a modulatory effect of the CA1 dopaminergic system on the anxiolytic-like effects induced by MK801.

  7. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics induced by tebufenpyrad and pyridaben in a dopaminergic neuronal cell culture model

    PubMed Central

    Charli, Adhithiya; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2015-01-01

    Tebufenpyrad and pyridaben are two agro-chemically important acaricides that function like the known mitochondrial toxicant rotenone. Although these two compounds have been commonly used to kill populations of mites and ticks in commercial greenhouses, their neurotoxic profiles remain largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of these two pesticides on mitochondrial structure and function in an in vitro cell culture model using the Seahorse bioanalyzer and confocal fluorescence imaging. The effects were compared with rotenone. Exposing rat dopaminergic neuronal cells (N27 cells) to tebufenpyrad and pyridaben for 3 h induced dose-dependent cell death with an EC50 of 3.98 μM and 3.77 μM, respectively. Also, tebufenpyrad and pyridaben (3 μM) exposure induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and m-aconitase damage, suggesting that the pesticide toxicity is associated with oxidative damage. Morphometric image analysis with the MitoTracker red fluorescent probe indicated that tebufenpyrad and pyridaben, as well as rotenone, caused abnormalities in mitochondrial morphology, including reduced mitochondrial length and circularity. Functional bioenergetic experiments using the Seahorse XF96 analyzer revealed that tebufenpyrad and pyridaben very rapidly suppressed the basal mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate similar to that of rotenone. Further analysis of bioenergetic curves also revealed dose-dependent decreases in ATP-linked respiration and respiratory capacity. The luminescence-based ATP measurement further confirmed that pesticide-induced mitochondrial inhibition of respiration is accompanied by the loss of cellular ATP. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to the pesticides tebufenpyrad and pyridaben induces neurotoxicity by rapidly initiating mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Our findings also reveal that monitoring the kinetics of mitochondrial respiration with Seahorse could be used

  8. Effect of inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase on MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Viveros-Paredes, J M; Gonzalez-Castañeda, R E; Escalante-Castañeda, A; Tejeda-Martínez, A R; Castañeda-Achutiguí, F; Flores-Soto, M E

    2017-01-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by balance problems, muscle rigidity, and slow movement due to low dopamine levels and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The endocannabinoid system is known to modulate the nigrostriatal pathway through endogenous ligands such as anandamide (AEA), which is hydrolysed by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The purpose of this study was to increase AEA levels using FAAH inhibitor URB597 to evaluate the modulatory effect of AEA on dopaminergic neuronal death induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Our study included 4 experimental groups (n = 6 mice per group): a control group receiving no treatment, a group receiving URB597 (0.2mg/kg) every 3 days for 30 days, a group treated with MPTP (30mg/kg) for 5 days, and a group receiving URB597 and subsequently MPTP injections. Three days after the last dose, we conducted a series of behavioural tests (beam test, pole test, and stride length test) to compare motor coordination between groups. We subsequently analysed immunoreactivity of dopaminergic cells and microglia in the SNpc and striatum. Mice treated with URB597 plus MPTP were found to perform better on behavioural tests than mice receiving MPTP only. According to the immunohistochemistry study, mice receiving MPTP showed fewer dopaminergic cells and fibres in the SNpc and striatum. Animals treated with URB597 plus MPTP displayed increased tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity compared to those treated with MPTP only. Regarding microglial immunoreactivity, the group receiving MPTP showed higher Iba1 immunoreactivity in the striatum and SNpc than did the group treated with URB597 plus MPTP. Our results show that URB597 exerts a protective effect since it inhibits dopaminergic neuronal death, decreases microglial immunoreactivity, and improves MPTP-induced motor alterations. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado

  9. Effect of crowding, temperature and age on glia activation and dopaminergic neurotoxicity induced by MDMA in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Frau, Lucia; Simola, Nicola; Porceddu, Pier Francesca; Morelli, Micaela

    2016-09-01

    3,4-methylenedyoxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy"), a recreational drug of abuse, can induce glia activation and dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Since MDMA is often consumed in crowded environments featuring high temperatures, we studied how these factors influenced glia activation and dopaminergic neurotoxicity induced by MDMA. C57BL/6J adolescent (4 weeks old) and adult (12 weeks old) mice received MDMA (4×20mg/kg) in different conditions: 1) while kept 1, 5, or 10×cage at room temperature (21°C); 2) while kept 5×cage at either room (21°C) or high (27°C) temperature. After the last MDMA administration, immunohistochemistry was performed in the caudate-putamen for CD11b and GFAP, to mark microglia and astroglia, and in the substantia nigra pars compacta for tyrosine hydroxylase, to mark dopaminergic neurons. MDMA induced glia activation and dopaminergic neurotoxicity, compared with vehicle administration. Crowding (5 or 10 mice×cage) amplified MDMA-induced glia activation (in adult and adolescent mice) and dopaminergic neurotoxicity (in adolescent mice). Conversely, exposure to a high environmental temperature (27°C) potentiated MDMA-induced glia activation in adult and adolescent mice kept 5×cage, but not dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Crowding and exposure to a high environmental temperature amplified MDMA-induced hyperthermia, and a positive correlation between body temperature and activation of either microglia or astroglia was found in adult and adolescent mice. These results provide further evidence that the administration setting influences the noxious effects of MDMA in the mouse brain. However, while crowding amplifies both glia activation and dopaminergic neurotoxicity, a high environmental temperature exacerbates glia activation only. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nrf2 deficiency potentiates methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic axonal damage and gliosis in the striatum.

    PubMed

    Granado, Noelia; Lastres-Becker, Isabel; Ares-Santos, Sara; Oliva, Idaira; Martin, Eduardo; Cuadrado, Antonio; Moratalla, Rosario

    2011-12-01

    Oxidative stress that correlates with damage to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and reactive gliosis in the basal ganglia is a hallmark of methamphetamine (METH) toxicity. In this study, we analyzed the protective role of the transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2), a master regulator of redox homeostasis, in METH-induced neurotoxicity. We found that Nrf2 deficiency exacerbated METH-induced damage to dopamine neurons, shown by an increase in loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)- and dopamine transporter (DAT)-containing fibers in striatum. Consistent with these effects, Nrf2 deficiency potentiated glial activation, indicated by increased striatal expression of markers for microglia (Mac-1 and Iba-1) and astroglia (GFAP) one day after METH administration. At the same time, Nrf2 inactivation dramatically potentiated the increase in TNFα mRNA and IL-15 protein expression in GFAP+ cells in the striatum. In sharp contrast to the potentiation of striatal damage, Nrf2 deficiency did not affect METH-induced dopaminergic neuron death or expression of glial markers or proinflammatory molecules in the substantia nigra. This study uncovers a new role for Nrf2 in protection against METH-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress and striatal degeneration. Copyright © 2011 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

  11. Lack of CCR5 modifies glial phenotypes and population of the nigral dopaminergic neurons, but not MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Young; Lee, Myung Koo; Hong, Jin Tae

    2013-01-01

    Constitutive expression of C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) 5 has been detected in astrocytes, microglia and neurons, but its physiological roles in the central nervous system are obscure. The bidirectional interactions between neuron and glial cells through CCR5 and its ligands were thought to be crucial for maintaining normal neuronal activities. No study has described function of CCR5 in the dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. In order to examine effects of CCR5 on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration, we employed CCR5 wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. Immunostainings for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) exhibited that CCR5 KO mice had lower number of TH-positive neurons even in the absence of MPTP. Difference in MPTP (15mg/kg×4 times, 2hr interval)-mediated loss of TH-positive neurons was subtle between CCR5 WT and KO mice, but there was larger dopamine depletion, behavioral impairments and microglial activation in CCR5 deficient mice. Intriguingly, CCR5 KO brains contained higher immunoreactivity for monoamine oxidase (MAO) B which was mainly localized within astrocytes. In agreement with upregulation of MAO B, concentration of MPP+ was higher in the substantia nigra and striatum of CCR5 KO mice after MPTP injection. We found remarkable activation of p38 MAPK in CCR5 deficient mice, which positively regulates MAO B expression. These results indicate that CCR5 deficiency modifies the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal system and bidirectional interaction between neurons and glial cells via CCR5 might be important for dopaminergic neuronal survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dysregulated expression of secretogranin III is involved in neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengrui; Tian, Xiaofei; Zhou, Yishu; Zhu, Lanhui; Wang, Baojie; Ding, Mei; Pang, Hao

    2012-12-01

    The neurotoxins paraquat (PQ) and dopamine (DA or 6-OHDA) cause apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), reproducing an important pathological feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Secretogranin III (SCG3), a member of the multifunctional granin family, plays a key role in neurotransmitter storage and transport and in secretory granule biogenesis, which involves the uptake of exogenous toxins and endogenous "toxins" in neuroendocrine cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of neurotoxin-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons and the role of SCG3-associated signaling pathways in neuroendocrine regulation are unclear. To address this, we used PQ- and DA-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic cells as an in vitro model to investigate the association between SCG3 expression level and apoptosis. SCG3 was highly expressed in SH-SY5Y cells, and SCG3 mRNA and protein levels were dramatically decreased after PQ treatment. Apoptosis induced by PQ is associated with caspase activation and decreased SCG3 expression, and restoration of SCG3 expression is observed after treatment with caspase inhibitors. Overexpressed SCG3 in nonneuronal cells and endogenous SCG3 in SH-SY5Y cells are cleaved into specific fragments by recombinant caspase-3 and -7, but the fragments were not detected in PQ-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, SCG3 may be involved in apoptosis signal transduction as a caspase substrate, leading to loss of its original biological functions. In addition, SCG3 may be a pivotal component of the neuroendocrine pathway and play an important role in neuronal communication and neurotransmitter release, possibly representing a new potential target in the course of PD pathogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Dopaminergic function in cannabis users and its relationship to cannabis-induced psychotic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Michael A P; Morgan, Celia J A; Egerton, Alice; Kapur, Shitij; Curran, H Valerie; Howes, Oliver D

    2014-03-15

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug globally, and users are at increased risk of mental illnesses including psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Substance dependence and schizophrenia are both associated with dopaminergic dysfunction. It has been proposed, although never directly tested, that the link between cannabis use and schizophrenia is mediated by altered dopaminergic function. We compared dopamine synthesis capacity in 19 regular cannabis users who experienced psychotic-like symptoms when they consumed cannabis with 19 nonuser sex- and age-matched control subjects. Dopamine synthesis capacity (indexed as the influx rate constant [Formula: see text] ) was measured with positron emission tomography and 3,4-dihydroxy-6-[(18)F]-fluoro-l-phenylalanine ([(18)F]-DOPA). Cannabis users had reduced dopamine synthesis capacity in the striatum (effect size: .85; t36 = 2.54, p = .016) and its associative (effect size: .85; t36 = 2.54, p = .015) and limbic subdivisions (effect size: .74; t36 = 2.23, p = .032) compared with control subjects. The group difference in dopamine synthesis capacity in cannabis users compared with control subjects was driven by those users meeting cannabis abuse or dependence criteria. Dopamine synthesis capacity was negatively associated with higher levels of cannabis use (r = -.77, p < .001) and positively associated with age of onset of cannabis use (r = .51, p = .027) but was not associated with cannabis-induced psychotic-like symptoms (r = .32, p = .19). These findings indicate that chronic cannabis use is associated with reduced dopamine synthesis capacity and question the hypothesis that cannabis increases the risk of psychotic disorders by inducing the same dopaminergic alterations seen in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Resistance of neuronal nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice to methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Itzhak, Y; Gandia, C; Huang, P L; Ali, S F

    1998-03-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful psychostimulant that produces dopaminergic neurotoxicity manifested by a decrease in the levels of dopamine, tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine transporter (DAT) binding sites in the nigrostriatal system. We have recently reported that blockade of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) isoform by 7-nitroindazole provides protection against METH-induced neurotoxicity in Swiss Webster mice. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of a neurotoxic dose of METH on mutant mice lacking the nNOS gene [nNOS(-/-)] and wild-type controls. In addition, we sought to investigate the behavioral outcome of exposure to a neurotoxic dose of METH. Homozygote nNOS(-/-), heterozygote nNOS(+/-) and wild-type animals were administered either saline or METH (5 mg/kg x 3). Dopamine, DOPAC and HVA levels, as well as DAT binding site levels, were determined in striatal tissue derived 72 h after the last METH injection. This regimen of METH given to nNOS(-/-) mice affected neither the tissue content of dopamine and its metabolites nor the number of DAT binding sites. Although a moderate reduction in the levels of dopamine (35%) and DAT binding sites (32%) occurred in striatum of heterozygote nNOS(+/-) mice, a more profound depletion of the dopaminergic markers (up to 68%) was observed in the wild-type animals. METH-induced hyperthermia was observed in all animal strains examined except the nNOS(-/-) mice. Investigation of the animals' spontaneous locomotor activity before and after administration of the neurotoxic dose of METH (5 mg/kg x 3) revealed no differences. A low dose of METH (1.0 mg/kg) administered to naive animals (nNOS(-/-) and wild-type) resulted in a similar intensity of locomotor stimulation. However, 68 to 72 h after exposure to the high-dose METH regimen, a marked sensitized responses to a challenge METH injection was observed in the wild-type mice but not in the nNOS(-/-) mice. Taken together, these results

  15. 17β-estradiol and tamoxifen protect mice from manganese-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Pajarillo, Edward; Johnson, James; Kim, Judong; Karki, Pratap; Son, Deok-Soo; Aschner, Michael; Lee, Eunsook

    2018-03-01

    Chronic exposure to manganese (Mn) causes neurotoxicity, referred to as manganism, with common clinical features of parkinsonism. 17β-estradiol (E2) and tamoxifen (TX), a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), afford neuroprotection in several neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we tested if E2 and TX attenuate Mn-induced neurotoxicity in mice, assessing motor deficit and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. We implanted E2 and TX pellets in the back of the neck of ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice two weeks prior to a single injection of Mn into the striatum. One week later, we assessed locomotor activity and molecular mechanisms by immunohistochemistry, real-time quantitative PCR, western blot and enzymatic biochemical analyses. The results showed that both E2 and TX attenuated Mn-induced motor deficits and reversed the Mn-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. At the molecular level, E2 and TX reversed the Mn-induced decrease of (1) glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) and glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) mRNA and protein levels; (2) transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) and estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) protein levels; and (3) catalase (CAT) activity and glutathione (GSH) levels, and Mn-increased (1) malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and (2) the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These results indicate that E2 and TX afford protection against Mn-induced neurotoxicity by reversing Mn-reduced GLT1/GLAST as well as Mn-induced oxidative stress. Our findings may offer estrogenic agents as potential candidates for the development of therapeutics to treat Mn-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Differentiation and Characterization of Dopaminergic Neurons From Baboon Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Grow, Douglas A; Simmons, DeNard V; Gomez, Jorge A; Wanat, Matthew J; McCarrey, John R; Paladini, Carlos A; Navara, Christopher S

    2016-09-01

    : The progressive death of dopamine producing neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta is the principal cause of symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Stem cells have potential therapeutic use in replacing these cells and restoring function. To facilitate development of this approach, we sought to establish a preclinical model based on a large nonhuman primate for testing the efficacy and safety of stem cell-based transplantation. To this end, we differentiated baboon fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (biPSCs) into dopaminergic neurons with the application of specific morphogens and growth factors. We confirmed that biPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons resemble those found in the human midbrain based on cell type-specific expression of dopamine markers TH and GIRK2. Using the reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we also showed that biPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons express PAX6, FOXA2, LMX1A, NURR1, and TH genes characteristic of this cell type in vivo. We used perforated patch-clamp electrophysiology to demonstrate that biPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons fired spontaneous rhythmic action potentials and high-frequency action potentials with spike frequency adaption upon injection of depolarizing current. Finally, we showed that biPSC-derived neurons released catecholamines in response to electrical stimulation. These results demonstrate the utility of the baboon model for testing and optimizing the efficacy and safety of stem cell-based therapeutic approaches for the treatment of PD. Functional dopamine neurons were produced from baboon induced pluripotent stem cells, and their properties were compared to baboon midbrain cells in vivo. The baboon has advantages as a clinically relevant model in which to optimize the efficacy and safety of stem cell-based therapies for neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease. Baboons possess crucial neuroanatomical and immunological similarities to humans, and baboon

  17. Rotenone induces oxidative stress and dopaminergic neuron damage in organotypic substantia nigra cultures.

    PubMed

    Testa, Claudia M; Sherer, Todd B; Greenamyre, J Timothy

    2005-03-24

    Rotenone, a pesticide and complex I inhibitor, causes nigrostriatal degeneration similar to Parkinson disease pathology in a chronic, systemic, in vivo rodent model [M. Alam, W.J. Schmidt, Rotenone destroys dopaminergic neurons and induces parkinsonian symptoms in rats, Behav. Brain Res. 136 (2002) 317-324; R. Betarbet, T.B. Sherer, G. MacKenzie, M. Garcia-Osuna, A.V. Panov, J.T. Greenamyre, Chronic systemic pesticide exposure reproduces features of Parkinson's disease, Nat. Neurosci. 3 (2000) 1301-1306; S.M. Fleming, C. Zhu, P.O. Fernagut, A. Mehta, C.D. DiCarlo, R.L. Seaman, M.F. Chesselet, Behavioral and immunohistochemical effects of chronic intravenous and subcutaneous infusions of varying doses of rotenone, Exp. Neurol. 187 (2004) 418-429; T.B. Sherer, J.H. Kim, R. Betarbet, J.T. Greenamyre, Subcutaneous rotenone exposure causes highly selective dopaminergic degeneration and alpha-synuclein aggregation, Exp. Neurol. 179 (2003) 9-16.]. To better investigate the role of mitochondria and complex I inhibition in chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disease, we developed methods for long-term culture of rodent postnatal midbrain organotypic slices. Chronic complex I inhibition over weeks by low dose (10-50 nM) rotenone in this system lead to dose- and time-dependent destruction of substantia nigra pars compacta neuron processes, morphologic changes, some neuronal loss, and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein levels. Chronic complex I inhibition also caused oxidative damage to proteins, measured by protein carbonyl levels. This oxidative damage was blocked by the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). At the same time, alpha-tocopherol also blocked rotenone-induced reductions in TH protein and TH immunohistochemical changes. Thus, oxidative damage is a primary mechanism of mitochondrial toxicity in intact dopaminergic neurons. The organotypic culture system allows close study of this and other interacting mechanisms over a prolonged time period in

  18. Rasagiline protects against alpha-synuclein induced sensitivity to oxidative stress in dopaminergic cells

    PubMed Central

    Chau, K.Y.; Cooper, J.M.; Schapira, A.H.V.

    2010-01-01

    Rasagiline is a propargylamine and irreversible monoamine oxidase (MAO) B inhibitor used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). It has demonstrated neuroprotective properties in laboratory studies. Current concepts of PD aetiopathogenesis include the role of alpha-synuclein, protein aggregation, free radical metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction in contributing to cell death. We have used a combination of alpha-synuclein and free radical mediated toxicity in a dopaminergic cell line to provide a model of nigral toxicity in order to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms that mediate rasagiline protection. We demonstrate that rasagiline protects against cell death induced by the combination of free radicals generated by paraquat and either wild-type or A53T mutant alpha-synuclein over-expression. This protection was associated with a reduction in caspase 3 activation, a reduction in superoxide generation and a trend to ameliorate the fall in mitochondrial membrane potential. Rasagiline induced an increase in cellular glutathione levels. The results support a role for rasagiline in protecting dopaminergic cells against free radical mediated damage and apoptosis in the presence of alpha-synuclein over-expression. The data are of relevance to the interpretation of the potential mechanisms of action of rasagiline in explaining the results of disease modification trials in PD. PMID:20624440

  19. Methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity prevented owing to the neuroprotective effects of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Thrash-Williams, Bessy; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S; Bhattacharya, Dwipayan; Ahuja, Manuj; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan

    2016-06-01

    Methamphetamine (Schedule-II drug, U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration) is one of the most abused illicit drug following cocaine, marijuana, and heroin in the USA. There are numerous health impairments and substantial economic burden caused by methamphetamine abuse. Salicylic acid, potent anti-inflammatory drug and a known neuroprotectant has shown to protect against toxicity-induced by other dopaminergic neurotoxins. Hence, in this study we investigated the neuroprotective effects of salicylic acid against methamphetamine-induced toxicity in mice. The current study investigated the effects of sodium salicylate and/or methamphetamine on oxidative stress, monoamine oxidase, mitochondrial complex I & IV activities using spectrophotometric and fluorimetric methods. Behavioral analysis evaluated the effect on movement disorders-induced by methamphetamine. Monoaminergic neurotransmitter levels were evaluated using high pressure liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection. Methamphetamine caused significant generation of reactive oxygen species and decreased complex-I activity leading to dopamine depletion. Striatal dopamine depletion led to significant behavioral changes associated with movement disorders. Sodium salicylate (50 & 100mg/kg) significantly scavenged reactive oxygen species, blocked mitochondrial dysfunction and exhibited neuroprotection against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. In addition, sodium salicylate significantly blocked methamphetamine-induced behavioral changes related to movement abnormalities. One of the leading causative theories in nigral degeneration associated with movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease is exposure to stimulants, drugs of abuse, insecticide and pesticides. These neurotoxic substances can induce dopaminergic neuronal insult by oxidative stress, apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. Salicylic acid due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects could provide neuroprotection against the

  20. Sodium butyrate rescues dopaminergic cells from alpha-synuclein-induced transcriptional deregulation and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Isabel; Pinho, Raquel; Pavlou, Maria Angeliki; Hennion, Magali; Wales, Pauline; Schütz, Anna-Lena; Rajput, Ashish; Szego, Éva M; Kerimoglu, Cemil; Gerhardt, Ellen; Rego, Ana Cristina; Fischer, André; Bonn, Stefan; Outeiro, Tiago F

    2017-06-15

    Alpha-synuclein (aSyn) is considered a major culprit in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathophysiology. However, the precise molecular function of the protein remains elusive. Recent evidence suggests that aSyn may play a role on transcription regulation, possibly by modulating the acetylation status of histones. Our study aimed at evaluating the impact of wild-type (WT) and mutant A30P aSyn on gene expression, in a dopaminergic neuronal cell model, and decipher potential mechanisms underlying aSyn-mediated transcriptional deregulation. We performed gene expression analysis using RNA-sequencing in Lund Human Mesencephalic (LUHMES) cells expressing endogenous (control) or increased levels of WT or A30P aSyn. Compared to control cells, cells expressing both aSyn variants exhibited robust changes in the expression of several genes, including downregulation of major genes involved in DNA repair. WT aSyn, unlike A30P aSyn, promoted DNA damage and increased levels of phosphorylated p53. In dopaminergic neuronal cells, increased aSyn expression led to reduced levels of acetylated histone 3. Importantly, treatment with sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), rescued WT aSyn-induced DNA damage, possibly via upregulation of genes involved in DNA repair. Overall, our findings provide novel and compelling insight into the mechanisms associated with aSyn neurotoxicity in dopaminergic cells, which could be ameliorated with an HDACi. Future studies will be crucial to further validate these findings and to define novel possible targets for intervention in PD. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The effect of CA1 dopaminergic system on amnesia induced by harmane in mice.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Hasanvand, Simin; Khakpai, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2018-05-16

    In the present study, the effects of bilateral injections of dopaminergic drugs into the hippocampal CA1 regions (intra-CA1) on harmane-induced amnesia were examined in mice. We used a single-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance task for the assessment of memory acquisition in adult male mice. Our data indicated that pre-training intra-peritoneal (i.p.) administration of harmane (12 mg/kg) impaired memory acquisition. Moreover, intra-CA1 administration of dopamine D1 receptor agonist, SKF38393 (0.25 µg/mouse), dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.25 µg/mouse), dopamine D2 receptor agonist, quinpirole (0.125 and 0.25 µg/mouse) and dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride (0.2 and 0.4 µg/mouse) decreased the learning of a single-trial inhibitory avoidance task. Furthermore, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of sub-threshold doses of SKF38393 (0.0625 µg/mouse) or sulpiride (0.1 µg/mouse) increased pre-training harmane (4 and 8 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced amnesia. On the other hand, pre-training intra-CA1 injection of a sub-threshold dose of SCH23390 (0.0625 µg/mouse) reversed amnesia induced by an effective dose of harmane (12 mg/kg; i.p.). In addition, Pre-training intra-CA1 injection of quinpirole (0.0625 µg/mouse) had no effect on memory impairment induced by harmane. These findings indicate the involvement of CA1 dopaminergic system on harmane-induced impairment of memory acquisition.

  2. Vanadium Induces Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity Via Protein Kinase C-Delta Dependent Oxidative Signaling Mechanisms: Relevance to Etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Afeseh Ngwa, Hilary; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Song, Chunjuan; Witte, Travis; Houk, R. S.; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental exposure to neurotoxic metals through various sources including exposure to welding fumes has been linked to an increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). Welding fumes contain many different metals including vanadium typically present as particulates containing vanadium pentoxide (V2O5). However, possible neurotoxic effects of this metal oxide on dopaminergic neuronal cells are not well studied. In the present study, we characterized vanadium-induced oxidative stress-dependent cellular events in cell culture models of PD. V2O5 was neurotoxic to dopaminergic neuronal cells including primary nigral dopaminergic neurons and the EC50 was determined to be 37 μM in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cell model. The neurotoxic effect was accompanied by a time-dependent uptake of vanadium and upregulation of metal transporter proteins Tf and DMT1 in N27 cells. Additionally, vanadium resulted in a threefold increase in reactive oxygen species generation, followed by release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm and subsequent activation of caspase-9 (>fourfold) and caspase-3 (>ninefold). Interestingly, vanadium exposure induced proteolytic cleavage of native protein kinase Cdelta (PKCδ, 72-74 kDa) to yield a 41 kDa catalytically active fragment resulting in a persistent increase in PKCδ kinase activity. Co-treatment with pan-caspase inhibitor ZVAD-FMK significantly blocked vanadium-induced PKCδ proteolytic activation, indicating that caspases mediate PKCδ cleavage. Also, co-treatment with Z-VAD-FMK almost completely inhibited V2O5-induced DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, PKCδ knockdown using siRNA protected N27 cells from V2O5-induced apoptotic cell death. Collectively, these results demonstrate vanadium can exert neurotoxic effects in dopaminergic neuronal cells via caspase-3-dependent PKCδ cleavage, suggesting that metal exposure may promote nigral dopaminergic degeneration. PMID:19646462

  3. Sigma-1 receptor deficiency reduces MPTP-induced parkinsonism and death of dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hong, J; Sha, S; Zhou, L; Wang, C; Yin, J; Chen, L

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (σ1R) has been reported to be decreased in nigrostriatal motor system of Parkinson's disease patients. Using heterozygous and homozygous σ1R knockout (σ1R+/− and σ1R−/−) mice, we investigated the influence of σ1R deficiency on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-impaired nigrostriatal motor system. The injection of MPTP for 5 weeks in wild-type mice (MPTP-WT mice), but not in σ1R+/− or σ1R−/− mice (MPTP-σ1R+/− or MPTP-σ1R−/− mice), caused motor deficits and ~40% death of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta with an elevation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) NR2B phosphorylation. The σ1R antagonist NE100 or the NR2B inhibitor Ro25-6981 could alleviate the motor deficits and the death of dopaminergic neurons in MPTP-WT mice. By contrast, MPTP-σ1R+/− mice treated with the σ1R agonist PRE084 or MPTP-σ1R−/− mice treated with the NMDAr agonist NMDA appeared to have similar motor deficits and loss of dopaminergic neurons as MPTP-WT mice. The pharmacological or genetic inactivation of σ1R suppressed the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT) in substantia nigra, which was corrected by NMDA. The activation of σ1R by PRE084 enhanced the DAT expression in WT mice or σ1R+/− mice. By contrast, the level of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in σ1R+/− mice or σ1R−/− mice had no difference from WT mice. Interestingly, MPTP-WT mice showed the reduction in the levels of DAT and VMAT2, but MPTP-σ1R−/− mice did not. The inactivation of σ1R by NE100 could prevent the reduction of VMAT2 in MPTP-WT mice. In addition, the activation of microglia cells in substantia nigra was equally enhanced in MPTP-WT mice and MPTP-σ1R−/− mice. The number of activated astrocytes in MPTP-σ1R−/− mice was less than that in MPTP-WT mice. The findings indicate that the σ1R deficiency through suppressing NMDAr function and DAT expression can reduce MPTP-induced death of

  4. Physical exercise-induced fatigue: the role of serotonergic and dopaminergic systems

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, L.M.S.; Rabelo, P.C.R.; Moraes, M.M.; Teixeira-Coelho, F.; Coimbra, C.C.; Wanner, S.P.; Soares, D.D.

    2017-01-01

    Brain serotonin and dopamine are neurotransmitters related to fatigue, a feeling that leads to reduced intensity or interruption of physical exercises, thereby regulating performance. The present review aims to present advances on the understanding of fatigue, which has recently been proposed as a defense mechanism instead of a “physiological failure” in the context of prolonged (aerobic) exercises. We also present recent advances on the association between serotonin, dopamine and fatigue. Experiments with rodents, which allow direct manipulation of brain serotonin and dopamine during exercise, clearly indicate that increased serotoninergic activity reduces performance, while increased dopaminergic activity is associated with increased performance. Nevertheless, experiments with humans, particularly those involving nutritional supplementation or pharmacological manipulations, have yielded conflicting results on the relationship between serotonin, dopamine and fatigue. The only clear and reproducible effect observed in humans is increased performance in hot environments after treatment with inhibitors of dopamine reuptake. Because the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems interact with each other, the serotonin-to-dopamine ratio seems to be more relevant for determining fatigue than analyzing or manipulating only one of the two transmitters. Finally, physical training protocols induce neuroplasticity, thus modulating the action of these neurotransmitters in order to improve physical performance. PMID:29069229

  5. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin-I in copper-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in rats: A possible link with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Abbaoui, Abdellatif; Chatoui, Hicham; El Hiba, Omar; Gamrani, Halima

    2017-11-01

    Numerous findings indicate an involvement of heavy metals in the neuropathology of several neurodegenerative disorders, especially Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies have demonstrated that Copper (Cu) exhibits a potent neurotoxic effect on dopaminergic neurons and triggers profound neurobehavioral alterations. Curcumin is a major component of Curcuma longa rhizomes and a powerful medicinal plant that exerts many pharmacological effects. However, the neuroprotective action of curcumin on Cu-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is yet to be investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of acute Cu-intoxication (10mg/kg B.W. i.p) for 3days on the dopaminergic system and locomotor performance as well as the possible therapeutic efficacy of curcumin I (30mg/kg B.W.). Intoxicated rats showed a significant loss of Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) expression within substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the striatal outputs. This was correlated with a clear decrease in locomotor performance. Critically, curcumin-I co-treatment reversed these changes and showed a noticeable protective effect; both TH expression and locomotor performance was reinstated in intoxicated rats. These results demonstrate altered dopaminergic innervations following Cu intoxication and a new therapeutic potential of curcumin against Cu-induced dopaminergic neurotransmission failure. Curcumin may therefore prevent heavy metal related Parkinsonism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 3-hydroxymorphinan is neurotrophic to dopaminergic neurons and is also neuroprotective against LPS-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Qin, Liya; Wang, Tongguang; Wei, Sung-Jen; Gao, Hui-ming; Liu, Jie; Wilson, Belinda; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Wanqin; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). We recently reported that dextromethorphan (DM), an active ingredient in a variety of widely used anticough remedies, protected dopaminergic neurons in rat primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated degeneration and provided potent protection for dopaminergic neurons in a MPTP mouse model. The underlying mechanism for the protective effect of DM was attributed to its anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of microglia activation. In an effort to develop more potent compounds for the treatment of PD, we have screened a series of analogs of DM, and 3-hydroxymorphinan (3-HM) emerged as a promising candidate for this purpose. Our study using primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures showed that 3-HM provided more potent neuroprotection against LPS-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity than its parent compound. The higher potency of 3-HM was attributed to its neurotrophic effect in addition to the anti-inflammatory effect shared by both DM and 3-HM. First, we showed that 3-HM exerted potent neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects on dopaminergic neurons in rat primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures treated with LPS. The neurotrophic effect of 3-HM was glia-dependent since 3-HM failed to show any protective effect in the neuron-enriched cultures. We subsequently demonstrated that it was the astroglia, not the microglia, that contributed to the neurotrophic effect of 3-HM. This conclusion was based on the reconstitution studies, in which we added different percentages of microglia (10-20%) or astroglia (40-50%) back to the neuron-enriched cultures and found that 3-HM was neurotrophic after the addition of astroglia, but not microglia. Furthermore, 3-HM-treated astroglia-derived conditioned media exerted a significant neurotrophic effect on dopaminergic neurons. It appeared likely that 3-HM caused the release of neurotrophic factor

  7. Lipopolysaccharide-induced dopaminergic cell death in rat midbrain slice cultures: role of inducible nitric oxide synthase and protection by indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Haruki; Katsuki, Hiroshi; Nishiwaki, Mayumi; Kume, Toshiaki; Kaneko, Shuji; Akaike, Akinori

    2003-09-01

    Glial cell activation associated with inflammatory reaction may contribute to pathogenic processes of neurodegenerative disorders, through production of several cytotoxic molecules. We investigated the consequences of glial activation by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rat midbrain slice cultures. Application of IFN-gamma followed by LPS caused dopaminergic cell death and accompanying increases in nitrite production and lactate dehydrogenase release. Aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), or SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, prevented dopaminergic cell loss as well as nitrite production. SB203580 also suppressed expression of iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) induced by IFN-gamma/LPS. A COX inhibitor indomethacin protected dopaminergic neurons from IFN-gamma/LPS-induced injury, whereas selective COX-2 inhibitors such as NS-398 and nimesulide did not. Notably, indomethacin was able to attenuate neurotoxicity of a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Neutralizing antibodies against tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta did not inhibit dopaminergic cell death caused by IFN-gamma/LPS, although combined application of these antibodies blocked lactate dehydrogenase release and decrease in the number of non-dopaminergic neurons. These results indicate that iNOS-derived NO plays a crucial role in IFN-gamma/LPS-induced dopaminergic cell death, and that indomethacin exerts protective effect by mechanisms probably related to NO neurotoxicity rather than through COX inhibition.

  8. PKCδ-dependent p47phox activation mediates methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Dang, Duy-Khanh; Shin, Eun-Joo; Kim, Dae-Joong; Tran, Hai-Quyen; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Jang, Choon-Gon; Ottersen, Ole Petter; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2018-02-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) has been recognized to activate NADPH oxidase (PHOX). However, the interaction between PKC and PHOX in vivo remains elusive. Treatment with methamphetamine (MA) resulted in a selective increase in PKCδ expression out of PKC isoforms. PKCδ co-immunoprecipitated with p47phox, and facilitated phosphorylation and membrane translocation of p47phox. MA-induced increases in PHOX activity and reactive oxygen species were attenuated by knockout of p47phox or PKCδ. In addition, MA-induced impairments in the Nrf-2-related glutathione synthetic system were also mitigated by knockout of p47phox or PKCδ. Glutathione-immunoreactivity was co-localized in Iba-1-labeled microglial cells and in NeuN-labeled neurons, but not in GFAP-labeled astrocytes, reflecting the necessity for self-protection against oxidative stress by mainly microglia. Buthionine-sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis, potentiated microglial activation and pro-apoptotic changes, leading to dopaminergic losses. These neurotoxic processes were attenuated by rottlerin, a pharmacological inhibitor of PKCδ, genetic inhibitions of PKCδ [i.e., PKCδ knockout mice (KO) and PKCδ antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)], or genetic inhibition of p47phox (i.e., p47phox KO or p47phox ASO). Rottlerin did not exhibit any additive effects against the protective activity offered by genetic inhibition of p47phox. Therefore, we suggest that PKCδ is a critical regulator for p47phox activation induced by MA, and that Nrf-2-dependent GSH induction via inhibition of PKCδ or p47phox, is important for dopaminergic protection against MA insult. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrocortisone-induced parkin prevents dopaminergic cell death via CREB pathway in Parkinson's disease model.

    PubMed

    Ham, Sangwoo; Lee, Yun-Il; Jo, Minkyung; Kim, Hyojung; Kang, Hojin; Jo, Areum; Lee, Gum Hwa; Mo, Yun Jeong; Park, Sang Chul; Lee, Yun Song; Shin, Joo-Ho; Lee, Yunjong

    2017-04-03

    Dysfunctional parkin due to mutations or post-translational modifications contributes to dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Overexpression of parkin provides protection against cellular stresses and prevents dopamine cell loss in several PD animal models. Here we performed an unbiased high-throughput luciferase screening to identify chemicals that can increase parkin expression. Among promising parkin inducers, hydrocortisone possessed the most favorable profiles including parkin induction ability, cell protection ability, and physicochemical property of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) without inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress. We found that hydrocortisone-induced parkin expression was accountable for cell protection against oxidative stress. Hydrocortisone-activated parkin expression was mediated by CREB pathway since gRNA to CREB abolished hydrocortisone's ability to induce parkin. Finally, hydrocortisone treatment in mice increased brain parkin levels and prevented 6-hydroxy dopamine induced dopamine cell loss when assessed at 4 days after the toxin's injection. Our results showed that hydrocortisone could stimulate parkin expression via CREB pathway and the induced parkin expression was accountable for its neuroprotective effect. Since glucocorticoid is a physiological hormone, maintaining optimal levels of glucocorticoid might be a potential therapeutic or preventive strategy for Parkinson's disease.

  10. Role of Mitochondria in Methamphetamine-Induced Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity: Involvement in Oxidative Stress, Neuroinflammation, and Pro-apoptosis-A Review.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Tran, Hai-Quyen; Nguyen, Phuong-Tram; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Jang, Choon-Gon; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2018-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA), an amphetamine-type psychostimulant, is associated with dopaminergic toxicity and has a high abuse potential. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested that impaired mitochondria are critical in dopaminergic toxicity induced by MA. Mitochondria are important energy-producing organelles with dynamic nature. Evidence indicated that exposure to MA can disturb mitochondrial energetic metabolism by inhibiting the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamic processes, including mitochondrial biogenesis, mitophagy, and fusion/fission, have recently been shown to contribute to dopaminergic toxicity induced by MA. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that MA-induced mitochondrial impairment enhances susceptibility to oxidative stress, pro-apoptosis, and neuroinflammation in a positive feedback loop. Protein kinase Cδ has emerged as a potential mediator between mitochondrial impairment and oxidative stress, pro-apoptosis, or neuroinflammation in MA neurotoxicity. Understanding the role and underlying mechanism of mitochondrial impairment could provide a molecular target to prevent or alleviate dopaminergic toxicity induced by MA.

  11. Functional expression of SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) protects retinal dopaminergic cells from neurotoxin-induced degeneration.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingling; Li, Ping; Carr, Aprell; Wang, Xiaokai; DeLaPaz, April; Sun, Lei; Lee, Eric; Tomei, Erika; Li, Lei

    2013-01-11

    We previously isolated a dominant mutation, night blindness b (nbb), which causes a late onset of retinal dopaminergic cell degeneration in zebrafish. In this study, we cloned the zebrafish nbb locus. Sequencing results revealed that nbb is a homolog of the vertebrate SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil). The Stil gene has been shown to play important roles in the regulation of vertebrate embryonic neural development and human cancer cell proliferation. In this study, we demonstrate that functional expression of Stil is also required for neural survival. In zebrafish, decreased expression of Stil resulted in increased toxic susceptibility of retinal dopaminergic cells to 6-hydroxydopamine. Increases in Stil-mediated Shh signaling transduction (i.e. by knocking down the Shh repressor Sufu) prevented dopaminergic cell death induced by neurotoxic insult. The data suggest that the oncogene Stil also plays important roles in neural protection.

  12. Attenuation of methamphetamine-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice by lipopolysaccharide pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yin Chiu; Kuo, Yu-Min; Liao, Pao-Chi; Cherng, Chianfang G; Su, Su-Wen; Yu, Lung

    2007-04-30

    Immunological activation has been proposed to play a role in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic terminal damage. In this study, we examined the roles of lipopolysaccharide, a pro-inflammatory and inflammatory factor, treatment in modulating the methamphetamine-induced nigrostriatal dopamine neurotoxicity. Lipopolysaccharide pretreatment did not affect the basal body temperature or methamphetamine-elicited hyperthermia three days later. Such systemic lipopolysaccharide treatment mitigated methamphetamine-induced striatal dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid depletions in a dose-dependent manner. As the most potent dose (1 mg/kg) of lipopolysaccharide was administered two weeks, one day before or after the methamphetamine dosing regimen, methamphetamine-induced striatal dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid depletions remained unaltered. Moreover, systemic lipopolysaccharide pretreatment (1 mg/kg) attenuated local methamphetamine infusion-produced dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid depletions in the striatum, indicating that the protective effect of lipopolysaccharide is less likely due to interrupted peripheral distribution or metabolism of methamphetamine. We concluded a critical time window for systemic lipopolysaccharide pretreatment in exerting effective protection against methamphetamine-induced nigrostriatal dopamine neurotoxicity.

  13. From the Cover: Harmane-Induced Selective Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sammi, Shreesh Raj; Agim, Zeynep Sena; Cannon, Jason R

    2018-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease. Although numerous exposures have been linked to PD etiology, causative factors for most cases remain largely unknown. Emerging data on the neurotoxicity of heterocyclic amines suggest that this class of compounds should be examined for relevance to PD. Here, using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system, we tested whether harmane exposure produced selective toxicity to dopamine neurons that is potentially relevant to PD. Harmane is a known tremorigenic β-carboline (a type of heterocyclic amine) found in cooked meat, roasted coffee beans, and tobacco. Thus, this compound represents a potentially important exposure. In the nematode model, we observed dopaminergic neurons to be selectively vulnerable, showing significant loss in terms of structure and function at lower doses than other neuronal populations. In examining mechanisms of toxicity, we observed significant harmane-induced decreases in mitochondrial viability and increased reactive oxygen species levels. Blocking transport through the dopamine transporter (DAT) was not neuroprotective, suggesting that harmane is unlikely to enter the cell through DAT. However, a mitochondrial complex I activator did partially ameliorate neurodegeneration. Further, mitochondrial complex I activator treatment reduced harmane-induced dopamine depletion, measured by the 1-nonanol assay. In summary, we have shown that harmane exposure in C. elegans produces selective dopaminergic neurotoxicity that may bear relevance to PD, and that neurotoxicity may be mediated through mitochondrial mechanisms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Gallic Acid Protects 6-OHDA Induced Neurotoxicity by Attenuating Oxidative Stress in Human Dopaminergic Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Y; Phani Kumar, G; Ramya, E M; Anilakumar, K R

    2018-06-01

    Gallic acid is one of the most important polyphenolic compounds, which is considered an excellent free radical scavenger. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a neurotoxin, which has been implicated in mainly Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the neuroprotective effects of gallic acid on 6-OHDA induced apoptosis in human dopaminergic cells, SH-SY5Y. Our results showed that 6-OHDA induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells was suppressed by pre-treatment with gallic acid. The percentage of live cells (90%) was high in the pre-treatment of gallic acid when compared with 6-OHDA alone treated cell line. Moreover, gallic acid was very effective in attenuating the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, elevated levels of intracellular ROS and apoptotic cell death induced by 6-OHDA. Gallic acid also lowered the ratio of the pro-apoptotic Bax protein and the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein in SH-SY5Y cells. 6-OHDA exposure was up-regulated caspase-3 and Keap-1 and, down-regulated Nrf2, BDNF and p-CREB, which were sufficiently reverted by gallic acid pre-treatment. These findings indicate that gallic acid is able to protect the neuronal cells against 6-OHDA induced injury and proved that gallic acid might potentially serve as an agent for prevention of several human neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  15. Cell cycle activation in p21 dependent pathway: An alternative mechanism of organophosphate induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Kandimalla, Ramesh J L; Sharma, Deep Raj; Kaushal, Alka; Ruban, Anand; Sunkaria, Aditya; Vallamkondu, Jayalakshmi; Chiarugi, Alberto; Reddy, P Hemachandra; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2017-07-01

    In the previous study, we demonstrated that dichlorvos induces oxidative stress in dopaminergic neuronal cells and subsequent caspase activation mediates apoptosis. In the present study, we evaluated the effect and mechanism of dichlorvos induced oxidative stress on cell cycle activation in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells. Dichlorvos exposure resulted in oxidative DNA damage along with activation of cell cycle machinery in differentiated PC12 cells. Dichlorvos exposed cells exhibited an increased expression of p53, cyclin-D1, pRb and decreased expression of p21suggesting a re-entry of differentiated cells into the cell cycle. Cell cycle analysis of dichlorvos exposed cells revealed a reduction of cells in the G 0 /G 1 phase of the cell cycle (25%), and a concomitant increase of cells in S phase (30%) and G2/M phase (43.3%) compared to control PC12 cells. Further, immunoblotting of cytochrome c, Bax, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 revealed that dichlorvos induces a caspase-dependent cell death in PC12 cells. These results suggest that Dichlorvos exposure has the potential to generate oxidative stress which evokes activation of cell cycle machinery leading to apoptotic cell death via cytochrome c release from mitochondria and subsequent caspase-3 activation in differentiated PC12 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Automated and manual patch clamp data of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Franz, Denise; Olsen, Hervør Lykke; Klink, Oliver; Gimsa, Jan

    2017-04-25

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells can be differentiated into dopaminergic neurons (Dopa.4U). Dopa.4U neurons expressed voltage-gated Na V and K V channels and showed neuron-like spontaneous electrical activity. In automated patch clamp measurements with suspended Dopa.4U neurons, delayed rectifier K + current (delayed K V ) and rapidly inactivating A-type K + current (fast K V ) were identified. Examination of the fast K V current with inhibitors yielded IC 50 values of 0.4 mM (4-aminopyridine) and 0.1 mM (tetraethylammonium). In manual patch clamp measurements with adherent Dopa.4U neurons, fast K V current could not be detected, while the delayed K V current showed an IC 50 of 2 mM for 4-aminopyridine. The Na V channels in adherent and suspended Dopa.4U neurons showed IC 50 values for tetrodotoxin of 27 and 2.9 nM, respectively. GABA-induced currents that could be observed in adherent Dopa.4U neurons could not be detected in suspended cells. Application of current pulses induced action potentials in approx. 70 % of the cells. Our results proved the feasibility of automated electrophysiological characterization of neuronal cells.

  17. Prevention of dopaminergic neurotoxicity by targeting nitric oxide and peroxynitrite: implications for the prevention of methamphetamine-induced neurotoxic damage.

    PubMed

    Imam, S Z; Islam, F; Itzhak, Y; Slikker, W; Ali, S F

    2000-09-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a neurotoxic psychostimulant that produces catecholaminergic brain damage by producing oxidative stress and free radical generation. The role of oxygen and nitrogen radicals is well documented as a cause of METH-induced neurotoxic damage. In this study, we have obtained evidence that METH-induced neurotoxicity is the resultant of interaction between oxygen and nitrogen radicals, and it is mediated by the production of peroxynitrite. We have also assessed the effects of inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) as well as scavenger of nitric oxide and a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst. Significant protective effects were observed with the inhibitor of nNOS, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), as well as by the selective peroxynitrite scavenger or decomposition catalyst, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(2,4,6-trimethyl-3,5-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinato iron III (FeTPPS). However, the use of a nitric oxide scavenger, 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO), did not provide any significant protection against METH-induced hyperthermia or peroxynitrite generation and the resulting dopaminergic neurotoxicity. In particular, treatment with FeTPPS completely prevented METH-induced hyperthermia, peroxynitrite production, and METH-induced dopaminergic depletion. Together, these data demonstrate that METH-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is mediated by the generation of peroxynitrite, which can be selectively protected by nNOS inhibitors or peroxynitrite scavenger or decomposition catalysts.

  18. Glucose Metabolism and AMPK Signaling Regulate Dopaminergic Cell Death Induced by Gene (α-Synuclein)-Environment (Paraquat) Interactions.

    PubMed

    Anandhan, Annadurai; Lei, Shulei; Levytskyy, Roman; Pappa, Aglaia; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I; Cerny, Ronald L; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Powers, Robert; Franco, Rodrigo

    2017-07-01

    While environmental exposures are not the single cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), their interaction with genetic alterations is thought to contribute to neuronal dopaminergic degeneration. However, the mechanisms involved in dopaminergic cell death induced by gene-environment interactions remain unclear. In this work, we have revealed for the first time the role of central carbon metabolism and metabolic dysfunction in dopaminergic cell death induced by the paraquat (PQ)-α-synuclein interaction. The toxicity of PQ in dopaminergic N27 cells was significantly reduced by glucose deprivation, inhibition of hexokinase with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), or equimolar substitution of glucose with galactose, which evidenced the contribution of glucose metabolism to PQ-induced cell death. PQ also stimulated an increase in glucose uptake, and in the levels of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and Na + -glucose transporters isoform 1 (SGLT1) proteins, but only inhibition of GLUT-like transport with STF-31 or ascorbic acid reduced PQ-induced cell death. Importantly, while autophagy protein 5 (ATG5)/unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1)-dependent autophagy protected against PQ toxicity, the inhibitory effect of glucose deprivation on cell death progression was largely independent of autophagy or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. PQ selectively induced metabolomic alterations and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in the midbrain and striatum of mice chronically treated with PQ. Inhibition of AMPK signaling led to metabolic dysfunction and an enhanced sensitivity of dopaminergic cells to PQ. In addition, activation of AMPK by PQ was prevented by inhibition of the inducible nitric oxide syntase (iNOS) with 1400W, but PQ had no effect on iNOS levels. Overexpression of wild type or A53T mutant α-synuclein stimulated glucose accumulation and PQ toxicity, and this toxic synergism was reduced by inhibition of glucose metabolism

  19. Methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia and dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice: pharmacological profile of protective and nonprotective agents.

    PubMed

    Albers, D S; Sonsalla, P K

    1995-12-01

    Neurotoxic doses of methamphetamine (METH) can cause hyperthermia in experimental animals. Damage sustained to dopaminergic nerve terminals by this stimulant can be reduced by environmental cooling or by pharmacological manipulation which attenuates the hyperthermia. Many pharmacological agents with very diverse actions protect against METH-induced neuropathology. Several of these compounds, as well as drugs which do not protect, were investigated to determine if there was a relationship between protection and METH-induced hyperthermia. Mice received METH with or without concurrent administration of other drugs and core (i.e., colonic) temperature was monitored during treatment. The animals were sacrificed > or = 5 days later and neostriatal tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine were measured. Core temperature was significantly elevated (> or = 2 degrees C) in mice treated with doses of METH which produced > or = 90% losses in striatal dopamine but not in mice less severally affected (only 50% loss of dopamine). Concurrent treatment of mice with METH and pharmacological agents which protected partially or completely from METH-induced toxicity also prevented the hyperthermic response (i.e., dopamine receptor antagonists, fenfluramine, dizocilpine, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, phenytoin, aminooxyacetic acid and propranol). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the hyperthermia produced by METH contributes to its neuropathology. However, studies with reserpine, a compound which dramatically lowers core temperature, demonstrated that hyperthermia per se is not a requirement for METH-induced neurotoxicity. Although core temperature was elevated in reserpinized mice treated with METH as compared with reserpinized control mice, their temperatures remained significantly lower than in nonreserpinized control mice. However, the hypothermic state produced in the reserpinized mice did not provide protection from METH-induced toxicity. These data demonstrate

  20. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyoung Jun; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon

    Highlights: • DHA prevents PQ-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss via decreasing of excessive ROS. • DHA increases GR and GCLm derivate GSH pool by enhancement of Nrf2 expression. • Protective mechanism is removal of PQ-induced ROS via DHA-dependent GSH pool. • DHA may be a good preventive strategy for Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapy. - Abstract: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson’s disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson’s disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuronmore » loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis.« less

  1. Detoxified extract of Rhus verniciflua stokes inhibits rotenone-induced apoptosis in human dopaminergic cells, SH-SY5Y.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Kumar; Kim, Seung; Park, Se-Eun; Kim, Sung-Jun

    2011-03-01

    Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS), traditionally used as a food supplement and in traditional herbal medicine for centuries in Korea, is known to possess various pharmacological properties. Environmental neurotoxins such as rotenone, a specific inhibitor of complex I provide models of Parkinson's disease (PD) both in vivo and in vitro. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of RVS against rotenone-induced toxicity in human dopaminergic cells, SH-SY5Y. Cells exposed to rotenone for 24 h-induced cellular injury and apoptotic cell death. Pretreatment of cells with RVS provided significant protection to SH-SY5Y cells. Further, RVS offered remarkable protection against rotenone-induced oxidative stress and markedly inhibited mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) disruption. RVS also attenuated the up-regulation of Bax, Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 and down-regulation of Bcl-2. Moreover, pretreatment with RVS prevented the decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels in SH-SY5Y cells. Interestingly, RVS conferred profound protection to human dopaminergic cells by preventing the downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). These results suggest that RVS may protect dopaminergic neurons against rotenone-induced apoptosis by multiple functions and contribute to neuroprotection in neurodegenerative diseases, such as PD.

  2. The Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter reduces pesticide-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Hakeem O.; Chang, Hui-Yun; Terrell, Ashley N.; Brooks, Elizabeth S.; Pulido, Dianne; Simon, Anne F.; Krantz, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine is cytotoxic and may play a role in the development of Parkinson’s disease. However, its interaction with environmental risk factors such as pesticides remains poorly understood. The vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) regulates intracellular dopamine content, and we have tested the neuroprotective effects of VMAT in vivo using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We find that Drosophila VMAT (dVMAT) mutants contain fewer dopaminergic neurons than wild type, consistent with a developmental effect, and that dopaminergic cell loss in the mutant is exacerbated by the pesticides rotenone and paraquat. Over-expression of DVMAT protein does not increase the survival of animals exposed to rotenone, but blocks the loss of dopaminergic neurons caused by this pesticide. These results are the first to demonstrate an interaction between a VMAT and pesticides in vivo, and provide an important model to investigate the mechanisms by which pesticides and cellular DA may interact to kill dopaminergic cells. PMID:20472063

  3. The Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor, the Compound 11b Improves Haloperidol Induced Catatonia by Enhancing the Striatum Dopaminergic Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Fathi-Moghaddam, Hadi; Shafiee Ardestani, Mehdi; Saffari, Mostafa; Jabbari Arabzadeh, Ali; Elmi, Mitra

    2010-01-01

    A substantial amount of evidence has proposed an important role for Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme in brain diseases and affiliate disorders. The purpose of this research was studying the effects of COX-2 selective inhibition on haloperidol-induced catatonia in an animal model of drug overdose and Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this study, the effect of acute and Sub-chronic oral administration of a new selective COX-2 inhibitor, i.e. the compound 11b or 1-(Phenyl)-5-(4-methylsulfonylphenyl)-2-ethylthioimidazole, in a dosage of 2, 4 and 8 mg/kg on haloperidol-induced catatonia was evaluated and compared to the standard drug scopolamine (1 mg/kg) by microanalysis of Striatum dopaminergic neurotransmission. The results showed a very high potency for 11b in improving the catalepsy by enhancing the dopaminergic neurotranmission (p < 0.05). In addition, statistical analysis showed the dose- and time-dependent behavior of the observed protective effect of 11b against the haloperidol-induced catatonia and enhancement of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. These findings are additional pharmacological data that suggest the effectiveness of COX-2 inhibition in treatment of schizophreny-associated rigidity. PMID:24381603

  4. GSTpi expression in MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration of C57BL/6 mouse midbrain and striatum.

    PubMed

    Castro-Caldas, Margarida; Neves Carvalho, Andreia; Peixeiro, Isabel; Rodrigues, Elsa; Lechner, Maria Celeste; Gama, Maria João

    2009-06-01

    MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity involves major biochemical processes such as oxidative stress and impaired energy metabolism, leading to a significant reduction in the number of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTpi) is a phase II detoxifying enzyme that provides protection of cells from injury by toxic chemicals and products of oxidative stress. In humans, polymorphisms of GSTP1 affect substrate selectivity and stability increasing the susceptibility to parkinsonism-inducing effects of environmental toxins. Given the ability of MPTP to increase the levels of reactive oxygen species and the link between altered redox potential and the expression and activity of GSTpi, we investigated the effect of MPTP on GSTpi cellular concentration in an in vivo model of Parkinson's disease. The present study demonstrates that GSTpi is actively expressed in both substantia nigra pars compacta and striatum of C57BL/6 mice brain, mostly in oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. After systemic administration of MPTP, GSTpi expression is significantly increased in glial cells in the vicinity of dopaminergic neurons cell bodies and fibers. The results suggest that GSTpi expression may be part of the mechanism underlying the ability of glial cells to elicit protection against the mechanisms involved in MPTP-induced neuronal death.

  5. The role of purinergic and dopaminergic systems on MK-801-induced antidepressant effects in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Raquel Bohrer; Siebel, Anna Maria; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2015-12-01

    Depression is a serious disease characterized by low mood, anhedonia, loss of interest in daily activities, appetite and sleep disturbances, reduced concentration, and psychomotor agitation. There is a growing interest in NMDA antagonists as a promising target for the development of new antidepressants. Considering that purinergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in depression and anxiety states, we characterized the role of these signaling pathways on MK-801-induced antidepressant effects in zebrafish. Animals treated with MK-801 at the doses of 5, 10, 15, or 20μM during 15, 30, or 60min spent longer time in the top area of aquariums in comparison to control group, indicating an anxiolytic/antidepressant effect induced by this drug. Animals treated with MK-801 spent longer time period at top area until 2 (5μM MK-801) and 4 (20μM MK-801) hours after treatment, returning to basal levels from 24h to 7days after exposure. Repeated MK-801 treatment did not induce cumulative effects, since animals treated daily during 7days had the same behavioral response pattern observed since the first until the 7th day. In order to investigate the effects of adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonist and agonist and the influence of modulation of adenosine levels on MK-801 effects, we treated zebrafish with caffeine, DPCPX, CPA, ZM 241385, CGS 21680, AMPCP, EHNA, dipyridamole, and NBTI during 30min before MK-801 exposure. The non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine (50mg/kg) and the selective A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX (15mg/kg) prevented the behavioral changes induced by MK-801. The non-specific nucleoside transporter (NT) inhibitor dipyridamole (10mg/kg) exacerbated the behavioral changes induced by MK-801. Dopamine receptor antagonists (sulpiride and SCH 23390) did not change the behavioral alterations induced by MK-801. Our findings demonstrated that antidepressant-like effects of MK-801 in zebrafish are mediated through adenosine A1 receptor activation

  6. Alkaloids from piper longum protect dopaminergic neurons against inflammation-mediated damage induced by intranigral injection of lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    He, Huan; Guo, Wei-Wei; Xu, Rong-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Nan; Wu, Xia; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2016-10-24

    Alkaloids from Piper longum (PLA), extracted from P. longum, have potent anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PLA could protect dopaminergic neurons against inflammation-mediated damage by inhibiting microglial activation using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced dopaminergic neuronal damage rat model. The animal behaviors of rotational behavior, rotarod test and open-field test were investigated. The survival ratio of dopaminergic neurons and microglial activation were examined. The dopamine (DA) and its metabolite were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effects of PLA on the expression of interleukin (IL)-6, interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) were also estimated. We showed that the survival ratio of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and DA content in the striatum were reduced after a single intranigral dose of LPS (10 μg) treatment. The survival rate of TH-ir neurons in the SNpc and DA levels in the striatum were significantly improved after treatment with PLA for 6 weeks. The over-activated microglial cells were suppressed by PLA treatment. We also observed that the levels of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β were decreased and the excessive production of ROS and NO were abolished after PLA treatment. Therefore, the behavioral dysfunctions induced by LPS were improved after PLA treatment. This study suggests that PLA plays a significant role in protecting dopaminergic neurons against inflammatory reaction induced damage.

  7. Ghrelin receptor antagonism of morphine-induced conditioned place preference and behavioral and accumbens dopaminergic sensitization in rats.

    PubMed

    Jerabek, Pavel; Havlickova, Tereza; Puskina, Nina; Charalambous, Chrysostomos; Lapka, Marek; Kacer, Petr; Sustkova-Fiserova, Magdalena

    2017-11-01

    An increasing number of studies over the past few years have demonstrated ghrelin's role in alcohol, cocaine and nicotine abuse. However, the role of ghrelin in opioid effects has rarely been examined. Recently we substantiated in rats that ghrelin growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHS-R1A) appear to be involved in acute opioid-induced changes in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system associated with the reward processing. The aim of the present study was to ascertain whether a ghrelin antagonist (JMV2959) was able to inhibit morphine-induced biased conditioned place preference and challenge-morphine-induced accumbens dopaminergic sensitization and behavioral sensitization in adult male rats. In the place preference model, the rats were conditioned for 8 days with morphine (10 mg/kg s.c.). On the experimental day, JMV2959 (3 and 6 mg/kg i.p.) or saline were administered before testing. We used in vivo microdialysis to determine changes of dopamine and its metabolites in the nucleus accumbens in rats following challenge-morphine dose (5 mg/kg s.c.) with or without JMV2959 (3 and 6 mg/kg i.p.) pretreatment, administered on the 12th day of spontaneous abstinence from morphine repeated treatment (5 days, 10-40 mg/kg). Induced behavioral changes were simultaneously monitored. Pretreatment with JMV2959 significantly and dose dependently reduced the morphine-induced conditioned place preference and significantly and dose dependently reduced the challenge-morphine-induced dopaminergic sensitization and affected concentration of by-products associated with dopamine metabolism in the nucleus accumbens. JMV2959 pretreatment also significantly reduced challenge-morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. Our present data suggest that GHS-R1A antagonists deserve to be further investigated as a novel treatment strategy for opioid addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dopamine D3 receptors contribute to methamphetamine-induced alterations in dopaminergic neuronal function: Role of hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Baladi, Michelle G.; Newman, Amy H.; Nielsen, Shannon M.; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine administration causes long-term deficits to dopaminergic systems that, in humans, are thought to be associated with motor slowing and memory impairment. Methamphetamine interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and increases extracellular concentrations of dopamine that, in turn, binds to a number of dopamine receptor subtypes. Although the relative contribution of each receptor subtype to the effects of methamphetamine is not fully known, non-selective dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonists can attenuate methamphetamine-induced changes to dopamine systems. The present study extended these findings by testing the role of the dopamine D3 receptor subtype in mediating the long-term dopaminergic, and for comparison serotonergic, deficits caused by methamphetamine. Results indicate that the dopamine D3 receptor selective antagonist, PG01037, attenuated methamphetamine-induced decreases in striatal DAT, but not hippocampal serotonin (5HT) transporter (SERT), function, as assessed 7 days after treatment. However, PG01037 also attenuated methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. When methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia was maintained by treating rats in a warm ambient environment, PG01037 failed to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on DAT uptake. Furthermore, PG01037 did not attenuate methamphetamine-induced decreases in dopamine and 5HT content. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that dopamine D3 receptors mediate, in part, the long-term deficits in DAT function caused by methamphetamine, and that this effect likely involves an attenuation of methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. PMID:24685638

  9. Dopamine D(3) receptors contribute to methamphetamine-induced alterations in dopaminergic neuronal function: role of hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Baladi, Michelle G; Newman, Amy H; Nielsen, Shannon M; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2014-06-05

    Methamphetamine administration causes long-term deficits to dopaminergic systems that, in humans, are thought to be associated with motor slowing and memory impairment. Methamphetamine interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and increases extracellular concentrations of dopamine that, in turn, binds to a number of dopamine receptor subtypes. Although the relative contribution of each receptor subtype to the effects of methamphetamine is not fully known, non-selective dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonists can attenuate methamphetamine-induced changes to dopamine systems. The present study extended these findings by testing the role of the dopamine D3 receptor subtype in mediating the long-term dopaminergic, and for comparison serotonergic, deficits caused by methamphetamine. Results indicate that the dopamine D3 receptor selective antagonist, PG01037, attenuated methamphetamine-induced decreases in striatal DAT, but not hippocampal serotonin (5HT) transporter (SERT), function, as assessed 7 days after treatment. However, PG01037 also attenuated methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. When methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia was maintained by treating rats in a warm ambient environment, PG01037 failed to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on DAT uptake. Furthermore, PG01037 did not attenuate methamphetamine-induced decreases in dopamine and 5HT content. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that dopamine D3 receptors mediate, in part, the long-term deficits in DAT function caused by methamphetamine, and that this effect likely involves an attenuation of methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Effects of perinatal exposure to bisphenol A inducing dopaminergic neuronal cell to apoptosis happening in midbrain of male rat offspring].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Wen-dong; Wu, De-sheng; Jiang, Song-hui; Qu, Wei-dong

    2006-07-01

    To investigate the mechanism and effect of rat perinatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) resulting in midbrain dopaminergic neuronal cell apoptosis and tyrosine hydroxylase expression of male offspring. Rat dams were randomLy divided into 4 groups on gestational day(GD) 10 and given orally the bisphenol A doses as 0, 0.5, 5, 50 mg/kg x d from GD10 to weaning. The brains of male offspring were obtained for detecting, with immunohistochemistry protocol, the Caspase-3, Bcl-2 and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the midbrain on postnatal day 21 or 30 respectively, and the midbrain apoptotic neuronal cell were detected by TUNEL on PND21. The expression of Caspase-3 in the midbrain of rat male offspring were increased but bcl-2 were decreased on PND21 and 30, respectively. On PND21, apoptotic neuronal cell were found in the midbrain of high and medium doses groups. TH protein expression was decreased. Perinatal exposure to bisphenol A can induce the apoptosis of midbrain dopaminergic neuron in the male rat offspring even after weaning, and concomitantly decrease the midbrain TH immunoreactivity, this may cause the abnormal function of dopaminergic pathway of rat male offspring.

  11. Neurturin overexpression in dopaminergic neurons induces presynaptic and postsynaptic structural changes in rats with chronic 6-hydroxydopamine lesion.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Corona, David; Vázquez-Hernández, Nallely; Escobedo, Lourdes; Orozco-Barrios, Carlos E; Ayala-Davila, Jose; Moreno, Mario Gil; Amaro-Lara, Miriam E; Flores-Martinez, Yazmin M; Espadas-Alvarez, Armando J; Fernandez-Parrilla, Manuel A; Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan A; Gutierrez-Castillo, M E; González-Burgos, Ignacio; Martinez-Fong, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The structural effect of neurturin (NRTN) on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in animals remains unknown, although NRTN has been shown to be effective in Parkinson's disease animal models. Herein, we aimed to demonstrate that NRTN overexpression in dopaminergic neurons stimulates both neurite outgrowths in the nigrostriatal pathway and striatal dendritic spines in aging rats with chronic 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion. At week 12 after lesion, pTracer-mNRTN-His or pGreenLantern-1 plasmids were intranigrally transfected using the NTS-polyplex nanoparticles system. We showed that the transgenic expression in dopaminergic neurons remained until the end of the study (12 weeks). Only animals expressing NRTN-His showed recovery of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)+ cells (28 ± 2%), their neurites (32 ± 2%) and the neuron-specific cytoskeletal marker β-III-tubulin in the substantia nigra; striatal TH(+) fibers were also recovered (52 ± 3%), when compared to the healthy condition. Neurotensin receptor type 1 levels were also significantly recovered in the substantia nigra and striatum. Dopamine recovery was 70 ± 4% in the striatum and complete in the substantia nigra. The number of dendritic spines of striatal medium spiny neurons was also significantly increased, but the recovery was not complete. Drug-activated circling behavior decreased by 73 ± 2% (methamphetamine) and 89 ± 1% (apomorphine). Similar decrease was observed in the spontaneous motor behavior. Our results demonstrate that NRTN causes presynaptic and postsynaptic restoration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system after a 6-OHDA-induced chronic lesion. However, those improvements did not reach the healthy condition, suggesting that NRTN exerts lesser neurotrophic effects than other neurotrophic approaches.

