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Sample records for inducing savant skills

  1. Explaining and inducing savant skills: privileged access to lower level, less-processed information.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Allan

    2009-05-27

    I argue that savant skills are latent in us all. My hypothesis is that savants have privileged access to lower level, less-processed information, before it is packaged into holistic concepts and meaningful labels. Owing to a failure in top-down inhibition, they can tap into information that exists in all of our brains, but is normally beyond conscious awareness. This suggests why savant skills might arise spontaneously in otherwise normal people, and why such skills might be artificially induced by low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. It also suggests why autistic savants are atypically literal with a tendency to concentrate more on the parts than on the whole and why this offers advantages for particular classes of problem solving, such as those that necessitate breaking cognitive mindsets. A strategy of building from the parts to the whole could form the basis for the so-called autistic genius. Unlike the healthy mind, which has inbuilt expectations of the world (internal order), the autistic mind must simplify the world by adopting strict routines (external order).

  2. Explaining and inducing savant skills: privileged access to lower level, less-processed information

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Allan

    2009-01-01

    I argue that savant skills are latent in us all. My hypothesis is that savants have privileged access to lower level, less-processed information, before it is packaged into holistic concepts and meaningful labels. Owing to a failure in top-down inhibition, they can tap into information that exists in all of our brains, but is normally beyond conscious awareness. This suggests why savant skills might arise spontaneously in otherwise normal people, and why such skills might be artificially induced by low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. It also suggests why autistic savants are atypically literal with a tendency to concentrate more on the parts than on the whole and why this offers advantages for particular classes of problem solving, such as those that necessitate breaking cognitive mindsets. A strategy of building from the parts to the whole could form the basis for the so-called autistic genius. Unlike the healthy mind, which has inbuilt expectations of the world (internal order), the autistic mind must simplify the world by adopting strict routines (external order). PMID:19528023

  3. The Skills and Methods of Calendrical Savants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Richard; O'Connor, Neil; Samella, Katerina

    2003-01-01

    Proposed three criteria to distinguish calendrical savants whose skills depend on memory from those who calculate and applied these to 10 calendrical savants. Results are discussed in relation to views that calendrical savants imply the existence of a modular mathematical intelligence or unconscious integer arithmetic. (SLD)

  4. Savant skills in autism: psychometric approaches and parental reports.

    PubMed

    Howlin, Patricia; Goode, Susan; Hutton, Jane; Rutter, Michael

    2009-05-27

    Most investigations of savant skills in autism are based on individual case reports. The present study investigated rates and types of savant skills in 137 individuals with autism (mean age 24 years). Intellectual ability ranged from severe intellectual impairment to superior functioning. Savant skills were judged from parental reports and specified as 'an outstanding skill/knowledge clearly above participant's general level of ability and above the population norm'. A comparable definition of exceptional cognitive skills was applied to Wechsler test scores--requiring a subtest score at least 1 standard deviation above general population norms and 2 standard deviations above the participant's own mean subtest score. Thirty-nine participants (28.5%) met criteria for either a savant skill or an exceptional cognitive skill: 15 for an outstanding cognitive skill (most commonly block design); 16 for a savant skill based on parental report (mostly mathematical/calculating abilities); 8 met criteria for both a cognitive and parental rated savant skill. One-third of males showed some form of outstanding ability compared with 19 per cent of females. No individual with a non-verbal IQ below 50 met criteria for a savant skill and, contrary to some earlier hypotheses, there was no indication that individuals with higher rates of stereotyped behaviours/interests were more likely to demonstrate savant skills.

  5. Assessing musical skills in autistic children who are not savants

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Descriptions of autistic musical savants suggest that they possess extraordinary skills within the domain. However, until recently little was known about the musical skills and potential of individuals with autism who are not savants. The results from these more recent studies investigating music perception, cognition and learning in musically untrained children with autism have revealed a pattern of abilities that are either enhanced or spared. For example, increased sensitivity to musical pitch and timbre is frequently observed, and studies investigating perception of musical structure and emotions have consistently failed to reveal deficits in autism. While the phenomenon of the savant syndrome is of considerable theoretical interest, it may have led to an under-consideration of the potential talents and skills of that vast majority of autistic individuals, who do not meet savant criteria. Data from empirical studies show that many autistic children possess musical potential that can and should be developed. PMID:19528029

  6. Assessing musical skills in autistic children who are not savants.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Pamela

    2009-05-27

    Descriptions of autistic musical savants suggest that they possess extraordinary skills within the domain. However, until recently little was known about the musical skills and potential of individuals with autism who are not savants. The results from these more recent studies investigating music perception, cognition and learning in musically untrained children with autism have revealed a pattern of abilities that are either enhanced or spared. For example, increased sensitivity to musical pitch and timbre is frequently observed, and studies investigating perception of musical structure and emotions have consistently failed to reveal deficits in autism. While the phenomenon of the savant syndrome is of considerable theoretical interest, it may have led to an under-consideration of the potential talents and skills of that vast majority of autistic individuals, who do not meet savant criteria. Data from empirical studies show that many autistic children possess musical potential that can and should be developed.

  7. Neuropsychological Studies of Savant Skills: Can They Inform the Neuroscience of Giftedness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Gregory L.

    2008-01-01

    A selective review of past and present neuropsychological research on savant skills is highlighted, including both empirical findings and theoretical accounts. Results from this research are then compared to extant results within the giftedness literature. Three major conclusions are taken from this review of the research: (a) savant skills are…

  8. Neuropsychological Studies of Savant Skills: Can They Inform the Neuroscience of Giftedness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Gregory L.

    2008-01-01

    A selective review of past and present neuropsychological research on savant skills is highlighted, including both empirical findings and theoretical accounts. Results from this research are then compared to extant results within the giftedness literature. Three major conclusions are taken from this review of the research: (a) savant skills are…

  9. Ordered-subset analysis of savant skills in autism for 15q11-q13.

    PubMed

    Ma, D Q; Jaworski, J; Menold, M M; Donnelly, S; Abramson, R K; Wright, H H; Delong, G R; Gilbert, J R; Pericak-Vance, M A; Cuccaro, Michael L

    2005-05-05

    Autism is a complex disorder characterized by genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Analysis of phenotypically homogeneous subtypes has been used to both confirm and narrow potential autism linkage regions such as the chromosomal region 15q11-q13. Increased evidence for linkage in this region had been found in a subgroup of 21 autism families (total families = 94) stratified based on a savant skill factor (SSF) from the Autism Diagnostic Interview, Revised (ADI-R). We examined the savant phenotypic finding in our sample of 91 multiplex autism families. Using two-point parametric analysis in stratification with a cutoff point of a savant skill score of 0.16, our families failed to demonstrate linkage to 15q11-q13. In addition, ordered subset analysis (OSA) using SSF as a covariate also failed to show evidence for linkage. Our findings do not support savant skills as an informative phenotypic subset for linkage in our sample. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Can the existence of highly accessible concrete representations explain savant skills? Some insights from synaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Murray, A Louise

    2010-06-01

    The present review argues that the reification of abstract concepts provides a psychological mediating mechanism for calendar and lightning calculation and possibly even all savant skills. The argument, which draws heavily on the synaesthesia literature has two main strands. First, there is anecdotal evidence for the presence and utilisation of highly accessible concrete representations of abstract concepts in savants. Second, synaesthetes who possess these structures experience cognitive benefits in the same domain. The present review concludes that the putative mechanism discussed here is plausible and has some empirical support, however, is in need of further testing. A number of ways in which to proceed in this task are suggested.

  11. Calendrical Savants: Exceptionality and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Richard; Carney, Daniel P. J.

    2006-01-01

    The exceptionality of the skills of calendrical savants and the role of practice were investigated. Experiment 1 compared four autistic calendrical savants to Professor Conway, a distinguished mathematician with calendrical skills. Professor Conway answered questions over a greater range of years but some savants knew more calendrical…

  12. Annotation: the savant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Pamela; Wallace, Gregory L

    2004-07-01

    Whilst interest has focused on the origin and nature of the savant syndrome for over a century, it is only within the past two decades that empirical group studies have been carried out. The following annotation briefly reviews relevant research and also attempts to address outstanding issues in this research area. Traditionally, savants have been defined as intellectually impaired individuals who nevertheless display exceptional skills within specific domains. However, within the extant literature, cases of savants with developmental and other clinical disorders, but with average intellectual functioning, are increasingly reported. We thus propose that focus should diverge away from IQ scores to encompass discrepancies between functional impairments and unexpected skills. It has long been observed that savant skills are more prevalent in individuals with autism than in those with other disorders. Therefore, in this annotation we seek to explore the parameters of the savant syndrome by considering these skills within the context of neuropsychological accounts of autism. A striking finding amongst those with savant skills, but without the diagnosis of autism, is the presence of cognitive features and behavioural traits associated with the disorder. We thus conclude that autism (or autistic traits) and savant skills are inextricably linked and we should therefore look to autism in our quest to solve the puzzle of the savant syndrome. Copyright 2004 Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry

  13. Exploratory subsetting of autism families based on savant skills improves evidence of genetic linkage to 15q11-q13.

    PubMed

    Nurmi, Erika L; Dowd, Michael; Tadevosyan-Leyfer, Ovsanna; Haines, Jonathan L; Folstein, Susan E; Sutcliffe, James S

    2003-07-01

    Autism displays a remarkably high heritability but a complex genetic etiology. One approach to identifying susceptibility loci under these conditions is to define more homogeneous subsets of families on the basis of genetically relevant phenotypic or biological characteristics that vary from case to case. The authors performed a principal components analysis, using items from the Autism Diagnostic Interview, which resulted in six clusters of variables, five of which showed significant sib-sib correlation. The utility of these phenotypic subsets was tested in an exploratory genetic analysis of the autism candidate region on chromosome 15q11-q13. When the Collaborative Linkage Study of Autism sample was divided, on the basis of mean proband score for the "savant skills" cluster, the heterogeneity logarithm of the odds under a recessive model at D15S511, within the GABRB3 gene, increased from 0.6 to 2.6 in the subset of families in which probands had greater savant skills. These data are consistent with the genetic contribution of a 15q locus to autism susceptibility in a subset of affected individuals exhibiting savant skills. Similar types of skills have been noted in individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome, which results from deletions of this chromosomal region.

  14. Savant Syndrome: Realities, Myths and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treffert, Darold A.

    2014-01-01

    It was 126 years ago that Down first described savant syndrome as a specific condition and 70 years ago that Kanner first described Early Infantile Autism. While as many as one in ten autistic persons have savant abilities, such special skills occur in other CNS conditions as well such that approximately 50% of cases of savant syndrome have autism…

  15. Savant Syndrome: Realities, Myths and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treffert, Darold A.

    2014-01-01

    It was 126 years ago that Down first described savant syndrome as a specific condition and 70 years ago that Kanner first described Early Infantile Autism. While as many as one in ten autistic persons have savant abilities, such special skills occur in other CNS conditions as well such that approximately 50% of cases of savant syndrome have autism…

  16. Savant-like numerosity skills revealed in normal people by magnetic pulses.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Allan; Bahramali, Homayoun; Hawker, Tobias; Mitchell, D John

    2006-01-01

    Oliver Sacks observed autistic twins who instantly guessed the exact number of matchsticks that had just fallen on the floor, saying in unison "111". To test the suggestion that normal individuals have the capacity for savant numerosity, we temporarily simulated the savant condition in normal people by inhibiting the left anterior temporal lobe of twelve participants with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). This site has been implicated in the savant condition. Ten participants improved their ability to accurately guess the number of discrete items immediately following rTMS and, of these, eight became worse at guessing as the effects of the pulses receded. The probability of as many as eight out of twelve people doing best just after rTMS and not after sham stimulation by chance alone is less than one in one thousand.

  17. Idiot Savants: Rate of Incidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. Lewis

    1977-01-01

    A survey of 300 public residential facilities for the mentally retarded revealed a .06 percent incidence rate for idiot savants, persons of low intelligence who possess an unusually high skill in some special task. (CL)

  18. The savant syndrome and autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Treffert, D A

    1999-12-01

    Savant syndrome, characterized by remarkable islands of mental ability in otherwise mentally handicapped persons, may occur in autistic as well as nonautistic individuals. Overall, approximately 10% of autistic persons exhibit savant abilities; roughly 50% of those with savant syndrome have autism, and the remaining 50% have other forms of developmental disability. Most commonly, savant syndrome takes the form of extraordinary musical abilities, but may also include calendar-calculation, artistic, mathematical, spatial, mechanical, and memory skills. While savant syndrome was first described more than a century ago, only recently have researchers begun to employ a more uniform nomenclature and more standardized testing in an effort to compare the abilities of savants with those of normal persons. Males show signs of savant syndrome approximately four times more often than females. Along with imaging study findings, this fact suggests the presence of a developmental disorder involving left-brain damage with right-brain compensation.

  19. [Neural mechanism underlying autistic savant and acquired savant syndrome].

    PubMed

    Takahata, Keisuke; Kato, Motoichiro

    2008-07-01

    It is well known that the cases with savant syndrome, demonstrate outstanding mental capability despite coexisting severe mental disabilities. In many cases, savant skills are characterized by its domain-specificity, enhanced memory capability, and excessive focus on low-level perceptual processing. In addition, impaired integrative cognitive processing such as social cognition or executive function, restricted interest, and compulsive repetition of the same act are observed in savant individuals. All these are significantly relevant to the behavioral characteristics observed in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). A neurocognitive model of savant syndrome should explain these cognitive features and the juxtaposition of outstanding talents with cognitive disabilities. In recent neuropsychological studies, Miller (1998) reported clinical cases of "acquired savant," i.e., patients who improved or newly acquired an artistic savant-like skill in the early stage of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Although the relationship between an autistic savant and acquired savant remains to be elucidated, the advent of neuroimaging study of ASD and the clarification of FTD patients with savant-like skills may clarify the shared neural mechanisms of both types of talent. In this review, we classified current cognitive models of savant syndrome into the following 3 categories. (1) A hypermnesic model that suggests that savant skills develop from existing or dormant cognitive functions such as memory. However, recent findings obtained through neuropsychological examinations imply that savant individuals solve problems using a strategy that is fairly different from a non-autistic one. (2) A paradoxical functional facilitation model (Kapur, 1996) that offers possible explanations about how pathological states in the brain lead to development of prodigious skills. This model emphasizes the role of reciprocal inhibitory interaction among adjacent or distant cortical regions

  20. Autistic savants. [correction of artistic].

    PubMed

    Hou, C; Miller, B L; Cummings, J L; Goldberg, M; Mychack, P; Bottino, V; Benson, D F

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine common patterns in the lives and artwork of five artistic savants previously described and to report on the clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging findings from one newly diagnosed artistic savant. The artistic savant syndrome has been recognized for centuries, although its neuroanatomic basis remains a mystery. The cardinal features, strengths, and weaknesses of the work of these six savants were analyzed and compared with those of children with autism in whom artistic talent was absent. An anatomic substrate for these behaviors was considered in the context of newly emerging theories related to paradoxical functional facilitation, visual thinking, and multiple intelligences. The artists had features of "pervasive developmental disorder," including impairment in social interaction and communication as well as restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interest, and activities. All six demonstrated a strong preference for a single art medium and showed a restricted variation in artistic themes. None understood art theory. Some autistic features contributed to their success, including attention to visual detail, a tendency toward ritualistic compulsive repetition, the ability to focus on one topic at the expense of other interests, and intact memory and visuospatial skills. The artistic savant syndrome remains rare and mysterious in origin. Savants exhibit extraordinary visual talents along with profound linguistic and social impairment. The intense focus on and ability to remember visual detail contributes to the artistic product of the savant. The anatomic substrate for the savant syndrome may involve loss of function in the left temporal lobe with enhanced function of the posterior neocortex.

  1. Savant talent.

    PubMed

    Pring, Linda

    2005-07-01

    The notion of talent is an elusive concept but there appears to be sound evidence that both savants and experts share important qualities. Brief descriptive accounts of the talents displayed by savants are presented, along with a discussion of intelligence, implicit learning, and the organization of knowledge. Cognitive theories helpful in understanding exceptional abilities in people with autism are also discussed. It is concluded that a certain cognitive style, i.e. weak coherence, may predispose individuals to develop their talents. Although it would be interesting to speculate that some great artists and mathematicians show a similar degree of obsessive preoccupation and a cognitive style reminiscent of autistic spectrum disorder, presumably as a strategic mechanism, there is, as yet, little research on the subject.

  2. Savant syndrome: realities, myths and misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Treffert, Darold A

    2014-03-01

    It was 126 years ago that Down first described savant syndrome as a specific condition and 70 years ago that Kanner first described Early Infantile Autism. While as many as one in ten autistic persons have savant abilities, such special skills occur in other CNS conditions as well such that approximately 50 % of cases of savant syndrome have autism as the underlying developmental disability and 50 % are associated with other disabilities. This paper sorts out realities from myths and misconceptions about both savant syndrome and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that have developed through the years. The reality is that low IQ is not necessarily an accompaniment of savant syndrome; in some cases IQ can be superior. Also, savants can be creative, rather than just duplicative, and the skills increase over time on a continuum from duplication, to improvisation to creation, rather than diminishing or suddenly disappearing. Genius and prodigy exist separate from savant syndrome and not all such highly gifted persons have Asperger's Disorder. This paper also emphasizes the critical importance of separating 'autistic-like' symptoms from ASD especially in children when the savant ability presents as hyperlexia (children who read early) or as Einstein syndrome (children who speak late), or have impaired vision (Blindisms) because prognosis and outcome are very different when that careful distinction is made. In those cases the term 'outgrowing autism' might be mistakenly applied when in fact the child did not have ASD in the first place.

  3. Intelligence and Savant Syndrome: Is the Whole Greater than the Sum of the Fragments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettelbeck, Ted; Young, Robyn

    1996-01-01

    It is argued that skills displayed by savants are not intelligent and that H. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences fails by overstating the relevance of savant skills and because it disregards research evidence for a general factor. Intelligence theory must compile a structure that accounts for savant skills and intelligence. (SLD)

  4. Intelligence and Savant Syndrome: Is the Whole Greater than the Sum of the Fragments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettelbeck, Ted; Young, Robyn

    1996-01-01

    It is argued that skills displayed by savants are not intelligent and that H. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences fails by overstating the relevance of savant skills and because it disregards research evidence for a general factor. Intelligence theory must compile a structure that accounts for savant skills and intelligence. (SLD)

  5. Idiot Savants: A Categorization of Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, A. Lewis

    1974-01-01

    Reported from a search of 52 sources are categories of special abilities such as fine sensory discriminations and calendar calculations demonstrated by idiot savants (retarded persons exhibiting an unusually developed skill in some special task). (CL)

  6. Idiots Savants: Retarded and Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yewchuk, Carolyn

    The paper reviews the paradoxical nature of idiots savants, persons who, although retarded, have exceptional skills in certain areas. Various explanations for the phenomenon are discussed, such as a specific genetic endowment, a specialized compensatory response to general intellectual deficiency, and possession of an eidetic memory. Various…

  7. The Savant Syndrome Registry: A Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Treffert, Darold A; Rebedew, David L

    2015-08-01

    A registry has been established to document certain characteristics on a sizeable worldwide sample of individuals with savant syndrome, a rare but remarkable condition in which persons with developmental disabilities, brain injury, or brain disease have some spectacular "islands" of skill or ability that stand in jarring, marked contrast to overall handicap. Of the 319 savants included in the registry, 90% are congenital savants, while 10% are acquired savants. The registry includes individuals from 33 countries, with 70% from the United States or Canada. Sex distribution was 79% male vs. 21% female (4:1). This report summarizes the findings in the congenital savant syndrome category of the registry. Among the individuals with congenital savant syndrome, the most common underlying disability was Autistic Spectrum Disorder (75%); various other central nervous system (CNS) disorders were present in the other 25%. Fifty-five percent possessed a single special skill, while 45% had multiple skills. Music was the most frequent principal skill followed by art, memory, mathematics, calendar calculating, language, visual-spatial/mechanical, athletic, computer, extrasensory perception, and other skills.

  8. Brief Report: Implications of Hyperlexia in an Autistic Savant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patti, Paul J.; Lupinetti, Laura

    1993-01-01

    This case study presents a female young adult with autism who was discovered to be hyperlexic and possessing of savant abilities. The paper proposes that hyperlexia (highly developed word recognition skills but little or no comprehension of the words recognized) is a savant ability found in many autistic individuals with exceptional skills and not…

  9. Musical inventiveness of five idiots-savants.

    PubMed

    Hermelin, B; O'Connor, N; Lee, S

    1987-08-01

    Accounts of musical ability in idiots-savants have up till now been confined to stressing the astounding musical memory which such persons may possess. The present study investigates compositional and improvisational skills in five idiots-savants. The findings interpreted as indicating that a representational system of musical rules and structures is accessible to persons of low general intelligence, and that such a system may underlie reproductive as well as generative musical capacity.

  10. Savant Syndrome: Case Studies, Hypotheses, and Implications for Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Susan Klug; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The concept of savant syndrome, encompassing those individuals historically known as "idiot savants," is reviewed. Case studies demonstrating special abilities in the areas of calendar calculating, musical ability, artistic talent, memorization, mathematical skills, mechanical achievement, and fine sensory discrimination are discussed,…

  11. Savant Syndrome: Case Studies, Hypotheses, and Implications for Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Susan Klug; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The concept of savant syndrome, encompassing those individuals historically known as "idiot savants," is reviewed. Case studies demonstrating special abilities in the areas of calendar calculating, musical ability, artistic talent, memorization, mathematical skills, mechanical achievement, and fine sensory discrimination are discussed,…

  12. Musical Idiot Savants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Jerry; DePue, Wallace

    1986-01-01

    Idiot savants are severely retarded persons who have some extraordinary ability. The musical abilities of several idiot savants are discussed. The identification and the direction to facilitate the growth of retarded students who are musically talented should be an important educational goal. (RM)

  13. The savant syndrome: an extraordinary condition. A synopsis: past, present, future

    PubMed Central

    Treffert, Darold A.

    2009-01-01

    Savant syndrome is a rare, but extraordinary, condition in which persons with serious mental disabilities, including autistic disorder, have some ‘island of genius’ which stands in marked, incongruous contrast to overall handicap. As many as one in 10 persons with autistic disorder have such remarkable abilities in varying degrees, although savant syndrome occurs in other developmental disabilities or in other types of central nervous system injury or disease as well. Whatever the particular savant skill, it is always linked to massive memory. This paper presents a brief review of the phenomenology of savant skills, the history of the concept and implications for education and future research. PMID:19528017

  14. The savant syndrome: an extraordinary condition. A synopsis: past, present, future.

    PubMed

    Treffert, Darold A

    2009-05-27

    Savant syndrome is a rare, but extraordinary, condition in which persons with serious mental disabilities, including autistic disorder, have some 'island of genius' which stands in marked, incongruous contrast to overall handicap. As many as one in 10 persons with autistic disorder have such remarkable abilities in varying degrees, although savant syndrome occurs in other developmental disabilities or in other types of central nervous system injury or disease as well. Whatever the particular savant skill, it is always linked to massive memory. This paper presents a brief review of the phenomenology of savant skills, the history of the concept and implications for education and future research.

  15. The structure of savant calendrical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Heavey, Lisa; Hermelin, Beate; Crane, Laura; Pring, Linda

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to explore the organization of the calendar knowledge base underlying date calculation by assessing the ability of savant calendar calculators to free recall a series of date lists. Four experiments are reported that assessed recall of structural and non-structural features of the calendar in eight savant calendar calculators (seven males; one female; median age 34 y 6 mo; age range 27-47 y), five of whom had a diagnosis on the autism spectrum. The inclusion criterion was a genuine calculation ability rather than an interest in dates. Mean recall was facilitated for material organized according to the structural features of a calendar (leap years, dates falling on the same weekday, dates occurring at 28 y intervals) but not for a non-structural calendar feature (Easter Sunday). Distinctions are drawn between two sources of savant calendar-related knowledge, structural and event related. It has been suggested that structural knowledge plays a key role in the acquisition and operation of savant date calculation skills. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  16. A savant poet.

    PubMed

    Dowker, A; Hermelin, B; Pring, L

    1996-09-01

    Poems by an individual with a diagnosis of Asperger's Syndrome were analysed and compared with those of a comparison poet. Though the savant poet performed less efficiently on formal language tests supposed to tap creativity, there were few differences between the two poets in regard to the poems' content and the use of various structural devices. The poems by the savant referred more often to aspects of self-analysis, while descriptions of people not related to the self were less frequent. Both poets made use of similes and metaphors. The results are discussed in terms of different modular domains within the language system.

  17. Autistic Savant Calendar Calculators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patti, Paul J.

    This study identified 10 savants with developmental disabilities and an exceptional ability to calculate calendar dates. These "calendar calculators" were asked to demonstrate their abilities, and their strategies were analyzed. The study found that the ability to calculate dates into the past or future varied widely among these…

  18. Annotation: The Savant Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Pamela; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Whilst interest has focused on the origin and nature of the savant syndrome for over a century, it is only within the past two decades that empirical group studies have been carried out. Methods: The following annotation briefly reviews relevant research and also attempts to address outstanding issues in this research area.…

  19. Toward a better understanding of the savant brain.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Neva M; Richards, Todd L; Treffert, Darold A; Dager, Stephen R

    2012-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the neuroanatomy, regional brain connectivity, and neurochemistry of a prodigious artistic savant; to place these findings within the context of existing neuroimaging literature of savant syndrome; and to discuss the utility of newer imaging modalities to extend our current understanding of mechanisms underlying savant skills. High-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, J-resolved MR spectroscopy, and diffusion tensor imaging data were acquired during a single scanning session for a 63-year-old male autistic savant with prodigious artistic skills. Regional and compartmental brain volumes, N-acetyl aspartate, choline, creatine, glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid concentrations, fractional anisotropy values, and white matter bundle volumes as well as axial, radial, and mean diffusivities were calculated. No gross anatomical differences were observed. By morphological assessment, cerebral volume (1362 mL) was larger than normative literature values for adult males. The corpus callosum was intact and did not exhibit abnormal structural features. The right cerebral hemisphere was 1.9% larger than the left hemisphere; the right amygdala and right caudate nuclei were 24% and 9.9% larger, respectively, compared with the left side. In contrast, the putamen was 8.3% larger on the left side. Fractional anisotropy was increased on the right side as compared with the left for 4 of the 5 bilateral regions studied (the amygdala, caudate, frontal lobe, and hippocampus). Fiber tract bundle volumes were larger on the right side for the amygdala, hippocampus, frontal lobe, and occipital lobe. Both the left and the right hippocampi had substantially increased axial and mean diffusivities as compared with those of a comparison sample of nonsavant adult males. The corpus callosum and left amygdala also exhibited high axial, radial, and mean diffusivities. MR spectroscopy revealed markedly decreased γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate

  20. The savant syndrome and its possible relationship to epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this chapter is to review the Savant syndrome (SS), characterized by outstanding islands of mental ability in otherwise handicapped individuals. Two forms exist: The congenital and acquired form. Among the many examples of the congenital form are the calendar calculators, who can quickly provide the day of the week for any date in the past. Other examples are the musical savants with perfect pitch and the hyperlexics, who (in one case) can read a page in 8 seconds and recall the text later at a 99% level. Other types of talents and artistic skills can be found, involving 3-D drawing, map memory, poetry, painting, sculpturing, including one savant who could recite without error the value of Pi to 22,514 places. The acquired form refers to the development of outstanding skills after some brain injury or disease, usually involving the left fronto-temporal area. This type of injury seems to inhibit the 'tyranny of the left hemisphere', allowing the right hemisphere to develop the savant skills. One other way to inhibit the left fronto-temporal area is to use transcranial magnetic stimulation in normal subjects and nearly one-half of these subjects can then perform new skills during the stimulation that they could not perform before. This type of finding indicates the potentiality in all of us for the development of savant skills under special circumstances. Explanations of the congenital SS include enhanced local connectivity as a compensation for underconnectivity of long-range fibers, but also weak central coherence, replaced by great attention to details, enhanced perceptual functioning and obsessive pre-occupation with specific interests. Neurodegenerative Diseases, edited by Shamim I. Ahmad.

  1. Do calendrical savants use calculation to answer date questions? A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Richard; Frith, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Calendrical savants can name the weekdays for dates from different years with remarkable speed and accuracy. Whether calculation rather than just memory is involved is disputed. Grounds for doubting whether they can calculate are reviewed and criteria for attributing date calculation skills to them are discussed. At least some calendrical savants possess date calculation skills. A behavioural characteristic observed in many calendrical savants is increased response time for questions about more remote years. This may be because more remote years require more calculation or because closer years are more practised. An experiment is reported that used functional magnetic resonance imaging to attempt to discriminate between these explanations. Only two savants could be scanned and excessive head movement corrupted one savant's mental arithmetic data. Nevertheless, there was increased parietal activation during both mental arithmetic and date questions and this region showed increased activity with more remote dates. These results suggest that the calendrical skills observed in savants result from intensive practice with calculations used in solving mental arithmetic problems. The mystery is not how they solve these problems, but why. PMID:19528025

  2. Local and global processing in savant artists with autism.

    PubMed

    Pring, Linda; Ryder, Nicola; Crane, Laura; Hermelin, Beate

    2010-01-01

    We explored the hypothesis that an enhanced local processing style is characteristic of both art and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by examining local and global processing in savant artists with ASD. Specifically, savant artists were compared against non-talented individuals with ASD or mild/moderate learning difficulties (MLD), as well as artistically talented or nontalented students, on the block-design task and meaningful and abstract versions of the embedded figures test (EFT). Results demonstrated that there were no significant differences between the meaningful and abstract versions of the EFT, in any of the groups. This suggests that the primary process governing performance on this task was perceptual (local), rather than conceptual (global). More interestingly, the savant artists performed above the level of the ASD and MLD groups on the block-design test, but not the EFT. Despite both the block-design task and the EFT measuring local processing abilities, we suggest that this result is due to the block-design task being an active construction task (requiring the conversion of a visual input into a motor output), whereas the EFT is a passive recognition task. Therefore, although an enhanced local processing style is an important aspect of savant artistic talent, motor control also appears to be a necessary skill.

  3. Melody and pitch processing in five musical savants with congenital blindness.

    PubMed

    Pring, Linda; Woolf, Katherine; Tadic, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    We examined absolute-pitch (AP) and short-term musical memory abilities of five musical savants with congenital blindness, seven musicians, and seven non-musicians with good vision and normal intelligence in two experiments. In the first, short-term memory for musical phrases was tested and the savants and musicians performed statistically indistinguishably, both significantly outperforming the non-musicians and remembering more material from the C major scale sequences than random trials. In the second experiment, participants learnt associations between four pitches and four objects using a non-verbal paradigm. This experiment approximates to testing AP ability. Low statistical power meant the savants were not statistically better than the musicians, although only the savants scored statistically higher than the non-musicians. The results are evidence for a musical module, separate from general intelligence; they also support the anecdotal reporting of AP in musical savants, which is thought to be necessary for the development of musical-savant skill.

