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Sample records for induction motor control

  1. Induction motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly utilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilizes induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  2. Induction motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  3. Symmetry Based Control of Induction Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monika, M.; Singh, N. M.; Bhil, S. K.

    2008-10-01

    In this paper symmetry based control of induction motor is proposed. The fifth order model of Induction motor is reduced to the base coordinates which is decoupled from the fiber dynamics by using a regular static feedback. This makes the control of Induction motor similar to the control of separately excited D.C. motor. This paper shows that the selection of a particular frame of reference for the two phase equivalent model depends on the control objectives which are to be taken as the base coordinates.

  4. Four quadrant control of induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1991-01-01

    Induction motors are the nation's workhorse, being the motor of choice in most applications due to their simple rugged construction. It has been estimated that 14 to 27 percent of the country's total electricity use could be saved with adjustable speed drives. Until now, induction motors have not been suited well for variable speed or servo-drives, due to the inherent complexity, size, and inefficiency of their variable speed controls. Work at NASA Lewis Research Center on field oriented control of induction motors using pulse population modulation method holds the promise for the desired drive electronics. The system allows for a variable voltage to frequency ratio which enables the user to operate the motor at maximum efficiency, while having independent control of both the speed and torque of an induction motor in all four quadrants of the speed torque map. Multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of machine. The pulse population technique, results to date, and projections for implementation of this existing new motor control technology are discussed.

  5. Field oriented control of induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, Linda M.; Zinger, Don S.; Roth, Mary Ellen

    1990-01-01

    Induction motors have always been known for their simple rugged construction, but until lately were not suitable for variable speed or servo drives due to the inherent complexity of the controls. With the advent of field oriented control (FOC), however, the induction motor has become an attractive option for these types of drive systems. An FOC system which utilizes the pulse population modulation method to synthesize the motor drive frequencies is examined. This system allows for a variable voltage to frequency ratio and enables the user to have independent control of both the speed and torque of an induction motor. A second generation of the control boards were developed and tested with the next point of focus being the minimization of the size and complexity of these controls. Many options were considered with the best approach being the use of a digital signal processor (DSP) due to its inherent ability to quickly evaluate control algorithms. The present test results of the system and the status of the optimization process using a DSP are discussed.

  6. Power factor control system for AC induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A power factor control system for use with ac induction motors was designed which samples lines voltage and current through the motor and decreases power input to the motor proportional to the detected phase displacement between current and voltage. This system provides, less power to the motor, as it is less loaded.

  7. Power factor control system for ac induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A power control circuit for an induction motor is disclosed in which a servo loop is used to control power input by controlling the power factor of motor operation. The power factor is measured by summing the voltage and current derived square wave signals.

  8. Motor power control circuit for ac induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A motor power control of the type which functions by controlling the power factor wherein one of the parameters of power factor current on time is determined by the on time of a triac through which current is supplied to the motor. By means of a positive feedback circuit, a wider range of control is effected.

  9. Control system for an induction motor with energy recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A control circuit for an induction motor powered system is disclosed in which a power factor controlled servo loop is used to control, via the phase angle of firing of a triac, the power input to the motor, as a function of load placed on the motor by machinery of the powered system. Then, upon application of torque by this machinery to the motor, which tends to overspeed the motor, the firing angle of the triac is automatically set to a fixed, and relatively short, firing angle.

  10. Field-Oriented Control Of Induction Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, Linda M.; Roth, Mary Ellen; Zinger, Don S.

    1993-01-01

    Field-oriented control system provides for feedback control of torque or speed or both. Developed for use with commercial three-phase, 400-Hz, 208-V, 5-hp motor. Systems include resonant power supply operating at 20 kHz. Pulse-population-modulation subsystem selects individual pulses of 20-kHz single-phase waveform as needed to synthesize three waveforms of appropriate lower frequency applied to three phase windings of motor. Electric actuation systems using technology currently being built to peak powers of 70 kW. Amplitude of voltage of effective machine-frequency waveform determined by momentary frequency of pulses, while machine frequency determined by rate of repetition of overall temporal pattern of pulses. System enables independent control of both voltage and frequency.

  11. Implementation of a new fuzzy vector control of induction motor.

    PubMed

    Rafa, Souad; Larabi, Abdelkader; Barazane, Linda; Manceur, Malik; Essounbouli, Najib; Hamzaoui, Abdelaziz

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a new approach to control an induction motor using type-1 fuzzy logic. The induction motor has a nonlinear model, uncertain and strongly coupled. The vector control technique, which is based on the inverse model of the induction motors, solves the coupling problem. Unfortunately, in practice this is not checked because of model uncertainties. Indeed, the presence of the uncertainties led us to use human expertise such as the fuzzy logic techniques. In order to maintain the decoupling and to overcome the problem of the sensitivity to the parametric variations, the field-oriented control is replaced by a new block control. The simulation results show that the both control schemes provide in their basic configuration, comparable performances regarding the decoupling. However, the fuzzy vector control provides the insensitivity to the parametric variations compared to the classical one. The fuzzy vector control scheme is successfully implemented in real-time using a digital signal processor board dSPACE 1104. The efficiency of this technique is verified as well as experimentally at different dynamic operating conditions such as sudden loads change, parameter variations, speed changes, etc. The fuzzy vector control is found to be a best control for application in an induction motor.

  12. Fault tolerant vector control of induction motor drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odnokopylov, G.; Bragin, A.

    2014-10-01

    For electric composed of technical objects hazardous industries, such as nuclear, military, chemical, etc. an urgent task is to increase their resiliency and survivability. The construction principle of vector control system fault-tolerant asynchronous electric. Displaying recovery efficiency three-phase induction motor drive in emergency mode using two-phase vector control system. The process of formation of a simulation model of the asynchronous electric unbalance in emergency mode. When modeling used coordinate transformation, providing emergency operation electric unbalance work. The results of modeling transient phase loss motor stator. During a power failure phase induction motor cannot save circular rotating field in the air gap of the motor and ensure the restoration of its efficiency at rated torque and speed.

  13. Induction motor control system with voltage controlled oscillator circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.; Currie, J. R.; Reid, H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A voltage controlled oscillator circuit is reported in which there are employed first and second differential amplifiers. The first differential amplifier, being employed as an integrator, develops equal and opposite slopes proportional to an input voltage, and the second differential amplifier functions as a comparator to detect equal amplitude positive and negative selected limits and provides switching signals which gate a transistor switch. The integrating differential amplifier is switched between charging and discharging modes to provide an output of the first differential amplifier which upon the application of wave shaping provides a substantially sinusoidal output signal. A two phased version with a second integrator provides a second 90 deg phase shifted output for induction motor control.

  14. Energy-saving technology of vector controlled induction motor based on the adaptive neuro-controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, E.; Kovalev, I. V.; Karandeev, D.

    2015-10-01

    The ongoing evolution of the power system towards a Smart Grid implies an important role of intelligent technologies, but poses strict requirements on their control schemes to preserve stability and controllability. This paper presents the adaptive neuro-controller for the vector control of induction motor within Smart Gird. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed energy-saving technology of vector controlled induction motor based on adaptive neuro-controller are verified by simulation results at different operating conditions over a wide speed range of induction motor.

  15. Neural and Fuzzy Adaptive Control of Induction Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensalem, Y.; Sbita, L.; Abdelkrim, M. N.

    2008-06-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive neural network speed control scheme for an induction motor (IM) drive. The proposed scheme consists of an adaptive neural network identifier (ANNI) and an adaptive neural network controller (ANNC). For learning the quoted neural networks, a back propagation algorithm was used to automatically adjust the weights of the ANNI and ANNC in order to minimize the performance functions. Here, the ANNI can quickly estimate the plant parameters and the ANNC is used to provide on-line identification of the command and to produce a control force, such that the motor speed can accurately track the reference command. By combining artificial neural network techniques with fuzzy logic concept, a neural and fuzzy adaptive control scheme is developed. Fuzzy logic was used for the adaptation of the neural controller to improve the robustness of the generated command. The developed method is robust to load torque disturbance and the speed target variations when it ensures precise trajectory tracking with the prescribed dynamics. The algorithm was verified by simulation and the results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the IM designed controller.