  12. Neurturin overexpression in dopaminergic neurons induces presynaptic and postsynaptic structural changes in rats with chronic 6-hydroxydopamine lesion

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Corona, David; Vázquez-Hernández, Nallely; Escobedo, Lourdes; Orozco-Barrios, Carlos E.; Ayala-Davila, Jose; Moreno, Mario Gil; Amaro-Lara, Miriam E.; Flores-Martinez, Yazmin M.; Espadas-Alvarez, Armando J.; Fernandez-Parrilla, Manuel A.; Gonzalez-Barrios, Juan A.; Gutierrez-Castillo, ME; González-Burgos, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    The structural effect of neurturin (NRTN) on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in animals remains unknown, although NRTN has been shown to be effective in Parkinson’s disease animal models. Herein, we aimed to demonstrate that NRTN overexpression in dopaminergic neurons stimulates both neurite outgrowths in the nigrostriatal pathway and striatal dendritic spines in aging rats with chronic 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion. At week 12 after lesion, pTracer-mNRTN-His or pGreenLantern-1 plasmids were intranigrally transfected using the NTS-polyplex nanoparticles system. We showed that the transgenic expression in dopaminergic neurons remained until the end of the study (12 weeks). Only animals expressing NRTN-His showed recovery of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)+ cells (28 ± 2%), their neurites (32 ± 2%) and the neuron-specific cytoskeletal marker β-III-tubulin in the substantia nigra; striatal TH(+) fibers were also recovered (52 ± 3%), when compared to the healthy condition. Neurotensin receptor type 1 levels were also significantly recovered in the substantia nigra and striatum. Dopamine recovery was 70 ± 4% in the striatum and complete in the substantia nigra. The number of dendritic spines of striatal medium spiny neurons was also significantly increased, but the recovery was not complete. Drug-activated circling behavior decreased by 73 ± 2% (methamphetamine) and 89 ± 1% (apomorphine). Similar decrease was observed in the spontaneous motor behavior. Our results demonstrate that NRTN causes presynaptic and postsynaptic restoration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system after a 6-OHDA-induced chronic lesion. However, those improvements did not reach the healthy condition, suggesting that NRTN exerts lesser neurotrophic effects than other neurotrophic approaches. PMID:29176874

  13. Loss of dopaminergic neurons occurs in the ventral tegmental area and hypothalamus of rats following chronic stress: Possible pathogenetic loci for depression involved in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sugama, Shuei; Kakinuma, Yoshihiko

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic pathways including ventral tegmental area (VTA). Although several factors for the neuronal loss have been suggested, most of the PD cases are sporadic and idiopathic. In our previous study, we demonstrated the first evidence that solely chronic restraint stress (RS) induced the DA neuronal loss in the substantia nigra (SN). In this study, we further investigated whether chronic stress could affect other major DA systems, VTA and tuberoinfundibular system (TIDA), by using immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. The present study showed that, in the VTA, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive neurons decreased by 9.8% at 2nd week, 19.2% at 4th week, 39.5% at 8th week, and 40.6% at 16th week during chronic RS as compared to control. Similarly, in the TIDA, the TH neurons decreased by 10.9% at 2nd week, 38.2% at 4th week, 56.3% at 8th week, and 57.1% at 16th week. The in situ hybridization results consistently demonstrated decreases in Th mRNA expressing cells in the VTA and TIDA in a comparable time dependent manner. Thus, exposure to chronic stress may simultaneously induce multiple neuronal loss of DA systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Interaction between the dopaminergic and opioidergic systems in dorsal hippocampus in modulation of formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Reisi, Zahra; Haghparast, Amir; Pahlevani, Pouyan; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Haghparast, Abbas

    2014-09-01

    The hippocampus is a region of the brain that serves several functions. The dopaminergic system acts through D1- and D2-like receptors to interfere in pain modulation and the opioid receptors play major roles in analgesic processes and there are obvious overlaps between these two systems. The present study investigated the interaction between the opioidergic and dopaminergic systems in the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) region for formalin-induced orofacial pain. Two guide cannulae were stereotaxically implanted in the CA1 region and morphine (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 μg/0.5 μl saline) and naloxone (0.3, 1 and 3 μg/0.5 μl saline) were used as the opioid receptor agonist and antagonist, respectively. SKF-38393 (1 μg/0.5 μl saline) was used as a D1-like receptor agonist, quinpirole (2 μg/0.5 μl saline) as a D2-like receptor agonist, SCH-23390 (0.5 μg/0.5 μl saline) as a D1-like receptor antagonist and sulpiride (3 μg/0.5 μl DMSO) as a D2-like receptor antagonist. To induce orofacial pain, 50 μl of 1% formalin was subcutaneously injected into the left side of the upper lip. Our results showed that different doses of morphine significantly reduced orofacial pain in both phases induced by formalin. Naloxone (1 and 3 μg) reversed morphine induced analgesia in CA1. SKF-38393 and quinpirole with naloxone (1 μg) significantly decreased formalin-induced orofacial pain in both phases. SCH-23390 had no effect on the antinociceptive response of morphine in both phases of orofacial pain. Sulpiride reversed the antinociceptive effects of morphine only in the first phase, but this result was not significant. Our findings suggest that there is cross-talk between the opioidergic and dopaminergic systems. Opioidergic neurons also exerted antinociceptive effects by modulation of the dopaminergic system in the CA1 region of the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prenatal lipopolysaccharide induces hypothalamic dopaminergic hypoactivity and autistic-like behaviors: Repetitive self-grooming and stereotypies.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, Thiago B; Bernardi, Maria M

    2017-07-28

    Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, induces social, cognitive, and communication deficits. For a complete screening of autistic-like behaviors, the objective of this study was to evaluate if our rat model also induces restricted and repetitive stereotyped behaviors. Thus, we studied the self-grooming microstructure. We also studied the neurochemistry of hypothalamus and frontal cortex, which are brain areas related to autism to better understand central mechanisms involved in our model. Prenatal LPS exposure on gestational day 9.5 increased the head washing episodes (frequency and time), as well as the total self-grooming. However, body grooming, paw/leg licking, tail/genital grooming, and circling behavior/tail chasing did not vary significantly among the groups. Moreover, prenatal LPS induced dopaminergic hypoactivity (HVA metabolite and turnover) in the hypothalamus. Therefore, our rat model induced restricted and repetitive stereotyped behaviors and the other main symptoms of autism experimentally studied in rodent models and also found in patients. The hypothalamic dopaminergic impairments seem to be associated with the autistic-like behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypoactivity of the central dopaminergic system and autistic-like behavior induced by a single early prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, Thiago B; Chaves-Kirsten, Gabriela P; Chaible, Lucas M; Silva, Ana C; Martins, Daniel O; Britto, Luiz R G; Dagli, Maria L Z; Torrão, Andrea S; Palermo-Neto, João; Bernardi, Maria M

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioral patterns associated with autism and the prevalence of these behaviors in males and females, to verify whether our model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration represents an experimental model of autism. For this, we prenatally exposed Wistar rats to LPS (100 μg/kg, intraperitoneally, on gestational day 9.5), which mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, because the exact mechanisms by which autism develops are still unknown, we investigated the neurological mechanisms that might underlie the behavioral alterations that were observed. Because we previously had demonstrated that prenatal LPS decreases striatal dopamine (DA) and metabolite levels, the striatal dopaminergic system (tyrosine hydroxylase [TH] and DA receptors D1a and D2) and glial cells (astrocytes and microglia) were analyzed by using immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and real-time PCR. Our results show that prenatal LPS exposure impaired communication (ultrasonic vocalizations) in male pups and learning and memory (T-maze spontaneous alternation) in male adults, as well as inducing repetitive/restricted behavior, but did not change social interactions in either infancy (play behavior) or adulthood in females. Moreover, although the expression of DA receptors was unchanged, the experimental animals exhibited reduced striatal TH levels, indicating that reduced DA synthesis impaired the striatal dopaminergic system. The expression of glial cell markers was not increased, which suggests that prenatal LPS did not induce permanent neuroinflammation in the striatum. Together with our previous finding of social impairments in males, the present findings demonstrate that prenatal LPS induced autism-like effects and also a hypoactivation of the dopaminergic system. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The anorexic agents, sibutramine and fenfluramine, depress GABAB-induced inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in rat mesencephalic dopaminergic cells

    PubMed Central

    Ledonne, Ada; Sebastianelli, Luca; Federici, Mauro; Bernardi, Giorgio; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Nutrition is the result of a complex interaction among environmental, homeostatic and reward-related processes. Accumulating evidence supports key roles for the dopaminergic neurons of the ventral midbrain in regulating feeding behaviour. For this reason, in the present study, we have investigated the electrophysiological effects of two centrally acting anorexic agents, fenfluramine and sibutramine, on these cells. Experimental approach Rat midbrain slices were used to make intracellular recordings from dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated synaptic transmission was assessed from the inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) mediated by GABAA and GABAB receptors. Key results Fenfluramine and sibutramine reduced, concentration-dependently, the GABAB IPSPs, without affecting the GABAA-mediated potentials. This effect is presynaptic, as postsynaptic membrane responses induced by application of a GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, were not affected by the two drugs. Furthermore, the selective 5-hydroxytriptamine 1B (5-HT1B) receptor antagonist, SB216641, blocked the reduction of GABAB IPSPs caused by fenfluramine and sibutramine, indicating that the receptor mediating this effect is 5-HT1B. Conclusions and implications Two anorexic agents, fenfluramine and sibutramine, induced the activation of 5-HT1B receptors located on presynaptic GABAergic terminals, thus reducing the release of GABA. This action can alter the strength of synaptic afferents that modify the activity of dopaminergic neurons, inducing neuronal excitation. Our results reveal an additional mechanism of action for fenfluramine and sibutramine that might contribute to reducing food intake, by influencing the pleasurable and motor aspects of feeding behaviour. PMID:19298257

  18. Binding preference of p62 towards LC3-ll during dopaminergic neurotoxin-induced impairment of autophagic flux.

    PubMed

    Lim, Junghyun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Youdim, Moussa B H; Rhyu, Im Joo; Choe, Kwang-Min; Oh, Young J

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has revealed that autophagy may be beneficial for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases through removal of abnormal protein aggregates. However, the critical autophagic events during neurodegeneration remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated whether prototypic autophagic events occur in the MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cell line upon exposure to N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP (+) ), a well-known dopaminergic neurotoxin. MPP (+) treatment induced both morphological and biochemical characteristics of autophagy, such as accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and LC3-II form and decreased p62 levels. Further investigation revealed that these phenomena were largely the consequences of blocked autophagic flux. Following MPP (+) treatment, levels of LC3-II formed and p62 dramatically increased in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction. Levels of ubiquitinated proteins also increased in this fraction. Further colocalization analyses revealed that the punctated spots positive for both p62 and LC3 were more intense following MPP (+) treatment, suggesting drug-induced enrichment of these two proteins in the insoluble fraction. Intriguingly, reciprocal immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that p62 mainly precipitated with LC3-II form following MPP (+) treatment. Transient transfection of the mutant form of Atg4B, Atg4B (C74A) , which inhibits LC3 processing, dramatically decreased binding between p62 and LC3-II form. Taken together, our results indicate that p62 can be efficiently localized to autophagic compartments via preferential binding with LC3-II form. This colocalization may assist in removal of detergent-insoluble forms of damaged cellular proteins during dopaminergic neurotoxin-induced impairment of autophagic flux.

  19. Circadian-dependent effect of melatonin on dopaminergic D2 antagonist-induced hypokinesia and agonist-induced stereotypies in rats.

    PubMed

    Sumaya, I C; Byers, D M; Irwin, L N; Del Val, S; Moss, D E

    2004-08-01

    Although a melatonin/dopamine relationship has been well established in nonmotor systems wherein dopamine and melatonin share an antagonist relationship, less clear is the role melatonin may play in extrapyramidal dopaminergic function. Therefore, the purpose of the present experiments was to examine the relationship between melatonin and the dopaminergic D2 receptor system and behavior. Hypokinesia was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with fluphenazine (D2 antagonist, 0.4 mg/kg ip) and stereotypies with apomorphine (D2 agonist, 0.6 mg/kg sc) during the light (1200 h) and dark (2200 h) phases. As expected, fluphenazine induced severe hypokinesia during the light phase (482 +/- 176 s); however, unexpectedly, fluphenazine-induced hypokinesia during the dark was almost nonexistent (25 +/- 6 s). Furthermore, melatonin treatment (30 mg/kg ip) produced a strong interaction with fluphenazine in that it reduced fluphenazine-induced hypokinesia by nearly 80% in the light (112 +/- 45 s) but paradoxically increased the minimal fluphenazine-induced hypokinesia in the dark by more than 60% (70 +/- 17 s). Melatonin also reduced apomorphine-induced stereotypies by nearly 40% in the light but had no effect in the dark. Taken together, these data show (1) a strong and unexpected nocturnal effect of fluphenazine on hypokinesia and (2) provide support for an antagonistic melatonin/dopaminergic interaction in the context of motor behavior and D2 receptor function which appears to be critically dependent on the light/dark status of the dopaminergic system. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  20. Vitexin protects dopaminergic neurons in MPTP-induced Parkinson’s disease through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ming; Li, Fangming; Wang, Weidong

    2018-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease which is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Methods In this study, the neuroprotective effect of vitexin (Vit), a flavonoid compound isolated from Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge was examined in PD models both in vitro and in vivo. Results On SH-SY5Y cells, methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP+) treatment suppressed cell viability, induced apoptosis, and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 activity. However, Vit improved these parameters induced by MPP+ treatment significantly. Further study disclosed that Vit enhanced the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt which was downregulated by MPP+ in SH-SY5Y cells, the effect of which could be blocked by PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and activated by PI3K activator IGF-1. Moreover, results from the pole test and traction test suggested that Vit pretreatment prevented bradykinesia and alleviated the initial lesions caused by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in MPTP-treated mouse PD model. Vit also enhanced the activation of PI3K and Akt and suppressed the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and caspase-3 activity in MPTP-treated mice. Conclusion Taken together, this study demonstrated that Vit protected dopaminergic neurons against MPP+/MPTP-induced neurotoxicity through the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Our findings may facilitate the clinical application of Vit in the therapy of PD. PMID:29588573

  1. Exosomes from dental pulp stem cells rescue human dopaminergic neurons from 6-hydroxy-dopamine-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jarmalavičiūtė, Akvilė; Tunaitis, Virginijus; Pivoraitė, Ugnė; Venalis, Algirdas; Pivoriūnas, Augustas

    2015-07-01

    Stem cells derived from the dental pulp of human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) have unique neurogenic properties that could be potentially exploited for therapeutic use. The importance of paracrine SHED signaling for neuro-regeneration has been recognized, but the exact mechanisms behind these effects are presently unknown. In the present study, we investigated the neuro-protective potential of exosomes and micro-vesicles derived from SHEDs on human dopaminergic neurons during oxidative stress-induced by 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA). ReNcell VM human neural stem cells were differentiated into dopaminergic neurons and treated with 100 μmol/L of 6-OHDA alone or in combination with exosomes or micro-vesicles purified by ultracentrifugation from SHEDs cultivated in serum-free medium under two conditions: in standard two-dimensional culture flasks or on laminin-coated micro-carriers in a bioreactor. Real-time monitoring of apoptosis was performed with the use of time-lapse confocal microscopy and the CellEvent Caspase-3/7 green detection reagent. Exosomes but not micro-vesicles derived from SHEDs grown on the laminin-coated three-dimensional alginate micro-carriers suppressed 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons by approximately 80% throughout the culture period. Strikingly, no such effects were observed for the exosomes derived from SHEDs grown under standard culture conditions. Our results suggest that exosomes derived from SHEDs are considered as new potential therapeutic tool in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Methamphetamine induces autophagy and apoptosis in a mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal culture model: role of cathepsin-D in methamphetamine-induced apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Kanthasamy, Arthi; Anantharam, V; Ali, Syed F; Kanthasamy, A G

    2006-08-01

    Autophagy is a phylogenetically conserved process that plays a critical role in the degradation of oxidatively damaged proteins and organelle turnover. The role of oxidative stress and apoptosis in methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity is well known; however, the potential contribution of autophagy to METH-induced oxidative damage in dopaminergic neuronal systems remains unclear. The goals of the present article were twofold: (a) to develop an in vitro dopaminergic cell culture model to study cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying METH-induced autophagy and apoptosis, and (b) to determine whether lysosomal protease cathepsin-D activation, resulting from the loss of lysosomal membrane integrity, contributes to METH-induced apoptosis. To accomplish these goals, we characterized morphological and biochemical changes in an immortalized mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cell line (N27 cells) following treatment with METH. Exposure of METH (2 mM) to N27 cells resulted in the appearance of cytoplasmic vacuolar structures reminiscent of autophagic vacuoles within 3 h. In order to ascertain the identity of the vacuolar structures that are formed following METH exposure, immunohistochemical staining for markers of autophagy were performed. LAMP 2, a classical marker of autophagolysosomes, revealed an extensive punctuate pattern of distribution on the vacuolar membrane surface, with exclusive localization in the cytoplasm. Additionally, using DNA fragmentation analysis we showed a dose-dependent increase in fragmented DNA in METH treated N27 cells. Since METH-induced autophagy preceded DNA fragmentation, we tested whether dysfunction of the autophagolysosomal system contributes to nuclear damage. Immunofluorescence studies with cathepsin-d demonstrated a granular pattern of staining in untreated cells, whereas an increased cathepsin- D immunoreactivity with a globular pattern of staining was observed in METH-treated cells. Nevertheless, blockade of cathepsin

  3. Lutein protects dopaminergic neurons against MPTP-induced apoptotic death and motor dysfunction by ameliorating mitochondrial disruption and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Nataraj, Jagatheesan; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy Justin; Essa, Musthafa Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis plays an important role in various neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), the most widely used neurotoxin mimics the symptoms of PD by inhibiting mitochondrial complex I that stimulates excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and finally leads to mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis. Lutein, a carotenoid of xanthophyll family, is found abundantly in leafy green vegetables such as spinach, kale and in egg yolk, animal fat and human eye retinal macula. Increasing evidence indicates that lutein has offers benefits against neuronal damages during diabetic retinopathy, ischemia and AD by virtue of its mitochondrial protective, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. Male C57BL/6 mice (23-26 g) were randomized and grouped in to Control, MPTP, and Lutein treated groups. Lutein significantly reversed the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons by increasing the striatal dopamine level in mice. Moreover, lutein-ameliorated MPTP induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and motor abnormalities. In addition, lutein repressed the MPTP-induced neuronal damage/apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of pro-apoptotic markers (Bax, caspases-3, 8 and 9) and enhancing anti-apoptotic marker (Bcl-2) expressions. Our current results revealed that lutein possessed protection on dopaminergic neurons by enhancing antioxidant defense and diminishing mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic death, suggesting the potential benefits of lutein for PD treatment.

  4. POTENTIAL ROLE OF TUBERO-INFUNDIBULAR DOPAMINERGIC NEURONS IN THE DISRUPTION OF PITUITARY HORMONE SECRETION BY ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously, we demonstrated that atrazine suppressed the ovulatory surge of luteininzing hormone and disrupted estrous cycles in the female rat. We also reported that this disruption of ovulation is likely the result of atrazine's effect on hypothalamic gonadotropin hormone rele...

  5. Curcumin protects dopaminergic neurons against inflammation-mediated damage and improves motor dysfunction induced by single intranigral lipopolysaccharide injection.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neha; Sharma, Sheetal; Nehru, Bimla

    2017-06-01

    Various studies have indicated a lower incidence and prevalence of neurological conditions in people consuming curcumin. The ability of curcumin to target multiple cascades, simultaneously, could be held responsible for its neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed to investigate the potential of curcumin in minimizing microglia-mediated damage in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced model of PD. Altered microglial functions and increased inflammatory profile of the CNS have severe behavioral consequences. In the current investigation, a single injection of LPS (5 ug/5 µl PBS) was injected into the substantia nigra (SN) of rats, and curcumin [40 mg/kg b.wt (i.p.)] was administered daily for a period of 21 days. LPS triggered an inflammatory response characterized by glial activation [Iba-1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)] and pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α and IL-1β) leading to extensive dopaminergic loss and behavioral abnormality in rats. The behavioral observations, biochemical markers, quantification of dopamine and its metabolites (DOPAC and HVA) using HPLC followed by IHC of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were evaluated after 21 days of LPS injection. Curcumin supplementation prevented dopaminergic degeneration in LPS-treated animals by normalizing the altered levels of biomarkers. Also, a significant improvement in TH levels as well as behavioral parameters (actophotometer, rotarod, beam walking and grid walking tests) were seen in LPS injected rats. Curcumin shielded the dopaminergic neurons against LPS-induced inflammatory response, which was associated with suppression of glial activation (microglia and astrocytes) and transcription factor NF-κB as depicted from RT-PCR and EMSA assay. Curcumin also suppressed microglial NADPH oxidase activation as observed from NADPH oxidase activity. The results suggested that one of the important mechanisms by which curcumin mediates its protective effects in the LPS-induced PD

  6. Methamphetamine- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl- 1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in inducible nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Itzhak, Y; Martin, J L; Ali, S F

    1999-12-15

    Previous studies have suggested a role for the retrograde messenger, nitric oxide (NO), in methamphetamine (METH)- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)- induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Since evidence supported the involvement of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) isoform in the dopaminergic neurotoxicity, the present study was undertaken to investigate whether the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) isoform is also associated with METH- and MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. The administration of METH (5mg/kg x 3) to iNOS deficient mice [homozygote iNOS(-/-)] and wild type mice (C57BL/6) resulted in significantly smaller depletion of striatal dopaminergic markers in the iNOS(-/-) mice compared with the wild-type mice. METH-induced hyperthermia was also significantly lower in the iNOS(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. In contrast to the outcome of METH administration, MPTP injections (20 mg/kg x 3) resulted in a similar decrease in striatal dopaminergic markers in iNOS(-/-) and wild-type mice. In the set of behavioral experiments, METH-induced locomotor sensitization was investigated. The acute administration of METH (1.0 mg/kg) resulted in the same intensity of locomotor activity in iNOS(-/-) and wild-type mice. Moreover, 68 to 72 h after the exposure to the high-dose METH regimen (5 mg/kg x 3), a marked sensitized response to a challenge injection of METH (1.0 mg/kg) was observed in both the iNOS(-/-) and wild-type mice. The finding that iNOS(-/-) mice were unprotected from MPTP-induced neurotoxicity suggests that the partial protection against METH-induced neurotoxicity observed was primarily associated with the diminished hyperthermic effect of METH seen in the iNOS(-/-) mice. Moreover, in contrast to nNOS deficiency, iNOS deficiency did not affect METH-induced behavioral sensitization. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Competitive and noncompetitive antagonists at N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors protect against methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Sonsalla, P K; Riordan, D E; Heikkila, R E

    1991-02-01

    The administration of methamphetamine (METH) to experimental animals results in damage to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. We have demonstrated previously that the excitatory amino acids may be involved in this neurotoxicity. For example, several compounds which bind to the phenyclidine site within the ion channel linked to the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor protected mice from the METH-induced loss of neostriatal tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine content. The present study was conducted to characterize further the role of the excitatory amino acids in mediating the neurotoxic effects of METH. The administration of three or four injections of METH (10 mg/kg) every 2 hr to mice produced large decrements in neostriatal dopamine content (80-84%) and in tyrosine hydroxylase activity (65-74%). A dose-dependent protection against these METH-induced decreases was seen with two noncompetitive NMDA antagonists, ifenprodil and SL 82.0715 (25-50 mg/kg/injection), both of which are thought to bind to a polyamine or sigma site associated with the NMDA receptor complex, and with two competitive NMDA antagonists, CGS 19755 (25-50 mg/kg/injection) and NPC 12626 (150-300 mg/kg/injection). Moreover, an intrastriatal infusion of NMDA (0.1 mumol) produced a slight but significant loss of neostriatal dopamine which was potentiated in mice that also received a systemic injection of METH. The results of these studies strengthen the hypothesis that the excitatory amino acids play a critical role in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic damage induced by METH.

  8. Epigallocatechin gallate protects dopaminergic neurons against 1-methyl-4- phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting microglial cell activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Peng, Ning; Du, Fang; Li, Xu-ping; Le, Wei-dong

    2006-04-01

    To observe whether the dopaminergic neuroprotective effect of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is associated with its inhibition of microglial cell activation in vivo. The effects of EGCG at different doses on dopaminergic neuronal survival were tested in a methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP+)-induced dopaminergic neuronal injury model in the primary mesencephalic cell cultures. With unbiased stereological method, tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells were counted in the A8, A9 and A10 regions of the substantia nigra (SN) in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated C57BL/6 mice. The effect of EGCG on microglial activation in the SN was also investigated. Pretreatment with EGCG (1 to 100 micromol/L) significantly attenuated MPP+-induced TH-ir cell loss by 22.2% to 80.5% in the mesencephalic cell cultures. In MPTP-treated C57BL/6 mice, EGCG at a low concentration (1 mg/kg) provided significant protection against MPTP-induced TH-ir cell loss by 50.9% in the whole nigral area and by 71.7% in the A9 region. EGCG at 5 mg/kg showed more prominent protective effect than at 1 or 10 mg/kg. EGCG pretreatment significantly inhibited microglial activation and CD11b expression induced by MPTP. EGCG exerts potent dopaminergic neuroprotective activity by means of microglial inhibition, which shed light on the potential use of EGCG in treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  9. Dysregulation of the Mitochondrial Unfolded Protein Response Induces Non-Apoptotic Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in C. elegans Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Bryan A.; Petersen, Daniel A.; Gaeta, Anthony L.

    2017-01-01

    Due to environmental insult or innate genetic deficiency, protein folding environments of the mitochondrial matrix are prone to dysregulation, prompting the activation of a specific organellar stress-response mechanism, the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRMT). In Caenorhabditis elegans, mitochondrial damage leads to nuclear translocation of the ATFS-1 transcription factor to activate the UPRMT. After short-term acute stress has been mitigated, the UPRMT is eventually suppressed to restore homeostasis to C. elegans hermaphrodites. In contrast, and reflective of the more chronic nature of progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), here, we report the consequences of prolonged, cell-autonomous activation of the UPRMT in C. elegans dopaminergic neurons. We reveal that neuronal function and integrity decline rapidly with age, culminating in activity-dependent, non-apoptotic cell death. In a PD-like context wherein transgenic nematodes express the Lewy body constituent protein α-synuclein (αS), we not only find that this protein and its PD-associated disease variants have the capacity to induce the UPRMT, but also that coexpression of αS and ATFS-1-associated dysregulation of the UPRMT synergistically potentiate dopaminergic neurotoxicity. This genetic interaction is in parallel to mitophagic pathways dependent on the C. elegans PINK1 homolog, which is necessary for cellular resistance to chronic malfunction of the UPRMT. Given the increasingly recognized role of mitochondrial quality control in neurodegenerative diseases, these studies illustrate, for the first time, an insidious aspect of mitochondrial signaling in which the UPRMT pathway, under disease-associated, context-specific dysregulation, exacerbates disruption of dopaminergic neurons in vivo, resulting in the neurodegeneration characteristic of PD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Disruptions or alterations in the activation of pathways that regulate mitochondrial quality

  10. Extracellular Zn2+ Influx into Nigral Dopaminergic Neurons Plays a Key Role for Pathogenesis of 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Parkinson's Disease in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tamano, Haruna; Nishio, Ryusuke; Morioka, Hiroki; Takeda, Atsushi

    2018-04-29

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disease characterized by a selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. The exact cause of the neuronal loss remains unclear. Here, we report a unique mechanism of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration, in which extracellular Zn 2+ influx plays a key role for PD pathogenesis induced with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in rats. 6-OHDA rapidly increased intracellular Zn 2+ only in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of brain slices and this increase was blocked in the presence of CaEDTA, an extracellular Zn 2+ chelator, and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor antagonist, indicating that 6-OHDA rapidly increases extracellular Zn 2+ influx via AMPA receptor activation in the SNpc. Extracellular Zn 2+ concentration was decreased under in vivo SNpc perfusion with 6-OHDA and this decrease was blocked by co-perfusion with CNQX, supporting 6-OHDA-induced Zn 2+ influx via AMPA receptor activation in the SNpc. Interestingly, both 6-OHDA-induced loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and turning behavior to apomorphine were ameliorated by co-injection of intracellular Zn 2+ chelators, i.e., ZnAF-2DA and N,N,N',N'-Tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN). Co-injection of TPEN into the SNpc blocked 6-OHDA-induced increase in intracellular Zn 2+ but not in intracellular Ca 2+ . These results suggest that the rapid influx of extracellular Zn 2+ into dopaminergic neurons via AMPA receptor activation in the SNpc induces nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration, resulting in 6-OHDA-induced PD in rats.

  11. Baicalein antagonizes rotenone-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells related to Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Two active compounds, baicalein and its glycoside baicalin were found in the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, and reported to be neuroprotective in vitro and in vivo. This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of baicalein on the rotenone-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells related to parkinsonism. Methods Cell viability and cytotoxicity were determined by MTT assay. The degree of nuclear apoptosis was evaluated with a fluorescent DNA-binding probe Hoechst 33258. The production of reactive oxidative species (ROS) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were determined by fluorescent staining with DCFH-DA and Rhodanmine 123, respectively. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 was determined by the Western blots. Results Baicalein significantly increased viability and decreased rotenone-induced death of SH-SY5Y cells in a dose-dependent manner. Pre- and subsequent co-treatment with baicalein preserved the cell morphology and attenuated the nuclear apoptotic characteristics triggered by rotenone. Baicalein antagonized rotenone-induced overproduction of ROS, loss of ΔΨm, the increased expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 and the decreased expression of Bcl-2. Conclusion The antioxidative effect, mitochondrial protection and modulation of anti-and pro-apoptotic proteins are related to the neuroprotective effects of baicalein against rotenone induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. PMID:22264378

  12. Baicalein antagonizes rotenone-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells related to Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Song, Ju-Xian; Choi, Mandy Yuen-Man; Wong, Kavin Chun-Kit; Chung, Winkie Wing-Yan; Sze, Stephen Cho-Wing; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Zhang, Kalin Yan-Bo

    2012-01-21

    Two active compounds, baicalein and its glycoside baicalin were found in the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, and reported to be neuroprotective in vitro and in vivo. This study aims to evaluate the protective effects of baicalein on the rotenone-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells related to parkinsonism. Cell viability and cytotoxicity were determined by MTT assay. The degree of nuclear apoptosis was evaluated with a fluorescent DNA-binding probe Hoechst 33258. The production of reactive oxidative species (ROS) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were determined by fluorescent staining with DCFH-DA and Rhodanmine 123, respectively. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 was determined by the Western blots. Baicalein significantly increased viability and decreased rotenone-induced death of SH-SY5Y cells in a dose-dependent manner. Pre- and subsequent co-treatment with baicalein preserved the cell morphology and attenuated the nuclear apoptotic characteristics triggered by rotenone. Baicalein antagonized rotenone-induced overproduction of ROS, loss of ΔΨm, the increased expression of Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 and the decreased expression of Bcl-2. The antioxidative effect, mitochondrial protection and modulation of anti-and pro-apoptotic proteins are related to the neuroprotective effects of baicalein against rotenone induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells.

  13. Effect of melatonin on methamphetamine- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity and methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization.

    PubMed

    Itzhak, Y; Martin, J L; Black, M D; Ali, S F

    1998-06-01

    Methamphetamine (METH)- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is thought to be associated with the formation of free radicals. Since evidence suggests that melatonin may act as a free radical scavenger and antioxidant, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of melatonin on METH- and MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. In addition, the effect of melatonin on METH-induced locomotor sensitization was investigated. The administration of METH (5 mg kg(-1) x 3) or MPTP (20 mg kg(-1) x 3) to Swiss Webster mice resulted in 45-57% depletion in the content of striatal dopamine and its metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid, and 57-59% depletion in dopamine transporter binding sites. The administration of melatonin (10 mg kg(-1)) before each of the three injections of the neurotoxic agents (on day 1), and thereafter for two additional days, afforded a full protection against METH-induced depletion of dopamine and its metabolites and dopamine transporter binding sites. In addition, melatonin significantly diminished METH-induced hyperthermia. However, the treatment with melatonin had no significant effect on MPTP-induced depletion of the dopaminergic markers tested. In the set of behavioral experiments, we found that the administration of 1 mg kg(-1) METH to Swiss Webster mice for 5 days resulted in marked locomotor sensitization to a subsequent challenge injection of METH, as well as context-dependent sensitization (conditioning). The pretreatment with melatonin (10 mg kg(-1)) prevented neither the sensitized response to METH nor the development of conditioned locomotion. Results of the present study indicate that melatonin has a differential effect on the dopaminergic neurotoxicity produced by METH and MPTP. Since it is postulated that METH-induced hyperthermia is related to its neurotoxic effect, while regulation of body temperature is unrelated to MPTP-induced neurotoxicity or METH-induced

  14. Effect of dopaminergic drugs on the reserpine-induced lowering of hippocampal theta wave frequency in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, T; Ukai, K; Ohyama, T; Gomita, Y; Okamura, H

    2000-05-01

    The effects of dopaminergic drugs on the lowering of hippocampal theta wave frequency induced by reserpine 1 mg/kg s.c. were examined. Sibutramine (monoamine reuptake inhibitor) 10 mg/kg p.o., methamphetamine (monoamine releaser) 1 mg/kg, quinpirole (dopamine D2 receptor agonist) 10 mg/kg i.p., and SKF 38393 (dopamine D1 receptor agonist) 10 mg/kg i.p. each antagonized the reserpine-induced lowering of hippocampal theta wave frequency in rats. Moreover, the combined administration of SKF 38393 1 mg/kg i.p. and quinpirole 1 mg/kg i.p. synergistically antagonized a reserpine-induced lowering of this frequency. Dosulepin, amitriptyline, and desipramine, which are weak inhibitors of dopamine reuptake, each had little effect on the reserpine-induced lowering of theta wave frequency at a dose of 40 mg/kg p.o. Furthermore, atropine (muscarinic anticholinergic drug) 20 mg/kg p.o. decreased theta wave power in the low-frequency range following a shift to the lower range by reserpine. A positive correlation was observed for each of the above drugs between a reversal of reserpine-induced lowering of theta wave frequency and a reversal of impairment of reserpine-induced conditioned avoidance responses (ACAR) in rats. These results suggest that the reserpine-induced lowering of hippocampal theta wave frequency plays a role in the impairment of reserpine-induced ACAR, and that dopamine D1 and D2 receptors play important roles in antagonizing this lowering of frequency.

  15. Hydrogen Peroxide responsive miR153 targets Nrf2/ARE cytoprotection in paraquat induced dopaminergic neurotoxicitya

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Madhusudhanan; Riar, Amanjot Kaur; Rathinam, Mary Latha; Vedpathak, Dhanashree; Henderson, George; Mahimainathan, Lenin

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and animal studies suggest that environmental toxins including paraquat (PQ) increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD) by damaging nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. We previously showed that overexpression of a group of microRNAs (miRs) affects the antioxidant promoting factor, Nrf2 and related glutathione-redox homeostasis in SH-SY5Y dopaminergic neurons. Although, dysregulation of redox balance by PQ is well documented, the role for miRs and their impact have not been elucidated. In the current study we investigated whether PQ impairs Nrf2 and its related cytoprotective machinery by misexpression of specific fine tune miRs in SH-SY5Y neurons. Real time PCR analysis revealed that PQ significantly (p<0.05) increased the expression of brain enriched miR153 with an associated decrease in Nrf2 and its function as revealed by decrease in 4× ARE activity and expression of GCLC and NQO1. Also, PQ and H2O2-induced decrease in Nrf2 3′ UTR activity was restored on miR153 site mutation suggesting a 3′ UTR interacting role. Overexpression of either anti-miR153 or Nrf2 cDNA devoid of 3′ UTR prevented PQ and H2O2-induced loss in Nrf2 activity confirming that PQ could cause miR153 to bind to and target Nrf2 3′ UTR thereby weakening the cellular antioxidant defense. Adenovirus mediated overexpression of cytoplasmic catalase (Ad cCAT) confirmed that PQ induced miR153 is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) dependent. In addition, Ad cCAT significantly (p<0.05) negated the PQ induced dysregulation of Nrf2 and function along with minimizing ROS, caspase 3/7 activation and neuronal death. Altogether, these results suggest a critical role for oxidant mediated miR153-Nrf2/ARE pathway interaction in paraquat neurotoxicity. This novel finding facilitates the understanding of molecular mechanisms and to develop appropriate management alternatives to counteract PQ-induced neuronal pathogenesis. PMID:24866057

  16. Heat shock protein 60: an endogenous inducer of dopaminergic cell death in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation associated with microglial cell activation in the substantia nigra (SN) of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) is not only a consequence of neuronal degeneration, but may actively sustain dopaminergic (DA) cell loss over time. We aimed to study whether the intracellular chaperone heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) could serve as a signal of CNS injury for activation of microglial cells. Methods Hsp60 mRNA expression in the mesencephalon and the striatum of C57/BL6 mice treated with MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) and the Hsp60/TH mRNA ratios in the SN of PD patients and aged-matched subjects were measured. To further investigate a possible link between the neuronal Hsp60 response and PD-related cellular stress, Hsp60 immunoblot analysis and quantification in cell lysates from SH-SY5Y after treatment with 100 μM MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) at different time points (6, 12, 24 and 48 hours) compared to control cells were performed. Additional MTT and LDH assay were used. We next addressed the question as to whether Hsp60 influences the survival of TH+ neurons in mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures treated either with MPP+ (1 μM), hHsp60 (10 μg/ml) or a combination of both. Finally, we measured IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and NO-release by ELISA in primary microglial cell cultures following treatment with different hHsp60 preparations. Control cultures were exposed to LPS. Results In the mesencephalon and striatum of mice treated with MPTP and also in the SN of PD patients, we found that Hsp60 mRNA was up-regulated. MPP+, the active metabolite of MPTP, also caused an increased expression and release of Hsp60 in the human dopaminergic cell line SH-SY5Y. Interestingly, in addition to being toxic to DA neurons in primary mesencephalic cultures, exogenous Hsp60 aggravated the effects of MPP+. Yet, although we demonstrated that Hsp60 specifically binds to microglial cells, it failed to stimulate

  17. Compartmentalized oxidative stress in dopaminergic cell death induced by pesticides and complex I inhibitors: Distinct roles of superoxide anion and superoxide dismutases

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Pickett, Chillian; Sumin, Li; Jones, Jocelyn; Chen, Han; Webb, Brian; Choi, Jae; Zhou, You; Zimmerman, Matthew C.; Franco, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    The loss of dopaminergic neurons induced by the parkinsonian toxins paraquat, rotenone and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) is associated with oxidative stress. However, controversial reports exist regarding the source/compartmentalization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and its exact role in cell death. We aimed to determine in detail the role of superoxide anion (O2•−), oxidative stress and their subcellular compartmentalization in dopaminergic cell death induced by parkinsonian toxins. Oxidative stress and ROS formation was determined in the cytosol, intermembrane (IMS) and mitochondrial matrix compartments, using dihydroethidine derivatives, the redox sensor roGFP, as well as electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Paraquat induced an increase in ROS and oxidative stress in both the cytosol and mitochondrial matrix prior to cell death. MPP+ and rotenone primarily induced an increase in ROS and oxidative stress in the mitochondrial matrix. No oxidative stress was detected at the level of the IMS. In contrast to previous studies, overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) or copper/zinc SOD (CuZnSOD) had no effect on ROS steady state levels, lipid peroxidation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and dopaminergic cell death induced by MPP+ or rotenone. In contrast, paraquat-induced oxidative stress and cell death were selectively reduced by MnSOD overexpression, but not by CuZnSOD or manganese-porphyrins. However, MnSOD also failed to prevent ΔΨm loss. Finally, paraquat, but not MPP+ or rotenone, induced the transcriptional activation the redox-sensitive antioxidant response elements (ARE) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB). These results demonstrate a selective role of mitochondrial O2•− in dopaminergic cell death induced by paraquat, and show that toxicity induced by the complex I inhibitors rotenone and MPP+ does not depend directly on mitochondrial O2•− formation. PMID:23602909

  18. Amentoflavone protects dopaminergic neurons in MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model mice through PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Qin; Qin, Liyue; Huang, Fei, E-mail: Fei_H@ho

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Mitochondrial dysfunction and cell apoptosis are suggested to be actively involved in the pathogenesis of PD. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of amentoflavone (AF), a naturally occurring biflavonoid from Selaginella tamariscina, was examined in PD models both in vitro and in vivo. On SH-SY5Y cells, AF treatment dose-dependently reduced 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP{sup +})-induced nuclear condensation and loss of cell viability without obvious cytotoxicity. It inhibited the activation of caspase-3 and p21 but increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Further study disclosed that AFmore » enhanced the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt and ERK1/2 down-regulated by MPP{sup +} in SH-SY5Y cells, the effect of which could be blocked by LY294002, the inhibitor of PI3K. Consistently, AF alleviated the behavioral deterioration in pole and traction tests and rescued the loss of dopaminergic neurons in SNpc and fibers in striatum in methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced mice. It also could enhance the activation of PI3K and Akt as well as Bcl-2/Bax ratio in SN. Moreover, AF alleviated gliosis as well as the gene expression levels of IL-1β and iNOS in SN. Collectively, these results suggested that AF protected dopaminergic neurons against MPTP/MPP{sup +}-induced neurotoxicity, which might be mediated through activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways in dopaminergic neurons and attenuation of neuroinflammation. - Highlights: • AF protected dopaminergic neurons against MPTP/MPP{sup +}-induced neurotoxicity. • AF modulated PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways. • AF could alleviate neuroinflammation in SN.« less

  19. The basolateral amygdala dopaminergic system contributes to the improving effect of nicotine on stress-induced memory impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzian, Elnaz; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra; Rezayof, Ameneh

    2018-05-18

    Stress seems to be an important risk factor in the beginning and continuing stages of cigarette tobacco smoking in humans. Considering that both of nicotine administration and stress exposure affect cognitive functions including memory formation, the aim of the present study was 1) to evaluate the effect of subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of nicotine on memory formation under stress and 2) to assess the possible role of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in the effect of nicotine on stress-induced memory retrieval impairment. Adult male wistar rats were bilaterally implanted in the BLA. A step-through type passive avoidance task was used to measure memory retrieval. To induce acute stress, the animals were placed on an elevated platform. The results showed that pre-test exposure to 20 and 30 min stress, but not 10 min, impaired memory retrieval. Nicotine administration (0.05 mg/kg, s.c.) improved stress-induced memory retrieval impairment. The activation of the BLA dopamine receptors via bilateral microinjection of apomorphine (0.025-0.4 μg/rat), a non-selective dopamine receptor agonist, potentiated the effect of nicotine on stress-induced memory retrieval impairment. Interestingly, intra-BLA microinjection of SCH23390 (a selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonist; 0.02-0.5 μg/rat) or sulpiride (a selective dopamine D2 receptor antagonist; 0.02-0.5 μg/rat) dose-dependently inhibited nicotine-induced improvement of the stress amnesic effect. Taken together, it can be concluded that stress-induced impairment of memory retrieval can be improved by nicotine administration. Moreover, the dopaminergic neurotransmission in the BLA through D1 and D2 receptors mediates the improving effect of nicotine on stress-induced memory retrieval impairment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced alterations of glutathione status in immortalized rat dopaminergic neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Drechsel, Derek A.; Liang, L.-P.; Patel, Manisha

    2007-05-01

    Decreased glutathione levels associated with increased oxidative stress are a hallmark of numerous neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease. GSH is an important molecule that serves as an anti-oxidant and is also a major determinant of cellular redox environment. Previous studies have demonstrated that neurotoxins can cause changes in reduced and oxidized GSH levels; however, information regarding steady state levels remains unexplored. The goal of this study was to characterize changes in cellular GSH levels and its regulatory enzymes in a dopaminergic cell line (N27) following treatment with the Parkinsonian toxin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP{sup +}). Cellular GSH levels were initially significantly decreasedmore » 12 h after treatment, but subsequently recovered to values greater than controls by 24 h. However, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were increased 24 h following treatment, concomitant with a decrease in GSH/GSSG ratio prior to cell death. In accordance with these changes, ROS levels were also increased, confirming the presence of oxidative stress. Decreased enzymatic activities of glutathione reductase and glutamate-cysteine ligase by 20-25% were observed at early time points and partly account for changes in GSH levels after MPP{sup +} exposure. Additionally, glutathione peroxidase activity was increased 24 h following treatment. MPP{sup +} treatment was not associated with increased efflux of glutathione to the medium. These data further elucidate the mechanisms underlying GSH depletion in response to the Parkinsonian toxin, MPP{sup +}.« less

  1. Pharmacological assessment of methamphetamine-induced behavioral hyperactivity mediated by dopaminergic transmission in planarian Dugesia japonica.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Natsuka; Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Daido, Kanako; Oka, Tomoe; Todo, Mio; Toshikawa, Asami; Tsushima, Jun; Takata, Kazuyuki; Ashihara, Eishi; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Agata, Kiyokazu; Kitamura, Yoshihisa

    2014-07-11

    The freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica has a simple central nervous system (CNS) and can regenerate complete organs, even a functional brain. Recent studies demonstrated that there is a great variety of neuronal-related genes, specifically expressed in several domains of the planarian brain. We identified a planarian dat gene, named it D. japonica dopamine transporter (Djdat), and analyzed its expression and function. Both in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence revealed that localization of Djdat mRNA and protein was the same as that of D. japonica tyrosine hydroxylase (DjTH). Although, dopamine (DA) content in Djdat(RNAi) planarians was not altered, Djdat(RNAi) planarians showed increased spontaneous locomotion. The hyperactivity in the Djdat(RNAi) planarians was significantly suppressed by SCH23390 or sulpiride pretreatment, which are D1 or D2 receptor antagonists, respectively. These results suggest that planarians have a Djdat ortholog and the ability to regulate dopaminergic neurotransmission and association with spontaneous locomotion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dopaminergic neurotoxicant 6-OHDA induces oxidative damage through proteolytic activation of PKC{delta} in cell culture and animal models of Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Latchoumycandane, Calivarathan; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Jin, Huajun

    2011-11-15

    The neurotoxicant 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is used to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Oxidative stress and caspase activation contribute to the 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death of dopaminergic neurons. In the present study, we sought to systematically characterize the key downstream signaling molecule involved in 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic degeneration in cell culture and animal models of PD. Treatment of mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal N27 cells with 6-OHDA (100 {mu}M) for 24 h significantly reduced mitochondrial activity and increased cytosolic cytochrome c, followed by sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Co-treatment with the freemore » radical scavenger MnTBAP (10 {mu}M) significantly attenuated 6-OHDA-induced caspase activities. Interestingly, 6-OHDA induced proteolytic cleavage and activation of protein kinase C delta (PKC{delta}) was completely suppressed by treatment with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor, Z-DEVD-FMK (50 {mu}M). Furthermore, expression of caspase-3 cleavage site-resistant mutant PKC{delta}{sup D327A} and kinase dead PKC{delta}{sup K376R} or siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKC{delta} protected against 6-OHDA-induced neuronal cell death, suggesting that caspase-3-dependent PKC{delta} promotes oxidative stress-induced dopaminergic degeneration. Suppression of PKC{delta} expression by siRNA also effectively protected N27 cells from 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death. PKC{delta} cleavage was also observed in the substantia nigra of 6-OHDA-injected C57 black mice but not in control animals. Viral-mediated delivery of PKC{delta}{sup D327A} protein protected against 6-OHDA-induced PKC{delta} activation in mouse substantia nigra. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that proteolytic activation of PKC{delta} is a key downstream event in dopaminergic degeneration, and these results may have important translational value

  3. The Role of MAC1 in Diesel Exhaust Particle-induced Microglial Activation and Loss of Dopaminergic Neuron Function

    PubMed Central

    Levesque, Shannon; Taetzsch, Thomas; Lull, Melinda E.; Johnson, Jo Anne; McGraw, Constance; Block, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing reports support that air pollution causes neuroinflammation and is linked to central nervous system (CNS) disease/damage. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of urban air pollution, which has been linked to microglial activation and Parkinson’s disease-like pathology. To begin to address how DEP may exert CNS effects, microglia and neuron-glia cultures were treated with either nanometer-sized DEP (<0.22 µM; 50µg/mL), ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 50µg/ml), or DEP extracts (eDEP; from 50 µg/ml DEP) and the effect of microglial activation and dopaminergic (DA) neuron function was assessed. All three treatments showed enhanced amoeboid microglia morphology, increased H2O2 production, and decreased DA uptake. Mechanistic inquiry revealed that the scavenger receptor inhibitor fucoidan blocked DEP internalization in microglia, but failed to alter DEP-induced H2O2 production in microglia. However, pretreatment with the MAC1/CD11b inhibitor antibody blocked microglial H2O2 production in response to DEP. MAC1−/− mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures were protected from DEP-induced loss of DA neuron function, as measured by DA uptake. These findings support that DEP may activate microglia through multiple mechanisms, where scavenger receptors regulate internalization of DEP and the MAC1 receptor is mandatory for both DEP-induced microglial H2O2 production and loss of DA neuron function. PMID:23470120

  4. Role of Prefrontal Serotonergic and Dopaminergic Systems in Encounter-Induced Hyperactivity in Methamphetamine-Sensitized Mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tatsunori; Ago, Yukio; Umehara, Chiaki; Imoto, Emina; Hasebe, Shigeru; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2017-05-01

    Isolation-reared mice show social encounter-induced hyperactivity with activation of prefrontal serotonergic and dopaminergic systems, but it is not known whether this stress response is observed in other pathological conditions. Here we examined whether the social encounter stimulation induces abnormal behavior during withdrawal in chronic methamphetamine-treated mice. To induce methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization, male mice were injected with methamphetamine (1 mg/kg) once daily for 7 days. The encounter with an intruder elicited hyperactivity 24 h after the last injection of methamphetamine in methamphetamine-sensitized mice. This response was observed even as long as 2 weeks after withdrawal of methamphetamine. The encounter increased c-Fos expression in the prefrontal cortex, dorsal raphe nucleus and ventral tegmental area in methamphetamine-sensitized mice, while it did not in control mice. Furthermore, the encounter increased extracellular serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine, but not noradrenaline, levels in the prefrontal cortex in methamphetamine-sensitized mice. Local injection of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine and 6-hydroxydopamine into the prefrontal cortex attenuated encounter-induced hyperactivity in methamphetamine-sensitized mice and it markedly decreased prefrontal 5-HT and dopamine levels, respectively. Pharmacological analysis showed that the encounter-induced hyperactivity is mediated by dopamine D1 receptors and 5-HT2A receptors and attenuated by anxiolytics and antidepressants such as diazepam, osemozotan and selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors. The effect of paroxetine was blocked by the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist azasetron. The present study shows that psychological stress elicits hyperactivity with activation of prefrontal 5-HT and dopamine systems in methamphetamine-dependent mice and suggests that the abnormal behavior is associated with anxiety and depression. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  5. GPER activation is effective in protecting against inflammation-induced nigral dopaminergic loss and motor function impairment.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Oliveira, Julieta; Lopes Campos, Filipa; Videira, Rita Alexandra; Baltazar, Graça

    2017-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggest that excessive inflammatory responses from overactivated microglia play a critical role in Parkinson's disease (PD), contributing to, or exacerbating, nigral dopaminergic (DA) degeneration. Recent results from our group and others demonstrated that selective activation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) with the agonist G1 can protect DA neurons from 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + ) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxins. However, it is not known whether modulation of microglial responses is one of the mechanisms by which G1 exerts its DA neuroprotective effects. We analyzed, in the N9 microglial cell line, the effect of G1 on microglial activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. The results revealed that G1 significantly decrease phagocytic activity, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and release of nitric oxide (NO) induced by LPS. To determine the relevance of this anti-inflammatory effect to the protection of nigral DA cells, the effect of G1 was analyzed in male mice injected unilaterally in the substantia nigra (SN) with LPS. Although G1 treatment did not decrease LPS-induced increase of ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (iba-1) positive cells it significantly reduced interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68) and iNOS mRNA levels, and totally inhibited nigral DA cell loss and, as a consequence, protected the motor function. In summary, our findings demonstrated that the G1 agonist is able to modulate microglial responses and to protect DA neurons and motor functions against a lesion induced by an inflammatory insult. Since G1 lacks the feminizing effects associated with agonists of the classical estrogen receptors (ERs), the use of G1 to selectively activate the GPER may be a promising strategy for the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of PD and other neuroinflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  6. Isolation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Progenitors by Cell Sorting for Successful Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Daisuke; Samata, Bumpei; Katsukawa, Mitsuko; Kikuchi, Tetsuhiro; Morizane, Asuka; Ono, Yuichi; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Nakagawa, Masato; Parmar, Malin; Takahashi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Summary Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can provide a promising source of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons for cell replacement therapy for Parkinson’s disease. However, iPSC-derived donor cells inevitably contain tumorigenic or inappropriate cells. Here, we show that human iPSC-derived DA progenitor cells can be efficiently isolated by cell sorting using a floor plate marker, CORIN. We induced DA neurons using scalable culture conditions on human laminin fragment, and the sorted CORIN+ cells expressed the midbrain DA progenitor markers, FOXA2 and LMX1A. When transplanted into 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, the CORIN+ cells survived and differentiated into midbrain DA neurons in vivo, resulting in significant improvement of the motor behavior, without tumor formation. In particular, the CORIN+ cells in a NURR1+ cell-dominant stage exhibited the best survival and function as DA neurons. Our method is a favorable strategy in terms of scalability, safety, and efficiency and may be advantageous for clinical application. PMID:24672756

  7. Chewing Prevents Stress-Induced Hippocampal LTD Formation and Anxiety-Related Behaviors: A Possible Role of the Dopaminergic System

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, So; Onozuka, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of chewing on stress-induced long-term depression (LTD) and anxiogenic behavior. Experiments were performed in adult male rats under three conditions: restraint stress condition, voluntary chewing condition during stress, and control condition without any treatments except handling. Chewing ameliorated LTD development in the hippocampal CA1 region. It also counteracted the stress-suppressed number of entries to the center region of the open field when they were tested immediately, 30 min, or 60 min after restraint. At the latter two poststress time periods, chewing during restraint significantly increased the number of times of open arm entries in the elevated plus maze, when compared with those without chewing. The in vivo microdialysis further revealed that extracellular dopamine concentration in the ventral hippocampus, which is involved in anxiety-related behavior, was significantly greater in chewing rats than in those without chewing from 30 to 105 min after stress exposure. Development of LTD and anxiolytic effects ameliorated by chewing were counteracted by administering the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390, which suggested that chewing may activate the dopaminergic system in the ventral hippocampus to suppress stress-induced anxiogenic behavior. PMID:26075223

  8. Enriched environment protects the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system and induces astroglial reaction in the 6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Anastasía, Agustín; Torre, Luciana; de Erausquin, Gabriel A; Mascó, Daniel H

    2009-05-01

    Enriched environment (EE) is neuroprotective in several animal models of neurodegeneration. It stimulates the expression of trophic factors and modifies the astrocyte cell population which has been said to exert neuroprotective effects. We have investigated the effects of EE on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neuronal death after unilateral administration to the medial forebrain bundle, which reaches 85-95% of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra after 3 weeks. Continuous exposure to EE 3 weeks before and after 6-OHDA injection prevents neuronal death (assessed by tyrosine hydroxylase staining), protects the nigrostriatal pathway (assessed by Fluorogold retrograde labeling) and reduces motor impairment. Four days after 6-OHDA injection, EE was associated with a marked increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein staining and prevented neuronal death (assessed by Fluoro Jade-B) but not partial loss of tyrosine hydroxylase staining in the anterior substantia nigra. These results robustly demonstrate that EE preserves the entire nigrostriatal system against 6-OHDA-induced toxicity, and suggests that an early post-lesion astrocytic reaction may participate in the neuroprotective mechanism.

  9. Th17 Cells Induce Dopaminergic Neuronal Death via LFA-1/ICAM-1 Interaction in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhan; Huang, Yan; Cao, Bei-Bei; Qiu, Yi-Hua; Peng, Yu-Ping

    2017-12-01

    T helper (Th)17 cells, a subset of CD4 + T lymphocytes, have strong pro-inflammatory property and appear to be essential in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. However, the involvement of Th17 cells in Parkinson's disease (PD) that is characterized by a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the nigrostriatal system is unclear. Here, we aimed to demonstrate that Th17 cells infiltrate into the brain parenchyma and induce neuroinflammation and DAergic neuronal death in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)- or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP + )-induced PD models. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in the substantia nigra (SN) was assessed by the signal of FITC-labeled albumin that was injected into blood circulation via the ascending aorta. Live cell imaging system was used to observe a direct contact of Th17 cells with neurons by staining these cells using the two adhesion molecules, leukocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, respectively. Th17 cells invaded into the SN where BBB was disrupted in MPTP-induced PD mice. Th17 cells exacerbated DAergic neuronal loss and pro-inflammatory/neurotrophic factor disorders in MPP + -treated ventral mesencephalic (VM) cell cultures. A direct contact of LFA-1-stained Th17 cells with ICAM-1-stained VM neurons was dynamically captured. Either blocking LFA-1 in Th17 cells or blocking ICAM-1 in VM neurons with neutralizing antibodies abolished Th17-induced DAergic neuronal death. These results establish that Th17 cells infiltrate into the brain parenchyma of PD mice through lesioned BBB and exert neurotoxic property by promoting glial activation and importantly by a direct damage to neurons depending on LFA-1/ICAM-1 interaction.

  10. Efficient induction of dopaminergic neuron differentiation from induced pluripotent stem cells reveals impaired mitophagy in PARK2 neurons.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Sadafumi; Akamatsu, Wado; Kisa, Fumihiko; Sone, Takefumi; Ishikawa, Kei-Ichi; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Hattori, Nobutaka; Okano, Hideyuki

    2017-01-29

    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) show promise for use as tools for in vitro modeling of Parkinson's disease. We sought to improve the efficiency of dopaminergic (DA) neuron induction from iPSCs by the using surface markers expressed in DA progenitors to increase the significance of the phenotypic analysis. By sorting for a CD184 high /CD44 - fraction during neural differentiation, we obtained a population of cells that were enriched in DA neuron precursor cells and achieved higher differentiation efficiencies than those obtained through the same protocol without sorting. This high efficiency method of DA neuronal induction enabled reliable detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and vulnerable phenotypes in PARK2 iPSCs-derived DA neurons. We additionally established a quantitative system using the mt-mKeima reporter system to monitor mitophagy in which mitochondria fuse with lysosomes and, by combining this system with the method of DA neuronal induction described above, determined that mitophagy is impaired in PARK2 neurons. These findings suggest that the efficiency of DA neuron induction is important for the precise detection of cellular phenotypes in modeling Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Lack of effect of dopaminergic denervation on caudate-putamen hyperthermia or hypothermia induced by drugs and mild stressors.

    PubMed

    Marcangione, Caterina; Constantin, Annie; Clarke, Paul B S

    2010-07-01

    A number of drugs and psychological stressors induce brain hyperthermia and increase extracellular dopamine in the caudate-putamen. The present study tested whether caudate-putamen hyperthermia produced by such stimuli is dependent on dopaminergic transmission. Rats were infused with 6-hydroxydopamine unilaterally into the medial forebrain bundle, and after a two-week recovery period, removable thermocouples were used to monitor temperature in the depleted and intact caudate-putamen in freely-moving animals. The indirect dopamine agonist d-amphetamine (1 and 2mg/kg s.c.) increased caudate-putamen temperature, whereas a low dose of the direct agonist apomorphine (0.1mg/kg s.c.) reduced it. Gamma-butyrolactone, which strongly inhibits dopamine release at the dose administered (700mg/kg i.p.), initially reduced and then increased caudate-putamen temperature. Brief (5-10min) presentation of mild stressors, including tail pinch, produced a rapid and transient caudate-putamen hyperthermia. Quantitative (125)I-RTI-55 autoradiography in post-mortem tissue revealed a 97-100% loss of binding to dopamine transporters in the lesioned caudate-putamen. Despite this near-total dopamine denervation, neither basal caudate-putamen temperature, nor any of the observed temperature responses to drugs or mild stressors, was altered. We conclude that in the caudate-putamen, endogenous dopamine is unlikely to modulate temperature significantly at a local level. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of MAC1 in diesel exhaust particle-induced microglial activation and loss of dopaminergic neuron function.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Shannon; Taetzsch, Thomas; Lull, Melinda E; Johnson, Jo Anne; McGraw, Constance; Block, Michelle L

    2013-06-01

    Increasing reports support that air pollution causes neuroinflammation and is linked to central nervous system (CNS) disease/damage. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of urban air pollution, which has been linked to microglial activation and Parkinson's disease-like pathology. To begin to address how DEP may exert CNS effects, microglia and neuron-glia cultures were treated with either nanometer-sized DEP (< 0.22 μM; 50 μg/mL), ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 50 μg/mL), or DEP extracts (eDEP; from 50 μg/mL DEP), and the effect of microglial activation and dopaminergic (DA) neuron function was assessed. All three treatments showed enhanced ameboid microglia morphology, increased H2 O2 production, and decreased DA uptake. Mechanistic inquiry revealed that the scavenger receptor inhibitor fucoidan blocked DEP internalization in microglia, but failed to alter DEP-induced H2 O2 production in microglia. However, pre-treatment with the MAC1/CD11b inhibitor antibody blocked microglial H2 O2 production in response to DEP. MAC1(-/-) mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures were protected from DEP-induced loss of DA neuron function, as measured by DA uptake. These findings support that DEP may activate microglia through multiple mechanisms, where scavenger receptors regulate internalization of DEP and the MAC1 receptor is mandatory for both DEP-induced microglial H2 O2 production and loss of DA neuron function. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  13. Methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity linked to UPS dysfunction and autophagy related changes that can be modulated by PKCδ in dopaminergic neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mengshien; Shivalingappa, Prashanth Chandramani; Jin, Huajun; Ghosh, Anamitra; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Ali, Syed; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2012-01-01

    A compromised protein degradation machinery has been implicated in methamphetamine (MA)-induced neurodegeneration. However, the signaling mechanisms that induce autophagy and UPS dysfunction are not well understood. The present study investigates the contributions of PKC delta (PKCδ) mediated signaling events in MA-induced autophagy, UPS dysfunction and cell death. Using an in vitro mesencephalic dopaminergic cell culture model, we demonstrate that MA-induced early induction of autophagy is associated with reduction in proteasomal function and concomitant dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), followed by significantly increased of PKCδ activation, caspase-3 activation, accumulation of ubiquitin positive aggregates and microtubule associated light chain-3 (LC3-II) levels. Interestingly, siRNA mediated knockdown of PKCδ or overexpression of cleavage resistant mutant of PKCδ dramatically reduced MA-induced autophagy, proteasomal function, and associated accumulation of ubiquitinated protein aggregates, which closely paralleled cell survival. Importantly, when autophagy was inhibited either pharmacologically (3-MA) or genetically (siRNA mediated silencing of LC3), the dopaminergic cells became sensitized to MA-induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation. Conversely, overexpression of LC3 partially protected against MA-induced apoptotic cell death, suggesting a neuroprotective role for autophagy in MA-induced neurotoxicity. Notably, rat striatal tissue isolated from MA treated rats also exhibited elevated LC3-II, ubiquitinated protein levels, and PKCδ cleavage. Taken together, our data demonstrate that MA-induced autophagy serves as an adaptive strategy for inhibiting mitochondria mediated apoptotic cell death and degradation of aggregated proteins. Our results also suggest that the sustained activation of PKCδ leads to UPS dysfunction, resulting in the activation of caspase-3 mediated apoptotic cell death in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic

  14. Maternal Omega-3 Supplement Improves Dopaminergic System in Pre- and Postnatal Inflammation-Induced Neurotoxicity in Parkinson's Disease Model.

    PubMed

    Delattre, Ana Marcia; Carabelli, Bruno; Mori, Marco Aurélio; Kempe, Paula G; Rizzo de Souza, Luiz E; Zanata, Silvio M; Machado, Ricardo B; Suchecki, Deborah; Andrade da Costa, Belmira L S; Lima, Marcelo M S; Ferraz, Anete C

    2017-04-01

    Evidence suggests that idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is the consequence of a neurodevelopmental disruption, rather than strictly a consequence of aging. Thus, we hypothesized that maternal supplement of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) may be associated with neuroprotection mechanisms in a self-sustaining cycle of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-model of PD. To test this hypothesis, behavioral and neurochemical assay were performed in prenatally LPS-exposed offspring at postnatal day 21. To further determine whether prenatal LPS exposure and maternal ω-3 PUFAs supplementation had persisting effects, brain injury was induced on PN 90 rats, following bilateral intranigral LPS injection. Pre- and postnatal inflammation damage not only affected dopaminergic neurons directly, but it also modified critical features, such as activated microglia and astrocyte cells, disrupting the support provided by the microenvironment. Unexpectedly, our results failed to show any involvement of caspase-dependent and independent apoptosis pathway in neuronal death mechanisms. On the other hand, learning and memory deficits detected with a second toxic exposure were significantly attenuated in maternal ω-3 PUFAs supplementation group. In addition, ω-3 PUFAs promote beneficial effect on synaptic function, maintaining the neurochemical integrity in remaining neurons, without necessarily protect them from neuronal death. Thus, our results suggest that ω-3 PUFAs affect the functional ability of the central nervous system in a complex way in a multiple inflammation-induced neurotoxicity animal model of PD and they disclose new ways of understanding how these fatty acids control responses of the brain to different challenges.

  15. Role of D1- and D2-like dopaminergic receptors in the nucleus accumbens in modulation of formalin-induced orofacial pain: Involvement of lateral hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Iman; Vatankhah, Mahsaneh; Zarepour, Leila; Ezzatpanah, Somayeh; Haghparast, Abbas

    2018-05-01

    The role of dopaminergic system in modulation of formalin-induced orofacial nociception has been established. The present study aims to investigate the role of dopaminergic receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in modulation of nociceptive responses induced by formalin injection in the orofacial region. One hundred and six male Wistar rats were unilaterally implanted with two cannulae into the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and NAc. Intra-LH microinjection of carbachol, a cholinergic receptor agonist, was done 5min after intra-accumbal administration of different doses of SCH23390 (D1-like receptor antagonist) or sulpiride (D2-like receptor antagonist). After 5min, 50μl of 1% formalin was subcutaneously injected into the upper lip for inducing the orofacial pain. Carbachol alone dose-dependently reduced both phases of the formalin-induced orofacial pain. Intra-accumbal administration of SCH23390 (0.25, 1 and 4μg/0.5μl saline) or sulpiride (0.25, 1 and 4μg/0.5μl DMSO) before LH stimulation by carbachol (250nM/0.5μl saline) antagonized the antinociceptive responses during both phases of orofacial formalin test. The effects of D1- and D2-like receptor antagonism on the LH stimulation-induced antinociception were almost similar during the early phase. However, compared to D1-like receptor antagonism, D2-like receptor antagonism was a little more effective but not significant, at blocking the LH stimulation-induced antinociception during the late phase of formalin test. The findings revealed that there is a direct or indirect neural pathway from the LH to the NAc which is at least partially contributed to the modulation of formalin-induced orofacial nociception through recruitment of both dopaminergic receptors in this region. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in gene expression linked to methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tao; Tong, Liqiong; Barrett, Tanya; Yuan, Jie; Hatzidimitriou, George; McCann, Una D; Becker, Kevin G; Donovan, David M; Ricaurte, George A

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of these studies was to examine the role of gene expression in methamphetamine (METH)-induced dopamine (DA) neurotoxicity. First, the effects of the mRNA synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin-D, and the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, were examined. Both agents afforded complete protection against METH-induced DA neurotoxicity and did so independently of effects on core temperature, DA transporter function, or METH brain levels, suggesting that gene transcription and mRNA translation play a role in METH neurotoxicity. Next, microarray technology, in combination with an experimental approach designed to facilitate recognition of relevant gene expression patterns, was used to identify gene products linked to METH-induced DA neurotoxicity. This led to the identification of several genes in the ventral midbrain associated with the neurotoxic process, including genes for energy metabolism [cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 2, and phosphoglycerate mutase B], ion regulation (members of sodium/hydrogen exchanger and sodium/bile acid cotransporter family), signal transduction (adenylyl cyclase III), and cell differentiation and degeneration (N-myc downstream-regulated gene 3 and tau protein). Of these differentially expressed genes, we elected to further examine the increase in COX1 expression, because of data implicating energy utilization in METH neurotoxicity and the known role of COX1 in energy metabolism. On the basis of time course studies, Northern blot analyses, in situ hybridization results, and temperature studies, we now report that increased COX1 expression in the ventral midbrain is linked to METH-induced DA neuronal injury. The precise role of COX1 and other genes in METH neurotoxicity remains to be elucidated.