  4. A review of Savant Syndrome and its possible relationship to epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R

    2010-02-01

    The goal of this article is to review Savant Syndrome, characterized by outstanding islands of mental ability in otherwise handicapped individuals. Two forms exist: the congenital form and the acquired form. Among the many examples of the congenital form are the calendar calculators, who can quickly provide the day of the week for any date in the past; the musical savants, who have perfect pitch; and the hyperlexics, who (in one case) can read a page in 8s and recall the text later at a 99% level. Other types of talents and artistic skills involving three-dimensional drawing, map memory, poetry, painting, and sculpturing are also observed. One savant could recite without error the value of Pi to 22,514 places. Persons with the acquired form develop outstanding skills after brain injury or disease, usually involving the left frontotemporal area. This type of injury seems to inhibit the "tyranny of the left hemisphere," allowing the right hemisphere to develop the savant skills. Another way to inhibit the left frontotemporal area is to use transcranial magnetic stimulation in normal subjects; nearly one-half of these subjects can then perform new skills during the stimulation that they could not perform before. This type of finding indicates the potential in all of us for the development of savant skills in special circumstances. Explanations of congenital Savant Syndrome include enhanced local connectivity as a compensation for underconnectivity of long-range fibers, but also weak central coherence, replaced by great attention to detail, enhanced perceptual functioning, and obsessive preoccupation with specific interests.

  5. The Structure of Savant Calendrical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heavey, Lisa; Hermelin, Beate; Crane, Laura; Pring, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Aim: We aimed to explore the organization of the calendar knowledge base underlying date calculation by assessing the ability of savant calendar calculators to free recall a series of date lists. Method: Four experiments are reported that assessed recall of structural and non-structural features of the calendar in eight savant calendar calculators…

  6. Creativity in Savant Artists with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Linda; Ryder, Nicola; Crane, Laura; Hermelin, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often display impairments in creativity, yet savant artists with ASD are reported to produce highly novel and original artistic outputs. To explore this paradox, we assessed nine savant artists with ASD, nine talented art students, nine non-artistically talented individuals with ASD, and nine…

  7. Idiots Savants: Can Retarded Individuals Be Gifted?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yewchuk, Carolyn

    1990-01-01

    Literature concerning "idiots savants" is reviewed, and various theories and possible explanations are discussed, as are common areas of expertise and cognitive traits. Several case studies are used to illustrate the possible relationship between autism and idiots savants. Educational implications of these findings are considered.…

  8. Executive Functions in Savant Artists with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Laura; Pring, Linda; Ryder, Nicola; Hermelin, Beate

    2011-01-01

    Although executive functions have been widely studied in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there have been no direct empirical studies of executive abilities in savants with ASD. This study assessed three facets of executive ability (fluency, perseveration and monitoring) in savant artists with ASD, compared to non-talented adults…

  9. The Structure of Savant Calendrical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heavey, Lisa; Hermelin, Beate; Crane, Laura; Pring, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Aim: We aimed to explore the organization of the calendar knowledge base underlying date calculation by assessing the ability of savant calendar calculators to free recall a series of date lists. Method: Four experiments are reported that assessed recall of structural and non-structural features of the calendar in eight savant calendar calculators…

  10. Executive Functions in Savant Artists with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Laura; Pring, Linda; Ryder, Nicola; Hermelin, Beate

    2011-01-01

    Although executive functions have been widely studied in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there have been no direct empirical studies of executive abilities in savants with ASD. This study assessed three facets of executive ability (fluency, perseveration and monitoring) in savant artists with ASD, compared to non-talented adults…

  11. Talents and preoccupations in idiots-savants.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, N; Hermelin, B

    1991-11-01

    The question was asked whether a diagnosis of autism or a tendency to repetitive behaviour and preoccupation with a restricted area of interest, were crucial features of idiot-savant talents. Answers by caretakers to a questionnaire on these topics revealed that autistic and nonautistic savants resembled each other closely in preoccupation but differed from controls matched for IQ and diagnosis. In addition, the mentally handicapped showed fewer repetitive tendencies than did autistic controls. It is concluded that independent of diagnosis, preoccupations and repetitive behaviour appear to be closely associated with the manifestation of idiot-savant talents.

  12. What the Savant Syndrome Can Tell Us about the Nature and Nurture of Talent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leon K.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research has begun to illuminate the composition and development of exceptional skills in those with intellectual disability. I argue that this research is relevant to more general discussions of talent. First, it provides a special opportunity to deconstruct talent in different domains. Because savants typically lack the general…

  13. Creativity in savant artists with autism.

    PubMed

    Pring, Linda; Ryder, Nicola; Crane, Laura; Hermelin, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often display impairments in creativity, yet savant artists with ASD are reported to produce highly novel and original artistic outputs. To explore this paradox, we assessed nine savant artists with ASD, nine talented art students, nine non-artistically talented individuals with ASD, and nine individuals with mild/moderate learning difficulties (MLD) on tasks in and out of their domain of expertise. This was to ascertain whether the performance of the savant artists was related to their artistic ability, their diagnosis of ASD or their level of intellectual functioning. Results demonstrated that the responses of the art students were more creative (as assessed on measures of fluency, originality, elaboration, and flexibility) than the savant, ASD, and MLD groups on a drawing task. Although the savants did produce more elaborative responses than the ASD and MLD groups, no differences were observed on the other indices of creativity. On a non-drawing task, the savants produced more original outputs than the ASD and MLD groups (scoring similarly to the art students), but group differences were not observed on the other measures.

  14. Savant officials in the Prussian mining administration.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ursula

    2012-07-01

    In the second half of the eighteenth century, the Prussian State supported savants who combined learned inquiry into nature with technical work. Members of the physical and mathematical classes of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences were involved in State projects such as surveying for the construction of canals, chemical analysis of Silesian iron, production of porcelain and of beet sugar. Some of these men were truly 'hybrid' experts living both in the worlds of State-directed manufacture and academic natural inquiry. Among these savant experts there was a particular sub-group that is at the centre of this paper: mining officials who were also recognized as mineralogists, geologists and chemists. The paper describes and analyses the training and the varied technical and scientific activities of these 'savant officials'. At the centre of attention are the travels of inspection of the mineralogist and mining official Carl Abraham Gerhard (1738-1821) in the late 1760s. I argue that Gerhard's travels of inspection were at the same time geological travels and that savant officials like Gerhard made a significant contribution to the fledgling science of geology.

  15. Visual and motor functions in graphically gifted savants.

    PubMed

    Hermelin, B; Pring, L; Heavey, L

    1994-08-01

    Savant artists represent a conundrum to our understanding of the nature of high level specific talents as well as to the concept of general intellectual impairment. In the present paper, we are particularly concerned with the relationship between general perceptual-motor functions in relation to drawing aptitude. Drawing is by definition a perceptual-motor operation, yet mental handicap tends to be associated with some degree of impairment in this area. The following study seeks to isolate such aspects of performance on general perceptual-motor skills that might be associated with drawing ability, and may thus be regarded as building blocks underlying the manifestation of graphic talent. The results are discussed in terms of the relationships between graphic talent, non-verbal intelligence and visual-motor functions.

  16. A case study of a multiply talented savant with an autism spectrum disorder: neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Gregory L; Happé, Francesca; Giedd, Jay N

    2009-05-27

    Neuropsychological functioning and brain morphometry in a savant (case GW) with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and both calendar calculation and artistic skills are quantified and compared with small groups of neurotypical controls. Good memory, mental calculation and visuospatial processing, as well as (implicit) knowledge of calendar structure and 'weak' central coherence characterized the cognitive profile of case GW. Possibly reflecting his savant skills, the superior parietal region of GW's cortex was the only area thicker (while areas such as the superior and medial prefrontal, middle temporal and motor cortices were thinner) than that of a neurotypical control group. Taken from the perspective of learning/practice-based models, skills in domains (e.g. calendars, art, music) that capitalize upon strengths often associated with ASD, such as detail-focused processing, are probably further enhanced through over-learning and massive exposure, and reflected in atypical brain structure.

  17. The Savant Hypothesis: is autism a signal-processing problem?

    PubMed

    Fabricius, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    Autism is being investigated through many different approaches. This paper suggests the genetic, perceptual, cognitive, and histological findings ultimately manifest themselves as variations of the same signal-processing problem of defective compression. The Savant Hypothesis is formulated from first principles of both mathematical signal-processing and primary neuroscience to reflect the failure of compression. The Savant Hypothesis is applied to the problem of autism in a surprisingly straightforward application. The enigma of the autistic savant becomes intuitive when observed from this approach. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Solar Array Verification Analysis Tool (SAVANT) Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Long, KIenwyn J.; Curtis, Henry B.; Gardner, Barbara; Davis, Victoria; Messenger, Scott; Walters, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Modeling solar cell performance for a specific radiation environment to obtain the end-of-life photovoltaic array performance has become both increasingly important and, with the rapid advent of new types of cell technology, more difficult. For large constellations of satellites, a few percent difference in the lifetime prediction can have an enormous economic impact. The tool described here automates the assessment of solar array on-orbit end-of-life performance and assists in the development and design of ground test protocols for different solar cell designs. Once established, these protocols can be used to calculate on-orbit end-of-life performance from ground test results. The Solar Array Verification Analysis Tool (SAVANT) utilizes the radiation environment from the Environment Work Bench (EWB) model developed by the NASA Lewis Research Center s Photovoltaic and Space Environmental Effects Branch in conjunction with Maxwell Technologies. It then modifies and combines this information with the displacement damage model proposed by Summers et al. (ref. 1) of the Naval Research Laboratory to determine solar cell performance during the course of a given mission. The resulting predictions can then be compared with flight data. The Environment WorkBench (ref. 2) uses the NASA AE8 (electron) and AP8 (proton) models of the radiation belts to calculate the trapped radiation flux. These fluxes are integrated over the defined spacecraft orbit for the duration of the mission to obtain the total omnidirectional fluence spectra. Components such as the solar cell coverglass, adhesive, and antireflective coatings can slow and attenuate the particle fluence reaching the solar cell. In SAVANT, a continuous slowing down approximation is used to model this effect.

  19. Savant: genome browser for high-throughput sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Marc; Williams, Vanessa; Brook, Andrew; Brudno, Michael

    2010-08-15

    The advent of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies has made it affordable to sequence many individuals' genomes. Simultaneously the computational analysis of the large volumes of data generated by the new sequencing machines remains a challenge. While a plethora of tools are available to map the resulting reads to a reference genome, and to conduct primary analysis of the mappings, it is often necessary to visually examine the results and underlying data to confirm predictions and understand the functional effects, especially in the context of other datasets. We introduce Savant, the Sequence Annotation, Visualization and ANalysis Tool, a desktop visualization and analysis browser for genomic data. Savant was developed for visualizing and analyzing HTS data, with special care taken to enable dynamic visualization in the presence of gigabases of genomic reads and references the size of the human genome. Savant supports the visualization of genome-based sequence, point, interval and continuous datasets, and multiple visualization modes that enable easy identification of genomic variants (including single nucleotide polymorphisms, structural and copy number variants), and functional genomic information (e.g. peaks in ChIP-seq data) in the context of genomic annotations. Savant is freely available at http://compbio.cs.toronto.edu/savant.

  20. A calendar savant with episodic memory impairments.

    PubMed

    Olson, Ingrid R; Berryhill, Marian E; Drowos, David B; Brown, Lawrence; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-06-01

    Patients with memory disorders have severely restricted learning and memory. For instance, patients with anterograde amnesia can learn motor procedures and retain some restricted ability to learn new words and factual information. However, such learning is inflexible and frequently inaccessible to conscious awareness. Here we present a case of patient AC596, a 25-year-old male with severe episodic memory impairments, presumably due to anoxia during a preterm birth. In contrast to his poor episodic memory, he exhibits savant-like memory for calendar information that can be flexibly accessed by day, month, and year cues. He also has the ability to recollect the exact date of a wide range of personal experiences over the past 20 years. The patient appears to supplement his generally poor episodic memory by using memorized calendar information as a retrieval cue for autobiographical events. These findings indicate that islands of preserved memory functioning, such as a highly developed semantic memory system, can exist in individuals with severely impaired episodic memory systems. In this particular case, our patient's memory for dates far outstripped that of normal individuals and served as a keen retrieval cue, allowing him to access information that was otherwise unavailable.

  1. A Calendar Savant with Episodic Memory Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Ingrid R.; Berryhill, Marian E.; Drowos, David B.; Brown, Lawrence; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    Patients with memory disorders have severely restricted learning and memory. For instance, patients with anterograde amnesia can learn motor procedures as well as retaining some restricted ability to learn new words and factual information. However, such learning is inflexible and frequently inaccessible to conscious awareness. Here we present a case of patient AC596, a 25-year old male with severe episodic memory impairments, presumably due to anoxia during a preterm birth. In contrast to his poor episodic memory, he exhibits savant-like memory for calendar information that can be flexibly accessed by day, month, and year cues. He also has the ability to recollect the exact date of a wide range of personal experiences over the past 20 years. The patient appears to supplement his generally poor episodic memory by using memorized calendar information as a retrieval cue for autobiographical events. These findings indicate that islands of preserved memory functioning, such as a highly developed semantic memory system, can exist in individuals with severely impaired episodic memory systems. In this particular case, our patient’s memory for dates far outstripped that of normal individuals and served as a keen retrieval cue, allowing him to access information that was otherwise unavailable. PMID:20104390

  2. A case of variant biochemical phenotype of Niemann-Pick disease type C accompanying savant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hamatani, Mio; Jingami, Naoto; Uemura, Kengo; Nakasone, Naoe; Kinoshita, Hisanori; Yamakado, Hodaka; Ninomiya, Haruaki; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2016-06-22

    A 40-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, frequent sudden loss of muscle tonus and ataxia for several years. He had a history of prolonged neonatal jaundice. He was given a diagnosis of autism in his childhood, followed by a diagnosis of schizophrenia in his teenage. He also developed a savant skill of calendar calculating. (123)I-IMP-SPECT showed decreased cerebral blood flow in the left frontotemporal lobe as often seen in savant syndrome. Although genetic analysis of NPC1 and NPC2 revealed no pathogenic mutation, filipin staining of cultured fibroblasts from his biopsied skin revealed a certain amount of intracellular cholesterol storage pattern, indicating a variant biochemical phenotype of Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC). The diagnosis of adulthood onset NPC is difficult and challenging, especially for neurologists, because the symptoms and signs are not as clear as those in the classical childhood onset NPC and this subtype is not yet widely known. However, the diagnosis can be made by a combination of filipin staining of fibroblast and/or gene analysis. As a disease-specific therapy for NPC has been approved in Japan, the diagnosis of NPC is of significance.

  3. The Development of Calendrical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Richard; Stainthorp, Rhonda; Kapnogianni, Stainthorp; Anastasiou, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Calendrical calculation is the unusual ability to name days of the week for dates in the past and sometimes the future. Previous investigations of this skill have concerned savants, people with pervasive developmental disorders or general intellectual impairment. This research has yielded a hypothesis about how calendrical skills develop but no…

  4. Developmental and Psychological Aspects of the Savant Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    This literature review examines the psychological aspects of the savant syndrome in people with intellectual disabilities, focusing on the means by which such abilities as calendar calculation are accomplished and highlighting variables (such as intense motivation in one area) postulated as important for development of the syndrome. (Author/DB)

  5. The Abilities of a Musical Savant and His Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, R. L.; Nettelbeck, T.

    1995-01-01

    Evaluation of a 12-year-old autistic musical savant revealed that the boy had idiosyncratic levels of cognitive functioning and perfect pitch recognition. His ability to recall and perform musical pieces after listening to a tape recording were found to be exceptional, but dependent upon his familiarity with musical structure and therefore…

  6. An analysis of calendar performance in two autistic calendar savants

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Daniel P.; Squire, Larry R.

    2007-01-01

    We acquired large data sets of calendar performance from two autistic calendar savants, DG and RN. An analysis of their errors and reaction times revealed that (1) both individuals had knowledge of calendar information from a limited range of years; (2) there was no evidence for the use of memorized anchor dates that could, by virtue of counting away from the anchors, allow correct responses to questions about other dates; and (3) the two individuals differed in their calendar knowledge, as well as in their ability to perform secondary tasks in which calendar knowledge was assessed indirectly. In view of the fact that there are only 14 possible annual calendars, we suggest that both savants worked by memorizing these 14 possible calendar arrangements. PMID:17686947

  7. An analysis of calendar performance in two autistic calendar savants.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Daniel P; Squire, Larry R

    2007-08-01

    We acquired large data sets of calendar performance from two autistic calendar savants, DG and RN. An analysis of their errors and reaction times revealed that (1) both individuals had knowledge of calendar information from a limited range of years; (2) there was no evidence for the use of memorized anchor dates that could, by virtue of counting away from the anchors, allow correct responses to questions about other dates; and (3) the two individuals differed in their calendar knowledge, as well as in their ability to perform secondary tasks in which calendar knowledge was assessed indirectly. In view of the fact that there are only 14 possible annual calendars, we suggest that both savants worked by memorizing these 14 possible calendar arrangements.

  8. A visually impaired savant artist: interacting perceptual and memory representations.

    PubMed

    Hermelin, B; Pring, L; Buhler, M; Wolff, S; Heaton, P

    1999-10-01

    In this single case study, paintings by a visually impaired and cognitively handicapped savant artist are evaluated. He paints his pictures exclusively from memory, either after having looked at a natural scene through binoculars, or after studying landscape photographs in brochures, catalogues, and books. The paintings are compared with the models from which they were derived, and the resulting generative changes are accounted for by an interaction between impaired visual input and memory transformations.

  9. SAVANT: Solar Array Verification and Analysis Tool Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chock, Ricaurte

    2000-01-01

    The photovoltaics (PV) industry is now being held to strict specifications, such as end-oflife power requirements, that force them to overengineer their products to avoid contractual penalties. Such overengineering has been the only reliable way to meet such specifications. Unfortunately, it also results in a more costly process than is probably necessary. In our conversations with the PV industry, the issue of cost has been raised again and again. Consequently, the Photovoltaics and Space Environment Effects branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field has been developing a software tool to address this problem. SAVANT, Glenn's tool for solar array verification and analysis is in the technology demonstration phase. Ongoing work has proven that more efficient and less costly PV designs should be possible by using SAVANT to predict the on-orbit life-cycle performance. The ultimate goal of the SAVANT project is to provide a user-friendly computer tool to predict PV on-orbit life-cycle performance. This should greatly simplify the tasks of scaling and designing the PV power component of any given flight or mission. By being able to predict how a particular PV article will perform, designers will be able to balance mission power requirements (both beginning-of-life and end-of-life) with survivability concerns such as power degradation due to radiation and/or contamination. Recent comparisons with actual flight data from the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) mission validate this approach.

  10. Enhanced perception in savant syndrome: patterns, structure and creativity.

    PubMed

    Mottron, Laurent; Dawson, Michelle; Soulières, Isabelle

    2009-05-27

    According to the enhanced perceptual functioning (EPF) model, autistic perception is characterized by: enhanced low-level operations; locally oriented processing as a default setting; greater activation of perceptual areas during a range of visuospatial, language, working memory or reasoning tasks; autonomy towards higher processes; and superior involvement in intelligence. EPF has been useful in accounting for autistic relative peaks of ability in the visual and auditory modalities. However, the role played by atypical perceptual mechanisms in the emergence and character of savant abilities remains underdeveloped. We now propose that enhanced detection of patterns, including similarity within and among patterns, is one of the mechanisms responsible for operations on human codes, a type of material with which savants show particular facility. This mechanism would favour an orientation towards material possessing the highest level of internal structure, through the implicit detection of within- and between-code isomorphisms. A second mechanism, related to but exceeding the existing concept of redintegration, involves completion, or filling-in, of missing information in memorized or perceived units or structures. In the context of autistics' enhanced perception, the nature and extent of these two mechanisms, and their possible contribution to the creativity evident in savant performance, are explored.

  11. Comparing the Intelligence Profiles of Savant and Nonsavant Individuals with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    It is yet unknown whether individuals with and without savant abilities being affected by the same mental disorder display differences with regard to their intelligence profile. To examine this issue, we compared the test performance of 33 savant and 26 nonsavant autistic subjects using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales-Revised for children or…

  12. [The case of an adult man with savant syndrome in the course of autism spectrum disorder].

    PubMed

    Sipowicz, Kasper; Pietras, Tadeusz

    2017-07-21

    The paper reports on a case of 57-year man with autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy with an unusual feature of calendar calculation. Namely, this is the case of savant syndrome, which appears rarely in the course of various neuropsychiatric disorders. Commorbidity of epilepsy and autism particularly predispose to the aforementioned syndrome. In the presented case, apart from the calendar calculation, the man has high language abilities. As previous studies suggest, the extraordinary abilities among persons with savant syndrome works similarly to the language module in healthy persons. Savant syndrome may appear in any patient with neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly in those suffering from autism spectrum disorder with comorbid epilepsy.

  13. Neuropsychological analysis of an idiot savant: A case study.

    PubMed

    Puente, Antonio E; Heller, Stephanie; Sekely, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Although biological etiologies and diffuse anatomical changes have been provided as plausible explanations for the unusual behaviors observed in idiot savants, no neuropsychological case studies or explanations for these behaviors are found in the literature. We present a case in which the "diagnosis" of idiot savant was based on historical, clinical, and test data. To assess his calendar abilities, this individual was subsequently tested over a period of six months on his ability to determine the day of the week across approximately 1,000 years. For a period of approximately 100 years he was 100% accurate. The neuropsychological tests revealed marked deficits in all areas with performance generally in the lower 1-5th percentile of the population (e.g., Full Scale Intelligence Quotient [FSIQ] = 54). Tests of attention yielded the best scores although still deficient. General learning, coding, and executive function tests proved to be challenging. In contrast, tests of visuo-motor abilities were only of moderate difficulty for the individual. These findings are considered within the theoretical framework of Rimland (autism) and Squyres (memory).

  14. On Language Savants and the Structure of the Mind [and] Reply to Bates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Elizabeth; Smith, Neil; Tsimpli, Ianthi-Maria

    1997-01-01

    Critiques Smith and Tsimpli's (1995) book, "The Mind of the Savant," in which a single case study is used as evidence for the modularity of language. Smith and Tsimpli respond to comments by Bates. (Author/VWL)

  15. Savant Genome Browser 2: visualization and analysis for population-scale genomics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Marc; Smith, Eric J M; Brook, Andrew; Strbenac, Dario; Turner, Brian; Mezlini, Aziz M; Robinson, Mark D; Wodak, Shoshana J; Brudno, Michael

    2012-07-01

    High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies are providing an unprecedented capacity for data generation, and there is a corresponding need for efficient data exploration and analysis capabilities. Although most existing tools for HTS data analysis are developed for either automated (e.g. genotyping) or visualization (e.g. genome browsing) purposes, such tools are most powerful when combined. For example, integration of visualization and computation allows users to iteratively refine their analyses by updating computational parameters within the visual framework in real-time. Here we introduce the second version of the Savant Genome Browser, a standalone program for visual and computational analysis of HTS data. Savant substantially improves upon its predecessor and existing tools by introducing innovative visualization modes and navigation interfaces for several genomic datatypes, and synergizing visual and automated analyses in a way that is powerful yet easy even for non-expert users. We also present a number of plugins that were developed by the Savant Community, which demonstrate the power of integrating visual and automated analyses using Savant. The Savant Genome Browser is freely available (open source) at www.savantbrowser.com.

  16. Savant Genome Browser 2: visualization and analysis for population-scale genomics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Eric J. M.; Brook, Andrew; Strbenac, Dario; Turner, Brian; Mezlini, Aziz M.; Robinson, Mark D.; Wodak, Shoshana J.; Brudno, Michael

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies are providing an unprecedented capacity for data generation, and there is a corresponding need for efficient data exploration and analysis capabilities. Although most existing tools for HTS data analysis are developed for either automated (e.g. genotyping) or visualization (e.g. genome browsing) purposes, such tools are most powerful when combined. For example, integration of visualization and computation allows users to iteratively refine their analyses by updating computational parameters within the visual framework in real-time. Here we introduce the second version of the Savant Genome Browser, a standalone program for visual and computational analysis of HTS data. Savant substantially improves upon its predecessor and existing tools by introducing innovative visualization modes and navigation interfaces for several genomic datatypes, and synergizing visual and automated analyses in a way that is powerful yet easy even for non-expert users. We also present a number of plugins that were developed by the Savant Community, which demonstrate the power of integrating visual and automated analyses using Savant. The Savant Genome Browser is freely available (open source) at www.savantbrowser.com. PMID:22638571

  17. The abilities of a musical savant and his family.

    PubMed

    Young, R L; Nettelbeck, T

    1995-06-01

    The ability of a male autistic savant (TR) to play two unfamiliar piano pieces after listening to a tape-recording was tested, closely following the procedures of Sloboda, Hermelin, and O'Connor (1985). Other components of TR's musical ability--pitch recognition, improvisation, and ability to provide harmonic accompaniment--were also examined. TR's musical precocity was examined in relation to his general level of intellectual functioning as indexed by a battery of standardized psychological tests of intelligence, memory, reading, visual organization, and creativity. His parents and two male siblings also completed tests of intelligence. Results from psychometric testing indicated that TR has idiosyncratic levels of cognitive functioning with difficulties in verbal reasoning but high levels of concentration and memory. His speed of information processing, as indicated by Inspection Time, and was better than average. TR demonstrated perfect pitch recognition and other family members also demonstrated excellent relative pitch. TR's ability to recall and perform structured music within both the diatonic and whole-tone systems was exceptional but dependent upon his familiarity with musical structure and was therefore organized and rule-driven. Furthermore, TR demonstrated competence in improvisation and composition, albeit restricted by his adherence to structural representations of familiar musical rules.

  18. An Investigation of the Calendar Calculation Ability of a Chinese Calendar Savant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Eric D. F.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A Chinese mentally retarded calendar savant (age 19) was evaluated for his exceptional proficiency in calendar calculation including converting the Gregorian calendar to the Chinese calendar. Results did not support hypotheses of use of eidetic imagery, high speed calculation, rote memorization, or keying-off (anchoring) strategies. (Author/DB)

  19. The Autistic Savant: Recognizing and Serving the Gifted Student with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnelly, Julie A.; Altman, Reuben

    1994-01-01

    This article focuses attention on the underserved population of gifted students with autism. The article examines savant abilities in the autistic population, needs of the gifted student with autism, similarities between the gifted autistic and other populations, and implications for treatment. (JDD)

  20. The Savant Syndrome: A Review of the Literature for the Music Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Denis, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Though music educators work with students who have a special learning need or a gifted ability on a daily basis, encountering a student who has both can be unexpected. The literature presented here can be used as a basis for information pertaining to terminology, studies and theories that attempt to explain the savant syndrome, how to identify it,…

  1. An Investigation of the Calendar Calculation Ability of a Chinese Calendar Savant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Eric D. F.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A Chinese mentally retarded calendar savant (age 19) was evaluated for his exceptional proficiency in calendar calculation including converting the Gregorian calendar to the Chinese calendar. Results did not support hypotheses of use of eidetic imagery, high speed calculation, rote memorization, or keying-off (anchoring) strategies. (Author/DB)

  2. The Savant Syndrome: A Review of the Literature for the Music Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Denis, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Though music educators work with students who have a special learning need or a gifted ability on a daily basis, encountering a student who has both can be unexpected. The literature presented here can be used as a basis for information pertaining to terminology, studies and theories that attempt to explain the savant syndrome, how to identify it,…

  3. Veridical mapping in savant abilities, absolute pitch, and synesthesia: an autism case study.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Lucie; Donnadieu, Sophie; Valdois, Sylviane; Caron, Chantal; Dawson, Michelle; Mottron, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    An enhanced role and autonomy of perception are prominent in autism. Furthermore, savant abilities, absolute pitch, and synesthesia are all more commonly found in autistic individuals than in the typical population. The mechanism of veridical mapping has been proposed to account for how enhanced perception in autism leads to the high prevalence of these three phenomena and their structural similarity. Veridical mapping entails functional rededication of perceptual brain regions to higher order cognitive operations, allowing the enhanced detection and memorization of isomorphisms between perceptual and non-perceptual structures across multiple scales. In this paper, we present FC, an autistic individual who possesses several savant abilities in addition to both absolute pitch and synesthesia-like associations. The co-occurrence in FC of abilities, some of them rare, which share the same structure, as well as FC's own accounts of their development, together suggest the importance of veridical mapping in the atypical range and nature of abilities displayed by autistic people.

  4. Skill dependent audiovisual integration in the fusiform induces repetition suppression.

    PubMed

    McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R

    2015-02-01

    Learning to read entails mapping existing phonological representations to novel orthographic representations and is thus an ideal context for investigating experience driven audiovisual integration. Because two dominant brain-based theories of reading development hinge on the sensitivity of the visual-object processing stream to phonological information, we were interested in how reading skill relates to audiovisual integration in this area. Thirty-two children between 8 and 13 years of age spanning a range of reading skill participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Participants completed a rhyme judgment task to word pairs presented unimodally (auditory- or visual-only) and cross-modally (auditory followed by visual). Skill-dependent sub-additive audiovisual modulation was found in left fusiform gyrus, extending into the putative visual word form area, and was correlated with behavioral orthographic priming. These results suggest learning to read promotes facilitatory audiovisual integration in the ventral visual-object processing stream and may optimize this region for orthographic processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Skill Dependent Audiovisual Integration in the Fusiform Induces Repetition Suppression

    PubMed Central

    McNorgan, Chris; Booth, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Learning to read entails mapping existing phonological representations to novel orthographic representations and is thus an ideal context for investigating experience driven audiovisual integration. Because two dominant brain-based theories of reading development hinge on the sensitivity of the visual-object processing stream to phonological information, we were interested in how reading skill relates to audiovisual integration in this area. Thirty-two children between 8 and 13 years of age spanning a range of reading skill participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Participants completed a rhyme judgment task to word pairs presented unimodally (auditory- or visual-only) and cross-modally (auditory followed by visual). Skill-dependent sub-additive audiovisual modulation was found in left fusiform gyrus, extending into the putative visual word form area, and was correlated with behavioral orthographic priming. These results suggest learning to read promotes facilitatory audiovisual integration in the ventral visual-object processing stream and may optimize this region for orthographic processing. PMID:25585276

  6. Prime Number Identification in Idiots Savants: Can They Calculate Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welling, Hans

    1994-01-01

    The ability of some individuals with mental retardation to identify prime numbers despite their lack of necessary arithmetical skills is discussed. The article suggests that a distinction between prime and nonprime numbers can be made by utilizing the tendency of visual perception to be symmetrically organized. (Author/DB)

  7. Why did the savant syndrome not spread in the population? A psychiatric example of a developmental constraint.

    PubMed

    Ploeger, Annemie; van der Maas, Han L J; Raijmakers, Maartje E J; Galis, Frietson

    2009-03-31

    A developmental constraint is a mechanism that limits the possibility of a phenotype to evolve. There is growing evidence for the existence of developmental constraints in the biological literature. We hypothesize that a developmental constraint prevents the savant syndrome, despite its positive aspects, from spreading in the population. Here, the developmental constraint is the result of the high interactivity among body parts in an early stage in embryological development, namely early organogenesis or the phylotypic stage. The interactivity during this stage involves all components of the embryo, and as a result mutations that affect one part of the embryo also affect other parts. We hypothesize that a mutation, which gives rise to the development of the positive aspects of the savant syndrome (e.g., an impressive memory capacity), will virtually always have a deleterious effect on the development of other phenotypic traits (e.g., resulting in autism and/or impaired motor coordination). Thus, our hypothesis states that the savant syndrome cannot spread in the population because of this developmental constraint. The finding that children with savant syndrome often have autism and physical anomalies, which are known to be established during early organogenesis, supports our hypothesis.