  16. Neural and Fuzzy Adaptive Control of Induction Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect

    Bensalem, Y.; Sbita, L.; Abdelkrim, M. N.

    2008-06-12

    This paper proposes an adaptive neural network speed control scheme for an induction motor (IM) drive. The proposed scheme consists of an adaptive neural network identifier (ANNI) and an adaptive neural network controller (ANNC). For learning the quoted neural networks, a back propagation algorithm was used to automatically adjust the weights of the ANNI and ANNC in order to minimize the performance functions. Here, the ANNI can quickly estimate the plant parameters and the ANNC is used to provide on-line identification of the command and to produce a control force, such that the motor speed can accurately track the reference command. By combining artificial neural network techniques with fuzzy logic concept, a neural and fuzzy adaptive control scheme is developed. Fuzzy logic was used for the adaptation of the neural controller to improve the robustness of the generated command. The developed method is robust to load torque disturbance and the speed target variations when it ensures precise trajectory tracking with the prescribed dynamics. The algorithm was verified by simulation and the results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the IM designed controller.

  17. Forward and reverse control system for induction motors

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.T.

    1987-09-15

    A control system for controlling the direction of rotation of a rotor of an induction motor includes an array of five triacs with one of the triacs applying a current of fixed phase to the windings of the rotor and four of the triacs being switchable to apply either hot ac current or return ac current to the stator windings so as to reverse the phase of current in the stator relative to that of the rotor and thereby reverse the direction of rotation of the rotor. Switching current phase in the stator is accomplished by operating the gates of pairs of the triacs so as to connect either hot ac current or return ac current to the input winding of the stator. 1 fig.

  18. Variable-frequency inverter controls torque, speed, and braking in ac induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    Dc to ac inverter provides optimum frequency and voltage to ac induction motor, in response to different motor-load and speed requirements. Inverter varies slip frequency of motor in proportion to required torque. Inverter protects motor from high current surges, controls negative slip to apply braking, and returns energy stored in momentum of load to dc power source.

  19. EFFICIENCY OPTIMIZATIN CONTROL OF AC INDUCTION MOTORS: INITIAL LABORATORY RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of a fuzzy logic, energy-optimizing controller to improve the efficiency of motor/drive combinations that operate at varying loads and speeds. This energy optimizer is complemented by a sensorless speed controller that maintains motor shaft re...

  20. Variable frequency inverter for ac induction motors with torque, speed and braking control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A variable frequency inverter was designed for driving an ac induction motor which varies the frequency and voltage to the motor windings in response to varying torque requirements for the motor so that the applied voltage amplitude and frequency are of optimal value for any motor load and speed requirement. The slip frequency of the motor is caused to vary proportionally to the torque and feedback is provided so that the most efficient operating voltage is applied to the motor. Winding current surge is limited and a controlled negative slip causes motor braking and return of load energy to a dc power source.

  1. Adaptive speed/position control of induction motor based on SPR approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hou-Tsan

    2014-11-01

    A sensorless speed/position tracking control scheme for induction motors is proposed subject to unknown load torque via adaptive strictly positive real (SPR) approach design. A special nonlinear coordinate transform is first provided to reform the dynamical model of the induction motor. The information on rotor fluxes can thus be derived from the dynamical model to decide on the proportion of input voltage in the d-q frame under the constraint of the maximum power transfer property of induction motors. Based on the SPR approach, the speed and position control objectives can be achieved. The proposed control scheme is to provide the speed/position control of induction motors while lacking the knowledge of some mechanical system parameters, such as the motor inertia, motor damping coefficient, and the unknown payload. The adaptive control technique is thus involved in the field oriented control scheme to deal with the unknown parameters. The thorough proof is derived to guarantee the stability of the speed and position of control systems of induction motors. Besides, numerical simulation and experimental results are also provided to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  2. Torque Ripple Reduction in Direct Torque Control Based Induction Motor using Intelligent Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar, Ambarapu; Vijaya Kumar, M.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents intelligent control scheme together with conventional control scheme to overcome the problems with uncertainties in the structure encountered with classical model based design of induction motor drive based on direct torque control (DTC). It allows high dynamic performance to be obtained with very simple hysteresis control scheme. Direct control of the torque and flux is achieved by proper selection of inverter voltage space vector through a lookup table. This paper also presents the application of intelligent controllers like neural network and fuzzy logic controllers to control induction machines with DTC. Intelligent controllers are used to emulate the state selector of the DTC. With implementation of intelligent controllers the system is also verified and proved to be operated stably with reduced torque ripple. The proposed method validity and effectiveness has been verified by computer simulations using Matlab/Simulink®. These results are compared with the ones obtained with a classical DTC using proportional integral speed controller.

  3. Research on Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor Based on TMS320LF2407A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lufei, Xu; Guangqun, Nan

    The direct torque control of Induction Motor is one of the high performance control system, which was proposed after the vector control scheme. During the recent 20 years, It has been developed rapidly for its concise system scheme, excellent dynamic and static performances. DTC system directly controls the electromagnetic torque and stator flux, using the analyzing method of space vector and stator flux orientation. This paper establishes the mathematical model of direct torque control (DTC) system of induction motor, and direct torque control (DTC) scheme of induction motor based on TMS320LF2407A is introduced. The control scheme gets the switch control signal of inverter with the space voltage vector modulation technology. Finally the approach has been implemented on DSP in a 1.1 kW drive. The results show that the DTC with SVPWM has many merits such as simple realization, good running performance and high voltage utilization ratio.

  4. Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controllers for Rotor Flux Oriented Control of Induction Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahi, Rohollah; Farhangi, Reza; Yarahmadi, Ali

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents design and evaluation of a novel approach based on emotional learning to improve the speed control system of rotor flux oriented control of induction motor. The controller includes a neuro-fuzzy system with speed error and its derivative as inputs. A fuzzy critic evaluates the present situation, and provides the emotional signal (stress). The controller modifies its characteristics so that the critics stress is reduced. The comparative simulation results show that the proposed controller is more robust and hence found to be a suitable replacement of the conventional PI controller for the high performance industrial drive applications.

  5. Internal Model Controller of an ANN Speed Sensorless Controlled Induction Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamed Mouna, Ben; Lassaad, Sbita

    This study deals with the performance analysis and implementation of a robust sensorless speed controller. The robustness is guaranteed by the use of the Internal Model Controller (IMC). An intelligent algorithm is evolved to eliminate the mechanical speed. It is based on the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) principle. Verification of the proposed robust sensorless controller is provided by experimental realistic tests on a scalar controlled induction motor drive. Sensorless robust speed control at low speeds and in field weakening region (high speeds) is studied in order to show the robustness of the speed controller under a wide range of load.

  6. Flux-Based Deadbeat Control of Induction-Motor Torque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Lorenz, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    An improved method and prior methods of deadbeat direct torque control involve the use of pulse-width modulation (PWM) of applied voltages. The prior methods are based on the use of stator flux and stator current as state variables, leading to mathematical solutions of control equations in forms that do not lend themselves to clear visualization of solution spaces. In contrast, the use of rotor and stator fluxes as the state variables in the present improved method lends itself to graphical representations that aid in understanding possible solutions under various operating conditions. In addition, the present improved method incorporates the superposition of high-frequency carrier signals for use in a motor-self-sensing technique for estimating the rotor shaft angle at any speed (including low or even zero speed) without need for additional shaft-angle-measuring sensors.