  17. Dopaminergic Actions of D-Amphetamine on Schedule-Induced Polydipsia in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellon, Ricardo; Ruiz, Ana; Rodriguez, Cilia; Flores, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    Schedule-induced polydipsia in rats was developed by means of a fixed-time 60-s schedule of food presentation. The acute administration of d-amphetamine sulfate (0.1-3.0 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent decrease in the rate of licking. D-Amphetamine shifted to the left the temporal distribution of adjunctive drinking within interfood intervals.…

  18. Altered dopaminergic regulation of the dorsal striatum is able to induce tic-like movements in juvenile rats

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Francesca; Boeckers, Tobias; Schulze, Ulrike

    2018-01-01

    Motor tics are sudden, repetitive, involuntary movements representing the hallmark behaviors of the neurodevelopmental disease Tourette’s syndrome (TS). The primary cause of TS remains unclear. The initial observation that dopaminergic antagonists alleviate tics led to the development of a dopaminergic theory of TS etiology which is supported by post mortem and in vivo studies indicating that non-physiological activation of the striatum could generate tics. The striatum controls movement execution through the balanced activity of dopamine receptor D1 and D2-expressing medium spiny neurons of the direct and indirect pathway, respectively. Different neurotransmitters can activate or repress striatal activity and among them, dopamine plays a major role. In this study we introduced a chronic dopaminergic alteration in juvenile rats, in order to modify the delicate balance between direct and indirect pathway. This manipulation was done in the dorsal striatum, that had been associated with tic-like movements generation in animal models. The results were movements resembling tics, which were categorized and scored according to a newly developed rating scale and were reduced by clonidine and riluzole treatment. Finally, post mortem analyses revealed altered RNA expression of dopaminergic receptors D1 and D2, suggesting an imbalanced dopaminergic regulation of medium spiny neuron activity as being causally related to the observed phenotype. PMID:29698507

  19. Attenuation of MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity by TV3326, a cholinesterase-monoamine oxidase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Sagi, Yotam; Weinstock, Marta; Youdim, Moussa B H

    2003-07-01

    (R)-[(N-propargyl-(3R) aminoindan-5-yl) ethyl methyl carbamate] (TV3326) is a novel cholinesterase and brain-selective monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A/-B inhibitor. It was developed for the treatment of dementia co-morbid with extra pyramidal disorders (parkinsonism), and depression. On chronic treatment in mice it attenuated striatal dopamine depletion induced by MPTP and prevented the reduction in striatal tyrosine hydroxylase activity, like selective B and non-selective MAO inhibitors. TV3326 preferentially inhibits MAO-B in the striatum and hippocampus, and the degree of MAO-B inhibition correlates with the prevention of MPTP-induced dopamine depletion. Complete inhibition of MAO-B is not necessary for full protection from MPTP neurotoxicity. Unlike that seen after treatment with other MAO-A and -B inhibitors, recovery of striatal and hippocampal MAO-A and -B activities from inhibition by TV3326 did not show first-order kinetics. This has been attributed to the generation of a number of metabolites by TV3326 that cause differential inhibition of these enzymes. Inhibition of brain MAO-A and -B by TV3326 resulted in significant elevations of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin in the striatum and hippocampus. This may explain its antidepressant-like activity, resembling that of moclobemide in the forced-swim test in rats.

  20. Intranasal insulin protects against substantia nigra dopaminergic neuronal loss and alleviates motor deficits induced by 6-OHDA in rats.

    PubMed

    Pang, Y; Lin, S; Wright, C; Shen, J; Carter, K; Bhatt, A; Fan, L-W

    2016-03-24

    Protection of substantia nigra (SN) dopaminergic (DA) neurons by neurotrophic factors (NTFs) is one of the promising strategies in Parkinson's disease (PD) therapy. A major clinical challenge for NTF-based therapy is that NTFs need to be delivered into the brain via invasive means, which often shows limited delivery efficiency. The nose to brain pathway is a non-invasive brain drug delivery approach developed in recent years. Of particular interest is the finding that intranasal insulin improves cognitive functions in Alzheimer's patients. In vitro, insulin has been shown to protect neurons against various insults. Therefore, the current study was designed to test whether intranasal insulin could afford neuroprotection in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-based rat PD model. 6-OHDA was injected into the right side of striatum to induce a progressive DA neuronal lesion in the ipsilateral SN pars compact (SNc). Recombinant human insulin was applied intranasally to rats starting from 24h post lesion, once per day, for 2 weeks. A battery of motor behavioral tests was conducted on day 8 and 15. The number of DA neurons in the SNc was estimated by stereological counting. Our results showed that 6-OHDA injection led to significant motor deficits and 53% of DA neuron loss in the ipsilateral side of injection. Treatment with insulin significantly ameliorated 6-OHDA-induced motor impairments, as shown by improved locomotor activity, tapered/ledged beam-walking performance, vibrissa-elicited forelimb-placing, initial steps, as well as methamphetamine-induced rotational behavior. Consistent with behavioral improvements, insulin treatment provided a potent protection of DA neurons in the SNc against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity, as shown by a 74.8% increase in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons compared to the vehicle group. Intranasal insulin treatment did not affect body weight and blood glucose levels. In conclusion, our study showed that intranasal insulin provided strong

  1. α-Synuclein-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a rat model of Parkinson's disease occurs independent of ATP13A2 (PARK9).

    PubMed

    Daniel, Guillaume; Musso, Alessandra; Tsika, Elpida; Fiser, Aris; Glauser, Liliane; Pletnikova, Olga; Schneider, Bernard L; Moore, Darren J

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the ATP13A2 (PARK9) gene cause early-onset, autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease (PD) and Kufor-Rakeb syndrome. ATP13A2 mRNA is spliced into three distinct isoforms encoding a P5-type ATPase involved in regulating heavy metal transport across vesicular membranes. Here, we demonstrate that three ATP13A2 mRNA isoforms are expressed in the normal human brain and are modestly increased in the cingulate cortex of PD cases. ATP13A2 can mediate protection toward a number of stressors in mammalian cells and can protect against α-synuclein-induced toxicity in cellular and invertebrate models of PD. Using a primary cortical neuronal model combined with lentiviral-mediated gene transfer, we demonstrate that human ATP13A2 isoforms 1 and 2 display selective neuroprotective effects toward toxicity induced by manganese and hydrogen peroxide exposure through an ATPase-independent mechanism. The familial PD mutations, F182L and G504R, abolish the neuroprotective effects of ATP13A2 consistent with a loss-of-function mechanism. We further demonstrate that the AAV-mediated overexpression of human ATP13A2 is not sufficient to attenuate dopaminergic neurodegeneration, neuropathology, and striatal dopamine and motoric deficits induced by human α-synuclein expression in a rat model of PD. Intriguingly, the delivery of an ATPase-deficient form of ATP13A2 (D513N) to the substantia nigra is sufficient to induce dopaminergic neuronal degeneration and motor deficits in rats, potentially suggesting a dominant-negative mechanism of action. Collectively, our data demonstrate a distinct lack of ATP13A2-mediated protection against α-synuclein-induced neurotoxicity in the rat nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, and limited neuroprotective capacity overall, and raise doubts about the potential of ATP13A2 as a therapeutic target for PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthetic bovine proline-rich-polypeptides generate hydroxyl radicals and fail to protect dopaminergic neurons against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Knaryan, Varduhi H; Samantaray, Supriti; Varghese, Merina; Srinivasan, Ambika; Galoyan, Armen A; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P

    2006-08-01

    Proline-rich-polypeptides (PRPs) isolated from bovine hypothalamus have been shown to render protection against neuronal injury of the brain and spinal cord. We examined two PRPs containing 15 and 10 amino acid residues (PRP-1 and PRP-4 synthetic polypeptide) for their effect, if any, on dopaminergic neuronal damage caused by the parkinsonian neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Effects of these PRPs on hydroxyl radical ((*)OH) generation in a Fenton-like reaction as well as from isolated mitochondria were monitored, employing a sensitive salicylate hydroxylation procedure. Balb/c mice treated (i.p., twice, 16 h apart) with MPTP (30 mg/kg) or PRP-1 (1.6 mg/kg), but not PRP-4 (1.6 mg/kg) showed significant loss of striatal dopamine and norepinephrine as assayed by an HPLC-electrochemical procedure. Pretreatment with the PRPs, 30 min prior to the neurotoxin administration failed to attenuate MPTP-induced striatal dopamine or norepinephrine depletion, but significantly attenuated the MPTP-induced decrease in dopamine turnover. A significant increase in the generation of (*)OH by the PRPs in a Fenton-like reaction or from isolated mitochondria suggests their pro-oxidant action, and explains their failure to protect against MPTP-induced parkinsonism in mice.

  3. Dopaminergic Lesion in the Olfactory Bulb Restores Olfaction and Induces Depressive-Like Behaviors in a 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ilkiw, Jessica L; Kmita, Luana C; Targa, Adriano D S; Noseda, Ana Carolina D; Rodrigues, Lais S; Dorieux, Flávia W C; Fagotti, Juliane; Dos Santos, Patrícia; Lima, Marcelo M S

    2018-06-05

    Olfactory impairments and depressive behavior are commonly reported by individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) being observed before motor symptoms. The mechanisms underlying these clinical manifestations are not fully elucidated. However, the imbalance in dopaminergic neurotransmission seems to play an important role in this context. In patients and animal models of PD, an increase in the dopaminergic interneurons of the glomerular layer in olfactory bulb (OB-gl) is observed, which may contribute to the olfactory impairment. In addition, neuronal imbalance in OB is related to depressive symptoms, as demonstrated by chemical olfactory bulbectomy. In view of that, we hypothesized that a reduction in the number or density of dopaminergic neurons present in OB could promote an olfactory improvement and, in contrast, would accentuate the depressive-like behaviors in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of PD. Therefore, we performed single or double injections of 6-OHDA within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and/or in the OB-gl. We observed that, after 7 days, the group with nigral lesion exhibited olfactory impairment, as well as the group with the lesion in the OB-gl. However, the combination of the lesions prevented the occurrence of hyposmia. In relation to depressive-like behaviors, we observed that the SNpc injury promoted depressive-like behavior, being accentuated after a double injury. Our results demonstrated the importance of the dopaminergic neurons of the OB-gl in different non-motor features of PD, since the selective reduction of these periglomerular neurons was able to induce olfactory impairment and depressive-like behaviors.

  4. Alterations in the retinal dopaminergic neuronal system in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, C; Kuriyama, K

    1985-08-01

    Neurochemical alterations, which may be associated with the development of diabetic retinal dysfunction, were investigated using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia in rats. Young male Wistar rats, weighing 100-150 g, were made diabetic with daily intraperitoneal injections of STZ (30 mg/kg) for 5 days. This treatment caused a continuous hyperglycemia (400-600 mg/dl) and suppressed gain in body weight. Nine weeks after the STZ treatment, a significant increment in retinal valine and a decline in phenylalanine were noted, while the concentrations of other neuroactive amino acids, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid and aspartic acid, in the retina remained unchanged. On the other hand, the concentration of retinal dopamine (DA) was found to decrease significantly from the third week of hyperglycemia, when [3H]spiperone binding showed a tendency to increase in the retinal particulate fraction. However, the activities of tyrosine hydroxylase and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and the uptake of [3H]tyrosine showed no alteration in the retina of diabetic rats. The accumulation rate of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) in vivo in the retina of diabetic rats, measured following the administration of the AADC inhibitor m-hydroxybenzyl-hydrazine (100 mg/kg i.p.), was also unchanged. Although [3H]DA uptake by retinal tissue was similar in control and diabetic animals, the spontaneous efflux of [3H]DA from the retina was found to be significantly accelerated in STZ-treated animals. In addition, the release of preloaded [3H]DA, elicited by repeated photic stimulation, was significantly attenuated in retina from diabetic rats. These results suggest that an accelerated efflux of DA, possibly leading to the depletion of DA from the retinal DA system, may account for early retinal dysfunctions known to occur in diabetic subjects.

  5. Synaptophysin and the dopaminergic system in hippocampus are involved in the protective effect of rutin against trimethyltin-induced learning and memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Chun-Hai; Qin, Qi-Zhong; Zhou, Zhou; Yu, Zheng-Ping

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of rutin against trimethyltin-induced spatial learning and memory impairment in mice. This study focused on the role of synaptophysin, growth-associated protein 43 and the action of the dopaminergic system in mechanisms associated with rutin protection and trimethyltin-induced spatial learning and memory impairment. Cognitive learning and memory was measured by Morris Water Maze. The expression of synaptophysin and growth-associated protein 43 in hippocampus was analyzed by western blot. The concentrations of dopamine, homovanillic acid, and dihyroxyphenylacetic acid in hippocampus were detected using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Trimethyltin-induced spatial learning impairment showed a dose-dependent mode. Synaptophysin but not growth-associated protein 43 was decreased in the hippocampus after trimethyltin administration. The concentration of dopamine decreased, while homovanillic acid increased in the hippocampus after trimethyltin administration. Mice pretreated with 20 mg/kg of rutin for 7 consecutive days exhibited improved water maze performance. Moreover, rutin pretreatment reversed the decrease of synaptophysin expression and dopamine alteration. These results suggest that rutin may protect against spatial memory impairment induced by trimethyltin. Synaptophysin and the dopaminergic system may be involved in trimethyltin-induced neuronal damage in hippocampus.

  6. Dopaminergic neurotransmission dysfunction induced by amyloid-β transforms cortical long-term potentiation into long-term depression and produces memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Castilla, Perla; Rodriguez-Duran, Luis F; Guzman-Ramos, Kioko; Barcenas-Femat, Alejandro; Escobar, Martha L; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition manifested by synaptic dysfunction and memory loss, but the mechanisms underlying synaptic failure are not entirely understood. Although dopamine is a key modulator of synaptic plasticity, dopaminergic neurotransmission dysfunction in AD has mostly been associated to noncognitive symptoms. Thus, we aimed to study the relationship between dopaminergic neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity in AD models. We used a transgenic model of AD (triple-transgenic mouse model of AD) and the administration of exogenous amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers into wild type mice. We found that Aβ decreased cortical dopamine levels and converted in vivo long-term potentiation (LTP) into long-term depression (LTD) after high-frequency stimulation delivered at basolateral amygdaloid nucleus-insular cortex projection, which led to impaired recognition memory. Remarkably, increasing cortical dopamine and norepinephrine levels rescued both high-frequency stimulation -induced LTP and memory, whereas depletion of catecholaminergic levels mimicked the Aβ-induced shift from LTP to LTD. Our results suggest that Aβ-induced dopamine depletion is a core mechanism underlying the early synaptopathy and memory alterations observed in AD models and acts by modifying the threshold for the induction of cortical LTP and/or LTD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Microglia-Derived Cytokines/Chemokines Are Involved in the Enhancement of LPS-Induced Loss of Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Neurons in DJ-1 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Chia-Hung; Lee, Ming-Jen; Liou, Houng-Chi; Liou, Horng-Huei; Fu, Wen-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Mutation of DJ-1 (PARK7) has been linked to the development of early-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. This study is aimed to compare the sensitivity of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge between DJ-1 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice, and explore the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Our results found that the basal levels of interferon (IFN)-γ (the hub cytokine) and interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC) (a downstream mediator) were elevated in the substantia nigra of DJ-1 KO mice and in microglia cells with DJ-1 deficiency, and the release of cytokine/chemokine was greatly enhanced following LPS administration in the DJ-1 deficient conditions. In addition, direct intranigral LPS challenge caused a greater loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and striatal dopamine content in DJ-1 KO mice than in WT mice. Furthermore, the sensitization of microglia cells to LPS challenge to release IFN-γ and I-TAC was via the enhancement of NF-κB signaling, which was antagonized by NF-κB inhibitors. LPS-induced increase in neuronal death in the neuron-glia co-culture was enhanced by DJ-1 deficiency in microglia, which was antagonized by the neutralizing antibodies against IFN-γ or I-TAC. These results indicate that DJ-1 deficiency sensitizes microglia cells to release IFN-γ and I-TAC and causes inflammatory damage to dopaminergic neurons. The interaction between the genetic defect (i.e. DJ-1) and inflammatory factors (e.g. LPS) may contribute to the development of PD. PMID:26982707

  8. The involvement of Eag1 potassium channels and miR-34a in rotenone-induced death of dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Camila Hillesheim; Titze-De-Almeida, Ricardo; Titze-De-Almeida, Simoneide Souza

    2017-01-01

    The loss of dopaminergic neurons and the resultant motor impairment are hallmarks of Parkinson's disease. The SH-SY5Y cell line is a model of dopaminergic neurons, and allows for the study of dopaminergic neuronal injury. Previous studies have revealed changes in Ether à go-go 1 (Eag1) potassium channel expression during p53-induced SH-SY5Y apoptosis, and the regulatory involvement of microRNA-34a (miR-34a) was demonstrated. In the present study, the involvement of Eag1 and miR-34a in rotenone-induced SH-SY5Y cell injury was investigated. Rotenone is a neurotoxin, which is often used to generate models of Parkinson's disease, since it causes the death of nigrostriatal neurons by inducing intracellular aggregation of alpha synuclein and ubiquitin. In the present study, rotenone resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, as revealed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and trypan blue cell counting assays. In addition, Eag1 was demonstrated to be constitutively expressed by SH-SY5Y cells, and involved in cell viability. Suppression of Eag1 with astemizole resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability, as revealed by MTT assay. Astemizole also enhanced the severity of rotenone-induced injury in SH-SY5Y cells. RNA interference against Eag1, using synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), corroborated this finding, as siRNAs potentiated rotenone-induced injury. Eag1-targeted siRNAs (kv10.1-3 or EAG1hum_287) resulted in a statistically significant 16.4–23.5% increase in vulnerability to rotenone. An increased number of apoptotic nuclei were observed in cells transfected with EAG1hum_287. Notably, this siRNA intensified rotenone-induced apoptosis, as revealed by an increase in caspase 3/7 activity. Conversely, a miR-34a inhibitor was demonstrated to exert neuroprotective effects. The viability of cells exposed to rotenone for 24 or 48 h and treated with miR-34a inhibitor was restored by 8.4–8.8%. In conclusion

  9. Efficient generation of dopaminergic-like neurons by overexpression of Nurr1 and Pitx3 in mouse induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Salemi, Salemeh; Baktash, Parvaneh; Rajaei, Bahareh; Noori, Mehri; Amini, Hossein; Shamsara, Mehdi; Massumi, Mohammad

    2016-07-28

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, in which the nigro-striatal Dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons are selectively lost. Treatment of neurodegenerative diseases with Pluripotent Stem Cells (PSCs) is a big interest in cell therapy. Here, we used induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) expressing two master Dopaminergic (DAergic) transcription factors, i.e. Nurr1 and Pitx3, to generate functional in vitro DAergic-like neurons. After establishment and characterization of Doxycycline-inducible iPSCs from mouse fibroblasts, the cells were transduced by NURR1- and PITX3-harboring lentiviruses. The Nurr1/Pitx3 -iPSCs were differentiated through a five-stage protocol to generate DAergic-like neurons. The results confirmed the efficient expression of DAergic neuron markers in the end of protocol. Beside, the generated cells could exclusively synthesize and secrete Dopamine in response to secretagogues. In conclusion, overexpression of Nurr1 and Pitx3 in iPSCs could efficiently program iPSCs into functional DAergic-like neurons. This finding may have an impact on future stem cell therapy of PD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective Effect of Neuropeptide Apelin-13 on 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Dopaminergic Cells: Involvement of Its Antioxidant and Antiapoptotic Properties.

    PubMed

    Pouresmaeili-Babaki, Elham; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Ravan, Hadi

    2018-04-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of brain dopaminergic neurons. Beside pharmacologic and symptomatic treatment of PD the neuroprotective therapy has recently attracted more attention. Apelin, a novel neuropeptide, and its receptors have numerous reported roles in regulating brain functions. In addition, this peptide has potent neuroprotective effects in some neurodegenerative situations. In this study, the effects of apelin-13 were investigated in a cell model of PD. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell damage was induced by 150 μM 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and the cells viability was examined by MTT assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential were determined by fluorescence spectrophotometry method. Immunoblotting analysis was also employed to evaluate cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activity. Data showed that 6-OHDA could decrease cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential and increase intracellular ROS, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3 levels. Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with apelin-13 (5 and 10 nM) significantly prevented the mentioned biochemical and molecular markers of 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. Furthermore, the results showed that apelin receptor and PI3K signaling contributed to the observed protective effects of apelin. The results suggest that apelin-13 has protective effects against dopaminergic neural toxicity and its antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties are involved, at least in part, in such protection.

  11. D-deprenyl protects nigrostriatal neurons against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Muralikrishnan, Dhanasekharan; Samantaray, Supriti; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P

    2003-10-01

    Selegiline (L-deprenyl) is believed to render protection against l-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-neurotoxicity to a significant extent via a free radical scavenging mechanism, which is independent of its ability to inhibit monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) in the brain. We investigated the hydroxyl radical (.OH) scavenging action and neuroprotective effect of D-deprenyl, its less active isomer, in MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice to test whether the chemical structure of the molecule or its biological effects contribute to this property. To achieve this goal we studied the effects of D-deprenyl on: (1).OH production in a Fenton reaction; (2) MPTP-induced.OH generation and dopamine (DA) depletion in vivo, employing a sensitive HPLC-electrochemical procedure; and (3) formation of MPP(+) in vivo in the striatum following systemic administration of MPTP, employing an HPLC-photodiode array detection system. D-deprenyl inhibited ferrous citrate-induced.OH in vitro (0.45 microM) and MPTP-induced.OH in vivo in substantia nigra (SN) and in the striatum (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.). D-deprenyl did not, but L-deprenyl (0.5 mg/kg dose) did significantly inhibit formation of MPP(+) in the striatum 90 min following systemic MPTP injection. It failed to affect MAO-B activity at 0.5 mg/kg in the striatum, but effectively blocked MPTP-induced striatal DA depletion. The potency of D-deprenyl to scavenge MPTP-induced.OH in vivo and to render protection against the dopaminergic neurotoxicity without affecting dopamine turnover, MAO-B activity, or formation of MPP(+) in the brain indicates a direct involvement of.OH in the neurotoxic action of MPTP and antioxidant effect in the neuroprotective action of deprenyl. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway are not involved in the decreased postoperative nociceptive threshold induced by plantar incision in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Norimasa; Masaki, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Approximately half of all patients who undergo surgery develop postoperative pain, the mechanisms of which are not well understood by anesthesiologists. D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway play an important role in regulation of pain transmission in the spinal cord. Impairment of inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord is suggested as part of the mechanism for neuropathic pain, which is one component of postoperative pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether impairment of D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway in the spinal cord is involved in the decreased postoperative nociceptive threshold in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were anesthetized with sevoflurane and an intrathecal (IT) catheter was implanted. Six days later, a plantar incision was made. On the following day, saline, a D2-like receptor agonist (quinpirole), or a D2-like receptor antagonist (sulpiride) was administered intrathecally. Thermal and mechanical nociceptive responses were assessed by exposure to infrared radiant heat and the von Frey filament test before and after plantar incision. Plantar incision decreased both thermal latency and the mechanical nociceptive threshold. IT administration of quinpirole inhibited the nociceptive responses induced by plantar incision, but sulpiride had no effect. A D2-like receptor agonist had antinociceptive effects on the hypersensitivity response triggered by a surgical incision, but a D2-like receptor antagonist had no effect on this response. These results suggest that impairment and/or modification of D2-like receptors in the descending dopaminergic pathway in the spinal cord is not involved in the postoperative decrease in nociceptive threshold.

  13. Post-trial dopaminergic modulation of conditioned catalepsy: A single apomorphine induced increase/decrease in dopaminergic activation immediately following a conditioned catalepsy response can reverse/enhance a haloperidol conditioned and sensitized catalepsy response.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lucas Rangel; Dias, Flávia Regina Cruz; Santos, Breno Garone; Silva, Jade Leal Loureiro; Carey, Robert J; Carrera, Marinete Pinheiro

    2016-09-15

    Haloperidol can induce catalepsy and this drug effect can be conditioned as well as sensitized to contextual cues. We used a paired/unpaired Pavlovian conditioning protocol to establish haloperidol catalepsy conditioned and sensitized responses. Groups of rats were given 10 daily catalepsy tests following administration of vehicle (n=24) or haloperidol (1.0mg/kg) either paired (n=18) or unpaired (n=18) to testing. Subsequently, testing for conditioning was conducted and conditioning and sensitization of catalepsy were observed selectively in the paired group. Immediately following a second test for catalepsy conditioning, the groups were subdivided into 4 vehicle groups, 3 unpaired haloperidol groups and 3 paired haloperidol groups and were given one of three post-trial treatments (vehicle, 0.05mg/kg or 2.0mg/kg apomorphine). One day later the conditioned catalepsy test 3 was carried out and on the next day, a haloperidol challenge test was performed. The post-trial apomorphine treatments had major effects on the paired groups upon both conditioning and the haloperidol challenge test. The low dose apomorphine post-trial treatment enhanced both the conditioned and the haloperidol sensitized catalepsy responses. The high dose apomorphine post-trial treatment eliminated conditioned catalepsy and eliminated the initial acute catalepsy response to haloperidol that was induced in the vehicle control groups. These results demonstrate the sensitivity of conditioned drug cues to modification by increases/decreases in activity of the dopamine system in the immediate post-trial interval after a conditioning trial. This demonstration that post-trial dopaminergic drug treatments can modify conditioned drug behavior has broad implications for conditioned drug effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Short post-weaning social isolation induces long-term changes in the dopaminergic system and increases susceptibility to psychostimulants in female rats.

    PubMed

    Lampert, Carine; Arcego, Danusa Mar; de Sá Couto-Pereira, Natividade; Dos Santos Vieira, Aline; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Krolow, Rachel; Garcia, Emily; Vendite, Deusa Aparecida; Calcagnotto, Maria Elisa; Dalmaz, Carla

    2017-10-01

    parameters evaluated, despite having modified some oxidative parameters. This study showed for the first time that a short post-weaning social isolation was able to induce long-term changes in the striatal dopaminergic system and increased the response to psychostimulants. These results emphasize the importance of stressful experiences during a short period of development on programming susceptibility to psychostimulants later in life. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The dopaminergic stabiliser ACR16 counteracts the behavioural primitivization induced by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 in mice: implications for cognition.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Marie; Carlsson, Arvid; Markinhuhta, Katarina Rydén; Sonesson, Clas; Pettersson, Fredrik; Gullme, Maria; Carlsson, Maria L

    2004-07-01

    The Carlsson research group has developed a series of compounds capable of stabilising the dopamine system without inducing the deleterious hypodopaminergia that encumbers the currently used antipsychotic drugs. In the present study one of these dopaminergic stabilisers, ACR16, was tested in a mouse model for cognitive deficits of schizophrenia and autism. Since we believe that hypoglutamatergia is a key element in both schizophrenia and autism we used mice rendered hypoglutamatergic by treatment with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist MK-801. MK-801 causes both hyperactivity and a behavioural primitivization. ACR16 attenuated the MK-801-induced hyperactivity and, in addition, caused a marked improvement of behavioural quality with a movement pattern approaching that of control animals. Since we believe that the impoverishment of the behavioural repertoire caused by MK-801 may correspond to the cognitive deficits seen in schizophrenia and autism, these results suggest that ACR16 may improve cognitive status in these disorders.

  16. Role of the Dopaminergic System in the Acquisition, Expression and Reinstatement of MDMA-Induced Conditioned Place Preference in Adolescent Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Infer, Antonio; Roger-Sánchez, Concepción; Daza-Losada, Manuel; Aguilar, María A.; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Background The rewarding effects of 3,4-methylenedioxy-metamphetamine (MDMA) have been demonstrated in conditioned place preference (CPP) procedures, but the involvement of the dopaminergic system in MDMA-induced CPP and reinstatement is poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, the effects of the DA D1 antagonist SCH 23390 (0.125 and 0.250 mg/kg), the DA D2 antagonist Haloperidol (0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg), the D2 antagonist Raclopride (0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg) and the dopamine release inhibitor CGS 10746B (3 and 10 mg/kg) on the acquisition, expression and reinstatement of a CPP induced by 10 mg/kg of MDMA were evaluated in adolescent mice. As expected, MDMA significantly increased the time spent in the drug-paired compartment during the post-conditioning (Post-C) test, and a priming dose of 5 mg/kg reinstated the extinguished preference. The higher doses of Haloperidol, Raclopride and CGS 10746B and both doses of SCH 23390 blocked acquisition of the MDMA-induced CPP. However, only Haloperidol blocked expression of the CPP. Reinstatement of the extinguished preference was not affected by any of the drugs studied. Analysis of brain monoamines revealed that the blockade of CPP acquisition was accompanied by an increase in DA concentration in the striatum, with a concomitant decrease in DOPAC and HVA levels. Administration of haloperidol during the Post-C test produced increases in striatal serotonin, DOPAC and HVA concentrations. In mice treated with the higher doses of haloperidol and CGS an increase in SERT concentration in the striatum was detected during acquisition of the CPP, but no changes in DAT were observed. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that, in adolescent mice, the dopaminergic system is involved in the acquisition and expression of MDMA-induced CPP, but not in its reinstatement. PMID:22916213

  17. Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Induces Maternal Hypozincemia, and Prenatal Zinc Treatment Prevents Autistic-Like Behaviors and Disturbances in the Striatal Dopaminergic and mTOR Systems of Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Kirsten, Thiago Berti; Chaves-Kirsten, Gabriela P.; Bernardes, Suene; Scavone, Cristoforo; Sarkis, Jorge E.; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Felicio, Luciano F.

    2015-01-01

    Autism is characterized by social deficits, repetitive behaviors, and cognitive inflexibility. The risk factors appear to include genetic and environmental conditions, such as prenatal infections and maternal dietary factors. Previous investigations by our group have demonstrated that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, induces autistic-like behaviors. To understand the causes of autistic-like behaviors, we evaluated maternal serum metal concentrations, which are involved in intrauterine development and infection/inflammation. We identified reduced maternal levels of zinc, magnesium, selenium and manganese after LPS exposure. Because LPS induced maternal hypozincemia, we treated dams with zinc in an attempt to prevent or ease the impairments in the offspring. We evaluated the social and cognitive autistic-like behaviors and brain tissues of the offspring to identify the central mechanism that triggers the development of autism. Prenatal LPS exposure impaired play behaviors and T-maze spontaneous alternations, i.e., it induced autistic-like behaviors. Prenatal LPS also decreased tyrosine hydroxylase levels and increased the levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the striatum. Thus, striatal dopaminergic impairments may be related to autism. Moreover, excessive signaling through the mTOR pathway has been considered a biomarker of autism, corroborating our rat model of autism. Prenatal zinc treatment prevented these autistic-like behaviors and striatal dopaminergic and mTOR disturbances in the offspring induced by LPS exposure. The present findings revealed a possible relation between maternal hypozincemia during gestation and the onset of autism. Furthermore, prenatal zinc administration appears to have a beneficial effect on the prevention of autism. PMID:26218250

  18. Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Induces Maternal Hypozincemia, and Prenatal Zinc Treatment Prevents Autistic-Like Behaviors and Disturbances in the Striatal Dopaminergic and mTOR Systems of Offspring.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, Thiago Berti; Chaves-Kirsten, Gabriela P; Bernardes, Suene; Scavone, Cristoforo; Sarkis, Jorge E; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Felicio, Luciano F

    2015-01-01

    Autism is characterized by social deficits, repetitive behaviors, and cognitive inflexibility. The risk factors appear to include genetic and environmental conditions, such as prenatal infections and maternal dietary factors. Previous investigations by our group have demonstrated that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, induces autistic-like behaviors. To understand the causes of autistic-like behaviors, we evaluated maternal serum metal concentrations, which are involved in intrauterine development and infection/inflammation. We identified reduced maternal levels of zinc, magnesium, selenium and manganese after LPS exposure. Because LPS induced maternal hypozincemia, we treated dams with zinc in an attempt to prevent or ease the impairments in the offspring. We evaluated the social and cognitive autistic-like behaviors and brain tissues of the offspring to identify the central mechanism that triggers the development of autism. Prenatal LPS exposure impaired play behaviors and T-maze spontaneous alternations, i.e., it induced autistic-like behaviors. Prenatal LPS also decreased tyrosine hydroxylase levels and increased the levels of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the striatum. Thus, striatal dopaminergic impairments may be related to autism. Moreover, excessive signaling through the mTOR pathway has been considered a biomarker of autism, corroborating our rat model of autism. Prenatal zinc treatment prevented these autistic-like behaviors and striatal dopaminergic and mTOR disturbances in the offspring induced by LPS exposure. The present findings revealed a possible relation between maternal hypozincemia during gestation and the onset of autism. Furthermore, prenatal zinc administration appears to have a beneficial effect on the prevention of autism.

  19. MitoQ protects dopaminergic neurons in a 6-OHDA induced PD model by enhancing Mfn2-dependent mitochondrial fusion via activation of PGC-1α.

    PubMed

    Xi, Ye; Feng, Dayun; Tao, Kai; Wang, Ronglin; Shi, Yajun; Qin, Huaizhou; Murphy, Michael P; Yang, Qian; Zhao, Gang

    2018-05-26

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra compacta (SNc). Although mitochondrial dysfunction is the critical factor in the pathogenesis of PD, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood, and as a result, effective medical interventions are lacking. Mitochondrial fission and fusion play important roles in the maintenance of mitochondrial function and cell viability. Here, we investigated the effects of MitoQ, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced in vitro and in vivo PD models. We observed that 6-OHDA enhanced mitochondrial fission by decreasing the expression of Mfn1, Mfn2 and OPA1 as well as by increasing the expression of Drp1 in the dopaminergic (DA) cell line SN4741. Notably, MitoQ treatment particularly upregulated the Mfn2 protein and mRNA levels and promoted mitochondrial fusion in the presence of 6-OHDA in a Mfn2-dependent manner. In addition, MitoQ also stabilized mitochondrial morphology and function in the presence of 6-OHDA, which further suppressed the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as ameliorated mitochondrial fragmentation and cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) was attributed to the upregulation of Mfn2 induced by MitoQ. Consistent with these findings, administration of MitoQ in 6-OHDA-treated mice significantly rescued the decrease of Mfn2 expression and the loss of DA neurons in the SNc. Taken together, our findings suggest that MitoQ protects DA neurons in a 6-OHDA induced PD model by activating PGC-1α to enhance Mfn2-dependent mitochondrial fusion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Virtually-induced threat in Parkinson's: Dopaminergic interactions between anxiety and sensory-perceptual processing while walking.

    PubMed

    Ehgoetz Martens, Kaylena A; Ellard, Colin G; Almeida, Quincy J

    2015-12-01

    Research evidence has suggested that anxiety influences gait in PD, with an identified dopa-sensitive gait response in highly anxious PD. It has been well-established that accurate perception of the environment and sensory feedback is essential for gait. Arguably since sensory and perceptual deficits have been noted in PD, anxiety has the potential to exacerbate movement impairments, since one might expect that reducing resources needed to overcome or compensate for sensory-perceptual deficits may lead to even more severe gait impairments. It is possible that anxiety in threatening situations might consume more processing resources, limiting the ability to process information about the environment or one's own movement (sensory feedback) especially in highly anxious PD. Therefore, the current study aimed to (i) evaluate whether processing of threat-related aspects of the environment was influenced by anxiety, (ii) evaluate whether anxiety influences the ability to utilize sensory feedback in PD while walking in threatening situations, and (iii) further understand the role of dopaminergic medication on these processes in threatening situations in PD. Forty-eight participants (24 HC; 12 Low Anxious [LA-PD], 12 Highly Anxious [HA-PD]) completed 20 walking trials in virtual reality across a plank that was (i) located on the ground (GROUND) (ii) located above a deep pit (ELEVATED); while provided with or without visual feedback about their lower limbs (+VF; -VF). After walking across the plank, participants were asked to judge the width of the plank they had just walked across. The plank varied in size from 60-100 cm. Both ON and OFF dopaminergic medication states were evaluated in PD. Gait parameters, judgment error and self-reported anxiety levels were measured. Results showed that HA-PD reported greater levels of anxiety overall (p<0.001) compared to HC and LA-PD, and all participants reported greater anxiety during the ELEVATED condition compared to GROUND (p=0

  1. 6-OHDA induced calcium influx through N-type calcium channel alters membrane properties via PKA pathway in substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Qu, Liang; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Li, Nan; Wang, Qiang; Yang, Qian; Gao, Guo-Dong; Wang, Xue-Lian

    2014-07-11

    Voltage gated calcium channels (VGCC) are sensitive to oxidative stress, and their activation or inactivation can impact cell death. Although these channels have been extensively studied in expression systems, their role in the brain, particularly in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), remain controversial. In this study, we assessed 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced transformation of firing pattern and functional changes of calcium channels in SNc dopaminergic neurons. Application of 6-OHDA (0.5-2mM) evoked a dose-dependent, desensitizing inward current and intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) rise. In voltage clamp, ω-conotoxin-sensitive Ca(2+) current modulation mediated by 6-OHDA reflected an altered sensitivity. Furthermore, we found that 6-OHDA modulated Ca(2+) currents through PKA pathway. These results provided evidence for the potential role of VGCCs and PKA involved in oxidative stress in degeneration of SNc neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cyanide-induced death of dopaminergic cells is mediated by uncoupling protein-2 up-regulation and reduced Bcl-2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Li, L.; Zhang, L.

    Cyanide is a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and produces mitochondria-mediated death of dopaminergic neurons and sublethal intoxications that are associated with a Parkinson-like syndrome. Cyanide toxicity is enhanced when mitochondrial uncoupling is stimulated following up-regulation of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2). In this study, the role of a pro-survival protein, Bcl-2, in cyanide-mediated cell death was determined in a rat dopaminergic immortalized mesencephalic cell line (N27 cells). Following pharmacological up-regulation of UCP-2 by treatment with Wy14,643, cyanide reduced cellular Bcl-2 expression by increasing proteasomal degradation of the protein. The increased turnover of Bcl-2 was mediated by an increase of oxidativemore » stress following UCP-2 up-regulation. The oxidative stress involved depletion of mitochondrial glutathione (mtGSH) and increased H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation. Repletion of mtGSH by loading cells with glutathione ethyl ester reduced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation and in turn blocked the cyanide-induced decrease of Bcl-2. To determine if UCP-2 mediated the response, RNAi knock down was conducted. The RNAi decreased cyanide-induced depletion of mtGSH, reduced H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accumulation, and inhibited down-regulation of Bcl-2, thus blocking cell death. To confirm the role of Bcl-2 down-regulation in the cell death, it was shown that over-expression of Bcl-2 by cDNA transfection attenuated the enhancement of cyanide toxicity after UCP-2 up-regulation. It was concluded that UCP-2 up-regulation sensitizes cells to cyanide by increasing cellular oxidative stress, leading to an increase of Bcl-2 degradation. Then the reduced Bcl-2 levels sensitize the cells to cyanide-mediated cell death.« less

  3. ER Stress Induced by Tunicamycin Triggers α-Synuclein Oligomerization, Dopaminergic Neurons Death and Locomotor Impairment: a New Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Cóppola-Segovia, Valentín; Cavarsan, Clarissa; Maia, Flavia G; Ferraz, Anete C; Nakao, Lia S; Lima, Marcelo Ms; Zanata, Silvio M

    2017-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive death of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), leading to the major clinical abnormalities that characterize this disease. Although PD's etiology is unknown, α-synuclein aggregation plays a pivotal role in PD pathogenesis, which could be associated to some pathological processes such as oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, impaired protein degradation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Increasing experimental evidence indicates that ER stress is involved in PD, however most of the described results employed cultured cell lines and genetically modified animal models. In this study, we developed a new ER stress rat model employing the well-known ER stressor tunicamycin (Tm). To evaluate if ER stress was able to induce PD features, we performed an intranigral injection of Tm (0.1 μg/cerebral hemisphere) and animals (male Wistar rats) were analyzed 7 days post injection. The classical 6-OHDA neurotoxin model (1 μg/cerebral hemisphere) was used as an established positive control for PD. We show that Tm injection induced locomotor impairment, dopaminergic neurons death, and activation of astroglia. In addition, we observed an extensive α-synuclein oligomerization in SNpc of Tm-injected animals when compared with DMSO-injected controls. Finally, both Tm and 6-OHDA treated animals presented increased levels of ER stress markers. Taken together, these findings show for the first time that the ER stressor Tm recapitulates some of the phenotypic characteristics observed in rodent models of PD, reinforcing the concept that ER stress could be an important contributor to the pathophysiology of PD. Therefore, we propose the intranigral Tm injection as a new ER stress-based model for the study of PD in vivo.

  4. Pleiotrophin overexpression regulates amphetamine-induced reward and striatal dopaminergic denervation without changing the expression of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors: Implications for neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Rodríguez, Marta; Rojo Gonzalez, Loreto; Gramage, Esther; Fernández-Calle, Rosalía; Chen, Ying; Pérez-García, Carmen; Ferrer-Alcón, Marcel; Uribarri, María; Bailey, Alexis; Herradón, Gonzalo

    2016-11-01

    It was previously shown that mice with genetic deletion of the neurotrophic factor pleiotrophin (PTN-/-) show enhanced amphetamine neurotoxicity and impair extinction of amphetamine conditioned place preference (CPP), suggesting a modulatory role of PTN in amphetamine neurotoxicity and reward. We have now studied the effects of amphetamine (10mg/kg, 4 times, every 2h) in the striatum of mice with transgenic PTN overexpression (PTN-Tg) in the brain and in wild type (WT) mice. Amphetamine caused an enhanced loss of striatal dopaminergic terminals, together with a highly significant aggravation of amphetamine-induced increase in the number of GFAP-positive astrocytes, in the striatum of PTN-Tg mice compared to WT mice. Given the known contribution of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors to the neurotoxic effects of amphetamine, we also performed quantitative receptor autoradiography of both receptors in the brains of PTN-Tg and WT mice. D1 and D2 receptors binding in the striatum and other regions of interest was not altered by genotype or treatment. Finally, we found that amphetamine CPP was significantly reduced in PTN-Tg mice. The data demonstrate that PTN overexpression in the brain blocks the conditioning effects of amphetamine and enhances the characteristic striatal dopaminergic denervation caused by this drug. These results indicate for the first time deleterious effects of PTN in vivo by mechanisms that are probably independent of changes in the expression of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors. The data also suggest that PTN-induced neuroinflammation could be involved in the enhanced neurotoxic effects of amphetamine in the striatum of PTN-Tg mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  5. Loss of collapsin response mediator protein 4 suppresses dopaminergic neuron death in an 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tonouchi, Aine; Nagai, Jun; Togashi, Kentaro; Goshima, Yoshio; Ohshima, Toshio

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). Several lines of evidence suggest that neurodegeneration in PD is accelerated by a vicious cycle in which apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons triggers the activation of microglia and harmful inflammatory processes that further amplify neuronal death. Recently, we demonstrated that the deletion of collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4) suppresses inflammatory responses and cell death in a mouse model of spinal cord injury, leading to improved functional recovery. We thus hypothesized that Crmp4-/- mice may have limited inflammatory responses and a decrease in the loss of SNc dopaminergic neurons in an 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mouse model. We observed CRMP4 expression in neurons, astrocytes, and microglia/macrophages following the injection of 25 mg/kg MPTP. We compared the number of dopaminergic neurons and the inflammatory response in SNc between Crmp4+/+ and Crmp4-/- mice after MPTP injection. Limited loss of SNc dopaminergic neurons and decreased activations of microglia and astrocytes were observed in Crmp4-/- mice. These results suggest that CRMP4 is a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of PD patients. We demonstrated that genetic CRMP4 deletion delays a vicious cycle of inflammation and neurodegeneration in a Parkinson's disease mouse model. MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) injection to wild-type mice induces collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4) up-regulation in neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. CRMP4-deficient mice show reduced inflammation and suppressed dopaminergic neuronal death after MPTP injection. These findings suggest that CRMP4 deletion may be a new therapeutic strategy against Parkinson's diseases. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Induction of cross-tolerance between protective effect of morphine and nicotine in 6-hydroxydopamine-induce neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Elyasi, Leila; Eftekhar-Vaghefi, Seyed Hassan; Asadi-Shekaaria, Majid; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed

    2018-06-27

    Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive and selective death of dopaminergic neurons. It has been reported that nicotine and morphine have protective roles during neuronal damage in Parkinson's disease. In addition, the induction of cross-tolerance between their biological effects has been shown in numerous reports. Here, we investigated the effects of nicotine and morphine on 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line as an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease. Cell damage was induced by 150 μM 6-OHDA and the cells viability was examined by MTT assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species, calcium level and mitochondrial membrane potential were determined by fluorescence spectrophotometer method. Biochemical markers of apoptosis were also evaluated by immunoblotting. The data showed that morphine and nicotine prevent 6-OHDA- induced cell damage and apoptosis. However, the protective effects of nicotine were not observed in chronic morphine-pretreated cells. Morphine had no protective effects in chronic nicotine-incubated cells. A cross-tolerance between protective effects of morphine and nicotine was occurred in 6-OHDA-induced SH-SY5Y cell toxicity.

  7. 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline protects terminals of dopaminergic neurons in the striatum against the malonate-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lorenc-Koci, Elzbieta; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Wardas, Jadwiga

    2005-07-27

    Malonate, a reversible inhibitor of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, is frequently used as a model neurotoxin to produce lesion of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in animals due to particular sensitivity of dopamine neurons to mild energy impairment. This model of neurotoxicity was applied in our study to explore neuroprotective potential of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (TIQ), an endo- and exogenous substance whose function in the mammalian brain, despite extensive studies, has not been elucidated so far. Injection of malonate at a dose of 3 mumol unilaterally into the rat left medial forebrain bundle resulted in the 54% decrease in dopamine (DA) concentration in the ipsilateral striatum and, depending on the examined striatum regions, caused 24-44% reduction in [3H]GBR12,935 binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT). TIQ (50 mg/kg i.p.) administered 4 h before malonate infusion and next once daily for successive 7 days prevented both these effects of malonate. Such TIQ treatment restored DA content and DAT binding almost to the control level. The results of the present study indicate that TIQ may act as a neuroprotective agent in the rat brain. An inhibition of the enzymatic activities of monoamine oxidase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase as well as an increase in the striatal levels of glutathione and nitric oxide found after TIQ administration and reported in our earlier studies are considered to be potential factors that may be involved in the TIQ-mediated protection of dopamine terminals from malonate toxicity.

  8. Dysfunction of serotoninergic and dopaminergic neuronal systems in the antidepressant-resistant impairment of social behaviors induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Sho; Miyake, Yuriko; Yoshimi, Akira; Mouri, Akihiro; Hida, Hirotake; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2018-03-29

    Extensive studies have been performed on the role of monoaminergic neuronal systems in rodents exposed to social defeat stress as adults. In the present study, we investigated the role of monoaminergic neuronal systems in the impairment of social behaviors induced by social defeat stress exposure as juveniles. Juvenile, male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to social defeat stress for 10 consecutive days. From 1 day after the last stress exposure, desipramine, sertraline, and aripiprazole, were administered for 15 days. Social behaviors were assessed at 1 and 15 days after the last stress exposure. Monoamine turnover was determined in specific regions of the brain in the mice exposed to the stress. Stress exposure as juveniles induced the impairment of social behaviors in adolescent mice. In mice that showed the impairment of social behaviors, turnover of the serotonin and dopamine, but not noradrenaline was decreased in specific brain regions. Acute and repeated administration of desipramine, sertraline, and aripiprazole failed to attenuate the impairment of social behaviors, whereas repeated administration of a combination of sertraline and aripiprazole showed additive attenuating effects. These findings suggest that social defeat stress exposure as juveniles induces the treatment-resistant impairment of social behaviors in adolescents through dysfunction in the serotoninergic and dopaminergic neuronal systems. The combination of sertraline and aripiprazole may be used as a new treatment strategy for treatment-resistant stress-related psychiatric disorders in adolescents with adverse juvenile experiences.

  9. Conditioned medium from human amniotic epithelial cells may induce the differentiation of human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells into dopaminergic neuron-like cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shu; Sun, Hai-Mei; Yan, Ji-Hong; Xue, Hong; Wu, Bo; Dong, Fang; Li, Wen-Shuai; Ji, Feng-Qing; Zhou, De-Shan

    2013-07-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neuron therapy has been established as a new clinical tool for treating Parkinson's disease (PD). Prior to cell transplantation, there are two primary issues that must be resolved: one is the appropriate seed cell origin, and the other is the efficient inducing technique. In the present study, human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) were used as the available seed cells, and conditioned medium from human amniotic epithelial cells (ACM) was used as the inducing reagent. Results showed that the proportion of DA neuron-like cells from hUCB-MSCs was significantly increased after cultured in ACM, suggested by the upregulation of DAT, TH, Nurr1, and Pitx3. To identify the process by which ACM induces DA neuron differentiation, we pretreated hUCB-MSCs with k252a, the Trk receptor inhibitor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), and found that the proportion of DA neuron-like cells was significantly decreased compared with ACM-treated hUCB-MSCs, suggesting that NGF and BDNF in ACM were involved in the differentiation process. However, we could not rule out the involvement of other unidentified factors in the ACM, because ACM + k252a treatment does not fully block DA neuron-like cell differentiation compared with control. The transplantation of ACM-induced hUCB-MSCs could ameliorate behavioral deficits in PD rats, which may be associated with the survival of engrafted DA neuron-like cells. In conclusion, we propose that hUCB-MSCs are a good source of DA neuron-like cells and that ACM is a potential inducer to obtain DA neuron-like cells from hUCB-MSCs in vitro for an ethical and legal cell therapy for PD. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Oxytocin-induced yawning: sites of action in the brain and interaction with mesolimbic/mesocortical and incertohypothalamic dopaminergic neurons in male rats.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Argiolas, Antonio; Melis, Maria Rosaria

    2012-09-01

    Oxytocin (80 ng) induces yawning when injected into the caudal part of the ventral tegmental area, the hippocampal ventral subiculum and the posteromedial nucleus of the amygdala of male rats. The behavioural response occurred concomitantly with an increase in the concentration of extracellular dopamine and its main metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the dialysate obtained from the shell of the nucleus accumbens and of the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex by means of intracerebral microdialysis. Both oxytocin responses were significantly reduced by d(CH₂)₅Tyr(Me)²-Orn⁸-vasotocin, a selective oxytocin receptor antagonist, injected in the above brain areas 15 min before oxytocin. Similar results were obtained by activating central oxytocinergic neurons originating in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and projecting to the ventral tegmental area, the hippocampus and the amygdala, with the dopamine agonist apomorphine given at a dose that induces yawning when injected into the paraventricular nucleus. Since oxytocin is considered a key regulator of emotional and social reward that enhances amygdala-dependent, socially reinforced learning and emotional empathy, mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine neurons play a key role in motivation and reward, and yawning in mammals is considered a primitive, unconscious form of empathy, the present results support the hypothesis that oxytocinergic neurons originating in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and projecting to the above brain areas and mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic neurons participate in the complex neural circuits that play a role in the above mentioned functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuroprotective effects of glyceryl nonivamide against microglia-like cells and 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Chin; Uang, Hao-Wei; Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Ing-Jun; Lo, Yi-Ching

    2007-12-01

    Glyceryl nonivamide (GLNVA), a vanilloid receptor (VR) agonist, has been reported to have calcitonin gene-related peptide-associated vasodilatation and to prevent subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced cerebral vasospasm. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of GLNVA on activated microglia-like cell mediated- and proparkinsonian neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. In coculture conditions, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 cells as a model of activated microglia. LPS-induced neuronal death was significantly inhibited by diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. However, capsazepine, the selective VR1 antagonist, did not block the neuroprotective effects of GLNVA. GLNVA reduced LPS-activated microglia-mediated neuronal death, but it lacked protection in DPI-pretreated cultures. GLNVA also decreased LPS activated microglia induced overexpression of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) and glycoprotein 91 phagocyte oxidase (gp91(phox)) on SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment of BV-2 cells with GLNVA diminished LPS-induced nitric oxide production, overexpression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), and gp91(phox) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS). GLNVA also reduced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression, inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB (IkappaB)alpha/IkappaBbeta degradation, NF-kappaB activation, and the overproduction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and prostaglandin E2 in BV-2 cells. However, GLNVA augmented anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production on LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Furthermore, in 6-OHDA-treated SH-SY5Y cells, GLNVA rescued the changes in condensed nuclear and apoptotic bodies, prevented the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, and reduced cells death. GLNVA also suppressed accumulation of iROS and up-regulated heme oxygenase-1 expression. 6-OHDA-induced overexpression of nNOS, i

  12. Naringin treatment induces neuroprotective effects in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease in vivo, but not enough to restore the lesioned dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Deok; Jeong, Kyoung Hoon; Jung, Un Ju; Kim, Sang Ryong

    2016-02-01

    We recently reported that treatment with naringin, a major flavonoid found in grapefruit and citrus fruits, attenuated neurodegeneration in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD) in vivo. In order to investigate whether its effects are universally applied to a different model of PD and whether its treatment induces restorative effects on the lesioned nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) projection, we observed the effects of pre-treatment or post-treatment with naringin in a mouse model of PD. For neuroprotective effects, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was unilaterally injected into the striatum of mouse brains for a neurotoxin model of PD in the presence or absence of naringin by daily intraperitoneal injection. Our results showed that naringin protected the nigrostriatal DA projection from 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, similar to the effects in rat brains, this treatment induced the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which is well known as an important survival factor for DA neurons, and inhibited microglial activation in the substantia nigra (SN) of mouse brains treated with 6-OHDA. However, there was no significant change of DA phenotypes in the SN and striatum post-treated with naringin compared with 6-OHDA-lesioned mice, despite the treatment being continued for 12 weeks. These results suggest that post-treatment with naringin alone may not be enough to restore the nigrostriatal DA projection in a mouse model of PD. However, our results apparently suggest that naringin is a beneficial natural product to prevent DA degeneration, which is involved in PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Protective effect of orexin-A on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Vazifekhah, Somayeh; Pasban-Aliabadi, Hamzeh; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Sheibani, Vahid

    2013-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive and selective death of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Pharmacologic treatment of PD can be divided into symptomatic and neuroprotective therapies. Orexin-A (hypocretin-1) is a hypothalamic peptide that exerts its biological effects by stimulation of two specific, membrane-bound orexin receptors. Recent studies have shown that orexin-A has a protective role during neuronal damage. Here, we investigated the effects of orexin-A on 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line as an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease. Cell damage was induced by 150μM 6-OHDA and the cells viability was examined by MTT assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by fluorescence spectrophotometry method. Immunoblotting and DNA analysis were also employed to determine the levels of biochemical markers of apoptosis in the cells. The data showed that 6-OHDA could decrease the viability of the cells. In addition, intracellular ROS, activated caspase 3, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome c as well as DNA fragmentation were significantly increased in 6-OHDA-treated cells. Pretreatment of cells with orexin-A (80pM) elicited protective effect and reduced biochemical markers of cell death. The results suggest that orexin-A has protective effects against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity and its protective effects are accompanied by its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties and contribute to our knowledge of the pharmacology of orexin-A. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nupr1 Modulates Methamphetamine-Induced Dopaminergic Neuronal Apoptosis and Autophagy through CHOP-Trib3-Mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiang; Huang, Enping; Tai, Yunchun; Zhao, Xu; Chen, Xuebing; Chen, Chuanxiang; Chen, Rui; Liu, Chao; Lin, Zhoumeng; Wang, Huijun; Xie, Wei-Bing

    2017-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an illegal and widely abused psychoactive stimulant. METH exposure causes detrimental effects on multiple organ systems, primarily the nervous system, especially dopaminergic pathways, in both laboratory animals and humans. In this study, we hypothesized that Nuclear protein 1 (Nupr1/com1/p8) is involved in METH-induced neuronal apoptosis and autophagy through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling pathway. To test this hypothesis, we measured the expression levels of Nupr1, ER stress protein markers CHOP and Trib3, apoptosis-related protein markers cleaved-caspase3 and PARP, as well as autophagy-related protein markers LC3 and Beclin-1 in brain tissues of adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, rat primary cultured neurons and the rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells) after METH exposure. We also determined the effects of METH exposure on the expression of these proteins after silencing Nupr1, CHOP, or Trib3 expression with synthetic small hairpin RNA (shRNA) or siRNA in vitro, and after silencing Nupr1 in the striatum of rats by injecting lentivirus containing shRNA sequence targeting Nupr1 gene to rat striatum. The results showed that METH exposure increased Nupr1 expression that was accompanied with increased expression of ER stress protein markers CHOP and Trib3, and also led to apoptosis and autophagy in rat primary neurons and in PC12 cells after 24 h exposure (3.0 mM), and in the prefrontal cortex and striatum of rats after repeated intraperitoneal injections (15 mg/kg × 8 injections at 12 h intervals). Silencing of Nupr1 expression partly reduced METH-induced apoptosis and autophagy in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that Nupr1 plays an essential role in METH-caused neuronal apoptosis and autophagy at relatively higher doses and may be a potential therapeutic target in high-dose METH-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:28694771

  15. Partial dopaminergic denervation-induced impairment in stimulus discrimination acquisition in parkinsonian rats: a model for early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Andrew L; Olumolade, Oluyemi O; Otani, Hajime

    2015-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) produces progressive nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) denervation resulting in cognitive and motor impairment. However, it is unknown whether cognitive impairments, such as instrumental learning deficits, are associated with the early stage PD-induced mild DA denervation. The current study sought to model early PD-induced instrumental learning impairments by assessing the effects of low dose (5.5μg), bilateral 6OHDA-induced striatal DA denervation on acquisition of instrumental stimulus discrimination in rats. 6OHDA (n=20) or sham (n=10) lesioned rats were tested for stimulus discrimination acquisition either 1 or 2 weeks post surgical lesion. Stimulus discrimination acquisition across 10 daily sessions was used to assess discriminative accuracy, or a probability measure of the shift toward reinforced responding under one stimulus condition (Sd) away from extinction, when reinforcement was withheld, under another (S(d) phase). Striatal DA denervation was assayed by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) staining intensity. Results indicated that 6OHDA lesions produced significant loss of dorsal striatal TH staining intensity and marked impairment in discrimination acquisition, without inducing akinetic motor deficits. Rather 6OHDA-induced impairment was associated with perseveration during extinction (S(Δ) phase). These findings suggest that partial, bilateral striatal DA denervation produces instrumental learning deficits, prior to the onset of gross motor impairment, and suggest that the current model is useful for investigating mild nigrostriatal DA denervation associated with early stage clinical PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydroethanolic extract of Carthamus tinctorius induces antidepressant-like effects: modulation by dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in tail suspension test in mice.

    PubMed

    Abbasi-Maleki, Saeid; Mousavi, Zahra

    2017-09-01

    Studies indicate that major deficiency in the levels of monoaminergic transmitters is a reason for severe depression. On the other hand, it is shown that Carthamus tinctorius L. (CT) may improve neuropsychological injuries by regulation of the monoamine transporter action. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the involvement of monoaminergic systems in antidepressant-like effect of CT extract in the tail suspension test (TST) in mice. The mice were intraperitoneally (IP) treated with CT extract (100-400 mg/kg) 1 hr before the TST. To investigate the involvement of monoaminergic systems in antidepressant-like effect, the mice were treated with receptor antagonists 15 min before CT extract treatment (400 mg/kg, IP) and 1 hr before the TST. Findings showed that CT extract (100-400 mg/kg, IP), dose-dependently induced antidepressant-like effect ( P <0.001), but it was not accompanied by alterations in spontaneous locomotor activity in the open-field test. Pretreatment of mice with SCH23390, sulpiride, haloperidol, WAY100135, cyproheptadine, ketanserin and p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) inhibited the antidepressant-like effect of CT extract (400 mg/kg, IP), but not with prazosin and yohimbine. Co-administration of CT extract (100 mg/kg, IP) with sub-effective doses of fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, IP) or imipramine (5 mg/kg, IP) increased their antidepressant-like response. Our findings firstly showed that components (especially N-Hexadecanoic acid) of CT extract induce antidepressant-like effects by interaction with dopaminergic (D1 and D2) and serotonergic (5HT1A, 5-HT2A receptors) systems. These findings validate the folk use of CT extract for the management of depression.

  17. Involvement of serotoninergic 5-HT1A/2A, alpha-adrenergic and dopaminergic D1 receptors in St. John's wort-induced prepulse inhibition deficit: a possible role of hyperforin.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Mariane G; Mohamed, Mohamed R; Youssef, Amal M; Sabry, Gilane M; Sabry, Nagwa A; Khalifa, Amani E

    2009-05-16

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle response is a valuable paradigm for sensorimotor gating processes. Previous research showed that acute administration of St. John's wort extract (500 mg/kg, p.o.) to rats caused significant disruption of PPI while elevating monoamines levels in some brain areas. The cause-effect relationship between extract-induced PPI disruption and augmented monoaminergic transmission was studied using different serotoninergic, adrenergic and dopaminergic antagonists. The effects of hypericin and hyperforin, as the main active constituents of the extract, on PPI response were also tested. PPI disruption was prevented after blocking the serotoninergic 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A, alpha-adrenergic and dopaminergic D1 receptors. Results also demonstrated a significant PPI deficit after acute treatment of rats with hyperforin, and not hypericin. In some conditions manifesting disrupted PPI response, apoptosis coexists. Electrophoresis of DNA isolated from brains of hyperforin-treated animals revealed absence of any abnormal DNA fragmentation patterns. It is concluded that serotoninergic 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A, alpha-adrenergic and dopaminergic D1 receptors are involved in the disruptive effect of St. John's wort extract on PPI response in rats. We can also conclude that hyperforin, and not hypericin, is one of the active ingredients responsible for St. John's wort-induced PPI disruption with no relation to apoptotic processes.

  18. Dopamine D1 and D2 Receptor Immunoreactivities in the Arcuate-Median Eminence Complex and their Link to the Tubero-Infundibular Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Fernandez, W.; Borroto-Escuela, D.O.; Vargas-Barroso, V.; Narváez, M.; Di Palma, M.; Agnati, L.F.; Sahd, J. Larriva

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunohistochemistry and Golgi techniques were used to study the structure of the adult rat arcuate-median eminence complex, and determine the distribution of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities therein, particularly in relation to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons. Punctate dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities, likely located on nerve terminals, were enriched in the lateral palisade zone built up of nerve terminals, while the densities were low to modest in the medial palisade zone. A codistribution of dopamine D1 receptor or dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactive puncta with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve terminals was demonstrated in the external layer. Dopamine D1 receptor but not dopamine D2 receptor immnunoreactivites nerve cell bodies were found in the ventromedial part of the arcuate nucleus and in the lateral part of the internal layer of the median eminence forming a continuous cell mass presumably representing neuropeptide Y immunoreactive nerve cell bodies. The major arcuate dopamine/ tyrosine hydroxylase nerve cell group was found in the dorsomedial part. A large number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve cell bodies in this region demonstrated punctate dopamine D1 receptor immunoreactivity but only a few presented dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactivity which were mainly found in a substantial number of tyrosine hydroxylase cell bodies of the ventral periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, also belonging to the tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons. Structural evidence for projections of the arcuate nerve cells into the median eminence was also obtained. Distal axons formed horizontal axons in the internal layer issuing a variable number of collaterals classified into single or multiple strands located in the external layer increasing our understanding of the dopamine nerve terminal networks in this region. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors may therefore directly and differentially

  19. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities in the arcuate-median eminence complex and their link to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Romero-Fernandez, W; Borroto-Escuela, D O; Vargas-Barroso, V; Narváez, M; Di Palma, M; Agnati, L F; Larriva Sahd, J; Fuxe, K

    2014-07-18

    Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunohistochemistry and Golgi techniques were used to study the structure of the adult rat arcuate-median eminence complex, and determine the distribution of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities therein, particularly in relation to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons. Punctate dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities, likely located on nerve terminals, were enriched in the lateral palisade zone built up of nerve terminals, while the densities were low to modest in the medial palisade zone. A codistribution of dopamine D1 receptor or dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactive puncta with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve terminals was demonstrated in the external layer. Dopamine D1 receptor but not dopamine D2 receptor immnunoreactivites nerve cell bodies were found in the ventromedial part of the arcuate nucleus and in the lateral part of the internal layer of the median eminence forming a continuous cell mass presumably representing neuropeptide Y immunoreactive nerve cell bodies. The major arcuate dopamine/ tyrosine hydroxylase nerve cell group was found in the dorsomedial part. A large number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve cell bodies in this region demonstrated punctate dopamine D1 receptor immunoreactivity but only a few presented dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactivity which were mainly found in a substantial number of tyrosine hydroxylase cell bodies of the ventral periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, also belonging to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons. Structural evidence for projections of the arcuate nerve cells into the median eminence was also obtained. Distal axons formed horizontal axons in the internal layer issuing a variable number of collaterals classified into single or multiple strands located in the external layer increasing our understanding of the dopamine nerve terminal networks in this region.  Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors may therefore directly and differentially

  20. Coenzyme Q10 Prevents Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Facilitates Pharmacological Activity of Atorvastatin in 6-OHDA Induced Dopaminergic Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Santosh Kumar; Garabadu, Debapriya; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2017-05-01

    Atorvastatin (ATV) generally used to treat dyslipidemia is also reported to have effect against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced neurotoxicity. Additionally, atorvastatin can interfere with mitochondrial function by reducing the level of Q10. Therefore, the therapeutic effect of atorvastatin (20 mg/kg) could be compromised. In this context, the present study evaluated the effect of ATV supplemented with Q10. 6-OHDA was unilaterally injected into the right striatum of male rats. On day 8 of 6-OHDA infusion, ATV (20 mg/kg), Q10 (200 mg/kg), and their combination were administered per oral for 14 days. On day 21, there was significant loss of striatal dopamine indicating neurotoxicity. The combination of ATV+Q10 showed significant amelioration of dopamine (DA) toxicity compared to individual treatments. Similarly, ATV+Q10 compared to individual treatment significantly decreased the motor deficits induced by 6-OHDA. Further, 6-OHDA induced mitochondrial dysfunction in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). There was significant decrease in mitochondrial complex enzyme activities and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Treatment with ATV and ATV+Q10 ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction by increasing complex enzyme activities; however, only ATV+Q10 were able to stabilize MMP and maintained mitochondrial integrity. Moreover, there was significant induction of oxidative stress as observed from increase in lipid peroxidases (LPO) and nitrite (NO), and decrease in super oxide dismutase (SOD). Treatment with ATV+Q10 significantly altered the above effects indicating antioxidant activity. Furthermore, only combination of ATV and Q10 decreased the 6-OHDA induced expression of cytochrome-C, caspase-9 and caspase-3. Therefore, current results provide evidence that supplementation of Q10 with ATV shows synergistic effect in reducing dopamine toxicity.