  8. Veridical mapping in savant abilities, absolute pitch, and synesthesia: an autism case study

    PubMed Central

    Bouvet, Lucie; Donnadieu, Sophie; Valdois, Sylviane; Caron, Chantal; Dawson, Michelle; Mottron, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    An enhanced role and autonomy of perception are prominent in autism. Furthermore, savant abilities, absolute pitch, and synesthesia are all more commonly found in autistic individuals than in the typical population. The mechanism of veridical mapping has been proposed to account for how enhanced perception in autism leads to the high prevalence of these three phenomena and their structural similarity. Veridical mapping entails functional rededication of perceptual brain regions to higher order cognitive operations, allowing the enhanced detection and memorization of isomorphisms between perceptual and non-perceptual structures across multiple scales. In this paper, we present FC, an autistic individual who possesses several savant abilities in addition to both absolute pitch and synesthesia-like associations. The co-occurrence in FC of abilities, some of them rare, which share the same structure, as well as FC’s own accounts of their development, together suggest the importance of veridical mapping in the atypical range and nature of abilities displayed by autistic people. PMID:24600416

  9. Two year follow-up of Crohn's patients substituted to certolizumab anti-TNFa therapy: SAVANT 2.

    PubMed

    Motlis, Andrew; Boktor, Moheb; Jordan, Paul; Cvek, Urska; Trutschl, Marjan; Alexander, J Steven

    2017-08-09

    The effectiveness of ant-TNF 'biologic' therapy in is well supported in the management of moderate to severe Crohn's Disease (CD). Our first 'SAVANT' study was to our knowledge the first study report one- year outcomes in patients (n=60) who switched from previous anti-TNFa treatment to Cimzia/Certolizumab. This current study (SAVANT 2) follows up on longer term outcomes and provides additional clinical and biochemical data that may contribute to therapeutic responses. This IRB approved study was a retrospective analysis of the initial patients included in SAVANT 1. Patients who were switched to TNF antagonist Certolizumab as an alternative biologic were followed an additional year. Retrospective consideration of immunomodulator use, smoking status and clinical data were also evaluated. Of 60 patients with moderate-severe CD who participated in the SAVANT 1 study, 15 patients were excluded due to inadequate follow up. 45 patients were studied for a total of two years following substitution with Certolizumab from prior anti TNF agent therapy. Clinical remission at 1 year was 75% (45/60) and 55% (25/45) at the second year. At the second year, 5 more patients had discontinued Certolizumab due to worse disease or adverse events, indicating a cumulative two-year failure rate of 33% (20/60). Smoking and concomitant use of immunomodulators were similar between 'success' and 'failure' groups. SAVANT 2, the first study to report long term outcomes of switching from Infliximab or Adalimumab to Certolizumab showed that at 2 years, 25 patient's maintained clinical remission. The discontinuation rates were 25 and 11% at years 1 & 2 respectively. The 5 patients who lost responsiveness after the first year were women, the majority of smoked. Additional prospective studies to assess the appropriateness and feasibility of biologic substitution are still needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Asperger's syndrome, little teachers: special skills].

    PubMed

    Etchepareborda, M C; Díaz-Lucero, A; Pascuale, M J; Abad-Mas, L; Ruiz-Andrés, R

    2007-03-02

    Asperger's syndrome (AS) is characterised by its effects on reciprocal social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication, difficulty in accepting changes, inflexible thinking and reduced fields of interest, but also by the presentation of special skills. On the occasion of the centenary of the birth of Hans Asperger, we briefly review the history of this researcher and offer a short description of the clinical features of the condition, including social interaction, communication, limited concerns and interests, routines and inflexibility, which are key points when it comes to reaching a diagnosis. Later, we also focus on Savant syndrome, which is a very common subgroup within AS and which is characterised by the patient's outstanding ability is certain special skills, such as hypermnesia, hyperlexia and hypercalculia, in mental feats concerning the perpetual calendar and in several branches of the arts, such as drawing, painting, sculpture and music. We discuss several famous cases of savants and explain some of the theories about its pathophysiology. Having special skills is a distinguishing mark of AS and identifying and facilitating them would provide us with a potential tool with which to accomplish suitable job opportunities.

  11. When synesthesia and savant abilities are mistaken for hallucinations and delusions: contribution of a cognitive approach for their differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Lucie; Barbier, Jacques-Edouard; Cason, Nia; Bakchine, Serge; Ehrlé, Nathalie

    2017-11-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech and behavior, and other symptoms that cause social or occupational dysfunction. However, some of these symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions, can be indicative of other phenomena such as synesthesia and savant abilities. The aim of this paper is to highlight how neurological and psychiatric conditions can be confused and how formal neuropsychological evaluations can be necessary to distinguish them. We report the case of a young woman, VA, who perceived sounds as colors and claimed to have elaborated complex astrophysical reasoning, despite having experienced difficulties at school, especially in mathematics. VA also had difficulties to orient herself, to develop social relationships, and often became confused by daily life situations. These elements were considered as symptoms of schizophrenia. Evaluations revealed that VA exhibited savant abilities in astrophysics and colored-hearing synesthesia. We also found evidence of higher-than-average cognitive functioning. In complex cases, neuropsychological and formal evaluations are necessary to establish a differential diagnosis. Moreover, the case highlights the link between synesthesia and savant abilities.

  12. The 1988 Jansson memorial lecture. The performance of the 'idiot-savant': implicit and explicit.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, N

    1989-04-01

    'Idiots-savants' are people of low intelligence who have one or two outstanding talents such as calendrical calculation, drawing or musical performance. Such people are mostly male and occur with high frequency among the autistic population. Do they perform their amazing feats because of an outstanding memory or do they draw on some faculty of reasoning to help them? Although they cannot easily make clear how they carry out their tasks by using speech, experiments reveal that they follow simple rules which they use to aid them in recalling correct dates and sequences in classical music. It has been said that they cannot abstract but this turns out not to be true: all can abstract to some degree and some are more at home with abstract than with concrete material. Whatever else is true of these handicapped but gifted people their gift becomes apparent at an early age and is apparently not improved by practice. Perhaps the most important conclusion from work with these groups is that their gifts force us to think again about the concept of general intelligence. How far is it possible to have low intelligence and yet be an outstanding musician or artist? Speculation on this idea may force us to revise our concepts of intelligence, neuropsychology and handicap.

  13. Neural mechanisms of savant calendar calculating in autism: an MEG-study of few single cases.

    PubMed

    Dubischar-Krivec, Anna Milena; Bölte, Sven; Braun, Christoph; Poustka, Fritz; Birbaumer, Niels; Neumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    This study contrasted the neurological correlates of calendar calculating (CC) between those individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing individuals. CC is the ability to correctly and quickly state the day of the week of a given date. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we presented 126 calendar tasks with dates of the present, past, and future. Event-related magnetic fields (ERF) of 3000ms duration and brain activation patterns were compared in three savant calendar calculators with ASD (ASDCC) and three typically developing calendar calculators (TYPCC). ASDCC outperformed TYPCC in correct responses, but not in answering speed. Comparing amplitudes of their ERFs, there was a main effect of group between 1000 and 3000ms, but no further effects of hemisphere or sensor location. We conducted CLARA source analysis across the entire CC period in each individual. Both ASDCC and TYPCC exhibited activation maxima in prefrontal areas including the insulae and the left superior temporal gyrus. This is in accordance with verbal fact retrieval and working memory as well as monitoring and coordination processes. In ASDCC, additional activation sites at the right superior occipital gyrus, the right precuneus, and the right putamen point to visual-spatial strategies and are in line with the preference of autistic individuals for engaging posterior regions relatively more strongly in various reasoning and problem solving tasks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship between chronic otitis media-induced hearing loss and the acquisition of social skills.

    PubMed

    Bidadi, Sanam; Nejadkazem, Mohammad; Naderpour, Masoud

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the effects of hearing loss caused by chronic otitis media (COM) on acquiring social skills. A case-control study of 90 patients, including patients with COM, age range 15-30 years, was conducted in the otorhinolaryngology ward of Tabriz University Hospital. Social skills were assessed with a social skills questionnaire. Social skill scores were found to be lower in hearing-impaired COM patients compared with the control group (P < 0.001). Social skill disabilities in patients with bilateral COM were more severe than in patients with unilateral COM and the controls (P < 0.001). Correlation between social skills score and degree of hearing loss was significantly negative (P = 0.014, rho = -0.314). These data indicate an inverse relationship between hearing loss and social skills. Social skills and educational level of COM patients are affected because of hearing impairment. This study suggests that COM has effects on social development and education.

  15. The day of the week when you were born in 700 ms: calendar computation in an Autistic savant.

    PubMed

    Thioux, Marc; Stark, David E; Klaiman, Cheryl; Schultz, Robert T

    2006-10-01

    Some individuals are able to determine the weekday of a given date in a few seconds (finding for instance that June 12, 1900, was a Tuesday). This ability has fascinated scientists for many years because it is predominantly observed in people with limited intelligence and may appear very early in life. Exceptional visual memory, exceptional concentration abilities, or privileged access to lower levels of information not normally available through introspection have been advanced to explain such phenomena. In the present article, the authors show that a simple cognitive model can explain all aspects of the performance of Donny, a young autistic savant who is possibly the fastest and most accurate calendar prodigy ever described. Copyright 2006 APA.

  16. Skill learning induced plasticity of motor cortical representations is time and age-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, Kelly A.; Adkins, DeAnna L.; Scalco, Matthew D.; Donlan, Nicole A.; Asay, Aaron L.; Thomas, Nagheme; Kleim, Jeffrey A.; Jones, Theresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Movement representations in the motor cortex can reorganize to support motor skill learning during young adulthood. However, little is known about how motor representations change during aging or whether their change is influenced by continued practice of a skill after it is learned. We used intracortical microstimulation to characterize the organization of the forelimb motor cortex in young and aged C57/BL6 mice after short (2-4 weeks) or long (8 weeks) durations of training on a skilled reaching task or control procedures. In young mice, a short duration of reach training increased the area of proximal forelimb movement representations at the expense of distal representations. Following a longer training duration, ratios of proximal to distal movements returned to baseline, even with ongoing practice and skill maintenance. However, lingering changes were evident in thresholds for eliciting distal forelimb movements, which declined over the longer training period. In aged mice, movement representations and movement thresholds failed to change after either duration of training. Furthermore, there was an age-related loss of digit representations and performance decrements on other sensorimotor tests. Nevertheless, in quantitative measures of reaching success, aged mice learned and performed the skilled reaching task at least as well as younger mice. These results indicate that experience-driven topographical reorganization of motor cortex varies with age, as well as time, and is partially dissociable from behavioral performance. They also support an enduring capacity to learn new manual skills during aging, even as more youthful forms of cortical plasticity and sensorimotor function are lost. PMID:23010138

  17. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground.

    PubMed

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard; Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Fumagalli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens.

  18. Motor Skill Development in Italian Pre-School Children Induced by Structured Activities in a Specific Playground

    PubMed Central

    Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens. PMID:27462985

  19. Savant memory for digits in a case of synaesthesia and Asperger syndrome is related to hyperactivity in the lateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Bor, Daniel; Billington, Jac; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2007-10-01

    SINGLE CASE: DT is a savant with exceptional abilities in numerical memory and mathematical calculations. DT also has an elaborate form of synaesthesia for visually presented digits. Further more, DT also has Asperger syndrome (AS). We carried out two preliminary investigations to establish whether these conditions may contribute to his savant abilities. In an fMRI digit span study, DT showed hyperactivity in lateral prefrontal cortex when encoding digits, compared with controls. In addition, while controls showed raised lateral prefrontal activation in response to structured (compared to unstructured) sequences of digits, DT's neural activity did not differ between these two conditions. In addition, controls showed a significant performance advantage for structured, compared with unstructured sequences whereas no such pattern was found for DT. We suggest that this performance pattern reflects that DT focuses less on external mathematical structure, since for him all digit sequences have internal structure linked to his synaesthesia. Finally, DT did not activate extra-striate regions normally associated with synaesthesia, suggesting that he has an unusual and more abstract and conceptual form of synaesthesia. This appears to generate structured, highly-chunked content that enhances encoding of digits and aids both recall and calculation. People with AS preferentially attend to local features of stimuli. To test this in DT, we administered the Navon task. Relative to controls, DT was faster at finding a target at the local level, and was less distracted by interference from the global level. The propensity to focus on local detail, in concert with a form of synaesthesia that provides structure to all digits, may account for DT's exceptional numerical memory and calculation ability. This neural and cognitive pattern needs to be tested in a series of similar cases, and with more constrained control groups, to confirm the significance of this association.

  20. Motor skills training promotes motor functional recovery and induces synaptogenesis in the motor cortex and striatum after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Tamakoshi, Keigo; Ishida, Akimasa; Takamatsu, Yasuyuki; Hamakawa, Michiru; Nakashima, Hiroki; Shimada, Haruka; Ishida, Kazuto

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the effects of motor skills training on several types of motor function and synaptic plasticity following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with collagenase into the left striatum to induce ICH, and they were randomly assigned to the ICH or sham groups. Each group was divided into the motor skills training (acrobatic training) and control (no exercise) groups. The acrobatic group performed acrobatic training from 4 to 28 days after surgery. Motor functions were assessed by motor deficit score, the horizontal ladder test and the wide or narrow beam walking test at several time points after ICH. The number of ΔFosB-positive cells was counted using immunohistochemistry to examine neuronal activation, and the PSD95 protein levels were analyzed by Western blotting to examine synaptic plasticity in the bilateral sensorimotor cortices and striata at 14 and 29 days after ICH. Motor skills training following ICH significantly improved gross motor function in the early phase after ICH and skilled motor coordinated function in the late phase. The number of ΔFosB-positive cells in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex in the acrobatic group significantly increased compared to the control group. PSD95 protein expression in the motor cortex significantly increased in the late phase, and in the striatum, the protein level significantly increased in the early phase by motor skills training after ICH compared to no training after ICH. We demonstrated that motor skills training improved motor function after ICH in rats and enhanced the neural activity and synaptic plasticity in the striatum and sensorimotor cortex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Two Autistic Savant Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, N.; Hermelin, B.

    1994-01-01

    Two young autistic children exhibited normal reading comprehension but reading speeds considerably faster than controls. The effect of randomizing word order was minimal for the older of the two autistic boys. Results indicate that efficient grapheme-phoneme conversion is primarily responsible for the fast reading of the autistic children.…

  2. SAVANT Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dougan, A

    2009-11-03

    This report summarizes the work related to this project that has gone on since February of 2008 and provide proposals for future collaboration with Japan. It will also outline the group's broad vision for safeguards modeling and simulation; this vision should guide the selection and implementation of next steps for the project.

  3. Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison-Rutland Supervisory Union, Fair Haven, VT.

    This publication lists basic skills curriculum objectives for kindergarten through eighth grade in the schools of the Addison-Rutland Supervisory Union in Fair Haven, Vermont. Objectives concern language arts, reading, mathematics, science, and social studies instruction. Kindergarten objectives for general skills, physical growth, motor skills,…

  4. Library Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Karin; Kuhlthau, Carol C.; Branch, Jennifer L.; Solowan, Diane Galloway; Case, Roland; Abilock, Debbie; Eisenberg, Michael B.; Koechlin, Carol; Zwaan, Sandi; Hughes, Sandra; Low, Ann; Litch, Margaret; Lowry, Cindy; Irvine, Linda; Stimson, Margaret; Schlarb, Irene; Wilson, Janet; Warriner, Emily; Parsons, Les; Luongo-Orlando, Katherine; Hamilton, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Includes 19 articles that address issues related to library skills and Canadian school libraries. Topics include information literacy; inquiry learning; critical thinking and electronic research; collaborative inquiry; information skills and the Big 6 approach to problem solving; student use of online databases; library skills; Internet accuracy;…

  5. Library Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Karin; Kuhlthau, Carol C.; Branch, Jennifer L.; Solowan, Diane Galloway; Case, Roland; Abilock, Debbie; Eisenberg, Michael B.; Koechlin, Carol; Zwaan, Sandi; Hughes, Sandra; Low, Ann; Litch, Margaret; Lowry, Cindy; Irvine, Linda; Stimson, Margaret; Schlarb, Irene; Wilson, Janet; Warriner, Emily; Parsons, Les; Luongo-Orlando, Katherine; Hamilton, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Includes 19 articles that address issues related to library skills and Canadian school libraries. Topics include information literacy; inquiry learning; critical thinking and electronic research; collaborative inquiry; information skills and the Big 6 approach to problem solving; student use of online databases; library skills; Internet accuracy;…

  6. Anaesthetists stress is induced by patient ASA grade and may impair non-technical skills during intubation.

    PubMed

    Doleman, B; Blackwell, J; Karangizi, A; Butt, W; Bhalla, A; Lund, J N; Williams, J P

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if patient ASA grade was associated with increased stress in anaesthetists with a subsequent effect on non-technical skills. Stress was measured using a validated objective (heart rate variability or heart rate) and subjective tool. We studied eight consultant anaesthetists at baseline (rest) and during 16 episodes of intubation with an ASA 1 or 2 patient vs. an ASA 3 or 4 patient. The primary outcome for the study was objective and subjective stress between both patient groups. Secondary outcomes were non-technical skill ratings and the association between stress measurements. ASA 3 or 4 patients were associated with increases in objective stress when compared to baseline (mean 4.6 vs. 6.7; P = 0.004). However, ASA 1 or 2 patients were not associated with increases in stress when compared to baseline (mean 4.6 vs. 4.7; P = 1). There was no significant difference in subjective stress between the groups (P = 0.18). Objective stress negatively affected situational awareness (P = 0.03) and decision-making (P = 0.03); however, these did not decline to a clinically significant threshold. Heart rate variability (r = 0.60; P = 0.002) better correlated with subjective stress when compared to heart rate (r = 0.30; P = 0.15). Agreement between raters for Anaesthetic Non-Technical Skills (ANTS) scores was acceptable (ICC = 0.51; P = 0.003). This study suggests that higher patient ASA grade can increase stress in anaesthetists, which may impair non-technical skills. © 2016 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Missouri LINC.

    The packet reviews the assessment and teaching of social skills to persons with special needs and lists a variety of resources and readings. Definitions are provided for seven key terms (e.g., adaptive behavior, behavior disorder, social skills). Frequently asked questions addressing assessment and intervention are answered. Assessment by means of…

  8. Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anne

    1993-01-01

    Three developments lend support to the idea that schools must help teach study skills: (1) advances in cognitive psychology that suggest children are active learners; (2) society's concern for at-risk students; and (3) growing demands for improved student performance. There is evidence that systematic study skills instruction does improve academic…

  9. INDUSTRIAL SKILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SEYMOUR, W. DOUGLAS

    THIS BOOK, A SEQUEL TO THE AUTHOR'S "INDUSTRIAL TRAINING FOR MANUAL OPERATIONS," COMPRISES THREE PARTS. IN PART ONE, THE NATURE OF SKILLS IN INDUSTRY IS DESCRIBED, AND THEIR RELATION TO HUMAN PERFORMANCE AND PRODUCTIVITY. IN PART TWO, AN OUTLINE OF RECENT RESEARCH AND A RESUME OF THE STATE OF KNOWLEDGE OF THE ACQUISITION OF SKILLS IS GIVEN. IN…

  10. Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Lynn

    This document presents one module in a set of training resources for trainers to use with parents and/or professionals serving children with disabilities; focus is on communication skills. The modules stress content and activities that build skills and offer resources to promote parent-professional collaboration. Each training module takes about 2…

  11. Restoration of skilled locomotion by sprouting corticospinal axons induced by co-deletion of PTEN and SOCS3

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Duo; Liu, Yuanyuan; Sun, Fang; Wang, Xuhua; Liu, Xuefeng; He, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    The limited rewiring of the corticospinal tract (CST) only partially compensates the lost functions after stroke, brain trauma and spinal cord injury. Therefore it is important to develop new therapies to enhance the compensatory circuitry mediated by spared CST axons. Here by using a unilateral pyramidotomy model, we find that deletion of cortical suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), a negative regulator of cytokine-activated pathway, promotes sprouting of uninjured CST axons to the denervated spinal cord. A likely trigger of such sprouting is ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) expressed in local spinal neurons. Such sprouting can be further enhanced by deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) negative regulator, resulting in significant recovery of skilled locomotion. Ablation of the corticospinal neurons with sprouting axons abolishes the improved behavioural performance. Furthermore, by optogenetics-based specific CST stimulation, we show a direct limb motor control by sprouting CST axons, providing direct evidence for the reformation of a functional circuit. PMID:26598325

  12. Inducible ablation of dopamine D2 receptors in adult mice impairs locomotion, motor skill learning and leads to severe parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Bello, E P; Casas-Cordero, R; Galiñanes, G L; Casey, E; Belluscio, M A; Rodríguez, V; Noaín, D; Murer, M G; Rubinstein, M

    2017-04-01

    Motor execution and planning are tightly regulated by dopamine D1 and D2 receptors present in basal ganglia circuits. Although stimulation of D1 receptors is known to enhance motor function, the global effect of D2 receptor (D2R) stimulation or blockade remains highly controversial, with studies showing increasing, decreasing or no changes in motor activity. Moreover, pharmacological and genetic attempts to block or eliminate D2R have led to controversial results that questioned the importance of D2R in motor function. In this study, we generated an inducible Drd2 null-allele mouse strain that circumvented developmental compensations found in constitutive Drd2(-/-) mice and allowed us to directly evaluate the participation of D2R in spontaneous locomotor activity and motor learning. We have found that loss of D2R during adulthood causes severe motor impairments, including hypolocomotion, deficits in motor coordination, impaired learning of new motor routines and spontaneous catatonia. Moreover, severe motor impairment, resting tremor and abnormal gait and posture, phenotypes reminiscent of Parkinson's disease, were evident when the mutation was induced in aged mice. Altogether, the conditional Drd2 knockout model studied here revealed the overall fundamental contribution of D2R in motor functions and explains some of the side effects elicited by D2R blockers when used in neurological and psychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Tourette's syndrome, dementia, alcohol-induced delusions and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  13. Coping Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    This annotated bibliography lists approximately 150 braille books and 300 audiocassettes of books which address coping skills for people in a variety of situations. All items listed are available in the network library collections provided by the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped of the Library of Congress.…

  14. Sharing Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mealy, Virginia; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three articles describe methods for teaching library skills. The first presents a song used to teach students the Dewey Decimal system; the second describes a reading program incorporating Halloween and foreign countries; and the third includes short poems designed to teach students to care for library books properly. (CLB)

  15. Skills Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canter, Patricia; And Others

    The services of the Living Skills Center for the Visually Handicapped, a habilitative service for blind young adults, are described. It is explained that the Center houses its participants in their own apartments in a large complex and has served over 70 young people in 4 years. The evaluation section describes such assessment instruments as an…

  16. Negotiating skills.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, G

    1996-01-01

    The Collins English Dictionary defines negotiation as "a discussion set up or intended to produce a "settlement or agreement." It is a skill everyone uses on a regular basis in daily life; often without realising. A plan to meet friends fo an evening meal for example involves agreeing a time and venue--this is negotiation. As it is the the process of coming to terms with the "other side" and trying to get the best deal possible it is necessary to accept the fact that a conflict of interest does exist. There is an atmosphere of uncertainty until the deal is completed and one side may gain and one may lose relative to their opening position. For this skill to be successfully applied when working with clinical management colleagues, a formal set of guidelines is necessary. In this article I highlight some of the problems which can arise and offer a systematic approach to this difficult but rewarding management activity. PMID:9091105

  17. Throwing Skills.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Saeed; Bund, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Traditionally, motor learning scientists have evaluated the process of learning a new motor skill by considering the skill as a whole. Yet, motor skills comprise various phases, and in the motor learning literature, it is not clear whether new learners show similar or different learning across various phases. We provide exploratory data on learning movement phases by novices, using baseball pitching as the learning task. Eight participants (four male, four female, M age = 23.7 years, SD = 2.4) performed five trials each in the pretest followed by three blocks of 10 trials each in the acquisition phase. Finally, two retention tests of five trials were conducted by each participant 10 minutes and seven days after the last acquisition block, respectively. Intra- and interlimb coordination of upper and lower body segments were measured as dependent variables. We found significant differences between the stride phase and the other phases at pretest, during the acquisition phase, and on both retention tests across all kinematic variables. Participants experienced more trouble coordinating the stride phase than the other phases of pitching, perhaps because the stride phase is the only phase in which the participants had to move their upper and lower body parts simultaneously. We discuss implications for motor learning generally.

  18. Library Technician Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highline Community Coll., Des Moines, WA.

    This document presents skill standards for library technicians. Introductory sections describe the industry and the job, what skill standards are, how the library technician skill standards were developed, employability skills and critical competencies, and the SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) foundation skills profile.…

  19. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Machining Skills Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document of skill standards for the machining skills cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 67 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…

  20. Posterior hypothalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation restores locomotion in rats with haloperidol-induced akinesia but not skilled forelimb use in pellet reaching and lever pressing.

    PubMed

    Young, C K; Whishaw, I Q; Bland, B H

    2011-09-29

    Recent studies have shown that electrical stimulation of the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PH) facilitates locomotion in control rats, and rats were made akinetic by dopaminergic blockade via haloperidol or dopamine depletion by the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine. These findings suggest that PH stimulation might be a promising treatment for akinesia associated with dopamine loss in Parkinson's disease. The present study further examined the positive effects of PH stimulation on behavior by characterizing its potential facilitatory effects on tasks that require skilled movements. Rats were trained to reach for food pellets with a forelimb (skilled reaching) or press a bar in an operant conditioning task for food. PH stimulation in undrugged rats not only facilitated locomotion in each of the tasks, but also impaired performance of the skilled movement components of the tasks. Haloperidol reduced locomotion and skilled movement, and PH stimulation only restored locomotion. The results are discussed in relation to the idea that PH stimulation selectively facilitates locomotor behavior and may have limited use in restoring impairments in skilled movements and consummatory behavior that results from dopaminergic depletion.

  1. Survival Skills: A Basic Skills Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Don

    The guide describes an approach designed to promote the basic skills of hearing impaired students Basic or survival skills are identified which cover the student's daily functioning at home, school, and in the community. The guide is aimed at the 10-15 year old hearing impaired student, but techniques are expected to be applicable to both…

  2. Acquiring Psychomotor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padelford, Harold E.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses levels of psychomotor skill acquisition: perceiving, motivating, imitating, performing, adapting, and innovating. How these skills interact and how they affect the learner's ability to learn are examined. (CT)

  3. What Is Skill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attewell, Paul

    1990-01-01

    This theoretical analysis of sociological conceptions of skill contrasts four approaches: positivist, ethnomethodological, Weberian, and Marxist. It is argued that impasses in industrial sociology stem from the fact that these approaches use very different notions of skill. (58 references) (SK)

  4. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Education Trauma Education Achieving Zero Preventable Deaths Trauma Systems Conference Advanced Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma Advanced Trauma Life Support Advanced Trauma Operative Management Basic Endovascular Skills for Trauma Disaster Management and ...

  5. Class Management Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.

    1989-01-01

    Effective class management in elementary physical education makes instructional time more efficient. Class management skills can be enhanced by concentrating on attention management, behavior management, and organizational techniques. Techniques for improving skills in these three areas are outlined. (IAH)

  6. Probing Skills for Tutors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Beryl E.

    The Office of Academic Support and Instructional Services (OASIS) at the University of California at San Diego sponsors a workshop that teaches tutors to use five types of probing skills. The use of the skills is fundamental to the student learner's acquisition of complex relationships and problem solving skills. The five types of probes are:…

  7. Teaching Organizational Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakunas, Boris; Holley, William

    2004-01-01

    Kerr and Zigmond (1986) found that 67 percent of all high school teachers surveyed viewed organizational skills as crucial for student success in school. How can teachers get their students to agree? One way is to teach organizational skills just as they would teach writing or computation skills. Explain and demonstrate what students are to do,…

  8. Evaluating Physical Assessment Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Reese, Jean L.

    1979-01-01

    Describes methods used in the nursing curriculum at the University of Iowa College of Nursing to evaluate inclusion of physical assessment skills and to test students' use of cognitive, perceptual, and psychomotor assessment skills in nursing diagnosis. Includes an example of motor and perceptual skill objectives for examining thorax and lungs.…

  9. Enhancing Employee Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on enhancing employee skills. "The Effect of Study Skills Training Intervention on United States Air Force Aeromedical Apprentices" (John C. Griffith) demonstrates how study skills intervention resulted in a significant increase in the end-of-course scores of a sample of 90 randomly selected Air Force…

  10. Winning the Skills Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    This document reports on how key stakeholders in work force preparedness nationwide are responding to pressures of the skills race. Part 1 presents an overview of the skills challenge and the economic and social consequences of failing to meet the challenge. Part 2 examines the impact of the skills shortage on major stakeholders and explains how…

  11. Life Skills Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Jan P.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, Bates, the Inmate Programs Manager of the Hillsborough County Sheriff's Office in Tampa, Florida, describes her office's Life Skills Project, a comprehensive program that has significantly enhanced three existing programs by adding extensive life skills components. The added life skills modules reinforce the importance of…

  12. Global Skill Shortages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Malcolm S.; Zaidi, Mahmood A.

    This book discusses the causes and impact of global skill shortages, focusing on data from skill shortages measured in the period 1995-1998 in 19 developed and emerging economies. Chapter one contains a brief introduction. Chapter two is a review of theoretical literature on skill shortages, including static and dynamic shortages, efficiency wage…

  13. School Leadership Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between what is currently understood about skills for school leadership and the need for a greater understanding of those skills. The importance of developing leadership skills to improve school performance and effectiveness is great. In the field of school leadership, most leaders…

  14. Enhancing Employee Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on enhancing employee skills. "The Effect of Study Skills Training Intervention on United States Air Force Aeromedical Apprentices" (John C. Griffith) demonstrates how study skills intervention resulted in a significant increase in the end-of-course scores of a sample of 90 randomly selected Air Force…

  15. Mississippi Kindergarten Curriculum Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Bureau of School Improvement.

    Skills are listed that are to be introduced at the kindergarten level in Mississippi's schools. The list includes skills in the following areas: reading, English/language arts, accelerated English, mathematics, art, computer education, foreign language, health, physical education, music, oral communication, science, and social studies. Skills to…

  16. School Leadership Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between what is currently understood about skills for school leadership and the need for a greater understanding of those skills. The importance of developing leadership skills to improve school performance and effectiveness is great. In the field of school leadership, most leaders…

  17. Construction & Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business and Literacy Communities, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Basic skills education has become a pressing need in the construction industry as jobs become more complex and fewer workers have needed skills. However, the construction industry lags in spending on training for entry-level workers. The Home Builders Institute (HBI) is testing a pilot basic skills program that it hopes will prove useful to the…

  18. Global Skill Shortages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Malcolm S.; Zaidi, Mahmood A.

    This book discusses the causes and impact of global skill shortages, focusing on data from skill shortages measured in the period 1995-1998 in 19 developed and emerging economies. Chapter one contains a brief introduction. Chapter two is a review of theoretical literature on skill shortages, including static and dynamic shortages, efficiency wage…

  19. On Performance Skill Representation Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Koichi; Shimizu, Satoshi; Yoshinaga, Saori

    In this paper, we propose a framework for representing performance skill. Firstly, we notice the importance of performance skill representation. We introduce five different representation targets: performance tasks, performance rules, pre-shaping actions, dynamic integrity constraints, and performance states. Performance task description consists of a sequence of performance tasks and expressions. It acts as a goal description in planning. Performance rules describe model performance methods for given tasks including how to shape body parts and how to use various muscles. Pre-shaping action rules are similar to performance rules. Its role is to pre-shape in between consecutive tasks to prepare for the next task. Dynamic integrity constraints specify constraints to be satisfied during performance. They provide such general rules as prohibiting simultaneous strong activations of agonist and antagonist. Performance states are for describing real performance done by players including professionals and amateurs. The aim of the framework is to provide a uniform scheme for representing model performance methods given performance score such as music score. The representation framework will define targets of inducing formal skill rules as well as describing performance states automatically from biomechanical performance data. It also is related to a fundamental research issue of attributes finding/selection in discovering useful rules for skillful performance. We conclude our paper by stating future research direction.