  7. Variable-Speed Induction Motor Drives for Aircraft Environmental Control Compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildice, J. W.; Hansen, I. G.; Schreiner, K. E.; Roth, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    New, more-efficient designs for aircraft jet engines are not capable of supplying the large quantities of bleed air necessary to provide pressurization and air conditioning for the environmental control systems (ECS) of the next generation of large passenger aircraft. System analysis and engineering have determined that electrically-driven ECS can help to maintain the improved fuel efficiencies; and electronic controllers and induction motors are now being developed in a NASA/NPD SBIR Program to drive both types of ECS compressors. Previous variable-speed induction motor/controller system developments and publications have primarily focused on field-oriented control, with large transient reserve power, for maximum acceleration and optimum response in actuator and robotics systems. The application area addressed herein is characterized by slowly-changing inputs and outputs, small reserve power capability for acceleration, and optimization for maximum efficiency. This paper therefore focuses on the differences between this case and the optimum response case, and shows the development of this new motor/controller approach. It starts with the creation of a new set of controller requirements. In response to those requirements, new control algorithms are being developed and implemented in an embedded computer, which is integrated into the motor controller closed loop. Buffered logic outputs are used to drive the power switches in a resonant-technology, power processor/motor-controller, at switching/resonant frequencies high enough to support efficient high-frequency induction motor operation at speeds up to 50,000-RPA

  8. Neural-network-based speed controller for induction motors using inverse dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Hassanein S.; Mohamed, Kamel

    2016-08-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are excellent tools for controller design. ANNs have many advantages compared to traditional control methods. These advantages include simple architecture, training and generalization and distortion insensitivity to nonlinear approximations and nonexact input data. Induction motors have many excellent features, such as simple and rugged construction, high reliability, high robustness, low cost, minimum maintenance, high efficiency, and good self-starting capabilities. In this paper, we propose a neural-network-based inverse model for speed controllers for induction motors. Simulation results show that the ANNs have a high tracing capability.

  9. Fuzzy Logic Controlled Solar Module for Driving Three- Phase Induction Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afiqah Zainal, Nurul; Sooi Tat, Chan; Ajisman

    2016-02-01

    Renewable energy produced by solar module gives advantages for generated three- phase induction motor in remote area. But, solar module's ou tput is uncertain and complex. Fuzzy logic controller is one of controllers that can handle non-linear system and maximum power of solar module. Fuzzy logic controller used for Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique to control Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) for switching power electronics circuit. DC-DC boost converter used to boost up photovoltaic voltage to desired output and supply voltage source inverter which controlled by three-phase PWM generated by microcontroller. IGBT switched Voltage source inverter (VSI) produced alternating current (AC) voltage from direct current (DC) source to control speed of three-phase induction motor from boost converter output. Results showed that, the output power of solar module is optimized and controlled by using fuzzy logic controller. Besides that, the three-phase induction motor can be drive and control using VSI switching by the PWM signal generated by the fuzzy logic controller. This concluded that the non-linear system can be controlled and used in driving three-phase induction motor.

  10. Sensor and Sensorless Fault Tolerant Control for Induction Motors Using a Wavelet Index

    PubMed Central

    Gaeid, Khalaf Salloum; Ping, Hew Wooi; Khalid, Mustafa; Masaoud, Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) systems are crucial in industry to ensure safe and reliable operation, especially of motor drives. This paper proposes the use of multiple controllers for a FTC system of an induction motor drive, selected based on a switching mechanism. The system switches between sensor vector control, sensorless vector control, closed-loop voltage by frequency (V/f) control and open loop V/f control. Vector control offers high performance, while V/f is a simple, low cost strategy with high speed and satisfactory performance. The faults dealt with are speed sensor failures, stator winding open circuits, shorts and minimum voltage faults. In the event of compound faults, a protection unit halts motor operation. The faults are detected using a wavelet index. For the sensorless vector control, a novel Boosted Model Reference Adaptive System (BMRAS) to estimate the motor speed is presented, which reduces tuning time. Both simulation results and experimental results with an induction motor drive show the scheme to be a fast and effective one for fault detection, while the control methods transition smoothly and ensure the effectiveness of the FTC system. The system is also shown to be flexible, reverting rapidly back to the dominant controller if the motor returns to a healthy state. PMID:22666016

  11. The induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redinz, José Arnaldo

    2015-09-01

    We obtain analytical expressions for the torques and angular speed of an induction motor with a simple geometry, resembling the geometry of the first induction motor investigated by Arago in 1824. The rotor is a conducting disc rotating between the magnetic poles of two off-axis solenoids, displaced in space by 90^\\circ from each other. We apply our results to discuss a theory for the ubiquitous electromechanical watt-hour meter. For comparison of the theoretical result for the angular speed with measurements, we propose a simple experiment in which an induction motor with an aluminum disc rotor is constructed.

  12. Evaluation of induction motor performance using an electronic power factor controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The concept of reducing the losses in an induction motor by electronically controlling the time interval between the zero crossing of the applied voltage and the zero crossing of the armature current was evaluated. The effect on power losses and power factor of reducing the applied sinusoidal voltages below the rated value was investigated experimentally. The reduction in power losses was measured using an electronic controller designed and built at MSFC. Modifications to the MSFC controller are described as well as a manually controlled electronic device which does not require that the motor be wye connected and the neutral available. Possible energy savings are examined.

  13. Method and apparatus for pulse width modulation control of an AC induction motor

    DOEpatents

    Geppert, Steven; Slicker, James M.

    1984-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a micro-processor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .THETA., where .THETA. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands of electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a "flyback" DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  14. Method and apparatus for pulse width modulation control of an AC induction motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geppert, Steven (Inventor); Slicker, James M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a micro-processor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .THETA., where .THETA. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands of electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a flyback DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  15. Adaptive control schemes for improving dynamic performance of efficiency-optimized induction motor drives.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Navneet; Raj Chelliah, Thanga; Srivastava, S P

    2015-07-01

    Model Based Control (MBC) is one of the energy optimal controllers used in vector-controlled Induction Motor (IM) for controlling the excitation of motor in accordance with torque and speed. MBC offers energy conservation especially at part-load operation, but it creates ripples in torque and speed during load transition, leading to poor dynamic performance of the drive. This study investigates the opportunity for improving dynamic performance of a three-phase IM operating with MBC and proposes three control schemes: (i) MBC with a low pass filter (ii) torque producing current (iqs) injection in the output of speed controller (iii) Variable Structure Speed Controller (VSSC). The pre and post operation of MBC during load transition is also analyzed. The dynamic performance of a 1-hp, three-phase squirrel-cage IM with mine-hoist load diagram is tested. Test results are provided for the conventional field-oriented (constant flux) control and MBC (adjustable excitation) with proposed schemes. The effectiveness of proposed schemes is also illustrated for parametric variations. The test results and subsequent analysis confer that the motor dynamics improves significantly with all three proposed schemes in terms of overshoot/undershoot peak amplitude of torque and DC link power in addition to energy saving during load transitions. PMID:25820090

  16. Implementation of damped-oscillation crane control for existing ac induction motor-driven cranes

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, M.W.; Kress, R.L.; Appleton, G.T.

    1993-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has implemented damped-oscillation crane control on one of its existing ac induction motor-driven facility overhead cranes. The purpose of this engineering grade test has been to determine feasibility, determine control and interfacing specifications, and establish the capability of newly available ac motor-control hardware. A flux vector inverter drive is used in the initial demonstration to investigate acceptability for swing-free crane control. Motor performance and restrictions are also examined. Control hardware design is based upon the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) standards. This includes the use of the VME bus and Motorola 680X0-based CPU boards for the hardware and UNIX and VxWorks for the software. However, smaller, cheaper, and more simple embedded controller design constraints are also considered in order to make the technology more attractive for general industrial use. Theoretical background, specific implementation, and recommendations are presented in this paper.