  1. Inhibition of 5a-reductase in the nucleus accumbens counters sensorimotor gating deficits induced by dopaminergic activation

    PubMed Central

    Devoto, Paola; Frau, Roberto; Bini, Valentina; Pillolla, Giuliano; Saba, Pierluigi; Flore, Giovanna; Corona, Marta; Marrosu, Francesco; Bortolato, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Summary Cogent evidence highlights a key role of neurosteroids and androgens in schizophrenia. We recently reported that inhibition of steroid 5α-reductase (5αR), the rate-limiting enzyme in neurosteroid synthesis and androgen metabolism, elicits antipsychotic-like effects in humans and animal models, without inducing extrapyramidal side effects. To elucidate the anatomical substrates mediating these effects, we investigated the contribution of peripheral and neural structures to the behavioral effects of the 5αR inhibitor finasteride (FIN) on the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR), a rat paradigm that dependably simulates the sensorimotor gating impairments observed in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. The potential effect of drug-induced ASR modifications on PPI was excluded by measuring this index both as percent (%PPI) and absolute values (ΔPPI). In both orchidectomized and sham-operated rats, FIN prevented the %PPI deficits induced by the dopamine (DA) receptor agonists apomorphine (APO, 0.25 mg/kg, SC) and d-amphetamine (AMPH, 2.5 mg/kg, SC), although the latter effect was not corroborated by ΔPPI analysis. Conversely, APO-induced PPI deficits were countered by FIN infusions in the brain ventricles (10 μg/1 μl) and in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core (0.5 μg/0.5 μl/side). No significant PPI-ameliorating effect was observed following FIN injections in other brain regions, including dorsal caudate, basolateral amygdala, ventral hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, although a statistical trend was observed for the latter region. The efflux of DA in NAc was increased by systemic, but not intracerebral FIN administration. Taken together, these findings suggest that the role of 5αR in gating regulation is based on post-synaptic mechanisms in the NAc, and is not directly related to alterations in DA efflux in this region. PMID:22029952

  2. JNK3-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death in Primary Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Seok; Klintworth, Heather M.; Xia, Zhengui

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of mechanisms responsible for dopaminergic neuron death is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease, yet this is often quite challenging technically. Here, we describe detailed methods for culturing primary mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and examining the activation of c-Jun N-terminal protein Kinase (JNK) in these cultures. We utilized immunocytochemistry and computerized analysis to quantify the number of surviving dopaminergic neurons and JNK activation in dopaminergic neurons. TUNEL staining was used to quantify apoptotic cell death. siRNA was used to specifically inhibit JNK3, the neural specific isoform of JNK. Our data implicate the activation of JNK3 in rotenone-induced dopaminergic neuron apoptosis. PMID:21815073

  3. Effects of 7-Nitroindazole, an NOS Inhibitor on Methamphetamine-Induced Dopaminergic and Serotonergic Neurotoxicity in Micea.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed F; Itzhak, Yossef

    1998-05-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is one of the major drugs of abuse that is postulated to cause neurotoxicity by depleting dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, high-affinity DA uptake sites, and the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the relatively selective, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), protects against METH-induced neurotoxicity. Male Swiss Webster mice received the following injections intraperitoneally (i.p.) 3 times (every 3 hr): (i) vehicle/saline, (ii) 7-NI (25 mg/kg)/saline, (iii) vehicle/METH (5 mg/kg), and (iv) 7-NI (25 mg/kg)/METH (5 mg/kg). On the second day, groups (i) and (iii) received two vehicle injections and groups (ii) and (iv) received two 7-NI injections (25 mg/kg each). The administration of vehicle/METH resulted in 68, 44 and 55% decreases in the concentration of DA, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid (HVA), respectively, and a 48% decrease in the number of [ 3 H]mazindol binding sites in the striatum compared to control values. The treatment with 7-NI (group iv) provided a full protection against the depletion of DA and its metabolites, and the loss of dopamine transporter binding sites. Multiple injection of METH caused a significant decrease in the concentration of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA). Treatment with 7-NI partially blocked the depletion of 5-HT and completely blocked the reduction in 5-HIAA levels. The administration of 7-NI/saline (group ii) affected neither the tissue concentration of DA, 5-HT and their metabolites (DOPAC, HVA and 5-HIAA) nor the binding parameters of [ 3 H]-mazindol compared to control (vehicle/saline) values. 7-NI had no significant effect on the animals' body temperature, and it did not affect METH-induced hyperthermia. These findings indicate a role for nitric oxide in METH-induced neurotoxicity and also suggest that blockage of NOS may be beneficial for

  4. Effects of 7-nitroindazole, an NOS inhibitor on methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ali, S F; Itzhak, Y

    1998-05-30

    Methamphetamine (METH) is one of the major drugs of abuse that is postulated to cause neurotoxicity by depleting dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, high-affinity DA uptake sites, and the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the relatively selective, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), protects against METH-induced neurotoxicity. Male Swiss Webster mice received the following injections intraperitoneally (i.p.) 3 times (every 3 hr): (i) vehicle/saline, (ii) 7-NI (25 mg/kg)/saline, (iii) vehicle/METH (5 mg/kg), and (iv) 7-NI (25 mg/kg)/METH (5 mg/kg). On the second day, groups (i) and (iii) received two vehicle injections and groups (ii) and (iv) received two 7-NI injections (25 mg/kg each). The administration of vehicle/METH resulted in 68, 44 and 55% decreases in the concentration of DA, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid (HVA), respectively, and a 48% decrease in the number of [3H]mazindol binding sites in the striatum compared to control values. The treatment with 7-NI (group iv) provided a full protection against the depletion of DA and its metabolites, and the loss of dopamine transporter binding sites. Multiple injection of METH caused a significant decrease in the concentration of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA). Treatment with 7-NI partially blocked the depletion of 5-HT and completely blocked the reduction in 5-HIAA levels. The administration of 7-NI/saline (group ii) affected neither the tissue concentration of DA, 5-HT and their metabolites (DOPAC, HVA and 5-HIAA) nor the binding parameters of [3H]-mazindol compared to control (vehicle/saline) values. 7-NI had no significant effect on the animals' body temperature, and it did not affect METH-induced hyperthermia. These findings indicate a role for nitric oxide in METH-induced neurotoxicity and also suggest that blockage of NOS may be beneficial for the

  5. Losartan prevents the imbalance between renal dopaminergic and renin angiotensin systems induced by fructose overload. L-dopa/dopamine index as new potential biomarker of renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mikusic, Natalia Lucía Rukavina; Kouyoumdzian, Nicolás Martín; Uceda, Ana; Del Mauro, Julieta Sofía; Pandolfo, Marcela; Gironacci, Mariela Mercedes; Puyó, Ana María; Toblli, Jorge Eduardo; Fernández, Belisario Enrique; Choi, Marcelo Roberto

    2018-05-01

    The renin angiotensin system (RAS) and the renal dopaminergic system (RDS) act as autocrine and paracrine systems to regulate renal sodium management and inflammation and their alterations have been associated to hypertension and renal damage. Nearly 30-50% of hypertensive patients have insulin resistance (IR), with a strong correlation between hyperinsulinemia and microalbuminuria. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the existence of an imbalance between RAS and RDS associated to IR, hypertension and kidney damage induced by fructose overload (FO), as well as to establish their prevention, by pharmacological inhibition of RAS with losartan. Ninety-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups and studied at 4, 8 and 12 weeks: control group (C4, C8 and C12; tap water to drink); fructose-overloaded group (F4, F8 and F12; 10% w/v fructose solution to drink); losartan-treated control (L) group (L4, L8 and L12; losartan 30 mg/kg/day, in drinking water); and fructose-overloaded plus losartan group (F + L4, F + L8 and F + L12, in fructose solution). FO induced metabolic and hemodynamic alterations as well as an imbalance between RAS and RDS, characterized by increased renal angiotensin II levels and AT 1 R overexpression, reduced urinary excretion of dopamine, increased excretion of L-dopa (increased L-dopa/dopamine index) and down-regulation of D 1 R and tubular dopamine transporters OCT-2, OCT-N1 and total OCTNs. This imbalance was accompanied by an overexpression of renal tubular Na + , K + -ATPase, pro-inflammatory (NF-kB, TNF-α, IL-6) and pro-fibrotic (TGF-β1 and collagen) markers and by renal damage (microalbuminuria and reduced nephrin expression). Losartan prevented the metabolic and hemodynamic alterations induced by FO from week 4. Increased urinary L-dopa/dopamine index and decreased D 1 R renal expression associated to FO were also prevented by losartan since week 4. The same pattern was observed for renal

  6. Chronic administration of cholesterol oximes in mice increases transcription of cytoprotective genes and improves transcriptome alterations induced by alpha-synuclein overexpression in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Franziska; Gao, Fuying; Medvedeva, Vera; Lee, Patrick; Bove, Nicholas; Fleming, Sheila M.; Michaud, Magali; Lemesre, Vincent; Patassini, Stefano; De La Rosa, Krystal; Mulligan, Caitlin K.; Sioshansi, Pedrom; Zhu, Chunni; Coppola, Giovanni; Bordet, Thierry; Pruss, Rebecca; Chesselet, Marie-Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol-oximes TRO19622 and TRO40303 target outer mitochondrial membrane proteins and have beneficial effects in preclinical models of neurodegenerative diseases leading to their advancement to clinical trials. Dopaminergic neurons degenerate in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and are prone to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In order to provide insights into the neuroprotective potential of TRO19622 and TRO40303 for dopaminergic neurons in vivo, we assessed their effects on gene expression in laser captured nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons of wildtype mice and of mice that over-express alpha-synuclein, a protein involved in both familial and sporadic forms of PD (Thy1-aSyn mice). Young mice were fed the drugs in food pellets or a control diet from 1 to 4 months of age, approximately 10 months before the appearance of striatal dopamine loss in this model. Unbiased weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of transcriptional changes revealed effects of cholesterol oximes on transcripts related to mitochondria, cytoprotection and anti-oxidant response in wild-type and transgenic mice, including increased transcription of stress defense (e.g. Prdx1, Prdx2, Glrx2, Hspa9, Pink1, Drp1, Trak1) and dopamine-related (Th, Ddc, Gch1, Dat, Vmat2, Drd2, Chnr6a) genes. Even at this young age transgenic mice showed alterations in transcripts implicated in mitochondrial function and oxidative stress (e.g. Bcl-2, Bax, Casp3, Nos2), and both drugs normalized about 20% of these alterations. Young Thy1-aSyn mice exhibit motor deficits that differ from parkinsonism and are established before the onset of treatment; these deficits were not improved by cholesterol oximes. However, high doses of TRO40303 improved olfaction and produced the same effects as dopamine agonists on a challenging beam test, specifically an increase in footslips, an observation congruent with its effects on transcripts involved in dopamine synthesis. High doses of TRO19622 increased

  7. GPER: A new tool to protect dopaminergic neurons?

    PubMed

    Bessa, Agustina; Campos, Filipa Lopes; Videira, Rita Alexandra; Mendes-Oliveira, Julieta; Bessa-Neto, Diogo; Baltazar, Graça

    2015-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Epidemiological studies revealed a male predominance of the disease that has been attributed to the female steroid hormones, mainly the estrogen. Estrogen neuroprotective effects have been shown in several studies, however the mechanisms responsible by these effects are still unclear. Previous data from our group revealed that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is crucial to the dopaminergic protection provided by 17β-estradiol, and also suggest that the intracellular estrogen receptors (ERs) are not required for that neuroprotective effects. The present study aimed to investigate the contribution of the G protein-coupled ER (GPER) activation in estrogen-mediated dopaminergic neuroprotection against an insult induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), and whether GPER neuroprotective effects involve the regulation of GDNF expression. Using primary mesencephalic cultures, we found that GPER activation protects dopaminergic neurons from MPP(+) toxicity in an extent similar to the promoted by a 17β-estradiol. Moreover, GPER activation promotes an increase in GDNF levels. Both, GDNF antibody neutralization or RNA interference-mediated GDNF knockdown prevented the GPER-mediated dopaminergic protection verified in mesencephalic cultures challenged with MPP(+). Overall, these results revealed that G1, a selective agonist of GPER, is able to protect dopaminergic neurons and that GDNF overexpression is a key feature to GPER induced the neuroprotective effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Decreased expression of serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) promotes alpha-synuclein increase related with down-regulation of dopaminergic cell in the Substantia Nigra of chronic MPTP-induced Parkinsonism mice and in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Sujung; Sung, Backil; Hong, Yeon-Mi; van den Noort, Maurits; Bosch, Peggy; Lee, Sook-Hyun; Song, Jongbeom; Park, Sang-Kyun; Lim, Sabina

    2018-06-30

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronically progressive neurodegenerative disease, with its main pathological hallmarks being a dramatic loss of dopaminergic neurons predominantly in the Substantia Nigra (SN), and the formations of intracytoplasmic Lewy bodies and dystrophic neurites. Alpha-synuclein (α-syn), widely recognized as the most prominent element of the Lewy body, is one of the representative hallmarks in PD. However, the mechanisms behind the increased α-syn expression and aggregation have not yet been clarified. To examine what causes α-syn expression to increase, we analyzed the pattern of gene expression in the SN of mice intoxicated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), where down-regulation of dopaminergic cells occurred. We identified serum- and glucocorticoid-dependent kinase 1 (SGK1) as one of the genes that is evidently downregulated in chronic MPTP-intoxication. The results of Western blot analyses showed that, together with the down-regulation of dopaminergic cells, the decrease in SGK1 expression increased α-syn expression in the SN in a chronic MPTP-induced Parkinsonism mouse. For an examination of the expression correlation between SGK1 and α-syn, SH-5YSY cells were knocked down with SGK1 siRNA then, the downregulation of dopaminergic cells and the increase in the expression of α-syn were observed. These results suggest that decreased expression of SGK1 may play a critical role in increasing the expression of α-syn, which is related with dopaminergic cell death in the SN of chronic MPTP-induced Parkinsonism mice and in SH-SY5Y cells. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. [Rapid and prolonged facilitation of stereotyped motor behavior (verticalization) induced by apomorphine in mice previously submitted to stimulation of dopaminergic receptors].

    PubMed

    Costentin, J; Marçais, H; Protais, P; Schwartz, J C

    1976-03-01

    The climbing behaviour, a stereotyped motor behaviour, is elicited in mice by stimulation of striatal dopamine receptor by low doses of apomorphine. The action of apomorphine is unexpectedly enhanced in animals pretreated with a single dose of this agent (5 mg/kg). This enhancement occurs as early as 2 h following the first administration and persists for at least 3 days. It is also observed after pretreatments with a combination of L-DOPA and dexamphetamine. This effect seems independent from the desensitization of the dopaminergic receptors involved in thermoregulation that we have previously reported.

  10. [The influence of L-glutamate and carbachol on burst firing of dopaminergic neurons in ventral tegmental area].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shan-shan; Wei, Chun-ling; Liu, Zhi-qiang; Ren, Wei

    2011-02-25

    Burst firing of dopaminergic neurons in ventral tegmental area (VTA) induces a large transient increase in synaptic dopamine (DA) release and thus is considered the reward-related signal. But the mechanisms of burst generation of dopaminergic neuron still remain unclear. This experiment investigated the burst firing of VTA dopaminergic neurons in rat midbrain slices perfused with carbachol and L-glutamate individually or simultaneously to understand the neurotransmitter mechanism underlying burst generation. The results showed that bath application of carbachol (10 μmol/L) and pulse application of L-glutamate (3 mmol/L) both induced burst firing in dopaminergic neuron. Co-application of carbachol and L-glutamate induced burst firing in VTA dopaminergic cells which couldn't be induced to burst by the two chemicals separately. The result indicates that carbachol and L-glutamate co-regulate burst firing of dopaminergic neuron.

  11. Regulation Of Hypothalamic Signaling By Tuberoinfundibular Peptide Of 39 Residues Is Critical For The Response To Cold: A Novel Peptidergic Mechanism Of Thermoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Eugene L.; Kim, Yoon Yi; Usdin, Ted B.

    2012-01-01

    Euthermia is critical for mammalian homeostasis. Circuits within the preoptic hypothalamus regulate temperature, with fine control exerted via descending GABAergic inhibition of presympathetic motor neurons that control brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and cutaneous vascular tone. The thermoregulatory role of hypothalamic excitatory neurons is less clear. Here we report peptidergic regulation of preoptic glutamatergic neurons that contributes to temperature regulation. Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) is a ligand for the parathyroid hormone 2 receptor (PTH2R). Both peptide and receptor are abundant in the preoptic hypothalamus. Based on PTH2R and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGlut2) immunolabeling in animals with retrograde tracer injection, PTH2R containing glutamatergic fibers are presynaptic to neurons projecting from the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) to the dorsomedial hypothalamus. Transneuronal retrograde pathway tracing with pseudorabies virus revealed connectivity between MnPO VGlut2 and PTH2R neurons and BAT. MnPO injection of TIP39 increased body temperature by 2° C for several hours. Mice lacking TIP39 signaling, either because of PTH2R null mutation or brain delivery of a PTH2R antagonist had impaired heat production upon cold exposure, but no change in basal temperature and no impairment in response to a hot environment. Thus, TIP39 appears to act on PTH2Rs present on MnPO glutamatergic terminals to regulate their activation of projection neurons and subsequent sympathetic BAT activation. This excitatory mechanism of heat production appears to be activated on demand, during cold exposure, and parallels the tonic inhibitory GABAergic control of body temperature. PMID:22159128

  12. Dopaminergic stimulation in unilateral neglect

    PubMed Central

    Geminiani, G.; Bottini, G.; Sterzi, R.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To explore the hypothesis that dopaminergic circuits play a part in the premotor components of the unilateral neglect syndrome, the effects of acute dopaminergic stimulation in patients with neglect were studied.
METHODS—Two tasks were evaluated before and after subcutaneous administration of apomorphine and placebo: a circle crossing test and a test of target exploration (a modified version of the bell test), performed both in perceptual (counting) and in perceptual-motor (pointing) conditions.
SUBJECTS—Four patients with left neglect.
RESULTS—After dopaminergic stimulation, a significant improvement was found compared with placebo administration and baseline evaluation, in the performance of the two tests. Three of the patients had a more marked improvement in the perceptual-motor condition (pointing) of the task than the perceptual condition (counting).
CONCLUSIONS—The findings suggest that dopaminergic neuronal networks may mediate, in different ways, both perceptive and premotor components of the unilateral neglect syndrome. 

 PMID:9728946

  13. Increases in food intake or food-seeking behavior induced by GABAergic, opioid, or dopaminergic stimulation of the nucleus accumbens: is it hunger?

    PubMed

    Hanlon, Erin C; Baldo, Brian A; Sadeghian, Ken; Kelley, Ann E

    2004-03-01

    Previous work has shown that stimulation of GABAergic, opioid, or dopaminergic systems within the nucleus accumbens modulates food intake and food-seeking behavior. However, it is not known whether such stimulation mimics a motivational state of food deprivation that commonly enables animals to learn a new operant response to obtain food. In order to address this question, acquisition of lever pressing for food in hungry animals was compared with acquisition in non-food-deprived rats subjected to various nucleus accumbens drug treatments. All animals were given the opportunity to learn an instrumental response (a lever press) to obtain a food pellet. Prior to training, ad lib-fed rats were infused with the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A agonist muscimol (100 ng/0.5 microl per side) or the mu-opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, N-me-Phe4, Gly-ol5-enkephalin (DAMGO, 0.25 microg/0.5 microl per side), or saline into the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh). The indirect dopamine agonist amphetamine (10 microg/0.5 microl per side) was infused into the AcbSh or nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) of ad lib-fed rats. An additional group was food deprived and infused with saline in the AcbSh. Chow and sugar pellet intake responses after drug treatments were also evaluated in free-feeding tests. Muscimol, DAMGO, or amphetamine did not facilitate acquisition of lever pressing for food, despite clearly increasing food intake in free-feeding tests. In contrast, food-deprived animals rapidly learned the task. These findings suggest that pharmacological stimulation of any of these neurochemical systems in isolation is insufficient to enable acquisition of a food-reinforced operant task. Thus, these selective processes, while likely involved in control of food intake and food-seeking behavior, appear unable to recapitulate the conditions necessary to mimic the state of negative energy balance.

  14. Extrastriatal dopaminergic abnormalities of DA homeostasis in Parkinson’s patients with medication-induced pathological gambling: A [11C] FLB-457 and PET study

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Nicola J.; Miyasaki, Janis M.; Zurowski, Mateusz; Ko, Ji Hyun; Cho, Sang Soo; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Antonelli, Francesca; Houle, Sylvain; Lang, Anthony E.; Strafella, Antonio P.

    2012-01-01

    Impulse control disorders such as pathological gambling (PG) are a serious and common adverse effect of dopamine (DA) replacement medication in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Patients with PG have increased impulsivity and abnormalities in striatal DA, in common with behavioural and substance addictions in the non-PD population. To date, no studies have investigated the role of extrastriatal dopaminergic abnormalities in PD patients with PG. We used the PET radiotracer, [11C] FLB-457, with high-affinity for extrastriatal DA D2/3 receptors. 14 PD patients on DA agonists were imaged while they performed a gambling task involving real monetary reward and a control task. Trait impulsivity was measured with the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS). Seven of the patients had a history of PG that developed subsequent to DA agonist medication. Change in [11C] FLB-457 binding potential (BP) during gambling was reduced in PD with PG patients in the midbrain, where D2/D3 receptors are dominated by autoreceptors. The degree of change in [11C] FLB-457 binding in this region correlated with impulsivity. In the cortex, [11C] FLB-457 BP was significantly greater in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in PD patients with PG during the control task, and binding in this region was also correlated with impulsivity. Our findings provide the first evidence that PD patients with PG have dysfunctional activation of DA autoreceptors in the midbrain and low DA tone in the ACC. Thus, altered striatal and cortical DA homeostasis may incur vulnerability for the development of PG in PD, linked with the impulsive personality trait. PMID:22766031

  15. N-Methyl, N-propynyl-2-phenylethylamine (MPPE), a Selegiline Analog, Attenuates MPTP-induced Dopaminergic Toxicity with Guaranteed Behavioral Safety: Involvement of Inhibitions of Mitochondrial Oxidative Burdens and p53 Gene-elicited Pro-apoptotic Change.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-Joo; Nam, Yunsung; Lee, Ji Won; Nguyen, Phuong-Khue Thi; Yoo, Ji Eun; Tran, The-Vinh; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Jang, Choon-Gon; Oh, Young J; Youdim, Moussa B H; Lee, Phil Ho; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2016-11-01

    Selegiline is a monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitor with anti-Parkinsonian effects, but it is metabolized to amphetamines. Since another MAO-B inhibitor N-Methyl, N-propynyl-2-phenylethylamine (MPPE) is not metabolized to amphetamines, we examined whether MPPE induces behavioral side effects and whether MPPE affects dopaminergic toxicity induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Multiple doses of MPPE (2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day) did not show any significant locomotor activity and conditioned place preference, whereas selegiline (2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day) significantly increased these behavioral side effects. Treatment with MPPE resulted in significant attenuations against decreases in mitochondrial complex I activity, mitochondrial Mn-SOD activity, and expression induced by MPTP in the striatum of mice. Consistently, MPPE significantly attenuated MPTP-induced oxidative stress and MPPE-mediated antioxidant activity appeared to be more pronounced in mitochondrial-fraction than in cytosolic-fraction. Because MPTP promoted mitochondrial p53 translocation and p53/Bcl-xL interaction, it was also examined whether mitochondrial p53 inhibitor pifithrin-μ attenuates MPTP neurotoxicity. MPPE, selegiline, or pifithrin-μ significantly attenuated mitochondrial p53/Bcl-xL interaction, impaired mitochondrial transmembrane potential, cytosolic cytochrome c release, and cleaved caspase-3 in wild-type mice. Subsequently, these compounds significantly ameliorated MPTP-induced motor impairments. Neuroprotective effects of MPPE appeared to be more prominent than those of selegiline. MPPE or selegiline did not show any additional protective effects against the attenuation by p53 gene knockout, suggesting that p53 gene is a critical target for these compounds. Our results suggest that MPPE possesses anti-Parkinsonian potentials with guaranteed behavioral safety and that the underlying mechanism of MPPE requires inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial

  16. Ginsenoside Rb1 protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative stress by increasing heme oxygenase-1 expression through an estrogen receptor-related PI3K/Akt/Nrf2-dependent pathway in human dopaminergic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yong Pil; College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju; Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.k

    Phytoestrogens are polyphenolic non-steroidal plant compounds with estrogen-like biological activity. Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae), is a popular traditional herbal medicine. Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), an active component commonly found in ginseng root, is a phytoestrogen that exerts estrogen-like activity. In this study, we demonstrate that the phytoestrogen Rb1 inhibits 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced oxidative injury via an ER-dependent Gbeta1/PI3K/Akt and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway. Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with Rb1 significantly reduced 6-OHDA-induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent cell death. Rb1 also up-regulated HO-1 expression, which conferred cytoprotection against 6-OHDA-induced oxidative injury. Moreover, Rb1 induced both Nrf2 nuclear translocation,more » which is upstream of HO-1 expression and PI3K activation, a pathway that is involved in induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, HO-1 expression and cytoprotection. Also, Rb1-mediated increases in PI3K activation and HO-1 induction were reversed by co-treatment with ICI 182,780 and pertussis toxin. Taken together, these results suggest that Rb1 augments the cellular antioxidant defenses through ER-dependent HO-1 induction via the Gbeta1/PI3K/Akt-Nrf2 signaling pathway, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress. Thus our study indicates that Rb1 has a partial cytoprotective role in dopaminergic cell culture systems.« less

  17. MHC class I in dopaminergic neurons suppresses relapse to reward seeking

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Gen; Edamura, Mitsuhiro; Furukawa, Tomonori; Kawasaki, Hideya; Kosugi, Isao; Fukuda, Atsuo; Iwashita, Toshihide; Nakahara, Daiichiro

    2018-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) is an important immune protein that is expressed in various brain regions, with its deficiency leading to extensive synaptic transmission that results in learning and memory deficits. Although MHCI is highly expressed in dopaminergic neurons, its role in these neurons has not been examined. We show that MHCI expressed in dopaminergic neurons plays a key role in suppressing reward-seeking behavior. In wild-type mice, cocaine self-administration caused persistent reduction of MHCI specifically in dopaminergic neurons, which was accompanied by enhanced glutamatergic synaptic transmission and relapse to cocaine seeking. Functional MHCI knockout promoted this addictive phenotype for cocaine and a natural reward, namely, sucrose. In contrast, wild-type mice overexpressing a major MHCI gene (H2D) in dopaminergic neurons showed suppressed cocaine seeking. These results show that persistent cocaine-induced reduction of MHCI in dopaminergic neurons is necessary for relapse to cocaine seeking. PMID:29546241

  18. Changes in the levels of p-ERK, p-CREB, and c-fos in rat mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system after morphine-induced conditioned place preference: the role of acute and subchronic stress.

    PubMed

    Haghparast, Abbas; Fatahi, Zahra; Alamdary, Shabnam Zeighamy; Reisi, Zahra; Khodagholi, Fariba

    2014-03-01

    ERK pathway plays a critical role in the cellular adaptive responses to environmental changes. Stressful conditions can induce the activation of activate ERK, and its downstream targets, CREB and c-fos, in neural cells. Exposure to opioids has the same effect. In this study, we investigated the effects of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) on p-ERK/ERK ratio, p-CREB/CREB ratio and c-fos level in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system including the nucleus accumbens (NAc), amygdala (AMY), striatum (Str), and prefrontal cortex (PFC).Our aim was to determine if acute and subchronic stress would affect these alterations. Male Wistar rats were divided into two saline- and morphine-treated groups. Each group contained of control, acute stress, and subchronic stress subgroups. The CPP procedure was performed for all of the rats. We dissected out the NAc, AMY, Str, and PFC regions and measured the mentioned ratios and c-fos level by Western blot analysis. The results revealed that in saline-treated animals, all factors enhanced significantly after performing acute and subchronic stress while there was an exception in p-ERK/ERK ratio in the Str and PFC; the changes were not significant during acute stress. Conditioning score decreased after applying the subchronic but not acute stress. In morphine-treated animals, all factors were increased after application of acute and subchronic stress, and conditioning scores also decreased after stress. Our findings suggest that in saline- or morphine-treated animals, acute and subchronic stress increases p-ERK, p-CREB, and c-fos levels in the mesocorticolimbic system. It has been shown that morphine induces the enhancement of the mentioned factors; on the other hand, our result demonstrates that stress can amplify these changes.

  19. Dopaminergic Contributions to Vocal Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Lukas A.; Saravanan, Varun; Wood, Alynda N.; He, Li

    2016-01-01

    Although the brain relies on auditory information to calibrate vocal behavior, the neural substrates of vocal learning remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that lesions of the dopaminergic inputs to a basal ganglia nucleus in a songbird species (Bengalese finches, Lonchura striata var. domestica) greatly reduced the magnitude of vocal learning driven by disruptive auditory feedback in a negative reinforcement task. These lesions produced no measureable effects on the quality of vocal performance or the amount of song produced. Our results suggest that dopaminergic inputs to the basal ganglia selectively mediate reinforcement-driven vocal plasticity. In contrast, dopaminergic lesions produced no measurable effects on the birds' ability to restore song acoustics to baseline following the cessation of reinforcement training, suggesting that different forms of vocal plasticity may use different neural mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT During skill learning, the brain relies on sensory feedback to improve motor performance. However, the neural basis of sensorimotor learning is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in regulating vocal learning in the Bengalese finch, a songbird with an extremely precise singing behavior that can nevertheless be reshaped dramatically by auditory feedback. Our findings show that reduction of dopamine inputs to a region of the songbird basal ganglia greatly impairs vocal learning but has no detectable effect on vocal performance. These results suggest a specific role for dopamine in regulating vocal plasticity. PMID:26888928

  20. Rotigotine protects against glutamate toxicity in primary dopaminergic cell culture.

    PubMed

    Oster, Sandra; Radad, Khaled; Scheller, Dieter; Hesse, Marlen; Balanzew, Wladimir; Reichmann, Heinz; Gille, Gabriele

    2014-02-05

    In Parkinson disease the degeneration of dopaminergic neurones is believed to lead to a disinhibition of the subthalamic nucleus thus increasing the firing rate of the glutamatergic excitatory projections to the substantia nigra. In consequence, excessive glutamatergic activity will cause excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. In the present study we investigated mechanisms of glutamate toxicity and the neuroprotective potential of the dopamine agonist rotigotine towards dopaminergic neurones in mouse mesencephalic primary culture. Glutamate toxicity was mediated by the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor and accompanied by a strong calcium influx into dopaminergic neurones for which the L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels play an important role. The rate of superoxide production in the culture was highly increased. Deleterious nitric oxide production did not participate in glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. Pretreatment of cultures with rotigotine significantly increased the survival of dopaminergic neurones exposed to glutamate. Rotigotine exerted its protective effects via dopamine receptor stimulation (presumably via dopamine D3 receptor) and decreased significantly the production of superoxide radicals. When cultures were preincubated with Phosphoinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) inhibitors the protective effect of rotigotine was abolished suggesting a decisive role of the PI3K/Akt pathway in rotigotine-mediated neuroprotection. Consistently, exposure to rotigotine induced the activation of Akt by phosphorylation followed by phosphorylation, and thus inactivation, of the pro-apoptotic factor glycogen synthase kinase-3-beta (GSK-3-β). Taken together, our work contributed to elucidating the mechanisms of glutamate toxicity in mesencephalic culture and unravelled the signalling pathways associated with rotigotine-induced neuroprotection against glutamate toxicity in primary dopaminergic cultures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Overlap of Post-obstructive Diuresis and Unmasked Diabetes Insipidus in a Case of IgG4-related Retroperitoneal Fibrosis and Tuberoinfundibular Hypophysitis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki Yatabe, Midori; Watanabe, Kimio; Hayashi, Yoshimitsu; Yatabe, Junichi; Morimoto, Satoshi; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Nakayama, Masaaki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The clinical picture of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is diverse because various organs can be affected. We describe the case of a 56-year-old man with acute renal failure and tuberoinfundibular hypophysitis due to IgG4-RD. Steroid therapy lowered the serum IgG4 level and ameliorated renal dysfunction, bilateral hydronephrosis and retroperitoneal fibrosis. However, polyuria from post-obstructive diuresis and unmasked central diabetes insipidus ensued. The patient's polyuria continued despite the administration of a therapeutic dose of glucocorticoid; the patient's pituitary swelling and anterior pituitary dysfunction were partially ameliorated. The pituitary swelling recurred seven months later. In patients with IgG4-RD, the manifestation of polyuria after steroid therapy should prompt suspicion of post-obstructive diuresis and the unmasking of central diabetes insipidus. PMID:28049999

  2. Overlap of Post-obstructive Diuresis and Unmasked Diabetes Insipidus in a Case of IgG4-related Retroperitoneal Fibrosis and Tuberoinfundibular Hypophysitis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Sasaki Yatabe, Midori; Watanabe, Kimio; Hayashi, Yoshimitsu; Yatabe, Junichi; Morimoto, Satoshi; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Nakayama, Masaaki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    The clinical picture of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is diverse because various organs can be affected. We describe the case of a 56-year-old man with acute renal failure and tuberoinfundibular hypophysitis due to IgG4-RD. Steroid therapy lowered the serum IgG4 level and ameliorated renal dysfunction, bilateral hydronephrosis and retroperitoneal fibrosis. However, polyuria from post-obstructive diuresis and unmasked central diabetes insipidus ensued. The patient's polyuria continued despite the administration of a therapeutic dose of glucocorticoid; the patient's pituitary swelling and anterior pituitary dysfunction were partially ameliorated. The pituitary swelling recurred seven months later. In patients with IgG4-RD, the manifestation of polyuria after steroid therapy should prompt suspicion of post-obstructive diuresis and the unmasking of central diabetes insipidus.

  3. Oxygen Tension Within the Neurogenic Niche Regulates Dopaminergic Neurogenesis in the Developing Midbrain

    PubMed Central

    Wagenführ, Lisa; Meyer, Anne Karen; Marrone, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen tension is an important factor controlling stem cell proliferation and maintenance in various stem cell populations with a particular relevance in midbrain dopaminergic progenitors. Further studies have shown that the oxygen-dependent transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is involved in these processes. However, all available studies on oxygen effects in dopaminergic neuroprogenitors were performed in vitro and thus it remains unclear whether tissue oxygen tension in the embryonic midbrain is also relevant for the regulation of dopaminergic neurogenesis in vivo. We thus dissect here the effects of oxygen tension in combination with HIF-1α conditional knockout on dopaminergic neurogenesis by using a novel experimental design allowing for the control of oxygen tension within the microenvironment of the neurogenic niche of the murine fetal midbrain in vivo. The microenvironment of the midbrain dopaminergic neurogenic niche was detected as hypoxic with oxygen tensions below 1.1%. Maternal oxygen treatment of 10%, 21%, and 75% atmospheric oxygen tension for 48 h translates into robust changes in fetal midbrain oxygenation. Fetal midbrain hypoxia hampered the generation of dopaminergic neurons and is accompanied with restricted fetal midbrain development. In contrast, induced hyperoxia stimulated proliferation and differentiation of dopaminergic progenitors during early and late embryogenesis. Oxygen effects were not directly mediated through HIF-1α signaling. These data—in agreement with in vitro data—indicate that oxygen is a crucial regulator of developmental dopaminergic neurogenesis. Our study provides the initial framework for future studies on molecular mechanisms mediating oxygen regulation of dopaminergic neurogenesis within the fetal midbrain as its natural environment. PMID:26577812

  4. Antipsychotic activity of standardized Bacopa extract against ketamine-induced experimental psychosis in mice: Evidence for the involvement of dopaminergic, serotonergic, and cholinergic systems.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Manavi; Verma, Rajkumar; Kumari, Reena; Singh, Seema; Verma, Anil Kumar; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar; Palit, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic disabling psychiatric disorder affecting 1% of the population worldwide. Due to the adverse effects of available antipsychotic medications, recent investigations have focused on the search for well-tolerated, safe molecules from natural resources to control the severity and progression of schizophrenia. To screen the standardized extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. (Scrophulariaceae) (BM) for its antipsychotic potential in the ketamine-induced psychosis model with mice. Graded dose of BM (40, 80, and 120 mg/kg, p.o.) were given to the mice 1 h prior to ketamine administration and tested for positive symptoms and cognitive deficits. A chronic ketamine treatment regimen was used to study the effect of BM on negative symptoms such as immobility enhancement. Each mouse was used once for the behavioral studies. BM reduced ketamine-induced hyperactivity with an EC50 value of 76.60 mg/kg. The 80 mg/kg dose was used for all other behavior analysis. Pretreatment with BM at 80 mg/kg showed two-fold increases in transfer latency time (TLT) in passive avoidance task. Chronic BM pretreatment (80 mg/kg p.o. daily × 10 d) ameliorated the ketamine-induced enhanced immobility effect by 21% in the forced swim test. BM treatment reversed ketamine-induced increase in monoamine oxidase activity in both cortex and striatum and normalized the acetylcholinesterase activity and the glutamate levels in the hippocampus. Overall our findings suggest that BM possesses antipsychotic properties which might be due to its modulatory action on dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate neurotransmission.

  5. Effect of parasitic infection on dopamine biosynthesis in dopaminergic cells

    PubMed Central

    Martin, H.L.; Alsaady, I.; Howell, G.; Prandovszky, E.; Peers, C.; Robinson, P.; McConkey, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    Infection by the neurotropic agent Toxoplasma gondii alters rodent behavior and can result in neuropsychiatric symptoms in humans. Little is understood regarding the effects of infection on host neural processes but alterations to dopaminergic neurotransmission are implicated. We have previously reported elevated levels of dopamine (DA) in infected dopaminergic cells however the involvement of the host enzymes and fate of the produced DA were not defined. In order to clarify the effects of infection on host DA biosynthetic enzymes and DA packaging we examined enzyme levels and activity and DA accumulation and release in T. gondii-infected neurosecretory cells. Although the levels of the host tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DOPA decarboxylase and AADC (DDC) did not change significantly in infected cultures, DDC was found within the parasitophorous vacuole (PV), the vacuolar compartment where the parasites reside, as well as in the host cytosol in infected dopaminergic cells. Strikingly, DDC was found within the intracellular parasite cysts in infected brain tissue. This finding could provide some explanation for observations of DA within tissue cysts in infected brain as a parasite-encoded enzyme with TH activity was also localized within tissue cysts. In contrast, cellular DA packaging appeared unchanged in single-cell microamperometry experiments and only a fraction of the increased DA was accessible to high potassium-induced release. This study provides some understanding of how this parasite produces elevated DA within dopaminergic cells without the toxic ramifications of free cytosolic DA. The mechanism for synthesis and packaging of DA by T. gondii-infected dopaminergic cells may have important implications for the effects of chronic T. gondii infection on humans and animals. PMID:26297895

  6. Non-dopaminergic treatments for motor control in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fox, Susan H

    2013-09-01

    The pathological processes underlying Parkinson's disease (PD) involve more than dopamine cell loss within the midbrain. These non-dopaminergic neurotransmitters include noradrenergic, serotonergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic systems within cortical, brainstem and basal ganglia regions. Several non-dopaminergic treatments are now in clinical use to treat motor symptoms of PD, or are being evaluated as potential therapies. Agents for symptomatic monotherapy and as adjunct to dopaminergic therapies for motor symptoms include adenosine A2A antagonists and the mixed monoamine-B inhibitor (MAO-BI) and glutamate release agent safinamide. The largest area of potential use for non-dopaminergic drugs is as add-on therapy for motor fluctuations. Thus adenosine A2A antagonists, safinamide, and the antiepileptic agent zonisamide can extend the duration of action of levodopa. To reduce levodopa-induced dyskinesia, drugs that target overactive glutamatergic neurotransmission can be used, and include the non-selective N-methyl D-aspartate antagonist amantadine. More recently, selective metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR₅) antagonists are being evaluated in phase II randomized controlled trials. Serotonergic agents acting as 5-HT2A/2C antagonists, such as the atypical antipsychotic clozapine, may also reduce dyskinesia. 5-HT1A agonists theoretically can reduce dyskinesia, but in practice, may also worsen PD motor symptoms, and so clinical applicability has not yet been shown. Noradrenergic α2A antagonism using fipamezole can potentially reduce dyskinesia. Several non-dopaminergic agents have also been investigated to reduce non-levodopa-responsive motor symptoms such as gait and tremor. Thus the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil showed mild benefit in gait, while the predominantly noradrenergic re-uptake inhibitor methylphenidate had conflicting results in advanced PD subjects. Tremor in PD may respond to muscarinic M4 cholinergic antagonists (anticholinergics), but

  7. Hypochlorite modification of sphingomyelin generates chlorinated lipid species that induce apoptosis and proteome alterations in dopaminergic PC12 neurons in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Nusshold, Christoph; Kollroser, Manfred; Köfeler, Harald; Rechberger, Gerald; Reicher, Helga; Üllen, Andreas; Bernhart, Eva; Waltl, Sabine; Kratzer, Ingrid; Hermetter, Albin; Hackl, Hubert; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Hrzenjak, Andelko; Malle, Ernst; Sattler, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations link myeloperoxidase (MPO) activation to neurodegeneration. In multiple sclerosis MPO is present in areas of active demyelination where the potent oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl), formed by MPO from H2O2 and chloride ions, could oxidatively damage myelin-associated lipids. The purpose of this study was (i) to characterize reaction products of sphingomyelin (SM) formed in response to modification by HOCl, (ii) to define the impact of exogenously added SM and HOCl-modified SM (HOCl-SM) on viability parameters of a neuronal cell line (PC12), and (iii) to study alterations in the PC12 cell proteome in response to SM and HOCl-SM. MALDI-TOF-MS analyses revealed that HOCl, added as reagent or generated enzymatically, transforms SM into chlorinated species. On the cellular level HOCl-SM but not SM induced the formation of reactive oxygen species. HOCl-SM induced severely impaired cell viability, dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and activation of caspase-3 and DNA damage. Proteome analyses identified differential expression of specific subsets of proteins in response to SM and HOCl-SM. Our results demonstrate that HOCl modification of SM results in the generation of chlorinated lipid species with potent neurotoxic properties. Given the emerging connections between the MPO–H2O2–chloride axis and neurodegeneration, this chlorinating pathway might be implicated in neuropathogenesis. PMID:20226853

  8. Acetaminophen and aspirin inhibit superoxide anion generation and lipid peroxidation, and protect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, D S; Saravanan, K S; Maharaj, H; Mohanakumar, K P; Daya, S

    2004-04-01

    We assessed the antioxidant activity of non-narcotic analgesics, acetaminophen and aspirin in rat brain homogenates and neuroprotective effects in vivo in rats intranigrally treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP+). Both drugs inhibited cyanide-induced superoxide anion generation, as well as lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates, the combination of the agents resulting in a potentiation of this effect. Acetaminophen or aspirin when administered alone or in combination, did not alter dopamine (DA) levels in the forebrain or in the striatum. Intranigral infusion of MPP+ in rats caused severe depletion of striatal DA levels in the ipsilateral striatum in rats by the third day. Systemic post-treatment of acetaminophen afforded partial protection, whereas similar treatment of aspirin resulted in complete blockade of MPP+-induced striatal DA depletion. While these findings suggest usefulness of non-narcotic analgesics in neuroprotective therapy in neurodegenerative diseases, aspirin appears to be a potential candidate in prophylactic as well as in adjuvant therapy in Parkinson's disease.

  9. Autoradiographic evidence for methamphetamine-induced striatal dopaminergic loss in mouse brain: attenuation in CuZn-superoxide dismutase transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Hirata, H; Ladenheim, B; Carlson, E; Epstein, C; Cadet, J L

    1996-04-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) has long-lasting neurotoxic effects on the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system of rodents. METH-induced neurotoxicity is thought to involve release of DA in presynaptic DA terminals, which is associated with increased formation of oxygen-based free radicals. We have recently shown that METH-induced striatal DA depletion is attenuated in transgenic (Tg) mice that express the human CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme. That study did not specifically address the issue of loss of DA terminals. In the present study, we have used receptor autoradiographic studies of [(125)I]RTI-121-labeled DA uptake sites to evaluate the effects of several doses of METH on striatal DA terminals of Non-Tg as well as of heterozygous and homozygous SOD-Tg mice. In Non-Tg mice, METH caused decreases in striatal DA uptake sites in a dose-dependent fashion. The loss of DA terminals was more prominent in the lateral region than in the medial subdivisions of the striatum. In SOD-Tg mice, the loss of DA terminals caused by METH was attenuated in a gene dosage-dependent fashion, with the homozygous mice showing the greatest protection. Female mice were somewhat more resistant than male mice against these deleterious effects of METH. These results provide further evidence for a role of superoxide radicals in the long-term effects of METH. They also suggest the notion of a gender-specific handling of oxidative stress.

  10. Alpha6-Containing Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Mediate Nicotine-Induced Structural Plasticity in Mouse and Human iPSC-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Collo, Ginetta; Cavalleri, Laura; Zoli, Michele; Maskos, Uwe; Ratti, Emiliangelo; Merlo Pich, Emilio

    2018-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are considered a critical substrate for the reinforcing and sensitizing effects of nicotine and tobacco dependence. While the role of the α4 and β2 subunit containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α4β2 ∗ nAChRs) in mediating nicotine effects on DA release and DA neuron activity has been widely explored, less information is available on their role in the morphological adaptation of the DA system to nicotine, eventually leading to dysfunctional behaviors observed in nicotine dependence. In particular, no information is available on the role of α6 ∗ nAChRs in nicotine-induced structural plasticity in rodents and no direct evidence exists regarding the occurrence of structural plasticity in human DA neurons exposed to nicotine. To approach this problem, we used two parallel in vitro systems, mouse primary DA neuron cultures from E12.5 embryos and human DA neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) of healthy donors, identified using TH + immunoreactivity. In both systems, nicotine 1-10 μM produced a dose-dependent increase of maximal dendrite length, number of primary dendrites, and soma size when measured after 3 days in culture. These effects were blocked by pretreatments with the α6 ∗ nAChR antagonists α-conotoxin MII and α-conotoxin PIA, as well as by the α4β2nAChR antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) in both mouse and human DA neurons. Nicotine was also ineffective when the primary DA neurons were obtained from null mutant mice for either the α6 subunit or both the α4 and α6 subunits of nAChR. When pregnant mice were exposed to nicotine from gestational day 15, structural plasticity was also observed in the midbrain DA neurons of postnatal day 1 offspring only in wild-type mice and not in both null mutant mice. This study confirmed the critical role of α4α6 ∗ nAChRs in mediating nicotine-induced structural plasticity in both mouse and human DA neurons, supporting the

  11. Serotoninergic and dopaminergic modulation of cortico-striatal circuit in executive and attention deficits induced by NMDA receptor hypofunction in the 5-choice serial reaction time task

    PubMed Central

    Carli, Mirjana; Invernizzi, Roberto W.

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions are an emerging propriety of neuronal processing in circuits encompassing frontal cortex and other cortical and subcortical brain regions such as basal ganglia and thalamus. Glutamate serves as the major neurotrasmitter in these circuits where glutamate receptors of NMDA type play key role. Serotonin and dopamine afferents are in position to modulate intrinsic glutamate neurotransmission along these circuits and in turn to optimize circuit performance for specific aspects of executive control over behavior. In this review, we focus on the 5-choice serial reaction time task which is able to provide various measures of attention and executive control over performance in rodents and the ability of prefrontocortical and striatal serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C as well as dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors to modulate different aspects of executive and attention disturbances induced by NMDA receptor hypofunction in the prefrontal cortex. These behavioral studies are integrated with findings from microdialysis studies. These studies illustrate the control of attention selectivity by serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, and dopamine D1- but not D2-like receptors and a distinct contribution of these cortical and striatal serotonin and dopamine receptors to the control of different aspects of executive control over performance such as impulsivity and compulsivity. An association between NMDA antagonist-induced increase in glutamate release in the prefrontal cortex and attention is suggested. Collectively, this review highlights the functional interaction of serotonin and dopamine with NMDA dependent glutamate neurotransmission in the cortico-striatal circuitry for specific cognitive demands and may shed some light on how dysregulation of neuronal processing in these circuits may be implicated in specific neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24966814

  12. Prior stimulation of the endocannabinoid system prevents methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the striatum through activation of CB2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Nader, Joëlle; Rapino, Cinzia; Gennequin, Benjamin; Chavant, Francois; Francheteau, Maureen; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Duranti, Andrea; Maccarrone, Mauro; Solinas, Marcello; Thiriet, Nathalie

    2014-12-01

    Methamphetamine toxicity is associated with cell death and loss of dopamine neuron terminals in the striatum similar to what is found in some neurodegenerative diseases. Conversely, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been suggested to be neuroprotective in the brain, and new pharmacological tools have been developed to increase their endogenous tone. In this study, we evaluated whether ECS stimulation could reduce the neurotoxicity of high doses of methamphetamine on the dopamine system. We found that methamphetamine alters the levels of the major endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) in the striatum, suggesting that the ECS participates in the brain responses to methamphetamine. Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a cannabis-derived agonist of both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, or inhibitors of the main enzymes responsible for the degradation of AEA and 2-AG (URB597 and JZL184, respectively), blunted the decrease in striatal protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase induced by methamphetamine. In addition, antagonists of CB2, but not of CB1, blocked the preventive effects of URB597 and JZL184, suggesting that only the former receptor subtype is engaged in neuroprotection exerted by ECS stimulation. Finally, we found that methamphetamine increases striatal levels of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha, an effect that was blocked by ECS stimulation. Altogether, our results indicate that stimulation of ECS prior to the administration of an overdose of methamphetamine considerably reduces the neurotoxicity of the drug through CB2 receptor activation and highlight a protective function for the ECS against the toxicity induced by drugs and other external insults to the brain. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prior stimulation of the endocannabinoid system prevents methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in the striatum through activation of CB2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Nader, Joëlle; Rapino, Cinzia; Gennequin, Benjamin; Chavant, Francois; Francheteau, Maureen; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Duranti, Andrea; Maccarrone, Mauro; Solinas, Marcello; Thiriet, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine toxicity is associated with cell death and loss of dopamine neuron terminals in the striatum similar to what is found in some neurodegenerative diseases. Conversely, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been suggested to be neuroprotective in the brain, and new pharmacological tools have been developed to increase their endogenous tone. In this study, we evaluated whether ECS stimulation could reduce the neurotoxicity of high doses of methamphetamine on the dopamine system. We found that methamphetamine alters the levels of the major endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) in the striatum, suggesting that the ECS participates in the brain responses to methamphetamine. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a cannabis-derived agonist of both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, or inhibitors of the main enzymes responsible for the degradation of AEA and 2-AG (URB597 and JZL184, respectively), blunted the decrease in striatal protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase induced by methamphetamine. In addition, antagonists of CB2, but not of CB1, blocked the preventive effects of URB597 and JZL184, suggesting that only the former receptor subtype is engaged in neuroprotection exerted by ECS stimulation. Finally, we found that methamphetamine increases striatal levels of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha, an effect that was blocked by ECS stimulation. Altogether, our results indicate that stimulation of ECS prior to the administration of an overdose of meth-amphetamine considerably reduces the neurotoxicity of the drug through CB2 receptor activation and highlight a protective function for the ECS against the toxicity induced by drugs and other external insults to the brain. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled ‘CNS Stimulants’. PMID:24709540

  14. Role of G protein-regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 3 (GRIN3) in β-arrestin 2-Akt signaling and dopaminergic behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mototani, Yasumasa; Okamura, Tadashi; Goto, Motohito; Shimizu, Yukiko; Yanobu-Takanashi, Rieko; Ito, Aiko; Kawamura, Naoya; Yagisawa, Yuka; Umeki, Daisuke; Nariyama, Megumi; Suita, Kenji; Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Shiozawa, Kouichi; Sahara, Yoshinori; Kozasa, Tohru; Saeki, Yasutake; Okumura, Satoshi

    2018-06-01

    The G protein-regulated inducer of neurite growth (GRIN) family has three isoforms (GRIN1-3), which bind to the Gαi/o subfamily of G protein that mediate signal processing via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Here, we show that GRIN3 is involved in regulation of dopamine-dependent behaviors and is essential for activation of the dopamine receptors (DAR)-β-arrestin signaling cascade. Analysis of functional regions of GRIN3 showed that a di-cysteine motif (Cys751/752) is required for plasma membrane localization. GRIN3 was co-immunoprecipitated with GPCR kinases 2/6 and β-arrestins 1/2. Among GRINs, only GRIN3, which is highly expressed in striatum, strongly interacted with β-arrestin 2. We also generated GRIN3-knockout mice (GRIN3KO). GRIN3KO exhibited reduced locomotor activity and increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated maze test, as well as a reduced locomoter response to dopamine stimulation. We also examined the phosphorylation of Akt at threonine 308 (phospho308-Akt), which is dephosphorylated via a β-arrestin 2-mediated pathway. Dephosphorylation of phospho308-Akt via the D2R-β-arrestin 2 signaling pathway was completely abolished in striatum of GRIN3KO. Our results suggest that GRIN3 has a role in recruitment and assembly of proteins involved in β-arrestin-dependent, G protein-independent signaling.

  15. Two-step grafting significantly enhances the survival of foetal dopaminergic transplants and induces graft-derived vascularisation in a 6-OHDA model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Büchele, Fabian; Döbrössy, Máté; Hackl, Christina; Jiang, Wei; Papazoglou, Anna; Nikkhah, Guido

    2014-08-01

    Following transplantation of foetal primary dopamine (DA)-rich tissue for neurorestaurative treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), only 5-10% of the functionally relevant DAergic cells survive both in experimental models and in clinical studies. The current work tested how a two-step grafting protocol could have a positive impact on graft survival. DAergic tissue is divided in two portions and grafted in two separate sessions into the same target area within a defined time interval. We hypothesized that the first graft creates a "DAergic" microenvironment or "nest" similar to the perinatal substantia nigra that stimulates and protects the second graft. 6-OHDA-lesioned rats were sequentially transplanted with wild-type (GFP-, first graft) and transgenic (GFP+, second graft) DAergic cells in time interims of 2, 5 or 9days. Each group was further divided into two sub-groups receiving either 200k (low cell number groups: 2dL, 5dL, 9dL) or 400k cells (high cell number groups: 2dH, 5dH, 9dH) as first graft. During the second transplantation, all groups received the same amount of 200k GFP+ cells. Controls received either low or high cell numbers in one single session (standard protocol). Drug-induced rotations, at 2 and 6weeks after grafting, showed significant improvement compared to the baseline lesion levels without significant differences between the groups. Rats were sacrificed 8weeks after transplantation for post-mortem histological assessment. Both two-step groups with the time interval of 2days (2dL and 2dH) showed a significantly higher survival of DAergic cells compared to their respective standard control group (2dL, +137%; 2dH, +47%). Interposing longer intervals of 5 or 9days resulted in the loss of statistical significance, neutralising the beneficial two-step grafting effect. Furthermore, the transplants in the 2dL and 2dH groups had higher graft volume and DA-fibre-density values compared to all other two-step groups. They also showed intense growth of

  16. Protection of dopaminergic neurons by 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kai-Hsiang; Liou, Horng-Hui; Hour, Mann-Jen; Liou, Houng-Chi; Fu, Wen-Mei

    2013-10-01

    Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are important factors that induce neurodegeneration in age-related neurological disorders. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is the enzyme responsible for catalysing the synthesis of leukotriene or 5-HETE from arachidonic acid. 5-LOX is expressed in the central nervous system and may cause neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of the pharmacological inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)/MPP(+)-induced dopaminergic neuronal death in midbrain neuron-glia co-cultures and in mice. It was found that 5-LOX was over-expressed in astrocytes after the injection of MPTP into C57BL6 mice. MK-886, a specific inhibitor of 5-LOX activating protein (FLAP), significantly increased [(3)H]-dopamine uptake, a functional indicator of the integrity of dopaminergic neurons, in midbrain cultures or the SH-SY5Y human dopaminergic cell line following MPP(+) treatment. In addition, LTB₄, one of 5-LOX's downstream products, was increased in the striatum and substantia nigra following MPTP injection in mice. LTB₄ but not LTD₄ and 5-HETE enhanced MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity in primary midbrain cultures. MK-886 administration increased the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra and the dopamine content in the striatum in MPTP-induced parkinsonian mice. Furthermore, the MPTP-induced upregulation of LTB₄ in the striatum and substantia nigra was antagonised by MK-886. These results suggest that 5-LOX inhibitors may be developed as novel neuroprotective agents and LTB₄ may play an important pathological role in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Is there room for non-dopaminergic treatment in Parkinson disease?

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Abraham; Krishnamurthi, Narayanan

    2013-02-01

    Although levodopa and dopaminergic drugs remain the mainstay of therapy for the motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD), they fail to address many of the non-motor symptoms of PD including orthostatic hypotension, freezing of gait (FOG) and difficulty with balance, drug-induced paranoia and hallucinations, and drug-induced dyskinesias. Droxidopa, a drug that increases norepinephrine, treats orthostatic hypotension, cholinomimetic drugs sometimes help with FOG and difficulty with balance, pimavanserin, a drug that blocks serotonin receptors, treats paranoia and hallucinations, and anti-glutaminergic drugs treat dyskinesias. Thus, there are ample opportunities for non-dopaminergic drugs in PD.

  18. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (MKP)-1 as a neuroprotective agent: promotion of the morphological development of midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Collins, Louise M; O'Keeffe, Gerard W; Long-Smith, Caitriona M; Wyatt, Sean L; Sullivan, Aideen M; Toulouse, André; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2013-06-01

    A greater understanding of the mechanisms that promote the survival and growth of dopaminergic neurons is essential for the advancement of cell replacement therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD). Evidence supports a role for the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 in the demise of dopaminergic neurons, while mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), which negatively regulates p38 activity, has not yet been investigated in this context. Here, we show that MKP-1 is expressed in dopaminergic neurons cultured from E14 rat ventral mesencephalon (VM). When dopaminergic neurons were transfected to overexpress MKP-1, they displayed a more complex morphology than their control counterparts in vitro. Specifically, MKP-1-transfection induced significant increases in neurite length and branching with a maximum increase observed in primary branches. We demonstrate that inhibition of dopaminergic neurite growth induced by treatment of rat VM neurons with the dopaminergic neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in vitro is mediated by p38 and is concomitant with a significant and selective decrease in MKP-1 expression in these neurons. We further show that overexpression of MKP-1 in dopaminergic neurons contributes to neuroprotection against the effects of 6-OHDA. Collectively, we report that MKP-1 can promote the growth and elaboration of dopaminergic neuronal processes and can help protect them from the neurotoxic effects of 6-OHDA. Thus, we propose that strategies aimed at augmenting MKP-1 expression or activity may be beneficial in protecting dopaminergic neurons and may provide potential therapeutic approaches for PD.

  19. Pleiotrophin over-expression provides trophic support to dopaminergic neurons in parkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Taravini, Irene Re; Chertoff, Mariela; Cafferata, Eduardo G; Courty, José; Murer, Mario G; Pitossi, Fernando J; Gershanik, Oscar S

    2011-06-07

    Pleiotrophin is known to promote the survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in vitro and is up-regulated in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease patients. To establish whether pleiotrophin has a trophic effect on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in vivo, we injected a recombinant adenovirus expressing pleiotrophin in the substantia nigra of 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats. The viral vector induced pleiotrophin over-expression by astrocytes in the substantia nigra pars compacta, without modifying endogenous neuronal expression. The percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells as well as the area of their projections in the lesioned striatum was higher in pleiotrophin-treated animals than in controls. These results indicate that pleiotrophin over-expression partially rescues tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cell bodies and terminals of dopaminergic neurons undergoing 6-hydroxydopamine-induced degeneration.

  20. Pleiotrophin over-expression provides trophic support to dopaminergic neurons in parkinsonian rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pleiotrophin is known to promote the survival and differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in vitro and is up-regulated in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease patients. To establish whether pleiotrophin has a trophic effect on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in vivo, we injected a recombinant adenovirus expressing pleiotrophin in the substantia nigra of 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats. Results The viral vector induced pleiotrophin over-expression by astrocytes in the substantia nigra pars compacta, without modifying endogenous neuronal expression. The percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cells as well as the area of their projections in the lesioned striatum was higher in pleiotrophin-treated animals than in controls. Conclusions These results indicate that pleiotrophin over-expression partially rescues tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive cell bodies and terminals of dopaminergic neurons undergoing 6-hydroxydopamine-induced degeneration. PMID:21649894

  1. Dopaminergic Dysregulation, Artistic Expressiveness, and Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    López-Pousa, S.; Lombardía-Fernández, C.; Olmo, J. Garre; Monserrat-Vila, S.; Vilalta-Franch, J.; Calvó-Perxas, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The most frequent behavioral manifestations in Parkinson's disease (PD) are attributed to the dopaminergic dysregulation syndrome (DDS), which is considered to be secondary to the iatrogenic effects of the drugs that replace dopamine. Over the past few years some cases of patients improving their creative abilities after starting treatment with dopaminergic pharmaceuticals have been reported. These effects have not been clearly associated to DDS, but a relationship has been pointed out. Methods Case study of a patient with PD. The evolution of her paintings along medication changes and disease advance has been analyzed. Results The patient showed a compulsive increase of pictorial production after the diagnosis of PD was made. She made her best paintings when treated with cabergolide, and while painting, she reported a feeling of well-being, with loss of awareness of the disease and reduction of physical limitations. Conclusions Dopaminergic antagonists (DA) trigger a dopaminergic dysfunction that alters artistic creativity in patients having a predisposition for it. The development of these skills might be due to the dopaminergic overstimulation due to the therapy with DA, which causes a neurophysiological alteration that globally determines DDS. PMID:23185168

  2. Dopaminergic Modulation of Sleep-Wake States.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Solis, Andrea; Herrera-Morales, Wendy; Nunez-Jaramillo, Luis; Arias-Carrion, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    The role of dopamine in sleep-wake regulation is considered as a wakefulness-promoting agent. For the clinical treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness, drugs have been commonly used to increase dopamine release. However, sleep disorders or lack of sleep are related to several dopaminerelated disorders. The effects of dopaminergic agents, nevertheless, are mediated by two families of dopamine receptors, D1 and D2-like receptors; the first family increases adenylyl cyclase activity and the second inhibits adenylyl cyclase. For this reason, the dopaminergic agonist effects on sleep-wake cycle are complex. Here, we review the state-of-the-art and discuss the different effects of dopaminergic agonists in sleep-wake states, and propose that these receptors account for the affinity, although not the specificity, of several effects on the sleep-wake cycle. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Dopaminergic dysfunction in schizophrenia: salience attribution revisited.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Andreas; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2010-05-01

    A dysregulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system in schizophrenia patients may lead to aberrant attribution of incentive salience and contribute to the emergence of psychopathological symptoms like delusions. The dopaminergic signal has been conceptualized to represent a prediction error that indicates the difference between received and predicted reward. The incentive salience hypothesis states that dopamine mediates the attribution of "incentive salience" to conditioned cues that predict reward. This hypothesis was initially applied in the context of drug addiction and then transferred to schizophrenic psychosis. It was hypothesized that increased firing (chaotic or stress associated) of dopaminergic neurons in the striatum of schizophrenia patients attributes incentive salience to otherwise irrelevant stimuli. Here, we review recent neuroimaging studies directly addressing this hypothesis. They suggest that neuronal functions associated with dopaminergic signaling, such as the attribution of salience to reward-predicting stimuli and the computation of prediction errors, are indeed altered in schizophrenia patients and that this impairment appears to contribute to delusion formation.

  4. Effects of Chronic Hypergravity on the Dopaminergic Neuronal System in Drosophila Melanogaster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelos, Andrew; Hosamani, Ravikumar; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2017-01-01

    Upon atmospheric exitre-entry and during training, astronauts are subjected to temporary periods of hypergravity, which has been implicated in the activation of oxidative stress pathways contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal degeneration. The pathogenesis of Parkinsons disease and other neurodegenerative disorders is associated with oxidative damage to neurons involved in dopamine systems of the brain. Our study aims to examine the effects of a hypergravitational developmental environment on the degeneration of dopaminergic systems in Drosophila melanogaster. Male and female flies (Gal4-UAS transgenic line) were hatched and raised to adulthood in centrifugal hypergravity (97rpm, 3g). The nuclear expression of the reporter, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is driven by the dopaminergic enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter, allowing for the targeted visualization of dopamine producing neurons. After being raised to adulthood and kept in hypergravity until 18 days of age, flies were dissected and the expression of TH was measured by fluorescence confocal microscopy. TH expression in the fly brains was used to obtain counts of healthy dopaminergic neurons for flies raised in chronic hypergravity and control groups. Dopaminergic neuron expression data were compared with those of previous studies that limited hypergravity exposure to late life in order to determine the flies adaptability to the gravitational environment when raised from hatching through adulthood. Overall, we observed a significant effect of chronic hypergravity exposure contributing to deficits in dopaminergic neuron expression (p 0.003). Flies raised in 3g had on average lower dopaminergic neuron counts (mean 97.7) when compared with flies raised in 1g (mean 122.8). We suspect these lower levels of TH expression are a result of oxidative dopaminergic cell loss in flies raised in hypergravity. In future studies, we hope to further elucidate the mechanism by which hypergravity-induced

  5. Methamphetamine generates peroxynitrite and produces dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice: protective effects of peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst.

    PubMed

    Imam, S Z; Crow, J P; Newport, G D; Islam, F; Slikker, W; Ali, S F

    1999-08-07

    Methamphetamine (METH)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is believed to be produced by oxidative stress and free radical generation. The present study was undertaken to investigate if METH generates peroxynitrite and produces dopaminergic neurotoxicity. We also investigated if this generation of peroxynitrite can be blocked by a selective peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, 5, 10,15, 20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4'-pyridyl)porphyrinato iron III (FeTMPyP) and protect against METH-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Administration of METH resulted in the significant formation of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), an in vivo marker of peroxynitrite generation, in the striatum and also caused a significant increase in the body temperature. METH injection also caused a significant decrease in the concentration of dopamine (DA), 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid (HVA) by 76%, 53% and 40%, respectively, in the striatum compared with the control group. Treatment with FeTMPyP blocked the formation of 3-NT by 66% when compared with the METH group. FeTMPyP treatment also provided significant protection against the METH-induced hyperthermia and depletion of DA, DOPAC and HVA. Administration of FeTMPyP alone neither resulted in 3-NT formation nor had any significant effect on DA or its metabolite concentrations. These findings indicate that peroxynitrite plays a role in METH-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity and also suggests that peroxynitrite decomposition catalysts may be beneficial for the management of psychostimulant abuse. Copyright 1999 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. Striatal astrocytes engulf dopaminergic debris in Parkinson's disease: A study in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Ingrid; Sanchez, Alberto; Rodriguez-Sabate, Clara

    2017-01-01

    The role of astrocytes in Parkinson’s disease is still not well understood. This work studied the astrocytic response to the dopaminergic denervation. Rats were injected in the lateral ventricles with 6-hydroxydopamine (25μg), inducing a dopaminergic denervation of the striatum not accompanied by non-selective tissue damage. The dopaminergic debris were found within spheroids (free-spheroids) which retained some proteins of dopaminergic neurons (e.g., tyrosine hydroxylase, the dopamine transporter protein, and APP) but not others (e.g., α-synuclein). Free-spheroids showed the initial (LC3-autophagosomes) but not the late (Lamp1/Lamp2-lysosomes) components of autophagy (incomplete autophagy), preparing their autophagosomes for an external phagocytosis (accumulation of phosphatidylserine). Free-spheroids were penetrated by astrocyte processes (fenestrated-spheroids) which made them immunoreactive for GFAP and S100β, and which had some elements needed to continue the debris degradation (Lamp1/Lamp2). Finally, proteins normally found in neurons (TH, DAT and α-synuclein) were observed within astrocytes 2–5 days after the dopaminergic degeneration, suggesting that the intracellular contents of degenerated cells had been transferred to astrocytes. Taken together, present data suggest phagocytosis as a physiological role of striatal astrocytes, a role which could be critical for cleaning striatal debris during the initial stages of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:29028815

  7. Control of dopaminergic neuron survival by the unfolded protein response transcription factor XBP1

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Pamela; Mercado, Gabriela; Vidal, Rene L.; Molina, Claudia; Parsons, Geoffrey; Court, Felipe A.; Martinez, Alexis; Galleguillos, Danny; Armentano, Donna; Schneider, Bernard L.; Hetz, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Although growing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a hallmark of PD, its exact contribution to the disease process is not well understood. Here we report that developmental ablation of X-Box binding protein 1 (XBP1) in the nervous system, a key regulator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), protects dopaminergic neurons against a PD-inducing neurotoxin. This survival effect was associated with a preconditioning condition that resulted from induction of an adaptive ER stress response in dopaminergic neurons of the SNpc, but not in other brain regions. In contrast, silencing XBP1 in adult animals triggered chronic ER stress and dopaminergic neuron degeneration. Supporting this finding, gene therapy to deliver an active form of XBP1 provided neuroprotection and reduced striatal denervation in animals injected with 6-hydroxydopamine. Our results reveal a physiological role of the UPR in the maintenance of protein homeostasis in dopaminergic neurons that may help explain the differential neuronal vulnerability observed in PD. PMID:24753614

  8. Dopamine-Dependent Compensation Maintains Motor Behavior in Mice with Developmental Ablation of Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    DeMaro, Joseph A.; Knoten, Amanda; Hoshi, Masato; Pehek, Elizabeth; Johnson, Eugene M.; Gereau, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and consequent depletion of striatal dopamine are known to underlie the motor deficits observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Adaptive changes in dopaminergic terminals and in postsynaptic striatal neurons can compensate for significant losses of striatal dopamine, resulting in preservation of motor behavior. In addition, compensatory changes independent of striatal dopamine have been proposed based on PD therapies that modulate nondopaminergic circuits within the basal ganglia. We used a genetic strategy to selectively destroy dopaminergic neurons in mice during development to determine the necessity of these neurons for the maintenance of normal motor behavior in adult and aged mice. We find that loss of 90% of SNc dopaminergic neurons and consequent depletion of >95% of striatal dopamine does not result in changes in motor behavior in young-adult or aged mice as evaluated by an extensive array of motor behavior tests. Treatment of aged mutant mice with the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol precipitated motor behavior deficits in aged mutant mice, indicating that <5% of striatal dopamine is sufficient to maintain motor function in these mice. We also found that mutant mice exhibit an exaggerated response to l-DOPA compared with control mice, suggesting that preservation of motor function involves sensitization of striatal dopamine receptors. Our results indicate that congenital loss of dopaminergic neurons induces remarkable adaptions in the nigrostriatal system where limited amounts of dopamine in the dorsal striatum can maintain normal motor function. PMID:24155314

  9. Paradoxical Abatement of Striatal Dopaminergic Transmission by Cocaine and Methylphenidate*

    PubMed Central

    Federici, Mauro; Latagliata, Emanuele Claudio; Ledonne, Ada; Rizzo, Francesca R.; Feligioni, Marco; Sulzer, Dave; Dunn, Matthew; Sames, Dalibor; Gu, Howard; Nisticò, Robert; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Mercuri, Nicola B.