  20. Why skill matters

    PubMed Central

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Yamamoto, Shinya; Yasuda, Masaharu; Kim, Hyoung F.

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing rewards per unit time is ideal for success and survival for humans and animals. This goal can be approached by speeding up behavior aiming at rewards, and this is done most efficiently by acquiring skills. Importantly, reward-directed skills consist of two components: finding a good object (object skill) and acting on the object (action skill), which occur sequentially. Recent studies suggest that object skill is based on high capacity memory on object-value association. When a learned object appears, the corresponding memory is quickly expressed as a value-based gaze bias, leading to the automatic acquisition or avoidance of the object. Object skill thus plays a crucial role in increasing rewards per unit time. PMID:23911579

  1. Why skill matters.

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Yamamoto, Shinya; Yasuda, Masaharu; Kim, Hyoung F

    2013-09-01

    Maximizing rewards per unit time is ideal for success and survival in humans and animals. This goal can be approached by speeding up behavior aiming at rewards and this is done most efficiently by acquiring skills. Importantly, reward-directed skills consist of two components: finding a good object (i.e., object skill) and acting on the object (i.e., action skill), which occur sequentially. Recent studies suggest that object skill is based on high-capacity memory for object-value associations. When a learned object is encountered the corresponding memory is quickly expressed as a value-based gaze bias, leading to the automatic acquisition or avoidance of the object. Object skill thus plays a crucial role in increasing rewards per unit time. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. ESPC Integrated Skill Diagnostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    quantitative skill metrics to assess the advancements in the Earth System Prediction Capability (ESPC). This work will also implement automated...the AO indices for various versions of the system physics. The large spread beyond 14 days is consistent with the CPC analyses of GFS AO which...indicates the lack of skilled forecasts beyond 10 days. Lin et al. (2005, 2009) indicates that the skill of polar mode forecasts depends on MJO amplitude

  3. Differentiating Information Skills and Computer Skills: A Factor Analytic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pask, Judith M.; Saunders, E. Stewart

    2004-01-01

    A basic tenet of information literacy programs is that the skills needed to use computers and the skills needed to find and evaluate information are two separate sets of skills. Outside the library this is not always the view. The claim is sometimes made that information skills are acquired by learning computer skills. All that is needed is a…

  4. Employability Skills Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetwater Union High School District, Chula Vista, CA.

    The Employability Skills Center (ESC) of the Division of Adult and Continuing Education (DACE) of the Sweetwater Union High School District (California) was created out of a need to help adult students develop the basic skills that are required for success in their chosen vocational programs but not taught in regular adult basic education classes.…

  5. Improving Library Research Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Catherine W.

    This report describes a program to advance library research skills in two sixth grade science classes. The problem was assessed through a survey, questionnaire, and worksheet, and by direct observation. Analysis of probable cause data revealed that students displayed a lack of research skills related to library research. Some of the causes were…

  6. Teaching Organizational Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakunas, Boris; Holley, William

    2001-01-01

    Advocates teaching students organizational skills that lead to school success. Outlines seven such skills and how to teach them, including such things as bringing necessary supplies to class, organizing handouts and loose-leaf papers, taking and organizing notes, developing and following study plans, and planning and carrying out large projects.…

  7. Thinking Skills & Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    A review of research and the views of researchers prominent in the field of thinking skill development discusses the role of thinking skills in the ability to formulate problems, resolve issues, determine the most effective decisions, and create effective solutions to problems. The views of Edward deBono, Robert Ennis, Reuven Feuerstein, Matthew…

  8. Elementary TIG Welding Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierson, John E., III

    The text was prepared to help deaf students develop the skills needed by an employed welder. It uses simplified language and illustrations to present concepts which should be reinforced by practical experience with welding skills. Each of the 12 lessons contains: (1) an information section with many illustrations which presents a concept or…

  9. Skills-Intervention Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Linda

    The GO Project was created at Sacramento City College (SCC) to help underprepared students achieve success in a transfer-level sociology course, while improving their reading, writing, and study skills. Throughout the fall semester, students in the GO Project engaged in reading, essay writing, and study skills practice which focused on the…

  10. Testing Skills in Vertebrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

  11. The Employability Skills Portfolio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemmer, Paul; And Others

    1992-01-01

    During 1990-91, Michigan schools piloted an innovative portfolio approach enabling students to discover, document, and develop employability skills in academics, personal management, and teamwork. Not an improved sorting system, the project encourages students to recognize successes, seek opportunities to improve skills, and gain confidence in…

  12. Survival Skills Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Charlie

    The manual describes a program in survival skills for use with delinquent youth. The program covers the following six areas of functional competency: interpersonal relations, occupational knowledge, consumer awareness, law, health, and community resources. The skills necessary for successful functioning are listed as communication, interpersonal…

  13. Early Communicative Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKay, Gilbert F.; Dunn, William R.

    Intended for parents and teachers, the manual offers guidelines for developing communication skills in severely and profoundly mentally handicapped children. An introduction helps the reader determine a suitable starting point and provides a description of early communication skills; Part II describes the five stages in communication development.…

  14. Schools, Skills and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartog, Joop; Vijverberg, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Skill development involves important choices for individuals and school designers: should individuals and schools specialize, or should they aim for an optimal combination of skills? We analyze this question by employing mean-standard deviation analysis and show how cost structure, benefit structure and risk attitudes jointly determine the optimal…

  15. LabSkills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Nick

    2010-01-01

    This article describes LabSkills, a revolutionary teaching tool to improve practical science in schools. LabSkills offers the chance to help improve the exposure that the average Key Stage 5 (age 16-19) student has to practical work. This is a huge area for development being highlighted by universities who are seeing a worryingly growing trend in…

  16. Assessing Applied Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMartino, Joe; Castaneda, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    A recent employer survey sponsored by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills found that the skills new job entrants most need for success in the workplace--oral and written communication, time management, critical thinking, problem solving, personal accountability, and the ability to work effectively with others--are the areas in which recent…

  17. LabSkills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Nick

    2010-01-01

    This article describes LabSkills, a revolutionary teaching tool to improve practical science in schools. LabSkills offers the chance to help improve the exposure that the average Key Stage 5 (age 16-19) student has to practical work. This is a huge area for development being highlighted by universities who are seeing a worryingly growing trend in…

  18. Critical Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word's Worth: A Quarterly Newsletter of the Lifelong Learning Network, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly newsletter focuses on the theme of critical thinking skills. "Critical Thinking Skills: An Interview with Dr. Richard Paul" (Barbara Christopher) is the text of an interview in which the director of research at Sonoma State University's Center for Critical Thinking examines the meaning of critical thinking and…

  19. Workbook in Library Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Nancy Kirkpatrick

    This workbook, designed for a library skills course, provides 23 lessons to acquaint Yavapai College (YC) students with basic library reference skills. Each lesson begins with explanatory text, followed by reinforcement exercises. After providing course information, the workbook offers information on using the library (Lesson 1), finding books in…

  20. Skills for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gary R.

    This publication contains two miniunits to help students in grades 7-12 build skills for the future. The exercises can also be adapted for use in grades 4-6. Each of the miniunits contains several exercises to build specific skills. Miniunit One, "The Arithmetic of Growth," deals with two concepts--exponential growth and doubling time. These two…

  1. Critical Skills Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As the U.S. economy begins to show signs of improvement, executives say they need a workforce fully equipped with skills beyond just the basics of reading, writing, and arithmetic (the three Rs). Skills such as critical thinking and problem solving, communication, collaboration, and creativity and innovation (the four Cs) will become even more…

  2. Social Skills Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Charles W., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue for people working in the field of adult literacy focuses on the impact of learning disabilities (LD) on an adult's social skills. It explores various social, emotional, and daily living concerns which adults with learning disabilities may face. The following articles are included: (1) "Social Skills and Adults with Learning…

  3. Early Communicative Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKay, Gilbert F.; Dunn, William R.

    Intended for parents and teachers, the manual offers guidelines for developing communication skills in severely and profoundly mentally handicapped children. An introduction helps the reader determine a suitable starting point and provides a description of early communication skills; Part II describes the five stages in communication development.…

  4. Critical Thinking beyond Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastephanou, Marianna; Angeli, Charoula

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate possibilities for conceptions of critical thinking beyond the established educational framework that emphasizes skills. Distancing ourselves from the older rationalist framework, we explain that what we think wrong with the skills perspective is, amongst other things, its absolutization of performativity…

  5. Schools, Skills and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartog, Joop; Vijverberg, Wim

    2007-01-01

    Skill development involves important choices for individuals and school designers: should individuals and schools specialize, or should they aim for an optimal combination of skills? We analyze this question by employing mean-standard deviation analysis and show how cost structure, benefit structure and risk attitudes jointly determine the optimal…

  6. Testing Skills in Vertebrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Mildred Sears; Tosto, Pat

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a project that gives students examples of basic skills that many vertebrate species develop as they grow and function in their ecosystem. These activities involve information gathering about surroundings, learning how to use objects, and tracking and searching skills. Different vertebrate species may acquire…

  7. Michigan Consumer Education Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Consumers Council, Lansing.

    The booklet identifies consumer skills which a committee of the Michigan Consumers Council believes are essential for students to master prior to graduation from high school. The purpose of the document is to give direction to school districts and teachers on which consumer education skills are needed. The booklet does not contain teaching methods…

  8. Critical Skills Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2010

    2010-01-01

    As the U.S. economy begins to show signs of improvement, executives say they need a workforce fully equipped with skills beyond just the basics of reading, writing, and arithmetic (the three Rs). Skills such as critical thinking and problem solving, communication, collaboration, and creativity and innovation (the four Cs) will become even more…

  9. Rural Thinking Skills Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Janice

    This catalog aims to help educators locate materials which will assist them in effectively teaching thinking skills. Research for Better Schools (RBS) serves as the lead educational laboratory for the Department of Education's national project on thinking skills. A total of 248 resources, including pamphlets, documents of activities, computer…

  10. Electromechanical Technician Skills Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka-Hennepin Technical Coll., Minneapolis, MN.

    This document contains test items to measure the job skills of electromechanical technicians. Questions are organized in four sections that cover the following topics: (1) shop math; (2) electricity and electronics; (3) mechanics and machining; and (4) plumbing, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, and welding skills. Questions call for…

  11. Assessing Employee Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on assessing employee skills. "Bridging the Training Gap: Identifying Work Place Transferable Skills Needs in Manufacturing Organizations in East Central Minnesota" (K. Peter Kuchinke, James M. Brown, Howie Anderson, Joe Hobson) reports a study of a workplace education program in rural…

  12. When Thinking Skills Trump Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivey, Gay; Fisher, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    A popular response among high school teachers and leaders facing students reading far below grade level, the authors claim, is to adopt back-to-basics packaged programs that focus on discrete skills with little attention to critical reading and writing. The authors express concern that reliance on such programs keeps older struggling readers from…

  13. Not-so-Soft Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Much recent discussion about the skills needed to secure Britain's economic recovery has focused on skills for employability. However, too often, these fundamental skills are understood in narrow functional or vocational terms. So-called "soft skills", what Penelope Tobin, in her 2008 paper "Soft Skills: the hard facts", terms "traits and…

  14. Is There a Moral Skill?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotz, Ignacio L.

    1989-01-01

    The nature of skill, distinguished from habit, is sketched. Moral skill is defined as the skill, born of genetically rooted talent, which masterminds subsidiary skills into moral action (action conforming to certain moral principles). Training this skill is possible, but results will be uneven because talent varies. (IAH)

  15. Not-so-Soft Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Much recent discussion about the skills needed to secure Britain's economic recovery has focused on skills for employability. However, too often, these fundamental skills are understood in narrow functional or vocational terms. So-called "soft skills", what Penelope Tobin, in her 2008 paper "Soft Skills: the hard facts", terms "traits and…

  16. Wages and Skills Utilization: Effect of Broad Skills and Generic Skills on Wages in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Catherine R.; Ng, Michael Chi Man; Sung, Johnny; Loke, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Many people go for training to upgrade their skills which is hoped to pave the way for better pay. But what are the kinds of skills that really affect wages? Employers have emphasized the value of generic skills such as interpersonal and communication skills, teamwork and problem solving. Does possession of these skills translate to at least the…

  17. Wages and Skills Utilization: Effect of Broad Skills and Generic Skills on Wages in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Catherine R.; Ng, Michael Chi Man; Sung, Johnny; Loke, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Many people go for training to upgrade their skills which is hoped to pave the way for better pay. But what are the kinds of skills that really affect wages? Employers have emphasized the value of generic skills such as interpersonal and communication skills, teamwork and problem solving. Does possession of these skills translate to at least the…

  18. Information Skills for Electronic Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the importance of developing strong skills in electronic searching and stresses the importance of teaching these skills across the curriculum. Several skill models, are suggested and components of search strategies are briefly outlined. (JKP)

  19. Presentation skills for nurses.

    PubMed

    Foulkes, Mark

    2015-02-20

    This article emphasises the importance of effective presentation skills. Such skills allow nurses to share knowledge and expertise and to communicate clearly in a range of workplace scenarios. Nurses are increasingly being asked to present in formal and informal situations, such as conferences, poster presentations, job interviews, case reports and ward-based teaching. This article explores the principles underpinning the development of these skills, discusses the situations in which they could be applied and demonstrates how nurses might improve and develop as presenters.

  20. CAPABILITIES AND SKILLS*

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, James J.; Corbin, Chase O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of recent research on the economics of human development to the work of the Human Development and Capability Association. The recent economics of human development brings insights about the dynamics of skill accumulation to an otherwise static literature on capabilities. Skills embodied in agents empower people. Enhanced skills enhance opportunities and hence promote capabilities. We address measurement problems common to both the economics of human development and the capability approach. The economics of human development analyzes the dynamics of preference formation, but is silent about which preferences should be used to evaluate alternative policies. This is both a strength and a limitation of the approach. PMID:28261378

  1. Photojournalists Need Reporting Skills, Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Jerry

    1980-01-01

    Argues that journalists and photojournalists require training in the same skills, including the skills needed in news judgment, organization, interviewing, story idea development, and copy writing. (AEA)

  2. A-level skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downie, Neil A.

    2016-12-01

    In reply to the Graduate Careers article "Taking the long view" (October 2016 pp48–50), in which Patrick White and Emma Smith suggest that talk of a skills shortage in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is overblown.

  3. Skills for Effective Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dustin, Dick; Ehly, Stewart

    1984-01-01

    Discusses counselor skills that promote effective consultation. Reviews research on effective school consultation and presents a five-stage model which involves phasing in, problem identification, implementation, evaluation, and termination. Provides recommendations for the process and products of consultation. (JAC)

  4. Skills for Effective Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dustin, Dick; Ehly, Stewart

    1984-01-01

    Discusses counselor skills that promote effective consultation. Reviews research on effective school consultation and presents a five-stage model which involves phasing in, problem identification, implementation, evaluation, and termination. Provides recommendations for the process and products of consultation. (JAC)

  5. Crew Skills and Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Thomas; Burbank, Daniel C.; Eppler, Dean; Garrison, Robert; Harvey, Ralph; Hoffman, Paul; Schmitt, Harrison

    1998-01-01

    One of the major focus points for the workshop was the topic of crew skills and training necessary for the Mars surface mission. Discussions centered on the mix of scientific skills necessary to accomplish the proposed scientific goals, and the training environment that can bring the ground and flight teams to readiness. Subsequent discussion resulted in recommendations for specific steps to begin the process of training an experienced Mars exploration team.

  6. Skill in Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Manning, Evan

    2008-01-01

    Retrieval Skill quantifies the ability of one retrieval from a sounder to be more accurate than the best forecast relative to another with the same of another sounder. This is summarized using a Retrieval Anomaly Skill Score (RASS) which is the cor (retrieved-background, truth-background) * sqrt(f), Where f is defined as the ratio of accepted to the possible retrievals. Charts show various features and comparisons of RASS to other methods of retrieval.

  7. Contribution of Oral Language Skills, Linguistic Skills, and Transcription Skills to Chinese Written Composition among Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the contribution of oral language skills, linguistic skills, and transcription skills to Chinese written composition among Grade 4 students in Hong Kong. Measures assessing verbal working memory, oral language skills, linguistic skills (i.e., syntactic skills and discourse skills), transcription skills (i.e.,…

  8. Contribution of Oral Language Skills, Linguistic Skills, and Transcription Skills to Chinese Written Composition among Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Pui-sze; Ho, Connie Suk-han; Chan, David Wai-ock; Chung, Kevin Kien-hoa

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the contribution of oral language skills, linguistic skills, and transcription skills to Chinese written composition among Grade 4 students in Hong Kong. Measures assessing verbal working memory, oral language skills, linguistic skills (i.e., syntactic skills and discourse skills), transcription skills (i.e.,…

  9. Let your communication skills equal your clinical skills.

    PubMed

    Demarais, Ann; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Relating effectively with patients is among the most valued skills of clinical care. Honing your communication skills is an art that every physician needs to learn and understand. In this era of increased volume of patients there is a tendency to lose sight of the importance of having good communication skills. This article will review 11 suggestions for letting your communication skills equal your clinical skills.

  10. Mathematical Skills and Motor Life Skills in Toddlers: Do Differences in Mathematical Skills Reflect Differences in Motor Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reikerås, Elin; Moser, Thomas; Tønnessen, Finn Egil

    2017-01-01

    This study examines possible relations between early mathematical skills and motor life skills in 450 toddlers aged two years and nine months. The study employs baseline data from the longitudinal Stavanger Project--The Learning Child. The children's mathematical skills and motor life skills were assessed by structured observation in the natural…

  11. Employability Skills Assessment Tool Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Puvanasvaran, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Research nationally and internationally found that technical graduates are lacking in employability skills. As employability skills are crucial in outcome-based education, the main goal of this research is to develop an Employability Skill Assessment Tool to help students and lecturers produce competent graduates in employability skills needed by…

  12. Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft skills…

  13. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  14. Assessing Employability Skills. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saterfiel, Thomas H.; McLarty, Joyce R.

    The term "employability skills" refers to those skills required to acquire and retain a job. In the past, employability skills were considered primarily of a vocational or job-specific nature; they were not thought to include the academic skills most commonly taught in schools. Current thinking, however, has broadened the definition to…

  15. Skills Gaps in Australian Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of more than 2000 managers examining perceptions of skills gaps in a range of Australian firms. It finds that three quarters report a skills gap, and almost one third report skills gaps across the whole organisation. Firm size and industry differences exist in perceptions of the effect of the skills gap…

  16. Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft skills…

  17. Basic Skills. NIACE Briefing Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Adult Continuing Education, Leicester (England).

    Skills For Life, since 2001 the United Kingdom's national adult basic skills strategy, aims to improve literacy, numeracy, or English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) skills among people over the age of 16. Basic skills programs may be full- or part-time and are delivered in colleges, community venues, neighborhood learning centers, adult…

  18. Soft skills and dental education.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, M A G; Abu Kasim, N H; Naimie, Z

    2013-05-01

    Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses the different soft skills, how they are taught and assessed and the issues that need to be addressed in their teaching and assessment. The use of the module by the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya for development of soft skills for institutions of higher learning introduced by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia.

  19. Sensitivity to Sequential Structure in Musical Savants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Leon K.

    1995-01-01

    Eight pianists with mild to moderate mental retardation and eight comparison pianists without retardation were asked to duplicate chord sequences of varying length and musical structure in an immediate memory format. All participants were sensitive to the structural dimensions of the material, and differences between groups were restricted to the…

  20. Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Ambar

    2009-01-01

    The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely ‘disinhibits’ the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents—artistic or otherwise—in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations. PMID:20142854

  1. Gourmand savants and environmental determinants of obesity.

    PubMed

    Myslobodsky, M

    2003-05-01

    Obesity is an embodiment of a multifactorial problem with several intermediates in its casual pathway. Virtually all who have written on obesity have responded to four inter-related factors: genetic, perinatal, environmental, and consumption-expenditure energy imbalance. The message to take home is that while a molecular description of each participant of the obesity machinery seems achievable in principle, a complex model describing all of them is currently beyond our grasp. That is why the eradication of the obesity epidemic is seen in a more precise neuropsychological description of what is wrong with each subset of patients. This review proposes that the neuropsychiatric experience might be the most fundamental for it could help to refocus the view of obesity from 'traditional' environmental factors and lifestyle changes to those dominated by a more 'individual-centred' perspective in which different modes of causal attribution are appropriate. This review advocates the idea of environmental dependency as a determinant of obesity, which has been an important idea in neurosciences for more than 30 years with roots in three important areas: psychological, neuropsychiatric, and experimental. The neuropsychology of obesity is yet to become part of today's agenda of obesity research.

  2. Sharpen your bargaining skills.

    PubMed

    Marcus, L J

    1996-10-14

    As the health-care revolution continues, bargaining skills have become more crucial for doctors than ever before. If you want your practice to thrive, you must regularly negotiate with colleagues, practice administrators, allied health professionals, managed-care plans, business groups, hospitals, and the government. Yet medical schools and residency programs devote little if any time to negotiating skills. The "golden days," when physicians could afford to be mavericks, are over. Doctors must develop a new collaborative outlook to be successful and happy in their careers, says Leonard J. Marcus, Ph.D., lead author of the book "Renegotiating Health Care: Resolving conflict to Build Collaboration." He and his co-authors often conduct seminars for health professionals on improving bargaining skills. The following excerpt concerns the role of conflict in negotiation, and how to resolve it.

  3. Teaching Receptive Language Skills

    PubMed Central

    Grow, Laura; LeBlanc, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Receptive language refers to responding appropriately to another person's spoken language. Most curricula dedicate a proportion of early intervention to developing receptive language skills. The specific terms used to refer to the receptive language programs and the recommendations for teaching such skills vary considerably across the early intervention curricula. The present paper will provide a conceptual analysis of the desired controlling variables for different receptive language programs, teaching recommendations, a brief review of the literature to substantiate the teaching recommendations, and a discussion of the potential negative effects of deviating from the recommendations. PMID:25729507

  4. Otologic Skills Training.

    PubMed

    Wiet, Gregory J; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten; Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts

    2017-10-01

    This article presents a summary of the current simulation training for otologic skills. There is a wide variety of educational approaches, assessment tools, and simulators in use, including simple low-cost task trainers to complex computer-based virtual reality systems. A systematic approach to otologic skills training using adult learning theory concepts, such as repeated and distributed practice, self-directed learning, and mastery learning, is necessary for these educational interventions to be effective. Future directions include development of measures of performance to assess efficacy of simulation training interventions and, for complex procedures, improvement in fidelity based on educational goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sport expert's motor imagery: functional imaging of professional motor skills and simple motor skills.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gaoxia; Luo, Jing

    2010-06-23

    Numerous studies provide evidence that motor skill acquisition is associated with dynamic changes in cortical and subcortical regions. Athletes are a professional population who are engaged in extensive motor training for long periods. However, the neural substrates of extreme level motor performance have not been clarified. We used kinesthetic imagery task to induce the mental representation of sport expert's extraordinary performance in view of the shared substrates of executing movement and motor imagery. For the first time, we compared, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the pattern of cerebral activations in 12 professional divers and 12 normal people without extensive training, during imagery of professional skills and imagery of simple motor skills. The sport experts showed significant activation in the parahippocampus during imagery of professional skills relative to the novices, which might reflect the representation adapted to experience-related motor tasks. No significant difference was found between experts and novices when they imagined simple motor skills. These results indicated the experts might utilize their kinesthetic imagery more efficiently than novices, but only for the activity in which they had expertise. The sport experts also demonstrated more focused activation patterns in prefrontal areas in both of imagery tasks, which may be relevant to higher order of motor control during motor imagery. Moreover, this study suggested that the brains of sport experts could be regarded as the ideal subjects to explore the relationship between cerebral plasticity and learning of complex motor skills.

  6. Developing Scientists' "Soft" Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Wendy

    2014-02-01

    A great deal of professional advice directed at undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and even early-career scientists focuses on technical skills necessary to succeed in a complex work environment in which problems transcend disciplinary boundaries. Collaborative research approaches are emphasized, as are cross-training and gaining nonacademic experiences [Moslemi et al., 2009].

  7. Communication Skills Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham Elementary School, Pompano Beach, FL.

    The communications program developed by Markham Elementary School personnel of Pompano Beach, Florida, is planned so as to utilize fully the diagnostic and team approach to learning. Instruction in communications skills (reading, listening, speaking, writing, handwriting, and spelling) is structured by sequential achievement phases which allow the…

  8. Skill in Expert Dogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helton, William S.

    2007-01-01

    The motor control of novice participants is often cognitively demanding and susceptible to interference by other tasks. As people develop expertise, their motor control becomes less susceptible to interference from other tasks. Researchers propose a transition in human motor skill from active control to automaticity. This progression may also be…

  9. Rapid Response Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley-Winders, Anna Faye

    2008-01-01

    Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College's (MGCCC) long-term commitment to providing workforce training in a post-Katrina environment became a catalyst for designing short-term flexible educational opportunities. Providing nationally recognized skills training for the recovery/rebuilding of communities challenged the college to develop innovative,…

  10. Participative Training Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodwell, John

    Based on extensive field experience, this two-part book is intended to be a practical guide for maximizing participative training methods. The first part of the book looks at the principles and the core skills involved in participative training. It shows how trainee participation corresponds to the processes of adult learning and describes each…

  11. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  12. Strengthening Organizational Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brito, Gail; Dorsey, Sharon; Dorey, Sheila; House, Pamela; Nouke, Margaret

    This action research project implemented and evaluated a program for establishing organizational skills, utilizing routines and tools that maximize school success. The targeted population consisted of students in four kindergarten classes in a primary school and three third-grade classes in an intermediate school. Analysis of probable cause data…

  13. Math Skills Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, R. W.; Adem, M.

    2004-01-01

    A math review exam, written and administered in conjunction with the Quantitative Assessment Program at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, is used at the beginning of the 1st food engineering course to evaluate math skills needed for successful completion of the course. Students who do not score well on the math exam are targeted for individual…

  14. Listening Skills Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decatur Public Schools District 61, IL.

    Defining listening as the active and conscious process of hearing, recognizing, and interpreting or comprehending language, this guide provides numerous activities to promote the listening skills of primary and intermediate grade students. Specifically, the activities described seek to develop (1) the ability of young students to listen…

  15. Basic Policy Studies Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplin, William D., Ed.; O'Leary, Michael K., Ed.

    This publication will help high school and college students develop policy analysis skills and techniques and apply these to important public issues. A public policy issue is defined as a disagreement between two or more elements of a society over the way that the society's government deals with a given situation. There are six chapters. Chapter…

  16. Interpersonal Skills Summary Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    communication skill include “enunciating; expressing yourself clearly; communicating emotion ; interpersonal communication” (Klein et al., 2006, p... emotions , preferences, opinions, concerns, or needs positively, directly, and with self-confidence without being offensive or hostile during the social...of the counterpart” (Zbylut, Metcalf, McGowan, Beemer, Brunner, & Vowels , 2009, p. 102). Intercultural and interpersonal sensitivity involves

  17. Scaffolding Reading Comprehension Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Ashraf Atta Mohamed Safein

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigates whether English language teachers use scaffolding strategies for developing their students' reading comprehension skills or just for assessing their comprehension. It also tries to demonstrate whether teachers are aware of these strategies or they use them as a matter of habit. A questionnaire as well as structured…

  18. Bicycle Skills Test Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill. Highway Safety Research Center.

    This manual provides the guidelines and components necessary for the planning and implementation of a basic bicycle skills test program. It is intended for use by enforcement personnel, city and town government officials, education and school groups, civic groups, or other interested persons. An introduction covers use of the manual and the…

  19. Developing Technical Skill Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop, Alisha

    2009-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges facing the career and technical education (CTE) community as it works to implement the 2006 Perkins Act is responding to more rigorous requirements for reporting on CTE students' technical skill attainment. The U.S. Department of Education suggested in non-regulatory guidance that states and locals use the number of…

  20. Skill in Expert Dogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helton, William S.

    2007-01-01

    The motor control of novice participants is often cognitively demanding and susceptible to interference by other tasks. As people develop expertise, their motor control becomes less susceptible to interference from other tasks. Researchers propose a transition in human motor skill from active control to automaticity. This progression may also be…

  1. Measuring Skills and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludeman, Kate

    1991-01-01

    Customized skills assessments can perform a number of functions: help training departments demonstrate their effectiveness; provide a foundation for career development programs; reinforce company values; add feedback from the bottom up for performance evaluation; provide a concentrated focus for customer service improvement; and serve as a…

  2. Counseling Skills for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottler, Jeffrey A.; Kottler, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    By necessity, today's teachers do much more than deliver instruction. In the classroom, on the playground, or even in the parking lot, teachers are often called upon to respond quickly and appropriately to students' social and emotional needs, drawing from instinct more than anything else. In this second edition of "Counseling Skills for…

  3. Thinking-Skills Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Alysa

    1991-01-01

    Describes discovery learning, a teaching method that encourages students to use inductive reasoning. Students explore and experiment using the skill or idea being taught; they determine rules, make generalizations, and discover concepts. The teacher acts as coach, advisor, and reinforcer. A student page offers a discovery learning game on capital…

  4. Teaching for Skill Mastery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chepko, Stevie; Doan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on establishing a mastery climate where all students find success and start on the road to physical literacy. Using a five-step approach, physical educators will be offered guidance for developing practice tasks that lead to skill mastery. These steps include creating a mastery environment, designing deliberate practice tasks,…

  5. Teaching Science -- Skill Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmiess, Elmer

    1983-01-01

    Skills needed for problem-solving are discussed. Examples of defining problems, questioning, observing, classifying, predicting, and confirming are provided. An overview of the Elementary Science Study (ESS) program, including a list of ESS units (grouped by subject matter), is also provided. (Author/JN)

  6. Building Science Process Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFina, Anthony V.

    2006-01-01

    A well-designed and executed field trip experience serves not only to enrich and supplement course content, but also creates opportunities to build basic science process skills. The National Science Education Standards call for science teachers "to design and manage learning environments that provide students with the time, space, and resources…

  7. State Skill Standards: Welding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for welding programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any statewide…

  8. State Skill Standards: Metalworking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for metalworking programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any…

  9. Taxonomy of Learning Skills

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    process analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 55 Michalski, R. S., Carbonell, J. G., & Mitchell, T. M. (Eds.) Machine learning: An artficial intelligence ...24 General Comments on Intelligent Tutoring Systems ............................................................... 25 (1) BIP...LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Learning skills .. ... 17 Figure 2. Components of a generic Intelligent tutoring system ..... Figure 3. Learning

  10. Testing Historical Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baillie, Ray

    1980-01-01

    Outlines methods for including skill testing in teacher-made history tests. Focuses on distinguishing fact and fiction, evaluating the reliability of a source, distinguishing between primary and secondary sources, recognizing statements which support generalizations, testing with media, mapping geo-politics, and applying knowledge to new…

  11. Assessing Listening Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge, Alice

    Teachers confronted with the task of teaching or assessing listening skills should realize that competence in listening is acquired by knowing and doing and is evidenced by appropriate feedback or response. Various state curriculum and assessment projects have identified and grouped competencies in listening according to function, such as sensing,…

  12. Essential Skills for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    No matter what standards they follow, principals must be skilled team builders, instructional leaders, and visionary risk-takers. There are five emerging roles: historian, cheerleader, lightning rod, landscaper (environmental scanner), and anthropologist. To succeed, principals must be empowered by districts, become authentic leaders, and make…

  13. Organisational skills and tools.

    PubMed

    Wicker, Paul

    2009-04-01

    While this article mainly applies to practitioners who have responsibilities for leading teams or supervising practitioners, many of the skills and tools described here may also apply to students or junior practitioners. The purpose of this article is to highlight some of the main points about organisation, some of the organisational skills and tools that are available, and some examples of how these skills and tools can be used to make practitioners more effective at organising their workload. It is important to realise that organising work and doing work are two completely different things and shouldn't be mixed up. For example, it would be very difficult to start organising work in the middle of a busy operating list: the organisation of the work must come before the work starts and therefore preparation is often an important first step in organising work. As such, some of the tools and skills described in this article may need to be used hours or even days prior to the actual work taking place.