  17. Implementation of damped-oscillation crane control for existing ac induction motor-driven cranes

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, M.W.; Kress, R.L. ); Appleton, G.T. . School of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has implemented damped-oscillation crane control on one of its existing ac induction motor-driven facility overhead cranes. The purpose of this engineering grade test has been to determine feasibility, determine control and interfacing specifications, and establish the capability of newly available ac motor-control hardware. A flux vector inverter drive is used in the initial demonstration to investigate acceptability for swing-free crane control. Motor performance and restrictions are also examined. Control hardware design is based upon the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER WM) Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) standards. This includes the use of the VME bus and Motorola 680X0-based CPU boards for the hardware and UNIX and VxWorks for the software. However, smaller, cheaper, and more simple embedded controller design constraints are also considered in order to make the technology more attractive for general industrial use. Theoretical background, specific implementation, and recommendations are presented in this paper.

  18. Temperature and Light Control of Three phase Induction Motor Speed Drive by PIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoum, Nader

    2010-06-01

    PIC is a family of Harvard architecture microcontrollers made by Microchip Technology, derived from the PIC1640 originally developed by General Instrument's Microelectronics Division. The name PIC initially referred to "Peripheral Interface Controller". PICs are popular with the developers and the hobbyists due to their low cost, wide availability, large user base, extensive collection of application notes, free development tools, and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability. In modern days, PIC microcontrollers are used in the industrial world to control many types of equipment, ranging from consumer to specialized devices. They have replaced older types of controllers, including microprocessors. Also, there is a growing need for off-line support of a computer's main processor. The demand is going to grow with more equipment uses more intelligence. In the engineering field for instance, PIC has brought a very positive impact in designing an automation control system and controlling industrial machineries. Accordingly, this paper shows the change in the motor speed by the use of PIC in accordance to the light and level of temperature. The project focuses on programming the PIC by embedded software that detects the temperature and light signals and send it to 3 phase induction motor of 240 volt. A theoretical analysis and the practical approach in achieving this work goal have proved that PIC plays an important role in the field of electronics control.

  19. Online Monitoring of Induction Motors

    SciTech Connect

    McJunkin, Timothy R.; Agarwal, Vivek; Lybeck, Nancy Jean

    2016-01-01

    The online monitoring of active components project, under the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Technologies Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, researched diagnostic and prognostic models for alternating current induction motors (IM). Idaho National Laboratory (INL) worked with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to augment and revise the fault signatures previously implemented in the Asset Fault Signature Database of EPRI’s Fleet Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW PHM) Suite software. Induction Motor diagnostic models were researched using the experimental data collected by Idaho State University. Prognostic models were explored in the set of literature and through a limited experiment with 40HP to seek the Remaining Useful Life Database of the FW PHM Suite.

  20. Gravitational search algorithm based tuning of a PI speed controller for an induction motor drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Ali, Jamal; Hannan, M. A.; Mohamed, Azah

    2016-03-01

    Proportional-integral (PI)-controller is very useful for controlling speed and mechanical load variables for the three-phase induction motor (TIM) operation. However, the conventional PI-controller has a very exhaustive trial and error procedure for obtaining it is parameters. In this paper, PI speed controller has been improved in it is design technique to suite TIM by utilizing a gravitational search algorithm (GSA) optimization technique. The mean absolute error (MAE) of the speed response has been used as an objective function. An optimal GSA based PI speed controller (GSA-PI) objective function is also employed to tune and minimize the MAE for developing the performance of the TIM in terms of changes speed and mechanical load. This experiment use space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) technique to create pulse width modulation for switching devices for three phase bridge inverter. Results obtained from the GSA-PI speed controller are compared with those obtained through particle swarm optimization (PSO) to validate the developed controller. Then it has been proved that the robustness of the GSA-PI speed controller is far better than that of the1 PSO controller in all tested cases in terms of damping capability and transient response under different mechanical loads and speeds.

  1. An improved fault-tolerant control scheme for PWM inverter-fed induction motor-based EVs.

    PubMed

    Tabbache, Bekheïra; Benbouzid, Mohamed; Kheloui, Abdelaziz; Bourgeot, Jean-Matthieu; Mamoune, Abdeslam

    2013-11-01

    This paper proposes an improved fault-tolerant control scheme for PWM inverter-fed induction motor-based electric vehicles. The proposed strategy deals with power switch (IGBTs) failures mitigation within a reconfigurable induction motor control. To increase the vehicle powertrain reliability regarding IGBT open-circuit failures, 4-wire and 4-leg PWM inverter topologies are investigated and their performances discussed in a vehicle context. The proposed fault-tolerant topologies require only minimum hardware modifications to the conventional off-the-shelf six-switch three-phase drive, mitigating the IGBTs failures by specific inverter control. Indeed, the two topologies exploit the induction motor neutral accessibility for fault-tolerant purposes. The 4-wire topology uses then classical hysteresis controllers to account for the IGBT failures. The 4-leg topology, meanwhile, uses a specific 3D space vector PWM to handle vehicle requirements in terms of size (DC bus capacitors) and cost (IGBTs number). Experiments on an induction motor drive and simulations on an electric vehicle are carried-out using a European urban driving cycle to show that the proposed fault-tolerant control approach is effective and provides a simple configuration with high performance in terms of speed and torque responses. PMID:23916869

  2. An adaptive supervisory sliding fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller for sensorless vector-controlled induction motor drive systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shun-Yuan; Tseng, Chwan-Lu; Lin, Shou-Chuang; Chiu, Chun-Jung; Chou, Jen-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an adaptive supervisory sliding fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller (FCMAC) in the speed sensorless vector control of an induction motor (IM) drive system. The proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC comprised a supervisory controller, integral sliding surface, and an adaptive FCMAC. The integral sliding surface was employed to eliminate steady-state errors and enhance the responsiveness of the system. The adaptive FCMAC incorporated an FCMAC with a compensating controller to perform a desired control action. The proposed controller was derived using the Lyapunov approach, which guarantees learning-error convergence. The implementation of three intelligent control schemes--the adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC, adaptive sliding FCMAC, and adaptive sliding CMAC--were experimentally investigated under various conditions in a realistic sensorless vector-controlled IM drive system. The root mean square error (RMSE) was used as a performance index to evaluate the experimental results of each control scheme. The analysis results indicated that the proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC substantially improved the system performance compared with the other control schemes. PMID:25815450

  3. An Adaptive Supervisory Sliding Fuzzy Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller for Sensorless Vector-Controlled Induction Motor Drive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shun-Yuan; Tseng, Chwan-Lu; Lin, Shou-Chuang; Chiu, Chun-Jung; Chou, Jen-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an adaptive supervisory sliding fuzzy cerebellar model articulation controller (FCMAC) in the speed sensorless vector control of an induction motor (IM) drive system. The proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC comprised a supervisory controller, integral sliding surface, and an adaptive FCMAC. The integral sliding surface was employed to eliminate steady-state errors and enhance the responsiveness of the system. The adaptive FCMAC incorporated an FCMAC with a compensating controller to perform a desired control action. The proposed controller was derived using the Lyapunov approach, which guarantees learning-error convergence. The implementation of three intelligent control schemes—the adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC, adaptive sliding FCMAC, and adaptive sliding CMAC—were experimentally investigated under various conditions in a realistic sensorless vector-controlled IM drive system. The root mean square error (RMSE) was used as a performance index to evaluate the experimental results of each control scheme. The analysis results indicated that the proposed adaptive supervisory sliding FCMAC substantially improved the system performance compared with the other control schemes. PMID:25815450

  4. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  5. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    DOEpatents

    Cowan, M. Jr.; Marder, B.M.

    1996-09-03

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces. 6 figs.

  6. Sliding-mode control of a six-phase series/parallel connected two induction motors drive.

    PubMed

    Abjadi, Navid R

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, a parallel configuration is proposed for two quasi six-phase induction motors (QIMs) to feed them from a single six-phase voltage source inverter (VSI). A direct torque control (DTC) based on input-output feedback linearization (IOFL) combined with sliding mode (SM) control is used for each QIM in stationary reference frame. In addition, an adaptive scheme is employed to solve the motor resistances mismatching problem. The effectiveness and capability of the proposed method are shown by practical results obtained for two QIMs in series/parallel connections supplied from a single VSI. The decoupling control of QIMs and the feasibility of their torque and flux control are investigated. Moreover, a complete comparison between series and parallel connections of two QIMs is given.