    2014-01-01

    We combined in vitro amperometric, optical analysis of fluorescent false neurotransmitters and microdialysis techniques to unveil that cocaine and methylphenidate induced a marked depression of the synaptic release of dopamine (DA) in mouse striatum. In contrast to the classical dopamine transporter (DAT)-dependent enhancement of the dopaminergic signal observed at concentrations of cocaine lower than 3 μm, the inhibitory effect of cocaine was found at concentrations higher than 3 μm. The paradoxical inhibitory effect of cocaine and methylphenidate was associated with a decrease in synapsin phosphorylation. Interestingly, a cocaine-induced depression of DA release was only present in cocaine-insensitive animals (DAT-CI). Similar effects of cocaine were produced by methylphenidate in both wild-type and DAT-CI mice. On the other hand, nomifensine only enhanced the dopaminergic signal either in wild-type or in DAT-CI mice. Overall, these results indicate that cocaine and methylphenidate can increase or decrease DA neurotransmission by blocking reuptake and reducing the exocytotic release, respectively. The biphasic reshaping of DA neurotransmission could contribute to different behavioral effects of psychostimulants, including the calming ones, in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:24280216

  10. Dopaminergic Polymorphisms, Academic Achievement, and Violent Delinquency.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ilhong; Lee, Julak; Kim, Seung-Gon

    2015-12-01

    Recent research in the field of educational psychology points to the salience of self-control in accounting for the variance in students' report card grades. At the same time, a novel empirical study from molecular genetics drawing on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) data has revealed that polymorphisms in three dopaminergic genes (dopamine transporter [DAT1], dopamine D2 receptor [DRD2], and dopamine D4 receptor [DRD4]) are also linked to adolescents' grade point averages (GPAs). Juxtaposing these two lines of research, the current study reanalyzed the Add Health genetic subsample to assess the relative effects of these dopaminergic genes and self-control on GPAs. The results showed that the effects of the latter were far stronger than those of the former. The interaction effects between the dopaminergic genes and a set of environmental factors on academic performance were also examined, producing findings that are aligned with the "social push hypothesis" in behavioral genetics. Finally, based on the criminological literature on the link between academic performance and delinquency, we tested whether dopaminergic effects on violent delinquency were mediated by GPAs. The results demonstrated that academic performance fully mediated the linkage between these genes and violent delinquency. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Involvement of mesolimbic dopaminergic network in neuropathic pain relief by treadmill exercise

    PubMed Central

    Wakaizumi, Kenta; Kondo, Takashige; Hamada, Yusuke; Narita, Michiko; Kawabe, Rui; Narita, Hiroki; Watanabe, Moe; Kato, Shigeki; Senba, Emiko; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yamanaka, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Exercise alleviates pain and it is a central component of treatment strategy for chronic pain in clinical setting. However, little is known about mechanism of this exercise-induced hypoalgesia. The mesolimbic dopaminergic network plays a role in positive emotions to rewards including motivation and pleasure. Pain negatively modulates these emotions, but appropriate exercise is considered to activate the dopaminergic network. We investigated possible involvement of this network as a mechanism of exercise-induced hypoalgesia. Methods In the present study, we developed a protocol of treadmill exercise, which was able to recover pain threshold under partial sciatic nerve ligation in mice, and investigated involvement of the dopaminergic reward network in exercise-induced hypoalgesia. To temporally suppress a neural activation during exercise, a genetically modified inhibitory G-protein-coupled receptor, hM4Di, was specifically expressed on dopaminergic pathway from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens. Results The chemogenetic-specific neural suppression by Gi-DREADD system dramatically offset the effect of exercise-induced hypoalgesia in transgenic mice with hM4Di expressed on the ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. Additionally, anti-exercise-induced hypoalgesia effect was significantly observed under the suppression of neurons projecting out of the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens as well. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the dopaminergic pathway from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens is involved in the anti-nociception under low-intensity exercise under a neuropathic pain-like state. PMID:27909152

  12. Substance P Exacerbates Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration through Neurokinin-1 Receptor-Independent Activation of Microglial NADPH Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chun-Hsien; Qian, Li; Chen, Shih-Heng; Wilson, Belinda; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Jiang, Lulu; Ali, Syed; Robinson, Bonnie; Kim, Hyoung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Although dysregulated substance P (SP) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), how SP affects the survival of dopaminergic neurons remains unclear. Here, we found that mice lacking endogenous SP (TAC1−/−), but not those deficient in the SP receptor (neurokinin-1 receptor, NK1R), were more resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced nigral dopaminergic neurodegeneration than wild-type controls, suggesting a NK1R-independent toxic action of SP. In vitro dose–response studies revealed that exogenous SP enhanced LPS- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a bimodal manner, peaking at submicromolar and subpicomolar concentrations, but was substantially less effective at intermediate concentrations. Mechanistically, the actions of submicromolar levels of SP were NK1R-dependent, whereas subpicomolar SP-elicited actions required microglial NADPH oxidase (NOX2), the key superoxide-producing enzyme, but not NK1R. Subpicomolar concentrations of SP activated NOX2 by binding to the catalytic subunit gp91phox and inducing membrane translocation of the cytosolic subunits p47phox and p67phox. The importance of NOX2 was further corroborated by showing that inhibition or disruption of NOX2 blocked subpicomolar SP-exacerbated neurotoxicity. Together, our findings revealed a critical role of microglial NOX2 in mediating the neuroinflammatory and dopaminergic neurodegenerative effects of SP, which may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PD. PMID:25209287

  13. Treg Cells Protect Dopaminergic Neurons against MPP+ Neurotoxicity via CD47-SIRPA Interaction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Liu, Zhan; Cao, Bei-Bei; Qiu, Yi-Hua; Peng, Yu-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells have been associated with neuroprotection by inhibiting microglial activation in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by dopaminergic neuronal loss in the nigrostriatal system. Herein, we show that Treg cells directly protect dopaminergic neurons against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) neurotoxicity via an interaction between the two transmembrane proteins CD47 and signal regulatory protein α (SIRPA). Primary ventral mesencephalic (VM) cells or VM neurons were pretreated with Treg cells before MPP+ treatment. Transwell co-culture of Treg cells and VM neurons was used to assess the effects of the Treg cytokines transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and interleukin (IL)-10 on dopaminergic neurons. Live cell imaging system detected a dynamic contact of Treg cells with VM neurons that were stained with CD47 and SIRPA, respectively. Dopaminergic neuronal loss, which was assessed by the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive cells, was examined after silencing CD47 in Treg cells or silencing SIRPA in VM neurons. Treg cells prevented MPP+-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss and glial inflammatory responses. TGF-β1 and IL-10 secreted from Treg cells did not significantly prevent MPP+-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss in transwell co-culture of Treg cells and VM neurons. CD47 and SIRPA were expressed by Treg cells and VM neurons, respectively. CD47-labeled Treg cells dynamically contacted with SIRPA-labeled VM neurons. Silencing CD47 gene in Treg cells impaired the ability of Treg cells to protect dopaminergic neurons against MPP+ toxicity. Similarly, SIRPA knockdown in VM neurons reduced the ability of Treg cell neuroprotection. Rac1/Akt signaling pathway in VM neurons was activated by CD47-SIRPA interaction between Treg cells and the neurons. Inhibiting Rac1/Akt signaling in VM neurons compromised Treg cell neuroprotection. Treg cells protect dopaminergic neurons against

  14. Harnessing the trophic and modulatory potential of statins in a dopaminergic cell line.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Mathieu; Dehay, Benjamin; Bezard, Erwan; Garcia-Ladona, F Javier

    2016-03-01

    The identification of an effective disease-modifying treatment for the neurodegenerative progression in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains a major challenge. Epidemiological studies have reported that intake of statins, cholesterol lowering drugs, could be associated to a reduced risk of developing PD. In-vivo studies suggest that statins may reduce the severity of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. The trophic potential of statins and their impact on the expression of dopaminergic synaptic markers and dopamine (DA) transport function in SH-SY5Y cells has been investigated. The findings showed that statin treatment induces neurite outgrowth involving a specific effect on the complexity of the neurite branching pattern. Statins increased the levels of presynaptic dopaminergic biomarkers such as vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), synaptic vesicle glycoproteins 2A and 2C (SV2C), and synaptogyrin-3 (SYNGR3). Gene expression analysis confirmed a rapid statin-induced up-regulation of VMAT2-, SV2C-, and SYNGR3-mRNA levels. Assessment of [(3) H]DA transport in statin-treated cells showed a reduction in DA uptake concomitant to a modification of VMAT2 pharmacological properties. It was also observed that a nuclear translocation of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1). The results suggested that statins induced phenotypic changes in dopaminergic cells characterized by an increase of growth, complexity of structural synaptic elements, and expression of key presynaptic proteins with functional impact on the DA transport capacity. Statin-induced changes are likely the result of a downstream modulation of SREBP-1 pathway. Overall, these mechanisms may contribute to the neuroprotective or neurorestorative effects observed in the dopaminergic system and strengthen the therapeutic potential of statins for PD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. CB2 Receptor Agonists Protect Human Dopaminergic Neurons against Damage from HIV-1 gp120

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shuxian; Sheng, Wen S.; Rock, R. Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Despite the therapeutic impact of anti-retroviral therapy, HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains a serious threat to AIDS patients, and there currently remains no specific therapy for the neurological manifestations of HIV-1. Recent work suggests that the nigrostriatal dopaminergic area is a critical brain region for the neuronal dysfunction and death seen in HAND and that human dopaminergic neurons have a particular sensitivity to gp120-induced damage, manifested as reduced function (decreased dopamine uptake), morphological changes, and reduced viability. Synthetic cannabinoids inhibit HIV-1 expression in human microglia, suppress production of inflammatory mediators in human astrocytes, and there is substantial literature demonstrating the neuroprotective properties of cannabinoids in other neuropathogenic processes. Based on these data, experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that synthetic cannabinoids will protect dopaminergic neurons against the toxic effects of the HIV-1 protein gp120. Using a human mesencephalic neuronal/glial culture model, which contains dopaminergic neurons, microglia, and astrocytes, we were able to show that the CB1/CB2 agonist WIN55,212-2 blunts gp120-induced neuronal damage as measured by dopamine transporter function, apoptosis and lipid peroxidation; these actions were mediated principally by the CB2 receptor. Adding supplementary human microglia to our cultures enhances gp120-induced damage; WIN55,212-2 is able to alleviate this enhanced damage. Additionally, WIN55,212-2 inhibits gp120-induced superoxide production by purified human microglial cells, inhibits migration of human microglia towards supernatants generated from gp120-stimulated human mesencephalic neuronal/glial cultures and reduces chemokine and cytokine production from the human mesencephalic neuronal/glial cultures. These data suggest that synthetic cannabinoids are capable of protecting human dopaminergic neurons from gp120 in a variety

  16. Rasgrf2 controls dopaminergic adaptations to alcohol in mice.

    PubMed

    Easton, Alanna C; Rotter, Andrea; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Desrivières, Sylvane; Fernández-Medarde, Alberto; Biermann, Teresa; Fernandes, Cathy; Santos, Eugenio; Kornhuber, Johannes; Schumann, Gunter; Müller, Christian P

    2014-10-01

    Alcohol abuse leads to serious health problems with no effective treatment available. Recent evidence suggests a role for ras-specific guanine-nucleotide releasing factor 2 (RASGRF2) in alcoholism. Rasgrf2 is a calcium sensor and MAPK/ERK activating protein, which has been linked to neurotransmitter release and monoaminergic receptor adaptations. Rasgrf2 knock out (KO) mice do not develop a dopamine response in the nucleus accumbens after an alcohol challenge and show a reduced consumption of alcohol. The present study aims to further characterise the role of Rasgrf2 in dopaminergic activation beyond the nucleus accumbens following alcohol treatment. Using in vivo microdialysis we found that alcohol induces alterations in dopamine levels in the dorsal striatum between wildtype (WT) and Rasgrf2 KO mice. There was no difference in the expression of dopamine transporter (DAT), dopamine receptor regulating factor (DRRF), or dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) mRNA in the brain between Rasgrf2 KO and WT mice. After sub-chronic alcohol treatment, DAT and DRRF, but not DRD2 mRNA expression differed between WT and Rasgrf2 KO mice. Brain adaptations were positively correlated with splenic expression levels. These data suggest that Rasgrf2 controls dopaminergic signalling and adaptations to alcohol also in other brain regions, beyond the nucleus accumbens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dopaminergic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells--utilization of bioassay for tyrosine hydroxylase expression.

    PubMed

    Kan, Inna; Ben-Zur, Tali; Barhum, Yael; Levy, Yossef S; Burstein, Alex; Charlow, Tirza; Bulvik, Shlomo; Melamed, Eldad; Offen, Daniel

    2007-05-23

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, caused by a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. In PD, the best therapeutic modalities cannot halt the degeneration. The selective hallmark pathology and the lack of effective treatment make PD an appropriate candidate for cell replacement therapy. Adult autologous bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated as candidates for cell replacement strategies. Several laboratories, including ours, have induced MSCs into neuron-like cells demonstrating a variety of neuronal markers including dopaminergic characteristics, such as the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). This project aimed to induce MSCs into mature dopamine secreting cells and to generate a bioassay to evaluate the induction. For that purpose, we created a reporter vector containing a promoter of TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in the dopamine synthesis and red fluorescent protein DsRed2. Transfection of human neuroblastoma, dopamine synthesizing, SH-SY5Y cells confirmed the reliability of the constructed reporter plasmid. Following dopaminergic differentiation of the transfected human MSCs cells, TH expressing cells were identified and quantified using flow cytometry. Further study revealed that not only did the differentiated cells activate TH promoter but they also expressed TH protein and secreted dopamine. The reported results indicate that MSCs may be primed in vitro towards a dopaminergic fate offering the promise of innovative therapy for currently incurable human disorders, including PD.

  18. Traumatic Brain Injury in Adult Rats Causes Progressive Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Cell Loss and Enhanced Vulnerability to the Pesticide Paraquat

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, Che Brown; Lazo, Carlos R.; Mortazavi, Farzad; Giza, Christopher C.; Hovda, David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and the accumulation of alpha-synuclein. Both traumatic brain injury (TBI) and pesticides are risk factors for PD, but whether TBI causes nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell loss in experimental models and whether it acts synergistically with pesticides is unknown. We have examined the acute and long-term effects of TBI and exposure to low doses of the pesticide paraquat, separately and in combination, on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in adult male rats. In an acute study, rats received moderate TBI by lateral fluid percussion (LFP) injury, were injected with saline or paraquat (10 mg/kg IP) 3 and 6 days after LFP, were sacrificed 5 days later, and their brains processed for immunohistochemistry. TBI alone increased microglial activation in the substantia nigra, and caused a 15% loss of dopaminergic neurons ipsilaterally. Paraquat increased the TBI effect, causing a 30% bilateral loss of dopaminergic neurons, reduced striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity more than TBI alone, and induced alpha-synuclein accumulation in the substantia nigra pars compacta. In a long-term study, rats received moderate LFP, were injected with saline or paraquat at 21 and 22 weeks post-injury, and were sacrificed 4 weeks later. At 26 weeks post injury, TBI alone induced a 30% bilateral loss of dopaminergic neurons that was not exacerbated by paraquat. These data suggest that TBI is sufficient to induce a progressive degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Furthermore, TBI and pesticide exposure, when occurring within a defined time frame, could combine to increase the PD risk. PMID:21644813

  19. Are Striatal Tyrosine Hydroxylase Interneurons Dopaminergic?

    PubMed Central

    Xenias, Harry S.; Ibáñez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Koós, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Striatal GABAergic interneurons that express the gene for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) have been identified previously by several methods. Although generally assumed to be dopaminergic, possibly serving as a compensatory source of dopamine (DA) in Parkinson's disease, this assumption has never been tested directly. In TH–Cre mice whose nigrostriatal pathway had been eliminated unilaterally with 6-hydroxydopamine, we injected a Cre-dependent virus coding for channelrhodopsin-2 and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein unilaterally into the unlesioned midbrain or bilaterally into the striatum. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in striatal slices revealed that both optical and electrical stimulation readily elicited DA release in control striata but not from contralateral striata when nigrostriatal neurons were transduced. In contrast, neither optical nor electrical stimulation could elicit striatal DA release in either the control or lesioned striata when the virus was injected directly into the striatum transducing only striatal TH interneurons. This demonstrates that striatal TH interneurons do not release DA. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry in enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)–TH mice revealed colocalization of DA, l-amino acid decarboxylase, the DA transporter, and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 with EGFP in midbrain dopaminergic neurons but not in any of the striatal EGFP–TH interneurons. Optogenetic activation of striatal EGFP–TH interneurons produced strong GABAergic inhibition in all spiny neurons tested. These results indicate that striatal TH interneurons are not dopaminergic but rather are a type of GABAergic interneuron that expresses TH but none of the other enzymes or transporters necessary to operate as dopaminergic neurons and exert widespread GABAergic inhibition onto direct and indirect spiny neurons. PMID:25904808

  20. Manganese Nanoparticle Activates Mitochondrial Dependent Apoptotic Signaling and Autophagy in Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ngwa, Hilary Afeseh; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Gu, Yan; Fang, Ning; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.

    2011-01-01

    The production of man-made nanoparticles for various modern applications has increased exponentially in recent years, but the potential health effects of most nanoparticles are not well characterized. Unfortunately, in vitro nanoparticle toxicity studies are extremely limited by yet unresolved problems relating to dosimetry. In the present study, we systematically characterized manganese (Mn) nanoparticle sizes and examined the nanoparticle-induced oxidative signaling in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed that Mn nanoparticles range in size from single nanoparticles (~25 nM) to larger agglomerates when in treatment media. Manganese nanoparticles were effectively internalized in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cells, and they induced a time-dependent upregulation of the transporter protein transferrin. Exposure to 25–400 µg/mL Mn nanoparticles induced cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Mn nanoparticles also significantly increased ROS, accompanied by a caspase-mediated proteolytic cleavage of proapoptotic protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), as well as activation loop phosphorylation. Blocking Mn nanoparticle-induced ROS failed to protect against the neurotoxic effects, suggesting the involvement of other pathways. Further mechanistic studies revealed changes in Beclin1 and LC3, indicating that Mn nanoparticles induce autophagy. Primary mesencephalic neuron exposure to Mn nanoparticles induced loss of TH positive dopaminergic neurons and neuronal processes. Collectively, our results suggest that Mn nanoparticles effectively enter dopaminergic neuronal cells and exert neurotoxic effects by activating an apoptotic signaling pathway and autophagy, emphasizing the need for assessing possible health risks associated with an increased use of Mn nanoparticles in modern applications. PMID:21856324

  1. Effect of non-selective dopaminergic receptor agonist on disrupted maternal behavior in olfactory bulbectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsushi; Nakagawasai, Osamu; Tan-No, Koichi; Onogi, Hiroshi; Niijima, Fukie; Tadano, Takeshi

    2010-07-11

    Olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) animals are considered a putative model of depression that produces behavioral, physiological, and neurochemical alterations resembling clinical depression. Depression is a critical cause of child abuse and neglect, and it has been reported that maternal behavior involves dopaminergic neurons of the mesolimbic pathway. In this study, we investigated the effect of apomorphine, a non-selective dopaminergic receptor agonist, on maternal behavior to examine the influence of activated brain dopaminergic function in OBX mice. In addition, we conducted the sucrose preference test to examine the reward system which has a critical relationship to mesolimbic dopaminergic function and maternal behavior. Maternal behavior was observed on postnatal day (PND) 0 and 4. OBX female mice showed a reduction in sucrose preference 2 weeks post surgery. OBX dams showed maternal behavior deficits on PND 0, and these deficits were ameliorated by administration of apomorphine. These results suggest that maternal behavior deficits in OBX dams may involve brain hypodopaminergic function in the central nervous system induced by OBX. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preserved dopaminergic homeostasis and dopamine-related behaviour in hemizygous TH-Cre mice.

    PubMed

    Runegaard, Annika H; Jensen, Kathrine L; Fitzpatrick, Ciarán M; Dencker, Ditte; Weikop, Pia; Gether, Ulrik; Rickhag, Mattias

    2017-01-01

    Cre-driver mouse lines have been extensively used as genetic tools to target and manipulate genetically defined neuronal populations by expression of Cre recombinase under selected gene promoters. This approach has greatly advanced neuroscience but interpretations are hampered by the fact that most Cre-driver lines have not been thoroughly characterized. Thus, a phenotypic characterization is of major importance to reveal potential aberrant phenotypes prior to implementation and usage to selectively inactivate or induce transgene expression. Here, we present a biochemical and behavioural assessment of the dopaminergic system in hemizygous tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Cre mice in comparison to wild-type (WT) controls. Our data show that TH-Cre mice display preserved dopaminergic homeostasis with unaltered levels of TH and dopamine as well as unaffected dopamine turnover in striatum. TH-Cre mice also show preserved dopamine transporter expression and function supporting sustained dopaminergic transmission. In addition, TH-Cre mice demonstrate normal responses in basic behavioural paradigms related to dopaminergic signalling including locomotor activity, reward preference and anxiolytic behaviour. Our results suggest that TH-Cre mice represent a valid tool to study the dopamine system, though careful characterization must always be performed to prevent false interpretations following Cre-dependent transgene expression and manipulation of selected neuronal pathways. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Autologous mesenchymal stem cell–derived dopaminergic neurons function in parkinsonian macaques

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takuya; Wakao, Shohei; Kitada, Masaaki; Ose, Takayuki; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Mitsunaga, Kanae; Matsuse, Dai; Shigemoto, Taeko; Ito, Akihito; Ikeda, Hironobu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Onoe, Hirotaka; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Dezawa, Mari

    2012-01-01

    A cell-based therapy for the replacement of dopaminergic neurons has been a long-term goal in Parkinson’s disease research. Here, we show that autologous engraftment of A9 dopaminergic neuron-like cells induced from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) leads to long-term survival of the cells and restoration of motor function in hemiparkinsonian macaques. Differentiated MSCs expressed markers of A9 dopaminergic neurons and released dopamine after depolarization in vitro. The differentiated autologous cells were engrafted in the affected portion of the striatum. Animals that received transplants showed modest and gradual improvements in motor behaviors. Positron emission tomography (PET) using [11C]-CFT, a ligand for the dopamine transporter (DAT), revealed a dramatic increase in DAT expression, with a subsequent exponential decline over a period of 7 months. Kinetic analysis of the PET findings revealed that DAT expression remained above baseline levels for over 7 months. Immunohistochemical evaluations at 9 months consistently demonstrated the existence of cells positive for DAT and other A9 dopaminergic neuron markers in the engrafted striatum. These data suggest that transplantation of differentiated autologous MSCs may represent a safe and effective cell therapy for Parkinson’s disease. PMID:23202734

  4. Neuroprotective role of chrysin in attenuating loss of dopaminergic neurons and improving motor, learning and memory functions in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Muhammad Rashid; Shaikh, Masood Ahmed; Ul Haq, Syed Hafiz Imran; Nazir, Shakila

    2018-01-01

    Selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons is the pathological hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD). Enhanced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to apoptotic cellular death are the leading pathogenetic mechanisms. Chrysin is an active flavonoid. Its neuroprotective effects have been reported. This study examined the neuroprotective effects of chrysin in ameliorating the dopaminergic neuronal degeneration and motor behavioral changes in rotenone model of PD. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into three groups: Control, rotenone-treated, and rotenone+chrysin treated groups. Rotenone was given at a dose of 3 mg/kg daily intraperitoneally, and chrysin was given at a dose of 50 mg/kg daily intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. Using five neurobehavioral assessment tests, evaluation was done weekly to record the motor behavioral changes. After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed, brains were removed, and section from striatum and substantia nigra were stained using hematoxylin and eosin and cresyl violet stains. Immunohistochemical sections were also prepared using anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) antibody. Rotenone-induced Parkinson like changes were evident from deteriorating motor behavior. These animals showed extensive loss of dopaminergic neurons, decreased immunoreactivity against anti-TH antibodies and number of TH positive dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal region. Chrysin treated animals showed a significant reduction in motor behavioral changes, degeneration and loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and increased immunoreactivity to anti-TH antibody. This study concludes that chrysin confers neuroprotection in rat model of PD. It attenuates the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and motor behavioral abnormalities.

  5. Dopaminergic Therapy Increases Go Timeouts in the Go/No-Go Task in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xue Q.; Lauzon, Brian; Seergobin, Ken N.; MacDonald, Penny A.

    2018-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. Dopaminergic medications such as L-dopa treat these motor symptoms, but can have complex effects on cognition. Impulse control is an essential cognitive function. Impulsivity is multifaceted in nature. Motor impulsivity involves the inability to withhold pre-potent, automatic, erroneous responses. In contrast, cognitive impulsivity refers to improper risk-reward assessment guiding behavior. Informed by our previous research, we anticipated that dopaminergic therapy would decrease motor impulsivity though it is well known to enhance cognitive impulsivity. We employed the Go/No-go paradigm to assess motor impulsivity in PD. Patients with PD were tested using a Go/No-go task on and off their normal dopaminergic medication. Participants completed cognitive, mood, and physiological measures. PD patients on medication had a significantly higher proportion of Go trial Timeouts (i.e., trials in which Go responses were not completed prior to a deadline of 750 ms) compared to off medication (p = 0.01). No significant ON-OFF differences were found for Go trial or No-go trial response times (RTs), or for number of No-go errors. We interpret that dopaminergic therapy induces a more conservative response set, reflected in Go trial Timeouts in PD patients. In this way, dopaminergic therapy decreased motor impulsivity in PD patients. This is in contrast to the widely recognized effects of dopaminergic therapy on cognitive impulsivity leading in some patients to impulse control disorders. Understanding the nuanced effects of dopaminergic treatment in PD on cognitive functions such as impulse control will clarify therapeutic decisions. PMID:29354045

  6. Effects of Feeder Cells on Dopaminergic Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhenqiang; Ma, Yanlin; Chen, Zhibin; Liu, Qian; Li, Qi; Kong, Deyan; Yuan, Kunxiong; Hu, Lan; Wang, Tan; Chen, Xiaowu; Peng, Yanan; Jiang, Weimin; Yu, Yanhong; Liu, Xinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) are used for the culture of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). MEFs and HFFs differed in their capacity to support the proliferation and pluripotency of hESCs and could affect cardiac differentiation potential of hESCs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of MEFs and HFFs feeders on dopaminergic differentiation of hESCs lines. To minimize the impact of culture condition variation, two hESCs lines were cultured on mixed feeder cells (MFCs, MEFs: HFFs = 1:1) and HFFs feeder, respectively, and then were differentiated into dopaminergic (DA) neurons under the identical protocol. Dopaminergic differentiation was evaluated by immunocytochemistry, quantitative fluorescent real-time PCR, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and patch clamp. Our results demonstrated that these hESCs-derived neurons were genuine and functional DA neurons. However, compared to hESCs line on MFCs feeder, hESCs line on HFFs feeder had a higher proportion of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive cells and expressed higher levels of FOXA2, PITX3, NURR1, and TH genes. In addition, the values of threshold intensity and threshold membrane potential of DA neurons from hESCs line on HFFs feeder were lower than those of DA neurons from hESCs line on the MFCs feeder. In conclusion, HFFs feeder not only facilitated the differentiation of hESCs cells into dopaminergic neurons, but also induced hESCs-derived DA neurons to express higher electrophysiological excitability. Therefore, feeder cells could affect not only dopaminergic differentiation potential of different hESCs lines, but also electrophysiological properties of hESCs-derived DA neurons. PMID:28066186

  7. Dopaminergic Modulation of Cortical Plasticity in Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Giacomo; Di Lorenzo, Francesco; Bonnì, Sonia; Giacobbe, Viola; Bozzali, Marco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Martorana, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), mechanisms of cortical plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are impaired. In AD patients, LTP-like cortical plasticity is abolished, whereas LTD seems to be preserved. Dopaminergic transmission has been hypothesized as a new player in ruling mechanisms of cortical plasticity in AD. We aimed at investigating whether administration of the dopamine agonist rotigotine (RTG) could modulate cortical plasticity in AD patients, as measured by theta burst stimulation (TBS) protocols of repetitive transcranial stimulation applied over the primary motor cortex. Thirty mild AD patients were tested in three different groups before and after 4 weeks of treatment with RTG, rivastigmine (RVT), or placebo (PLC). Each patient was evaluated for plasticity induction of LTP/LTD-like effects using respectively intermittent TBS (iTBS) or continuous TBS protocols. Short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) protocol was performed to indirectly assess central cholinergic activity. A group of age-matched healthy controls was recruited for baseline comparisons. Results showed that at baseline, AD patients were characterized by impaired LTP-like cortical plasticity, as assessed by iTBS. These reduced levels of LTP-like cortical plasticity were increased and normalized after RTG administration. No effect was induced by RVT or PLC on LTP. LTD-like cortical plasticity was not modulated in any condition. Cholinergic activity was increased by both RTG and RVT. Our findings reveal that dopamine agonists may restore the altered mechanisms of LTP-like cortical plasticity in AD patients, thus providing novel implications for therapies based on dopaminergic stimulation. PMID:24859851

  8. Silibinin prevents dopaminergic neuronal loss in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease via mitochondrial stabilization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yujeong; Park, Hee Ra; Chun, Hye Jeong; Lee, Jaewon

    2015-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway. The lipophile 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) can cross the blood-brain barrier and is subsequently metabolized into toxic1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP(+) ), which causes mitochondrial dysfunction and the selective cell death of dopaminergic neurons. The present article reports the neuroprotective effects of silibinin in a murine MPTP model of PD. The flavonoid silibinin is the major active constituent of silymarin, an extract of milk thistle seeds, and is known to have hepatoprotective, anticancer, antioxidative, and neuroprotective effects. In the present study, silibinin effectively attenuated motor deficit and dopaminergic neuronal loss caused by MPTP. Furthermore, in vitro study confirmed that silibinin protects primary cultured neurons against MPP(+) -induced cell death and mitochondrial membrane disruption. The findings of the present study indicate that silibinin has neuroprotective effects in MPTP-induced models of PD rather than antioxidative or anti-inflammatory effects and that the neuroprotection afforded might be mediated by the stabilization of mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, these findings suggest that silibinin protects mitochondria in MPTP-induced PD models and that it offers a starting point for the development of treatments that ameliorate the symptoms of PD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Sustained expression of PGC-1α in the rat nigrostriatal system selectively impairs dopaminergic function

    PubMed Central

    Ciron, C.; Lengacher, S.; Dusonchet, J.; Aebischer, P.; Schneider, B.L.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been implicated in the etiology of Parkinson's disease. Therefore, pathways controlling mitochondrial activity rapidly emerge as potential therapeutic targets. Here, we explore the neuronal response to prolonged overexpression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α), a transcriptional regulator of mitochondrial function, both in vitro and in vivo. In neuronal primary cultures from the ventral midbrain, PGC-1α induces mitochondrial biogenesis and increases basal respiration. Over time, we observe an increasing proportion of the oxygen consumed by neurons which are dedicated to adenosine triphosphate production. In parallel to enhanced oxidative phosphorylation, PGC-1α progressively leads to a decrease in mitochondrial polarization. In the adult rat nigrostriatal system, adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated overexpression of PGC-1α induces the selective loss of dopaminergic markers and increases dopamine (DA) catabolism, leading to a reduction in striatal DA content. In addition, PGC-1α prevents the labeling of nigral neurons following striatal injection of the fluorogold retrograde tracer. When PGC-1α is expressed at higher levels following intranigral AAV injection, it leads to overt degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Finally, PGC-1α overexpression does not prevent nigrostriatal degeneration in pathologic conditions induced by α-synuclein overexpression. Overall, we find that lasting overexpression of PGC-1α leads to major alterations in the metabolic activity of neuronal cells which dramatically impair dopaminergic function in vivo. These results highlight the central role of PGC-1α in the function and survival of dopaminergic neurons and the critical need for maintaining physiological levels of PGC-1α activity. PMID:22246294

  10. Berberine prevents nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal loss and suppresses hippocampal apoptosis in mice with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mia; Cho, Ki-Ho; Shin, Mal-Soon; Lee, Jae-Min; Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Chang-Ju; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Yang, Hyeon Jeong

    2014-04-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and a reduction in striatal dopaminergic fibers, which result in tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia and gait disturbance. In addition to motor dysfunction, dementia is a widely recognized symptom of patients with PD. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Berberis vulgaris L., is known to exert anxiolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipsychotic, antidepressant and anti-amnesic effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of berberine on short-term memory in relation to dopamine depletion and hippocampal neurogenesis using a mouse model of PD, induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid (MPTP/P) treatment. Mice in the berberine-treated groups were orally administered berberine once a day for a total of 5 weeks. Our results revealed that the injection of MPTP/P induced dopaminergic neuronal death in the substantia nigra and fiber loss in the striatum. This resulted in impaired motor balance and coordination, as assessed by the beam walking test. We further demonstrated that MPTP/P-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus deteriorated short-term memory, as shown by the step-down avoidance task. By contrast, neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, which is a compensatory adaptive response to excessive apoptosis, was increased upon PD induction. However, treatment with berberine enhanced motor balance and coordination by preventing dopaminergic neuronal damage. Treatment with berberine also improved short-term memory by inhibiting apoptosis in the hippocampus. Berberine demonstrated maximal potency at 50 mg/kg. Based on these data, treatment with berberine may serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for the alleviation of memory impairment and motor dysfunction in patients with PD.

  11. Substance P exacerbates dopaminergic neurodegeneration through neurokinin-1 receptor-independent activation of microglial NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingshan; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Qian, Li; Chen, Shih-Heng; Wilson, Belinda; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Jiang, Lulu; Ali, Syed; Robinson, Bonnie; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2014-09-10

    Although dysregulated substance P (SP) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), how SP affects the survival of dopaminergic neurons remains unclear. Here, we found that mice lacking endogenous SP (TAC1(-/-)), but not those deficient in the SP receptor (neurokinin-1 receptor, NK1R), were more resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced nigral dopaminergic neurodegeneration than wild-type controls, suggesting a NK1R-independent toxic action of SP. In vitro dose-response studies revealed that exogenous SP enhanced LPS- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a bimodal manner, peaking at submicromolar and subpicomolar concentrations, but was substantially less effective at intermediate concentrations. Mechanistically, the actions of submicromolar levels of SP were NK1R-dependent, whereas subpicomolar SP-elicited actions required microglial NADPH oxidase (NOX2), the key superoxide-producing enzyme, but not NK1R. Subpicomolar concentrations of SP activated NOX2 by binding to the catalytic subunit gp91(phox) and inducing membrane translocation of the cytosolic subunits p47(phox) and p67(phox). The importance of NOX2 was further corroborated by showing that inhibition or disruption of NOX2 blocked subpicomolar SP-exacerbated neurotoxicity. Together, our findings revealed a critical role of microglial NOX2 in mediating the neuroinflammatory and dopaminergic neurodegenerative effects of SP, which may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PD. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3412490-14$15.00/0.

  12. Disrupted iron homeostasis causes dopaminergic neurodegeneration in mice

    PubMed Central

    Matak, Pavle; Matak, Andrija; Moustafa, Sarah; Aryal, Dipendra K.; Benner, Eric J.; Wetsel, William; Andrews, Nancy C.

    2016-01-01

    Disrupted brain iron homeostasis is a common feature of neurodegenerative disease. To begin to understand how neuronal iron handling might be involved, we focused on dopaminergic neurons and asked how inactivation of transport proteins affected iron homeostasis in vivo in mice. Loss of the cellular iron exporter, ferroportin, had no apparent consequences. However, loss of transferrin receptor 1, involved in iron uptake, caused neuronal iron deficiency, age-progressive degeneration of a subset of dopaminergic neurons, and motor deficits. There was gradual depletion of dopaminergic projections in the striatum followed by death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Damaged mitochondria accumulated, and gene expression signatures indicated attempted axonal regeneration, a metabolic switch to glycolysis, oxidative stress, and the unfolded protein response. We demonstrate that loss of transferrin receptor 1, but not loss of ferroportin, can cause neurodegeneration in a subset of dopaminergic neurons in mice. PMID:26929359

  13. Reduced dopaminergic tone in hypothalamic neural circuits: expression of a "thrifty" genotype underlying the metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Pijl, Hanno

    2003-11-07

    The thrifty genotype hypothesis postulates that the genetically determined ability to grow obese and insulin resistant in times of food abundance confers a survival advantage in times of famine. Obviously, this ability poses a major health threat in modern times, where food is always available in large quantities. In the last 10-15 years, many genes encoding pathways that orchestrate energy balance and fuel flux have been discovered. This paper summarizes the evidence that diminished dopaminergic tone in hypothalamic nuclei contributes to the "thrifty" genotype/phenotype. Reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of seasonally obese animals appears to drive noradrenalin and NPY mediated transmissions in other nuclei to induce the obesity syndrome at the appropriate time of year. Treatment with dopamine D(2) receptor agonists can fully reverse the metabolic syndrome in these animals. Similar mechanisms are operative in non-seasonal obese animal models. In man, treatment with dopamine D(2) receptor antagonists induces obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas dopamine D(2) receptor activation ameliorates the metabolic profile in obese nondiabetic and diabetic humans. Various loss of function mutations of the dopamine D(2) receptor gene are associated with overweight in humans. In concert, the data support the notion that diminution of dopaminergic (dopamine D(2) receptor mediated) transmission in relevant hypothalamic nuclei sets the stage for efficient partitioning of ingested nutrients to contribute to a phenotype that is not so thrifty anymore.

  14. The dark side of dopaminergic therapies in Parkinson's disease: shedding light on aberrant salience.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Michele

    2017-03-07

    Psychotic subjects and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) "on" dopaminergic drugs, especially on dopamine agonists, present a hyperdopaminergic state that interferes with learning processing. These clinical populations present with distinct alterations of learning that share an increased potential motivational significance of stimuli: psychotic subjects may attribute salience to neutral stimuli, while medicated PD patients may overvalue rewards. Herein is discussed the speculative hypothesis that the hyperdopaminergic state induced by dopaminergic treatments, especially with dopamine agonists, may also facilitate the attribution of salience to neutral stimuli in PD patients, altering the physiological attribution of salience. Preliminary empirical evidence is in agreement with this speculative hypothesis, which needs further empirical investigation. The clinical implications of this hypothesis are discussed in relation to behavioral addictions, psychosis proneness, and enhanced creativity in medicated PD patients.

  15. Protection of dopaminergic neurons by electroconvulsive shock in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Anastasia, Agustín; de Erausquin, Gabriel A; Wojnacki, José; Mascó, Daniel H

    2007-11-01

    Electroconvulsive shock (ECS) improves motor function in Parkinson's disease. In rats, ECS stimulates the expression of various factors some of which have been proposed to exert neuroprotective actions. We have investigated the effects of ECS on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-injected rats. Three weeks after a unilateral administration of 6-OHDA, 85-95% nigral dopaminergic neurons are lost. Chronic ECS prevented this cell loss, protect the nigrostriatal pathway (assessed by FloroGold retrograde labeling) and reduce motor impairment in 6-OHDA-treated animals. Injection of 6-OHDA caused loss of expression of glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in the substantia nigra. Chronic ECS completely prevented this loss of GDNF expression in 6-OHDA-treated animals. We also found that protected dopaminergic neurons co-express GDNF receptor proteins. These results strongly suggest that endogenous changes in GDNF expression may participate in the neuroprotective mechanism of ECS against 6-OHDA induced toxicity.

  16. Tonic effects of the dopaminergic ventral midbrain on the auditory cortex of awake macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Mylius, Judith; Scheich, Henning; Brosch, Michael

    2016-03-01

    This study shows that ongoing electrical stimulation of the dopaminergic ventral midbrain can modify neuronal activity in the auditory cortex of awake primates for several seconds. This was reflected in a decrease of the spontaneous firing and in a bidirectional modification of the power of auditory evoked potentials. We consider that both effects are due to an increase in the dopamine tone in auditory cortex induced by the electrical stimulation. Thus, the dopaminergic ventral midbrain may contribute to the tonic activity in auditory cortex that has been proposed to be involved in associating events of auditory tasks (Brosch et al. Hear Res 271:66-73, 2011) and may modulate the signal-to-noise ratio of the responses to auditory stimuli.

  17. Parkin absence accelerates microtubule aging in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Cartelli, Daniele; Amadeo, Alida; Calogero, Alessandra Maria; Casagrande, Francesca Vittoria Marialuisa; De Gregorio, Carmelita; Gioria, Mariarosa; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Costa, Ilaria; Sassone, Jenny; Ciammola, Andrea; Hattori, Nobutaka; Okano, Hideyuki; Goldwurm, Stefano; Roybon, Laurent; Pezzoli, Gianni; Cappelletti, Graziella

    2018-01-01

    Loss-of-function caused by mutations in the parkin gene (PARK2) lead to early-onset familial Parkinson's disease. Recently, mechanistic studies proved the ability of parkin in regulating mitochondria homeostasis and microtubule (MT) stability. Looking at these systems during aging of PARK2 knockout mice, we found that loss of parkin induced an accelerated (over)acetylation of MT system both in dopaminergic neuron cell bodies and fibers, localized in the substantia nigra and corpus striatum, respectively. Interestingly, in PARK2 knockout mice, changes of MT stability preceded the alteration of mitochondria transport. Moreover, in-cell experiments confirmed that loss of parkin affects mitochondria mobility and showed that this defect depends on MT system as it is rescued by paclitaxel, a well-known MT-targeted agent. Furthermore, both in PC12 neuronal cells and in patients' induced pluripotent stem cell-derived midbrain neurons, we observed that parkin deficiencies cause the fragmentation of stable MTs. Therefore, we suggest that parkin acts as a regulator of MT system during neuronal aging, and we endorse the hypothesis that MT dysfunction may be crucial in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Contribution of dopamine to mitochondrial complex I inhibition and dopaminergic deficits caused by methylenedioxymethamphetamine in mice.

    PubMed

    Barros-Miñones, L; Goñi-Allo, B; Suquia, V; Beitia, G; Aguirre, N; Puerta, E

    2015-06-01

    Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) causes a persistent loss of dopaminergic cell bodies in the substantia nigra of mice. Current evidence indicates that MDMA-induced neurotoxicity is mediated by oxidative stress probably due to the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity. In this study we investigated the contribution of dopamine (DA) to such effects. For this, we modulated the dopaminergic system of mice at the synthesis, uptake or metabolism levels. Striatal mitochondrial complex I activity was decreased 1 h after MDMA; an effect not observed in the striatum of DA depleted mice or in the hippocampus, a dopamine spare region. The DA precursor, L-dopa, caused a significant reduction of mitochondrial complex I activity by itself and exacerbated the dopaminergic deficits when combined with systemic MDMA. By contrast, no damage was observed when L-dopa was combined with intrastriatal injections of MDMA. On the other hand, dopamine uptake blockade using GBR 12909, inhibited both, the acute inhibition of complex I activity and the long-term dopaminergic toxicity caused by MDMA. Moreover, the inhibition of DA metabolism with the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor, pargyline, afforded a significant protection against MDMA-induced complex I inhibition and neurotoxicity. Taken together, these findings point to the formation of hydrogen peroxide subsequent to DA metabolism by MAO, rather than a direct DA-mediated mitochondrial complex I inhibition, and the contribution of a peripheral metabolite of MDMA, as the key steps in the chain of biochemical events leading to DA neurotoxicity caused by MDMA in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. HIV-1 TAT protein enhances sensitization to methamphetamine by affecting dopaminergic function.

    PubMed

    Kesby, James P; Najera, Julia A; Romoli, Benedetto; Fang, Yiding; Basova, Liana; Birmingham, Amanda; Marcondes, Maria Cecilia G; Dulcis, Davide; Semenova, Svetlana

    2017-10-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is common among humans with immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The HIV-1 regulatory protein TAT induces dysfunction of mesolimbic dopaminergic systems which may result in impaired reward processes and contribute to methamphetamine abuse. These studies investigated the impact of TAT expression on methamphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization, underlying changes in dopamine function and adenosine receptors in mesolimbic brain areas and neuroinflammation (microgliosis). Transgenic mice with doxycycline-induced TAT protein expression in the brain were tested for locomotor activity in response to repeated methamphetamine injections and methamphetamine challenge after a 7-day abstinence period. Dopamine function in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) was determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Expression of dopamine and/or adenosine A receptors (ADORA) in the Acb and caudate putamen (CPu) was assessed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses. Microarrays with pathway analyses assessed dopamine and adenosine signaling in the CPu. Activity-dependent neurotransmitter switching of a reserve pool of non-dopaminergic neurons to a dopaminergic phenotype in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) was determined by immunohistochemistry and quantified with stereology. TAT expression enhanced methamphetamine-induced sensitization. TAT expression alone decreased striatal dopamine (D1, D2, D4, D5) and ADORA1A receptor expression, while increasing ADORA2A receptors expression. Moreover, TAT expression combined with methamphetamine exposure was associated with increased adenosine A receptors (ADORA1A) expression and increased recruitment of dopamine neurons in the VTA. TAT expression and methamphetamine exposure induced microglia activation with the largest effect after combined exposure. Our findings suggest that dopamine-adenosine receptor interactions and reserve pool neuronal recruitment may represent potential targets to develop new treatments for

  20. Azilsartan ameliorates apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons and rescues characteristic parkinsonian behaviors in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qing; Ou, Zhou; Jiang, Teng; Tian, You-Yong; Zhou, Jun-Shan; Wu, Liang; Shi, Jian-Quan; Zhang, Ying-Dong

    2017-04-11

    Loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra (SN) is a pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), which leads to the onset of motor symptoms. Previously, our in vitro studies revealed that Angiotensin II (Ang II) induced apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons through its type 1 receptor (AT1R), but these findings needed to be confirmed via animal experiments. Here, using a rotenone-induced rat model of PD, we observed an overactivation of Ang II/AT1R axis in the SN, since Ang II level and AT1R expression were markedly increased. Furthermore, we provided in vivo evidence that Ang II directly elicited apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons via activation of AT1R in the SN of rats. More importantly, we showed for the first time that oral administration of azilsartan, a newly developed AT1R blocker approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for hypertension treatment, rescued the apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons and relieved the characteristic parkinsonian symptoms in PD rats. These results support the application of AT1R blockers in PD therapy, and strengthen the notion that many therapeutic agents may possess pleiotropic action in addition to their main applications.

  1. Azilsartan ameliorates apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons and rescues characteristic parkinsonian behaviors in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qing; Ou, Zhou; Jiang, Teng; Tian, You-Yong; Zhou, Jun-Shan; Wu, Liang; Shi, Jian-Quan; Zhang, Ying-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra (SN) is a pathological hallmark of Parkinsons disease (PD), which leads to the onset of motor symptoms. Previously, our in vitro studies revealed that Angiotensin II (Ang II) induced apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons through its type 1 receptor (AT1R), but these findings needed to be confirmed via animal experiments. Here, using a rotenone-induced rat model of PD, we observed an overactivation of Ang II/AT1R axis in the SN, since Ang II level and AT1R expression were markedly increased. Furthermore, we provided in vivo evidence that Ang II directly elicited apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons via activation of AT1R in the SN of rats. More importantly, we showed for the first time that oral administration of azilsartan, a newly developed AT1R blocker approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for hypertension treatment, rescued the apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons and relieved the characteristic parkinsonian symptoms in PD rats. These results support the application of AT1R blockers in PD therapy, and strengthen the notion that many therapeutic agents may possess pleiotropic action in addition to their main applications. PMID:28445961

  2. PINK1 Primes Parkin-Mediated Ubiquitination of PARIS in Dopaminergic Neuronal Survival.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunjong; Stevens, Daniel A; Kang, Sung-Ung; Jiang, Haisong; Lee, Yun-Il; Ko, Han Seok; Scarffe, Leslie A; Umanah, George E; Kang, Hojin; Ham, Sangwoo; Kam, Tae-In; Allen, Kathleen; Brahmachari, Saurav; Kim, Jungwoo Wren; Neifert, Stewart; Yun, Seung Pil; Fiesel, Fabienne C; Springer, Wolfdieter; Dawson, Valina L; Shin, Joo-Ho; Dawson, Ted M

    2017-01-24

    Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin cause autosomal-recessive Parkinson's disease through a common pathway involving mitochondrial quality control. Parkin inactivation leads to accumulation of the parkin interacting substrate (PARIS, ZNF746) that plays an important role in dopamine cell loss through repression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1-alpha (PGC-1α) promoter activity. Here, we show that PARIS links PINK1 and parkin in a common pathway that regulates dopaminergic neuron survival. PINK1 interacts with and phosphorylates serines 322 and 613 of PARIS to control its ubiquitination and clearance by parkin. PINK1 phosphorylation of PARIS alleviates PARIS toxicity, as well as repression of PGC-1α promoter activity. Conditional knockdown of PINK1 in adult mouse brains leads to a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra that is dependent on PARIS. Altogether, these results uncover a function of PINK1 to direct parkin-PARIS-regulated PGC-1α expression and dopaminergic neuronal survival. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Behavioural impact of a double dopaminergic and serotonergic lesion in the non-human primate.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin-Gobert, Maude; Epinat, Justine; Météreau, Elise; Duperrier, Sandra; Neumane, Sara; Ballanger, Bénédicte; Lavenne, Franck; Liger, François; Tourvielle, Christian; Bonnefoi, Frédéric; Costes, Nicolas; Bars, Didier Le; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Thobois, Stéphane; Tremblay, Léon; Sgambato-Faure, Véronique

    2015-09-01

    Serotonergic (5-HT) neurons degenerate in Parkinson's disease. To determine the role of this 5-HT injury-besides the dopaminergic one in the parkinsonian symptomatology-we developed a new monkey model exhibiting a double dopaminergic/serotonergic lesion by sequentially using 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methamphetamine (MDMA, better known as ecstasy). By positron emission tomography imaging and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that MDMA injured 5-HT nerve terminals in the brain of MPTP monkeys. Unexpectedly, this injury had no impact on tremor or on bradykinesia, but altered rigidity. It abolished the l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia and neuropsychiatric-like behaviours, without altering the anti-parkinsonian response. These data demonstrate that 5-HT fibres play a critical role in the expression of both motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease, and highlight that an imbalance between the 5-HT and dopaminergic innervating systems is involved in specific basal ganglia territories for different symptoms. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Transcranial magnetic stimulation promotes the proliferation of dopaminergic neuronal cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xiaojing; Luo, Jie; Rastogi, Priyam; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G.; Jiles, David C.; Fellow, IEEE

    2018-05-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a safe and non-invasive treatment for neurological disorders. TMS has been approved as a treatment for major depressive disorders by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2008. Due to the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction, a time-varying magnetic field induces an electric field in the conductive tissues in the brain, TMS has the ability to activate neurons in vivo. However, the effects of the magnetic fields on neurons in cell culture have not been investigated adequately. The magnetic fields affect the neurons when the potential across the neuronal membrane exceeds the threshold which in turn causes an action potential. Based on these theories, we investigated the effects of the magnetic fields generated by a monophasic stimulator with a 70 mm double coil on rat dopaminergic neuronal cell lines (N27). The directions of the magnetic fields in each coil of the double coil oppose each other. The effects of changing the direction of the magnetic field on N27 neurons was also investigated. The results of the experiments showed that both of the fields perpendicular to the coil surface promoted the proliferation of N27 dopaminergic neurons. In order to investigate the gene expression and protein expression affected by TMS, quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) was used. Here we report changes in glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in dopaminergic neuronal cells (N27) after TMS treatment.

  5. Roles of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons in appetitive and aversive memory recall in an insect.

    PubMed

    Mizunami, Makoto; Unoki, Sae; Mori, Yasuhiro; Hirashima, Daisuke; Hatano, Ai; Matsumoto, Yukihisa

    2009-08-04

    In insect classical conditioning, octopamine (the invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline) or dopamine has been suggested to mediate reinforcing properties of appetitive or aversive unconditioned stimulus, respectively. However, the roles of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons in memory recall have remained unclear. We studied the roles of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons in appetitive and aversive memory recall in olfactory and visual conditioning in crickets. We found that pharmacological blockade of octopamine and dopamine receptors impaired aversive memory recall and appetitive memory recall, respectively, thereby suggesting that activation of octopaminergic and dopaminergic neurons and the resulting release of octopamine and dopamine are needed for appetitive and aversive memory recall, respectively. On the basis of this finding, we propose a new model in which it is assumed that two types of synaptic connections are formed by conditioning and are activated during memory recall, one type being connections from neurons representing conditioned stimulus to neurons inducing conditioned response and the other being connections from neurons representing conditioned stimulus to octopaminergic or dopaminergic neurons representing appetitive or aversive unconditioned stimulus, respectively. The former is called 'stimulus-response connection' and the latter is called 'stimulus-stimulus connection' by theorists studying classical conditioning in higher vertebrates. Our model predicts that pharmacological blockade of octopamine or dopamine receptors during the first stage of second-order conditioning does not impair second-order conditioning, because it impairs the formation of the stimulus-response connection but not the stimulus-stimulus connection. The results of our study with a cross-modal second-order conditioning were in full accordance with this prediction. We suggest that insect classical conditioning involves the formation of two kinds of memory

  6. Abnormal striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission during rest and task production in spasmodic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Simonyan, Kristina; Berman, Brian D; Herscovitch, Peter; Hallett, Mark

    2013-09-11

    Spasmodic dysphonia is a primary focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speech production. The pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia is thought to involve structural and functional abnormalities in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuitry; however, neurochemical correlates underpinning these abnormalities as well as their relations to spasmodic dysphonia symptoms remain unknown. We used positron emission tomography with the radioligand [(11)C]raclopride (RAC) to study striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission at the resting state and during production of symptomatic sentences and asymptomatic finger tapping in spasmodic dysphonia patients. We found that patients, compared to healthy controls, had bilaterally decreased RAC binding potential (BP) to striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors on average by 29.2%, which was associated with decreased RAC displacement (RAC ΔBP) in the left striatum during symptomatic speaking (group average difference 10.2%), but increased RAC ΔBP in the bilateral striatum during asymptomatic tapping (group average difference 10.1%). Patients with more severe voice symptoms and subclinically longer reaction time to initiate the tapping sequence had greater RAC ΔBP measures, while longer duration of spasmodic dysphonia was associated with a decrease in task-induced RAC ΔBP. Decreased dopaminergic transmission during symptomatic speech production may represent a disorder-specific pathophysiological trait involved in symptom generation, whereas increased dopaminergic function during unaffected task performance may be explained by a compensatory adaptation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system possibly due to decreased striatal D2/D3 receptor availability. These changes can be linked to the clinical and subclinical features of spasmodic dysphonia and may represent the neurochemical basis of basal ganglia alterations in this disorder.

  7. Abnormal Striatal Dopaminergic Neurotransmission during Rest and Task Production in Spasmodic Dysphonia

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Brian D.; Herscovitch, Peter; Hallett, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia is a primary focal dystonia characterized by involuntary spasms in the laryngeal muscles during speech production. The pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia is thought to involve structural and functional abnormalities in the basal ganglia–thalamo-cortical circuitry; however, neurochemical correlates underpinning these abnormalities as well as their relations to spasmodic dysphonia symptoms remain unknown. We used positron emission tomography with the radioligand [11C]raclopride (RAC) to study striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission at the resting state and during production of symptomatic sentences and asymptomatic finger tapping in spasmodic dysphonia patients. We found that patients, compared to healthy controls, had bilaterally decreased RAC binding potential (BP) to striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptors on average by 29.2%, which was associated with decreased RAC displacement (RAC ΔBP) in the left striatum during symptomatic speaking (group average difference 10.2%), but increased RAC ΔBP in the bilateral striatum during asymptomatic tapping (group average difference 10.1%). Patients with more severe voice symptoms and subclinically longer reaction time to initiate the tapping sequence had greater RAC ΔBP measures, while longer duration of spasmodic dysphonia was associated with a decrease in task-induced RAC ΔBP. Decreased dopaminergic transmission during symptomatic speech production may represent a disorder-specific pathophysiological trait involved in symptom generation, whereas increased dopaminergic function during unaffected task performance may be explained by a compensatory adaptation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system possibly due to decreased striatal D2/D3 receptor availability. These changes can be linked to the clinical and subclinical features of spasmodic dysphonia and may represent the neurochemical basis of basal ganglia alterations in this disorder. PMID:24027271

  8. Aminochrome as a preclinical experimental model to study degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Paris, Irmgard; Cardenas, Sergio; Lozano, Jorge; Perez-Pastene, Carolina; Graumann, Rebecca; Riveros, Alejandra; Caviedes, Pablo; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2007-09-01

    Four decades after L-dopa introduction to PD therapy, the cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unknown despite the intensive research and the discovery of a number of gene mutations and deletions in the pathogenesis of familial PD. Different model neurotoxins have been used as preclinical experimental models to study the neurodegenerative process in PD, such as 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), and rotenone. The lack of success in identifying the molecular mechanism for the degenerative process in PD opens the question whether the current preclinical experimental models are suitable to understand the degeneration of neuromelanin-containing dopaminergic neurons in PD. We propose aminochrome as a model neurotoxin to study the neurodegenerative processes occurring in neuromelanin-containing dopaminergic neurons in PD. Aminochrome is an endogenous compound formed during dopamine oxidation and it is the precursor of neuromelanin, a substance whose formation is a normal process in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. However, aminochrome itself can induce neurotoxicity under certain aberrant conditions such as (i) one-electron reduction of aminochrome catalyzed by flavoenzymes to leukoaminochrome o-semiquinone radical, which is a highly reactive neurotoxin; or (ii) the formation of aminochrome adducts with alpha-synuclein, enhancing and stabilizing the formation of neurotoxic protofibrils. These two neurotoxic pathways of aminochrome are prevented by DT-diaphorase, an enzyme that effectively reduces aminochrome with two-electrons preventing both aminochrome one-electron reduction or formation alpha synuclein protofibrils. We propose to use aminochrome as a preclinical experimental model to study the neurodegenerative process of neuromelanin containing dopaminergic neurons in PD.

  9. Parkinson's disease and dopaminergic therapy—differential effects on movement, reward and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, L.; Ghosh, B. C. P.; Eckstein, D.; Williams-Gray, C. H.; Fallon, S.; Barker, R. A.; Owen, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are very common in Parkinson's disease particularly for ‘executive functions’ associated with frontal cortico-striatal networks. Previous work has identified deficits in tasks that require attentional control like task-switching, and reward-based tasks like gambling or reversal learning. However, there is a complex relationship between the specific cognitive problems faced by an individual patient, their stage of disease and dopaminergic treatment. We used a bimodality continuous performance task during fMRI to examine how patients with Parkinson's disease represent the prospect of reward and switch between competing task rules accordingly. The task-switch was not separately cued but was based on the implicit reward relevance of spatial and verbal dimensions of successive compound stimuli. Nineteen patients were studied in relative ‘on’ and ‘off’ states, induced by dopaminergic medication withdrawal (Hoehn and Yahr stages 1–4). Patients were able to successfully complete the task and establish a bias to one or other dimension in order to gain reward. However the lateral prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus showed a non-linear U-shape relationship between motor disease severity and regional brain activation. Dopaminergic treatment led to a shift in this U-shape function, supporting the hypothesis of differential neurodegeneration in separate motor and cognitive cortico–striato–thalamo–cortical circuits. In addition, anterior cingulate activation associated with reward expectation declined with more severe disease, whereas activation following actual rewards increased with more severe disease. This may facilitate a change in goal-directed behaviours from deferred predicted rewards to immediate actual rewards, particularly when on dopaminergic treatment. We discuss the implications for investigation and optimal treatment of this common condition at different stages of disease. PMID:18577547

  10. The mediating role of phosphodiesterase type 4 in the dopaminergic modulation of motor impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Heckman, P R A; Blokland, A; Van Goethem, N P; Van Hagen, B T J; Prickaerts, J

    2018-09-17

    The current study investigated the mediating role of phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) regulated cAMP in the dopaminergic modulation of premature responding (action restraint) in rats. Response inhibition, which includes action restraint, finds its neurobiological origin in cortico-striatal-thalamic circuitry and can be modulated by dopamine. Intracellularly, the effect of dopamine is largely mediated through the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade. Areas in the prefrontal cortex are very sensitive to their neurochemical environment, including catecholamine levels. As a result, we investigated the effects of intracellular modulation of the dopamine cascade by means of PDE4 inhibition by roflumilast on premature responding in a hypo, normal and hyper dopaminergic state of the brain. As a hypo dopaminergic model we induced a 6-OHDA lesion in the (rat) prefrontal cortex, more specifically the infralimbic cortex. For the hyper dopaminergic state we also turned to a well-established model of impaired action restraint, namely the systemic administration of d-amphetamine. In line with the notion of a U-shaped relation between dopamine and impulsive responding, we found that both increasing and decreasing dopamine levels resulted in an increase in premature responding in the choice serial reaction time task (CSRTT). The PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast increased premature responses in combination with d-amphetamine, whereas a decrease in premature responding after roflumilast treatment was found in the 6-OHDA lesioned animals. As a result, it would be interesting to test the effects of PDE4 inhibition in disorders affected by disrupted impulse control related to cortico-striatal-thalamic hypodopaminergia including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Crosstalk between insulin-like growth factor-1 and angiotensin-II in dopaminergic neurons and glial cells: role in neuroinflammation and aging.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Perez, Ana I; Borrajo, Ana; Diaz-Ruiz, Carmen; Garrido-Gil, Pablo; Labandeira-Garcia, Jose L

    2016-05-24

    The local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) have been involved in longevity, neurodegeneration and aging-related dopaminergic degeneration. However, it is not known whether IGF-1 and angiotensin-II (AII) activate each other. In the present study, AII, via type 1 (AT1) receptors, exacerbated neuroinflammation and dopaminergic cell death. AII, via AT1 receptors, also increased the levels of IGF-1 and IGF-1 receptors in microglial cells. IGF-1 inhibited RAS activity in dopaminergic neurons and glial cells, and also inhibited the AII-induced increase in markers of the M1 microglial phenotype. Consistent with this, IGF-1 decreased dopaminergic neuron death induced by the neurotoxin MPP+ both in the presence and in the absence of glia. Intraventricular administration of AII to young rats induced a significant increase in IGF-1 expression in the nigral region. However, aged rats showed decreased levels of IGF-1 relative to young controls, even though RAS activity is known to be enhanced in aged animals. The study findings show that IGF-1 and the local RAS interact to inhibit or activate neuroinflammation (i.e. transition from the M1 to the M2 phenotype), oxidative stress and dopaminergic degeneration. The findings also show that this mechanism is impaired in aged animals.

  12. Crosstalk between insulin-like growth factor-1 and angiotensin-II in dopaminergic neurons and glial cells: role in neuroinflammation and aging

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Perez, Ana I.; Borrajo, Ana; Diaz-Ruiz, Carmen; Garrido-Gil, Pablo; Labandeira-Garcia, Jose L.

    2016-01-01

    The local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) have been involved in longevity, neurodegeneration and aging-related dopaminergic degeneration. However, it is not known whether IGF-1 and angiotensin-II (AII) activate each other. In the present study, AII, via type 1 (AT1) receptors, exacerbated neuroinflammation and dopaminergic cell death. AII, via AT1 receptors, also increased the levels of IGF-1 and IGF-1 receptors in microglial cells. IGF-1 inhibited RAS activity in dopaminergic neurons and glial cells, and also inhibited the AII-induced increase in markers of the M1 microglial phenotype. Consistent with this, IGF-1 decreased dopaminergic neuron death induced by the neurotoxin MPP+ both in the presence and in the absence of glia. Intraventricular administration of AII to young rats induced a significant increase in IGF-1 expression in the nigral region. However, aged rats showed decreased levels of IGF-1 relative to young controls, even though RAS activity is known to be enhanced in aged animals. The study findings show that IGF-1 and the local RAS interact to inhibit or activate neuroinflammation (i.e. transition from the M1 to the M2 phenotype), oxidative stress and dopaminergic degeneration. The findings also show that this mechanism is impaired in aged animals. PMID:27167199

  13. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 causes dopaminergic neuronal death through Nox1-regenerated oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hye; Seo, Joo-Ha; Lee, Jongmin; Choi, Wahn Soo; Kim, Yoon-Seong

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the interplay between matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) and NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) in the process of dopamine (DA) neuronal death. We found that MMP3 activation causes the induction of Nox1 via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and subsequently Rac1 activation, eventually leading to Nox1-derived superoxide generation in a rat DA neuronal N27 cells exposed to 6-OHDA. While a MMP3 inhibitor, NNGH, largely attenuated mitochondrial ROS and subsequent Nox1 induction, both apocynin, a putative Nox inhibitor and GKT137831, a Nox1 selective inhibitor failed to reduce 6-OHDA-induced mitochondrial ROS. However, both inhibitors for MMP3 and Nox1 similarly attenuated 6-OHDA-induced N27 cell death. RNAi-mediated selective inhibition of MMP3 or Nox1 showed that knockdown of either MMP3 or Nox1 significantly reduced 6-OHDA-induced ROS generation in N27 cells. While 6-OHDA-induced Nox1 was abolished by MMP3 knockdown, Nox1 knockdown did not alter MMP3 expression. Direct overexpression of autoactivated MMP3 (actMMP3) in N27 cells or in rat substantia nigra (SN) increased expression of Nox1. Selective knockdown of Nox1 in the SN achieved by adeno-associated virus-mediated overexpression of Nox1-specific shRNA largely attenuated the actMMP3-mediated dopaminergic neuronal loss. Furthermore, Nox1 expression was significantly attenuated in Mmp3 null mice treated with N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Together we established novel molecular mechanisms underlying oxidative stress-mediated dopaminergic neuronal death in which MMP3 activation is a key upstream event that leads to mitochondrial ROS, Nox1 induction and eventual dopaminergic neuronal death. Our findings may lead to the development of novel therapeutic approach.

  14. Serotonergic and dopaminergic modulation of attentional processes.

    PubMed

    Boulougouris, Vasileios; Tsaltas, Eleftheria

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in attentional processes are a common feature of several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Huntington's disease. The use of animal models has been useful in defining various candidate neural systems thus enabling us to translate basic laboratory science to the clinic and vice-versa. In this chapter, a comparative and integrated account is provided on the neuroanatomical and neurochemical modulation of basic behavioural operations such as selective attention, vigilance, set-shifting and executive control focusing on the comparative functions of the serotonin and dopamine systems in the cognitive control exerted by the prefrontal cortex. Specifically, we have reviewed evidence emerging from several behavioural paradigms in experimental animals and humans each of which centres on a different aspect of the attentional function. These paradigms offering both human and animal variants include the five-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT), attentional set-shifting and stop-signal reaction time task. In each case, the types of operation that are measured by the given paradigm and their neural correlates are defined. Then, the role of the ascending dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in the neurochemical modulation of its behavioural output are examined, and reference is made to clinical implications for neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders which exhibit deficits in these cognitive tests.

  15. Roles of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Dopaminergic Stimulation-induced Synapse-associated Protein Synthesis and Subsequent α-Amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) Receptor Internalization*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hansen; Kim, Susan S.; Zhuo, Min

    2010-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the absence of the RNA-binding protein fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP regulates local protein synthesis in dendritic spines. Dopamine (DA) is involved in the modulation of synaptic plasticity. Activation of DA receptors can regulate higher brain functions in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. Our recent study has shown that FMRP acts as a key messenger for DA modulation in forebrain neurons. Here, we demonstrate that FMRP is critical for DA D1 receptor-mediated synthesis of synapse-associated protein 90/PSD-95-associated protein 3 (SAPAP3) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). DA D1 receptor stimulation induced dynamic changes of FMRP phosphorylation. The changes in FMRP phosphorylation temporally correspond with the expression of SAPAP3 after D1 receptor stimulation. Protein phosphatase 2A, ribosomal protein S6 kinase, and mammalian target of rapamycin are the key signaling molecules for FMRP linking DA D1 receptors to SAPAP3. Knockdown of SAPAP3 did not affect surface expression of α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) GluR1 receptors induced by D1 receptor activation but impaired their subsequent internalization in cultured PFC neurons; the subsequent internalization of GluR1 was also impaired in Fmr1 knock-out PFC neurons, suggesting that FMRP may be involved in subsequent internalization of GluR1 through regulating the abundance of SAPAP3 after DA D1 receptor stimulation. Our study thus provides further insights into FMRP involvement in DA modulation and may help to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying impaired learning and memory in fragile X syndrome. PMID:20457613

  16. Roles of fragile X mental retardation protein in dopaminergic stimulation-induced synapse-associated protein synthesis and subsequent alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor internalization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hansen; Kim, Susan S; Zhuo, Min

    2010-07-09

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the absence of the RNA-binding protein fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP regulates local protein synthesis in dendritic spines. Dopamine (DA) is involved in the modulation of synaptic plasticity. Activation of DA receptors can regulate higher brain functions in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. Our recent study has shown that FMRP acts as a key messenger for DA modulation in forebrain neurons. Here, we demonstrate that FMRP is critical for DA D1 receptor-mediated synthesis of synapse-associated protein 90/PSD-95-associated protein 3 (SAPAP3) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). DA D1 receptor stimulation induced dynamic changes of FMRP phosphorylation. The changes in FMRP phosphorylation temporally correspond with the expression of SAPAP3 after D1 receptor stimulation. Protein phosphatase 2A, ribosomal protein S6 kinase, and mammalian target of rapamycin are the key signaling molecules for FMRP linking DA D1 receptors to SAPAP3. Knockdown of SAPAP3 did not affect surface expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) GluR1 receptors induced by D1 receptor activation but impaired their subsequent internalization in cultured PFC neurons; the subsequent internalization of GluR1 was also impaired in Fmr1 knock-out PFC neurons, suggesting that FMRP may be involved in subsequent internalization of GluR1 through regulating the abundance of SAPAP3 after DA D1 receptor stimulation. Our study thus provides further insights into FMRP involvement in DA modulation and may help to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying impaired learning and memory in fragile X syndrome.

  17. Hypothesizing Music Intervention Enhances Brain Functional Connectivity Involving Dopaminergic Recruitment: Common Neuro-correlates to Abusable Drugs.