  14. Participative Training Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodwell, John

    Based on extensive field experience, this two-part book is intended to be a practical guide for maximizing participative training methods. The first part of the book looks at the principles and the core skills involved in participative training. It shows how trainee participation corresponds to the processes of adult learning and describes each…

  15. Warm Up with Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyle, R. J.; Smith, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    Too little time is often spent on warm-up activities in the school or recreation class. Warm-ups are often perfunctory and unimaginative. Several suggestions are made for warm-up activities that incorporate both previously learned and new skills, while preparing the body for more vigorous activity. (IAH)

  16. Life Skills Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Sunny

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the San Francisco Sheriff's Department (SFSD) Life Skills for Prisoners Program. The program was designed to enhance and expand the Resolve to Stop the Violence Project, which had operated successfully for three years in the San Francisco County Jail as a restorative justice program. The mission of SFSD is to…

  17. Skills for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armitt, Judith

    2009-01-01

    People are born with three skills: (1) to breathe; (2) to feed; and (3) to learn. When they breathe they live today, when they eat they will live tomorrow, and while they learn they can survive a lifetime. For some fortunate people, what gets them up in the morning is the pleasure of learning something new. While perhaps not a conscious thought,…

  18. Assessing students' metacognitive skills.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Judy; Alman, Martha; Gardner, Stephanie; Born, Charles

    2007-02-15

    To develop a diagnostic test for assessing cognitive skills related to metacognition in a physiology course. Cognitive skills believed to be related to metacognition (visualizing lecture information and interpreting diagrams) were identified in a first-professional year (P1) physiology course and test items were constructed for each. Analyses included overall reliability, item discrimination, and variance comparisons of 4 groups to assess the effect of prior physiology coursework and diagnostic test score level on the first examination in physiology. Overall reliability was 0.83 (N = 78). Eighty percent of the test items discriminated positively. The average diagnostic test scores of students with or without a prior physiology course did not differ significantly. Students who scored above the class mean on the diagnostic test and who had taken a prior physiology course also had the highest average scores on the physiology examination. The diagnostic test provided a measure of a limited number of skills related to metacognition, and preliminary data suggest that such skills are especially important in retaining information.

  19. Assessing Students' Metacognitive Skills

    PubMed Central

    Alman, Martha; Gardner, Stephanie; Born, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Objective To develop a diagnostic test for assessing cognitive skills related to metacognition in a physiology course. Methods Cognitive skills believed to be related to metacognition (visualizing lecture information and interpreting diagrams) were identified in a first-professional year (P1) physiology course and test items were constructed for each. Analyses included overall reliability, item discrimination, and variance comparisons of 4 groups to assess the effect of prior physiology coursework and diagnostic test score level on the first examination in physiology. Results Overall reliability was 0.83 (N = 78). Eighty percent of the test items discriminated positively. The average diagnostic test scores of students with or without a prior physiology course did not differ significantly. Students who scored above the class mean on the diagnostic test and who had taken a prior physiology course also had the highest average scores on the physiology examination. Conclusion The diagnostic test provided a measure of a limited number of skills related to metacognition, and preliminary data suggest that such skills are especially important in retaining information. PMID:17429514

  20. State Skill Standards: Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.…

  1. Teaching Presentation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William H.; Thompson, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    Effective teaching of presentation skills focuses on the most important element of the presentation--the message itself. Some instructors place the heaviest emphasis on the messenger (the presenter) and focus their presentation feedback on all the presenter is doing wrong--saying "um," gesturing awkwardly, and so forth. When students receive this…

  2. Essential Skills for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    No matter what standards they follow, principals must be skilled team builders, instructional leaders, and visionary risk-takers. There are five emerging roles: historian, cheerleader, lightning rod, landscaper (environmental scanner), and anthropologist. To succeed, principals must be empowered by districts, become authentic leaders, and make…

  3. Life Skills Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Sunny

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the San Francisco Sheriff's Department (SFSD) Life Skills for Prisoners Program. The program was designed to enhance and expand the Resolve to Stop the Violence Project, which had operated successfully for three years in the San Francisco County Jail as a restorative justice program. The mission of SFSD is to…

  4. Adult Survival Skills Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsko, Gregory M.

    The purpose of this instrument is to supplement data from the Adult Basic Learning Examination in assessing the functional level of adults in daily situations. It may also be used as a teaching tool for adults requesting tutoring in specific concepts and skills presented in the instrument. This instrument is an informal assessment instrument and…

  5. The Skills Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The government, through several White and Green Papers, has promoted the 'Skills Revolution'. This requires central direction and coordination of a wide range of policies, practices and partnerships. But there are several difficulties: the impossibility of micromanaging the complex social and economic system; the dominance of the rather limited…

  6. Improving Listening Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiss, Patricia A.; Mayer, Rose

    This report describes a program for improving listening skills, lack of which interferes with second language acquisition. The targeted population was first- and second-year Spanish students in one middle school and one high school. Intervention over 15 weeks included changes in the classroom environment (desk arrangement, improved lighting,…

  7. Homeschooled Children's Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    Concludes that prior research show either no difference between homeschooled children and other children, or a difference favoring homeschooled children. This suggests that homeschooled children's social skills are certainly no worse than those of children attending conventional schools, and are probably better. This study finds that homeschooled…

  8. Early Childhood: Psychomotor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 31 materials for teaching psychomotor skills at the early childhood level. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession number and include the following…

  9. Math Skills Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartel, R. W.; Adem, M.

    2004-01-01

    A math review exam, written and administered in conjunction with the Quantitative Assessment Program at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, is used at the beginning of the 1st food engineering course to evaluate math skills needed for successful completion of the course. Students who do not score well on the math exam are targeted for individual…

  10. Negotiation Skill Development Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Gregory E.; Chau, Ngan N.

    2017-01-01

    Conflict occurs naturally in all marketing related activities. When such conflict is handled well through proper negotiation, it helps solve problems and build stronger, deeper relationships between the negotiating parties. Nevertheless, many students feel uneasy about negotiating, yet they know it is a crucial skill that needs to be developed.…

  11. The Skills Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burks, Beatrice Karol; Reeves, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Despite a vocal commitment to fairness, the British Government has, according to these authors, wholeheartedly failed to live up to this pledge when it comes to skills and adult training. A report on adult learning released in December by Demos found a system rife with inequality and contradictions. As the jobs market becomes increasingly…

  12. Listening Skills Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decatur Public Schools District 61, IL.

    Defining listening as the active and conscious process of hearing, recognizing, and interpreting or comprehending language, this guide provides numerous activities to promote the listening skills of primary and intermediate grade students. Specifically, the activities described seek to develop (1) the ability of young students to listen…

  13. Maine's Employability Skills Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, John M.; Wolffe, Karen E.; Wolfe, Judy; Brooker, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    This Practice Report describes the development and implementation of the "Maine Employability Skills Program," a model employment program developed by the Maine Division for the Blind and Visually Impaired (DBVI). The program was designed to support the efforts of the chronically unemployed or underemployed. These consumers were either…

  14. Measuring Skills and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludeman, Kate

    1991-01-01

    Customized skills assessments can perform a number of functions: help training departments demonstrate their effectiveness; provide a foundation for career development programs; reinforce company values; add feedback from the bottom up for performance evaluation; provide a concentrated focus for customer service improvement; and serve as a…

  15. Counseling Skills for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottler, Jeffrey A.; Kottler, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    By necessity, today's teachers do much more than deliver instruction. In the classroom, on the playground, or even in the parking lot, teachers are often called upon to respond quickly and appropriately to students' social and emotional needs, drawing from instinct more than anything else. In this second edition of "Counseling Skills for…

  16. Rapid Response Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley-Winders, Anna Faye

    2008-01-01

    Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College's (MGCCC) long-term commitment to providing workforce training in a post-Katrina environment became a catalyst for designing short-term flexible educational opportunities. Providing nationally recognized skills training for the recovery/rebuilding of communities challenged the college to develop innovative,…

  17. Communication Skills in the Electronic Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterwhite, Marilyn

    1986-01-01

    The author looks at how today's technology affects basic communication skills. She examines technology versus communication skills, the continuing need for communication skills, who should teach communications, and teaching communication skills effectively (including basic language skills, writing skills, composing the message, dictation skills,…

  18. Political Skill: Principals' Self-Perception of Political Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkle, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe and determine the degree to which elementary school, middle school, and high school principals perceive their political skill, as measured by the Political Skill Inventory (PSI). A second purpose of the study was to determine if there was a difference for the perceived political skill of…

  19. Employment Social Skills: What Skills Are Really Valued?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agran, Martin; Hughes, Carolyn; Thoma, Colleen A.; Scott, LaRon A.

    2016-01-01

    Although social skills have long been recognized as essential in promoting employees' employability (e.g., maintaining employment), there has been little research about work-related social skills for the last two decades. A systematic replication of Salzberg, Agran, and Lignugaris/Kraft's investigation of critical social skills was conducted.…

  20. Skilled or Skillful: What's the Difference for Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilles, Carol; Dickinson, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Outlines the difference between "drilling for skills" and "becoming skillful readers" and shows how teachers can help students become skillful readers, writers, discussants, and thinkers through literature discussions. Discusses establishing a context for literature study, and initiating and maintaining literature study groups. (SR)

  1. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Metal Stamping Skills Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These skill standards, developed through a consortium of educational and industry partners in Illinois, serve as guides to workforce preparation program providers to define content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition and performance. The skill standards include the following…

  2. Employment Social Skills: What Skills Are Really Valued?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agran, Martin; Hughes, Carolyn; Thoma, Colleen A.; Scott, LaRon A.

    2016-01-01

    Although social skills have long been recognized as essential in promoting employees' employability (e.g., maintaining employment), there has been little research about work-related social skills for the last two decades. A systematic replication of Salzberg, Agran, and Lignugaris/Kraft's investigation of critical social skills was conducted.…

  3. Skilled or Skillful: What's the Difference for Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilles, Carol; Dickinson, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Outlines the difference between "drilling for skills" and "becoming skillful readers" and shows how teachers can help students become skillful readers, writers, discussants, and thinkers through literature discussions. Discusses establishing a context for literature study, and initiating and maintaining literature study groups. (SR)

  4. A simulation of variability of ENSO forecast skill

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, M.K.; Anderson, D.L.T.; Lawrence, S.

    1996-01-01

    In many prediction schemes, the skill of long-range forecasts of ENSO events depends on the time of year. Such variability could be directly due to seasonal changes in the basic ocean-atmosphere system or due to the state of ENSO itself. A highly idealized delayed oscillator model with seasonally varying internal parameters is used here to simulate such behavior. The skill of the artificial forecasts shows dependence on both seasonal and ENSO phase. Experiments with ENSO phase-locked to the seasonal cycle, but with no seasonal variation of model parameters, show that the ENSO cycle alone can induce variability in skill. Inclusion of seasonal parameters enhances seasonal skill dependence. It is suggested that the seasonal skill variations found in practice are due to a combination of seasonal changes in the basic state and the phase-locking of the ENSO and annual cycles. 16 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Skilled nursing or rehabilitation facilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility. Who Needs to go to a Skilled Nursing or Rehabilitation Facility? Your ... ones can manage at home. Before you can go home from the hospital, you should be able ...

  6. Plants, Animals and Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pheasant, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Countrystart is a class in which students work with plants and animals, providing numerous opportunities to integrate basic skills teaching. The practical subject area becomes the vehicle to develop other skills needed by students. (JOW)

  7. Baccalaureate Students Learn Assessment Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagopian, Gloria; Kilpack, Virginia

    1974-01-01

    A model for incorporating selected nursing practitioner skills at the University of Rochester School of Nursing (New York) begins the teaching of physical assessment skills with the neurological examination in the first year of the undergraduate nursing major. (EA)

  8. Organization of Early Skilled Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Jerome S.

    1973-01-01

    Article is concerned principally with the early acquisition of skills relating to the manipulation of things, though perforce the role of certain social skills is treated in the interest of explicating that topic. (Author/CB)

  9. Clinical skills training in a skills lab compared with skills training in internships: comparison of skills development curricula.

    PubMed

    Peeraer, G; Scherpbier, A J J A; Remmen, R; De winter, B Y; Hendrickx, K; van Petegem, P; Weyler, J; Bossaert, L

    2007-11-01

    The necessity of learning skills through "integrated skills training" at an undergraduate level has been supported by several studies. The University of Antwerp implemented undergraduate skills training in its renewed curriculum in 1998, after it was demonstrated that Flemish students did not master their medical skills as well as Dutch students who received "integrated skills training" as part of their undergraduate medical course. The aim of this study was to compare the skill outcome levels of two different student populations: students who had been trained in basic clinical skills mainly through clinical internships in year 7 with students who had learned these skills through an integrated longitudinal programme in a special learning environment in years 1-5 prior to their internship experience. Students of the traditional curriculum learned skills through a 75 hour programme in years 4 and 5, through plenary sessions followed by a 12 month period of internships during which skills could be further practiced. We tested this group right after completion of their internships. Students from the renewed curriculum followed a 200 hour intensive small group skills training programme offered in years 1-5. This group was tested before starting their internships. On global OSCE-scores, renewed curriculum students had significantly higher overall scores (p<0.001) and they scored significantly higher at 6 of 15 stations. There was no significant difference at 8 stations, while traditional curriculum students scored better at station 1. 5 years and 200 hours of integrated undergraduate skills training is more effective as a method of learning basic clinical skills, compared to learning these skills through 75 hours of traditional skill training and reinforcement of these skills in 12 month clinical internships, when measured by means of an OSCE.

  10. Hard Thinking about Soft Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, Guy; Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena

    2016-01-01

    People use various terms to refer to traits and tendencies connected to social-emotional behavior and ways of thinking or approaching problems--from 21st century skills to mindsets to habits of mind. Such traits are also often called soft skills or non-cognitive skills. The authors contend that these latter terms imply that these traits and…

  11. Stochastic Reinforcement Benefits Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayan, Eran; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Richmond, Barry J.; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2014-01-01

    Learning complex skills is driven by reinforcement, which facilitates both online within-session gains and retention of the acquired skills. Yet, in ecologically relevant situations, skills are often acquired when mapping between actions and rewarding outcomes is unknown to the learning agent, resulting in reinforcement schedules of a stochastic…

  12. Physical Attractiveness and Counseling Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

    1982-01-01

    Searched for interaction between quality of counseling skills (presence or absence of empathy, genuineness, and positive regard) and physical attractiveness as determinants of counseling effectiveness. Attractiveness influenced perceived effectiveness of counselor's skill. Analyses of expectancy data revealed that only with good skills did…

  13. Communication Skills for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaConte, Ronald T.

    1984-01-01

    Information age communication skills that are being neglected include message compression, decoding and interpreting, kinesics, information synthesis, visual literacy, and rapid analysis and evaluation of message validity. Among ways to improve these skills are concentrating on transitional skills, adopting a holistic approach, increasing lateral…

  14. Employability Skills. At a Glance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wibrow, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    In a competitive workforce it is not just having the right qualification or technical skills that will land an individual a job; it could very well be their interpersonal skills. How someone communicates is often the first impression an employer has of a possible worker. Yet, it is precisely communication skills that employers feel applicants are…

  15. Communication skills training of undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abrar Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    To assess the adequacy or deficiency of relevant communication skills needed in clinical practice among students of King Edward Medical University and identify the need of developing curriculum for communication skills. Sequential mixed method design using survey questionnair and in-depth interviews. King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from March - September 2010. Final year students consented to participate in the survey questionnaire regarding communication skills needed in clinical practice selected on the basis of random stratified sampling technique. The questioned aspects include communication skills, supervised training, breaking bad news, counselling and written communication skills. In the second qualitative phase, volunteers who had passed final year were selected on the basis of non-probability purposive sampling technique for recording in-depth interviews. Qualitative data was analyzed with content analysis after identifying themes and trends from the data. Only 20% students had clarity of communication skills training, 28% believed that their learning was supervised, 20% believed training was structured, 28% were confident about handling difficult situations, 15% could effectively break bad news, and 22% were confident in written communication skills. In the interviews 70% felt that their peers had average skills in handling difficult situations like breaking bad news and counselling, 60% believed that communication skills program was non-existent and 100% agreed that patient turnover is a strength for the institute and structured training would improve their communication skills performance. The communication skills of the studied group were inadequate to address special situations. This presses need for developing a communication skills training program.

  16. Skills Verdict: Must Do Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilsbury, Mark

    2010-01-01

    "Ambition 2020: World Class Skills and Jobs" is the UK Commission for Employment and Skills' annual assessment, to the four UK nations, of their progress towards becoming "world class" in productivity, employment and skills by 2020. "Ambition 2020" provides a robust independent account of economic and skills…

  17. Building Skills to Build Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Communities are at the heart of the government's vision for the Big Society. And it's the author's strongly held view that skills should be at the heart of each and every one of those communities. If one grows the skills of an individual then the community will flourish. There is a job to be done in building skills to build communities--skilled…

  18. Stochastic Reinforcement Benefits Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayan, Eran; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Richmond, Barry J.; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2014-01-01

    Learning complex skills is driven by reinforcement, which facilitates both online within-session gains and retention of the acquired skills. Yet, in ecologically relevant situations, skills are often acquired when mapping between actions and rewarding outcomes is unknown to the learning agent, resulting in reinforcement schedules of a stochastic…

  19. Computational Skills for Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Louis J.

    2008-01-01

    This interview with Distinguished Science Award recipient Louis J. Gross highlights essential computational skills for modern biology, including: (1) teaching concepts listed in the Math & Bio 2010 report; (2) illustrating to students that jobs today require quantitative skills; and (3) resources and materials that focus on computational skills.

  20. Physical Attractiveness and Counseling Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

    1982-01-01

    Searched for interaction between quality of counseling skills (presence or absence of empathy, genuineness, and positive regard) and physical attractiveness as determinants of counseling effectiveness. Attractiveness influenced perceived effectiveness of counselor's skill. Analyses of expectancy data revealed that only with good skills did…

  1. Alternative Measures of Rifle Skills

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    surrogate tests of the skills associated with rifle firing. 14. SUBJECT TERMS IS. NUMBER OF PAGES Firing tests, Infantry personnel, Marine Corps...personnel, Marine Corps training, Performance (human), Performance 53 tests, Proficiency, Rifles, Skills , Test methods, Test scores, Validation, Personnel...rifle is fundamental to success in a number of Marine Corps infantry specialties; therefore, obtaining useful information about this skill is essential

  2. Hard Thinking about Soft Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, Guy; Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena

    2016-01-01

    People use various terms to refer to traits and tendencies connected to social-emotional behavior and ways of thinking or approaching problems--from 21st century skills to mindsets to habits of mind. Such traits are also often called soft skills or non-cognitive skills. The authors contend that these latter terms imply that these traits and…

  3. Skills Verdict: Must Do Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilsbury, Mark

    2010-01-01

    "Ambition 2020: World Class Skills and Jobs" is the UK Commission for Employment and Skills' annual assessment, to the four UK nations, of their progress towards becoming "world class" in productivity, employment and skills by 2020. "Ambition 2020" provides a robust independent account of economic and skills…

  4. Developing Managerial Skills in Palestine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Madhoun, Mohammed; Analoui, Farhad

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the contribution of management training and development programmes (MTPs) to the development of managerial skills in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Different sets of variables were used to explore the managers' skills development by dividing the managerial skills into three main categories: self, people, and task-related…

  5. Developing Thinking Skills with Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, John B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study in which Logo programming was used to teach problem-solving skills to fourth to eighth grade students is described. The results, and their implications for further use of the computer to teach higher order thinking skills, are discussed. The possible use of Prolog programming to teach reasoning skills is described. (JL)

  6. Organizing a Study Skills Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Myrna; Hussey, Ruth

    This study skills workshop guide, for the college level, is designed to help students assess their study skills and personal behavior goals for becoming academically effective and confident. Seven consecutive, 2-hour, weekly sessions emphasize learning as an active process and concentrate on specific skills: objectives and goals; time management;…

  7. Skill Upgrading, Incorporated. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skill Upgrading, Inc., Baltimore, MD.

    As in two other projects in Cleveland and Newark, New Jersey, this project was set up in Baltimore to provide technical assistance in designing ways to meet in-plant skills needs by upgrading job skills on entry workers through High Intensity Training (HIT). Skill Upgrading, Inc. was established in Maryland to provide training and manpower…

  8. Forecasting forecast skill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalnay, Eugenia; Dalcher, Amnon

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that it is possible to predict the skill of numerical weather forecasts - a quantity which is variable from day to day and region to region. This has been accomplished using as predictor the dispersion (measured by the average correlation) between members of an ensemble of forecasts started from five different analyses. The analyses had been previously derived for satellite-data-impact studies and included, in the Northern Hemisphere, moderate perturbations associated with the use of different observing systems. When the Northern Hemisphere was used as a verification region, the prediction of skill was rather poor. This is due to the fact that such a large area usually contains regions with excellent forecasts as well as regions with poor forecasts, and does not allow for discrimination between them. However, when regional verifications were used, the ensemble forecast dispersion provided a very good prediction of the quality of the individual forecasts.

  9. Forecasting forecast skill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalnay, Eugenia; Dalcher, Amnon

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that it is possible to predict the skill of numerical weather forecasts - a quantity which is variable from day to day and region to region. This has been accomplished using as predictor the dispersion (measured by the average correlation) between members of an ensemble of forecasts started from five different analyses. The analyses had been previously derived for satellite-data-impact studies and included, in the Northern Hemisphere, moderate perturbations associated with the use of different observing systems. When the Northern Hemisphere was used as a verification region, the prediction of skill was rather poor. This is due to the fact that such a large area usually contains regions with excellent forecasts as well as regions with poor forecasts, and does not allow for discrimination between them. However, when regional verifications were used, the ensemble forecast dispersion provided a very good prediction of the quality of the individual forecasts.

  10. Measuring Education and Skill

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in measuring education and skill that need to be taken into account in any new initiative to monitor social mobility. Over the past half-century, patterns of educational participation and attainment have become more heterogeneous, a trend that has been accompanied by increases in assessment and testing practices, and the availability of electronic data sources and other administrative records, including official school transcripts that are generally held indefinitely. This article describes the most promising approaches to measuring education and discusses some of the possible challenges for using the information to study social mobility. Measures of educational concepts fall along at least one of several dimensions: credentials earned, qualities of the schools attended, the amount and nature of curricular exposure, and the development and acquisition of skills. Selected data sources, with an emphasis on school transcripts and administrative records, and their possible uses are described. PMID:25983334

  11. Training generalized spatial skills.

    PubMed

    Wright, Rebecca; Thompson, William L; Ganis, Giorgio; Newcombe, Nora S; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2008-08-01

    Spatial transformation skills are an essential aspect of cognitive ability. These skills can be improved by practice, but such improvement has usually been specific to tasks and stimuli. The present study investigated whether intensive long-term practice leads to change that transcends stimulus and task parameters. Thirty-one participants (14 male, 17 female) were tested on three cognitive tasks: a computerized version of the Shepard-Metzler (1971) mental rotation task (MRT), a mental paper-folding task (MPFT), and a verbal analogies task (VAT). Each individual then participated in daily practice sessions with the MRT or the MPFT over 21 days. Postpractice comparisons revealed transfer of practice gains to novel stimuli for the practiced task, as well as transfer to the other, nonpracticed spatial task. Thus, practice effects were process based, not instance based. Improvement in the nonpracticed spatial task was greater than that in the VAT; thus, improvement was not merely due to greater ease with computerized testing.

  12. Measuring Education and Skill.

    PubMed

    Muller, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent developments in measuring education and skill that need to be taken into account in any new initiative to monitor social mobility. Over the past half-century, patterns of educational participation and attainment have become more heterogeneous, a trend that has been accompanied by increases in assessment and testing practices, and the availability of electronic data sources and other administrative records, including official school transcripts that are generally held indefinitely. This article describes the most promising approaches to measuring education and discusses some of the possible challenges for using the information to study social mobility. Measures of educational concepts fall along at least one of several dimensions: credentials earned, qualities of the schools attended, the amount and nature of curricular exposure, and the development and acquisition of skills. Selected data sources, with an emphasis on school transcripts and administrative records, and their possible uses are described.

  13. Skill analysis part 2: evaluating a practice skill.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    This is the second of three articles exploring skill analysis, assisting readers to evaluate a practice skill of their choice. Sometimes evaluations are made against external reference points, the competencies of the registered nurse or a job description for a post eagerly sought after; sometimes they are made with reference to aspirations--an ideal of the skill in use that the nurse and colleagues admire. Nurses may be understandably anxious about the evaluation of practice skills, as they work in a performance-orientated world where they are judged on whether their practice is competent, safe, ethical, cost effective and efficient. Nonetheless, understanding the strengths and weaknesses of a chosen practice skill is central to practice development. If the skill is to be affirmed, improved or adjusted, it is necessary to evaluate the skill in use.

  14. Cultivating strategic thinking skills.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R

    2012-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author presents an overview of strategic leadership and offers approaches for cultivating strategic thinking skills.

  15. Teaching Cardiac Examination Skills

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Christopher A; Hart, Avery S; Sadowski, Laura S; Riddle, Janet; Evans, Arthur T; Clarke, Peter M; Ganschow, Pamela S; Mason, Ellen; Sequeira, Winston; Wang, Yue

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if structured teaching of bedside cardiac examination skills improves medical residents' examination technique and their identification of key clinical findings. DESIGN Firm-based single-blinded controlled trial. SETTING Inpatient service at a university-affiliated public teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS Eighty Internal Medicine residents. METHODS The study assessed 2 intervention groups that received 3-hour bedside teaching sessions during their 4-week rotation using either: (1) a traditional teaching method, “demonstration and practice” (DP) (n=26) or (2) an innovative method, “collaborative discovery” (CD) (n=24). The control group received their usual ward teaching sessions (n=25). The main outcome measures were scores on examination technique and correct identification of key clinical findings on an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). RESULTS All 3 groups had similar scores for both their examination technique and identification of key findings in the preintervention OSCE. After teaching, both intervention groups significantly improved their technical examination skills compared with the control group. The increase was 10% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4% to 17%) for CD versus control and 12% (95% CI 6% to 19%) for DP versus control (both P<.005) equivalent to an additional 3 to 4 examination skills being correctly performed. Improvement in key findings was limited to a 5% (95% CI 2% to 9%) increase for the CD teaching method, CD versus control P=.046, equivalent to the identification of an additional 2 key clinical findings. CONCLUSIONS Both programs of bedside teaching increase the technical examination skills of residents but improvements in the identification of key clinical findings were modest and only demonstrated with a new method of teaching. PMID:16423116

  16. Stochastic reinforcement benefits skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Eran; Averbeck, Bruno B; Richmond, Barry J; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2014-02-14

    Learning complex skills is driven by reinforcement, which facilitates both online within-session gains and retention of the acquired skills. Yet, in ecologically relevant situations, skills are often acquired when mapping between actions and rewarding outcomes is unknown to the learning agent, resulting in reinforcement schedules of a stochastic nature. Here we trained subjects on a visuomotor learning task, comparing reinforcement schedules with higher, lower, or no stochasticity. Training under higher levels of stochastic reinforcement benefited skill acquisition, enhancing both online gains and long-term retention. These findings indicate that the enhancing effects of reinforcement on skill acquisition depend on reinforcement schedules.

  17. Hard evidence on soft skills.

    PubMed

    Heckman, James J; Kautz, Tim

    2012-08-01

    This paper summarizes recent evidence on what achievement tests measure; how achievement tests relate to other measures of "cognitive ability" like IQ and grades; the important skills that achievement tests miss or mismeasure, and how much these skills matter in life. Achievement tests miss, or perhaps more accurately, do not adequately capture, soft skills-personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. The larger message of this paper is that soft skills predict success in life, that they causally produce that success, and that programs that enhance soft skills have an important place in an effective portfolio of public policies.

  18. Personal Skills. Facilitator's Skill Packets 1-7. Social Skills Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Model Classrooms, Bellevue, WA.

    This document contains the following seven facilitators' skill packets on personal skills: (1) personal hygiene; (2) personal appearance; (3) locker hygiene; (4) dorm cleanliness; (5) punctuality and attendance; (6) responding to supervision; and (7) teamwork. Each packet contains the following sections: definition of personal skills; objective;…

  19. Business Students' Perceptions of Necessary Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lajuan; Riley, Monica; Fisher, Diane J.

    2003-01-01

    Business education students (n=100) rated 14 job skills identified by the Secretary's Commission on Necessary Skills. The top characteristic identified was interpersonal skills followed by critical thinking. Other skills included teamwork, problem solving, computer literacy, and multitasking. (JOW)

  20. Computer-Assisted Study Skills Improvement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William F.; Forristall, Dorothy Z.

    The Computer-Assisted Study Skills Improvement Program (CASSIP) is designed to help students develop effective study skills and academic attitudes, thus increasing their potential for scholastic success. The program contains four integrated items: Study Skills Surveys; Study Skills Modules, Study Skills Notebook; and Study Skills Test. The surveys…

  1. Social skills training.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Jia, Mary; Na, Jennifer Jiwon

    2014-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have prominent social impairment, which is commonly manifested in unskilled behaviors in social situations and difficulties in being accepted and befriended by peers. This social impairment often remains after administration of medication and behavioral contingency management treatments that address the core symptoms of ADHD. This article reviews traditional social skills training (SST) approaches to remediating social impairment, and presents the evidence for their efficacy and significant limitations to their efficacy. The article introduces potential reasons why the efficacy of traditional SST may be limited, and concludes with some promising alternative SST approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Negotiation skills for physicians.