  7. Induction motor speed drive improvement using fuzzy IP-self-tuning controller. A real time implementation.

    PubMed

    Lokriti, Abdesslam; Salhi, Issam; Doubabi, Said; Zidani, Youssef

    2013-05-01

    An IP-self-tuning controller tuned by a fuzzy adjustor, is proposed to improve induction machine speed control. The interest of such controller is the possibility to adjust only one gain, instead of two gains for the case of the PI-self-tuning controllers commonly used in the literature. This paper presents simulation and experimental results. These latter were obtained by practical implementation on a DSPace 1104 board of three different speed controllers (the classical IP, the fuzzy-like-PI and the IP-self-tuning), for a 1.5KW induction machine. The paper presents different tests used to compare the performances of the proposed controller to the two others in terms of computation time, tracking performances and disturbances rejection. PMID:23317661

  8. Design of an advanced non linear controller for induction motors and experimental validation on an industrial benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubineau, D.; Dion, J. M.; Dugard, L.; Roye, D.

    2000-02-01

    This paper mainly deals with the design of an advanced control law for induction motors and its real-time implementation on an experimental test benchmark. First, relationship between the classical field oriented control (FOC) and non linear linearizing control laws is studied. It is shown that both control laws are similar. Classical non linear linearizing control improves the performances but not in a spectacular way when the observer and the controller are designed independently. A new non linear observer based control law is designed, which is shown to be globally stable and is implemented on an experimental test-bench. The control algorithm is studied and applied in many configurations (various set-points, flux and speed profiles and torque disturbances) and is shown to be very efficient.

  9. Sliding mode pulse-width modulation technique for direct torque controlled induction motor drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounadja, M.; Belarbi, A. W.; Belmadani, B.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a novel pulse-width modulation technique based sliding mode approach for direct torque control of an induction machine drive. Methodology begins with a sliding mode control of machine's torque and stator flux to generate the reference voltage vector and to reduce parameters sensitivity. Then, the switching control of the three-phase inverter is developed using sliding mode concept to make the system tracking reference voltage inputs. The main features of the proposed methodologies are the high tracking accuracy and the much easier implementation compared to the space vector modulation. Simulations are carried out to confirm the effectiveness of proposed control algorithms.

  10. DSP-based adaptive backstepping using the tracking errors for high-performance sensorless speed control of induction motor drive.

    PubMed

    Zaafouri, Abderrahmen; Ben Regaya, Chiheb; Ben Azza, Hechmi; Châari, Abdelkader

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a modified structure of the backstepping nonlinear control of the induction motor (IM) fitted with an adaptive backstepping speed observer. The control design is based on the backstepping technique complemented by the introduction of integral tracking errors action to improve its robustness. Unlike other research performed on backstepping control with integral action, the control law developed in this paper does not propose the increase of the number of system state so as not increase the complexity of differential equations resolution. The digital simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed control compared to the conventional PI control. The results analysis shows the characteristic robustness of the adaptive control to disturbances of the load, the speed variation and low speed.

  11. Harmonic reduction of Direct Torque Control of six-phase induction motor.

    PubMed

    Taheri, A

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a new switching method in Direct Torque Control (DTC) of a six-phase induction machine for reduction of current harmonics is introduced. Selecting a suitable vector in each sampling period is an ordinal method in the ST-DTC drive of a six-phase induction machine. The six-phase induction machine has 64 voltage vectors and divided further into four groups. In the proposed DTC method, the suitable voltage vectors are selected from two vector groups. By a suitable selection of two vectors in each sampling period, the harmonic amplitude is decreased more, in and various comparison to that of the ST-DTC drive. The harmonics loss is greater reduced, while the electromechanical energy is decreased with switching loss showing a little increase. Spectrum analysis of the phase current in the standard and new switching table DTC of the six-phase induction machine and determination for the amplitude of each harmonics is proposed in this paper. The proposed method has a less sampling time in comparison to the ordinary method. The Harmonic analyses of the current in the low and high speed shows the performance of the presented method. The simplicity of the proposed method and its implementation without any extra hardware is other advantages of the proposed method. The simulation and experimental results show the preference of the proposed method.

  12. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  13. Electric vehicle motors and controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Improved and advanced components being developed include electronically commutated permanent magnet motors of both drum and disk configuration, an unconventional brush commutated motor, and ac induction motors and various controllers. Test results on developmental motors, controllers, and combinations thereof indicate that efficiencies of 90% and higher for individual components, and 80% to 90% for motor/controller combinations can be obtained at rated power. The simplicity of the developmental motors and the potential for ultimately low cost electronics indicate that one or more of these approaches to electric vehicle propulsion may eventually displace presently used controllers and brush commutated dc motors.

  14. Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Kollmorgen Corporation's Mermaid II two person submersible is propeller-driven by a system of five DC brushless motors with new electronic controllers that originated in work performed in a NASA/DOE project managed by Lewis Research Center. A key feature of the system is electric commutation rather than mechanical commutation for converting AC current to DC.

  15. Fuzzy efficiency optimization of AC induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jani, Yashvant; Sousa, Gilberto; Turner, Wayne; Spiegel, Ron; Chappell, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the early states of work to implement a fuzzy logic controller to optimize the efficiency of AC induction motor/adjustable speed drive (ASD) systems running at less than optimal speed and torque conditions. In this paper, the process by which the membership functions of the controller were tuned is discussed and a controller which operates on frequency as well as voltage is proposed. The membership functions for this dual-variable controller are sketched. Additional topics include an approach for fuzzy logic to motor current control which can be used with vector-controlled drives. Incorporation of a fuzzy controller as an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) microchip is planned.

  16. Induction generator-induction motor wind-powered pumping system

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, M.S.; Lyra, R.O.C.; Silva, S.R.

    1997-12-31

    The energy storage matter plays an important role in wind-electric conversion systems for isolated applications. Having that in mind, two different approaches can be basically considered: either the immediate conversion of the generated electric energy, as in a water pumping system or electric energy storage for later use, as in a battery charging system. Due to some features such as no need of an external reactive power source and, sometimes, a gearbox, permanent-magnet synchronous generators have been broadly used in low rated power isolated systems. Despite that, system performance can be affected when the generator is feeding an inductive load (e.g., an induction motor) under variable-speed-variable-frequency operational conditions. Since there is no effective flux control, motor overload may occur at high wind speeds. Thus, good system performance can be obtained through additional control devices which may increase system cost. Although being rugged and cheap, induction machines always work as a reactive power drain; therefore, they demand an external reactive power source. Considering that, reactive static compensators appear as an attractive alternative to the cost x performance problem. In addition to that, different control strategies can be used so that system performance can be improved.

  17. Experimental implementation of a robust damped-oscillation control algorithm on a full-sized, two-degree-of-freedom, AC induction motor-driven crane

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Noakes, M.W.

    1994-05-01

    When suspended payloads are moved with an overhead crane, pendulum like oscillations are naturally introduced. This presents a problem any time a crane is used, especially when expensive and/or delicate objects are moved, when moving in a cluttered an or hazardous environment, and when objects are to be placed in tight locations. Damped-oscillation control algorithms have been demonstrated over the past several years for laboratory-scale robotic systems on dc motor-driven overhead cranes. Most overhead cranes presently in use in industry are driven by ac induction motors; consequently, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has implemented damped-oscillation crane control on one of its existing facility ac induction motor-driven overhead cranes. The purpose of this test was to determine feasibility, to work out control and interfacing specifications, and to establish the capability of newly available ac motor control hardware with respect to use in damped-oscillation-controlled systems. Flux vector inverter drives are used to investigate their acceptability for damped-oscillation crane control. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experimental implementation of a control algorithm on a full-sized, two-degree-of-freedom, industrial crane; describe the experimental evaluation of the controller including robustness to payload length changes; explain the results of experiments designed to determine the hardware required for implementation of the control algorithms; and to provide a theoretical description of the controller.