    PubMed

    Blum, Kenneth; Simpatico, Thomas; Febo, Marcelo; Rodriquez, Chris; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Braverman, Eric R; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this review is to explore the clinical significance of music listening on neuroplasticity and dopaminergic activation by understanding the role of music therapy in addictive behavior treatment. fMRI data has shown that music listening intensely modifies mesolimbic structural changes responsible for reward processing (e.g., nucleus accumbens [NAc]) and may control the emotional stimuli's effect on autonomic and physiological responses (e.g., hypothalamus). Music listening has been proven to induce the endorphinergic response blocked by naloxone, a common opioid antagonist. NAc opioid transmission is linked to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine release. There are remarkable commonalities between listening to music and the effect of drugs on mesolimbic dopaminergic activation. It has been found that musical training before the age of 7 results in changes in white-matter connectivity, protecting carriers with low dopaminergic function (DRD2A1 allele, etc.) from poor decision-making, reward dependence, and impulsivity. In this article, we briefly review a few studies on the neurochemical effects of music and propose that these findings are relevant to the positive clinical findings observed in the literature. We hypothesize that music intervention enhances brain white matter plasticity through dopaminergic recruitment and that more research is needed to explore the efficacy of these therapies.

  18. Atg5- and Atg7-dependent autophagy in dopaminergic neurons regulates cellular and behavioral responses to morphine.

    PubMed

    Su, Ling-Yan; Luo, Rongcan; Liu, Qianjin; Su, Jing-Ran; Yang, Lu-Xiu; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Xu, Lin; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2017-09-02

    The molecular basis of chronic morphine exposure remains unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that macroautophagy/autophagy of dopaminergic neurons would mediate the alterations of neuronal dendritic morphology and behavioral responses induced by morphine. Chronic morphine exposure caused Atg5 (autophagy-related 5)- and Atg7 (autophagy-related 7)-dependent and dopaminergic neuron-specific autophagy resulting in decreased neuron dendritic spines and the onset of addictive behaviors. In cultured primary midbrain neurons, morphine treatment significantly reduced total dendritic length and complexity, and this effect could be reversed by knockdown of Atg5 or Atg7. Mice deficient for Atg5 or Atg7 specifically in the dopaminergic neurons were less sensitive to developing a morphine reward response, behavioral sensitization, analgesic tolerance and physical dependence compared to wild-type mice. Taken together, our findings suggested that the Atg5- and Atg7-dependent autophagy of dopaminergic neurons contributed to cellular and behavioral responses to morphine and may have implications for the future treatment of drug addiction.

  19. Dose-dependent effects of 6-hydroxy dopamine on deprivation myopia, electroretinograms, and dopaminergic amacrine cells in chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, X X; Schaeffel, F; Kohler, K; Zrenner, E

    1992-11-01

    We found that a single intravitreal injection of 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) is highly efficient in blocking the development of deprivation-induced myopia in young chickens. To investigate the effects of 6-OHDA on retinal function, we studied electroretinograms (ERGs) in chickens aged 15-25 days, 4 days subsequent to the injection. Both spectral sensitivity and oscillatory potentials were tested. In addition, a histological examination was performed of dopaminergic amacrine cells labeled by a monoclonal antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase. We found that, at doses of 6-OHDA sufficient to suppress deprivation myopia entirely, no effect could be detected on either the ERGs or on the density and appearance of dopaminergic amacrine cells. For higher doses, spectral sensitivity and the number of dopaminergic amacrine cells declined gradually. In contrast, as doses increased, oscillatory potentials 1 and 2 grew in amplitude only to decline at the highest doses. The results indicate that (1) development of deprivation myopia requires normal retinal function and that (2) slight changes in the gains of dopaminergic pathways are sufficient to block the development of deprivation myopia.

  20. Hypothesizing Music Intervention Enhances Brain Functional Connectivity Involving Dopaminergic Recruitment: Common Neuro-correlates to Abusable Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Simpatico, Thomas; Febo, Marcelo; Rodriquez, Chris; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Braverman, Eric R.; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this review is to explore the clinical significance of music listening on neuroplasticity and dopaminergic activation by understanding the role of music therapy in addictive behavior treatment. fMRI data has shown that music listening intensely modifies mesolimbic structural changes responsible for reward processing (e.g., nucleus accumbens [NAc]) and may control the emotional stimuli’s effect on autonomic and physiological responses (e.g., hypothalamus). Music listening has been proven to induce the endorphinergic response blocked by naloxone, a common opioid antagonist. NAc opioid transmission is linked to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine release. There are remarkable commonalities between listening to music and the effect of drugs on mesolimbic dopaminergic activation. It has been found that musical training before the age of 7 results in changes in white-matter connectivity, protecting carriers with low dopaminergic function (DRD2A1 allele, etc.) from poor decision-making, reward dependence, and impulsivity. In this article, we briefly review a few studies on the neurochemical effects of music and propose that these findings are relevant to the positive clinical findings observed in the literature. We hypothesize that music intervention enhances brain white matter plasticity through dopaminergic recruitment and that more research is needed to explore the efficacy of these therapies. PMID:27246565

  1. Trace amines depress D2-autoreceptor-mediated responses on midbrain dopaminergic cells

    PubMed Central

    Ledonne, Ada; Federici, Mauro; Giustizieri, Michela; Pessia, Mauro; Imbrici, Paola; Millan, Mark J; Bernardi, Giorgio; Mercuri, Nicola B

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although trace amines (TAs) are historically considered ‘false neurotransmitters’ on the basis of their ability to induce catecholamine release, there is evidence that they directly affect neuronal activity via TA receptors, ligand-gated receptor channels and/or σ receptors. Here, we have investigated the effects of two TAs, tyramine (TYR) and β-phenylethylamine (β-PEA), on electrophysiological responses of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) dopaminergic cells to the D2 receptor agonist, quinpirole. Experimental approach: Electrophysiological recordings of D2 receptor-activated G-protein-gated inward rectifier K+ channel (GIRK) currents were performed on dopaminergic cells from midbrain slices of mice and on Xenopus oocytes expressing D2 receptors and GIRK channels. Key results: TYR and β-PEA reversibly reduced D2 receptor-activated GIRK currents in a concentration-dependent manner on SNpc neurones. The inhibitory effect of TAs was still present in transgenic mice with genetically deleted TA1 receptors and they could not be reproduced by the selective TA1 agonist, o-phenyl-3-iodotyramine (O-PIT). Pretreatment with antagonists of σ1 and σ2 receptors did not block TA-induced effects. In GTPγS-loaded neurones, the irreversibly-activated GIRK-current was still reversibly reduced by β-PEA. Moreover, β-PEA did not affect basal or dopamine-evoked GIRK-currents in Xenopus oocytes. Conclusions and implications: TAs reduced dopamine-induced responses on SNpc neurones by acting at sites different from TA1, σ-receptors, D2 receptors or GIRK channels. Although their precise mechanism of action remains to be identified, TAs, by antagonizing the inhibitory effects of dopamine, may render dopaminergic neurones less sensitive to autoreceptor feedback inhibition and hence enhance their sensitivity to stimulation. PMID:20590640

  2. Cholinergic and Dopaminergic Alterations in Nigrostriatal Neurons Are Involved in Environmental Enrichment Motor Protection in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Hilario, Willyan Franco; Herlinger, Alice Laschuk; Areal, Lorena Bianchine; de Moraes, Lívia Silveira; Ferreira, Tamara Andrea Alarcon; Andrade, Tassiane Emanuelle Servane; Martins-Silva, Cristina; Pires, Rita Gomes Wanderley

    2016-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world, being characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration of substantia nigra pars compacta. PD pharmacotherapy has been based on dopamine replacement in the striatum with the dopaminergic precursor 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and/or with dopaminergic agonists, alongside anticholinergic drugs in order to mitigate the motor abnormalities. However, these practices neither prevent nor stop the progression of the disease. Environmental enrichment (EE) has effectively prevented several neurodegenerative processes, mainly in preclinical trials. Several studies have demonstrated that EE induces biological changes, bearing on cognitive enhancement, neuroprotection, and on the attenuation of the effects of stress, anxiety, and depression. Herein, we investigated whether EE could prevent the motor, biochemical, and molecular abnormalities in a murine model of PD induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-2,3-dihydropyridine (MPTP). Our results show that EE does not prevent the dopaminergic striatal depletion induced by MPTP, despite having averted the MPTP-induced hyperlocomotion. However, it was able to slow down and avoid, respectively, the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) depletion. Analysis of dopaminergic mRNA alterations in the midbrain showed that D1R expression was increased by MPTP, while the normal expression level of this receptor was restored by EE. As for the cholinergic system, MPTP led to a decrease in the ChAT gene expression while increasing the expression of both AChE and M1R. EE attenuated and prevented-respectively-ChAT and M1R gene expression alterations triggered by MPTP in the midbrain. Overall, our data brings new evidence supporting the neuroprotective potential of EE in PD, focusing on the interaction between dopaminergic and cholinergic systems.

  3. Suppression of HPA-axis activity by haloperidol after experimentally induced heat stress.

    PubMed

    Hennig, J; Rzepka, U; Mai, B; Netter, P

    1995-07-01

    1. Healthy male volunteers were exposed to either a heat condition (52 degrees C) or normal temperature (28 degrees C) receiving a single oral dose of 3 mg haloperidol or placebo in a double-blind design. 2. Ratings on aversiveness as well as on intensity of ambient temperature and saliva samples for determination of cortisol were sampled at defined intervals. Body core temperature and sweat loss were measured continuously throughout the three hour experiment. 3. Results indicate increased levels of cortisol after exposure to heat but not after a pretreatment with haloperidol. 4. The findings of this study suggest that D2-receptors of tuberoinfundibular neurons are blocked by haloperidol which suppresses the dopamine mediated release of vasopressin induced by dehydration and the subsequent stimulation of CRH.

  4. Evidence for a modulatory effect of sulbutiamine on glutamatergic and dopaminergic cortical transmissions in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Trovero, F; Gobbi, M; Weil-Fuggaza, J; Besson, M J; Brochet, D; Pirot, S

    2000-09-29

    Chronic treatment of rats by sulbutiamine induced no change in density of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and (+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors in the cingular cortex, but a significant decrease of the kainate binding sites, as measured by quantitative autoradiography. In the same treated animals, an increase of D1 dopaminergic (DA) binding sites was measured both in the prefrontal and the cingular cortex, while no modification of the D2 binding sites was detected. Furthermore, an acute sulbutiamine administration induced a decrease of kainate binding sites but no change of the density of D1 and D2 DA receptors. Acute sulbutiamine injection led to a decrease of the DA levels in the prefrontal cortex and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in both the cingular and the prefrontal cortex. These observations are discussed in terms of a modulatory effect of sulbutiamine on both dopaminergic and glutamatergic cortical transmissions.

  5. Cholinergic modulation of dopaminergic neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Pignatelli, Angela; Belluzzi, Ottorino

    2008-04-01

    Considerable evidence exists for an extrinsic cholinergic influence in the maturation and function of the main olfactory bulb. In this study, we addressed the muscarinic modulation of dopaminergic neurons in this structure. We used different patch-clamp techniques to characterize the diverse roles of muscarinic agonists on identified dopaminergic neurons in a transgenic animal model expressing a reporter protein (green fluorescent protein) under the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. Bath application of acetylcholine (1 mM) in slices and in enzymatically dissociated cells reduced the spontaneous firing of dopaminergic neurons recorded in cell-attached mode. In whole-cell configuration no effect of the agonist was observed, unless using the perforated patch technique, thus suggesting the involvement of a diffusible second messenger. The effect was mediated by metabotropic receptors as it was blocked by atropine and mimicked by the m2 agonist oxotremorine (10 muM). The reduction of periglomerular cell firing by muscarinic activation results from a membrane-potential hyperpolarization caused by activation of a potassium conductance. This modulation of dopaminergic interneurons may be important in the processing of sensory information and may be relevant to understand the mechanisms underlying the olfactory dysfunctions occurring in neurodegenerative diseases affecting the dopaminergic and/or cholinergic systems.

  6. Metabotropic glutamate receptors 1 and 5 differentially regulate bulbar dopaminergic cell function.

    PubMed

    Jian, Kuihuan; Cifelli, Pierangelo; Pignatelli, Angela; Frigato, Elena; Belluzzi, Ottorino

    2010-10-01

    Effects of activation of metabotropic glutamatergic receptors (mGluR) were investigated in mouse dopaminergic olfactory bulb neurons. After blockage of ionotropic receptors, focal application of glutamate or of group I/II mGluR agonist t-ACPD resulted in a depolarization, paralleled by an inward current in voltage-clamp conditions. The Group I agonist DHPG induced a depolarization, which could be largely blocked by mGluR1 antagonists. The DHPG action i) was prevented by buffering intracellular Ca(2+) with BAPTA and by a phospholipase C inhibitor; ii) was not affected by the block of Ca(2+) entry, and iii) was blocked by inhibitors of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. These observations were interpreted as a mGluR1-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) release, followed by the activation of an electrogenic Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. The mGluR5 agonist CHPG induced a hyperpolarization of membrane potential, resulting in a decrease of the spontaneous firing frequency. CHPG induced i) a decrease in membrane resistance; ii) an increase in the action potential repolarization rate, and iii) an increase in the amplitude of the afterhyperpolarization. This was interpreted as a mGluR5-mediated opening of a K(+) conductance. These data suggest that mGluR1 and mGluR5 play different and non-overlapping roles in the regulation of the excitability of bulbar dopaminergic neurons. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Associated degeneration of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons in the rat nigrostriatal lactacystin model of parkinsonism and their neuroprotection by valproate

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Ian F.; Anis, Hiba K.; Dexter, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) manifests clinically as bradykinesia, rigidity, and development of a resting tremor, primarily due to degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathways in the brain. Intranigral administration of the irreversible ubiquitin proteasome system inhibitor, lactacystin, has been used extensively to model nigrostriatal degeneration in rats, and study the effects of candidate neuroprotective agents on the integrity of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system. Recently however, adjacent extra-nigral brain regions such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have been noted to also become affected in this model, yet their integrity in studies of candidate neuroprotective agents in the model have largely been overlooked. Here we quantify the extent and distribution of dopaminergic degeneration in the VTA of rats intranigrally lesioned with lactacystin, and quantify the extent of VTA dopaminergic neuroprotection after systemic treatment with an epigenetic therapeutic agent, valproate, shown previously to protect dopaminergic SNpc neurons in this model. We found that unilateral intranigral administration of lactacystin resulted in a 53.81% and 31.72% interhemispheric loss of dopaminergic SNpc and VTA neurons, respectively. Daily systemic treatment of lactacystin lesioned rats with valproate however resulted in dose-dependant neuroprotection of VTA neurons. Our findings demonstrate that not only is the VTA also affected in the intranigral lactacystin rat model of PD, but that this extra-nigral brain region is substrate for neuroprotection by valproate, an agent shown previously to induce neuroprotection and neurorestoration of SNpc dopaminergic neurons in this model. Our results therefore suggest that valproate is a candidate for extra-nigral as well as intra-nigral neuroprotection. PMID:26742637

  8. Associated degeneration of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons in the rat nigrostriatal lactacystin model of parkinsonism and their neuroprotection by valproate.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ian F; Anis, Hiba K; Dexter, David T

    2016-02-12

    Parkinson's disease (PD) manifests clinically as bradykinesia, rigidity, and development of a resting tremor, primarily due to degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathways in the brain. Intranigral administration of the irreversible ubiquitin proteasome system inhibitor, lactacystin, has been used extensively to model nigrostriatal degeneration in rats, and study the effects of candidate neuroprotective agents on the integrity of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system. Recently however, adjacent extra-nigral brain regions such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA) have been noted to also become affected in this model, yet their integrity in studies of candidate neuroprotective agents in the model have largely been overlooked. Here we quantify the extent and distribution of dopaminergic degeneration in the VTA of rats intranigrally lesioned with lactacystin, and quantify the extent of VTA dopaminergic neuroprotection after systemic treatment with an epigenetic therapeutic agent, valproate, shown previously to protect dopaminergic SNpc neurons in this model. We found that unilateral intranigral administration of lactacystin resulted in a 53.81% and 31.72% interhemispheric loss of dopaminergic SNpc and VTA neurons, respectively. Daily systemic treatment of lactacystin lesioned rats with valproate however resulted in dose-dependant neuroprotection of VTA neurons. Our findings demonstrate that not only is the VTA also affected in the intranigral lactacystin rat model of PD, but that this extra-nigral brain region is substrate for neuroprotection by valproate, an agent shown previously to induce neuroprotection and neurorestoration of SNpc dopaminergic neurons in this model. Our results therefore suggest that valproate is a candidate for extra-nigral as well as intra-nigral neuroprotection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Locomotor- and Reward-Enhancing Effects of Cocaine Are Differentially Regulated by Chemogenetic Stimulation of Gi-Signaling in Dopaminergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Runegaard, Annika H; Sørensen, Andreas T; Fitzpatrick, Ciarán M; Jørgensen, Søren H; Petersen, Anders V; Hansen, Nikolaj W; Weikop, Pia; Andreasen, Jesper T; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Perrier, Jean-Francois; Woldbye, David; Rickhag, Mattias; Wortwein, Gitta; Gether, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    Dopamine plays a key role in the cellular and behavioral responses to drugs of abuse, but the implication of metabotropic regulatory input to dopaminergic neurons on acute drug effects and subsequent drug-related behavior remains unclear. Here, we used chemogenetics [Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs)] to modulate dopamine signaling and activity before cocaine administration in mice. We show that chemogenetic inhibition of dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons differentially affects locomotor and reward-related behavioral responses to cocaine. Stimulation of Gi-coupled DREADD (hM4Di) expressed in dopaminergic VTA neurons persistently reduced the locomotor response to repeated cocaine injections. An attenuated locomotor response was seen even when a dual-viral vector approach was used to restrict hM4Di expression to dopaminergic VTA neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens. Surprisingly, despite the attenuated locomotor response, hM4Di-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic VTA neurons did not prevent cocaine sensitization, and the inhibitory effect of hM4Di-mediated inhibition was eliminated after withdrawal. In the conditioned place-preference paradigm, hM4Di-mediated inhibition did not affect cocaine-induced place preference; however, the extinction period was extended. Also, hM4Di-mediated inhibition had no effect on preference for a sugar-based reward over water but impaired motivation to work for the same reward in a touchscreen-based motivational assay. In addition, to support that VTA dopaminergic neurons operate as regulators of reward motivation toward both sugar and cocaine, our data suggest that repeated cocaine exposure leads to adaptations in the VTA that surmount the ability of Gi-signaling to suppress and regulate VTA dopaminergic neuronal activity.

  10. Prior nicotine self-administration attenuates subsequent dopaminergic deficits of methamphetamine in rats: Role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Baladi, Michelle G; Nielsen, Shannon M; McIntosh, J. Michael; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated that oral nicotine exposure attenuates long-term dopaminergic damage induced by toxins, including repeated, high doses of methamphetamine. It is suggested that alterations in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expression, including α4β2* and α6β2* subtypes, likely contribute to this protection. The current study extended these findings by investigating whether nicotine self-administration in male, Sprague-Dawley rats 1): attenuates short-term dopaminergic damage induced by methamphetamine and 2) causes alterations in levels of α4β2* and α6β2* nAChR subtypes. The findings indicate that nicotine self-administration (0.032 mg/kg/infusion for 14 days) per se did not alter α4β2* and α6β2* nAChR expression or dopamine transporter (DAT) expression and function. Interestingly, prior nicotine self-administration attenuated methamphetamine-induced decreases in DAT function when assessed 24 h, but not 1 h, after methamphetamine treatment (4 × 7.5 mg/kg/injection). The ability of nicotine to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on DAT function corresponded with increases in α4β2*, but not α6β2*, nAChR binding density. Understanding the role of nAChRs in methamphetamine-induced damage has the potential to elucidate mechanisms underlying the etiology of disorders involving dopaminergic dysfunction, as well as to highlight potential new therapeutic strategies for prevention or reduction of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. PMID:26871405

  11. Prior nicotine self-administration attenuates subsequent dopaminergic deficits of methamphetamine in rats: role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Baladi, Michelle G; Nielsen, Shannon M; McIntosh, J Michael; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated that oral nicotine exposure attenuates long-term dopaminergic damage induced by toxins, including repeated, high doses of methamphetamine. It is suggested that alterations in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expression, including α4β2* and α6β2* subtypes, likely contribute to this protection. The current study extended these findings by investigating whether nicotine self-administration in male, Sprague-Dawley rats (a) attenuates short-term dopaminergic damage induced by methamphetamine and (b) causes alterations in levels of α4β2* and α6β2* nAChR subtypes. The findings indicate that nicotine self-administration (0.032 mg/kg/infusion for 14 days) per se did not alter α4β2* and α6β2* nAChR expression or dopamine transporter (DAT) expression and function. Interestingly, prior nicotine self-administration attenuated methamphetamine-induced decreases in DAT function when assessed 24 h, but not 1 h, after methamphetamine treatment (4×7.5 mg/kg/injection). The ability of nicotine to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on DAT function corresponded with increases in α4β2*, but not α6β2*, nAChR binding density. Understanding the role of nAChRs in methamphetamine-induced damage has the potential to elucidate mechanisms underlying the etiology of disorders involving dopaminergic dysfunction, as well as to highlight potential new therapeutic strategies for prevention or reduction of dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

  12. Regulation of intraocular pressure in mice: structural analysis of dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in response to cabergoline.

    PubMed

    Platania, Chiara Bianca Maria; Leggio, Gian Marco; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore; Bucolo, Claudio

    2013-11-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the main recognized risk factor of glaucoma. To investigate the contribution of dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in IOP regulation, we used cabergoline, a mixed dopamine and serotonin agonist, in C57BL/6J WT and dopamine D₃ receptor knock-out (D₃R⁻/⁻) mice with normal eye pressure or steroid-induced ocular hypertension. Furthermore, we studied the structural basis of the cabergoline-mediated activation of the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems by molecular modeling. Topical application of cabergoline, significantly decreased, in a dose-dependent manner, the intraocular pressure in WT mice, both in an ocular normotensive group (-9, -5 and -2 mmHg with 5%, 1%, and 0.1%, respectively) and an ocular hypertensive group, with a prolonged effect in this latter group. No change of intraocular pressure was observed after topical application of cabergoline in D₃R⁻/⁻ mice. We modeled and optimized, with molecular dynamics, structures of hD₃, h5HT(1A) and h5HT(2A-C) receptors; thereafter we carried out molecular docking of cabergoline. Docking revealed that binding of cabergoline into D₃ and 5HT(1A) receptors is associated with a better desolvation energy in comparison to 5HT(2A-C) binding. In conclusion, the present study support the hypothesis that dopaminergic system is pivotal to regulate IOP and that D₃R represents an intriguing target in the treatment of glaucoma. Furthermore, the structure-based computational approach adopted in this study is able to build and refine structure models of homologous dopaminergic and serotonergic receptors that may be of interest for structure-based drug discovery of ligands, with dopaminergic selectivity or with multi-pharmacological profile, potentially useful to treat optic neuropathies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dopaminergic influences on emotional decision making in euthymic bipolar patients.

    PubMed

    Burdick, Katherine E; Braga, Raphael J; Gopin, Chaya B; Malhotra, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that the D2/D3 agonist pramipexole may have pro-cognitive effects in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (BPD); however, the emergence of impulse-control disorders has been documented in Parkinson's disease (PD) after pramipexole treatment. Performance on reward-based tasks is altered in healthy subjects after a single dose of pramipexole, but its potential to induce abnormalities in BPD patients is unknown. We assessed reward-dependent decision making in euthymic BPD patients pre- and post 8 weeks of treatment with pramipexole or placebo by using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The IGT requires subjects to choose among four card decks (two risky and two conservative) and is designed to promote learning to make advantageous (conservative) choices over time. Thirty-four BPD patients completed both assessments (18 placebo and 16 pramipexole). Baseline performance did not differ by treatment group (F=0.63; p=0.64); however, at week 8, BPD patients on pramipexole demonstrated a significantly greater tendency to make increasingly high-risk, high-reward choices across the five blocks, whereas the placebo group's pattern was similar to that reported in healthy individuals (treatment × time × block interaction, p<0.05). Analyses of choice strategy using the expectancy valence model revealed that after 8 weeks on pramipexole, BPD patients attended more readily to feedback related to gains than to losses, which could explain the impaired learning. There were no significant changes in mood symptoms over the 8 weeks, and no increased propensity toward manic-like behaviors were reported. Our results suggest that the enhancement of dopaminergic activity influences risk-associated decision-making performance in euthymic BPD. The clinical implications remain unknown.

  14. 3-aminopyridazine derivatives with atypical antidepressant, serotonergic, and dopaminergic activities.

    PubMed

    Wermuth, C G; Schlewer, G; Bourguignon, J J; Maghioros, G; Bouchet, M J; Moire, C; Kan, J P; Worms, P; Biziere, K

    1989-03-01

    Minaprine [3-[(beta-morpholinoethyl)amino]-4-methyl-6-phenylpyridazine dihydrochloride] is active in most animal models of depression and exhibits in vivo a dual dopaminomimetic and serotoninomimetic activity profile. In an attempt to dissociate these two effects and to characterize the responsible structural requirements, a series of 47 diversely substituted analogues of minaprine were synthesized and tested for their potential antidepressant, serotonergic, and dopaminergic activities. The structure-activity relationships show that dopaminergic and serotonergic activities can be dissociated. Serotonergic activity appears to be correlated mainly with the substituent in the 4-position of the pyridazine ring whereas the dopaminergic activity appears to be dependent on the presence, or in the formation, of a para-hydroxylated aryl ring in the 6-position of the pyridazine ring.

  15. Reduction of dopaminergic degeneration and oxidative stress by inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme in a MPTP model of parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Ana; Rey, Pablo; Guerra, Maria J; Mendez-Alvarez, Estefania; Soto-Otero, Ramon; Labandeira-Garcia, Jose L

    2006-07-01

    There is growing evidence indicating that oxidative stress is a key contributor to the pathogenesis and progression of Parkinson's disease. The brain, and particularly the basal ganglia, possesses a local rennin-angiotensin system. Angiotensin activates NAD(P)H-dependent oxidases, which are a major intracellular source of superoxide, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) have shown antioxidant properties. We treated mice with MPTP and the ACEI captopril to study the possible neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of the latter on the dopaminergic system. Pre-treatment with captopril induced a significant reduction in the MPTP-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and a significant reduction in the loss of dopaminergic terminals in the striatum. Furthermore, captopril reduced the MPTP-induced increase in the levels of major oxidative stress indicators (i.e. lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation) in the ventral midbrain and the striatum. Captopril did not reduce striatal MPP(+) levels, MAO-B activity or dopamine transporter activity, which may reduce MPTP neurotoxicity. Our results suggest that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors may be useful for treatment of Parkinson's disease, and that further investigation should focus on the neuroprotective capacity of these compounds.

  16. Effects of dopaminergic and subthalamic stimulation on musical performance.

    PubMed

    van Vugt, Floris T; Schüpbach, Michael; Altenmüller, Eckart; Bardinet, Eric; Yelnik, Jérôme; Hälbig, Thomas D

    2013-05-01

    Although subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is an efficient treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), its effects on fine motor functions are not clear. We present the case of a professional violinist with PD treated with STN-DBS. DBS improved musical articulation, intonation and emotional expression and worsened timing relative to a timekeeper (metronome). The same effects were found for dopaminergic treatment. These results suggest that STN-DBS, mimicking the effects of dopaminergic stimulation, improves fine-tuned motor behaviour whilst impairing timing precision.

  17. Dopaminergic striatal innervation predicts interlimb transfer of a visuomotor skill

    PubMed Central

    Isaias, IU; Moisello, C; Marotta, G; Schiavella, M; Canesi, M; Perfetti, B; Cavallari, P; Pezzoli, G; Ghilardi, MF

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether dopamine influences the rate of adaptation to a visuomotor distortion and the transfer of this learning from the right to the left limb in human subjects. We thus studied patients with Parkinson disease as a putative in vivo model of dopaminergic denervation. Despite normal adaptation rates, patients showed a reduced transfer compared to age-matched healthy controls. The magnitude of the transfer, but not of the adaptation rate, was positively predicted by the values of dopamine-transporter binding of the right caudate and putamen. We conclude that striatal dopaminergic activity plays an important role in the transfer of visuomotor skills. PMID:21994362

  18. Dopaminergic striatal innervation predicts interlimb transfer of a visuomotor skill.

    PubMed

    Isaias, Ioannis U; Moisello, Clara; Marotta, Giorgio; Schiavella, Mauro; Canesi, Margherita; Perfetti, Bernardo; Cavallari, Paolo; Pezzoli, Gianni; Ghilardi, M Felice

    2011-10-12

    We investigated whether dopamine influences the rate of adaptation to a visuomotor distortion and the transfer of this learning from the right to the left limb in human subjects. We thus studied patients with Parkinson disease as a putative in vivo model of dopaminergic denervation. Despite normal adaptation rates, patients showed a reduced transfer compared with age-matched healthy controls. The magnitude of the transfer, but not of the adaptation rate, was positively predicted by the values of dopamine-transporter binding of the right caudate and putamen. We conclude that striatal dopaminergic activity plays an important role in the transfer of visuomotor skills.

  19. Role of Inflammation in MPTP-Induced Dopaminergic Degeneration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    8217Department of Developmental Neurohiolog/, Saint Jude Children k Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 39105. USA "tNeuroscience Research Laboratories qf...astrucytes. J. Neuror’heo,. 68. 2216-22)9. Lannsion 1WV, LS Porno . J Te~trud, AG Reeves. JA Kaplan and 1) Lichent C J Arsaur. [R Vaulter and J Dernores

  20. Role of Inflammation in MPTP-Induced Dopaminergic Neuronal Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    treated mouse . We found that indeed both microglia and astrocytes are activated in the SNpc, that certain enzymes, such as NADPH oxidase and...different time points in the MPTP mouse model of PD using both normal and NADPH oxidase -deficient mice was the plan. This included assessing...superoxide radical can be produced in several different ways. First of all, DA itself is metabolized by monoamine oxidase (MAO), an outer

  1. THE ROLE OF MICROGLIA IN PARAQUAT INDUCED DOPAMINERGIC NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript relates oxidative stress conveyed by a widely used pesticide (paraquat) to selective neurodegeneration of the in vitro models of the mouse brain. As such, it represents a provocative link to the conditions of oxidative stress, environmental chemical exposures and...

  2. Effects of molindone on central dopaminergic neuronal activity and metabolism: similarity to other neuroleptics.

    PubMed

    Bunney, B S; Roth, R H; Aghajanian, G K

    1975-01-01

    The effect of molindone on the activity of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the rat midbrain and on DA metabolism in the striatum and olfactory tubercles was studied using extracellular single unit recording and biochemical techniques respectively. Molindone in low intravenous doses (0.4-0.8 mg/kg) was found to reverse d-amphetamine and apomorphine induced depression of DA neurons and to block apomorphine induced depression of these cells. Molindone was also found to increase dopamine synthesis and dihydroxyphenylactic acid levels in the striatum and olfacotry tubercles. In all of these respects molindone behaves identically to most classical neuroleptics. However, unlike most antipsychotic drugs previously tested, molindone failed to increase the baseline firing rate of DA cells and blocked haloperidol induced increases in DA neuron activity. In this regard molindone most closely resembles thioridazine and clozapine. Possible mechanisms of action of molindone are discussed based on these findings.

  3. Role of Nurr1 in the Generation and Differentiation of Dopaminergic Neurons from Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Traver, Eva; Solís, Oscar; Díaz-Guerra, Eva; Ortiz, Óscar; Vergaño-Vera, Eva; Méndez-Gómez, Héctor R; García-Sanz, Patricia; Moratalla, Rosario; Vicario-Abejón, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    NURR1 is an essential transcription factor for the differentiation, maturation, and maintenance of midbrain dopaminergic neurons (DA neurons) as it has been demonstrated using knock-out mice. DA neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD) and mutations in the Nurr1 gene have been associated with this human disease. Thus, the study of NURR1 actions in vivo is fundamental to understand the mechanisms of neuron generation and degeneration in the dopaminergic system. Here, we present and discuss findings indicating that NURR1 is a valuable molecular tool for the in vitro generation of DA neurons which could be used for modeling and studying PD in cell culture and in transplantation approaches. Transduction of Nurr1 alone or in combination with other transcription factors such as Foxa2, Ngn2, Ascl1, and Pitx3, induces the generation of DA neurons, which upon transplantation have the capacity to survive and restore motor behavior in animal models of PD. We show that the survival of transplanted neurons is increased when the Nurr1-transduced olfactory bulb stem cells are treated with GDNF. The use of these and other factors with the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based technology or the direct reprogramming of astrocytes or fibroblasts into human DA neurons has produced encouraging results for the study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration in PD and for the search of new treatments for this disease.

  4. Electrophysiological effects of monoamine oxidase inhibition on rat midbrain dopaminergic neurones: an in vitro study.

    PubMed Central

    Mercuri, N. B.; Bonci, A.; Siniscalchi, A.; Stefani, A.; Calabresi, P.; Bernardi, G.

    1996-01-01

    1 The effects of the inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO) type A and B have been evaluated on the spontaneous firing activity of the dopaminergic (principal) neurones of the rat midbrain intracellularly recorded from a slice preparation. 2 The non-specific MAO inhibitor, pargyline, superfused at a concentration of 10-100 microM, decreased or abolished the spontaneous firing discharge of the principal neurons in the subtantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area. This effect had a slow onset and appeared to be sustained. 3 The administration of the dopamine D2/3 receptor antagonist, sulpiride (100-300 nM), antagonized the pargyline-induced effect, while the superfusion of the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH 23390 (1-3 microM) did not counteract the induced inhibition of the firing rate. 4 The inhibitor for the MAO A, clorgyline (30-100 microM), reduced the firing rate of the dopaminergic neurones. A similar depressant effect was also observed when a MAO B inhibitor, deprenyl (30-100 microM), was applied. Lower concentrations of both drugs (300 nM-10 microM) did not produce consistent effects on neuronal discharge. 5 Our data suggest that only the blockade of both types of MAO enzymes favours the inhibitory action of endogenous dopamine on somato-dendritic D2/3 autoreceptors. PMID:8821544

  5. Structure-activity relationship of sulfated hetero/galactofucan polysaccharides on dopaminergic neuron.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Huaide; Jin, Weihua; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Quanbin

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons and more-widespread neuronal changes that cause complex symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure-activity relationship of sulfated hetero-polysaccharides (DF1) and sulfated galactofucan polysaccharides (DF2) on dopaminergic neuron in vivo and in vitro. Treatment with samples significantly ameliorated the depletion of both DA and TH-, Bcl-2- and Bax-positive neurons in MPTP-induced PD mice, DF1 showed the highest activity. The in vitro results found that DF1 and DF2 could reverse the decreased mitochondrial activity and the increased LDL release induced by MPP(+) (P<0.01 or P<0.001) which provides further evidence that DF1 and DF2 also exerts a direct protection against the neuronal injury caused by MPP(+). Furthermore, the administration of samples effectively decreased lipid peroxidation and increased the level/activities of GSH, GSH-PX, MDA and CAT in MPTP mice. Thus, the neuron protective effect may be mediated, in part, through antioxidant activity and the prevention of cell apoptosis. The chemical composition of DF1, DF2 and DF differed markedly, the DF1 fraction had the most complex chemical composition and showed the highest neuron protective activity. These results suggest that diverse monosaccharides and uronic acid might contribute to neuron protective activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Methamphetamine treatment during development attenuates the dopaminergic deficits caused by subsequent high-dose methamphetamine administration.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Lisa M; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Vieira-Brock, Paula L; Stout, Kristen A; Sawada, Nicole M; Ellis, Jonathan D; Allen, Scott C; Walters, Elliot T; Nielsen, Shannon M; Gibb, James W; Alburges, Mario E; Wilkins, Diana G; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2011-08-01

    Administration of high doses of methamphetamine (METH) causes persistent dopaminergic deficits in both nonhuman preclinical models and METH-dependent persons. Noteworthy, adolescent [i.e., postnatal day (PND) 40] rats are less susceptible to this damage than young adult (PND90) rats. In addition, biweekly treatment with METH, beginning at PND40 and continuing throughout development, prevents the persistent dopaminergic deficits caused by a "challenge" high-dose METH regimen when administered at PND90. Mechanisms underlying this "resistance" were thus investigated. Results revealed that biweekly METH treatment throughout development attenuated both the acute and persistent deficits in VMAT2 function, as well as the acute hyperthermia, caused by a challenge METH treatment. Pharmacokinetic alterations did not appear to contribute to the protection afforded by the biweekly treatment. Maintenance of METH-induced hyperthermia abolished the protection against both the acute and persistent VMAT2-associated deficits suggesting that alterations in thermoregulation were caused by exposure of rats to METH during development. These findings suggest METH during development prevents METH-induced hyperthermia and the consequent METH-related neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) Is Selectively Toxic to Primary Dopaminergic Neurons In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Amy M.; Agim, Zeynep S.; Mishra, Vartika R.; Tambe, Mitali A.; Director-Myska, Alison E.; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; McCabe, George P.; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Cannon, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Much data has linked the etiology of PD to a variety of environmental factors. The majority of cases are thought to arise from a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Chronic exposures to dietary factors, including meat, have been identified as potential risk factors. Although heterocyclic amines that are produced during high-temperature meat cooking are known to be carcinogenic, their effect on the nervous system has yet to be studied in depth. In this study, we investigated neurotoxic effects of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a highly abundant heterocyclic amine in cooked meat, in vitro. We tested toxicity of PhIP and the two major phase I metabolites, N-OH-PhIP and 4′-OH-PhIP, using primary mesencephalic cultures from rat embryos. This culture system contains both dopaminergic and nondopaminergic neurons, which allows specificity of neurotoxicity to be readily examined. We find that exposure to PhIP or N-OH-PhIP is selectively toxic to dopaminergic neurons in primary cultures, resulting in a decreased percentage of dopaminergic neurons. Neurite length is decreased in surviving dopaminergic neurons. Exposure to 4′-OH-PhIP did not produce significant neurotoxicity. PhIP treatment also increased formation of oxidative damage markers, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and 3-nitrotyrosine in dopaminergic neurons. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine was protective. Finally, treatment with blueberry extract, a dietary factor with known antioxidant and other protective mechanisms, prevented PhIP-induced toxicity. Collectively, our study suggests, for the first time, that PhIP is selectively toxic to dopaminergic neurons likely through inducing oxidative stress. PMID:24718704

  8. Can the dopaminergic-related effects of general anesthetics be linked to mechanisms involved in drug abuse and addiction?

    PubMed

    Melo, A; Tavares, I; Sousa, N; Pêgo, J M

    2015-08-01

    General anesthetics (GA) are well known for the ability to induce a state of reversible loss of consciousness and unresponsiveness to painful stimuli. However, evidence from animal models and clinical studies show that GA exposure may induce behavioral changes beyond acute effects. Most research and concerns are focused on changes in cognition and memory. We will look at effects of GA on behavior that is mediated by the dopaminergic system. Pharmacological resemblance of GA with drugs of abuse, and the complexity and importance of dopaminergic systems in both reward seeking and addictive illnesses make us believe that it deserves an overview about what is already known and what matters to us as healthcare workers and specifically as anesthesiologists. A review of available evidence strongly suggests that there may be a link between the effects of GA on the brain and substance abuse, partly explained by their influence on the dopaminergic system. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Activation of the ATF2/CREB-PGC-1α pathway by metformin leads to dopaminergic neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Ga Ram; Kim, Hyojung; Jo, Minkyung; Lee, Byoung Dae; Lee, Yun Il; Jo, Areum; Park, ChiHu; Kim, Hyein; Seo, Jeongkon; Paek, Sun Ha; Lee, Yun-Song; Choi, Jeong-Yun; Lee, Yunjong; Shin, Joo-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration is responsible for the canonical motor deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD). The widely prescribed anti-diabetic medicine metformin is effective in preventing neurodegeneration in animal models; however, despite the significant potential of metformin for treating PD, the therapeutic effects and molecular mechanisms underlying dopaminergic neuroprotection by metformin are largely unknown. In this study, we found that metformin induced substantial proteomic changes, especially in metabolic and mitochondrial pathways in the substantia nigra (SN). Consistent with this data, metformin increased mitochondrial marker proteins in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Mitochondrial protein expression by metformin was found to be brain region specific, with metformin increasing mitochondrial proteins in the SN and the striatum, but not the cortex. As a potential upstream regulator of mitochondria gene transcription by metformin, PGC-1α promoter activity was stimulated by metformin via CREB and ATF2 pathways. PGC-1α and phosphorylation of ATF2 and CREB by metformin were selectively increased in the SN and the striatum, but not the cortex. Finally, we showed that metformin protected dopaminergic neurons and improved dopamine-sensitive motor performance in an MPTP-induced PD animal model. Together these results suggest that the metformin-ATF2/CREB-PGC-1α pathway might be promising therapeutic target for PD. PMID:28611284

  10. Adrenal androgen secretion and dopaminergic activity in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Devesa, J; Pérez-Fernández, R; Bokser, L; Gaudiero, G J; Lima, L; Casanueva, F F

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if the postulated deficient adrenal androgen secretion in Anorexia Nervosa (AN), could be associated with a status of sustained dopaminergic hyperactivity. The adrenal responses to ACTH and PRL response to dopaminergic receptor blockade were studied in seven patients with Anorexia Nervosa and seven regularly menstruating women. AN patients showed lower baseline DHEA-sulphate (DHEA-S), androstenedione (Adione) and prolactin (PRL) levels than controls. The response to ACTH revealed evidences of significantly decreased 17-20 desmolase activity in AN, with apparent predominance of glucocorticoid over androgenic pathways relative to controls. Because dopaminergic receptor blockade with Domperidone (DOM) showed intense dopaminergic hyperactivity in AN, we postulate that the adrenal regression seen in the disease is the consequence of a reduced zona reticularis as a consequence of the lack of trophic support by PRL and/or intermediate lobe proopiomelanocortin (IL-POMC). This is consistent with our previous results in pre-adrenarchal dogs and rabbits.

  11. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

  12. Pharmacological imaging as a tool to visualise dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Schrantee, A; Reneman, L

    2014-09-01

    Dopamine abnormalities underlie a wide variety of psychopathologies, including ADHD and schizophrenia. A new imaging technique, pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI), is a promising non-invasive technique to visualize the dopaminergic system in the brain. In this review we explore the clinical potential of phMRI in detecting dopamine dysfunction or neurotoxicity, assess its strengths and weaknesses and identify directions for future research. Preclinically, phMRI is able to detect severe dopaminergic abnormalities quite similar to conventional techniques such as PET and SPECT. phMRI benefits from its high spatial resolution and the possibility to visualize both local and downstream effects of dopaminergic neurotransmission. In addition, it allows for repeated measurements and assessments in vulnerable populations. The major challenge is the complex interpretation of phMRI results. Future studies in patients with dopaminergic abnormalities need to confirm the currently reviewed preclinical findings to validate the technique in a clinical setting. Eventually, based on the current review we expect that phMRI can be of use in a clinical setting involving vulnerable populations (such as children and adolescents) for diagnosis and monitoring treatment efficacy. This article is part of the Special Issue Section entitled 'Neuroimaging in Neuropharmacology'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dopaminergic influences on formation of a motor memory.

    PubMed

    Flöel, Agnes; Breitenstein, Caterina; Hummel, Friedhelm; Celnik, Pablo; Gingert, Christian; Sawaki, Lumy; Knecht, Stefan; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2005-07-01

    The ability of the central nervous system to form motor memories, a process contributing to motor learning and skill acquisition, decreases with age. Dopaminergic activity, one of the mechanisms implicated in memory formation, experiences a similar decline with aging. It is possible that restoring dopaminergic function in elderly adults could lead to improved formation of motor memories with training. We studied the influence of a single oral dose of levodopa (100mg) administered preceding training on the ability to encode an elementary motor memory in the primary motor cortex of elderly and young healthy volunteers in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Attention to the task and motor training kinematics were comparable across age groups and sessions. In young subjects, encoding a motor memory under placebo was more prominent than in older subjects, and the encoding process was accelerated by intake of levodopa. In the elderly group, diminished motor memory encoding under placebo was enhanced by intake of levodopa to levels present in younger subjects. Therefore, upregulation of dopaminergic activity accelerated memory formation in young subjects and restored the ability to form a motor memory in elderly subjects; possible mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of dopaminergic agents on motor learning in neurorehabilitation.

  14. Thiol-redox signaling, dopaminergic cell death, and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Zavala-Flores, Laura; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Franco, Rodrigo

    2012-12-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta, which has been widely associated with oxidative stress. However, the mechanisms by which redox signaling regulates cell death progression remain elusive. Early studies demonstrated that depletion of glutathione (GSH), the most abundant low-molecular-weight thiol and major antioxidant defense in cells, is one of the earliest biochemical events associated with PD, prompting researchers to determine the role of oxidative stress in dopaminergic cell death. Since then, the concept of oxidative stress has evolved into redox signaling, and its complexity is highlighted by the discovery of a variety of thiol-based redox-dependent processes regulating not only oxidative damage, but also the activation of a myriad of signaling/enzymatic mechanisms. GSH and GSH-based antioxidant systems are important regulators of neurodegeneration associated with PD. In addition, thiol-based redox systems, such as peroxiredoxins, thioredoxins, metallothioneins, methionine sulfoxide reductases, transcription factors, as well as oxidative modifications in protein thiols (cysteines), including cysteine hydroxylation, glutathionylation, and nitrosylation, have been demonstrated to regulate dopaminergic cell loss. In this review, we summarize major advances in the understanding of the role of thiol-redox signaling in dopaminergic cell death in experimental PD. Future research is still required to clearly understand how integrated thiol-redox signaling regulates the activation of the cell death machinery, and the knowledge generated should open new avenues for the design of novel therapeutic approaches against PD.

  15. Involvement of mesolimbic dopaminergic network in neuropathic pain relief by treadmill exercise: A study for specific neural control with Gi-DREADD in mice.

    PubMed

    Wakaizumi, Kenta; Kondo, Takashige; Hamada, Yusuke; Narita, Michiko; Kawabe, Rui; Narita, Hiroki; Watanabe, Moe; Kato, Shigeki; Senba, Emiko; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Morisaki, Hiroshi; Narita, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Exercise alleviates pain and it is a central component of treatment strategy for chronic pain in clinical setting. However, little is known about mechanism of this exercise-induced hypoalgesia. The mesolimbic dopaminergic network plays a role in positive emotions to rewards including motivation and pleasure. Pain negatively modulates these emotions, but appropriate exercise is considered to activate the dopaminergic network. We investigated possible involvement of this network as a mechanism of exercise-induced hypoalgesia. In the present study, we developed a protocol of treadmill exercise, which was able to recover pain threshold under partial sciatic nerve ligation in mice, and investigated involvement of the dopaminergic reward network in exercise-induced hypoalgesia. To temporally suppress a neural activation during exercise, a genetically modified inhibitory G-protein-coupled receptor, hM4Di, was specifically expressed on dopaminergic pathway from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens. The chemogenetic-specific neural suppression by Gi-DREADD system dramatically offset the effect of exercise-induced hypoalgesia in transgenic mice with hM4Di expressed on the ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons. Additionally, anti-exercise-induced hypoalgesia effect was significantly observed under the suppression of neurons projecting out of the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens as well. Our findings suggest that the dopaminergic pathway from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens is involved in the anti-nociception under low-intensity exercise under a neuropathic pain-like state. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Effects of Forskolin on Trefoil factor 1 expression in cultured ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P; Ducray, A D; Widmer, H R; Meyer, M

    2015-12-03

    Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1) belongs to a family of secreted peptides that are mainly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract. Notably, TFF1 has been suggested to operate as a neuropeptide, however, its specific cellular expression, regulation and function remain largely unknown. We have previously shown that TFF1 is expressed in developing and adult rat ventral mesencephalic tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) dopaminergic neurons. Here, we investigated the expression of TFF1 in rat ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons (embryonic day 14) grown in culture for 5, 7 or 10 days in the absence (controls) or presence of either glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), Forskolin or the combination. No TFF1-ir cells were identified at day 5 and only a few at day 7, whereas TH was markedly expressed at both time points. At day 10, several TFF1-ir cells were detected, and their numbers were significantly increased after the addition of GDNF (2.2-fold) or Forskolin (4.1-fold) compared to controls. Furthermore, the combination of GDNF and Forskolin had an additive effect and increased the number of TFF1-ir cells by 5.6-fold compared to controls. TFF1 expression was restricted to neuronal cells, and the percentage of TH/TFF1 co-expressing cells was increased to the same extent in GDNF and Forskolin-treated cultures (4-fold) as compared to controls. Interestingly, the combination of GDNF and Forskolin resulted in a significantly increased co-expression (8-fold) of TH/TFF1, which could indicate that GDNF and Forskolin targeted different subpopulations of TH/TFF1 neurons. Short-term treatment with Forskolin resulted in an increased number of TFF1-ir cells, and this effect was significantly reduced by the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059 or the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89, suggesting that Forskolin induced TFF1 expression through diverse signaling pathways. In conclusion, distinct populations of cultured dopaminergic neurons express TFF1, and their numbers can be

  17. Elicitation of dopaminergic features of Parkinson's disease in C. elegans by monocrotophos, an organophosphorous insecticide.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shaheen Jafri; Rajini, Padmanabhan Sharda

    2012-12-01

    Positive correlations have been suggested between usage of pesticides and the incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD) through epidemiological as well as few experimental evidences. Organophosphorus insecticides (OPI), which are extensively used in agricultural and household insect control, have been the subject of increasing concern in the past decades due to their neurotoxic potential. However, very few studies have demonstrated the potentials of OPI to induce features of PD in model organisms. In the present study, Caenorhabditis elegans was selected as the model organism to evaluate the potential of monocrotophos (MCP), an OPI, to elicit dopaminergic features of Parkinson's disease in terms of dopamine content, basic movement and integrity of dopaminergic neurons along with its effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and life span. All the responses elicited by MCP were compared with that elicited by 1-methyl-4-phenyl- 1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in both N2 and BZ555 worms. N2 worms were exposed to varying concentrations of MCP (50, 100 and 200 μM) or MPTP (200, 300 and 400 μM) for 48 hours and locomotory rate, as measured by the number of body bends made in 20 seconds, was enumerated. Worms subjected to the same dose paradigms were also analyzed for the dopamine content by HPLC. The results indicated a significant reduction in the dopamine levels in the worms that were treated with MCP/MPTP and this correlated with the changes in locomotion compared to untreated worms. Worms treated with MCP also exhibited significant reduction in AChE activity. Both MPTP and MCP caused a marked reduction in life span in the worms. Transgenic worms (BZ555, which has GFP tagged to its 8 dopaminergic neurons) exposed to MCP and MPTP at the above concentrations showed a dose-dependent reduction in the number of green pixels in CEP and ADE neurons which also correlated with the neurodegeneration as visualized by decreased fluorescence in photomicrographs. Taken

  18. Dopaminergic inputs in the dentate gyrus direct the choice of memory encoding

    DOE PAGES

    Du, Huiyun; Deng, Wei; Aimone, James B.; ...

    2016-09-13

    Rewarding experiences are often well remembered, and such memory formation is known to be dependent on dopamine modulation of the neural substrates engaged in learning and memory; however, it is unknown how and where in the brain dopamine signals bias episodic memory toward preceding rather than subsequent events. Here we found that photostimulation of channelrhodopsin-2–expressing dopaminergic fibers in the dentate gyrus induced a long-term depression of cortical inputs, diminished theta oscillations, and impaired subsequent contextual learning. Computational modeling based on this dopamine modulation indicated an asymmetric association of events occurring before and after reward in memory tasks. In subsequent behavioralmore » experiments, preexposure to a natural reward suppressed hippocampus-dependent memory formation, with an effective time window consistent with the duration of dopamine-induced changes of dentate activity. Altogether, our results suggest a mechanism by which dopamine enables the hippocampus to encode memory with reduced interference from subsequent experience.« less

  19. Dopaminergic inputs in the dentate gyrus direct the choice of memory encoding

    PubMed Central

    Du, Huiyun; Deng, Wei; Aimone, James B.; Ge, Minyan; Parylak, Sarah; Walch, Keenan; Zhang, Wei; Cook, Jonathan; Song, Huina; Wang, Liping; Gage, Fred H.; Mu, Yangling

    2016-01-01

    Rewarding experiences are often well remembered, and such memory formation is known to be dependent on dopamine modulation of the neural substrates engaged in learning and memory; however, it is unknown how and where in the brain dopamine signals bias episodic memory toward preceding rather than subsequent events. Here we found that photostimulation of channelrhodopsin-2–expressing dopaminergic fibers in the dentate gyrus induced a long-term depression of cortical inputs, diminished theta oscillations, and impaired subsequent contextual learning. Computational modeling based on this dopamine modulation indicated an asymmetric association of events occurring before and after reward in memory tasks. In subsequent behavioral experiments, preexposure to a natural reward suppressed hippocampus-dependent memory formation, with an effective time window consistent with the duration of dopamine-induced changes of dentate activity. Overall, our results suggest a mechanism by which dopamine enables the hippocampus to encode memory with reduced interference from subsequent experience. PMID:27573822

  20. Dopaminergic inputs in the dentate gyrus direct the choice of memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Du, Huiyun; Deng, Wei; Aimone, James B; Ge, Minyan; Parylak, Sarah; Walch, Keenan; Zhang, Wei; Cook, Jonathan; Song, Huina; Wang, Liping; Gage, Fred H; Mu, Yangling

    2016-09-13

    Rewarding experiences are often well remembered, and such memory formation is known to be dependent on dopamine modulation of the neural substrates engaged in learning and memory; however, it is unknown how and where in the brain dopamine signals bias episodic memory toward preceding rather than subsequent events. Here we found that photostimulation of channelrhodopsin-2-expressing dopaminergic fibers in the dentate gyrus induced a long-term depression of cortical inputs, diminished theta oscillations, and impaired subsequent contextual learning. Computational modeling based on this dopamine modulation indicated an asymmetric association of events occurring before and after reward in memory tasks. In subsequent behavioral experiments, preexposure to a natural reward suppressed hippocampus-dependent memory formation, with an effective time window consistent with the duration of dopamine-induced changes of dentate activity. Overall, our results suggest a mechanism by which dopamine enables the hippocampus to encode memory with reduced interference from subsequent experience.

  1. Dopaminergic inputs in the dentate gyrus direct the choice of memory encoding

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Huiyun; Deng, Wei; Aimone, James B.

    Rewarding experiences are often well remembered, and such memory formation is known to be dependent on dopamine modulation of the neural substrates engaged in learning and memory; however, it is unknown how and where in the brain dopamine signals bias episodic memory toward preceding rather than subsequent events. Here we found that photostimulation of channelrhodopsin-2–expressing dopaminergic fibers in the dentate gyrus induced a long-term depression of cortical inputs, diminished theta oscillations, and impaired subsequent contextual learning. Computational modeling based on this dopamine modulation indicated an asymmetric association of events occurring before and after reward in memory tasks. In subsequent behavioralmore » experiments, preexposure to a natural reward suppressed hippocampus-dependent memory formation, with an effective time window consistent with the duration of dopamine-induced changes of dentate activity. Altogether, our results suggest a mechanism by which dopamine enables the hippocampus to encode memory with reduced interference from subsequent experience.« less

  2. Partial agonists for α4β2 nicotinic receptors stimulate dopaminergic neuron firing with relatively enhanced maximal effects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Broad, Lisa M; Phillips, Keith G; Zwart, Ruud

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Partial agonists selective for α4β2 nicotinic ACh receptors have been developed for smoking cessation as they induce weak activation of native α4β2* receptors and inhibit effect of nicotine. However, it is unclear whether at brain functions there is an existence of receptor reserve that allows weak receptor activation to induce maximum physiological effects. We assessed the extent of α4β2 partial agonist-induced increase of firing rate in dopaminergic neurons and evaluated the influence of receptor reserve. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The relative maximal effects and potencies of six nicotinic agonists were assessed on recombinant human α4β2 and α7 receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines by measuring calcium influx. Agonist-induced increase of the spontaneous firing rate of dopaminergic neurons was recorded using microelectrodes in the ventral tegmental area of rat brain slices. KEY RESULTS All α4β2 partial and full agonists increased the firing rate concentration-dependently. Their sensitivity to subtype-selective antagonists showed predominant activation of native α4β2* receptors. However, partial agonists with relative maximal effects as low as 33% on α4β2 receptors maximally increased the firing rate and induced additional depolarization block of firing, demonstrating that partial activation of receptors caused the maximum increase in firing rate in the presence of a receptor reserve. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Partial α4β2 agonists induced relatively enhanced effects on the firing rate of dopaminergic neurons, and the effect was mainly attributed to the existence of native α4β2* receptor reserve. The results have implications in the understanding of physiological effects and therapeutic efficacies of α4β2 partial agonists. PMID:21838750

  3. Mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone inhibits and redistributes vesicular monoamine transporter 2 via nitration in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Watabe, Masahiko; Nakaki, Toshio

    2008-10-01

    Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Long-term systemic mitochondrial complex I inhibition by rotenone induces selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in rats. We have reported dopamine redistribution from vesicles to the cytosol to play a crucial role in selective dopaminergic cell apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated how rotenone causes dopamine redistribution to the cytosol using an in vitro model of human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. Rotenone stimulated nitration of the tyrosine residues of intracellular proteins. The inhibition of nitric-oxide synthase or reactive oxygen species decreased the amount of nitrotyrosine and attenuated rotenone-induced apoptosis. When we examined the intracellular localization of dopamine immunocytochemically using anti-dopamine/vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) antibodies and quantitatively using high-performance liquid chromatography, inhibiting nitration was found to suppress rotenone-induced dopamine redistribution from vesicles to the cytosol. We demonstrated rotenone to nitrate tyrosine residues of VMAT2 using an immunocytochemical method with anti-nitrotyrosine antibodies and biochemically with immunoprecipitation experiments. Rotenone inhibited the VMAT2 activity responsible for the uptake of dopamine into vesicles, and this inhibition was reversed by inhibiting nitration. Moreover, rotenone induced the accumulation of aggregate-like formations in the stained image of VMAT2, which was reversed by inhibiting nitration. Our findings demonstrate that nitration of the tyrosine residues of VMAT2 by rotenone leads to both functional inhibition and accumulation of aggregate-like formations of VMAT2 and consequently to the redistribution of dopamine to the cytosol and apoptosis of dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells.

  4. FTY720 Attenuates 6-OHDA-Associated Dopaminergic Degeneration in Cellular and Mouse Parkinsonian Models.

    PubMed

    Ren, Manru; Han, Minxing; Wei, Xinbing; Guo, Ying; Shi, Huanying; Zhang, Xiumei; Perez, Ruth G; Lou, Haiyan

    2017-02-01

    FTY720 (fingolimod) is the first oral drug approved for treating relapsing-remitting forms of multiple sclerosis. It is also protective in other neurological models including ischemia, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington disease and Rett syndrome. However, whether it might protect in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) mouse model associated with the dopaminergic pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD), has not been explored. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of FTY720 on 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in cell cultures and mice. Here we show that FTY720 protected against 6-OHDA cytotoxicity and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. We also show that prior administration of FTY720 to 6-OHDA lesioned mice ameliorated both motor deficits and nigral dopaminergic neurotoxicity, while also reducing 6-OHDA-associated inflammation. The protective effects of FTY720 were associated with activation of AKT and ERK1/2 pro-survival pathways and an increase in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that FTY720 holds promise as a PD therapeutic acting, at least in part, through AKT/ERK1/2/P-CREB-associated BDNF expression.

  5. Functional Polymorphisms in Dopaminergic Genes Modulate Neurobehavioral and Neurophysiological Consequences of Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Holst, Sebastian C; Müller, Thomas; Valomon, Amandine; Seebauer, Britta; Berger, Wolfgang; Landolt, Hans-Peter

    2017-04-10

    Sleep deprivation impairs cognitive performance and reliably alters brain activation in wakefulness and sleep. Nevertheless, the molecular regulators of prolonged wakefulness remain poorly understood. Evidence from genetic, behavioral, pharmacologic and imaging studies suggest that dopaminergic signaling contributes to the behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) consequences of sleep loss, although direct human evidence thereof is missing. We tested whether dopamine neurotransmission regulate sustained attention and evolution of EEG power during prolonged wakefulness. Here, we studied the effects of functional genetic variation in the dopamine transporter (DAT1) and the dopamine D 2 receptor (DRD2) genes, on psychomotor performance and standardized waking EEG oscillations during 40 hours of wakefulness in 64 to 82 healthy volunteers. Sleep deprivation consistently enhanced sleepiness, lapses of attention and the theta-to-alpha power ratio (TAR) in the waking EEG. Importantly, DAT1 and DRD2 genotypes distinctly modulated sleep loss-induced changes in subjective sleepiness, PVT lapses and TAR, according to inverted U-shaped relationships. Together, the data suggest that genetically determined differences in DAT1 and DRD2 expression modulate functional consequences of sleep deprivation, supporting the hypothesis that striato-thalamo-cortical dopaminergic pathways modulate the neurobehavioral and neurophysiological consequences of sleep loss in humans.

  6. Zic-Proteins Are Repressors of Dopaminergic Forebrain Fate in Mice and C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Tiveron, Marie-Catherine; Beclin, Christophe; Murgan, Sabrina; Wild, Stefan; Angelova, Alexandra; Marc, Julie; Coré, Nathalie; de Chevigny, Antoine; Herrera, Eloisa; Bosio, Andreas; Bertrand, Vincent; Cremer, Harold

    2017-11-01

    In the postnatal forebrain regionalized neural stem cells along the ventricular walls produce olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons with varying neurotransmitter phenotypes and positions. To understand the molecular basis of this region-specific variability we analyzed gene expression in the postnatal dorsal and lateral lineages in mice of both sexes from stem cells to neurons. We show that both lineages maintain transcription factor signatures of their embryonic site of origin, the pallium and subpallium. However, additional factors, including Zic1 and Zic2, are postnatally expressed in the dorsal stem cell compartment and maintained in the lineage that generates calretinin-positive GABAergic neurons for the OB. Functionally, we show that Zic1 and Zic2 induce the generation of calretinin-positive neurons while suppressing dopaminergic fate in the postnatal dorsal lineage. We investigated the evolutionary conservation of the dopaminergic repressor function of Zic proteins and show that it is already present in C. elegans SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The vertebrate brain generates thousands of different neuron types. In this work we investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this variability. Using a genomics approach we identify the transcription factor signatures of defined neural stem cells and neuron populations. Based thereon we show that two related transcription factors, Zic1 and Zic2, are essential to control the balance between two defined neuron types in the postnatal brain. We show that this mechanism is conserved in evolutionary very distant species. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3710611-13$15.00/0.

  7. Induction of dopaminergic neurons from human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cell by forskolin.

    PubMed

    Paldino, Emanuela; Cenciarelli, Carlo; Giampaolo, Adele; Milazzo, Luisa; Pescatori, Mario; Hassan, Hamisa Jane; Casalbore, Patrizia

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells differentiation ability toward neuronal fate. Human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSC) have been isolated from human umbilical cord of full-term births and characterized by flow cytometry analysis for their stem mesenchymal properties through specific surface markers expression (CD73, CD90, and CD105). hWJMSC mesodermal lineage differentiation ability and karyotype analysis were assessed. The trans-differentiation of hWJMSC into neural lineage was investigated in presence of forskolin, an agent known to increase the intracellular levels of cAMP. A molecular profile of differentiated hWJMSC was performed by microarray technology which revealed 1,532 statistically significant modulated genes respect to control cells. Most of these genes are mainly involved in functional neuronal signaling pathways and part of them are specifically required for the neuronal dopaminergic induction. The acquisition of the dopaminergic phenotype was evaluated via immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis revealed the significant induction of Nurr1, NeuroD1, and TH proteins expression in forskolin-induced hWJMSC. Moreover, the treatment with forskolin promoted, in hWJMSC, a strong upregulation of the neurotrophin Trk receptors related to the high release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Taken together these findings show that hWJMSC may be represent an optimal therapeutic strategy for neurological diseases. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Sestrin2 Protects Dopaminergic Cells against Rotenone Toxicity through AMPK-Dependent Autophagy Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yi-Sheng; Guan, Jun-Jie; Xu, Hai-Dong; Wu, Feng; Sheng, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALP) and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) was thought to be an important pathogenic mechanism in synuclein pathology and Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, we investigated the role of sestrin2 in autophagic degradation of α-synuclein and preservation of cell viability in a rotenone-induced cellular model of PD. We speculated that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was involved in regulation of autophagy and protection of dopaminergic cells against rotenone toxicity by sestrin2. The results showed that both the mRNA and protein levels of sestrin2 were increased in a TP53-dependent manner in Mes 23.5 cells after treatment with rotenone. Genetic knockdown of sestrin2 compromised the autophagy induction in response to rotenone, while overexpression of sestrin2 increased the basal autophagy activity. Sestrin2 presumably enhanced autophagy in an AMPK-dependent fashion, as sestrin2 overexpression activated AMPK, and genetic knockdown of AMPK abrogated autophagy induction by rotenone. Restoration of AMPK activity by metformin after sestrin2 knockdown recovered the autophagy activity. Sestrin2 overexpression ameliorated α-synuclein accumulation, inhibited caspase 3 activation, and reduced the cytotoxicity of rotenone. These results suggest that sestrin2 upregulation attempts to maintain autophagy activity and suppress rotenone cytotoxicity through activation of AMPK, and that sestrin2 exerts a protective effect on dopaminergic cells. PMID:26031332

  9. Protective effect of Nrf2-ARE activator isolated from green perilla leaves on dopaminergic neuronal loss in a Parkinson's disease model.

    PubMed

    Masaki, Yuta; Izumi, Yasuhiko; Matsumura, Atsuko; Akaike, Akinori; Kume, Toshiaki

    2017-03-05

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), and oxidative stress is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway, which is a cellular defense system against oxidative stress, is a promising target for therapeutics aimed at reducing neuronal death in PD. Previously, we have isolated 2',3'-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcone (DDC) from green perilla leaves as an activator of the Nrf2-ARE pathway. The present study showed the protective effect of DDC on PD models in vivo and in vitro. In a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced hemiparkinson's disease mouse model, intracerebral administration of DDC suppressed the dopaminergic neuronal loss and behavioral dysfunction. DDC upregulated the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), one of the ARE-driven antioxidant enzymes, in astrocytes and microglia of the SN. In primary mesencephalic cultures, treatment with DDC also increased the HO-1 expression in astrocytes and microglia. DDC showed a protective effect against 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic neuronal death, and the effect was suppressed by an HO-1 inhibitor. These results suggest that DDC prevents dopaminergic neurons from oxidative stress by upregulation of glial expression of HO-1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuropeptide metabolism on intact, regional brain slices: effect of dopaminergic agents on substance P, cholecystokinin and Met-enkephalin degradation.

    PubMed

    Waters, S M; Konkoy, C S; Davis, T P

    1995-08-01

    Neuroleptic drugs have been shown to affect the level and messenger ribonucleic acid of specific neuropeptides. The effect of subchronically administered neuroleptics on neuropeptide metabolism, however, has not been systematically characterized. In the present study, the effect of neuroleptics and other dopaminergic compounds on substance P (SP), cholecystokinin and met-enkephalin degradation was determined on intact, regional, rat brain slices. After 7-day administration of haloperidol (1 mg/kg) or chlorpromazine (20 mg/kg), SP degradation was decreased in caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens. After administration of the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine (5 mg/kg, b.i.d.), SP degradation was increased in the nucleus accumbens. The dopamine D2-receptor antagonist sulpiride (100 mg/kg, b.i.d.) produced no effect on SP degradation. Met-enkephalin degradation was decreased after haloperidol administration in both frontal cortex and caudate-putamen and unaffected by apomorphine administration. The metabolism of cholecystokinin was not affected by neuroleptic treatment. Studies performed with specific peptidase inhibitors suggested that neutral endopeptidase 24.11, metalloendopeptidase 24.15 and aminopeptidases degrade SP on caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens slices. Therefore, alterations in these peptidases may be responsible for the change noted in SP degradation after dopaminergic compound administration. These metabolic changes noted after neuroleptic administration may therefore contribute to neuroleptic-induced alterations in regional peptide levels.