    PubMed

    Anastakis, Dimitri J

    2003-01-01

    As stakeholders vie for increasingly limited resources in health care, physicians would be well advised to hone their skills of negotiation. Negotiation is defined as a strategy to resolve a divergence of interests, be they real or perceived, where common interests also exist. Negotiation requires effective communication of goals, needs, and wants. The "basic needs" model of negotiation is best suited to the current health care environment. In this model, negotiator must to be able to identify their needs in the negotiation, establish their best alternative to a negotiated agreement, and identify their strategies and tactics for the negotiation.

  3. Microcomputer programming skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    Some differences in skill and techniques required for conversion from programmer to microprogrammer are discussed. The primary things with which the programmer should work are hardware architecture, hardware/software trade off, and interfacing. The biggest differences, however, will stem from the differences in applications than from differences in machine size. The change to real-time programming is the most important of these differences, particularly on dedicated microprocessors. Another primary change is programming with a more computer-naive user in mind, and dealing with his limitations and expectations.

  4. Communication skills in psychiatry training.

    PubMed

    Ditton-Phare, Philippa; Halpin, Sean; Sandhu, Harsimrat; Kelly, Brian; Vamos, Marina; Outram, Sue; Bylund, Carma L; Levin, Tomer; Kissane, David; Cohen, Martin; Loughland, Carmel

    2015-08-01

    Mental health clinicians can experience problems communicating distressing diagnostic information to patients and their families, especially about severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. Evidence suggests that interpersonal communication skills can be effectively taught, as has been demonstrated in the specialty of oncology. However, very little literature exists with respect to interpersonal communication skills training for psychiatry. This paper provides an overview of the communication skills training literature. The report reveals significant gaps exist and highlights the need for advanced communication skills training for mental health clinicians, particularly about communicating a diagnosis and/or prognosis of schizophrenia. A new communication skills training framework for psychiatry is described, based on that used in oncology as a model. This model promotes applied skills and processes that are easily adapted for use in psychiatry, providing an effective platform for the development of similar training programs for psychiatric clinical practice. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  5. Motor-Skill Learning Is Dependent on Astrocytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Padmashri, Ragunathan; Suresh, Anand; Boska, Michael D; Dunaevsky, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Motor-skill learning induces changes in synaptic structure and function in the primary motor cortex through the involvement of a long-term potentiation- (LTP-) like mechanism. Although there is evidence that calcium-dependent release of gliotransmitters by astrocytes plays an important role in synaptic transmission and plasticity, the role of astrocytes in motor-skill learning is not known. To test the hypothesis that astrocytic activity is necessary for motor-skill learning, we perturbed astrocytic function using pharmacological and genetic approaches. We find that perturbation of astrocytes either by selectively attenuating IP3R2 mediated astrocyte Ca(2+) signaling or using an astrocyte specific metabolic inhibitor fluorocitrate (FC) results in impaired motor-skill learning of a forelimb reaching-task in mice. Moreover, the learning impairment caused by blocking astrocytic activity using FC was rescued by administration of the gliotransmitter D-serine. The learning impairments are likely caused by impaired LTP as FC blocked LTP in slices and prevented motor-skill training-induced increases in synaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptor in vivo. These results support the conclusion that normal astrocytic Ca(2+) signaling during a reaching task is necessary for motor-skill learning.

  6. Integrating Key Skills in Higher Education: Employability, Transferable Skills and Learning for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallows, Stephen, Ed.; Steven, Christine, Ed.

    This book addresses issues related to the skills agenda in higher education, focusing on key skills, employability skills, transferable skills, and core skills. The chapters provide a practical guide to the ways skills can be effectively integrated into courses and institutions. The chapters are: (1) "The Skills Agenda" (Stephen Fallows and…

  7. Integrating Key Skills in Higher Education: Employability, Transferable Skills and Learning for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallows, Stephen, Ed.; Steven, Christine, Ed.

    This book addresses issues related to the skills agenda in higher education, focusing on key skills, employability skills, transferable skills, and core skills. The chapters provide a practical guide to the ways skills can be effectively integrated into courses and institutions. The chapters are: (1) "The Skills Agenda" (Stephen Fallows and…

  8. Intraregional migration of skilled manpower.

    PubMed

    Martinez Pizarro, J

    1993-08-01

    This is an analysis of the migration of skilled manpower among the countries of Latin America. "The author reviews its causes, possible implications, the characteristics of these flows of skilled migrants, and the relationship between what is to be observed in some countries and the official attitude adopted by their Governments. This examination suggests that the emigration of skilled human resources, regardless of their destination, is invariably a loss for developing countries owing to [migrants] high social value and economic cost." excerpt

  9. Graduate Information Literacy Skills: The 2003 ANU Skills Audit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrett, Valerie

    2004-01-01

    This article looks at the information literacy (ILS) skills of graduate students and is based on an audit at the ANU in 2003 which included database searching, web searching, information management and word processing skills--vital to all graduate students. Each student who completed the audit received a "training needs profile". Staff…

  10. Peer Assessment of Soft Skills and Hard Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Aimao

    2012-01-01

    Both the information technology (IT) industry and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) demand soft-skill training in higher education and require IT graduates to demonstrate competence in interpersonal communication, teamwork, and conflict management. Group projects provide teamwork environment for soft-skill training, but…

  11. Generic ICT Skills Profiles: Future Skills for Tomorrow's World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Co-operation Europe Ltd. (ICEL), Brussels, Belgium.

    This document describes generic skills profiles relevant to key jobs in information and communications technology (ICT). The profiles cover the main job areas for which the ICT industry is experiencing skills shortages. These types of information are provided for 18 generic job profiles: job description (vision, role, lifestyle); examples of job…

  12. Development of Financial Skills. Life Skills. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This teacher's guide is designed for use in presenting a six-unit course in developing financial skills that is part of a life skills series intended to help students become more self-sufficient in their personal and professional lives. The course's six instructional units cover these topics: earning, managing, and spending money; protecting…

  13. Parent-implemented behavioral skills training of social skills.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Rebecca K; King, Melissa L; Fischetti, Anthony T; Lake, Candice M; Mathews, Therese L; Warzak, William J

    2017-09-20

    Impairment in social skills is a primary feature of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Research indicates that social skills are intimately tied to social development and negative social consequences can persist if specific social behaviors are not acquired. The present study evaluated the effects of behavioral skills training (BST) on teaching four parents of children with ASDs to be social skills trainers. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across parent-child dyads was employed and direct observation was used to assess parent and child behaviors Results demonstrated substantial improvement in social skills teaching for all participants for trained and untrained skills. Ancillary measures of child performance indicated improvement in skills as well. High levels of correct teaching responses were maintained at a 1 month follow-up. This study extends current literature on BST while also providing a helpful, low-effort strategy to modify how parents can work with their children to improve their social skills. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. Getting Skills Right: Assessing and Anticipating Changing Skill Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Digitalisation, globalisation, demographic shifts and other changes in work organisation are constantly reshaping skill needs. This can lead to persistent skill shortages and mismatch which are costly for individuals, firms and society in terms of lost wages and lower productivity and growth. These costs can be reduced through better assessment…

  15. Getting Skills Right: Assessing and Anticipating Changing Skill Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Digitalisation, globalisation, demographic shifts and other changes in work organisation are constantly reshaping skill needs. This can lead to persistent skill shortages and mismatch which are costly for individuals, firms and society in terms of lost wages and lower productivity and growth. These costs can be reduced through better assessment…

  16. Peer Assessment of Soft Skills and Hard Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Aimao

    2012-01-01

    Both the information technology (IT) industry and the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) demand soft-skill training in higher education and require IT graduates to demonstrate competence in interpersonal communication, teamwork, and conflict management. Group projects provide teamwork environment for soft-skill training, but…

  17. [Cannabis affects driving skills].

    PubMed

    Khiabani, Hassan Z; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Mørland, Jørg

    2007-03-01

    Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the most important psychoactive substance in cannabis, is frequently detected in blood from apprehended drivers suspected for drugged driving. Both experimental and epidemiological studies have demonstrated the negative effects of THC upon cognitive functions and psychomotor skills. These effects could last longer than a measurable concentration of THC in blood. Culpability studies have recently demonstrated an increased risk of becoming responsible in fatal or injurious traffic accidents, even with low blood concentrations of THC. It has also been demonstrated that there is a correlation between the degree of impairment, the drug dose and the THC blood concentration. It is very important to focus on the negative effect of cannabis on fitness to drive in order to prevent injuries and loss of human life and to avoid large economic consequences to the society.

  18. Improving Pathologists' Communication Skills.

    PubMed

    Dintzis, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    The 2015 Institute of Medicine report on diagnostic error has placed a national spotlight on the importance of improving communication among clinicians and between clinicians and patients [1]. The report emphasizes the critical role that communication plays in patient safety and outlines ways that pathologists can support this process. Despite recognition of communication as an essential element in patient care, pathologists currently undergo limited (if any) formal training in communication skills. To address this gap, we at the University of Washington Medical Center developed communication training with the goal of establishing best practice procedures for effective pathology communication. The course includes lectures, role playing, and simulated clinician-pathologist interactions for training and evaluation of pathology communication performance. Providing communication training can help create reliable communication pathways that anticipate and address potential barriers and errors before they happen. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Physician Enabling Skills Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Hudon, Catherine; Lambert, Mireille; Almirall, José

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the reliability and validity of the newly developed Physician Enabling Skills Questionnaire (PESQ) by assessing its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity with patient-centred care, and predictive validity with patient activation and patient enablement. Design Validation study. Setting Saguenay, Que. Participants One hundred patients with at least 1 chronic disease who presented in a waiting room of a regional health centre family medicine unit. Main outcome measures Family physicians’ enabling skills, measured with the PESQ at 2 points in time (ie, while in the waiting room at the family medicine unit and 2 weeks later through a mail survey); patient-centred care, assessed with the Patient Perception of Patient-Centredness instrument; patient activation, assessed with the Patient Activation Measure; and patient enablement, assessed with the Patient Enablement Instrument. Results The internal consistency of the 6 subscales of the PESQ was adequate (Cronbach α = .69 to .92). The test-retest reliability was very good (r = 0.90; 95% CI 0.84 to 0.93). Concurrent validity with the Patient Perception of Patient-Centredness instrument was good (r = −0.67; 95% CI −0.78 to −0.53; P < .001). The PESQ accounts for 11% of the total variance with the Patient Activation Measure (r2 = 0.11; P = .002) and 19% of the variance with the Patient Enablement Instrument (r2 = 0.19; P < .001). Conclusion The newly developed PESQ presents good psychometric properties, allowing for its use in practice and research. PMID:26889507

  20. Skills for Children Entering Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Nese, Joseph F. T.; Slater, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Assessing kindergarten entry skills is complex, requiring attention to skill proficiency and interactive behaviors deemed critical for learning to occur. In our analysis of a state initiative, pilot data were collected on early literacy and numeracy and 2 aspects of important student interactions in the classroom (social and task behaviors) within…

  1. Skilled up and Having Fun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsworthy, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Many teachers seem to have followed the "dunking theory." That is, they dunk their children in a variety of investigations and hope that through their practical work they will absorb a thorough understanding of enquiry skills. Children seem to have quite a good natural waterproof coating when it comes to absorbing scientific skills through…

  2. Evidence for Multiple Rhythmic Skills

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Rhythms, or patterns in time, play a vital role in both speech and music. Proficiency in a number of rhythm skills has been linked to language ability, suggesting that certain rhythmic processes in music and language rely on overlapping resources. However, a lack of understanding about how rhythm skills relate to each other has impeded progress in understanding how language relies on rhythm processing. In particular, it is unknown whether all rhythm skills are linked together, forming a single broad rhythmic competence, or whether there are multiple dissociable rhythm skills. We hypothesized that beat tapping and rhythm memory/sequencing form two separate clusters of rhythm skills. This hypothesis was tested with a battery of two beat tapping and two rhythm memory tests. Here we show that tapping to a metronome and the ability to adjust to a changing tempo while tapping to a metronome are related skills. The ability to remember rhythms and to drum along to repeating rhythmic sequences are also related. However, we found no relationship between beat tapping skills and rhythm memory skills. Thus, beat tapping and rhythm memory are dissociable rhythmic aptitudes. This discovery may inform future research disambiguating how distinct rhythm competencies track with specific language functions. PMID:26376489

  3. Student Math Skills Reference Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Odell; And Others

    This mathematics support guide is intended for use by vocational students and instructors as a review of essential mathematics concepts and for problem-solving exercises in the vocations. It is designed to accompany the "Mathematical Skills Inventory," which tests mathematics skills, attitudes, and background. A section entitled Arithmetic Skills…

  4. Skills that Make a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Since early 2011, the National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) has been involved in supporting learning providers to prepare for and, more recently, to deliver provision through the Skills Funding Agency unit offer for the unemployed. The primary purpose of the provision is to equip learners with skills that will facilitate their…

  5. Evidence for Multiple Rhythmic Skills.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Rhythms, or patterns in time, play a vital role in both speech and music. Proficiency in a number of rhythm skills has been linked to language ability, suggesting that certain rhythmic processes in music and language rely on overlapping resources. However, a lack of understanding about how rhythm skills relate to each other has impeded progress in understanding how language relies on rhythm processing. In particular, it is unknown whether all rhythm skills are linked together, forming a single broad rhythmic competence, or whether there are multiple dissociable rhythm skills. We hypothesized that beat tapping and rhythm memory/sequencing form two separate clusters of rhythm skills. This hypothesis was tested with a battery of two beat tapping and two rhythm memory tests. Here we show that tapping to a metronome and the ability to adjust to a changing tempo while tapping to a metronome are related skills. The ability to remember rhythms and to drum along to repeating rhythmic sequences are also related. However, we found no relationship between beat tapping skills and rhythm memory skills. Thus, beat tapping and rhythm memory are dissociable rhythmic aptitudes. This discovery may inform future research disambiguating how distinct rhythm competencies track with specific language functions.

  6. Basic Skills in Asian Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    This publication contains field tested learning activities which will help secondary students develop basic skills while learning about Asian history, culture, and geography. The activities can be used or easily adapted by teachers in any Asian studies course. The publication is organized by the skills taught. These are: reading; applying…

  7. Introductory Science Skills. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy L.

    This book is designed to help students understand the nature of scientific inquiry by involving them in doing science rather than merely reading about it. The content of the text emphasizes science process skills, mathematical skills, and the use of theories and models that are fundamental for learning the various science disciplines. The…

  8. Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.

    Research findings on college instruction and basic skills deficiencies are discussed in 12 papers from the first Regional Conference on University Teaching. Titles and authors are as follows: "Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies" (Susanne D. Roueche, with responses by Gary B. Donart, Betty Harris, and James Nordyke); "Is Higher Education an…

  9. Putting Skill in Its Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that a focus on human capability and its development can be used to rethink the high skills policy visions favoured over recent decades. The article briefly summarises the increasing concerns with government policy formulas which have adopted a narrow focus such that skill and its accreditation is regarded as the outcome rather…

  10. Competitive Skills Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Camino Coll., Torrance, CA.

    Almost 180 (22.5 percent) of BP Chemicals/HITCO, Inc. (BPCHI) employees have participated in the basic skills courses offered through the Competitive Skills Project (CSP) at El Camino College (Torrance, California). Workplace basics provide a solid foundation for Total Quality Management (TQM), enabling workers to be globally competitive. Two main…

  11. Business Management Occupations: Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This report organizes the information provided by 77 individuals in business management occupations in 12 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…

  12. Assessing Pupils' Skills in Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammann, Marcus; Phan, Thi Thanh Hoi; Ehmer, Maike; Grimm, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    This study is concerned with different forms of assessment of pupils' skills in experimentation. The findings of three studies are reported. Study 1 investigates whether it is possible to develop reliable multiple-choice tests for the skills of forming hypotheses, designing experiments and analysing experimental data. Study 2 compares scores from…

  13. Business Financial Occupations: Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This report organizes the information provided by 71 individuals in finance-related occupations in 11 states into skills inventories for persons in these jobs. The skills inventories contain the following sections: (1) occupation-specific knowledge (communication, mathematics, science); (2) workplace behaviors (work ethics, interpersonal…

  14. Especial Skills in Experienced Archers.

    PubMed

    Nabavinik, Mahdi; Abaszadeh, Ali; Mehranmanesh, Mehrab; Rosenbaum, David A

    2017-09-05

    Especial skills are skills that are distinctive by virtue of massive practice within the narrow contexts in which they are expressed. In the first demonstration of especial skills, Keetch, Schmidt, Lee, and Young (2005) showed that experienced basketball players are better at shooting baskets from the foul line, where they had massive amounts of practice, than would expected from their success at other locations closer to or farther from the basket. Similar results were obtained for baseball throwing. The authors asked whether especial skills hold in archery, a sport requiring less movement. If the emergence of especial skills depends on large-scale movement, one would expect archery to escape so-called especialism. But if the emergence of especial skills reflects a more general tendency for highly specific learning, experienced archers should show especial skills. The authors obtained evidence consistent with the latter prediction. The expert archers did much better at their most highly practiced distance than would be expected by looking at the overall function relating shooting score to distance. We offer a mathematical model to account for this result. The findings attest to the generality of the especial skills phenomenon.

  15. Classroom Activities in Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Janice, Comp.

    Intended as a resource for teachers of grades four and up who are eager to improve their students' thinking skills while teaching their regular curriculum, this booklet contains activities that can be used to teach a new concept or to review a previously taught skill. Following an introduction, the topics of the chapters of the resource guide and…

  16. Entrepreneurship Education: Learning the Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Thomas J.; And Others

    Designed to emphasize entrepreneurial skills in relation to management and industry skills, this first volume of the Entrepreneurship Education curriculum guide is comprised of nineteen sessions. The initial session is an orientation to the course and is followed by eighteen sessions divided into four instructional units: (1) inner control, (2)…

  17. PIAAC Skills and Economic Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Anita Alves

    2016-01-01

    Mixed findings characterize the literature on skills and economic distributions within and across countries. The Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) offers new, internationally comparable data on literacy, numeracy, and digital problem-solving skills that can be combined with wage information. This paper…

  18. Leadership Skills for Migrant Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamaker, Mary Lou Nava

    Written for staff developers and resource personnel who work with parents, this curriculum guide is designed to develop leadership skills in migrant parents who have been elected to leadership positions in their respective Parent Advisory Committees. The booklet focuses on developing such skills as knowing how to use parliamentary procedure,…

  19. Technology, Industry, Skills and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swyt, Dennis A.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses changes in technology and education, the nature of technology, the creation of technology, technology's assimilation by industry, the workers skilled in the technology, education in skills in technology, technology of the factory of the future, and the TIPE System (Technology, Industry, Professionals, Education). (CT)

  20. Canada's Crisis in Advanced Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The key to economic and social development lies in the knowledge and skill base of human capital. This report, presented to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance, calls for vigorous action on the part of the Government of Canada, in concert with the provinces and territories, to protect the Canadian economy from a skills shortage…

  1. National Health Care Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Consortium on Health Science and Technology Education, Okemos, MI.

    This document presents the National Health Care Skill Standards, which were developed by the National Consortium on Health Science and Technology and West Ed Regional Research Laboratory, in partnership with educators and health care employers. The document begins with an overview of the purpose and benefits of skill standards. Presented next are…

  2. The Skills Enhancement Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Miriam

    The set of materials presented here are curriculum materials from a workplace literacy and basic skills program, funded largely through the U.S. Department of Education and operated by a food and beverage workers' local union. The program offered instruction from 1990-94 in basic skills, General Education Development (GED), workplace…

  3. Collaborating To Teach Prosocial Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsopp, David H.; Santos, Karen E.; Linn, Reid

    2000-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative prosocial skills program. Steps of the intervention include forming teams of educators, targeting necessary prosocial skills, developing an instructional plan, determining the setting and collaborative roles, delivery instruction, and providing opportunities for student practice, reinforcement, and…

  4. Doing Away with "Study Skills"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingate, Ursula

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that the widespread approach to enhancing student learning through separate study skills courses is ineffective, and that the term "study skills" itself has misleading implications, which are counterproductive to learning. The main argument is that learning how to study effectively at university cannot be separated from…

  5. PIAAC Skills and Economic Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Anita Alves

    2016-01-01

    Mixed findings characterize the literature on skills and economic distributions within and across countries. The Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) offers new, internationally comparable data on literacy, numeracy, and digital problem-solving skills that can be combined with wage information. This paper…

  6. Putting Skill in Its Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that a focus on human capability and its development can be used to rethink the high skills policy visions favoured over recent decades. The article briefly summarises the increasing concerns with government policy formulas which have adopted a narrow focus such that skill and its accreditation is regarded as the outcome rather…

  7. Instruction of Competent Psychomotor Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Valerie Dong

    2008-01-01

    Instruction of competent psychomotor skill necessitates an eclectic approach. The principles of learning, complemented with learning styles and sensory modalities preferences, provide a background for teaching physical skills. The use of the psychomotor domain of Bloom's Taxonomy as a map and corresponding behavioral objectives foster the mastery…

  8. Skill Sheets for Agricultural Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This set of 33 skill sheets for agricultural mechanics was developed for use in high school and vocational school agricultural mechanics programs. Some sheets teach operational procedures while others are for simple projects. Each skill sheet covers a single topic and includes: (1) a diagram, (2) a step-by-step construction or operational…

  9. Teaching Self-Care Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koblinsky, Sally A.; Todd, Christine M.

    1991-01-01

    Survival skills instruction for latchkey kids with special needs is discussed. Methods for cultivation of skills pertaining to physical well-being, accident prevention, emergency procedures, healthy lifestyles, and mental, social and emotional well-being are described. Sources of model programs and curriculum materials for self-care skills…

  10. Communication Skills for Workplace Assessors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Deborah

    This document is designed to help develop the communication skills of individuals training for the position of workplace assessor in Australia's National Training Framework and practicing workplace assessors who require additional assistance with on-the-job communication skills. The document consists of 11 units of study that each contain some or…

  11. High Scores but Low Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Liqun; Neilson, William S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper college admissions are based on test scores and students can exert two types of effort: real learning and exam preparation. The former improves skills but the latter is more effective in raising test scores. In this setting the students with the lowest skills are no longer the ones with the lowest aptitude, but instead are the ones…

  12. Qualifications Mismatch and Skills Mismatch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, John

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent of "over-qualification" (i.e. holding a qualification which is above that required to gain entry to the job being done) and "skills under-utilisation" (i.e. being in a job which does not make use of the knowledge and skills possessed) in the United Kingdom and to…

  13. Canada's Crisis in Advanced Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The key to economic and social development lies in the knowledge and skill base of human capital. This report, presented to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance, calls for vigorous action on the part of the Government of Canada, in concert with the provinces and territories, to protect the Canadian economy from a skills shortage…

  14. Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.

    Research findings on college instruction and basic skills deficiencies are discussed in 12 papers from the first Regional Conference on University Teaching. Titles and authors are as follows: "Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies" (Susanne D. Roueche, with responses by Gary B. Donart, Betty Harris, and James Nordyke); "Is Higher Education an…

  15. Integrating Writing and Negotiation Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Carolena Lyons

    2002-01-01

    Describes an assignment in which students must integrate writing and negotiation skills with proposal development. Notes that many students have been able to share their problem-solving skills by implementing their proposal at their workplace. Notes students liked the opportunity to select a topic of interest to them. (SG)

  16. Evaluation of Word Attack Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    A framework for more apt and sensitive evaluation of generalized word attack skill--the heart of oral reading skill--is presented. The paper envisions the design and development of oral reading instruction as bounded by a fully-specified evaluation scheme. (Author)

  17. Teaching Self-Care Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koblinsky, Sally A.; Todd, Christine M.

    1991-01-01

    Survival skills instruction for latchkey kids with special needs is discussed. Methods for cultivation of skills pertaining to physical well-being, accident prevention, emergency procedures, healthy lifestyles, and mental, social and emotional well-being are described. Sources of model programs and curriculum materials for self-care skills…

  18. The Rhetoric of Skill Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrah, Charles N.

    The "rhetoric of skill requirements" is a way of describing work by decomposing the human contribution into distinct components. Three important characteristics of this rhetoric are especially germane to an understanding of work. The first characteristic is that jobs and their incumbents can be fully analyzed by breaking them down into skills.…

  19. Assessing Pupils' Skills in Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammann, Marcus; Phan, Thi Thanh Hoi; Ehmer, Maike; Grimm, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    This study is concerned with different forms of assessment of pupils' skills in experimentation. The findings of three studies are reported. Study 1 investigates whether it is possible to develop reliable multiple-choice tests for the skills of forming hypotheses, designing experiments and analysing experimental data. Study 2 compares scores from…

  20. Basic Skills in Asian Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    This publication contains field tested learning activities which will help secondary students develop basic skills while learning about Asian history, culture, and geography. The activities can be used or easily adapted by teachers in any Asian studies course. The publication is organized by the skills taught. These are: reading; applying…

  1. 21st Century Skills Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  2. Developing the Kuder Skills Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zytowski, Donald G.; Luzzo, Darrell Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Outlines issues surrounding construction of self-reported ability-skill-efficacy measures, including validity, response format, and norms. Illustrates how they were addressed in the development of the Kuder Skills Assessment, which consists of six self-efficacy subscales congruent with the Kuder Career Search. (Contains 46 references.) (SK)

  3. Camping Skills. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit on camping skills is designed for special education students at the high school level. The objective of the unit is to provide students with an adequate camping knowledge and skill development to allow them to participate in camping activities. There is an emphasis on maintaining environmental quality as a part of good camping practices.…

  4. Student Math Skills Reference Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Odell; And Others

    This mathematics support guide is intended for use by vocational students and instructors as a review of essential mathematics concepts and for problem-solving exercises in the vocations. It is designed to accompany the "Mathematical Skills Inventory," which tests mathematics skills, attitudes, and background. A section entitled Arithmetic Skills…

  5. Living Skills as a Core Curriculum Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufty, David

    Schools should help students develop daily living skills in addition to basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and figuring. Living skills are interpreted to include those skills which help students cope with rapid social change. Skills need to be taught on health and nutrition, safety and first aid, interpersonal relationships, family…

  6. Basic Skills for Leadership of Counseling Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Richard E.

    1981-01-01

    Identifies a set of basic group leadership skills to be used in a systematic skills training approach. The skills involve teaching and group management. Definitions and examples of the skills are provided, and the adaptation of a microcounseling format for training in group leadership skills is discussed. (Author)

  7. Developing a research skill set.

    PubMed

    You, Y Nancy; Bednarski, Brian

    2014-06-01

    The recent decades have witnessed a significant expansion in the diversity of career paths within academic surgery. Although the skills for providing exemplary surgical care and for maintaining a strong work ethic are the foundations of an academic surgeon, deliberate career planning and organized acquisition of research skills contribute to the success of an academic career. In this article, we identify a set of core academic skills and propose a framework for acquiring them. We also describe specific career paths within academic surgery and provide an overview of the opportunities for acquiring specific skill sets. The development of an academic career is challenging, and firm knowledge of the personal motivations will sustain and endure the time needed for acquiring the needed skills.

  8. Developing a Research Skill Set

    PubMed Central

    You, Y. Nancy; Bednarski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The recent decades have witnessed a significant expansion in the diversity of career paths within academic surgery. Although the skills for providing exemplary surgical care and for maintaining a strong work ethic are the foundations of an academic surgeon, deliberate career planning and organized acquisition of research skills contribute to the success of an academic career. In this article, we identify a set of core academic skills and propose a framework for acquiring them. We also describe specific career paths within academic surgery and provide an overview of the opportunities for acquiring specific skill sets. The development of an academic career is challenging, and firm knowledge of the personal motivations will sustain and endure the time needed for acquiring the needed skills. PMID:25067917

  9. Improving Learners' Research Process Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, T. K.; Hunter, L.; Kluger-Bell, B.; Seagroves, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Professional Development Program (PDP) supports participants as they design inquiry activities that help learners improve their research process skills. These skills include the cognitive or reasoning skills that scientists and engineers use while doing research; for example, making a testable hypothesis, coordinating results from multiple experiments, or identifying and evaluating tradeoffs. Past work in the PDP indicated that additional support was needed to help participants design instructional activities that would teach these important skills. A new workshop was therefore developed for the 2009 PDP cycle, entitled "Improving Learners' Process Skills." In this workshop, participants worked in small groups to define specific science and engineering skills found in four past PDP activity designs. Participants distinguished between "simple tasks" and "authentic inquiry" activities that learners could perform as demonstration of the skill. Through this new workshop, participants were able to explicitly discuss ways in which individual process skills are unique or inter-related. In addition, by identifying a "simple task," participants were able to pinpoint areas in which their own designs could be improved to better focus on authentic inquiry tasks. In 2010, the workshop was slightly modified to help participants reconnect the research process skills with the activity content. In addition, the idea of using generic and context-specific scaffolds was also introduced. To make the participants feel like they were contributing to the PDP community, four activity designs actively being worked on in the 2010 cycle were used. Based on participant feedback, this "Improving Learners' Process Skills" workshop should be strongly considered for future returning participants.

  10. [Development of skill scale for communication skill measurement of pharmacist].

    PubMed

    Teramachi, Hitomi; Komada, Natsuki; Tanizawa, Katsuya; Kuzuya, Yumi; Tsuchiya, Teruo

    2011-04-01

    To purpose of this study was to develop a pharmacist communication skill scale. A 38 items scale was made and 283 pharmacists responded. The original questionnaire consisted of 38 items, with 1-5 graded Likert scale. Completed responses of 228 pharmacists data were used for testing the reliability and the validity of this scale. The first group of items from the original questionnaire were 38, and finally 38 original items were chosen for investigation of content validity, correlation coefficient and commonality. From factor analysis, four factors were chosen among the 31 items as follows: patient respect reception skill, problem discovery and solution skill, positive approach skill, feelings processing skill. The correlation coefficient between this original scale and the KiSS-18 (Social Skill) received high score (r=0.694). The reliability of this scale showed high internal consistency (Cronbach α coefficient=0.951), so the result of test for the validity of this scale supports high content validity. Thus we propose adoption of pharmacist communication skill scale to carry a brief eponymous name as TePSS-31. The above findings indicate that this developed scale possess adequate validity and reliability for practical use.

  11. Communication skills in palliative surgery: skill and effort are key.

    PubMed

    Miner, Thomas J

    2011-04-01

    Excellence as a surgeon requires not only the technical and intellectual ability to effectively take care of surgical disease but also an ability to respond to the needs and questions of patients. This article provides an overview of the importance of communication skills in optimal surgical palliation and offers suggestions for a multidisciplinary team approach, using the palliative triangle as the ideal model of communication and interpersonal skills. This article also discusses guidelines for advanced surgical decision making and outlines methods to improve communication skills.