  18. Transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peak, S. C.; Plunkett, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a transistorized PWM inverter-induction motor traction drive system. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and development of this inverter is the principal object of this paper. The high-speed induction motor is a design which is optimized for use with an inverter power source. The primary feedback control is a torque angle control with voltage and torque outer loop controls. A current-controlled PWM technique is used to control the motor voltage. The drive has a constant torque output with PWM operation to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output with square wave operation to maximum speed. The drive system was dynamometer tested and the results are presented.

  19. Enhancement in Steady State and Dynamic Performance of Direct Torque Control Induction Motor Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhoopendra; Jain, Shailendra; Dwivedi, Sanjeet

    2013-09-01

    An enhancement in dynamic performance of a traditional DTC drive can be achieved by a robust speed control algorithm while the steady state performance depends upon the switching strategy selected for minimization of torque ripples and an efficient flux control loop. In this paper a new torque ripple reduction technique with a modified look up table incorporating a larger number of synthesized non zero active voltage vectors is utilized to overcome the limitations of the conventionally controlled DTC drive. A fuzzy logic based speed controller and a low pass filter with tunable cutoff frequency for flux estimation is proposed in this paper. The proposed study is investigated through simulation and experimentally validated on a test drive.

  20. Control algorithm for the inverter fed induction motor drive with DC current feedback loop based on principles of the vector control

    SciTech Connect

    Vuckovic, V.; Vukosavic, S. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper brings out a control algorithm for VSI fed induction motor drives based on the converter DC link current feedback. It is shown that the speed and flux can be controlled over the wide speed and load range quite satisfactorily for simpler drives. The base commands of both the inverter voltage and frequency are proportional to the reference speed, but each of them is further modified by the signals derived from the DC current sensor. The algorithm is based on the equations well known from the vector control theory, and is aimed to obtain the constant rotor flux and proportionality between the electrical torque, the slip frequency and the active component of the stator current. In this way, the problems of slip compensation, Ri compensation and correction of U/f characteristics are solved in the same time. Analytical considerations and computer simulations of the proposed control structure are in close agreement with the experimental results measured on a prototype drive.

  1. DTC Based Induction Motor Speed Control Using 10-Sector Methodology for Torque Ripple Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavithra, S.; Dinesh Krishna, A. S.; Shridharan, S.

    2014-09-01

    A direct torque control (DTC) drive allows direct and independent control of flux linkage and electromagnetic torque by the selection of optimum inverter switching modes. It is a simple method of signal processing which gives excellent dynamic performance. Also transformation of coordinates and voltage decoupling are not required. However, the possible discrete inverter switching vectors cannot always generate exact stator voltage required, to obtain the demanded electromagnetic torque and flux linkages. This results in the production of ripples in the torque as well as flux waveforms. In the present paper a torque ripple reduction methodology is proposed. In this method the circular locus of flux phasor is divided into 10 sector as compared to six sector divisions in conventional DTC method. The basic DTC scheme and the 10-sector method are simulated and compared for their performance. An analysis is done with sector increment so that finally the torque ripple varies slightly as the sector is increased.

  2. FORTRAN program for induction motor analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenbacher, G.

    1976-01-01

    A FORTRAN program for induction motor analysis is described. The analysis includes calculations of torque-speed characteristics, efficiency, losses, magnetic flux densities, weights, and various electrical parameters. The program is limited to three-phase Y-connected, squirrel-cage motors. Detailed instructions for using the program are given. The analysis equations are documented, and the sources of the equations are referenced. The appendixes include a FORTRAN symbol list, a complete explanation of input requirements, and a list of error messages.

  3. Bridge Inductance of Induction Motor with Closed Rotor Slots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Makoto; Ishibashi, Fuminori; Suzuki, Takao; Noda, Shinichi

    Closed rotor slots are widely employed in low-power squirrel-cage induction motors with die-cast aluminum cage rotors. Die-cast aluminum cages with closed rotor slots can be manufactured commercially. They help reduce flux pulsation in air gaps, attenuate acoustic noises, and achieve high efficiency. However, it is difficult to calculate bridge inductance of a closed rotor slot accurately because the main flux passes through the bridge and iron saturation can be achieved depending upon the bar current. In this study, bridge inductance was investigated by using a search coil and by FEM analysis and conventional equations. The bridge flux density and the bridge linkage flux were measured by using 4P-0.75kW motor with closed rotor slots, and the bridge inductance was calculated as a function of rotor bar current. The bridge inductance was also analyzed by FEM, and the results were analytically checked by using the calculated conventional equations. From these analyses, it is seen that the measured values of the bridge inductance are in good agreement with the values calculated by FEM and conventional methods. It is verified that the bridge inductance shows a trend similar to that of the μ-H curve of the rotor steel sheet.

  4. INSPECTION MEANS FOR INDUCTION MOTORS

    DOEpatents

    Williams, A.W.

    1959-03-10

    an appartus is descripbe for inspcting electric motors and more expecially an appartus for detecting falty end rings inn suqirrel cage inductio motors while the motor is running. In its broua aspects, the mer would around ce of reference tedtor means also itons in the phase ition of the An electronic circuit for conversion of excess-3 binary coded serial decimal numbers to straight binary coded serial decimal numbers is reported. The converter of the invention in its basic form generally coded pulse words of a type having an algebraic sign digit followed serially by a plurality of decimal digits in order of decreasing significance preceding a y algebraic sign digit followed serially by a plurality of decimal digits in order of decreasing significance. A switching martix is coupled to said input circuit and is internally connected to produce serial straight binary coded pulse groups indicative of the excess-3 coded input. A stepping circuit is coupled to the switching matrix and to a synchronous counter having a plurality of x decimal digit and plurality of y decimal digit indicator terminals. The stepping circuit steps the counter in synchornism with the serial binary pulse group output from the switching matrix to successively produce pulses at corresponding ones of the x and y decimal digit indicator terminals. The combinations of straight binary coded pulse groups and corresponding decimal digit indicator signals so produced comprise a basic output suitable for application to a variety of output apparatus.

  5. Type-2 fuzzy logic control based MRAS speed estimator for speed sensorless direct torque and flux control of an induction motor drive.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Tejavathu; Kumar Panda, Anup; Shiva Kumar, S

    2015-07-01

    In this research study, a model reference adaptive system (MRAS) speed estimator for speed sensorless direct torque and flux control (DTFC) of an induction motor drive (IMD) using two adaptation mechanism schemes are proposed to replace the conventional proportional integral controller (PIC). The first adaptation mechanism scheme is based on Type-1 fuzzy logic controller (T1FLC), which is used to achieve high performance sensorless drive in both transient as well as steady state conditions. However, the Type-1 fuzzy sets are certain and unable to work effectively when higher degree of uncertainties presents in the system which can be caused by sudden change in speed or different load disturbances, process noise etc. Therefore, a new Type-2 fuzzy logic controller (T2FLC) based adaptation mechanism scheme is proposed to better handle the higher degree of uncertainties and improves the performance and also robust to various load torque and sudden change in speed conditions, respectively. The detailed performances of various adaptation mechanism schemes are carried out in a MATLAB/Simulink environment with a speed sensor and speed sensorless modes of operation when an IMD is operating under different operating conditions, such as, no-load, load and sudden change in speed, respectively. To validate the different control approaches, the system also implemented on real-time system and adequate results are reported for its validation.

  6. Dynamical behaviors of a plate activated by an induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tcheutchoua Fossi, D. O.; Woafo, P.