  11. Acrolein acts as a neurotoxin in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of rat: involvement of α-synuclein aggregation and programmed cell death

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi-Ting; Lin, Hui-Ching; Zhao, Wei-Zhong; Huang, Hui-Ju; Lo, Yu-Li; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Maan-Yuh Lin, Anya

    2017-01-01

    Clinical studies report significant increases in acrolein (an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde) in the substantia nigra (SN) of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). In the present study, acrolein-induced neurotoxicity in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system was investigated by local infusion of acrolein (15, 50, 150 nmoles/0.5 μl) in the SN of Sprague-Dawley rats. Acrolein-induced neurodegeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic system was delineated by reductions in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels, dopamine transporter levels and TH-positive neurons in the infused SN as well as in striatal dopamine content. At the same time, apomorphine-induced turning behavior was evident in rats subjected to a unilateral infusion of acrolein in SN. Acrolein was pro-oxidative by increasing 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and heme oxygenase-1 levels. Furthermore, acrolein conjugated with proteins at lysine residue and induced α-synuclein aggregation in the infused SN. Acrolein was pro-inflammatory by activating astrocytes and microglia. In addition, acrolein activated caspase 1 in the infused SN, suggesting acrolein-induced inflammasome formation. The neurotoxic mechanisms underlying acrolein-induced neurotoxicity involved programmed cell death, including apoptosis and necroptosis. Compared with well-known Parkinsonian neurotoxins, including 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and rotenone which do not exist in the SN of PD patients, our in vivo study shows that acrolein acts as a Parkinsonian neurotoxin in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of rat brain. PMID:28401906

  12. Selenoprotein T Exerts an Essential Oxidoreductase Activity That Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boukhzar, Loubna; Hamieh, Abdallah; Cartier, Dorthe; Tanguy, Yannick; Alsharif, Ifat; Castex, Matthieu; Arabo, Arnaud; Hajji, Sana El; Bonnet, Jean-Jacques; Errami, Mohammed; Falluel-Morel, Anthony; Chagraoui, Abdeslam; Lihrmann, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Oxidative stress is central to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms involved in the control of this stress in dopaminergic cells are not fully understood. There is increasing evidence that selenoproteins play a central role in the control of redox homeostasis and cell defense, but the precise contribution of members of this family of proteins during the course of neurodegenerative diseases is still elusive. Results: We demonstrated first that selenoprotein T (SelT) whose gene disruption is lethal during embryogenesis, exerts a potent oxidoreductase activity. In the SH-SY5Y cell model of dopaminergic neurons, both silencing and overexpression of SelT affected oxidative stress and cell survival. Treatment with PD-inducing neurotoxins such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or rotenone triggered SelT expression in the nigrostriatal pathway of wild-type mice, but provoked rapid and severe parkinsonian-like motor defects in conditional brain SelT-deficient mice. This motor impairment was associated with marked oxidative stress and neurodegeneration and decreased tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine levels in the nigrostriatal system. Finally, in PD patients, we report that SelT is tremendously increased in the caudate putamen tissue. Innovation: These results reveal the activity of a novel selenoprotein enzyme that protects dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress and prevents early and severe movement impairment in animal models of PD. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that selenoproteins such as SelT play a crucial role in the protection of dopaminergic neurons against oxidative stress and cell death, providing insight into the molecular underpinnings of this stress in PD. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 557–574. PMID:26866473

  13. p73 gene in dopaminergic neurons is highly susceptible to manganese neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Suk; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Gordon, Richard; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2017-03-01

    Chronic exposure to elevated levels of manganese (Mn) has been linked to a Parkinsonian-like movement disorder, resulting from dysfunction of the extrapyramidal motor system within the basal ganglia. However, the exact cellular and molecular mechanisms of Mn-induced neurotoxicity remain elusive. In this study, we treated C57BL/6J mice with 30mg/kg Mn via oral gavage for 30 days. Interestingly, in nigral tissues of Mn-exposed mice, we found a significant downregulation of the truncated isoform of p73 protein at the N-terminus (ΔNp73). To further determine the functional role of Mn-induced p73 downregulation in Mn neurotoxicity, we examined the interrelationship between the effect of Mn on p73 gene expression and apoptotic cell death in an N27 dopaminergic neuronal model. Consistent with our animal study, 300μM Mn treatment significantly suppressed p73 mRNA expression in N27 dopaminergic cells. We further determined that protein levels of the ΔNp73 isoform was also reduced in Mn-treated N27 cells and primary striatal cultures. Furthermore, overexpression of ΔNp73 conferred modest cellular protection against Mn-induced neurotoxicity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Mn exposure downregulates p73 gene expression resulting in enhanced susceptibility to apoptotic cell death. Thus, further characterization of the cellular mechanism underlying p73 gene downregulation will improve our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of Mn neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Otx genes in neurogenesis of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Antonio; Puelles, Eduardo; Omodei, Daniela; Acampora, Dario; Di Giovannantonio, Luca Giovanni; Di Salvio, Michela; Mancuso, Pietro; Tomasetti, Carmine

    2011-08-01

    Mesencephalic-diencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) neurons play a relevant role in the control of movement, behavior, and cognition. Indeed loss and/or abnormal functioning of mdDA neurons are responsible for Parkinson's disease as well as for addictive and psychiatric disorders. In the last years a wealth of information has been provided on gene functions controlling identity, fate, and proliferation of mdDA progenitors. This review will focus on the role exerted by Otx genes in early decisions regulating sequential steps required for the neurogenesis of mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA) neurons. In this context, the regulatory network involving Otx functional interactions with signaling molecules and transcription factors required to promote or prevent the development of mesDA neurons will be analyzed in detail. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Brief debrisoquin administration to assess central dopaminergic function in children.

    PubMed

    Riddle, M A; Shaywitz, B A; Leckman, J F; Anderson, G M; Shaywitz, S E; Hardin, M T; Ort, S I; Cohen, D J

    1986-03-17

    Central dopaminergic (DA) function in children was assessed by monitoring plasma-free homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels after brief (18 hour) administration with debrisoquin sulfate, a peripherally active antihypertensive agent that blocks peripheral, but not central, HVA production. Brief debrisoquin administration resulted in marked reductions in pHVA in each of six patients studied. In five of the six patients, post-debrisoquin pHVA levels remained relatively stable over the six-hour period of observation. No significant cardiovascular or behavioral side effects of debrisoquin were observed. The brief debrisoquin administration method appears to be a safe, simple, and potentially valid peripheral technique for evaluating aspects of central dopaminergic function in children with neuropsychiatric disorders. Additional work is needed to further establish this method's validity and reliability.

  16. The ethyl acetate fraction of a methanolic extract of unripe noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) fruit exhibits a biphasic effect on the dopaminergic system in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pandy, Vijayapandi; Narasingam, Megala; Vijeepallam, Kamini; Mohan, Syam; Mani, Vasudevan; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2017-01-01

    In earlier ex vivo studies, we reported the biphasic effect of a methanolic extract of unripe Morinda citrifolia fruit (MMC) on dopamine-induced contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. The present in vivo study was designed and undertaken to further explore our earlier ex vivo findings. This study examined the effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of a methanolic extract of unripe Morinda citrifolia Linn. fruit (EA-MMC; 5–100 mg/kg, p.o.) on the dopaminergic system using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing time and climbing behavior, methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (sniffing, biting, gnawing, and licking) and haloperidol-induced catalepsy using the bar test. Acute treatment with EA-MMC at a low dose (25 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated the apomorphine-induced climbing time and climbing behavior in mice. Similarly, EA-MMC (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited methamphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior in mice. These results demonstrated that the antidopaminergic effect of EA-MMC was observed at relatively lower doses (<25 mg/kg, p.o.). On the other hand, EA-MMC showed dopaminergic agonistic activity at a high dose (3,000 mg/kg, p.o.), which was evident from alleviation of haloperidol (a dopamine D2 blocker)-induced catalepsy in mice. Therefore, it is concluded that EA-MMC might possess a biphasic effect on the dopaminergic system, i.e., an antagonistic effect at lower doses (<25 mg/kg, p.o.) and an agonistic effect at higher doses (>1,000 mg/kg, p.o.). However, further receptor-ligand binding assays are necessary to confirm the biphasic effects of M. citrifolia fruit on the dopaminergic system. PMID:28450692

  17. The ethyl acetate fraction of a methanolic extract of unripe noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) fruit exhibits a biphasic effect on the dopaminergic system in mice.

    PubMed

    Pandy, Vijayapandi; Narasingam, Megala; Vijeepallam, Kamini; Mohan, Syam; Mani, Vasudevan; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2017-08-05

    In earlier ex vivo studies, we reported the biphasic effect of a methanolic extract of unripe Morinda citrifolia fruit (MMC) on dopamine-induced contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. The present in vivo study was designed and undertaken to further explore our earlier ex vivo findings. This study examined the effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of a methanolic extract of unripe Morinda citrifolia Linn. fruit (EA-MMC; 5-100 mg/kg, p.o.) on the dopaminergic system using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing time and climbing behavior, methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (sniffing, biting, gnawing, and licking) and haloperidol-induced catalepsy using the bar test. Acute treatment with EA-MMC at a low dose (25 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated the apomorphine-induced climbing time and climbing behavior in mice. Similarly, EA-MMC (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited methamphetamine-induced stereotyped behavior in mice. These results demonstrated that the antidopaminergic effect of EA-MMC was observed at relatively lower doses (<25 mg/kg, p.o.). On the other hand, EA-MMC showed dopaminergic agonistic activity at a high dose (3,000 mg/kg, p.o.), which was evident from alleviation of haloperidol (a dopamine D 2 blocker)-induced catalepsy in mice. Therefore, it is concluded that EA-MMC might possess a biphasic effect on the dopaminergic system, i.e., an antagonistic effect at lower doses (<25 mg/kg, p.o.) and an agonistic effect at higher doses (>1,000 mg/kg, p.o.). However, further receptor-ligand binding assays are necessary to confirm the biphasic effects of M. citrifolia fruit on the dopaminergic system.

  18. Formation and specification of a Drosophila dopaminergic precursor cell.

    PubMed

    Watson, Joseph D; Crews, Stephen T

    2012-09-01

    Dopaminergic neurons play important roles in animal behavior, including motivation, reward and locomotion. The Drosophila dopaminergic H-cell interneuron is an attractive system for studying the genetics of neural development because analysis is focused on a single neuronal cell type. Here we provide a mechanistic understanding of how MP3, the precursor to the H-cell, forms and acquires its identity. We show that the gooseberry/gooseberry-neuro (gsb/gsb-n) transcription factor genes act to specify MP3 cell fate. It is proposed that single-minded commits neuroectodermal cells to a midline fate, followed by a series of signaling events that result in the formation of a single gsb(+)/gsb-n(+) MP3 cell per segment. The wingless signaling pathway establishes a midline anterior domain by activating expression of the forkhead transcription factors sloppy paired 1 and sloppy paired 2. This is followed by hedgehog signaling that activates gsb/gsb-n expression in a subgroup of anterior cells. Finally, Notch signaling results in the selection of a single MP3, with the remaining cells becoming midline glia. In MP3, gsb/gsb-n direct H-cell development, in large part by activating expression of the lethal of scute and tailup H-cell regulatory genes. Thus, a series of signaling and transcriptional events result in the specification of a unique dopaminergic precursor cell. Additional genetic experiments indicate that the molecular mechanisms that govern MP3/H-cell development might also direct the development of non-midline dopaminergic neurons.

  19. Formation and specification of a Drosophila dopaminergic precursor cell

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Joseph D.; Crews, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons play important roles in animal behavior, including motivation, reward and locomotion. The Drosophila dopaminergic H-cell interneuron is an attractive system for studying the genetics of neural development because analysis is focused on a single neuronal cell type. Here we provide a mechanistic understanding of how MP3, the precursor to the H-cell, forms and acquires its identity. We show that the gooseberry/gooseberry-neuro (gsb/gsb-n) transcription factor genes act to specify MP3 cell fate. It is proposed that single-minded commits neuroectodermal cells to a midline fate, followed by a series of signaling events that result in the formation of a single gsb+/gsb-n+ MP3 cell per segment. The wingless signaling pathway establishes a midline anterior domain by activating expression of the forkhead transcription factors sloppy paired 1 and sloppy paired 2. This is followed by hedgehog signaling that activates gsb/gsb-n expression in a subgroup of anterior cells. Finally, Notch signaling results in the selection of a single MP3, with the remaining cells becoming midline glia. In MP3, gsb/gsb-n direct H-cell development, in large part by activating expression of the lethal of scute and tailup H-cell regulatory genes. Thus, a series of signaling and transcriptional events result in the specification of a unique dopaminergic precursor cell. Additional genetic experiments indicate that the molecular mechanisms that govern MP3/H-cell development might also direct the development of non-midline dopaminergic neurons. PMID:22874915

  20. MANF regulates dopaminergic neuron development in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-C; Sundvik, M; Rozov, S; Priyadarshini, M; Panula, P

    2012-10-15

    Mesencephalic astrocyte derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is recognized as a dopaminergic neurotrophic factor, which can protect dopaminergic neurons from neurotoxic damage. However, little is known about the function of MANF during the vertebrate development. Here, we report that MANF expression is widespread during embryonic development and in adult organs analyzed by qPCR and in situ hybridization in zebrafish. Knockdown of MANF expression with antisense splice-blocking morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in no apparent abnormal phenotype. Nevertheless, the dopamine level of MANF morphants was lower than that of the wild type larvae, the expression levels of the two tyrosine hydroxylase gene transcripts were decreased and a decrease in neuron number in certain groups of th1 and th2 cells in the diencephalon region in MANF morphants was observed. These defects were rescued by injection of exogenous manf mRNA. Strikingly, manf mRNA could partly restore the decrease of th1 positive cells in Nr4a2-deficient larvae. These results suggest that MANF is involved in the regulation of the development of dopaminergic system in zebrafish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid signalling in distinct dopaminergic axons during locomotion and reward.

    PubMed

    Howe, M W; Dombeck, D A

    2016-07-28

    Dopaminergic projection axons from the midbrain to the striatum are crucial for motor control, as their degeneration in Parkinson disease results in profound movement deficits. Paradoxically, most recording methods report rapid phasic dopamine signalling (~100-ms bursts) in response to unpredicted rewards, with little evidence for movement-related signalling. The leading model posits that phasic signalling in striatum-targeting dopamine neurons drives reward-based learning, whereas slow variations in firing (tens of seconds to minutes) in these same neurons bias animals towards or away from movement. However, current methods have provided little evidence to support or refute this model. Here, using new optical recording methods, we report the discovery of rapid phasic signalling in striatum-targeting dopaminergic axons that is associated with, and capable of triggering, locomotion in mice. Axons expressing these signals were largely distinct from those that responded to unexpected rewards. These results suggest that dopaminergic neuromodulation can differentially impact motor control and reward learning with sub-second precision, and indicate that both precise signal timing and neuronal subtype are important parameters to consider in the treatment of dopamine-related disorders.

  2. Social Modulation during Songbird Courtship Potentiates Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Chun; Hessler, Neal A.

    2008-01-01

    Synaptic transmission onto dopaminergic neurons of the mammalian ventral tegmental area (VTA) can be potentiated by acute or chronic exposure to addictive drugs. Because rewarding behavior, such as social affiliation, can activate the same neural circuitry as addictive drugs, we tested whether the intense social interaction of songbird courtship may also potentiate VTA synaptic function. We recorded glutamatergic synaptic currents from VTA of male zebra finches who had experienced distinct social and behavioral conditions during the previous hour. The level of synaptic transmission to VTA neurons, as assayed by the ratio of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) glutamate receptor mediated synaptic currents, was increased after males sang to females, and also after they saw females without singing, but not after they sang while alone. Potentiation after female exposure alone did not appear to result from stress, as it was not blocked by inhibition of glucocorticoid receptors. This potentiation was restricted to synapses of dopaminergic projection neurons, and appeared to be expressed postsynaptically. This study supports a model in which VTA dopaminergic neurons are more strongly activated during singing used for courtship than during non-courtship singing, and thus can provide social context-dependent modulation to forebrain areas. More generally, these results demonstrate that an intense social encounter can trigger the same pathways of neuronal plasticity as addictive drugs. PMID:18827927

  3. Rapid signaling in distinct dopaminergic axons during locomotion and reward

    PubMed Central

    Howe, MW; Dombeck, DA

    2016-01-01

    Summary Dopaminergic projections from the midbrain to striatum are critical for motor control, as their degeneration in Parkinson’s disease results in profound movement deficits. Paradoxically, most recording methods report rapid phasic dopamine signaling (~100ms bursts) to unpredicted rewards, with little evidence for movement-related signaling. The leading model posits that phasic signaling in striatum targeting dopamine neurons drive reward-based learning, while slow variations in firing (tens of seconds to minutes) in these same neurons bias animals towards or away from movement. However, despite widespread acceptance of this model, current methods have provided little evidence to support or refute it. Here, using new optical recording methods, we report the discovery of rapid phasic signaling in striatum-targeting dopaminergic axons that was associated with, and capable of triggering, locomotion in mice. Axons expressing these signals were largely distinct from those signaling during unexpected rewards. These results suggest that dopaminergic neuromodulation can differentially impact motor control and reward learning with sub-second precision and suggest that both precise signal timing and neuronal subtype are important parameters to consider in the treatment of dopamine-related disorders. PMID:27398617

  4. Dopaminergic neuronal injury in the adult rat brain following neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide and the silent neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lir-Wan; Tien, Lu-Tai; Zheng, Baoying; Pang, Yi; Lin, Rick C. S.; Simpson, Kimberly L.; Ma, Tangeng; Rhodes, Philip G.; Cai, Zhengwei

    2010-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in motor dysfunction and dopaminergic neuronal injury in the juvenile rat brain. To further examine whether neonatal LPS exposure has persisting effects in adult rats, motor behaviors were examined from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P70 and brain injury was determined in P70 rats following an intracerebral injection of LPS (1 mg/kg) in P5 Sprague-Dawley male rats. Although neonatal LPS exposure resulted in hyperactivity in locomotion and stereotyped tasks, and other disturbances of motor behaviors, the impaired motor functions were spontaneously recovered by P70. On the other hand, neonatal LPS-induced injury to the dopaminergic system such as the loss of dendrites and reduced tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra persisted in P70 rats. Neonatal LPS exposure also resulted in sustained inflammatory responses in the P70 rat brain, as indicated by an increased number of activated microglia and elevation of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 content in the rat brain. In addition, when challenged with methamphetamine (METH, 0.5 mg/kg) subcutaneously, rats with neonatal LPS exposure had significantly increased responses in METH-induced locomotion and stereotypy behaviors as compared to those without LPS exposure. These results indicate that although neonatal LPS-induced neurobehavioral impairment is spontaneously recoverable, the LPS exposure-induced persistent injury to the dopaminergic system and the chronic inflammation may represent the existence of silent neurotoxicity. Our data further suggest that the compromised dendritic mitochondrial function might contribute, at least partially, to the silent neurotoxicity. PMID:20875849

  5. Curcumin ameliorates dopaminergic neuronal oxidative damage via activation of the Akt/Nrf2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Cui, Qunli; Li, Xin; Zhu, Hongcan

    2016-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related complex neurodegenerative disease that affects ≤ 80% of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). It has previously been suggested that mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and oxidative damage underlie the pathogenesis of PD. Curcumin, which is a major active polyphenol component extracted from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae), has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects on an experimental model of PD. The present study conducted a series of in vivo experiments, in order to investigate the effects of curcumin on behavioral deficits, oxidative damage and related mechanisms. The results demonstrated that curcumin was able to significantly alleviate motor dysfunction and increase suppressed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity in the SNpc of rotenone (ROT)-injured rats. Biochemical measurements indicated that rats pretreated with curcumin exhibited increased glutathione (GSH) levels, and reduced reactive oxygen species activity and malondialdehyde content. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that curcumin significantly restored the expression levels of heme oxygenase-1 and quinone oxidoreductase 1, thus ameliorating ROT-induced damage in vivo, via the phosphorylation of Akt and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Further studies indicated that the Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathway was associated with the protective role of curcumin in ROT-treated rats. Inhibiting the Akt/Nrf2 pathway using a lentiviral vector containing Nrf2-specific short hairpin RNA, or the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, markedly reduced the expression levels of TH and GSH, ultimately attenuating the neuroprotective effects of curcumin against oxidative damage. These results indicated that curcumin was able to significantly ameliorate ROT-induced dopaminergic neuronal oxidative damage in the SNpc of rats via activation of the Akt/Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  6. The Potential Role of Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Mediating Dopaminergic Cell Loss and Alpha-Synuclein Expression in the Acute MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Mariucci, Giuseppina; Pagiotti, Rita; Galli, Francesco; Romani, Luigina; Conte, Carmela

    2018-04-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may have a role in Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we aimed at investigating the dopaminergic cell loss and alpha-synuclein (α-SYN) expression in TLR4-deficient mice (TLR4 -/- ) acutely exposed to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a pharmacological PD model. TLR4 ablation restrained the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), as assessed by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein expression. Intriguingly, TLR4 -/- mice showed massive α-SYN protein accumulation in the midbrain along with high α-SYN mRNA levels in cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and cerebellum. Contrary to expectations, the high levels of α-SYN do not correlate with greater dopaminergic neuronal loss. The levels of nigral α-SYN protein in TLR4 -/- mice further, but not significantly, increased during MPTP treatment. Contrariwise, MPTP treatment significantly induced the mRNA expression of α-SYN in examined brain regions of WT and TLR4 -/- mice. Protein levels of GATA2, a transcription factor proposed to control α-SYN gene expression, did not change in TLR4 -/- mice at baseline and after MPTP treatment. These findings suggest a role for TLR4 in mediating dopaminergic cell loss and in the constitutive expression of brain α-SYN. However, further exploration is needed in order to establish the actual role of α-SYN in the relative absence of TLR4.

  7. Contribution of β-phenethylamine, a component of chocolate and wine, to dopaminergic neurodegeneration: implications for the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Borah, Anupom; Paul, Rajib; Mazumder, Muhammed Khairujjaman; Bhattacharjee, Nivedita

    2013-10-01

    While the cause of dopaminergic neuronal cell death in Parkinson's disease (PD) is not yet understood, many endogenous molecules have been implicated in its pathogenesis. β-phenethylamine (β-PEA), a component of various food items including chocolate and wine, is an endogenous molecule produced from phenylalanine in the brain. It has been reported recently that long-term administration of β-PEA in rodents causes neurochemical and behavioral alterations similar to that produced by parkinsonian neurotoxins. The toxicity of β-PEA has been linked to the production of hydroxyl radical ((·)OH) and the generation of oxidative stress in dopaminergic areas of the brain, and this may be mediated by inhibition of mitochondrial complex-I. Another significant observation is that administration of β-PEA to rodents reduces striatal dopamine content and induces movement disorders similar to those of parkinsonian rodents. However, no reports are available on the extent of dopaminergic neuronal cell death after administration of β-PEA. Based on the literature, we set out to establish β-PEA as an endogenous molecule that potentially contributes to the progressive development of PD. The sequence of molecular events that could be responsible for dopaminergic neuronal cell death in PD by consumption of β-PEA-containing foods is proposed here. Thus, long-term over-consumption of food items containing β-PEA could be a neurological risk factor having significant pathological consequences.

  8. Prevention of dopaminergic toxicity of MPTP in mice by phenylethylamine, a specific substrate of type B monoamine oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Melamed, E.; Youdim, M. B.

    1985-01-01

    N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is toxic to dopaminergic neurones in several mammalian species including mice. Combined treatment with phenylethylamine prevented in mice the long-term (30 days post-treatment) dopamine depletions in striatum induced by MPTP. Phenylethylamine, a naturally-occurring specific substrate of monoamine oxidase (MAO) type B, probably protects against effects of MPTP by competitively inhibiting the oxidative conversion of MPTP to its toxic metabolite N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion catalysed by MAO-B. PMID:3877535

  9. Enhanced creative thinking under dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Faust-Socher, Achinoam; Kenett, Yoed N; Cohen, Oren S; Hassin-Baer, Sharon; Inzelberg, Rivka

    2014-06-01

    Creative thinking requires a combination of originality, flexibility, and usefulness. Several reports described enhanced artistic creativity in Parkinson disease (PD) patients treated with dopaminergic agents. We aimed to examine PD patients' ability to perform creativity tasks compared to healthy controls and to verify whether creativity is related to an impulse control disorder (ICD) as a complication of dopaminergic therapy. Right-handed PD patients treated with dopamine agonists and/or levodopa, and age- and education- matched neurologically healthy controls were assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, semantic verbal fluency, Beck Depression Inventory, and Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (QUIP-RS). Creativity assessment included Comprehension of Novel Metaphors (CNM), Remote Association Test, and Tel Aviv Creativity Test (TACT). Groups were compared using analyses of variance, t tests, and correlation analyses. Twenty-seven PD patients (age, mean ± standard deviation = 62 ± 7 years; education = 16 ± 3 years; disease duration = 5.8 ± 3.9 years) and 27 controls (age = 59 ± 9 years; education 17 ± 3 years) participated. PD patients performed significantly better than controls in divergent thinking tasks; specifically, the TACT-Visual for both fluency (33.48 ± 11.83 vs 25.59 ± 10.27, p = 0.034) and quality (15.78 ± 7.6 vs 11.19 ± 6.22, p = 0.025). Comprehension of Novel Metaphors was better in PD patients vs controls (0.71 ± 0.23 vs 0.55 ± 0.29, p = 0.04). QUIP-RS scores did not correlate with creativity measures. PD patients treated with dopaminergic drugs demonstrated enhanced verbal and visual creativity as compared to neurologically healthy controls. This feature was unrelated to ICD. Dopaminergic agents might act through the reduction of latent inhibition, resulting in widening of the associative network and

  10. Mitochondrial angiotensin receptors in dopaminergic neurons. Role in cell protection and aging-related vulnerability to neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Rita; Costa-Besada, Maria A; Iglesias-Gonzalez, Javier; Perez-Costas, Emma; Villar-Cheda, Begoña; Garrido-Gil, Pablo; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Soto-Otero, Ramon; Lanciego, Jose L; Henrion, Daniel; Franco, Rafael; Labandeira-Garcia, Jose L

    2016-01-01

    The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) was initially considered as a circulating humoral system controlling blood pressure, being kidney the key control organ. In addition to the ‘classical' humoral RAS, a second level in RAS, local or tissular RAS, has been identified in a variety of tissues, in which local RAS play a key role in degenerative and aging-related diseases. The local brain RAS plays a major role in brain function and neurodegeneration. It is normally assumed that the effects are mediated by the cell-surface-specific G-protein-coupled angiotensin type 1 and 2 receptors (AT1 and AT2). A combination of in vivo (rats, wild-type mice and knockout mice) and in vitro (primary mesencephalic cultures, dopaminergic neuron cell line cultures) experimental approaches (confocal microscopy, electron microscopy, laser capture microdissection, transfection of fluorescent-tagged receptors, treatments with fluorescent angiotensin, western blot, polymerase chain reaction, HPLC, mitochondrial respirometry and other functional assays) were used in the present study. We report the discovery of AT1 and AT2 receptors in brain mitochondria, particularly mitochondria of dopaminergic neurons. Activation of AT1 receptors in mitochondria regulates superoxide production, via Nox4, and increases respiration. Mitochondrial AT2 receptors are much more abundant and increase after treatment of cells with oxidative stress inducers, and produce, via nitric oxide, a decrease in mitochondrial respiration. Mitochondria from the nigral region of aged rats displayed altered expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors. AT2-mediated regulation of mitochondrial respiration represents an unrecognized primary line of defence against oxidative stress, which may be particularly important in neurons with increased levels of oxidative stress such as dopaminergic neurons. Altered expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors with aging may induce mitochondrial dysfunction, the main risk factor for neurodegeneration

  11. Methamphetamine Self-Administration Causes Persistent Striatal Dopaminergic Alterations and Mitigates the Deficits Caused by a Subsequent Methamphetamine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Lisa M.; Hadlock, Greg C.; Allen, Scott C.; Vieira-Brock, Paula L.; Stout, Kristen A.; Ellis, Jonathan D.; Hoonakker, Amanda J.; Andrenyak, David M.; Nielsen, Shannon M.; Wilkins, Diana G.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated that repeated methamphetamine (METH) injections (referred to herein as a “binge” treatment) cause persistent dopaminergic deficits. A few studies have also examined the persistent neurochemical impact of METH self-administration in rats, but with variable results. These latter studies are important because: 1) they have relevance to the study of METH abuse; and 2) the effects of noncontingent METH treatment do not necessarily predict effects of contingent exposure. Accordingly, the present study investigated the impact of METH self-administration on dopaminergic neuronal function. Results revealed that self-administration of METH, given according to a regimen that produces brain METH levels comparable with those reported postmortem in human METH abusers (0.06 mg/infusion; 8-h sessions for 7 days), decreased striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) uptake and/or immunoreactivity as assessed 8 or 30 days after the last self-administration session. Increasing the METH dose per infusion did not exacerbate these deficits. These deficits were similar in magnitude to decreases in DAT densities reported in imaging studies of abstinent METH abusers. It is noteworthy that METH self-administration mitigated the persistent deficits in dopaminergic neuronal function, as well as the increases in glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity, caused by a subsequent binge METH exposure. This protection was independent of alterations in METH pharmacokinetics, but may have been attributable (at least in part) to a pretreatment-induced attenuation of binge-induced hyperthermia. Taken together, these results may provide insight into the neurochemical deficits reported in human METH abusers. PMID:22034657

  12. Concurrent maternal and pup postnatal tobacco smoke exposure in Wistar rats changes food preference and dopaminergic reward system parameters in the adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C R; Moura, E G; Manhães, A C; Fraga, M C; Claudio-Neto, S; Abreu-Villaça, Y; Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C

    2015-08-20

    Children from pregnant smokers are more susceptible to become obese adults and to become drug or food addicts. Drugs and food activate the mesolimbic reward pathway, causing a sense of pleasure that induces further consumption. Here, we studied the relationship between tobacco smoke exposure during lactation with feeding, behavior and brain dopaminergic reward system parameters at adulthood. Nursing Wistar rats and their pups were divided into two groups: tobacco smoke-exposed (S: 4times/day, from the 3rd to the 21th day of lactation), and ambient air-exposed (C). On PN175, both offspring groups were subdivided for a food challenge: S and C that received standard chow (SC) or that chose between high-fat (HFD) and high-sucrose diets (HSDs). Food intake was recorded after 30min and 12h. Offspring were tested in the elevated plus maze and open field on PN178-179; they were euthanized for dopaminergic analysis on PN180. SSD (self-selected diet) animals presented a higher food intake compared to SC ones. S-SSD animals ate more than C-SSD ones at 30min and 12h. Both groups preferred the HFD. However, S-SSD animals consumed relatively more HFD than C-SSD at 30min. No behavioral differences were observed between groups. S animals presented lower tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) content in the ventral tegmental area, lower TH, dopaminergic receptor 2, higher dopaminergic receptor 1 contents in the nucleus accumbens and lower OBRb in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. Tobacco-smoke exposure during lactation increases preference for fat in the adult progeny possibly due to alterations in the dopaminergic system. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a partial agonist of D2 dopaminergic receptors and it potentiates dopamine-mediated prolactin secretion in lactotrophs in vitro.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, S; Palmery, M; Romanelli, L; Cheng, C Y; Silvestrini, B

    1998-01-01

    The hallucinogenic effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) have mainly been attributed to the interaction of this drug with the serotoninergic system, but it seems more likely that they are the result of the complex interactions of the drug with both the serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional actions of LSD at dopaminergic receptors using prolactin secretion by primary cultures of rat pituitary cells as a model. LSD produced a dose-dependent inhibition of prolactin secretion in vitro with an IC50 at 1.7x10(-9) M. This action was antagonized by spiperone but not by SKF83566 or cyproheptadine, which indicates that LSD has a specific effect on D2 dopaminergic receptors. The maximum inhibition of prolactin secretion achieved by LSD was lower than that by dopamine (60% versus 80%). Moreover, the fact that LSD at 10(-8)-10(-6) M antagonized the inhibitory effect of dopamine (10(-7) M) and bromocriptine (10(-11) M) suggests that LSD acts as a partial agonist at D2 receptors on lactotrophs in vitro. Interestingly, LSD at 10(-13)-10(-10) M, the concentrations which are 10-1000-fold lower than those required to induce direct inhibition on pituitary prolactin secretion, potentiated the dopamine (10(-10)-2.5x10(-9) M)-mediated prolactin secretion by pituitary cells in vitro. These results suggest that LSD not only interacts with dopaminergic receptors but also has a unique capacity for modulating dopaminergic transmission. These findings may offer new insights into the hallucinogenic effect of LSD.

  14. Tonic or Phasic Stimulation of Dopaminergic Projections to Prefrontal Cortex Causes Mice to Maintain or Deviate from Previously Learned Behavioral Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ellwood, Ian T.; Patel, Tosha; Wadia, Varun; Lee, Anthony T.; Liptak, Alayna T.

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) encode reward prediction errors and can drive reinforcement learning through their projections to striatum, but much less is known about their projections to prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here, we studied these projections and observed phasic VTA–PFC fiber photometry signals after the delivery of rewards. Next, we studied how optogenetic stimulation of these projections affects behavior using conditioned place preference and a task in which mice learn associations between cues and food rewards and then use those associations to make choices. Neither phasic nor tonic stimulation of dopaminergic VTA–PFC projections elicited place preference. Furthermore, substituting phasic VTA–PFC stimulation for food rewards was not sufficient to reinforce new cue–reward associations nor maintain previously learned ones. However, the same patterns of stimulation that failed to reinforce place preference or cue–reward associations were able to modify behavior in other ways. First, continuous tonic stimulation maintained previously learned cue–reward associations even after they ceased being valid. Second, delivering phasic stimulation either continuously or after choices not previously associated with reward induced mice to make choices that deviated from previously learned associations. In summary, despite the fact that dopaminergic VTA–PFC projections exhibit phasic increases in activity that are time locked to the delivery of rewards, phasic activation of these projections does not necessarily reinforce specific actions. Rather, dopaminergic VTA–PFC activity can control whether mice maintain or deviate from previously learned cue–reward associations. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dopaminergic inputs from ventral tegmental area (VTA) to striatum encode reward prediction errors and reinforce specific actions; however, it is currently unknown whether dopaminergic inputs to prefrontal cortex (PFC) play similar or distinct

  15. Placebo and nocebo effects are defined by opposite opioid and dopaminergic responses.

    PubMed

    Scott, David J; Stohler, Christian S; Egnatuk, Christine M; Wang, Heng; Koeppe, Robert A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2008-02-01

    Placebo and nocebo effects, the therapeutic and adverse effects, respectively, of inert substances or sham procedures, represent serious confounds in the evaluation of therapeutic interventions. They are also an example of cognitive processes, particularly expectations, capable of influencing physiology. To examine the contribution of 2 different neurotransmitters, the endogenous opioid and the dopaminergic (DA) systems, to the development of placebo and nocebo effects. Using a within-subject design, subjects twice underwent a 20-minute standardized pain challenge, in the absence and presence of a placebo with expected analgesic properties. Studies were conducted in a university hospital setting. Twenty healthy men and women aged 20 to 30 years recruited by advertisement. Activation of DA and opioid neurotransmission by a pain stressor with and without placebo (changes in the binding potential of carbon 11 [11C]-labeled raclopride and [11C] carfentanil with positron emission tomography) and ratings of pain, affective state, and anticipation and perception of analgesia. Placebo-induced activation of opioid neurotransmission was detected in the anterior cingulate, orbitofrontal and insular cortices, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and periaqueductal gray matter. Dopaminergic activation was observed in the ventral basal ganglia, including the nucleus accumbens. Regional DA and opioid activity were associated with the anticipated and subjectively perceived effectiveness of the placebo and reductions in continuous pain ratings. High placebo responses were associated with greater DA and opioid activity in the nucleus accumbens. Nocebo responses were associated with a deactivation of DA and opioid release. Nucleus accumbens DA release accounted for 25% of the variance in placebo analgesic effects. Placebo and nocebo effects are associated with opposite responses of DA and endogenous opioid neurotransmission in a distributed network of regions. The brain areas involved in

  16. Enhancing dopaminergic signaling and histone acetylation promotes long-term rescue of deficient fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Whittle, N; Maurer, V; Murphy, C; Rainer, J; Bindreither, D; Hauschild, M; Scharinger, A; Oberhauser, M; Keil, T; Brehm, C; Valovka, T; Striessnig, J; Singewald, N

    2016-12-06

    Extinction-based exposure therapy is used to treat anxiety- and trauma-related disorders; however, there is the need to improve its limited efficacy in individuals with impaired fear extinction learning and to promote greater protection against return-of-fear phenomena. Here, using 129S1/SvImJ mice, which display impaired fear extinction acquisition and extinction consolidation, we revealed that persistent and context-independent rescue of deficient fear extinction in these mice was associated with enhanced expression of dopamine-related genes, such as dopamine D1 (Drd1a) and -D2 (Drd2) receptor genes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala, but not hippocampus. Moreover, enhanced histone acetylation was observed in the promoter of the extinction-regulated Drd2 gene in the mPFC, revealing a potential gene-regulatory mechanism. Although enhancing histone acetylation, via administering the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor MS-275, does not induce fear reduction during extinction training, it promoted enduring and context-independent rescue of deficient fear extinction consolidation/retrieval once extinction learning was initiated as shown following a mild conditioning protocol. This was associated with enhanced histone acetylation in neurons of the mPFC and amygdala. Finally, as a proof-of-principle, mimicking enhanced dopaminergic signaling by L-dopa treatment rescued deficient fear extinction and co-administration of MS-275 rendered this effect enduring and context-independent. In summary, current data reveal that combining dopaminergic and epigenetic mechanisms is a promising strategy to improve exposure-based behavior therapy in extinction-impaired individuals by initiating the formation of an enduring and context-independent fear-inhibitory memory.

  17. Enhancing dopaminergic signaling and histone acetylation promotes long-term rescue of deficient fear extinction

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, N; Maurer, V; Murphy, C; Rainer, J; Bindreither, D; Hauschild, M; Scharinger, A; Oberhauser, M; Keil, T; Brehm, C; Valovka, T; Striessnig, J; Singewald, N

    2016-01-01

    Extinction-based exposure therapy is used to treat anxiety- and trauma-related disorders; however, there is the need to improve its limited efficacy in individuals with impaired fear extinction learning and to promote greater protection against return-of-fear phenomena. Here, using 129S1/SvImJ mice, which display impaired fear extinction acquisition and extinction consolidation, we revealed that persistent and context-independent rescue of deficient fear extinction in these mice was associated with enhanced expression of dopamine-related genes, such as dopamine D1 (Drd1a) and -D2 (Drd2) receptor genes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and amygdala, but not hippocampus. Moreover, enhanced histone acetylation was observed in the promoter of the extinction-regulated Drd2 gene in the mPFC, revealing a potential gene-regulatory mechanism. Although enhancing histone acetylation, via administering the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor MS-275, does not induce fear reduction during extinction training, it promoted enduring and context-independent rescue of deficient fear extinction consolidation/retrieval once extinction learning was initiated as shown following a mild conditioning protocol. This was associated with enhanced histone acetylation in neurons of the mPFC and amygdala. Finally, as a proof-of-principle, mimicking enhanced dopaminergic signaling by L-dopa treatment rescued deficient fear extinction and co-administration of MS-275 rendered this effect enduring and context-independent. In summary, current data reveal that combining dopaminergic and epigenetic mechanisms is a promising strategy to improve exposure-based behavior therapy in extinction-impaired individuals by initiating the formation of an enduring and context-independent fear-inhibitory memory. PMID:27922638

  18. The effects of social defeat on behavior and dopaminergic markers in mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, H-M; Shrestha Muna, S; Bagalkot, T R; Cui, Y; Yadav, B K; Chung, Y-C

    2015-03-12

    The present study investigated the effects of chronic social defeat stress on several behavioral parameters, and the expression of dopaminergic markers, i.e., dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs), dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs), and dopamine and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein-32 (DARPP-32), in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala (AMY), and hippocampus (HIP) of mouse brains. After 10days of social defeat stress, the defeated mice were divided into two groups: one group underwent a series of behavioral tests. The other group was sacrificed on the 11th day and tissue samples were collected for Western blotting. The behavioral tests comprised tests of locomotion, light/dark preference, social interaction, as well as the novel object recognition test (NORT), Morris water maze, and forced swimming test (FST). We measured the expression of D1Rs, D2Rs, total DARPP-32, phospho-Thr34 or Thr75-DARPP-32 using Western blotting. The defeated mice showed increased anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, and impaired cognition. No significant differences in D1Rs and D2Rs expression were shown between defeated and control mice in any area studied. A significantly increased expression in total DARPP-32, and phospho-DARPP-32 was observed in the PFC or AMY of defeated mice. These data suggest that alterations in dopaminergic markers may be involved in anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, and cognitive impairment induced by social defeat stress. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Neuroprotective Effect of Exogenous Melatonin on Dopaminergic Neurons of the Substantia Nigra in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mehraein, Fereshteh; Talebi, Reza; Jameie, Behnamedin; Joghataie, Mohammad Taghi; Madjd, Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Background: Melatonin has receptors in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and regulates development of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. This study was undertaken to determine ability of melatonin to protect SNc dopaminergic neuron loss induced by estrogen deficiency in ovariectomized rats. Methods: Female rats were randomized into four groups of seven each: control, ethanol sham, ovariectomy (ovx) and ovx with melatonin (ovx + m). In ovx, ovaries were removed. Ovx + m group was intraperitoneally injected with melatonin for 10 days, while the ethanol sham group received only ethanol. All rats were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde, midbrains removed, fixed and paraffin embedded, then processed for Nissl and tyrosine hydroxylase staining (IHC). Ten sections of SNc in Nissl and IHC staining were analyzed in each animal, Nissl stained and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive cells were counted in five experimental groups randomly. Data was analyzed using SPSS by ANOVA and t-test. Differences were considered significant for P<0.05. Results: There was less cell number in ovx compared to control and ethanol sham groups significantly (P<0.001). The ovx + m group had more cells than the ovx group in the SNc significantly (P<0.001). Furthermore, there was significant decrease of TH positive cell number in the ovx group compared to control and ethanol sham groups (P<0.05). The number of TH immunoreactive cells was higher in ovx + m compared to the ovx group (P<0.05). Conclusion: These findings can be compared with human and used in clinical application for prevention of DA neuron death of SNc after ovariectomy. PMID:21725499

  20. Advances in non-dopaminergic treatments for Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Stayte, Sandy; Vissel, Bryce

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1960's treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) have traditionally been directed to restore or replace dopamine, with L-Dopa being the gold standard. However, chronic L-Dopa use is associated with debilitating dyskinesias, limiting its effectiveness. This has resulted in extensive efforts to develop new therapies that work in ways other than restoring or replacing dopamine. Here we describe newly emerging non-dopaminergic therapeutic strategies for PD, including drugs targeting adenosine, glutamate, adrenergic, and serotonin receptors, as well as GLP-1 agonists, calcium channel blockers, iron chelators, anti-inflammatories, neurotrophic factors, and gene therapies. We provide a detailed account of their success in animal models and their translation to human clinical trials. We then consider how advances in understanding the mechanisms of PD, genetics, the possibility that PD may consist of multiple disease states, understanding of the etiology of PD in non-dopaminergic regions as well as advances in clinical trial design will be essential for ongoing advances. We conclude that despite the challenges ahead, patients have much cause for optimism that novel therapeutics that offer better disease management and/or which slow disease progression are inevitable. PMID:24904259

  1. Dopaminergic control of anxiety in young and aged zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kacprzak, Victoria; Patel, Neil A; Riley, Elizabeth; Yu, Lili; Yeh, Jing-Ruey J; Zhdanova, Irina V

    2017-06-01

    Changes in the expression of the dopamine transporter (DAT), or the sensitivity of dopamine receptors, are associated with aging and substance abuse and may underlie some of the symptoms common to both conditions. In this study, we explored the role of the dopaminergic system in the anxiogenic effects of aging and acute cocaine exposure by comparing the behavioral phenotypes of wild type (WT) and DAT knockout zebrafish (DAT-KO) of different ages. To determine the involvement of specific dopamine receptors in anxiety states, antagonists to D1 (SCH23390) and D2/D3 (sulpiride) were employed. We established that DAT-KO results in a chronic anxiety-like state, seen as an increase in bottom-dwelling and thigmotaxis. Similar effects were produced by aging and acute cocaine administration, both leading to reduction in DAT mRNA abundance (qPCR). Inhibition of D1 activity counteracted the anxiety-like effects associated with DAT deficit, independent of its origin. Inhibition of D2/D3 receptors reduced anxiety in young DAT-KO, and enhanced the anxiogenic effects of cocaine in WT, but did not affect aged WT or DAT-KO fish. These findings provide new evidence that the dopaminergic system plays a critical role in anxiety-like states, and suggest that adult zebrafish provide a sensitive diurnal vertebrate model for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of anxiety and a platform for anxiolytic drug screens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Minireview: Dopaminergic Regulation of Insulin Secretion from the Pancreatic Islet

    PubMed Central

    Ustione, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Exogenous dopamine inhibits insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, but the lack of dopaminergic neurons in pancreatic islets has led to controversy regarding the importance of this effect. Recent data, however, suggest a plausible physiologic role for dopamine in the regulation of insulin secretion. We review the literature underlying our current understanding of dopaminergic signaling that can down-regulate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. In this negative feedback loop, dopamine is synthesized in the β-cells from circulating l-dopa, serves as an autocrine signal that is cosecreted with insulin, and causes a tonic inhibition on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. On the whole animal scale, l-dopa is produced by cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and its concentration in the blood plasma increases following a mixed meal. By reviewing the outcome of certain types of bariatric surgery that result in rapid amelioration of glucose tolerance, we hypothesize that dopamine serves as an “antiincretin” signal that counterbalances the stimulatory effect of glucagon-like peptide 1. PMID:23744894

  3. Increased mitochondrial calcium sensitivity and abnormal expression of innate immunity genes precede dopaminergic defects in Pink1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Akundi, Ravi S; Huang, Zhenyu; Eason, Joshua; Pandya, Jignesh D; Zhi, Lianteng; Cass, Wayne A; Sullivan, Patrick G; Büeler, Hansruedi

    2011-01-13

    PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is linked to recessive Parkinsonism (EOPD). Pink1 deletion results in impaired dopamine (DA) release and decreased mitochondrial respiration in the striatum of mice. To reveal additional mechanisms of Pink1-related dopaminergic dysfunction, we studied Ca²+ vulnerability of purified brain mitochondria, DA levels and metabolism and whether signaling pathways implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) display altered activity in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1⁻/⁻ mice. Purified brain mitochondria of Pink1⁻/⁻ mice showed impaired Ca²+ storage capacity, resulting in increased Ca²+ induced mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) that was rescued by cyclosporine A. A subpopulation of neurons in the substantia nigra of Pink1⁻/⁻ mice accumulated phospho-c-Jun, showing that Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity is increased. Pink1⁻/⁻ mice 6 months and older displayed reduced DA levels associated with increased DA turnover. Moreover, Pink1⁻/⁻ mice had increased levels of IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-10 in the striatum after peripheral challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and Pink1⁻/⁻ embryonic fibroblasts showed decreased basal and inflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor kappa-β (NF-κB) activity. Quantitative transcriptional profiling in the striatum revealed that Pink1⁻/⁻ mice differentially express genes that (i) are upregulated in animals with experimentally induced dopaminergic lesions, (ii) regulate innate immune responses and/or apoptosis and (iii) promote axonal regeneration and sprouting. Increased mitochondrial Ca²+ sensitivity and JNK activity are early defects in Pink1⁻/⁻ mice that precede reduced DA levels and abnormal DA homeostasis and may contribute to neuronal dysfunction in familial PD. Differential gene expression in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1⁻/⁻ mice supports early dopaminergic dysfunction and shows that Pink1 deletion causes aberrant expression of genes that regulate innate

  4. Increased Mitochondrial Calcium Sensitivity and Abnormal Expression of Innate Immunity Genes Precede Dopaminergic Defects in Pink1-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Akundi, Ravi S.; Huang, Zhenyu; Eason, Joshua; Pandya, Jignesh D.; Zhi, Lianteng; Cass, Wayne A.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Büeler, Hansruedi

    2011-01-01

    Background PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is linked to recessive Parkinsonism (EOPD). Pink1 deletion results in impaired dopamine (DA) release and decreased mitochondrial respiration in the striatum of mice. To reveal additional mechanisms of Pink1-related dopaminergic dysfunction, we studied Ca2+ vulnerability of purified brain mitochondria, DA levels and metabolism and whether signaling pathways implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) display altered activity in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1−/− mice. Methods and Findings Purified brain mitochondria of Pink1−/− mice showed impaired Ca2+ storage capacity, resulting in increased Ca2+ induced mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) that was rescued by cyclosporine A. A subpopulation of neurons in the substantia nigra of Pink1−/− mice accumulated phospho-c-Jun, showing that Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity is increased. Pink1−/− mice 6 months and older displayed reduced DA levels associated with increased DA turnover. Moreover, Pink1−/− mice had increased levels of IL-1β, IL-12 and IL-10 in the striatum after peripheral challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and Pink1−/− embryonic fibroblasts showed decreased basal and inflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor kappa-β (NF-κB) activity. Quantitative transcriptional profiling in the striatum revealed that Pink1−/− mice differentially express genes that (i) are upregulated in animals with experimentally induced dopaminergic lesions, (ii) regulate innate immune responses and/or apoptosis and (iii) promote axonal regeneration and sprouting. Conclusions Increased mitochondrial Ca2+ sensitivity and JNK activity are early defects in Pink1−/− mice that precede reduced DA levels and abnormal DA homeostasis and may contribute to neuronal dysfunction in familial PD. Differential gene expression in the nigrostriatal system of Pink1−/− mice supports early dopaminergic dysfunction and shows that Pink1 deletion causes aberrant

  5. The Transcription Factor Orthodenticle Homeobox 2 Influences Axonal Projections and Vulnerability of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Chee Yeun; Licznerski, Pawel; Alavian, Kambiz N.; Simeone, Antonio; Lin, Zhicheng; Martin, Eden; Vance, Jeffery; Isacson, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Two adjacent groups of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, A9 (substantia nigra pars compacta) and A10 (ventral tegmental area), have distinct projections and exhibit differential vulnerability in Parkinson's disease. Little is known about transcription factors that influence midbrain dopaminergic subgroup phenotypes or their potential role in disease.…

  6. Representation of spontaneous movement by dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective and disrupted in parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Jakob K.; Jennings, Katie A.; Syed, Emilie C. J.; Wade-Martins, Richard; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Bolam, J. Paul; Magill, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are essential for appropriate voluntary movement, as epitomized by the cardinal motor impairments arising in Parkinson’s disease. Understanding the basis of such motor control requires understanding how the firing of different types of dopaminergic neuron relates to movement and how this activity is deciphered in target structures such as the striatum. By recording and labeling individual neurons in behaving mice, we show that the representation of brief spontaneous movements in the firing of identified midbrain dopaminergic neurons is cell-type selective. Most dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), but not in ventral tegmental area or substantia nigra pars lateralis, consistently represented the onset of spontaneous movements with a pause in their firing. Computational modeling revealed that the movement-related firing of these dopaminergic neurons can manifest as rapid and robust fluctuations in striatal dopamine concentration and receptor activity. The exact nature of the movement-related signaling in the striatum depended on the type of dopaminergic neuron providing inputs, the striatal region innervated, and the type of dopamine receptor expressed by striatal neurons. Importantly, in aged mice harboring a genetic burden relevant for human Parkinson’s disease, the precise movement-related firing of SNc dopaminergic neurons and the resultant striatal dopamine signaling were lost. These data show that distinct dopaminergic cell types differentially encode spontaneous movement and elucidate how dysregulation of their firing in early Parkinsonism can impair their effector circuits. PMID:27001837

  7. Effect of dopaminergic medication on speech dysfluency in Parkinson's disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tykalová, Tereza; Rusz, Jan; Čmejla, Roman; Klempíř, Jiří; Růžičková, Hana; Roth, Jan; Růžička, Evžen

    2015-08-01

    Although speech dysfluencies have been hypothesized to be associated with abnormal function of dopaminergic system, the effects of dopaminergic medication on speech fluency in Parkinson's disease (PD) have not been systematically studied. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate the long-term effect of dopaminergic medication on speech fluency in PD. Fourteen de novo PD patients with no history of developmental stuttering and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited. PD subjects were examined three times; before the initiation of dopaminergic treatment and twice in following 6 years. The percentage of dysfluent words was calculated from reading passage and monolog. The amount of medication was expressed by cumulative doses of L-dopa equivalent. After 3-6 years of dopaminergic therapy, PD patients exhibited significantly more dysfluent events compared to healthy subjects as well as to their own speech performance before the introduction of dopaminergic therapy (p < 0.05). In addition, we found a strong positive correlation between the increased occurrence of dysfluent words and the total cumulative dose of L-dopa equivalent (r = 0.75, p = 0.002). Our findings indicate an adverse effect of prolonged dopaminergic therapy contributing to the development of stuttering-like dysfluencies in PD. These findings may have important implication in clinical practice, where speech fluency should be taken into account to optimize dopaminergic therapy.

  8. Modulating dopamine release by optogenetics in transgenic mice reveals terminal dopaminergic dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yao; Driscoll, Nicolette; Ozden, Ilker; Yu, Zeyang; Nurmikko, Arto V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Dopamine (DA) release and uptake dynamics in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have important implications for neurological diseases and mammalian animal behaviors. We demonstrate here the use of cell-type-specific optogenetic targeting in conjunction with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry applied to brain slices prepared from specifically tailored transgenic mice, which conditionally express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) through dopamine transporter (DAT)-Cre. Terminal dopaminergic dynamics and the direct manipulation of induced DA release level by controlling light intensity, pulse width, and the shape of stimulation waveforms were studied. Effective cell terminal-targeting optogenetic induction of DA release at physiological levels in NAc is demonstrated and discussed. It was found that delivering more light energy by increasing stimulation intensity and length is not the only way to control DA release; the temporal shape of the stimulus waveform at light onset is also critically related to induced DA concentrations. In addition, DA uptake dynamics as well as the recovery of the presynaptic releasable DA pool are studied and modeled. More broadly, our experimental findings provide important further evidence for effectively applying optogenetics to induce neurotransmitter release in the behaviorally relevant region of the brain in a highly cell-type selective context. PMID:26171413

  9. NAD+ Supplementation Attenuates Methylmercury Dopaminergic and Mitochondrial Toxicity in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Caito, Samuel W.; Aschner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxic contaminant of our fish supply that has been linked to dopaminergic (DAergic) dysfunction that characterizes Parkinson’s disease. We have previously shown that MeHg causes both morphological and behavioral changes in the Caenorhabditis elegans DAergic neurons that are associated with oxidative stress. We were therefore interested in whether the redox sensitive cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) may be affected by MeHg and whether supplementation of NAD + may prevent MeHg-induced toxicities. Worms treated with MeHg showed depletion in cellular NAD + levels, which was prevented by NAD + supplementation prior to MeHg treatment. NAD + supplementation also prevented DAergic neurodegeneration and deficits in DAergic-dependent behavior upon MeHg exposure. In a mutant worm line that cannot synthesize NAD + from nicotinamide, MeHg lethality and DAergic behavioral deficits were more sensitive to MeHg than wildtype worms, demonstrating the importance of NAD + in MeHg toxicity. In wildtype worms, NAD + supplementation provided protection from MeHg-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. These data show the importance of NAD + levels in the response to MeHg exposure. NAD + supplementation may be beneficial for MeHg-induced toxicities and preventing cellular damage involved in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:26865665

  10. Treadmill Exercise Prevents Increase of Neuroinflammation Markers Involved in the Dopaminergic Damage of the 6-OHDA Parkinson's Disease Model.

    PubMed

    Real, Caroline Cristiano; Garcia, Priscila Crespo; Britto, Luiz R G

    2017-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) involves loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), which can be correlated to neuroinflammatory changes with the aging of the nervous system. On the other hand, exercise can reduce the deleterious effects promoted by age, but the mechanism involved is still unclear. This study investigated the preventive exercise-induced changes on neuroinflammatory processes in a rat model of PD induced by unilateral striatal injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Adult male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: (1) sedentary (SED) or (2) exercised (EX), animals that did treadmill exercise three times per week, every other day, for 4 weeks prior to 6-OHDA or saline injection. The rats were then divided into four sub-groups: (1) sedentary saline (SED), (2) sedentary 6-OHDA (SED + 6-OHDA), (3) exercised saline (EX), and (4) exercised 6-OHDA (EX + 6-OHDA). Seven and 30 days after surgery, brains were collected for immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting for dopaminergic and neuroinflammatory markers into SN and striatum. The SED + 6-OHDA animals presented an increase in the astrocyte, microglial, and oxidative species activation. On the other hand, EX + 6-OHDA animals did not present neuroinflammatory responses and performed better apormorphine test. Our data suggest that treadmill exercise throughout life can markedly reduce the chances of dopamine decrease, reinforcing studies that showed a lower incidence of Parkinson's disease in patients who were active during life.

  11. Effects of Nano-MnO2 on Dopaminergic Neurons and the Spatial Learning Capability of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Shi, Tingting; Li, Xiaobo; Zeng, Shuilin; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to observe the effect of intracerebrally injected nano-MnO2 on neurobehavior and the functions of dopaminergic neurons and astrocytes. Nano-MnO2, 6-OHDA, and saline (control) were injected in the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area of Sprague-Dawley rat brains. The neurobehavior of rats was evaluated by Morris water maze test. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expressions in rat brain were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results showed that the escape latencies of nano-MnO2 treated rat increased significantly compared with control. The number of TH-positive cells decreased, GFAP- and iNOS-positive cells increased significantly in the lesion side of the rat brains compared with the contralateral area in nano-MnO2 group. The same tendencies were observed in nano-MnO2-injected rat brains compared with control. However, in the the positive control, 6-OHDA group, escape latencies increased, TH-positive cell number decreased significantly compared with nano-MnO2 group. The alteration of spatial learning abilities of rats induced by nano-MnO2 may be associated with dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction and astrocyte activation. PMID:25101772

  12. Epothilone D Prevents Binge Methamphetamine-Mediated Loss of Striatal Dopaminergic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Killinger, Bryan A.; Moszczynska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to binge methamphetamine (METH) can result in a permanent or transient loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) markers such as dopamine (DA), dopamine transporter (DAT), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the striatum. We hypothesized that the METH-induced loss of striatal DAergic markers was, in part, due to destabilization of microtubules (MTs) in the nigrostriatal DA pathway that ultimately impedes anterograde axonal transport of these markers. To test this hypothesis, adult male Sprague Dawley rats were treated with binge METH or saline in the presence or absence of epothilone D (EpoD), a MT-stabilizing compound, and assessed for the levels of several DAergic markers as well as for the levels of tubulins and their posttranslational modifications (PMTs) at 3 days after the treatments. Binge METH induced a loss of stable long-lived MTs within the striatum but not within the SNpc. Treatment with a low dose of EpoD increased the levels of markers of stable MTs and prevented METH-mediated deficits in several DAergic markers in the striatum. By contrast, administration of a high dose of EpoD appeared to destabilize MTs and potentiated the METH-induced deficits in several DAergic markers. The low-dose EpoD also prevented the METH-induced increase in striatal DA turnover and increased behavioral stereotypy during METH treatment. Together, these results demonstrate that MT dynamics plays a role in the development of METH-induced losses of several DAergic markers in the striatum and may mediate METH-induced degeneration of terminals in the nigrostriatal DA pathway. Our study also demonstrates that MT-stabilizing drugs, such as EpoD have a potential to serve as useful therapeutic agents to restore function of DAergic nerve terminals following METH exposure when administered at low doses. PMID:26465779

  13. Is there room for new non-dopaminergic treatments in Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Pilleri, Manuela; Koutsikos, Konstantinos; Antonini, Angelo

    2013-02-01

    The contribution of non-dopaminergic degeneration to disability in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still debated. It has been argued that no additional advance can be expected in the management of PD by the development of new dopaminergic agents and suggested that future research should mainly focus on therapies targeting the non-dopaminergic systems involved in the pathogenesis of levodopa resistant motor and non-motor symptoms. We believe this is only partially true and the achievement of a stable dopaminergic restoration and modulation of the dopaminergic system is still an important, unmet need of current pharmacological therapies in PD. Currently available oral levodopa and dopamine agonist medications provide insufficient benefit, as the therapeutic window progressively narrows and motor fluctuations eventually develop in most patients. Conversely, the application of infusion and surgical therapies is limited by selective indications and possible irreversible adverse events and device-related problems. Research of new, safer and less invasive strategies, able to modulate the dopaminergic circuits, would certainly improve the management of motor complications, and most importantly such treatments would be also beneficial to axial and non-motor symptoms, which are universally regarded as the major cause of PD functional disability. Indeed, gait and balance problems may improve with dopaminergic treatment in most patients and they become unresponsive only at the very late stages of the disease. Moreover, several non-motor disturbances, including cognition and depression are often linked to oscillation of dopamine concentrations, and are frequently relieved by treatments providing continuous dopaminergic delivery. Finally, drug trials testing non-dopaminergic treatments for motor and non-motor symptoms of PD provided so far disappointing results. Despite the impressive advances of PD therapeutic strategy, we think there is still need for safe, non-invasive and easily

  14. Nucleus accumbens opioid, GABaergic, and dopaminergic modulation of palatable food motivation: contrasting effects revealed by a progressive ratio study in the rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Balmadrid, Christian; Kelley, Ann E

    2003-04-01

    The current studies were designed to evaluate whether incentive motivation for palatable food is altered after manipulations of opioid, GABAergic, and dopaminergic transmission within the nucleus accumbens. A progressive ratio schedule was used to measure lever-pressing for sugar pellets after microinfusion of drugs into the nucleus accumbens in non-food-deprived rats. The mu opioid agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyo15-enkephalin and the indirect dopamine agonist amphetamine induced a marked increase in break point and correct lever-presses; the GABA(A) agonist muscimol did not affect breakpoint or lever-presses. The data suggest that opioid, dopaminergic, and GABAergic systems within the accumbens differentially modulate food-seeking behavior through mechanisms related to hedonic evaluation of food, incentive salience, and control of motor feeding circuits, respectively.

  15. Dopaminergic modulation of hemodynamic signal variability and the functional connectome during cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Alavash, Mohsen; Lim, Sung-Joo; Thiel, Christiane; Sehm, Bernhard; Deserno, Lorenz; Obleser, Jonas

    2018-05-15

    Dopamine underlies important aspects of cognition, and has been suggested to boost cognitive performance. However, how dopamine modulates the large-scale cortical dynamics during cognitive performance has remained elusive. Using functional MRI during a working memory task in healthy young human listeners, we investigated the effect of levodopa (l-dopa) on two aspects of cortical dynamics, blood oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal variability and the functional connectome of large-scale cortical networks. We here show that enhanced dopaminergic signaling modulates the two potentially interrelated aspects of large-scale cortical dynamics during cognitive performance, and the degree of these modulations is able to explain inter-individual differences in l-dopa-induced behavioral benefits. Relative to placebo, l-dopa increased BOLD signal variability in task-relevant temporal, inferior frontal, parietal and cingulate regions. On the connectome level, however, l-dopa diminished functional integration across temporal and cingulo-opercular regions. This hypo-integration was expressed as a reduction in network efficiency and modularity in more than two thirds of the participants and to different degrees. Hypo-integration co-occurred with relative hyper-connectivity in paracentral lobule and precuneus, as well as posterior putamen. Both, l-dopa-induced BOLD signal variability modulation and functional connectome modulations proved predictive of an individual's l-dopa-induced benefits in behavioral performance, namely response speed and perceptual sensitivity. Lastly, l-dopa-induced modulations of BOLD signal variability were correlated with l-dopa-induced modulation of nodal connectivity and network efficiency. Our findings underline the role of dopamine in maintaining the dynamic range of, and communication between, cortical systems, and their explanatory power for inter-individual differences in benefits from dopamine during cognitive performance. Copyright © 2018

  16. Disrupted Functional Connectivity with Dopaminergic Midbrain in Cocaine Abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi, D.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.

    Chronic cocaine use is associated with disrupted dopaminergic neurotransmission but how this disruption affects overall brain function (other than reward/motivation) is yet to be fully investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that cocaine addicted subjects will have disrupted functional connectivity between the midbrain (where dopamine neurons are located) and cortical and subcortical brain regions during the performance of a sustained attention task. We measured brain activation and functional connectivity with fMRI in 20 cocaine abusers and 20 matched controls. When compared to controls, cocaine abusers had lower positive functional connectivity of midbrain with thalamus, cerebellum, and rostral cingulate, and thismore » was associated with decreased activation in thalamus and cerebellum and enhanced deactivation in rostral cingulate. These findings suggest that decreased functional connectivity of the midbrain interferes with the activation and deactivation signals associated with sustained attention in cocaine addicts.« less

  17. The dopaminergic projection system, basal forebrain macrosystems, and conditioned stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    This review begins with a description of some problems that in recent years have beset an influential circuit model of fear-conditioning and goes on to look at neuroanatomy that might subserve conditioning viewed in a broader perspective, including not only fear, but also appetitive, conditioning. The paper then focuses on basal forebrain functional-anatomical systems, or macrosystems, as they have come to be called, which Lennart Heimer and colleagues described beginning in the 1970’s. Yet more specific attention is then given to the relationships of the dorsal and ventral striatopallidal systems and extended amygdala with the dopaminergic mesotelencephalic projection systems, culminating with the hypothesis that all macrosystems contribute to behavioral conditioning. PMID:18204412

  18. Dopaminergic control of cognitive flexibility in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    Klanker, Marianne; Feenstra, Matthijs; Denys, Damiaan

    2013-01-01

    Striatal dopamine (DA) is thought to code for learned associations between cues and reinforcers and to mediate approach behavior toward a reward. Less is known about the contribution of DA to cognitive flexibility—the ability to adapt behavior in response to changes in the environment. Altered reward processing and impairments in cognitive flexibility are observed in psychiatric disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients with this disorder show a disruption of functioning in the frontostriatal circuit and alterations in DA signaling. In this review we summarize findings from animal and human studies that have investigated the involvement of striatal DA in cognitive flexibility. These findings may provide a better understanding of the role of dopaminergic dysfunction in cognitive inflexibility in psychiatric disorders, such as OCD. PMID:24204329

  19. An overview on benzylisoquinoline derivatives with dopaminergic and serotonergic activities.

    PubMed

    Cabedo, N; Berenguer, I; Figadère, B; Cortes, D

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine and serotonin are important neurotransmitters in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) involved in numerous physiological and behavioural disorders such as schizophrenia, major depression, anxiety, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Several natural and synthetic benzylisoquinoline derivatives have displayed affinity for dopamine and serotonin receptors in nanomolar or micromolar ranges. This review covers the last three decades of dopaminergic and serotonergic activities, and especially focuses on structure-activity relationships of natural and synthetic benzylisoquinoline derivatives. We have included aporphines, 1-benzyltetrahydroisoquinolines, bis-benzylisoquinolines, protoberberines, cularines and other structural analogues. Further molecular modelling calculations have been considered as important tools to not only obtain structural information of both neurotransmitter receptors, but to also identify their pharmacophore features. The development of selective potential ligands like benzylisoquinoline derivatives may help in the therapy of diseases related to CNS dysfunction.

  20. Renal dopaminergic system: Pathophysiological implications and clinical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Marcelo Roberto; Kouyoumdzian, Nicolás Martín; Rukavina Mikusic, Natalia Lucía; Kravetz, María Cecilia; Rosón, María Inés; Rodríguez Fermepin, Martín; Fernández, Belisario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Fluid homeostasis, blood pressure and redox balance in the kidney are regulated by an intricate interaction between local and systemic anti-natriuretic and natriuretic systems. Intrarenal dopamine plays a central role on this interactive network. By activating specific receptors, dopamine promotes sodium excretion and stimulates anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways. Different pathological scenarios where renal sodium excretion is dysregulated, as in nephrotic syndrome, hypertension and renal inflammation, can be associated with impaired action of renal dopamine including alteration in biosynthesis, dopamine receptor expression and signal transduction. Given its properties on the regulation of renal blood flow and sodium excretion, exogenous dopamine has been postulated as a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent renal failure in critically ill patients. The aim of this review is to update and discuss on the most recent findings about renal dopaminergic system and its role in several diseases involving the kidneys and the potential use of dopamine as a nephroprotective agent. PMID:25949933

  1. Dopaminergic sensitivity and cocaine abuse: response to apomorphine.

    PubMed

    Hollander, E; Nunes, E; DeCaria, C M; Quitkin, F M; Cooper, T; Wager, S; Klein, D F

    1990-08-01

    Ten male patients with chronic cocaine abuse received a single dose of the dopamine agonist apomorphine. Self-ratings of cocaine craving, depression, and anxiety decreased in response to apomorphine. Neuroendocrine response was consistent with central dopaminergic stimulation. Patients in the "craving" phase of the cocaine abuse cycle differed in behavioral but not neuroendocrine response to apomorphine from patients in the "crash" phase. Decrease in cocaine craving correlated with decrease in plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA). Total cocaine consumption correlated negatively with baseline prolactin and pHVA levels and inversely with peak change in prolactin following apomorphine. Patients had blunted neuroendocrine response to apomorphine in comparison to historical normal controls. Implications for the "dopamine" hypothesis of cocaine abuse are discussed.