  12. Europe's Skill Challenge: Lagging Skill Demand Increases Risks of Skill Mismatch. Briefing Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The main findings of Cedefop's latest skill demand and supply forecast for the European Union (EU) for 2010-20, indicate that although further economic troubles will affect the projected number of job opportunities, the major trends, including a shift to more skill-intensive jobs and more jobs in services, will continue. Between 2008 and 2010…

  13. Skills Matter: Further Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Skills Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaraš, Miloš; Montt, Guillermo; Paccagnella, Marco; Quintini, Glenda; Thorn, William

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the technological revolution that began in the last decades of the 20th century, labour market demand for information-processing and other high-level cognitive and interpersonal skills is growing substantially. The "Survey of Adult Skills," a product of the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult…

  14. Skills Analysis. Workshop Package on Skills Analysis, Skills Audit and Training Needs Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayton, Geoff; And Others

    This four-part package is designed to assist Australian workshop leaders running 2-day workshops on skills analysis, skills audit, and training needs analysis. Part A contains information on how to use the package and a list of workshop aims. Parts B, C, and D consist, respectively, of the workshop leader's guide; overhead transparency sheets and…

  15. Skills Matter: Further Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Skills Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaraš, Miloš; Montt, Guillermo; Paccagnella, Marco; Quintini, Glenda; Thorn, William

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the technological revolution that began in the last decades of the 20th century, labour market demand for information-processing and other high-level cognitive and interpersonal skills is growing substantially. The "Survey of Adult Skills," a product of the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult…

  16. Two Thinking Skills Assessment Approaches: "Assessment of Pupils' Thinking Skills" and "Individual Thinking Skills Assessments"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is linked to a previous paper outlining an evaluation of a thinking skills intervention (Burke & Williams, 2008). Following extensive requests for the assessment tools used in the intervention, this short paper presents the development and potential uses of two thinking skills assessment tools. The aim of the paper is simply to make…

  17. Two Thinking Skills Assessment Approaches: "Assessment of Pupils' Thinking Skills" and "Individual Thinking Skills Assessments"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lynsey A.; Williams, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is linked to a previous paper outlining an evaluation of a thinking skills intervention (Burke & Williams, 2008). Following extensive requests for the assessment tools used in the intervention, this short paper presents the development and potential uses of two thinking skills assessment tools. The aim of the paper is simply to make…

  18. EVA Skills Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazynski, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Parazynski and a colleague from Extravehicular Activity (EVA), Robotics, & Crew Systems Operations (DX) worked closely to build the EVA Skills Training Program, and for the first time, defined the gold standards of EVA performance, allowing crewmembers to increase their performance significantly. As part of the program, individuals had the opportunity to learn at their own rate, taking additional water time as required, to achieve that level of performance. This focus on training to one's strengths and weaknesses to bolster them enabled the Crew Office and DX to field a much larger group of spacewalkers for the daunting "wall of EVA" required for the building and maintenance of the ISS. Parazynski also stressed the need for designers to understand the capabilities and the limitations of a human in a spacesuit, as well as opportunities to improve future generations of space. He shared lessons learned (how the Crew Office engaged in these endeavors) and illustrated the need to work as a team to develop these complex systems.

  19. Skilled nursing and rehabilitation facilities - choosing

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000436.htm Choosing a skilled nursing and rehabilitation facility To use the sharing features ... you may need to go to a skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility . Skilled nursing facilities provide care ...

  20. Quantifying Cricket Fast Bowling Skill.

    PubMed

    Feros, Simon A; Young, Warren B; O'Brien, Brendan J

    2017-09-27

    To evaluate the current evidence regarding the quantification of cricket fast bowling skill. Studies that assessed fast bowling skill (bowling speed and accuracy) were identified from searches in SPORTDiscus (EBSCO) in June 2017. The reference lists of identified papers were also examined for relevant investigations. Sixteen papers matched the inclusion criteria, and discrepancies in assessment procedures were evident. Differences in: test environment, pitch and cricket ball characteristics, the warm-up prior to test, test familiarisation procedures, permitted run-up lengths, bowling spell length, delivery sequence, test instructions, collection of bowling speed data, collection and reportage of bowling accuracy data were apparent throughout the literature. The reliability and sensitivity of fast bowling skill measures has rarely been reported across the literature. Only one study has attempted to assess the construct validity of their skill measures. There are several discrepancies in how fast bowling skill has been assessed and subsequently quantified in the literature to date. This is a problem, as comparisons between studies are often difficult. Therefore, a strong rationale exists for the creation of match-specific standardised fast bowling assessments that offer greater ecological validity while maintaining acceptable reliability and sensitivity of the skill measures. If prospective research can act on the proposed recommendations from this review, then coaches will be able to make more informed decisions surrounding player selection, talent identification, return to skill following injury, and the efficacy of short- and long-term training interventions for fast bowlers.

  1. Stages of motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Luft, Andreas R; Buitrago, Manuel M

    2005-12-01

    Successful learning of a motor skill requires repetitive training. Once the skill is mastered, it can be remembered for a long period of time. The durable memory makes motor skill learning an interesting paradigm for the study of learning and memory mechanisms. To gain better understanding, one scientific approach is to dissect the process into stages and to study these as well as their interactions. This article covers the growing evidence that motor skill learning advances through stages, in which different storage mechanisms predominate. The acquisition phase is characterized by fast (within session) and slow learning (between sessions). For a short period following the initial training sessions, the skill is labile to interference by other skills and by protein synthesis inhibition, indicating that consolidation processes occur during rest periods between training sessions. During training as well as rest periods, activation in different brain regions changes dynamically. Evidence for stages in motor skill learning is provided by experiments using behavioral, electrophysiological, functional imaging, and cellular/molecular methods.

  2. Making predictions skill level analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katarína, Krišková; Marián, Kireš

    2017-01-01

    The current trend in the education is focused on skills that are cross-subject and have a great importance for the pupil future life. Pupils should acquire different types of skills during their education to be prepared for future careers and life in the 21st century. Physics as a subject offers many opportunities for pupils' skills development. One of the skills that are expected to be developed in physics and also in other sciences is making predictions. The prediction, in the meaning of the argument about what may happen in the future, is an integral part of the empirical cognition, in which students confront existing knowledge and experience with new, hitherto unknown and surprising phenomena. The extent of the skill is the formulation of hypotheses, which is required in the upper secondary physics education. In the contribution, the prediction skill is specified and its eventual levels are classified. Authors focus on the tools for skill level determination based on the analysis of pupils` worksheets. Worksheets are the part of the educational activities conducted within the Inquiry Science Laboratory Steelpark. Based on the formulation of pupils' prediction the pupils thinking can be seen and their understanding of the topic, as well as preconceptions and misconceptions.

  3. Structuring Process Skills and the Solution of Verbal Problems Involving Science Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Audrey B.; Klopfer, Leopold E.

    1981-01-01

    Investigates the interaction between semantic knowledge and process skills in eighth-grade students' (N=27) performance in solving two types of problems (analogies and set-membership) of inducing structure drawn from physical geology concepts. (DS)

  4. Sustainability in clinical skills teaching.

    PubMed

    Bajgoric, Sanjin; Appiah, Joseph; Wass, Valerie; Shelton, Clifford

    2014-07-01

    The deleterious effects of climate change mean that environmental sustainability is increasingly becoming a moral and economic necessity. Consequently, clinicians will increasingly be called upon to manage the effects of health care on climate change, and they must therefore do as much as is practically possible to limit the negative effects of their practice on the environment. As medical educators we have the opportunity not only to reduce the environmental impact of our own clinical practice, but also that of those who we teach, through innovation. Such novelty can be explored during student-selected components (SSCs). Clinicians will increasingly be called upon to manage effects of health care on climate change The project, entitled 'Can we introduce sustainability to clinical skills teaching?' was led by two third-year medical students during their SSC periods. New ways to make existing skills more sustainable were explored by surveying existing practice in the workplace, analysing selected skills in a lab-based setting and through discussions with sustainability champions. Cannulation and intravenous (IV) antibiotic preparation were chosen by the students as prototype skills. These skills were observed by the students in the workplace and adapted by them to appease the 'triple bottom line' of sustainability: environmental, social and economic factors were addressed. The revised skills were taught by the students to their peers in a sustainably conscious fashion. Provided that such innovations in sustainable skills teaching are deemed appropriate by clinical skills directors, such methods could be adopted across medical schools and expanded to cover a wider range of skills. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Courage as a skill.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Kathleen K

    2007-01-01

    A division vice president blows the whistle on corruption at the highest levels of his company. A young manager refuses to work on her boss's pet project because she fears it will discredit the organization. A CEO urges his board, despite push back from powerful, hostile members, to invest in environmentally sustainable technology. What is behind such high-risk, often courageous acts? Courage in business, the author has found, seldom resembles the heroic impulsiveness that sometimes surfaces in life-or-death situations. Rather, it is a special kind of calculated risk taking, learned and refined over time. Taking an intelligent gamble requires an understanding of what she calls the "courage calculation": six discrete decision-making processes that make success more likely while averting rash or unproductive behavior. These include setting attainable goals, tipping the power balance in your favor, weighing risks against benefits, and developing contingency plans. Goals may be organizational or personal. Tania Modic had both types in mind when, as a young bank manager, she overstepped her role by traveling to NewYork--on vacation time and on her own money--to revitalize some accounts that her senior colleagues had allowed to languish. Her high-risk maneuver benefited the bank and gained her a promotion. Lieutenant General Claudia J. Kennedy weighed the risks and benefits before deciding to report a fellow officer who had plagiarized a research paper at a professional army school. In her difficult courage calculation, loyalty to army standards proved stronger than the potential discomfort and embarrassment of "snitching" on a fellow officer. When the skills behind courageous decision making align with a personal, organizational, or societal philosophy, managers are empowered to make bold moves that lead to success for their companies and their careers.

  6. Neuroplasticity subserving motor skill learning

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Eran; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent years have seen significant progress in our understanding of the neural substrates of motor skill learning. Advances in neuroimaging provide new insight into functional reorganization associated with the acquisition, consolidation and retention of motor skills. Plastic changes involving structural reorganization in gray and white matter architecture that occurs over shorter time periods than previously thought have been documented as well. Data from experimental animals provided crucial information on plausible cellular and molecular substrates contributing to large-scale reorganization underlying skill acquisition in humans. Here, we review findings demonstrating functional and structural plasticity across different spatial and temporal scales that mediate motor skill learning, while identifying converging areas of interest, and possible avenues for future research. PMID:22078504

  7. Interpersonal Skills for Technical Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridie, Pamela

    1986-01-01

    Describes a summer internship as a faculty technical writer with a business corporation, revising installation manuals based upon information from computer programers--an experience that highlighted technical writers' need for interpersonal skills. (HTH)

  8. The Skills of Exemplary Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John E.

    1990-01-01

    NASSP's Assessment Center Project has identified 12 key skills for successful principals: problem analysis, judgment, organizational ability, decisiveness, leadership, sensitivity, stress tolerance, oral communication, written communication, wide-ranging interests, personal motivation, and educational values. Effective principals succeed by…

  9. Scallops, Whelks, and Process Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleare, Catherine C.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines activities for each of eight science process skills (observing, using space/time relationships, classifying, using numbers, measuring, communicating, predicting, and inferring). Directions for the activities (all of which use sea shells) are included. (DH)

  10. The Hunt for Skilled Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chris

    1997-01-01

    In a tight labor market, those who have the skills that the marketplace is demanding--expertise in information technology, sales, marketing, customer service, and manufacturing--can replace a lost job or find a new one relatively easily. (JOW)

  11. Developing nurses' transformational leadership skills.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Shelly Ann

    2017-08-16

    Healthcare is a complex area with significant potential for service improvement despite the effects of increasing economic and social pressures on the quality and safety of patient care. As the largest group of healthcare professionals in direct contact with patients, nurses are well positioned to contribute to improvements in healthcare services and to the development of new policies. To influence healthcare improvements and policies effectively, nurses require leadership skills. Historically, it was thought that only nurses in management roles required leadership skills; however, the ability to influence change is a requirement at all levels of clinical practice. Transformational leadership competencies provide nurses with the skills to contribute to improvements in the quality and safety of patient care, while enhancing their career satisfaction. This article examines how nurses can apply transformational leadership to their practice. It also informs nurses how to conduct an initial self-assessment of their leadership skills and to formulate a transformational leadership development plan.

  12. Scallops, Whelks, and Process Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleare, Catherine C.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines activities for each of eight science process skills (observing, using space/time relationships, classifying, using numbers, measuring, communicating, predicting, and inferring). Directions for the activities (all of which use sea shells) are included. (DH)

  13. Strategic leadership: the essential skills.

    PubMed

    Schoemaker, Paul J H; Krupp, Steve; Howland, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    The more uncertain your environment, the greater the opportunity--if you have the leadership skills to capitalize on it. Research at the Wharton school and at the authors' consulting firm, involving more than 20,000 executives to date, has identified six skills that, when mastered and used in concert, allow leaders to think strategically and navigate the unknown effectively. They are the abilities to anticipate, challenge, interpret, decide, align, and learn. This article describes the six skills in detail and includes a self-assessment that will enable you to identify the ones that most need your attention. The authors have found that strength in one skill cannot easily compensate for a deficit in another. An adaptive strategic leader has learned to apply all six at once.

  14. Skills. Move with the times.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Daloni

    2006-09-07

    Future NHS leaders will need a wide variety of emerging skills in strategic leadership, HR, market management, clinical engagement and partnership. Work being carried out by the NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement aims to embed these principles through action learning sets and leadership programmes. Fitness for purpose reviews, such as those recently carried out for PCT chief executives, are designed to assess whether leaders have the skills they need.

  15. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  16. A streamlined software environment for situated skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Sophia T.; Slack, Marc G.; Miller, David P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper documents a powerful set of software tools used for developing situated skills. These situated skills form the reactive level of a three-tiered intelligent agent architecture. The architecture is designed to allow these skills to be manipulated by a task level engine which is monitoring the current situation and selecting skills necessary for the current task. The idea is to coordinate the dynamic activations and deactivations of these situated skills in order to configure the reactive layer for the task at hand. The heart of the skills environment is a data flow mechanism which pipelines the currently active skills for execution. A front end graphical interface serves as a debugging facility during skill development and testing. We are able to integrate skills developed in different languages into the skills environment. The power of the skills environment lies in the amount of time it saves for the programmer to develop code for the reactive layer of a robot.

  17. On Supporting Physical Skill Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Koichi; Suwa, Masaki; Kato, Takaaki

    One of the main difficulties in motor skill acquisition is attributed to body control based on wrong mental models. This is true to various domains such as playing sports and playing musical instruments. In order to acquire adequate motor skill by modifying false belief, we need to help people find appropriate key points in achieving a body control and integrate them. In this paper, we investigate three approaches to realize such support. The first one is to encourage exploration of the relations among key points constituting a motor skill, using a technique of meta-cognitive verbalization. The second one is to represent a motor skill by appropriate mechanical models. The third one is to integrate rules for component tasks in achieving a compound task. These three approaches, we argue, help people build an integrated mental model consisting of multiple relations among various key points, one that seems to be indispensable for acquisition of motor skills. These ideas suggest the possibility to create new skill rules to perform difficult tasks automatically.

  18. Time- but Not Sleep-Dependent Consolidation of tDCS-Enhanced Visuomotor Skills

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Janine; Fischer, Jan Torben; Prichard, George; Weiller, Cornelius; Cohen, Leonardo G.; Fritsch, Brita

    2015-01-01

    Consolidation of motor skills after training can occur in a time- or sleep-dependent fashion. Recent studies revealed time-dependent consolidation as a common feature of visuomotor tasks. We have previously shown that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in combination with repeated motor training benefits consolidation by the induction of offline skill gains in a complex visuomotor task, preventing the regular occurrence of skill loss between days. Here, we asked 2 questions: What is the time course of consolidation between days for this task and do exogenously induced offline gains develop as a function of time or overnight sleep? We found that both the development of offline skill loss in sham-stimulated subjects and offline skill gains induced by anodal tDCS critically depend on the passage of time after training, but not on overnight sleep. These findings support the view that tDCS interacts directly with the physiological consolidation process. However, in a control experiment, anodal tDCS applied after the training did not induce skill gains, implying that coapplication of tDCS and training is required to induce offline skill gains, pointing to the initiation of consolidation already during training. PMID:23960213

  19. Developing Geoscience Students' Quantitative Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Hancock, G. S.

    2005-12-01

    Sophisticated quantitative skills are an essential tool for the professional geoscientist. While students learn many of these sophisticated skills in graduate school, it is increasingly important that they have a strong grounding in quantitative geoscience as undergraduates. Faculty have developed many strong approaches to teaching these skills in a wide variety of geoscience courses. A workshop in June 2005 brought together eight faculty teaching surface processes and climate change to discuss and refine activities they use and to publish them on the Teaching Quantitative Skills in the Geosciences website (serc.Carleton.edu/quantskills) for broader use. Workshop participants in consultation with two mathematics faculty who have expertise in math education developed six review criteria to guide discussion: 1) Are the quantitative and geologic goals central and important? (e.g. problem solving, mastery of important skill, modeling, relating theory to observation); 2) Does the activity lead to better problem solving? 3) Are the quantitative skills integrated with geoscience concepts in a way that makes sense for the learning environment and supports learning both quantitative skills and geoscience? 4) Does the methodology support learning? (e.g. motivate and engage students; use multiple representations, incorporate reflection, discussion and synthesis) 5) Are the materials complete and helpful to students? 6) How well has the activity worked when used? Workshop participants found that reviewing each others activities was very productive because they thought about new ways to teach and the experience of reviewing helped them think about their own activity from a different point of view. The review criteria focused their thinking about the activity and would be equally helpful in the design of a new activity. We invite a broad international discussion of the criteria(serc.Carleton.edu/quantskills/workshop05/review.html).The Teaching activities can be found on the

  20. Social skills programmes for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Almerie, Muhammad Qutayba; Okba Al Marhi, Muhammad; Jawoosh, Muhammad; Alsabbagh, Mohamad; Matar, Hosam E; Maayan, Nicola; Bergman, Hanna

    2015-06-09

    Social skills programmes (SSP) are treatment strategies aimed at enhancing the social performance and reducing the distress and difficulty experienced by people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and can be incorporated as part of the rehabilitation package for people with schizophrenia. The primary objective is to investigate the effects of social skills training programmes, compared to standard care, for people with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Trials Register (November 2006 and December 2011) which is based on regular searches of CINAHL, BIOSIS, AMED, EMBASE, PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and registries of clinical trials. We inspected references of all identified studies for further trials.A further search for studies has been conducted by the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group in 2015, 37 citations have been found and are currently being assessed by review authors. We included all relevant randomised controlled trials for social skills programmes versus standard care involving people with serious mental illnesses. We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratios (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) and 95% CIs. We included 13 randomised trials (975 participants). These evaluated social skills programmes versus standard care, or discussion group. We found evidence in favour of social skills programmes compared to standard care on all measures of social functioning. We also found that rates of relapse and rehospitalisation were lower for social skills compared to standard care (relapse: 2 RCTs, n = 263, RR 0.52 CI 0.34 to 0.79, very low quality evidence), (rehospitalisation: 1 RCT, n = 143, RR 0.53 CI 0.30 to 0.93, very low quality evidence) and participants' mental state results (1 RCT, n = 91, MD -4.01 CI -7.52 to -0.50, very low quality evidence) were better in the group receiving social skill programmes

  1. Wanted: Soft Skills for Today's Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Barton J.

    2017-01-01

    Educating high school students for both college and career is difficult. Teaching trade skills seems alien to the academic culture. But new research indicates that soft skills are quite important to judgments of employability and that youth learn many soft skills in traditional academic subjects (e.g., literature). A focus on soft skills allows…

  2. Meeting the Demand: Teaching "Soft" Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, William J.; Logan, Joyce; Smith, Sheila M.; Szul, Linda F.

    This document contains four papers (and an introduction by William Wilhelm) on teaching "soft" skills in business education programs. "The Skill Building Challenge: Preparing a Bridge for the Workforce Skills Gap" (Sheila M. Smith) examines the following topics: the workforce skills gap; the importance of academic and…

  3. Workplace Educational Skills Analysis. Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Donna; And Others

    Basic skills instruction can be tied to work performed on the job by conducting a Workplace Educational Skills Analysis (WESA). WESA is a systematic process used by the Wisconsin Workplace Partnership Training Program to identify and analyze the basic educational skills required on the job. Basic skills are identified in seven areas: (1)…

  4. Development of Components of Reading Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Mary E.

    1980-01-01

    Verbal coding and listening comprehension ability differed among skilled and less skilled readers in second, third, and fifth grades. As verbal coding speed increased, comprehension skill became the more important predictor of reading skill. Apparently, verbal coding processes, which are slow, inhibit other reading processes. (Author/CP)

  5. Pre-Computer Skills for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symington, Lois

    1990-01-01

    This article outlines a series of skills needed by young children with disabilities to be prepared to effectively use computers later in life, and provides exercises to promote these skills. Skills emphasized include: decision-making, cause-and-effect thinking, muscle control, and directional and sequencing skills. (PB)

  6. Wanted: Soft Skills for Today's Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Barton J.

    2017-01-01

    Educating high school students for both college and career is difficult. Teaching trade skills seems alien to the academic culture. But new research indicates that soft skills are quite important to judgments of employability and that youth learn many soft skills in traditional academic subjects (e.g., literature). A focus on soft skills allows…

  7. Defining Generic Skills. At a Glance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Generic skills--skills that apply across a variety of jobs and life contexts--are taking on increased importance in Australia and internationally. There is a high demand for generic skills in the workplace because employers seek to ensure business success by recruiting and retaining employees who have a variety of skills and personal attributes as…

  8. Communication Skills Program for Vocational Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuberg, Marilyn; Canon, Betty Jean

    The project was designed to help high school students with industrial occupational goals achieve practical communication skills necessary for efficient employment entry. Industrial arts and language arts teachers together developed major essential categories for vocational English (reading skills, correspondence skills, reference skills, technical…

  9. Essential Learning Skills in Vocational Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document provides basic skill performance expectations for all Oregon students by the end of grade 11 to be incorporated into 15 vocational programs. (Exceptions are that in technology education, the skills identified are only for grade 8; in home economics, the identified skills are for grades 8 and 11.) The skills, which are in reading,…

  10. Career Pathways Skill-Building Instructional Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Coll. of Rhode Island, Warwick.

    As part of an effort to develop a skill-based education program for students that relates academic skills with workplace skills, the Community College of Rhode Island developed a working instructional model consisting of 6 areas, or strands, and 31 skills. The model is directed at students in grades 9 through 12 and recognizes the importance of…

  11. Teaching Phonetic Skills through Body Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Osdol, Bob M.; Geiger, Leonard J.

    A perceptual motor approach to learning phonics is presented in this teaching guide which includes a screening test and 50 learning games encompassing a wide array of phonics skills. Directionality, gross-motor skills, sensory-motor skills, and auditory and visual perceptual skills may be introduced to the children and taught during the games…

  12. Essential Learning Skills in Vocational Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document provides basic skill performance expectations for all Oregon students by the end of grade 11 to be incorporated into 15 vocational programs. (Exceptions are that in technology education, the skills identified are only for grade 8; in home economics, the identified skills are for grades 8 and 11.) The skills, which are in reading,…

  13. Integration and Reuse in Cognitive Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvucci, Dario D.

    2013-01-01

    Previous accounts of cognitive skill acquisition have demonstrated how procedural knowledge can be obtained and transformed over time into skilled task performance. This article focuses on a complementary aspect of skill acquisition, namely the integration and reuse of previously known component skills. The article posits that, in addition to…

  14. Cognitive Skills: A Modest Way of Learning through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sethy, Satya Sundar

    2012-01-01

    Learning is an ever-present phenomenon. It takes place irrespective of time and place. It engages learners in their interested topic/content. Learning absorbs many skills, such as; reading skills, writing skills, technological skills, emotional skills, behavioral skills, cognitive skills, and language skills. Out of all these, cognitive skills…

  15. Assessing Writing Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'ASSESSING CORE COMPETENCIES.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of ASSESSMENT principles has been emphasized. Catherine Palomba and Trudy Banta offer the following definition of assessment, adapted from one provided by Marchese in 1987. Assessment is the systematic collection, review, and use of information about educational programs undertaken for the purpose of improving student learning and development. (Palomba and Banta 1999). Educational institutions are committing substantial resources to the establishment of dedicated technology-based laboratories, so that they will be able to accommodate and fulfill students' desire to master certain of these specific skills. This type of technology-based instruction may raise some fundamental questions about the core competencies of the student learner. Some of the most important questions are : 1. Is the utilization of these fast high-powered computers and user-friendly software programs creating a totally non-challenging instructional environment for the student learner ? 2. Can technology itself all too easily overshadow the learning outcomes intended ? 3. Are the educational institutions simply training students how to use technology rather than educating them in the appropriate field ? 4. Are we still teaching content-driven courses and analysis oriented subject matter ? 5. Are these sophisticated modern era technologies contributing to a decline in the Critical Thinking Capabilities of the 21st century technology-savvy students ? The author tries to focus on technology as a tool and not on the technology itself. He further argues that students must demonstrate that they have the have the ability to think critically before they make an attempt to use technology in a chosen application-specific environment. The author further

  16. Automated social skills training with audiovisual information.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Sakti, Sakriani; Neubig, Graham; Negoro, Hideki; Iwasaka, Hidemi; Nakamura, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    People with social communication difficulties tend to have superior skills using computers, and as a result computer-based social skills training systems are flourishing. Social skills training, performed by human trainers, is a well-established method to obtain appropriate skills in social interaction. Previous works have attempted to automate one or several parts of social skills training through human-computer interaction. However, while previous work on simulating social skills training considered only acoustic and linguistic features, human social skills trainers take into account visual features (e.g. facial expression, posture). In this paper, we create and evaluate a social skills training system that closes this gap by considering audiovisual features regarding ratio of smiling, yaw, and pitch. An experimental evaluation measures the difference in effectiveness of social skill training when using audio features and audiovisual features. Results showed that the visual features were effective to improve users' social skills.

  17. Social skills in dysphonic children.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maíra da; Batista, Ana Priscila; Oliveira, Jáima Pinheiro de; Dassie-Leite, Ana Paula

    2012-01-01

    To obtain and analyze data from the social skills evaluation of dysphonic children. This is a cross-sectional and prospective study. Participants were 38 children enrolled in a public school, ranging in age from 7 to 11 years. They were separated into two groups: Study Group (SG)--19 dysphonic children; Control Group (CG)--19 non-dysphonic children. The groups were matched by gender and age range. Children with any history of organic vocal problems, according to the identification and investigation of general and vocal health questionnaire, which was answered by the legal guardian, were excluded. The Multimedia Social Skills Inventoire for Children (MUSSIC) was applied, which consists of 21 social interaction situations represented by photos, having a child as the leading figure. For each situation, the participant should select one out of three behaviors, putting themselves in the place of the main character. Each response corresponds to one out of three types of reaction: assertive, passive and aggressive. Data were statistically analyzed. There was no difference between the groups on the social skills evaluation results, that is, SG and CG children presented similar scores regarding assertiveness, aggressiveness and passiveness. Consequently, there was no difference on the subscales of the inventory regarding social skills. As for the SG, there was no relationship between the scores obtained on the MUSSIC and the severity of the voice disorder. It is not possible to determine specific behaviors of dysphonic children concerning social skills.

  18. Evaluation of health assessment skills.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, J

    1989-01-01

    This article presents the reliability and validity data on a checklist used to evaluate health assessment skills. In 1982, the nurse practitioner faculty at a large midwestern university acknowledged that health assessment skills were basic to the preparation of all nurses and made the decision to require these skills for entry into the graduate program. Because of the varying ways in which health assessment skills are acquired, the faculty saw the need to standardize the expected level of performance. An objective, three-page instrument to measure student competence in performing and recording a health history and physical examination for a client of any age is administered prior to beginning the nurse practitioner sequence of courses. The 91 objective items for this instrument are based on the traditional outline for writing up a client history and physical examination. Criteria for the items are located in an accompanying manual. The student achieves a "Yes" rating on an item if all the components of the item are performed and written according to the criteria. Reliability of the tool was assessed by 12 faculty members who participated in a simulated evaluation. The tool has been used to evaluate the skills of 165 nurses. Of these, 149 nurses were enrolled in a continuing education course, and 16 nurses tested out of a health assessment course.

  19. Phacoemulsification skills training and assessment.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Anthony; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Kersey, Tom; Benjamin, Larry; Darzi, Ara; Bloom, Philip

    2010-05-01

    BACKGROUND The quality of ophthalmic surgical training is increasingly challenged by an untimely convergence of several factors. This article reviews the tools currently available for training and assessment in phacoemulsification surgery. METHODS Medline searches were performed to identify articles with combinations of the following words: phacoemulsification, training, curriculum, virtual reality and assessment. Further articles were obtained by manually searching the reference lists of identified papers. RESULTS Thus far phacoemulsification training outside the operating room include wet labs and micro-surgical skills courses. These methods have been criticised for being unrealistic, inaccurate and inconsistent. Virtual reality simulators have the ability to teach phacoemulsification psychomotor skills, as well as to carry out objective assessment. Other ophthalmic surgical skill assessment tools such as Objective Assessment of Skills in Intraocular Surgery (OASIS) and Global Rating Assessment of Skills in Intraocular Surgery (GRASIS) are emerging. Assessor bias is minimised by using video-based assessments, which have been shown to reduce subjectivity. Dexterity analysis technology such as the Imperial College Surgical Assessment Device (ICSAD) and virtual reality simulators can be used as objective assessment devices. CONCLUSION Improvements in technology can be utilised in ophthalmology and will help to address the increasingly limited opportunities for training and assessment during training and throughout a subsequent career (re-training and re-validation). This will inevitably translate into enhanced patient care.

  20. An Alumni Assessment of MIS Related Job Skill Importance and Skill Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Jerod W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a job skill survey of Management Information Systems (MIS) alumni from a Northeastern U.S. university. The study assesses job skill importance and skill gaps associated with 104 technical and non-technical skill items. Survey items were grouped into 6 categories based on prior research. Skill importance and skill…

  1. An Alumni Assessment of MIS Related Job Skill Importance and Skill Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Jerod W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a job skill survey of Management Information Systems (MIS) alumni from a Northeastern U.S. university. The study assesses job skill importance and skill gaps associated with 104 technical and non-technical skill items. Survey items were grouped into 6 categories based on prior research. Skill importance and skill…

  2. [Skillful care for chronic vascular wounds].

    PubMed

    Goullet de Rugy, C; Lazareth, I; You, C; Stansal, A; Priollet, P

    2016-09-01

    In vascular medicine, wound care requires pluridisciplinary expertise and nursing skill. Care must be perfectly adapted to each individual patient, the specificities of each particular wound, and the underlying vascular disease. The goal is to achieve wound healing. Inappropriate care can retard healing or even aggravate the wound. The skin should be cleaned with water a non-allergic detergent and should concern the entire limb in addition to the wound itself. Fibrin or necrosis detersion is an important step that can be painful. Different tools are available. The skin around the wound should be hydrated and protected, focusing on fragile areas, such as the tibial crest and heals, in order to prevent the development of new wounds. Other more complex interventions include tenosynovectomy, bone gouging and reduction of the necrotic toe that when properly performed can prevent a new passage in the operating room. If the ischemia becomes critical, the foot should be held warm with a carded cotton, taking care to separate the toes with dry dressings in order to preserve the healthy tissue and avoid induced wounds. Finally, compression bands are indispensable in cases with edema or venous hyperpressure. A skillful banding technique is essential, especially for legs with complex morphology.

  3. Improving Rhinology Skills with Simulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew Y; Fried, Marvin P; Gibber, Marc

    2017-10-01

    The convergence of technology and medicine has led to many advances in surgical training. Novel surgical simulators have led to significantly improved skills of graduating surgeons, leading to decreased time to proficiency, improved efficiency, decreased errors, and improvement in patient safety. Endoscopic sinus surgery poses a steep learning curve given the complex 3-dimensional anatomy of the nasal and paranasal cavities, and the necessary visual-spatial motor skills and bimanual dexterity. This article focuses on surgical simulation in rhinological training and how innovative high-fidelity and low-fidelity simulators can maximize resident training and improve procedural skills before operating in the live environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Communication training: Skills and beyond.