    2010-08-01

    Dynamics and chaotification of a system consisting of an induction motor activating a mobile plate (with variable contents) fixed to a spring are studied. The dynamical model of the device is presented and the electromechanical equations are formulated. The oscillations of the plate are analyzed through variations of the following reliable control parameters: phase voltage supply of the motor, frequency of the external source and mass of the plate. The dynamics of the system near the fundamental resonance region presents jump phenomenon. Mapping of the control parameters planes in terms of types of motion reveals period- n motion, quasi-periodicity and chaos. Anti-control of chaos of the induction motor is also obtained using the field-oriented control associated to the time delay feedback control.

  7. Fine motor control

    MedlinePlus

    ... out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To have fine motor control, children need: Awareness and planning Coordination Muscle ...

  8. Analytical calculation of the RFOC method in single-phase induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannati, M.; Monadi, A.; Idris, N. R. N.; Faudzi, A. A. M.

    2016-05-01

    This study discusses the different techniques for speed control of single-phase induction motor with two asymmetrical main and auxiliary windings based on Rotor Field-Oriented Control (RFOC) method. In the presented methods, transformation matrices are introduced and applied to the equations of single-phase induction motor. It is shown by applying these rotational transformations to the unbalanced equations of single-phase induction motor, equations of single-phase induction motor are transformed into symmetrical equations. These rotational transformations are achieved based from the steady-state equivalent circuit of single-phase induction motor. Finally, a method for RFOC of single-phase induction motor is proposed. Results show the good performance of the proposed method.

  9. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, S.C.; Swansen, J.E.

    1982-07-02

    A stepping motor is microprocessor controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  10. Stepping motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Bourret, Steven C.; Swansen, James E.

    1984-01-01

    A stepping motor is microprocessingly controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  11. Method and apparatus for monitoring the rotating frequency of de-energized induction motors

    DOEpatents

    Mikesell, H.E.; Lucy, E.

    1998-02-03

    The rotational speed of a coasting induction motor is measured by sensing e residual electrical voltages at the power terminals of the motor, thus eliminating the need for conventional tachometer equipment, additional mechanical components or modifications to the induction motor itself. The power terminal voltage signal is detected and transformed into a DC voltage proportional to the frequency of the signal. This DC voltage can be input to the control system of a variable frequency motor controller to regulate the output characteristics thereof relative to the speed of the coasting motor. 6 figs.

  12. Method and apparatus for monitoring the rotating frequency of de-energized induction motors

    DOEpatents

    Mikesell, Harvey E.; Lucy, Eric

    1998-01-01

    The rotational speed of a coasting induction motor is measured by sensing e residual electrical voltages at the power terminals of the motor, thus eliminating the need for conventional tachometer equipment, additional mechanical components or modifications to the induction motor itself. The power terminal voltage signal is detected and transformed into a DC voltage proportional to the frequency of the signal. This DC voltage can be input to the control system of a variable frequency motor controller to regulate the output characteristics thereof relative to the speed of the coasting motor.

  13. Phase and speed synchronization control of four eccentric rotors driven by induction motors in a linear vibratory feeder with unknown time-varying load torques using adaptive sliding mode control algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangxi; Zhang, Xueliang; Chen, Xiaozhe; Wen, Bangchun; Wang, Bo

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, phase and speed synchronization control of four eccentric rotors (ERs) driven by induction motors in a linear vibratory feeder with unknown time-varying load torques is studied. Firstly, the electromechanical coupling model of the linear vibratory feeder is established by associating induction motor's model with the dynamic model of the system, which is a typical under actuated model. According to the characteristics of the linear vibratory feeder, the complex control problem of the under actuated electromechanical coupling model converts to phase and speed synchronization control of four ERs. In order to keep the four ERs operating synchronously with zero phase differences, phase and speed synchronization controllers are designed by employing adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) algorithm via a modified master-slave structure. The stability of the controllers is proved by Lyapunov stability theorem. The proposed controllers are verified by simulation via Matlab/Simulink program and compared with the conventional sliding mode control (SMC) algorithm. The results show the proposed controllers can reject the time-varying load torques effectively and four ERs can operate synchronously with zero phase differences. Moreover, the control performance is better than the conventional SMC algorithm and the chattering phenomenon is attenuated. Furthermore, the effects of reference speed and parametric perturbations are discussed to show the strong robustness of the proposed controllers. Finally, experiments on a simple vibratory test bench are operated by using the proposed controllers and without control, respectively, to validate the effectiveness of the proposed controllers further.

  14. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  15. The right {mu}P simplifies using induction motors to propel electric cars

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.; Berringer, K.

    1994-03-31

    In electric vehicles (EVs), AC induction motors can provide variable speed at low cost. The most common method for controlling induction motors uses a 3-phase AC voltage-source inverter with sine-wave PWM (pulse width modulation). Because the motor`s speed and acceleration depend on amplitude as well as frequency, the inverter must produce sine waves of variable voltage and frequency. The authors describe how a single microcontroller can provide such control functions while generating PWM waveforms in which the modulation is sinusoidal.

  16. ac bidirectional motor controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, K.

    1988-01-01

    Test data are presented and the design of a high-efficiency motor/generator controller at NASA-Lewis for use with the Space Station power system testbed is described. The bidirectional motor driver is a 20 kHz to variable frequency three-phase ac converter that operates from the high-frequency ac bus being designed for the Space Station. A zero-voltage-switching pulse-density-modulation technique is used in the converter to shape the low-frequency output waveform.

  17. Integrated Cooling System for Induction Motor Traction Drives, CARAT Program Phase Two Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Konrad, Charles E.

    2002-12-03

    This Program is directed toward improvements in electric vehicle/hybrid electric vehicle traction systems, and in particular, the development of a low cost, highly efficient, compact traction motor-controller system targeted for high volume automotive use. Because of the complex inter-relationships between the motor and the controller, the combination of motor and controller must be considered as a system in the design and evaluation of overall cost and performance. The induction motor is ideally suited for use as a traction motor because of its basic ruggedness, low cost, and high efficiency. As one can see in Figure 1.1, the induction motor traction drive has been continually evolving through a succession of programs spanning the past fifteen years. VPT marketed an induction motor-based traction drive system, the EV2000, which proved to be a reliable, high performance system that was used in a wide range of vehicles. The EV2000 drives evolved from the Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) and has been used in vehicles ranging in size from 3,000 lb. autos and utility vans, to 32,000 lb. city transit buses. Vehicles powered by the EV2000 induction motor powertrain have accumulated over 2 million miles of service. The EV2000 induction motor system represents 1993 state-of-the-art technology, and evolved from earlier induction motor programs that drove induction motor speeds up to 15,000 rpm to reduce the motor size and cost. It was recognized that the improvements in power density and motor cost sought in the PNGV program could only be achieved through increases in motor speed. Esson’s Rule for motor power clearly states that the power obtainable from a given motor design is the product of motor speed and volume. In order to meet the CARAT Program objectives, the maximum speed goal of the induction motor designed in this Program was increased from 15,000 rpm to 20,000 rpm while maintaining the efficiency and durability demonstrated by lower speed designs done in

  18. Swarm Intelligence Algorithm for Induction Motor Field Efficiency Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakthivel, V. P.; Subramanian, S.

    Determining induction motor field efficiency is imperative in industries for energy conservation and cost savings. The induction motor efficiency is generally tested in a laboratories by certain methods defined in IEEE Standard - 112. But these methods cannot be used for motor efficiency evaluations in the field because it disrupts the production process of the industry. This paper proposes a swarm intelligence algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for efficiency evaluation of in-service induction motor based on a modified induction motor equivalent circuit model. In this model, stray load losses are considered. The proposed efficiency evaluation method combines the PSO and the equivalent circuit method. First, the equivalent circuit parameters are estimated by minimizing the difference between measured and calculated values of stator current and input power of the motor using the PSO algorithm. Based on these parameters, the efficiency of the motor at various load points are evaluated by using the equivalent circuit method. To exemplify the performance of the PSO based efficiency estimation method, a 5 HP motor has been tested, compared with genetic algorithm (GA), torque gauge method, equivalent circuit method, slip method, current method and segregated loss method and found to be superior. Accordingly, the method will be useful for engineers who implement the energy efficiency programs to the electric motor systems in industries.