  2. FAF1 mediates regulated necrosis through PARP1 activation upon oxidative stress leading to dopaminergic neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Changsun; Kim, Bok-seok; Kim, Eunhee

    2016-01-01

    Cumulative damage caused by oxidative stress results in diverse pathological conditions. Therefore, elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying cell death following oxidative stress is important. Here, we describe a novel role for Fas-associated factor 1 (FAF1) as a crucial regulator of necrotic cell death elicited by hydrogen peroxide. Upon oxidative insult, FAF1 translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and promoted the catalytic activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) through physical interaction. Moreover, FAF1 depletion prevented PARP1-linked downstream events involved in the triggering of cell death, including energetic collapse, mitochondrial depolarization and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), implying that FAF1 has a key role in PARP1-dependent necrosis in response to oxidative stress. We further investigated whether FAF1 might contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease through excessive PARP1 activation. Indeed, the overexpression of FAF1 using a recombinant adeno-associated virus system in the mouse ventral midbrain promoted PARP1 activation and dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Collectively, our data demonstrate the presence of an FAF1–PARP1 axis that is involved in oxidative stress-induced necrosis and in the pathology of Parkinson's disease. PMID:27662363

  3. Sex-related differences in striatal dopaminergic system after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiupeng; Cao, Shengwu; Chao, Honglu; Liu, Yinlong; Ji, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated alterations in the dopamine (DA) system after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Additionally, the existence of significant sex-related differences in the dopaminergic system has long been recognized. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether TBI would differentially alter, in female and male mice, the expression and the function of the striatal vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT-2), an important DA transporter. After controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury, female mice showed significantly lower striatal DA concentrations and K(+)-evoked DA output. By contrast, no significant sex-related differences were observed in the mRNA and protein levels of striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) and VMAT-2 and the methamphetamine (MA)-evoked DA output. These results demonstrated clear sex-related differences in striatal VMAT-2 function in response to TBI and suggested that female mice may be more sensitive to the TBI-induced inhibition of the VMAT-2 function, as indicated by the greater degree of deficits observed when the VMAT-2 DA-storage function was inhibited by TBI. Moreover, the TBI-induced suppression of locomotion was more pronounced than female mice. Such findings highlight the need for sex-specific considerations when examining differences among brain injury conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of the mechanisms by which amphetamine releases dopamine from striatal dopaminergic neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    The goals of the studies were (1) to determine the intraneuronal transmitter pools that contribute to the efflux of dopamine (DA) elicited by amphetamine (AMPH) and (2) to determine the biochemical mechanism by which AMPH increases DA efflux from dopaminergic neurons. AMPH increased the efflux of endogenous DA and decreased the electrically-evoked overflow of (/sup 3/H) acetylcholine (ACh) from superfused rabbit striatal slices. These effects were most pronounced when both vesicular DA stores and DA synthesis were intact. Therefore, extravesicular, newly synthesized DA and vesicular stores of DA contribute to AMPH-induced DA efflux. Simultaneous inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO) andmore » neuronal DA uptake did not increase the efflux of endogenous DA or inhibit the electrically-evoked overflow of (/sup 3/H)ACh to the same extent as AMPH. Hence, inhibition of MAO and neuronal DA uptake are probably not the major mechanisms by which AMPH increases DA efflux. The AMPH-induced efflux of endogenous or (/sup 3/H)DA was blocked by inhibitors of neuronal DA uptake.« less

  5. Behavioral functions of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system: an affective neuroethological perspective.

    PubMed

    Alcaro, Antonio; Huber, Robert; Panksepp, Jaak

    2007-12-01

    The mesolimbic dopaminergic (ML-DA) system has been recognized for its central role in motivated behaviors, various types of reward, and, more recently, in cognitive processes. Functional theories have emphasized DA's involvement in the orchestration of goal-directed behaviors and in the promotion and reinforcement of learning. The affective neuroethological perspective presented here views the ML-DA system in terms of its ability to activate an instinctual emotional appetitive state (SEEKING) evolved to induce organisms to search for all varieties of life-supporting stimuli and to avoid harms. A description of the anatomical framework in which the ML system is embedded is followed by the argument that the SEEKING disposition emerges through functional integration of ventral basal ganglia (BG) into thalamocortical activities. Filtering cortical and limbic input that spreads into BG, DA transmission promotes the "release" of neural activity patterns that induce active SEEKING behaviors when expressed at the motor level. Reverberation of these patterns constitutes a neurodynamic process for the inclusion of cognitive and perceptual representations within the extended networks of the SEEKING urge. In this way, the SEEKING disposition influences attention, incentive salience, associative learning, and anticipatory predictions. In our view, the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse are, in part, caused by the activation of the SEEKING disposition, ranging from appetitive drive to persistent craving depending on the intensity of the affect. The implications of such a view for understanding addiction are considered, with particular emphasis on factors predisposing individuals to develop compulsive drug seeking behaviors.

  6. Cholinergic and dopaminergic mechanisms involved in the recovery of circadian anticipation by aniracetam in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yushiro; Kurasawa, Mitsue; Nakamura, Kazuo

    2002-05-01

    We have reported that repeated administration of aniracetam (100 mg/kg p.o.) for 7 consecutive days recovers mealtime-associated circadian anticipatory behavior diminished in aged rats. The present study examines the mode of action underlying the restoration by aniracetam with various types of receptor antagonists. Coadministration of scopolamine (0.1 mg/kg i.p.) or haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg i.p.) for the last 3 days significantly reduced the restorative effects of aniracetam without affecting the timed feeding-induced anticipatory behavior by each receptor antagonist itself. The other receptor antagonists, mecamylamine (3 mg/kg i.p.), 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(F)quinoxaline (NBQX, 1 microg/rat i.c.v.) had no effect on either the basal or aniracetam-elicited circadian anticipation. In contrast, ketanserin (1 mg/kg i.p.) itself recovered the diminished anticipatory behavior as aniracetam did, but it did not alter the restorative effects of aniracetam. Among the receptor antagonists tested, NBQX reduced appetite and haloperidol induced circadian hypoactivity. These results suggest that the food-entrainable circadian oscillations or the temporal regulatory system of behavior is modulated by cholinergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. Furthermore, aniracetam may restore the aging-diminished behavioral anticipation by activating muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) and/or dopamine (DA) D2 receptors through the enhanced release of ACh and/or DA in the brain.

  7. Cocaine self-administration disrupts mesolimbic dopamine circuit function and attenuates dopaminergic responsiveness to cocaine.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Cody A; Ferris, Mark J; Jones, Sara R

    2015-08-01

    Dopaminergic projections from the ventral midbrain to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have long been implicated in encoding associations between reward availability and environmental stimuli. As such, this circuit is instrumental in guiding behaviors towards obtaining maximal rewards based on previous experience. Cocaine acts on the dopamine system to exert its reinforcing effects and it is thought that cocaine-induced dysregulation of dopamine neurotransmission contributes to the difficulty that cocaine addicts exhibit in selecting environmentally appropriate behaviors. Here we used cocaine self-administration combined with in vivo fast scan cyclic voltammetry in anesthetised rats to examine the function of the ventral tegmental area to NAc projection neurons. Over 5 days of cocaine self-administration (fixed-ratio 1; 1.5 mg/kg/injection; 40 injections/day), animals increased their rate of intake. Following cocaine self-administration, there was a marked reduction in ventral tegmental area-stimulated NAc dopamine release. Additionally, there was a decreased augmentation of stimulated dopamine overflow in response to a cocaine challenge. These findings demonstrate that cocaine induces a hypodopaminergic state, which may contribute to the inflexible drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors observed in cocaine abusers. Additionally, tolerance to the ability of cocaine to elevate dopamine may lead to increased cocaine intake in order to overcome decreased effects, another hallmark of cocaine abuse. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Parkinsonian mimetic, 6-OHDA, impairs axonal transport in dopaminergic axons

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is one of the most commonly used toxins for modeling degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease. 6-OHDA also causes axonal degeneration, a process that appears to precede the death of DA neurons. To understand the processes involved in 6-OHDA-mediated axonal degeneration, a microdevice designed to isolate axons fluidically from cell bodies was used in conjunction with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled DA neurons. Results showed that 6-OHDA quickly induced mitochondrial transport dysfunction in both DA and non-DA axons. This appeared to be a general effect on transport function since 6-OHDA also disrupted transport of synaptophysin-tagged vesicles. The effects of 6-OHDA on mitochondrial transport were blocked by the addition of the SOD1-mimetic, Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin chloride (MnTBAP), as well as the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) suggesting that free radical species played a role in this process. Temporally, microtubule disruption and autophagy occurred after transport dysfunction yet before DA cell death following 6-OHDA treatment. The results from the study suggest that ROS-mediated transport dysfunction occurs early and plays a significant role in inducing axonal degeneration in response to 6-OHDA treatment. PMID:24885281

  9. Fenpropathrin, a Widely Used Pesticide, Causes Dopaminergic Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jing; Zhang, Xiaowei; Huang, Jinsha; Chen, Chunnuan; Chen, Zhenzhen; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Guoxin; Yang, Jiaolong; Zhang, Zhentao; Zhang, Zhaohui; Lin, Zhicheng

    2017-01-01

    Fenpropathrin is one of the widely used pyrethroids in agriculture and household and also reported to have neurotoxic effects in rodent models. In our Parkinson’s disease (PD) clinic, there was a unique patient with a history of daily exposure to fenpropathrin for 6 months prior to developing Parkinsonian symptoms progressively. Since whether fenpropathrin is related to any dopaminergic degeneration was unknown, we aimed in this study to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of fenpropathrin on the dopaminergic system and associated mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. In cultured SH-SY5Y cells, fenpropathrin caused cell death, reactive oxygen species generation, Lewy body-associated proteins aggregation, and Lewy body-like intracytoplasmic inclusions formation. In rodent animals, two different injections of fenpropathrin were used for administrations, intraperitoneal (i.p), or stereotaxical (ST). The rats exhibited lower number of pokes 60 days after first i.p injection, while the rats in ST group showed a significant upregulation of apomorphine-evoked rotations 60 days after first injection. Dcreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) immunoreactivity, while increased dopamine transporter (DAT) immunoreactivity were observed in rats of either i.p or ST group 60 days after the last exposure to fenpropathrin. However, the number of TH-positive cells in the substantia nigra was more reduced 120 days after the first i.p injection than those of 60 days. Our data demonstrated that exposure to fenpropathrin could mimic the pathologic and pathogenetic features of PD especially in late onset cases. These results imply fenpropathrin as a DA neurotoxin and a possible environmental risk factor for PD. PMID:25575680

  10. Dopaminergic neurons encode a distributed, asymmetric representation of temperature in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Tomchik, Seth M

    2013-01-30

    Dopaminergic circuits modulate a wide variety of innate and learned behaviors in animals, including olfactory associative learning, arousal, and temperature-preference behavior. It is not known whether distinct or overlapping sets of dopaminergic neurons modulate these behaviors. Here, I have functionally characterized the dopaminergic circuits innervating the Drosophila mushroom body with in vivo calcium imaging and conditional silencing of genetically defined subsets of neurons. Distinct subsets of PPL1 dopaminergic neurons innervating the vertical lobes of the mushroom body responded to decreases in temperature, but not increases, with rapidly adapting bursts of activity. PAM neurons innervating the horizontal lobes did not respond to temperature shifts. Ablation of the antennae and maxillary palps reduced, but did not eliminate, the responses. Genetic silencing of dopaminergic neurons innervating the vertical mushroom body lobes substantially reduced behavioral cold avoidance, but silencing smaller subsets of these neurons had no effect. These data demonstrate that overlapping dopaminergic circuits encode a broadly distributed, asymmetric representation of temperature that overlays regions implicated previously in learning, memory, and forgetting. Thus, diverse behaviors engage overlapping sets of dopaminergic neurons that encode multimodal stimuli and innervate a single anatomical target, the mushroom body.

  11. Vulnerability to glutamate toxicity of dopaminergic neurons is dependent on endogenous dopamine and MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Matsuo, Takaaki; Wakita, Seiko; Takeuchi, Hiroki; Kume, Toshiaki; Katsuki, Hiroshi; Sawada, Hideyuki; Akaike, Akinori

    2009-07-01

    Dopaminergic neurons are more vulnerable than other types of neurons in cases of Parkinson disease and ischemic brain disease. An increasing amount of evidence suggests that endogenous dopamine plays a role in the vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons. Although glutamate toxicity contributes to the pathogenesis of these disorders, the sensitivity of dopaminergic neurons to glutamate toxicity has not been clarified. In this study, we demonstrated that dopaminergic neurons were preferentially affected by glutamate toxicity in rat mesencephalic cultures. Glutamate toxicity in dopaminergic neurons was blocked by inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 MAPK. Furthermore, depletion of dopamine by alpha-methyl-dl-p-tyrosine methyl ester (alpha-MT), an inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), protected dopaminergic neurons from the neurotoxicity. Exposure to glutamate facilitated phosphoryration of TH at Ser31 by ERK, which contributes to the increased TH activity. Inhibition of ERK had no additive effect on the protection offered by alpha-MT, whereas alpha-MT and c-jun N-terminal kinase or p38 MAPK inhibitors had additive effects and yielded full protection. These data suggest that endogenous dopamine is responsible for the vulnerability to glutamate toxicity of dopaminergic neurons and one of the mechanisms may be an enhancement of dopamine synthesis mediated by ERK.

  12. The Influence of Dopaminergic Striatal Innervation on Upper Limb Locomotor Synergies

    PubMed Central

    Isaias, Ioannis U.; Volkmann, Jens; Marzegan, Alberto; Marotta, Giorgio; Cavallari, Paolo; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    To determine the role of striatal dopaminergic innervation on upper limb synergies during walking, we measured arm kinematics in 13 subjects with Parkinson disease. Patients were recruited according to several inclusion criteria to represent the best possible in vivo model of dopaminergic denervation. Of relevance, we included only subjects with normal spatio-temporal parameters of the stride and gait speed to avoid an impairment of upper limbs locomotor synergies as a consequence of gait impairment per se. Dopaminergic innervation of the striatum was measured by FP-CIT and SPECT. All patients showed a reduction of gait-associated arms movement. No linear correlation was found between arm ROM reduction and contralateral dopaminergic putaminal innervation loss. Still, a partition analysis revealed a 80% chance of reduced arm ROM when putaminal dopamine content loss was >47%. A significant correlation was described between the asymmetry indices of the swinging of the two arms and dopaminergic striatal innervation. When arm ROM was reduced, we found a positive correlation between upper-lower limb phase shift modulation (at different gait velocities) and striatal dopaminergic innervation. These findings are preliminary evidence that dopaminergic striatal tone plays a modulatory role in upper-limb locomotor synergies and upper-lower limb coupling while walking at different velocities. PMID:23236504

  13. Dopaminergic contributions to working memory-related brain activation in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Julie A.; Filippi, Christopher G.; Newhouse, Paul A.; Naylor, Magdalena R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The current study examined the effects of pharmacologic dopaminergic manipulations on working memory-related brain activation in postmenopausal women to further understand the neurochemistry underlying cognition after menopause. Method Eighteen healthy postmenopausal women, mean age 55.21 years, completed three study days with dopaminergic drug challenges during which they performed an fMRI visual verbal N-back test of working memory. Acute stimulation with 1.25 mg oral D2 agonist bromocriptine, acute blockade with 1.5 mg oral haloperidol, and matching placebo were administered randomly and blindly on three study days. Results We found that dopaminergic stimulation increased activation primarily in the posterior regions of the working memory network compared to dopaminergic blockade using a whole brain cluster-level corrected analysis. The dopaminergic medications did not affect working memory performance. Conclusions Patterns of increased BOLD signal activation after dopaminergic stimulation were found in this study in posterior brain regions with no effect on working memory performance. Further studies should examine specific dopaminergic contributions to brain functioning in healthy postmenopausal women in order to determine the effects of the increased brain activation on cognition and behavior. PMID:27676634

  14. Dopaminergic contributions to working memory-related brain activation in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Julie A; Filippi, Christopher G; Newhouse, Paul A; Naylor, Magdalena R

    2017-02-01

    The current study examined the effects of pharmacologic dopaminergic manipulations on working memory-related brain activation in postmenopausal women to further understand the neurochemistry underlying cognition after menopause. Eighteen healthy postmenopausal women, mean age 55.21 years, completed three study days with dopaminergic drug challenges during which they performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging visual verbal N-back test of working memory. Acute stimulation with 1.25 mg oral D2 agonist bromocriptine, acute blockade with 1.5 mg oral haloperidol, and matching placebo were administered randomly and blindly on three study days. We found that dopaminergic stimulation increased activation primarily in the posterior regions of the working memory network compared with dopaminergic blockade using a whole brain cluster-level corrected analysis. The dopaminergic medications did not affect working memory performance. Patterns of increased blood-oxygen-level dependent signal activation after dopaminergic stimulation were found in this study in posterior brain regions with no effect on working memory performance. Further studies should examine specific dopaminergic contributions to brain functioning in healthy postmenopausal women to determine the effects of the increased brain activation on cognition and behavior.

  15. Neurotoxicity of "ecstasy" and its metabolites in human dopaminergic differentiated SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Patrícia Silva; Nogueira, Tiago Bernandes; Costa, Vera Marisa; Branco, Paula Sério; Ferreira, Luísa Maria; Fernandes, Eduarda; Bastos, Maria Lourdes; Meisel, Andreas; Carvalho, Félix; Capela, João Paulo

    2013-02-04

    "Ecstasy" (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or MDMA) is a widely abused recreational drug, reported to produce neurotoxic effects, both in laboratory animals and in humans. MDMA metabolites can be major contributors for MDMA neurotoxicity. This work studied the neurotoxicity of MDMA and its catechol metabolites, α-methyldopamine (α-MeDA) and N-methyl-α-methyldopamine (N-Me-α-MeDA) in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells differentiated with retinoic acid and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate. Differentiation led to SH-SY5Y neurons with higher ability to accumulate dopamine and higher resistance towards dopamine neurotoxicity. MDMA catechol metabolites were neurotoxic to SH-SY5Y neurons, leading to caspase 3-independent cell death in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. MDMA did not show a concentration- and time-dependent death. Pre-treatment with the antioxidant and glutathione precursor, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), resulted in strong protection against the MDMA metabolites' neurotoxicity. Neither the superoxide radical scavenger, tiron, nor the inhibitor of the dopamine (DA) transporter, GBR 12909, prevented the metabolites' toxicity. Cells exposed to α-MeDA showed an increase in intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels, which, at the 48 h time-point, was not dependent in the activity increase of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), revealing a possible transient effect. Importantly, pre-treatment with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of γ-GCS, prevented α-MeDA induced increase in GSH levels, but did not augment this metabolite cytotoxicity. Even so, BSO pre-treatment abolished NAC protective effects against α-MeDA neurotoxicity, which were, at least partially, due to GSH de novo synthesis. Inversely, pre-treatment of cells with BSO augmented N-Me-α-MeDA-induced neurotoxicity, but only slightly affected NAC neuroprotection. In conclusion, MDMA catechol metabolites promote differential toxic effects to differentiated dopaminergic human SH

  16. FMR1 Gene Expansion and Scans without Evidence of Dopaminergic Deficits in Parkinsonism Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hall, DA; Jennings, D; Seibyl, J; Tassone, F; Marek, K

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine if patients with parkinsonism and fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene expansions have a striatal dopamine deficit similar to Parkinson disease (PD) patients. Scope The authors studied three patients with parkinsonism carrying small expansions in the FMR1 gene (41–60 CGG) with [123I] -CIT SPECT imaging. The patients responded to dopaminergic medications, but had preserved dopamine transporter density. Conclusions These results suggest that parkinsonism associated with smaller FMR1 expansions may be related to mechanisms other than presynaptic dopaminergic changes and may represent a potential explanation for at least some parkinsonian cases with scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficits (SWEDD). PMID:20702130

  17. Cocaine Effects on Dopaminergic Transmission Depend on a Balance between Sigma-1 and Sigma-2 Receptor Expression.

    PubMed

    Aguinaga, David; Medrano, Mireia; Vega-Quiroga, Ignacio; Gysling, Katia; Canela, Enric I; Navarro, Gemma; Franco, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    Sigma σ 1 and σ 2 receptors are targets of cocaine. Despite sharing a similar name, the two receptors are structurally unrelated and their physiological role is unknown. Cocaine increases the level of dopamine, a key neurotransmitter in CNS motor control and reward areas. While the drug also affects dopaminergic signaling by allosteric modulations exerted by σ 1 R interacting with dopamine D 1 and D 2 receptors, the potential regulation of dopaminergic transmission by σ 2 R is also unknown. We here demonstrate that σ 2 R may form heteroreceptor complexes with D 1 but not with D 2 receptors. Remarkably σ 1 , σ 2 , and D 1 receptors may form heterotrimers with particular signaling properties. Determination of cAMP levels, MAP kinase activation and label-free assays demonstrate allosteric interactions within the trimer. Importantly, the presence of σ 2 R induces bias in signal transduction as σ 2 R ligands increase cAMP signaling whereas reduce MAP kinase activation. These effects, which are opposite to those exerted via σ 1 R, suggest that the D 1 receptor-mediated signaling depends on the degree of trimer formation and the differential balance of sigma receptor and heteroreceptor expression in acute versus chronic cocaine consumption. Although the physiological role is unknown, the heteroreceptor complex formed by σ 1 , σ 2 , and D 1 receptors arise as relevant to convey the cocaine actions on motor control and reward circuits and as a key factor in acquisition of the addictive habit.

  18. Cocaine Effects on Dopaminergic Transmission Depend on a Balance between Sigma-1 and Sigma-2 Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Aguinaga, David; Medrano, Mireia; Vega-Quiroga, Ignacio; Gysling, Katia; Canela, Enric I.; Navarro, Gemma; Franco, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    Sigma σ1 and σ2 receptors are targets of cocaine. Despite sharing a similar name, the two receptors are structurally unrelated and their physiological role is unknown. Cocaine increases the level of dopamine, a key neurotransmitter in CNS motor control and reward areas. While the drug also affects dopaminergic signaling by allosteric modulations exerted by σ1R interacting with dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, the potential regulation of dopaminergic transmission by σ2R is also unknown. We here demonstrate that σ2R may form heteroreceptor complexes with D1 but not with D2 receptors. Remarkably σ1, σ2, and D1 receptors may form heterotrimers with particular signaling properties. Determination of cAMP levels, MAP kinase activation and label-free assays demonstrate allosteric interactions within the trimer. Importantly, the presence of σ2R induces bias in signal transduction as σ2R ligands increase cAMP signaling whereas reduce MAP kinase activation. These effects, which are opposite to those exerted via σ1R, suggest that the D1 receptor-mediated signaling depends on the degree of trimer formation and the differential balance of sigma receptor and heteroreceptor expression in acute versus chronic cocaine consumption. Although the physiological role is unknown, the heteroreceptor complex formed by σ1, σ2, and D1 receptors arise as relevant to convey the cocaine actions on motor control and reward circuits and as a key factor in acquisition of the addictive habit. PMID:29483862

  19. The Neuroprotective Mechanism of Low-Frequency rTMS on Nigral Dopaminergic Neurons of Parkinson's Disease Model Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qiaoyun; Wang, Yanyong; Gu, Ping; Shao, Rusheng; Zhao, Li; Liu, Xiqi; Wang, Zhanqiang; Wang, Mingwei

    2015-01-01

    Background. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease in elder people, pathophysiologic basis of which is the severe deficiency of dopamine in the striatum. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of low-frequency rTMS on Parkinson's disease in model mice. Methods. The effects of low-frequency rTMS on the motor function, cortex excitability, neurochemistry, and neurohistopathology of MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease mice were investigated through behavioral detection, electrophysiologic technique, high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection, immunohistochemical staining, and western blot. Results. Low-frequency rTMS could improve the motor coordination impairment of Parkinson's disease mice: the resting motor threshold significantly decreased in the Parkinson's disease mice; the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neuron and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase were significantly improved by low-frequency rTMS; moreover, the expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor were also improved by low-frequency rTMS. Conclusions. Low-frequency rTMS had a neuroprotective effect on the nigral dopaminergic neuron which might be due to the improved expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. The present study provided a theoretical basis for the application of low-frequency rTMS in the clinical treatment and recovery of Parkinson's disease. PMID:25883828

  20. Neuron-derived IgG protects dopaminergic neurons from insult by 6-OHDA and activates microglia through the FcγR I and TLR4 pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Niu, Na; Wang, Mingyu; McNutt, Michael A; Zhang, Donghong; Zhang, Baogang; Lu, Shijun; Liu, Yuqing; Liu, Zhihui

    2013-08-01

    Oxidative and immune attacks from the environment or microglia have been implicated in the loss of dopaminergic neurons of Parkinson's disease. The role of IgG which is an important immunologic molecule in the process of Parkinson's disease has been unclear. Evidence suggests that IgG can be produced by neurons in addition to its traditionally recognized source B lymphocytes, but its function in neurons is poorly understood. In this study, extensive expression of neuron-derived IgG was demonstrated in dopaminergic neurons of human and rat mesencephalon. With an in vitro Parkinson's disease model, we found that neuron-derived IgG can improve the survival and reduce apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity, and also depress the release of NO from microglia triggered by 6-hydroxydopamine. Expression of TNF-α and IL-10 in microglia was elevated to protective levels by neuron-derived IgG at a physiologic level via the FcγR I and TLR4 pathways and microglial activation could be attenuated by IgG blocking. All these data suggested that neuron-derived IgG may exert a self-protective function by activating microglia properly, and IgG may be involved in maintaining immunity homeostasis in the central nervous system and serve as an active factor under pathological conditions such as Parkinson's disease. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic correlational analysis reveals no association between MPP+ and the severity of striatal dopaminergic damage following MPTP treatment in BXD mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Jones, Byron C; O'Callaghan, James P; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W; Alam, Gelareh; Miller, Diane B

    2014-01-01

    1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a pro-neurotoxicant that must be metabolized to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) and taken up into striatal dopaminergic neurons to produce neurodegeneration. Recently, we showed wide genetic variability in MPTP-associated neuronal damage in a panel of recombinant inbred mouse strains. Here we examined the amount of MPP(+) produced in the striatum in the same strains of inbred BXD mice. This allowed us to determine if the differences in the dopaminergic neurotoxicity and associated astrogliosis among the BXD mouse strains were due to differential metabolism of MPTP to MPP(+). Using the same BXD mouse strains examined previously (Jones et al., 2013) we found that the extent of the striatal damage produced following MPTP treatment is not correlated quantitatively with the production of MPP(+) in the striatum. Our findings also extend those of others regarding strain differences in MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Importantly, our finding suggests that additional factors influence the neurodegenerative response other than the presence and amount of the toxicant at the target site. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Role of the neostriatal dopaminergic activity in sequencing and selecting behavioural strategies: facilitation of processes involved in selecting the best strategy in a stressful situation.

    PubMed

    Cools, A R

    1980-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect the behavioural effect of drug-induced changes in the neostriatal dopaminergic activity upon the degree of intrinsic (self-generated) and extrinsic (externally produced) constraints on the selection of behavioural patterns in rats. Both systemic and neostriatal injections of extremely low doses of apomorphine and haloperidol were used to change the neostriatal dopaminergic activity. Behavioural changes were observed in (a) an open-field test, (b) a so-called 'swimming without escape' test, (c) a so-called 'swimming with escape' test, and (d) a test to detect deficiencies in sensory, motor and sensorimotor capacities required to perform both swimming tests. Evidence is found that the neostriatum, especially the neostriatal, dopaminergic activity determines the animal's ability to select the best strategy in a stressful situation by modifying the process of switching strategies under pressure of factors intrinsic to the organism: neither sensory neglect nor inability to initiate voluntary movements underlay the observed phenomena. It is suggested that the neostriatum determines the individual flexibility to cope with available sensory information.

  3. A combined behavioral and morphological study on the effects of fetal asphyxia on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Strackx, E; Van den Hove, D L A; Steinbusch, H P; Steinbusch, H W M; Vles, J S H; Blanco, C E; Gavilanes, A W D

    2008-06-01

    Fetal asphyxic insults in the brain are known to be associated with developmental neurological problems like neuromotor disorders. However, little is known about the long-term consequences of fetal asphyxia (FA). For that reason, the present study investigated the long-term effects of FA on motor behavior and dopaminergic circuitry. FA was induced at embryonic day 17 by 75-minute clamping of the uterine circulation. SHAM animals underwent the same procedure except for the clamping. This was followed by full-term vaginal delivery of animals in all groups (FA, SHAM and untreated controls). At 6 months, basal and amphetamine-induced locomotor activity was measured during open field testing. Brain sections were stained for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). TH-positive cells and GFAP-positive cells in substantia nigra pars compacta (SN(C)) and striatum were counted using design-based stereology. Moreover, TH-immunoreactivity in the striatum was assessed by grey value measurements. Behavioral analysis demonstrated that SHAM and FA showed less basal and amphetamine-induced activity than controls. Histochemically, FA decreased the number of TH-positive neurons in the SN(C) and lowered TH-positive in the striatum. Furthermore, more GFAP-positive cells were found in the SN(C) and striatum in FA than in either control and SHAM groups. Additionally, FA animals showed ventriculomegaly associated with smaller white matter as well as grey matter volumes. The data show that FA was associated with deficits in both dopamine-related motor behavior and biochemistry. These alterations were associated with nigrostriatal astrogliosis. The present study demonstrates the sensitivity of the dopaminergic system towards FA.

  4. Differences in the time course of dopaminergic supersensitivity following chronic administration of haloperidol, molindone, or sulpiride.

    PubMed

    Prosser, E S; Pruthi, R; Csernansky, J G

    1989-01-01

    The onset and persistence of changes in 3H-spiroperidol binding to dopamine (DA) D2 receptors were examined in rat mesolimbic and striatal brain regions following daily administration of haloperidol, molindone, or sulpiride for 3, 7, 14, or 28 days. Neuroleptic dose equivalencies were determined by inhibition of 3H-spiroperidol in vivo binding in several rat brain regions. Changes in locomotor and stereotyped responses to the specific DA D2 agonist quinpirole were examined 3 days after the last treatment dose. Haloperidol or molindone administration increased mean stereotypy scores and striatal DA D2 receptor densities throughout the 28-day treatment period. In contrast, mesolimbic DA D2 receptor densities were transiently increased and returned to control values, after 28 days of haloperidol or molindone treatment. Sulpiride treatment increased mean stereotypy scores and striatal Bmax values, but had no effect on locomotion or mesolimbic dopamine receptor density. Additionally, the magnitude of change in the various measures of brain DA function varied among the three neuroleptic treatment groups. Results from this study suggest that mesolimbic and striatal brain regions differ in their response to long-term neuroleptic administration and that drug choice may influence the magnitude of neuroleptic-induced dopaminergic supersensitivity.

  5. Progranulin gene delivery protects dopaminergic neurons in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Van Kampen, Jackalina M; Baranowski, David; Kay, Denis G

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity and akinesia/bradykinesia resulting from the progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. To date, only symptomatic treatment is available for PD patients, with no effective means of slowing or stopping the progression of the disease. Progranulin (PGRN) is a 593 amino acid multifunction protein that is widely distributed throughout the CNS, localized primarily in neurons and microglia. PGRN has been demonstrated to be a potent regulator of neuroinflammation and also acts as an autocrine neurotrophic factor, important for long-term neuronal survival. Thus, enhancing PGRN expression may strengthen the cells resistance to disease. In the present study, we have used the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD to investigate the possible use of PGRN gene delivery as a therapy for the prevention or treatment of PD. Viral vector delivery of the PGRN gene was an effective means of elevating PGRN expression in nigrostriatal neurons. When PGRN expression was elevated in the SNC, nigrostriatal neurons were protected from MPTP toxicity in mice, along with a preservation of striatal dopamine content and turnover. Further, protection of nigrostriatal neurons by PGRN gene therapy was accompanied by reductions in markers of MPTP-induced inflammation and apoptosis as well as a complete preservation of locomotor function. We conclude that PGRN gene therapy may have beneficial effects in the treatment of PD.

  6. Positron emission tomography molecular imaging of dopaminergic system in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Hou, Haifeng; Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong

    2012-05-01

    Dopamine (DA) is involved in drug reinforcement, but its role in drug addiction remains unclear. Positron emission tomography (PET) is the first technology used for the direct measurement of components of the dopaminergic system in the living human brain. In this article, we reviewed the major findings of PET imaging studies on the involvement of DA in drug addiction, especially in heroin addiction. Furthermore, we summarized PET radiotracers that have been used to study the role of DA in drug addiction. To investigate presynaptic function in drug addiction, PET tracers have been developed to measure DA synthesis and transport. For the investigation of postsynaptic function, several radioligands targeting dopamine one (D1) receptor and dopamine two (D2) receptor are extensively used in PET imaging studies. Moreover, we also summarized the PET imaging findings of heroin addiction studies, including heroin-induced DA increases and the reinforcement, role of DA in the long-term effects of heroin abuse, DA and vulnerability to heroin abuse and the treatment implications. PET imaging studies have corroborated the role of DA in drug addiction and increase our understanding the mechanism of drug addiction. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Clinical, Dopaminergic, and Metabolic Correlations in Parkinson Disease: A Dual-Tracer PET Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng-Tao; Ge, Jing-Jie; Wu, Jian-Jun; Wu, Ping; Ma, Yilong; Zuo, Chuan-Tao; Wang, Jian

    2018-05-31

    Neuroimaging indicators of Parkinson disease have been developed and applied in clinical practices. Dopaminergic imaging reflects nigrostriatal dopaminergic dysfunction, and metabolic network imaging offers disease-related metabolic changes at a system level. We aimed to elucidate the association between Parkinsonian symptoms and neuroimaging, and interactions between different imaging techniques. We conducted a dual-tracer PET study for the combined assessments of dopaminergic binding (C-CFT) and glucose metabolism (F-FDG) in 103 participants with Parkinson disease (65 male and 38 female subjects). The detailed clinical rating scores were systematically collected in all members. The interactions among dopaminergic bindings, metabolic changes, and clinical manifestations were evaluated at voxel, regional, and network levels. Striatal DAT binding correlated with akinesia-rigidity (P < 0.001) but not with tremor; the metabolic PET imaging, nonspecific to the dopaminergic dysfunction, disclosed a set of brain regions correlating with the cardinal symptoms, including tremor. In addition, the unilateral symptom correlated with the contralateral nigrostriatal dopamine loss, but with bilateral metabolic changes, suggesting their differences in the application of disease-related mechanistic studies. Further imaging-imaging correlation study revealed that dopaminergic dysfunction correlated with widely distributed metabolic changes in Parkinson disease, and the modest correlations supported the findings on the clinical-imaging correlation. In this dual-tracer PET study, we demonstrated the robust interactions among dopaminergic dysfunction, metabolic brain changes and clinical manifestations at voxel, regional, and network levels. Our findings might promote the understanding in the proper application of dopaminergic and metabolic PET imaging in Parkinson disease and offer more evidence in support of Parkinsonian pathophysiological mechanisms.This is an open-access article

  8. Running wheel exercise before a binge regimen of methamphetamine does not protect against striatal dopaminergic damage.

    PubMed

    O'dell, Steven J; Marshall, John F

    2014-09-01

    Repeated administration of methamphetamine (mAMPH) to rodents in a single-day "binge" dosing regimen produces long-lasting damage to forebrain dopaminergic nerve terminals as measured by decreases in tissue dopamine (DA) content and levels of the plasmalemmal DA transporter (DAT). However, the midbrain cell bodies from which the DA terminals arise survive, and previous reports show that striatal DA markers return to control levels by 12 months post-mAMPH, suggesting long-term repair or regrowth of damaged DA terminals. We previously showed that when rats engaged in voluntary aerobic exercise for 3 weeks before and 3 weeks after a binge regimen of mAMPH, exercise significantly ameliorated mAMPH-induced decreases in striatal DAT. However, these data left unresolved the question of whether exercise protected against the initial neurotoxicity from the mAMPH binge or accelerated the repair of the damaged DA terminals. The present experiments were designed to test whether exercise protects against the mAMPH-induced injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed to run in wheels for 3 weeks before an acute binge regimen of mAMPH or saline, then placed into nonwheel cages for an additional week before autoradiographic determination of striatal DAT binding. The autoradiographic findings showed that prior exercise provided no protection against mAMPH-induced damage to striatal DA terminals. These results, together with analyses from our previous experiments, suggest that voluntary exercise may accelerate the repair of mAMPH-damaged DA terminals and that voluntary exercise may be useful as therapeutic adjunct in the treatment mAMPH addicts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Topography and collateralization of dopaminergic projections to primary motor cortex in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosp, Jonas A; Nolan, Helen E; Luft, Andreas R

    2015-05-01

    Dopaminergic signaling within the primary motor cortex (M1) is necessary for successful motor skill learning. Dopaminergic neurons projecting to M1 are located in the ventral tegmental area (VTA, nucleus A10) of the midbrain. It is unknown which behavioral correlates are encoded by these neurons. The objective here is to investigate whether VTA-M1 fibers are collaterals of projections to prefrontal cortex (PFC) or nucleus accumbens (NAc) or if they form a distinct pathway. In rats, multiple-site retrograde fluorescent tracers were injected into M1, PFC and the core region of the NAc and VTA sections investigated for concomitant labeling of different tracers. Dopaminergic neurons projecting to M1, PFC and NAc were found in nucleus A10 and to a lesser degree in the medial nucleus A9. Neurons show high target specificity, minimal collateral branching to other than their target area and hardly cross the midline. Whereas PFC- and NAc-projecting neurons are indistinguishably intermingled within the ventral portion of dopaminergic nuclei in middle and caudal midbrain, M1-projecting neurons are only located within the dorsal part of the rostral midbrain. Within M1, the forelimb representation receives sevenfold more dopaminergic projections than the hindlimb representation. This strong rostro-caudal gradient as well as the topographical preference to dorsal structures suggest that projections to M1 emerged late in the development of the dopaminergic systems in and form a functionally distinct system.

  10. Dopaminergic Variants in Siblings at High Risk for Autism: Associations With Initiating Joint Attention

    PubMed Central

    Gangi, Devon N.; Messinger, Daniel S.; Martin, Eden R.; Cuccaro, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; high-risk siblings) exhibit lower levels of initiating joint attention (IJA; sharing an object or experience with a social partner through gaze and/or gesture) than low-risk siblings of children without ASD. However, high-risk siblings also exhibit substantial variability in this domain. The neurotransmitter dopamine is linked to brain areas associated with reward, motivation, and attention, and common dopaminergic variants have been associated with attention difficulties. We examined whether these common dopaminergic variants, DRD4 and DRD2, explain variability in IJA in high-risk (n = 55) and low-risk (n = 38) siblings. IJA was assessed in the first year during a semi-structured interaction with an examiner. DRD4 and DRD2 genotypes were coded according to associated dopaminergic functioning to create a gene score, with higher scores indicating more genotypes associated with less efficient dopaminergic functioning. Higher dopamine gene scores (indicative of less efficient dopaminergic functioning) were associated with lower levels of IJA in the first year for high-risk siblings, while the opposite pattern emerged in low-risk siblings. Findings suggest differential susceptibility—IJA was differentially associated with dopaminergic functioning depending on familial ASD risk. Understanding genes linked to ASD-relevant behaviors in high-risk siblings will aid in early identification of children at greatest risk for difficulties in these behavioral domains, facilitating targeted prevention and intervention. PMID:26990357

  11. Sweet Taste and Nutrient Value Subdivide Rewarding Dopaminergic Neurons in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Huetteroth, Wolf; Perisse, Emmanuel; Lin, Suewei; Klappenbach, Martín; Burke, Christopher; Waddell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dopaminergic neurons provide reward learning signals in mammals and insects [1–4]. Recent work in Drosophila has demonstrated that water-reinforcing dopaminergic neurons are different to those for nutritious sugars [5]. Here, we tested whether the sweet taste and nutrient properties of sugar reinforcement further subdivide the fly reward system. We found that dopaminergic neurons expressing the OAMB octopamine receptor [6] specifically convey the short-term reinforcing effects of sweet taste [4]. These dopaminergic neurons project to the β′2 and γ4 regions of the mushroom body lobes. In contrast, nutrient-dependent long-term memory requires different dopaminergic neurons that project to the γ5b regions, and it can be artificially reinforced by those projecting to the β lobe and adjacent α1 region. Surprisingly, whereas artificial implantation and expression of short-term memory occur in satiated flies, formation and expression of artificial long-term memory require flies to be hungry. These studies suggest that short-term and long-term sugar memories have different physiological constraints. They also demonstrate further functional heterogeneity within the rewarding dopaminergic neuron population. PMID:25728694

  12. Epothilone D prevents binge methamphetamine-mediated loss of striatal dopaminergic markers.

    PubMed

    Killinger, Bryan A; Moszczynska, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to binge methamphetamine (METH) can result in a permanent or transient loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) markers such as dopamine (DA), dopamine transporter, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the striatum. We hypothesized that the METH-induced loss of striatal DAergic markers was, in part, due to a destabilization of microtubules (MTs) in the nigrostriatal DA pathway that ultimately impedes anterograde axonal transport of these markers. To test this hypothesis, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with binge METH or saline in the presence or absence of epothilone D (EpoD), a MT-stabilizing compound, and assessed 3 days after the treatments for the levels of several DAergic markers as well as for the levels of tubulins and their post-translational modifications (PMTs). Binge METH induced a loss of stable long-lived MTs within the striatum but not within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Treatment with a low dose of EpoD increased the levels of markers of stable MTs and prevented METH-mediated deficits in several DAergic markers in the striatum. In contrast, administration of a high dose of EpoD appeared to destabilize MTs and potentiated the METH-induced deficits in several DAergic markers. The low-dose EpoD also prevented the METH-induced increase in striatal DA turnover and increased behavioral stereotypy during METH treatment. Together, these results demonstrate that MT dynamics plays a role in the development of METH-induced losses of several DAergic markers in the striatum and may mediate METH-induced degeneration of terminals in the nigrostriatal DA pathway. Our study also demonstrates that MT-stabilizing drugs such as EpoD have a potential to serve as useful therapeutic agents to restore function of DAergic nerve terminals following METH exposure when administered at low doses. Administration of binge methamphetamine (METH) negatively impacts neurotransmission in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system. The effects of METH include

  13. Verticalization of behavior elicited by dopaminergic mobilization is qualitatively different between C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice.

    PubMed

    Tirelli, E; Witkin, J M

    1994-10-01

    Behavioral effects of dopaminergic stimulation were evaluated in C57BL/6J mice and compared to the effects occurring in DBA/2J mice, an inbred strain with reduced densities of striatal dopamine receptors. Effects of apomorphine (0.5-64 mg/kg) alone and in combination with cocaine (30 mg/kg) were assessed using a time-sampling technique that classified climbing and leaning in separate categories. Locomotion was also assessed in a separate experiment. Climbing occurred in DBA/2J mice only at doses of apomorphine that were 16 times higher than the smallest effective dose in C57BL/6J mice; nevertheless, relative to baseline values, effects were fairly comparable. By contrast, whereas DBA/2J mice showed dose-dependent leaning under apomorphine, C57BL/6J mice exhibited little leaning even at doses not producing climbing, and only after the highest apomorphine dose was leaning significantly increased. Apomorphine was equipotent in inducing gnawing across strains, although somewhat less efficacious in DBA/2J mice. When given alone, cocaine produced significant climbing, but not leaning or gnawing, in either strain. Whereas cocaine potentiated apomorphine-induced climbing and gnawing in both strains, apomorphine-induced leaning was not consistently changed by cocaine in either strain. These effects were not indirectly due to hyperkinesia, since neither apomorphine alone nor apomorphine and cocaine in combination was stimulant; apomorphine alone reduced locomotor activity and attenuated cocaine-induced hyperkinesia. The present data do not support a unitary, purely quantitative, account of insensitivity to dopaminergic stimulation based upon low densities of striatal dopamine receptors in DBA/2J mice. Rather, this constellation of results is suggestive of qualitative interstrain dissimilarities in dopaminergic responsiveness that could reflect organizational differences in receptor populations.

  14. Differential regional expression patterns of α-synuclein, TNF-α, and IL-1β; and variable status of dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mouse brain after Paraquat treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Paraquat (1, 1-dimethyl-4, 4-bipyridium dichloride; PQ) causes neurotoxicity, especially dopaminergic neurotoxicity, and is a supposed risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of PQ-induced neurodegeneration are far from clear. Previous studies have shown that PQ induces neuroinflammation and dopaminergic cell loss, but the prime cause of those events is still in debate. Methods We examined the neuropathological effects of PQ not only in substantia nigra (SN) but also in frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus of the progressive mouse (adult Swiss albino) model of PD-like neurodegeneration, using immunohistochemistry, western blots, and histological and biochemical analyses. Results PQ caused differential patterns of changes in cellular morphology and expression of proteins related to PD and neuroinflammation in the three regions examined (SN, FC and hippocampus). Coincident with behavioral impairment and brain-specific ROS generation, there was differential immunolocalization and decreased expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the three regions, whereas α-synuclein immunopositivity increased in hippocampus, increased in FC and decreased in SN. PQ-induced neuroinflammation was characterized by area-specific changes in localization and appearances of microglial cells with or without activation and increment in expression patterns of tumor necrosis factor-α in the three regions of mouse brain. Expression of interleukin-1β was increased in FC and hippocampus but not significantly changed in SN. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that PQ induces ROS production and differential α-synuclein expression that promotes neuroinflammation in microglia-dependent or -independent manners, and produces different patterns of dopaminergic neurotoxicity in three different regions of mouse brain. PMID:22112368

  15. Cellular manganese content is developmentally regulated in human dopaminergic neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Kevin K.; Lowe, Edward W., Jr.; Aboud, Asad A.; Neely, M. Diana; Redha, Rey; Bauer, Joshua A.; Odak, Mihir; Weaver, C. David; Meiler, Jens; Aschner, Michael; Bowman, Aaron B.

    2014-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) is both an essential biological cofactor and neurotoxicant. Disruption of Mn biology in the basal ganglia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as parkinsonism and Huntington's disease. Handling of other essential metals (e.g. iron and zinc) occurs via complex intracellular signaling networks that link metal detection and transport systems. However, beyond several non-selective transporters, little is known about the intracellular processes regulating neuronal Mn homeostasis. We hypothesized that small molecules that modulate intracellular Mn could provide insight into cell-level Mn regulatory mechanisms. We performed a high throughput screen of 40,167 small molecules for modifiers of cellular Mn content in a mouse striatal neuron cell line. Following stringent validation assays and chemical informatics, we obtained a chemical `toolbox' of 41 small molecules with diverse structure-activity relationships that can alter intracellular Mn levels under biologically relevant Mn exposures. We utilized this toolbox to test for differential regulation of Mn handling in human floor-plate lineage dopaminergic neurons, a lineage especially vulnerable to environmental Mn exposure. We report differential Mn accumulation between developmental stages and stage-specific differences in the Mn-altering activity of individual small molecules. This work demonstrates cell-level regulation of Mn content across neuronal differentiation.

  16. Neuroprotective effects of phytochemicals on dopaminergic neuron cultures.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Avila, S; Diaz, N F; Gómez-Pinedo, U; Canales-Aguirre, A A; Gutiérrez-Mercado, Y K; Padilla-Camberos, E; Marquez-Aguirre, A L; Díaz-Martínez, N E

    2016-06-21

    Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, which results in a significant decrease in dopamine levels and consequent functional motor impairment. Although its aetiology is not fully understood, several pathogenic mechanisms, including oxidative stress, have been proposed. Current therapeutic approaches are based on dopamine replacement drugs; these agents, however, are not able to stop or even slow disease progression. Novel therapeutic approaches aimed at acting on the pathways leading to neuronal dysfunction and death are under investigation. In recent years, such natural molecules as polyphenols, alkaloids, and saponins have been shown to have a neuroprotective effect due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of our review is to analyse the most relevant studies worldwide addressing the benefits of some phytochemicals used in in vitro models of Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Dopaminergic modulation of semantic priming in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Roesch-Ely, Daniela; Weiland, Stephan; Scheffel, Hans; Schwaninger, Markus; Hundemer, Hans-Peter; Kolter, Thomas; Weisbrod, Matthias

    2006-09-15

    Semantic priming is a function related to prefrontal cortical (PFC) networks and is lateralized. There is evidence that semantic priming underlies dopaminergic modulation. It is known that the D1-receptor is more abundant in prefrontal networks; however, until now there have been no studies investigating the selective modulation of semantic priming with dopamine agonists. Furthermore, D1 receptor dysfunction has been described in schizophrenia, and patients with formal thought disorder seem to have disturbed focusing of associations and increased indirect priming. With a subtraction design, we compared the influence of pergolide (D1/D2 agonist) with bromocriptine (D2 agonist) and placebo, in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design in 40 healthy male volunteers. Subjects performed a lateralized lexical decision task including direct and indirect related prime-target pairs (stimulus onset asynchrony = 750 msec). Only on pergolide a decrease of the indirect priming in the left hemisphere presentations was found. These findings point to a potential selective modulation of agonists with a D1 component on the focusing of semantic associations. The clinical relevance of this study is that it might help the development of therapeutic strategies for treating cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease, which are highly relevant to the functional outcome.

  18. Hypothesizing dopaminergic genetic antecedents in schizophrenia and substance seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Palomo, Tomas; Gold, Mark S

    2014-05-01

    The dopamine system has been implicated in both substance use disorder (SUD) and schizophrenia. A recent meta-analysis suggests that A1 allele of the DRD2 gene imposes genetic risk for SUD, especially alcoholism and has been implicated in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). We hypothesize that dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene Taq1 A2 allele is associated with a subtype of non-SUD schizophrenics and as such may act as a putative protective agent against the development of addiction to alcohol or other drugs of abuse. Schizophrenics with SUD may be carriers of the DRD2 Taq1 A1 allele, and/or other RDS reward polymorphisms and have hypodopaminergic reward function. One plausible mechanism for alcohol seeking in schizophrenics with SUD, based on previous research, may be a deficiency of gamma type endorphins that has been linked to schizophrenic type psychosis. We also propose that alcohol seeking behavior in schizophrenics, may serve as a physiological self-healing process linked to the increased function of the gamma endorphins, thereby reducing abnormal dopaminergic activity at the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These hypotheses warrant further investigation and cautious interpretation. We, therefore, encourage research involving neuroimaging, genome wide association studies (GWAS), and epigenetic investigation into the relationship between neurogenetics and systems biology to unravel the role of dopamine in psychiatric illness and SUD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Dopaminergic Midbrain Encodes the Expected Certainty about Desired Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Schwartenbeck, Philipp; FitzGerald, Thomas H B; Mathys, Christoph; Dolan, Ray; Friston, Karl

    2015-10-01

    Dopamine plays a key role in learning; however, its exact function in decision making and choice remains unclear. Recently, we proposed a generic model based on active (Bayesian) inference wherein dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about optimal policies. Put simply, dopamine discharges reflect the confidence that a chosen policy will lead to desired outcomes. We designed a novel task to test this hypothesis, where subjects played a "limited offer" game in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Subjects had to decide how long to wait for a high offer before accepting a low offer, with the risk of losing everything if they waited too long. Bayesian model comparison showed that behavior strongly supported active inference, based on surprise minimization, over classical utility maximization schemes. Furthermore, midbrain activity, encompassing dopamine projection neurons, was accurately predicted by trial-by-trial variations in model-based estimates of precision. Our findings demonstrate that human subjects infer both optimal policies and the precision of those inferences, and thus support the notion that humans perform hierarchical probabilistic Bayesian inference. In other words, subjects have to infer both what they should do as well as how confident they are in their choices, where confidence may be encoded by dopaminergic firing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. The Dopaminergic Midbrain Encodes the Expected Certainty about Desired Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Schwartenbeck, Philipp; FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Mathys, Christoph; Dolan, Ray; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine plays a key role in learning; however, its exact function in decision making and choice remains unclear. Recently, we proposed a generic model based on active (Bayesian) inference wherein dopamine encodes the precision of beliefs about optimal policies. Put simply, dopamine discharges reflect the confidence that a chosen policy will lead to desired outcomes. We designed a novel task to test this hypothesis, where subjects played a “limited offer” game in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Subjects had to decide how long to wait for a high offer before accepting a low offer, with the risk of losing everything if they waited too long. Bayesian model comparison showed that behavior strongly supported active inference, based on surprise minimization, over classical utility maximization schemes. Furthermore, midbrain activity, encompassing dopamine projection neurons, was accurately predicted by trial-by-trial variations in model-based estimates of precision. Our findings demonstrate that human subjects infer both optimal policies and the precision of those inferences, and thus support the notion that humans perform hierarchical probabilistic Bayesian inference. In other words, subjects have to infer both what they should do as well as how confident they are in their choices, where confidence may be encoded by dopaminergic firing. PMID:25056572

  1. Hypothesizing Dopaminergic Genetic Antecedents in Schizophrenia and Substance Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Badgaiyan, Rajendra; Palomo, Tomas; Gold, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine system has been implicated in both substance use disorder (SUD) and schizophrenia. A recent meta- analysis suggests that A1 allele of the DRD2 gene imposes genetic risk for SUD, especially alcoholism and has been implicated in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). We hypothesize that dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene Taq1 A2 allele is associated with a subtype of non- SUD schizophrenics and as such may act as a putative protective agent against the development of addiction to alcohol or other drugs of abuse. Schizophrenics with SUD may be carriers of the DRD2 Taq1 A1 allele, and/or other RDS reward polymorphisms and have hypodopaminergic reward function. One plausible mechanism for alcohol seeking in schizophrenics with SUD, based on previous research, may be a deficiency of gamma type endorphins that has been linked to schizophrenic type psychosis.. We also propose that alcohol seeking behavior in schizophrenics, may serve as a physiological self-healing process linked to the increased function of the gamma endorphins, thereby reducing abnormal dopaminergic activity at the nucleus accumbens (NAc). These hypotheses warrant further investigation and cautious interpretation. We, therefore, encourage research involving neuroimaging, genome wide association studies (GWAS), and epigenetic investigation into the relationship between neurogenetics and systems biology to unravel the role of dopamine in psychiatric illness and SUD. PMID:24636783

  2. Evidence That GABA Mediates Dopaminergic and Serotonergic Pathways Associated with Locomotor Activity in Juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clements, S.; Schreck, C.B.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the control of locomotor activity in juvenile salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by manipulating 3 neurotransmitter systems-gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA), dopamine, and serotonin-as well as the neuropeptide corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of CRH and the GABAAagonist muscimol stimulated locomotor activity. The effect of muscimol was attenuated by administration of a dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol. Conversely, the administration of a dopamine uptake inhibitor (4???,4??? -difluoro-3-alpha-[diphenylmethoxy] tropane hydrochloride [DUI]) potentiated the effect of muscimol. They found no evidence that CRH-induced hyperactivity is mediated by dopaminergic systems following concurrent injections of haloperidol or DUI with CRH. Administration of muscimol either had no effect or attenuated the locomotor response to concurrent injections of CRH and fluoxetine, whereas the GABAA antagonist bicuculline methiodide potentiated the effect of CRH and fluoxetine.

  3. Continuous dopaminergic stimulation in a patient treated with daytime Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel and overnight Rotigotine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Imbriani, Paola; Schirinzi, Tommaso; D'Elia, Alessio; Pisani, Antonio

    2017-08-23

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) receiving long-term L-Dopa therapy eventually develop motor complications with unpredictable "on-off" response fluctuations and involuntary movements, leading to progressive disability. Hence, the search for alternative therapeutic choices based on continuous dopaminergic stimulation (CDS) becomes crucial for the treatment of advanced PD. Here, we describe the case of a 70-year-old man with a 9-year history of PD, treated with daytime levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) and overnight Rotigotine transdermal patch. LCIG monotherapy significantly reduced motor fluctuations and prevented the appearance of unpredictable off periods; concurrently, overnight Rotigotine improved his sleep quality and morning akinesia. Both LCIG and Rotigotine induce CDS, which conceptually mimics physiologic striatal dopamine receptor function. Hence, they both represent a good therapeutic option for the treatment of advanced PD.

  4. The neuroprotective effects of α-iso-cubebene on dopaminergic cell death: involvement of CREB/Nrf2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Young; Son, Beung Gu; Park, Young Hoon; Kim, Cheol-Min; Park, Geuntae; Choi, Young-Whan

    2014-09-01

    As a part of ongoing studies to elucidate pharmacologically active components of Schisandra chinensis, we isolated and studied α-iso-cubebene. The neuroprotective mechanisms of α-iso-cubebene in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were investigated. α-Iso-cubebene significantly inhibited cytotoxicity and apoptosis due to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment of cells with α-iso-cubebene reduced intracellular accumulation of ROS and calcium in response to 6-OHDA. The neuroprotective effects of α-iso-cubebene were found to result from protecting the mitochondrial membrane potential. Notably, α-iso-cubebene inhibited the release of apoptosis-inducing factor from the mitochondria into the cytosol and nucleus after 6-OHDA treatment. α-Iso-cubebene also induced the activation of PKA/PKB/CREB/Nrf2 and suppressed 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. α-Iso-cubebene was found to induce phosphorylation of PKA and PKB and activate Nrf2 and CREB signaling pathways in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, α-iso-cubebene stimulated the expression of the antioxidant response genes NQO1 and HO-1. Finally, α-iso-cubebene-mediated neuroprotective effects were found to be reversible after transfection with CREB and Nrf2 small interfering RNAs.

  5. Mic60/Mitofilin Overexpression Alters Mitochondrial Dynamics and Attenuates Vulnerability of Dopaminergic Cells to Dopamine and Rotenone

    PubMed Central

    Van Laar, Victor S.; Berman, Sarah B.; Hastings, Teresa G.

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in Parkinson’s disease (PD) neuropathology. Mic60, also known as mitofilin, is a protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane and a key component of the mitochondrial contact site and cristae junction organizing system (MICOS). Mic60 is critical for maintaining mitochondrial membrane structure and function. We previously demonstrated that mitochondrial Mic60 protein is susceptible to both covalent modification and loss in abundance following exposure to dopamine quinone. In this study, we utilized neuronally-differentiated SH-SY5Y and PC12 dopaminergic cell lines to examine the effects of altered Mic60 levels on mitochondrial function and cellular vulnerability in response to PD-relevant stressors. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of endogenous Mic60 protein in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells significantly potentiated dopamine-induced cell death, which was rescued by co-expressing shRNA-insensitive Mic60. Conversely, in PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells, Mic60 overexpression significantly attenuated both dopamine- and rotenone-induced cell death as compared to controls. Mic60 overexpression in SH-SY5Y cells was also associated with increased mitochondrial respiration, and, following rotenone exposure, increased spare respiratory capacity. Mic60 knockdown cells exhibited suppressed respiration and, following rotenone treatment, decreased spare respiratory capacity. Mic60 overexpression also affected mitochondrial fission/fusion dynamics. PC12 cells overexpressing Mic60 exhibited increased mitochondrial interconnectivity. Further, both PC12 cells and primary rat cortical neurons overexpressing Mic60 displayed suppressed mitochondrial fission and increased mitochondrial length in neurites. These results suggest that altering levels of Mic60 in dopaminergic neuronal cells significantly affects both mitochondrial homeostasis and cellular vulnerability to the PD-relevant stressors dopamine and rotenone, carrying implications for PD

  6. Verapamil Protects Dopaminergic Neuron Damage through a Novel Anti-inflammatory Mechanism by Inhibition of Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuxin; Lo, Yi-Ching; Qian, Li; Crews, Fulton Tim; Wilson, Belinda; Chen, Hui-Ling; Wu, Hung-Ming; Chen, Shih-Heng; Wei, Ke; Lu, Ru-Band; Ali, Syed; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2010-01-01

    Verapamil has been shown to be neuroprotective in several acute neurotoxicity models due to blockade of calcium entry into neurons. However, the potential use of verapamil to treat chronic neurodegenerative diseases has not been reported. Using rat primary mesencephalic neuron/glia cultures, we report that verapamil significantly inhibited LPS-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in both pre- and post-treatment experiments. Reconstituted culture studies revealed that the presence of microglia was essential in verapamil-elicited neuroprotection. Mechanistic studies showed that decreased production of inflammatory mediators from LPS-stimulated microglia underlay neuroprotective property of verapamil. Further studies demonstrated that microglial NADPH oxidase (PHOX), the key superoxide-producing enzyme, but not calcium channel in neurons, is the site of action for the neuroprotective effect of verapamil. This conclusion was supported by the following two observations: 1) Verapamil failed to show protective effect on LPS-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in PHOX-deficient (deficient in the catalytic subunit of gp91phox) neuron/glia cultures; 2) Ligand binding studies showed that the binding of [3H]Verapamil onto gp91phox transfected COS-7 cell membranes was higher than the non-transfected control. The calcium channel-independent neuroprotective property of verapamil was further supported by the finding that R(+)-verapamil, a less active form in blocking calcium channel, showed the same potency in neuroprotection, inhibition of pro-inflammatory factors production and binding capacity to gp91phox membranes as R(-)-verapamil, the active isomer of calcium channel blocker. In conclusion, our results demonstrate a new indication of verapamil-mediated neuroprotection through a calcium channel-independent pathway and provide a valuable avenue for the development of therapy for inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20950631

  7. Behavioral Functions of the Mesolimbic Dopaminergic System: an Affective Neuroethological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Alcaro, Antonio; Huber, Robert; Panksepp, Jaak

    2008-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopaminergic (ML-DA) system has been recognized for its central role in motivated behaviors, various types of reward, and, more recently, in cognitive processes. Functional theories have emphasized DA's involvement in the orchestration of goal-directed behaviors, and in the promotion and reinforcement of learning. The affective neuroethological perspective presented here, views the ML-DA system in terms of its ability to activate an instinctual emotional appetitive state (SEEKING) evolved to induce organisms to search for all varieties of life-supporting stimuli and to avoid harms. A description of the anatomical framework in which the ML system is embedded is followed by the argument that the SEEKING disposition emerges through functional integration of ventral basal ganglia (BG) into thalamocortical activities. Filtering cortical and limbic input that spread into BG, DA transmission promotes the “release” of neural activity patterns that induce active SEEKING behaviors when expressed at the motor level. Reverberation of these patterns constitutes a neurodynamic process for the inclusion of cognitive and perceptual representations within the extended networks of the SEEKING urge. In this way, the SEEKING disposition influences attention, incentive salience, associative learning, and anticipatory predictions. In our view, the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse are, in part, caused by the activation of the SEEKING disposition, ranging from appetitive drive to persistent craving depending on the intensity of the affect. The implications of such a view for understanding addiction are considered, with particular emphasis on factors predisposing individuals to develop compulsive drug seeking behaviors. PMID:17905440

  8. Dopaminergic Neuron-Specific Deletion of p53 Gene Attenuates Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tao; Kim, Paul P; Greig, Nigel H; Luo, Yu

    2017-08-01

    p53 plays an essential role in the regulation of cell death in dopaminergic (DA) neurons and its activation has been implicated in the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine (MA). However, how p53 mediates MA neurotoxicity remains largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of DA-specific p53 gene deletion in DAT-p53KO mice. Whereas in vivo MA binge exposure reduced locomotor activity in wild-type (WT) mice, this was significantly attenuated in DAT-p53KO mice and associated with significant differences in the levels of the p53 target genes BAX and p21 between WT and DAT-p53KO. Notably, DA-specific deletion of p53 provided protection of substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive fibers following binge MA, with DAT-p53KO mice having less decline of TH protein levels in striatum versus WT mice. Whereas DAT-p53KO mice demonstrated a consistently higher density of TH fibers in striatum compared to WT mice at 10 days after MA exposure, DA neuron counts within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) were similar. Finally, supportive of these results, administration of a p53-specific inhibitor (PFT-α) provided a similarly protective effect on MA binge-induced behavioral deficits. Neither DA specific p53 deletion nor p53 pharmacological inhibition affected hyperthermia induced by MA binge. These findings demonstrate a specific contribution of p53 activation in behavioral deficits and DA neuronal terminal loss by MA binge exposure.

  9. β-Caryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid attenuates oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, glial activation, and salvages dopaminergic neurons in a rat model of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Shreesh; Javed, Hayate; Azimullah, Sheikh; Haque, M Emdadul

    2016-07-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) area. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of β-caryophyllene (BCP) against rotenone-induced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in a rat model of PD. In the present study, BCP was administered once daily for 4 weeks at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight prior to a rotenone (2.5 mg/kg body weight) challenge to mimic the progressive neurodegenerative nature of PD. Rotenone administration results in oxidative stress as evidenced by decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and depletion of glutathione with a concomitant rise in lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde. Rotenone also significantly increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in the midbrain region and elevated the inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the striatum. Further, immunohistochemical analysis revealed loss of dopaminergic neurons in the SNc area and enhanced expression of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba-1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), indicators of microglia activation, and astrocyte hypertrophy, respectively, as an index of inflammation. However, treatment with BCP rescued dopaminergic neurons and decreased microglia and astrocyte activation evidenced by reduced Iba-1 and GFAP expression. BCP in addition to attenuation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators such as COX-2 and iNOS, also restored antioxidant enzymes and inhibited lipid peroxidation as well as glutathione depletion. The findings demonstrate that BCP provides neuroprotection against rotenone-induced PD and the neuroprotective effects can be ascribed to its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

  10. Novel Method To Differentiate Human Embryonic Stem Cells Into Dopaminergic Nerve Cells | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse's Development and Plasticity Section is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in licensing opportunities to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize novel methods to differentiate human embryonic stem cells into dopaminergic nerve cells. The invention described here is a novel method of differentiating human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into dopaminergic nerve cells, which is preferable to the currently available dopaminergic differentiation techniques.

  11. Survival and engraftment of dopaminergic neurons manufactured by a Good Manufacturing Practice-compatible process.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jun; Liu, Qiuyue; Rao, Mahendra S; Zeng, Xianmin

    2014-09-01

    We have previously reported a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compatible process for generating authentic dopaminergic neurons in defined media from human pluripotent stem cells and determined the time point at which dopaminergic precursors/neurons (day 14 after neuronal stem cell [NSC] stage) can be frozen, shipped and thawed without compromising their viability and ability to mature in vitro. One important issue we wished to address is whether dopaminergic precursors/neurons manufactured by our GMP-compatible process can be cryopreserved and engrafted in animal Parkinson disease (PD) models. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of freshly prepared and cryopreserved dopaminergic neurons in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat PD model. We showed functional recovery up to 6 months post-transplantation in rats transplanted with our cells, whether freshly prepared or cryopreserved. In contrast, no motor improvement was observed in two control groups receiving either medium or cells at a slightly earlier stage (day 10 after NSC stage). Histologic analysis at the end point of the study (6 months post-transplantation) showed robust long-term survival of donor-derived tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)(+) dopaminergic neurons in rats transplanted with day 14 dopaminergic neurons. Moreover, TH(+) fibers emanated from the graft core into the surrounding host striatum. Consistent with the behavioral analysis, no or few TH(+) neurons were detected in animals receiving day 10 cells, although human cells were present in the graft. Importantly, no tumors were detected in any grafted rats, but long-term tumorigenic studies will need to determine the safety of our products. Dopaminergic neurons manufactured by a GMP-compatible process from human ESC survived and engrafted efficiently in the 6-OHDA PD rat model. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Developmental nicotine exposure affects larval brain size and the adult dopaminergic system of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Morris, Melanie; Shaw, Ariel; Lambert, Madison; Perry, Haley Halperin; Lowenstein, Eve; Valenzuela, David; Velazquez-Ulloa, Norma Andrea

    2018-06-14

    Pregnant women may be exposed to nicotine if they smoke or use tobacco products, nicotine replacement therapy, or via e-cigarettes. Prenatal nicotine exposure has been shown to have deleterious effects on the nervous system in mammals including changes in brain size and in the dopaminergic system. The genetic and molecular mechanisms for these changes are not well understood. A Drosophila melanogaster model for these effects of nicotine exposure could contribute to faster identification of genes and molecular pathways underlying these effects. The purpose of this study was to determine if developmental nicotine exposure affects the nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster, focusing on changes to brain size and the dopaminergic system at two developmental stages. We reared flies on control or nicotine food from egg to 3rd instar larvae or from egg to adult and determined effectiveness of the nicotine treatment. We used immunohistochemistry to visualize the whole brain and dopaminergic neurons, using tyrosine hydroxylase as the marker. We measured brain area, tyrosine hydroxylase fluorescence, and counted the number of dopaminergic neurons in brain clusters. We detected an increase in larval brain hemisphere area, a decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase fluorescence in adult central brains, and a decrease in the number of neurons in the PPM3 adult dopaminergic cluster. We tested involvement of Dα7, one of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits, and found it was involved in eclosion, as previously described, but not involved in brain size. We conclude that developmental nicotine exposure in Drosophila melanogaster affects brain size and the dopaminergic system. Prenatal nicotine exposure in mammals has also been shown to have effects on brain size and in the dopaminergic system. This study further establishes Drosophila melanogaster as model organism to study the effects of developmental nicotine exposure. The genetic and molecular tools available for Drosophila

  13. Polymer encapsulated dopaminergic cell lines as "alternative neural grafts".

    PubMed

    Jaeger, C B; Greene, L A; Tresco, P A; Winn, S R; Aebischer, P

    1990-01-01

    Our preliminary findings (Jaeger et al., 1988; Aebischer et al., 1989; Tresco et al., 1989) and the studies in progress show that encapsulated dopaminergic cell lines survive enclosure within a semi-permeable membrane. The encapsulated cells remained viable for extended time periods when maintained in vitro. Moreover, encapsulated PC12 and T28 cells have the potential to survive following their implantation into the forebrain of rats. Cell lines are essentially "immortal" because they continue to divide indefinitely. This property allows perpetual "self-renewal" of a given cell population. However, the capacity of continuous uncontrolled cell division may also lead to tumor formation. This in fact is the case for unencapsulated PC12 cell implants placed into the brain of young Sprague Dawley rats (Jaeger, 1985). Cell line encapsulation has the p