    PubMed

    Deveugele, Myriam

    2015-10-01

    As communication is a central part of every interpersonal meeting within healthcare and research reveals several benefits of effective communication, we need to teach students and practitioners how to communicate with patients and with colleagues. This paper reflects on what and how to teach. In the previous century two major changes occurred: clinical relationship between doctor and patient became important and patients became partners in care. Clinicians experienced that outcome and especially compliance was influenced by the relational aspect and in particular by the communicative skills of the physician. This paper reflects on teaching and defines problems. It gives some implications for the future. Although communication skills training is reinforced in most curricula all over the word, huge implementation problems arise; most of the time a coherent framework is lacking, training is limited in time, not integrated in the curriculum and scarcely contextualized, often no formal training nor teaching strategies are defined. Moreover evidence on communication skills training is scarce or contradictory. Knowing when, what, how can be seen as an essential part of skills training. But students need to be taught to reflect on every behavior during every medical consultation. Three major implications can be helpful to overcome the problems in communication training. First research and education on healthcare issues need to go hand in hand. Second, students as well as healthcare professionals need a toolkit of basic skills to give them the opportunity not only to tackle basic and serious problems, but to incorporate these skills and to be able to use them in a personal and creative way. Third, personal reflection on own communicative actions and dealing with interdisciplinary topics is a core business of medical communication and training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Retention of Basic Soldiering Skills

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    then make their own ’ decisions about which training to conduct and when. The commander knows what demands proficiency requirements make on his...34Variable Test Package"? Yes No (29) 13. Do you have your own copy of a Soldier’s Manual? Yes No (30) 14. What unit did you belong to durinig either Basic...SKILLS INTRODUCTION Assuming the next armed conflict will be a "come as you are" war, soldiers will not have time to significantly improve skills before

  6. Surgical Skills Beyond Scientific Management

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    During the Great War, the French surgeon Alexis Carrel, in collaboration with the English chemist Henry Dakin, devised an antiseptic treatment for infected wounds. This paper focuses on Carrel’s attempt to standardise knowledge of infected wounds and their treatment, and looks closely at the vision of surgical skill he espoused and its difference from those associated with the doctrines of scientific management. Examining contemporary claims that the Carrel–Dakin method increased rather than diminished demands on surgical work, this paper further shows how debates about antiseptic wound treatment opened up a critical space for considering the nature of skill as a vital dynamic in surgical innovation and practice. PMID:26090737

  7. Communication and Critical Thinking Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Elizabeth H.

    2011-03-01

    This talk will discuss how faculty can help graduate students (and even postdocs) improve non-technical professional skills required for success in scientific careers. Examples to be covered will include a) planning and delivering high-quality presentations b) listening critically to others' presentations c) writing grant proposals, cover letters, and CV's d) reviewing manuscripts and responding to referee reports. The faculty member(s) involved must be prepared to project a welcoming attitude, to convey the importance of these skills, and to make a consistent investment of time.

  8. Management Skills. Skills Task Force Research Paper 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Steven; Winterton, Jonathan

    A task force was convened to identify the nature, extent, and pattern of skill needs and shortages for managerial occupations in the United Kingdom (UK). The task force began by examining the key challenges facing managers in the UK. The following factors were among those considered: economic policies promoting liberalization and deregulation;…

  9. Atlas Skills for Learning Rather than Learning Atlas Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carswell, R. J. B.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model for visual learning and describes an approach to skills instruction which aids students in using atlases. Maintains that teachers must help students see atlases as tools capable of providing useful information rather than experiencing atlas learning as an empty exercise with little relevance to their lives. (JDH)

  10. Establishing Fire Safety Skills Using Behavioral Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houvouras, Andrew J., IV; Harvey, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The use of behavioral skills training (BST) to educate 3 adolescent boys on the risks of lighters and fire setting was evaluated using in situ assessment in a school setting. Two participants had a history of fire setting. After training, all participants adhered to established rules: (a) avoid a deactivated lighter, (b) leave the training area,…

  11. Skill Intensity and Skills Development in Bangladesh Manufacturing Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comyn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on recent research into enterprise skill profiles and workplace training practices in the Bangladesh manufacturing industry. The article presents survey and interview data for 37 enterprises across eight manufacturing sectors collected during a study for the International Labour Organisation. The research analysed enterprise and…

  12. Historic Crafts and Skills. Instructor Manual. Historic Skills Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Jim

    Designed for classroom teachers and youth leaders, this self-contained manual contains classroom tested background information, lesson plans, activities, class exercises, tests, suggested visual aids, and references for teaching basic historic crafts and skills to junior high and senior high school students. An introductory section briefly…

  13. Skill Intensity and Skills Development in Bangladesh Manufacturing Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comyn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on recent research into enterprise skill profiles and workplace training practices in the Bangladesh manufacturing industry. The article presents survey and interview data for 37 enterprises across eight manufacturing sectors collected during a study for the International Labour Organisation. The research analysed enterprise and…

  14. A Skills Perception Inventory for Evaluating Postgraduate Transferable Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpay, Esat; Walsh, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the development, application and results of a skills evaluation inventory which was specifically designed to provide quantitative feedback on the effects of a three-day residential training course attended by PhD students early in their research careers. The course was developed at Imperial College London, partly in…

  15. Skilled! Report, Guidance & Materials on Basic Skills & Youth Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merton, Bryan

    This document includes materials from and about Skilled!, a national demonstration project that was implemented in 10 areas of England in partnership with local authority youth services and further education colleges to provide educational opportunities for disaffected and underachieving young people aged 16 and over. The first half of the…

  16. Historic Crafts and Skills. Instructor Manual. Historic Skills Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Jim

    Designed for classroom teachers and youth leaders, this self-contained manual contains classroom tested background information, lesson plans, activities, class exercises, tests, suggested visual aids, and references for teaching basic historic crafts and skills to junior high and senior high school students. An introductory section briefly…

  17. Establishing Fire Safety Skills Using Behavioral Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houvouras, Andrew J., IV; Harvey, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The use of behavioral skills training (BST) to educate 3 adolescent boys on the risks of lighters and fire setting was evaluated using in situ assessment in a school setting. Two participants had a history of fire setting. After training, all participants adhered to established rules: (a) avoid a deactivated lighter, (b) leave the training area,…

  18. The Skills of Multi-Skilling. Discussion Paper No. 100.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Ana Maria Rezende; Araujo e Oliveira, Joao Batista

    In Brazil, electronic technicians are increasingly being asked to perform a number of technical and nontechnical tasks, for which they need complex education and training or multiskilling. The typical tasks faced by electronic technicians require a relatively high level of abstraction and symbolic learning. Required skills cover a broad range of…

  19. Communication Skills-Core of Employability Skills: Issues and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharathi, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the writing skills of third-year Bachelor of Commerce students of the colleges affiliated to Krantiguru Shyamji Krishna Verma Kachchh University, Bhuj, India. The objectives of this study were to (a) study the syllabus relevance of the concerned subject at the final-year graduation level in the commerce discipline, (b)…

  20. Do resident's leadership skills relate to ratings of technical skill?

    PubMed

    Gannon, Samantha J; Law, Katherine E; Ray, Rebecca D; Nathwani, Jay N; DiMarco, Shannon M; D'Angelo, Anne-Lise D; Pugh, Carla M

    2016-12-01

    This study sought to compare general surgery research residents' survey information regarding self-efficacy ratings to their observed performance during a simulated small bowel repair. Their observed performance ratings were based on their leadership skills in directing their assistant. Participants were given 15 min to perform a bowel repair using bovine intestines with standardized injuries. Operative assistants were assigned to help assist with the repair. Before the procedure, participants were asked to rate their expected skills decay, task difficulty, and confidence in addressing the small bowel injury. Interactions were coded to identify the number of instructions given by the participants to the assistant during the repair. Statistical analyses assessed the relationship between the number of directional instructions and participants' perceptions self-efficacy measures. Directional instructions were defined as any dialog by the participant who guided the assistant to perform an action. Thirty-six residents (58.3% female) participated in the study. Participants who rated lower levels of decay in their intraoperative decision-making and small bowel repair skills were noted to use their assistant more by giving more instructions. Similarly, a higher number of instructions correlated with lower perceived difficulty in selecting the correct suture, suture pattern, and completing the entire surgical task. General surgery research residents' intraoperative leadership skills showed significant correlations to their perceptions of skill decay and task difficulty during a bowel repair. Evaluating resident's directional instructions may provide an additional individualized intraoperative assessment metric. Further evaluation relating to operative performance outcomes is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Asymmetric relationship between driving and safety skills.

    PubMed

    Sümer, Nebi; Ozkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo

    2006-07-01

    We hypothesized that the combination of self reported high ratings of driving skills and low ratings of safety skills creates a serious risk for road accident involvement. This study was aimed at investigating the asymmetric interplay between driving and safety skills among Turkish drivers (N=785) using the Driving Skills Inventory [Lajunen, T., Summala, H., 1995. Driver experience, personality, and skill and safety motive dimensions in drivers' self-assessments. Pers. Indiv. Differ. 19, 307-318]. The assumed asymmetric interactions were tested on a number of outcome variables representing risky driving using moderated regression analyses. The results revealed that driving skills moderated the effects of safety skills on six out of the eight outcome variables including the number of accidents, tickets, overtaking tendencies, speed on motorways, and aggressive driving style. Results suggested that high levels of safety skills buffer the negative effect of overconfidence resulting from exaggerated ratings of self-reported driving skills.

  2. Comprehensive Social Skills Taxonomy: Development and Application.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Nancy A; Kinnealey, Moya

    2015-01-01

    We developed a comprehensive social skills taxonomy based on archived children's social skill goal sheets, and we applied the taxonomy to 6,897 goals of children in 6 diagnostic categories to explore patterns related to diagnosis. We used a grounded theory approach to code and analyze social skill goals and develop the taxonomy. Multivariate analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc honestly significant difference test were used to analyze differences in social skill needs among diagnostic groups. We developed a taxonomy of 7 social skill constructs or categories, descriptions, and behavioral indicators. The 7 social skill categories were reflected across 6 diagnostic groups, and differences in social skill needs among groups were identified. This comprehensive taxonomy of social skills can be useful in developing research-based individual, group, or institutional programming to improve social skills. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  3. Speed of motor re-learning after experimental stroke depends on prior skill.

    PubMed

    Schubring-Giese, Maximilian; Molina-Luna, Katiuska; Hertler, Benjamin; Buitrago, Manuel M; Hanley, Daniel F; Luft, Andreas R

    2007-08-01

    Many motor rehabilitation therapies are based on principles of motor learning. Motor learning depends on preliminary knowledge of the trained and other (similar) skills. This study sought to investigate the influence of prior skill knowledge on re-learning of a precision reaching skill after a cortical lesion in rat. One group of animals recovered a previously known skill (skill training, followed by stroke and re-learning training, TST, n = 8). A second group learned the skill for the first time after stroke (ST, n = 6). A control group received prolonged training without stroke (n = 6). Unilateral partial motor cortex lesions were induced photothrombotically after identifying the forelimb representation using epidural stimulation mapping. In TST animals, re-learning after stroke was slower than learning before stroke (post hoc repeated measures ANOVA P = 0.039) and learning in the control group (P = 0.033). De novo learning after stroke (ST group) was not different from healthy learning. These findings show that skill learning can be performed if the motor cortex is partially lesioned; re-learning of a skill after stroke is slowed by prior knowledge of the skill. It remains to be tested in humans whether task novelty positively influences rehabilitation therapy.

  4. Differential modulation of motor cortex plasticity in skill- and endurance-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Kumpulainen, Susanne; Avela, Janne; Gruber, Markus; Bergmann, Julian; Voigt, Michael; Linnamo, Vesa; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie

    2015-05-01

    Extensive evidence exists that regular physical exercise offers neuroplastic benefits to the brain. In this study, exercise-specific effects on motor cortex plasticity were compared between 15 skilled and 15 endurance trained athletes and 8 controls. Plasticity was tested with a paired associative stimulation (PAS) protocol. PAS is a non-invasive stimulation method developed to induce bidirectional changes in the excitability of the cortical projections to the target muscles. Motor cortex excitability was assessed by motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in the task-relevant soleus muscle, elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation, before and following PAS. To test for changes at the spinal level, soleus short latency stretch reflexes (SLSR) were elicited before and after PAS. PAS induced a significant (76 ± 83 %) increase in MEP amplitude in the skill group, without significant changes in the endurance (-7 ± 35 %) or control groups (21 ± 30 %). Baseline MEP/post MEP ratio was significantly different between the skill and endurance groups. SLSR remained unchanged after the PAS intervention. The possible reason for differential motor cortex plasticity in skill and endurance groups is likely related to the different training-induced adaptations. The findings of the current study suggest that long-term skill training by skill group induced preferable adaptations in the task-related areas of the motor cortex because increased plasticity is known to enhance motor learning.

  5. Community Living Skills: Nutrition I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreps, Alice Roelofs; Dreith, Rita Vallero

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Nutrition I. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized persons to…

  6. Hard Facts and Soft Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terego, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The argument now raging in academic circles pits those who espouse teaching 21st century skills against those who believe that schools should be teaching explicit and well-sequenced content. This debate has largely been framed as an either-or proposition. In this author's view, portraying this debate as one between two mutually exclusive sides…

  7. What Is a Skill Shortage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Sue

    2007-01-01

    In 2004 NCVER invited proposals from a consortia of researchers to address questions relating to changing work skill needs and work organisation arrangements and their implications for the vocational education and training sector. The National Institute of Labour Studies, Flinders University, and the Centre for Post-compulsory Education and…

  8. Assessing Business Student Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    The development of student thinking skills is a major goal of business education. As with other such goals, student outcomes assessment must be undertaken to measure goal achievement. Thinking is difficult to teach; it is also difficult to assess. The purpose of this article is to improve management educators' understanding of student thinking…

  9. Unions: Bread, Butter & Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Unions are natural providers of basic skills instruction. They are in daily workplace contact with their membership, are trusted to work on members' behalf, and speak the language of the worker. Unions are trying to address the needs of illiterate workers through collective bargaining arrangements in which employers contribute a percentage of…

  10. The True Information Survival Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Karl

    2001-01-01

    Scrutinizes three prevalent assumptions: (1) the Internet will change everything and everybody; (2) eventually, all human beings will be connected; and (3) people will have to learn a completely new way of thinking. Identifies "nondigital" skills that remain important: interpersonal effectiveness, filtering, propaganda resistance, breadth of…

  11. Skills for Self-Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbruscato, Joe

    This document is the student study guide for a course on the effective management of a small business in a changing environment. The course is designed for those persons who someday may go into business for themselves as well as for those who are already in business but who wish to strengthen their entrepreneurial and management skills. The guide…

  12. Key Skills and Competencies. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers on key skills and competencies and human resource development (HRD). "Career Related Competencies" (Marinka A.C.T. Kuijpers) reports findings from surveys completed by Dutch employees who identified these issues: self-reflection is more important than career control; age and gender influence attitude…

  13. Supporting Skills for Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dench, S.; La Valle, I.; Evans, C.

    The changing skill requirements for the occupations of childcare worker and eldercare provider in Great Britain were examined. Data were collected from the following: review of existing literature; preliminary exploratory interviews with representatives of voluntary organizations, professional bodies, training providers, organizations involved in…

  14. Design Sketching: A Lost Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Todd R.

    2017-01-01

    As national STEM initiatives focus on engineering design as a STEM integrator, a more important concern for K-12 educators should be teaching design fundamentals and using these experiences to help students obtain STEM content knowledge. There appears however, to be little instruction and emphasis on building students' design-sketching skills in…

  15. Technology and the Four Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Most L2 instructors implement their curriculum with an eye to improving the four skills: speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Absent in this vision of language are notions of pragmatic, sociolinguistic, and multicultural competencies. Although current linguistic theories posit a more complex, interactive, and integrated model of language,…

  16. Eight Skills in Future Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Wenting

    2015-01-01

    This article elaborates eight skills in future work which are based on three main changes and are available to different domains of professions. The first change is an increasing technological world for the future. Technology becomes a part of human being's life and affects people's daily life. Mastering relevant competences is necessary to boost…

  17. Communications skills for CRM training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, M.

    1984-01-01

    A pilot training program in communication skills, listening, conflict solving, and task orientation, for a small but growing commuter airline is discussed. The interactions between pilots and management, and communication among crew members are examined. Methods for improvement of cockpit behavior management personnel relations are investigated.

  18. Narrative Skills and Social Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between specific narrative skills and social class was studied in a culturally and racially homogeneous sample (51 4-year olds), focusing on narratives of economically disadvantaged children. Children from disorganized, chaotic and disadvantaged households were most likely to produce minimal narratives that were poorly planned.…

  19. Enterprise Skills for the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Laura; Anderson, Maggie; Brown, Wendy; Wilson, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Purpose ? In response to the emergence of an enterprise economy, government claims that building an enterprise culture is vital. Correspondingly, provision of entrepreneurship education in higher education has expanded. The paper aims to assess the potential of entrepreneurship education to develop skills, and of whether students perceive them as…

  20. An Individualized Library Skills Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappas, Bess

    This individualized program developed for students in grades 4-6 at Herman Hesse Elementary School in Georgia, is designed to provide the students with the basic library skills needed to make them independent learners in the media center. Activity sheets for student use comprise the major portion of the document. (Author/AWP)

  1. Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickover, Sheri

    2010-01-01

    Current anger management programs use a cognitive behavior perspective; however, research also links anger control to developmental deficits such as attachment insecurity and emotional regulation. This article previews the Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum (ESBC), a 13-week treatment program designed to treat individuals who are referred for…

  2. Specific Skills Training. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Social Fund, Dublin (Ireland).

    Ireland's program of specific skills training (SST) Objective 1 courses, which are designed to train/retrain the labor force required for implementation of Ireland's Industry and Services Operational Programme, was evaluated by analyzing program expenditure reports and participant profiles, surveying a random sample of 101 employers, and visiting…

  3. Coaching skills for employee development.

    PubMed

    Corning, Susan P

    2002-01-01

    Chief nursing officers, in a national research study called the Nursing Leadership Edge, ranked employee coaching and development as the number one leadership skill required in their jobs. As one chief nursing officer said, "Our success depends on having a support team that is successful and perceived by others as being successful. We need to develop our staff to ensure their success."

  4. Communication Skills for Banking Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Public Schools, Falls Church, VA. Office of Adult and Community Education.

    The communications skills course was developed for bank employees who are non-native speakers of English, to assist them in improving their English and knowledge of the American workplace culture and to increase productivity. It consists of three instructional levels. Topics covered in level 1 reflect concerns of bank managers about basic…

  5. Addressing physicians' impaired communication skills.

    PubMed

    Egener, Barry

    2008-11-01

    Deficient physician communication skills can lead to complaints by patients and colleagues. While there are many communication training courses for physicians, there are few descriptions of programs that address their deficiencies. This report describes the use of a coaching model developed by the author to remediate inadequate communication skills. The coaching model consists of a discrete set of communication skills that are gradually integrated into professional activities while debriefing that process in a supportive relationship. Outcomes are provided for the first 13 physicians coached after the approach was standardized. On a Likert scale (range, 1-7), with 7 expressing "high satisfaction," all participants rated the consultation in the 5-7 range (mean, 6.3), and all supervisors rated the consultation in the 6-7 range (mean, 6.7). A coaching model is effective in improving communication skills deemed inadequate by physicians' patients and colleagues. Future work should evaluate the impact of integrating coaching into health care organizations and on developing new tools to augment coaching.

  6. Simulations Helping Novices Hone Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Real-time classroom simulations like TeachME, a University of Central Florida project, offer promise for a host of teacher-training applications. Through them, candidates could learn to work with different groups of students, or practice a discrete skill such as classroom management. Most of all, such simulations give teachers in training the…

  7. Skill Development in Experimental Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagán, Héctor; Sayós, Rosa; García, José F.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental courses offer a good opportunity to work with competences, promoting the incorporation of strategies oriented towards motivating students to actively involve in the learning process, promoting reflexive learning and developing generic skills. This study presents different ways of developing and evaluating some important general…

  8. Helping Children Develop Cognitive Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilkerson, Deanna

    Designed to help family home care providers understand children's cognitive developmental stages, this manual provides practical suggestions for developing and evaluating children's cognitive skills. The manual is divided into four sections focusing respectively on infants, toddlers, preschool children, and school-aged children. Each section…

  9. Communication Skills for Preventive Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Catherine E.; O'Donnell, Joseph F.; Novack, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    Defines and examines a communication model for enhancing the provision and adoption of preventive practices in the primary care setting and discusses teaching that model in the medical school context. Methods for integrating communication skills for prevention into the medical school curriculum are discussed, using examples from Dartmouth (New…

  10. Postural consistency in skilled archers.

    PubMed

    Stuart, J; Atha, J

    1990-01-01

    The consistency of an archer's postural set at the moment of loose (arrow release) is commonly perceived to be an important determinant of success. The coach seeks, among other things, to provide the archer with information about postural consistency, details of which he acquires by eye or occasionally by video-recordings. The gains that might be achieved from more precise information are examined here. Nine skilled archers, classified into either skilled or elite groups according to their officially computed handicap, were continuously monitored and measured with a three-dimensional co-ordinate analyser (Charnwood Dynamics Coda-3 Scanner) while shooting two ends (series) of three arrows each. Considerable variability was observed in the precision with which the positions of head, elbow and bow at the moment of loose were replicated by archers of similar levels of skill. These results are interpreted to suggest that precise postural consistency may not be the primary feature distinguishing between the performance of archers at the higher skill levels.

  11. Work Skills for Prevocational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaggs, Donald Ray

    A prevocational work skills training program for moderately retarded students emphasizes the need for developmentally appropriate tasks, concern for increasing students' attention span, orderly arrangement within tasks, and increased proficiency after training. Major units in the program focus on concepts of similarity and difference, large and…

  12. Working for Skills. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibby, Elizabeth; Jones, Andy; Marsland, Phil

    A project aimed to use United Kingdom full-time undergraduate student work experience as the vehicle for development of the students' skills to improve their subsequent employability upon graduation. It took an employer-led approach to develop a model transferable to other employers and higher education (HE) institutions. Arrangements were made…

  13. Retention of Motor Skills: Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, J. D.; And Others

    A summary of an extensive literature survey deals with the variables known or suspected to affect the retention of learned motor behaviors over lengthy no-practice intervals. Emphasis was given to research conducted by or for the military. The variables that may affect the retention of motor skills were dichotomized into task variables and…

  14. Entrepreneurship Education: Applying the Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield. Div. of Adult Vocational and Technical Education.

    Designed for use with the level 1 curriculum guide (Entrepreneurship Education: Learning the Skills), this level 2 (volume 2) guide focuses on planning and completing student projects. The first of three major sections is designed to familiarize students with how projects are completed. The second section, Resources for Planning and Completing…

  15. Assessing a Political Skills Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Robert M.

    This paper describes and evaluates a political skills course for college students. Course objectives include teaching students to do the following: organize and run a meeting; bargain effectively; communicate within and between groups; manage a crisis; organize a political coalition; be aware of personal stress and some of the ways to reduce it;…

  16. Key Skills Influencing Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Tonya; Gruenert, Steve

    2009-01-01

    A predictive, non-experimental, cross-sectional design (Johnson, 2001) was used to conduct a study to determine if elementary administrators' key counseling skills and select demographics predicted state-level student performance indicators in their respective schools. A secondary purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable on-line…

  17. Managers' skill set for decentralization.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    In order for decentralization to work, central- and field-level managers must have complementary roles and skills. Managers at both levels must master skills in the key management areas which will be most affected by decentralization. This paper summarizes the major skills which family planning managers at the central and local levels must have in a decentralized setting in the areas of program planning and implementation, financial planning/management, staffing, staff supervision, logistics and vehicles management, quality of care and service standards, MIS/reporting and program monitoring, and program evaluation. Selected comments from the International Review Board of The Family Planning Manager are presented on each topic. When decentralization occurs, local staff may find themselves overburdened with their new management responsibilities while they are still expected to carry out their regular work. Transforming doctors, nurses, and administrative staff into managers is a slow process. The process can, however, be made easier by carefully analyzing their new roles and responsibilities and the corresponding skills they need to perform their jobs, and providing them with the appropriate training.

  18. Simulations Helping Novices Hone Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Real-time classroom simulations like TeachME, a University of Central Florida project, offer promise for a host of teacher-training applications. Through them, candidates could learn to work with different groups of students, or practice a discrete skill such as classroom management. Most of all, such simulations give teachers in training the…

  19. Work Skills for Prevocational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaggs, Donald Ray

    A prevocational work skills training program for moderately retarded students emphasizes the need for developmentally appropriate tasks, concern for increasing students' attention span, orderly arrangement within tasks, and increased proficiency after training. Major units in the program focus on concepts of similarity and difference, large and…

  20. Language Skills and Economic Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrouste, Christelle

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the contributions from the emerging positivist epistemological approach, endorsed by the economics of language and the economics of education, to study the returns to language skills, assuming that language competencies constitute key components of human capital. It presents initial results from a study on economic returns…

  1. Critical Thinking: Schemata vs. Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Allan R.

    1989-01-01

    Refutes the idea that critical thinking is not a skill by analyzing it from the phenomenological perspective of Edmund Husserl, and from the hermeneutic perspective of Martin Heidegger. Develops the thesis that critical thinking is a restructuring of schemata. Addresses the problem of attention or student engagement. (LS)

  2. Teaching Technical Skills through Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullion, Laurie

    The value of light-hearted play in teaching technical recreational sport skills is immense. Children as well as adults can learn more quickly and completely with a games-oriented approach. Often without realizing the hidden goal of excellent skiing or paddling, participants respond to intriguing tasks in a game, immerse themselves in good…

  3. Parenting Skills through Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, Judith; And Others

    This report describes a project that developed and implemented a curriculum to teach young parents parenting skills through themes presented in children's literature. Parenting/child development issues were researched, comparable children's literature was located, and short brochures were written to accompany each lesson. The program was delivered…

  4. Skilled Finger Movements in Typing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentner, Donald R.

    Six skilled typists were studied while they transcribed English text. The typists showed stable patterns of performance, but with significant individual differences among themselves. Inter-keypress latencies for two-finger digraphs (typed by two fingers on the same hand) were particularly variable among typists. Two typists showed large…

  5. Assessing Business Student Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    The development of student thinking skills is a major goal of business education. As with other such goals, student outcomes assessment must be undertaken to measure goal achievement. Thinking is difficult to teach; it is also difficult to assess. The purpose of this article is to improve management educators' understanding of student thinking…

  6. Social Skill Development through Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Zachary M.; Hunt, Jessica H.

    2011-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Education, 90% of the future jobs in the United States will require a college degree, and many of these jobs will be in the service industry (Spellings 2006). Service jobs that require people skills may be more difficult for adults with disabilities. Although many students with disabilities included in general…

  7. Whole Life Living Skills Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Alice R.; And Others

    This manual provides ideas to enable Whole Life Program staff and friends to begin expanding on ways to reach and teach survival skills to adults. A list of suggestions for use of the curriculum activities and process appears first. Activities are provided for 11 curriculum areas: emergency procedures; apartment safety; apartment upkeep; food…

  8. Cognitive Achievements in Identification Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randler, Christoph; Bogner, Franz X.

    2006-01-01

    Species identification tasks are generally accepted as fundamental aspects of biodiversity education. Our educational training unit, therefore, focused on identification skills by introducing stuffed specimens in combination with identification books and preparation booklets. We limited the number of bird species to six. 492 secondary school…

  9. Skills Training Workshop for Supervisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvey, Catherine

    1983-01-01

    A two-day workshop for beginning school system supervisors and consultants was held in Edmonton, Alberta, to heighten awareness of supervisory tasks, develop skills, and stir interest in professional growth. Program goals and topical themes--communication, interpersonal relations, supervisory strategies, and time management--are discussed.…

  10. Musicality: instinct or acquired skill?

    PubMed

    Marcus, Gary F

    2012-10-01

    Is the human tendency toward musicality better thought of as the product of a specific, evolved instinct or an acquired skill? Developmental and evolutionary arguments are considered, along with issues of domain-specificity. The article also considers the question of why humans might be consistently and intensely drawn to music if musicality is not in fact the product of a specifically evolved instinct.

  11. Intervention LSCI Skills for Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Signe; Chambers, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Life Space Crisis Intervention (LSCI) is a set of skills that helps adults turn problem situations into learning opportunities for kids. LSCI views conflicts or stressful incidents as opportunities for learning, growth, insight, and change. This training provides parents with tools for building positive relationships with their children and…

  12. Critical Thinking: Schemata vs. Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandhorst, Allan R.

    1989-01-01

    Refutes the idea that critical thinking is not a skill by analyzing it from the phenomenological perspective of Edmund Husserl, and from the hermeneutic perspective of Martin Heidegger. Develops the thesis that critical thinking is a restructuring of schemata. Addresses the problem of attention or student engagement. (LS)

  13. Technology and the Four Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Most L2 instructors implement their curriculum with an eye to improving the four skills: speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Absent in this vision of language are notions of pragmatic, sociolinguistic, and multicultural competencies. Although current linguistic theories posit a more complex, interactive, and integrated model of language,…

  14. Whole Life Living Skills Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Alice R.; And Others

    This manual provides ideas to enable Whole Life Program staff and friends to begin expanding on ways to reach and teach survival skills to adults. A list of suggestions for use of the curriculum activities and process appears first. Activities are provided for 11 curriculum areas: emergency procedures; apartment safety; apartment upkeep; food…

  15. Task Analyses and Objectives for Trainable Mentally Retarded: Communication Skills [and] Daily Living Skills [and] Motor Skills [and] Quantitative Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn.

    The document is comprised of objectives and information on step-by-step tasks for instruction of trainable mentally retarded students and for development of individualized education programs. Each objective includes information on materials, behavioral criteria, and a chart to assess task analyzed steps. Four main skill areas are covered (sample…

  16. Skills development. Trust in talent.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Stuart

    2006-06-15

    Skills gaps are being identified so staff can be equipped to deliver the services that are needed. National framework competencies provide consistency and make it easier to match roles with candidates. Career frameworks will set out pathways so people know what qualifications are needed for specific roles.

  17. Speaking Skills for the Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katchen, Johanna E.

    The origins, development, and implementation of a course in oral presentation skills in English for graduate students in the sciences and engineering are described. The course was piloted at National Tsing Hua University in Taiwan to train students for presentation of technical papers. Background information is offered on English language…

  18. Library Skills for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jane Bandy

    A field-tested instructional program that successfully taught library location and retrieval skills to second and third graders is described in this report; materials and teaching strategies used in the program are included. The main instructional materials are student worksheets that have a dinosaur theme and numerous primary-type drawings.…

  19. Assessing Students' Technical Skill Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Haley

    2010-01-01

    The Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) is working to comply with the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006 (Perkins) to ensure that its graduates have mastered the technical skills needed by business and industry. The legislation requires that each state identify and approve program assessment strategies…

  20. Theme: Focus on Vocabulary Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jund, Suzanne, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    The eight articles in this journal issue focus on vocabulary skills. The topics covered are semantic feature analysis, the use of highway survival terms in a vocabulary list, making vocabulary interesting to secondary students, word lists, the use of newspapers in creating vocabulary lists, six strategies underlying effective vocabulary programs,…