  19. An Induction Motor Based Wind Turbine Emulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovs, A.; Grigans, L.; Kamolins, E.; Voitkans, J.

    2014-04-01

    The authors present a small-scale wind turbine emulator based on the AC drive system and discuss the methods for power coefficient calculation. In the work, the experimental set-up consisting of an AC induction motor, a frequency converter, a synchronous permanent magnet generator, a DC-DC boost converter and DC load was simulated and tested using real-life equipment. The experimentally obtained wind turbine power and torque diagrams using the emulator are in a good agreement with the theoretical ones. Šajā rakstā parādīta mazas jaudas vēja turbīnas emulatora izveide ar maiņstrāvas piedziņas sistēmu, kā arī analizētas vairākas turbīnas jaudas koeficienta analītiskās aprēķina metodes. Vēja turbīnas emulatora eksperimentālais stends, kas sastāv no asinhronā elektromotora, frekvenču pārveidotāja, sinhronā pastāvīgo magnētu ģeneratora, līdzstrāvas paaugstinošā pārveidotāja un slodzes, tika pārbaudīts gan simulēšanas vidē, gan uz reālām iekārtām. Eksperimentāli iegūtās vēja turbīnas emulatora jaudas un momenta diagrammas ir salīdzinātas ar teorētiskajām.

  20. Efficiency Optimization of Slitted-Core Induction Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yetgin, Asim Gökhan; Turan, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a 3kW squirrel cage induction motor having slits in stator and rotor teeth were examined. The slit depth and width in the 56 different slitted motor models were optimized with Finite Element Method Magnetics (FEMM) software by using Finite Elements Method (FEM). What value the depth and width of optimum slit should be was determined in order to obtain maximum motor efficiency in the new motor models created with the proposed slitted structure, and how the depth and width of slit could affect the performance of motor was demonstrated.

  1. Performance Analysis of Saturated Induction Motors by Virtual Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojaghi, M.; Faiz, J.; Kazemi, M.; Rezaei, M.

    2012-01-01

    Many undergraduate-level electrical machines textbooks give detailed treatments of the performance of induction motors. Students can deepen this understanding of motor performance by performing the appropriate practical work in laboratories or in simulation using proper software packages. This paper considers various common and less-common tests…

  2. Soft Computing Application in Fault Detection of Induction Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Konar, P.; Puhan, P. S.; Chattopadhyay, P. Dr.

    2010-10-26

    The paper investigates the effectiveness of different patter classifier like Feed Forward Back Propagation (FFBPN), Radial Basis Function (RBF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for detection of bearing faults in Induction Motor. The steady state motor current with Park's Transformation has been used for discrimination of inner race and outer race bearing defects. The RBF neural network shows very encouraging results for multi-class classification problems and is hoped to set up a base for incipient fault detection of induction motor. SVM is also found to be a very good fault classifier which is highly competitive with RBF.

  3. Unstable force analysis for induction motor eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xu; Palazzolo, Alan

    2016-05-01

    The increasing popularity of motors in machinery trains has led to an intensified interest in the forces they produce that may influence machinery vibration. Motor design typically assumes a uniform air gap, however in practice all motors operate with the rotor slightly displaced from the motor centerline in what is referred to as an eccentric position. Rotor center eccentricity can cause a radially unbalanced magnetic field when the motor is operating. This will results in both a radial force pulling the motor further away from the center, and a tangential force which can induce a vibration stability problem. In this paper, a magnetic equivalent circuit MEC modeling method is proposed to calculate both the radial and tangential motor eccentric force. The treatment of tangential force determination is rarely addressed, but it is very important for rotordynamic vibration stability evaluation. The proposed model is also coupled with the motor electric circuit model to provide capability for transient vibration simulations. FEM is used to verify the MEC model. A parametric study is performed on the motor radial and tangential eccentric forces. Also a Jeffcott rotor model is used to study the influence of the motor eccentric force on mechanical vibration stability and nonlinear behavior. Furthermore, a stability criteria for the bearing damping is provided. The motor radial and tangential eccentric forces are both curved fitted to include their nonlinearity in time domain transient simulation for both a Jeffcott rotor model and a geared machinery train with coupled torsional-lateral motion. Nonlinear motions are observed, including limit cycles and bifurcation induced vibration amplitude jumps.

  4. Speed control for synchronous motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, H.; Schott, J.

    1981-01-01

    Feedback circuit controls fluctuations in speed of synchronous ac motor. Voltage proportional to phase angle is developed by phase detector, rectified, amplified, compared to threshold, and reapplied positively or negatively to motor excitation circuit. Speed control reduces wow and flutter of audio turntables and tape recorders, and enhances hunting in gyroscope motors.

  5. Variable speed induction motor operation from a 20-kHz power bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1989-01-01

    Induction motors are recognized for their simple rugged construction. To date, however, their application to variable speed or servo drives was hampered by limitations on their control. Induction motor drives tend to be complex and to display troublesome low speed characteristics due in part to nonsinusoidal driving voltages. A technique was developed which involves direct synthesis of sinusoidal driving voltages from a high frequency power bus and independent control of frequency and voltages. Separation of frequency and voltage allows independent control of rotor and stator flux, full four quadrant operation, and instantaneous torque control. Recent test results, current status of the technology, and proposed aerospace applications will be discussed.

  6. Variable speed induction motor operation from a 20-kHz power bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1989-01-01

    Induction motors are recognized for their simple rugged construction to date, however, their application to variable speed or servo drives has been hampered by limitations on their control. Induction motor drives tend to be complex and to display troublesome low speed characteristics due in part to nonsinusoidal driving voltages. A technique was developed which involves direct synthesis of sinusoidal driving voltages from a high frequency power bus and independent control of frequency and voltages. Separation offrequency and voltage allows independent control of rotor and stator flux, full four-quadrant operation, and instantaneous torque control. Recent test results, current status of the technology, and proposed aerospace applications will be discussed.

  7. Heritability of motor control and motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Missitzi, Julia; Gentner, Reinhard; Misitzi, Angelica; Geladas, Nickos; Politis, Panagiotis; Klissouras, Vassilis; Classen, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to elucidate the relative contribution of genes and environment on individual differences in motor control and acquisition of a force control task, in view of recent association studies showing that several candidate polymorphisms may have an effect on them. Forty‐four healthy female twins performed brisk isometric abductions with their right thumb. Force was recorded by a transducer and fed back to the subject on a computer screen. The task was to place the tracing of the peak force in a force window defined between 30% and 40% of the subject's maximum force, as determined beforehand. The initial level of proficiency was defined as the number of attempts reaching the force window criterion within the first 100 trials. The difference between the number of successful trials within the last and the first 100 trials was taken as a measure of motor learning. For motor control, defined by the initial level of proficiency, the intrapair differences in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins were 6.8 ± 7.8 and 13.8 ± 8.4, and the intrapair correlations 0.77 and 0.39, respectively. Heritability was estimated at 0.68. Likewise for motor learning intrapair differences in the increment of the number of successful trials in MZ and DZ twins were 5.4 ± 5.2 and 12.8 ± 7, and the intrapair correlations 0.58 and 0.19. Heritability reached 0.70. The present findings suggest that heredity accounts for a major part of existing differences in motor control and motor learning, but uncertainty remains which gene polymorphisms may be responsible. PMID:24744865

  8. Analytical and experimental study of high phase order induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingshirn, Eugene A.

    1989-01-01

    Induction motors having more than three phases were investigated to determine their suitability for electric vehicle applications. The objective was to have a motor with a current rating lower than that of a three-phase motor. The name chosen for these is high phase order (HPO) motors. Motors having six phases and nine phases were given the most attention. It was found that HPO motors are quite suitable for electric vehicles, and for many other applications as well. They have characteristics which are as good as or better than three-phase motors for practically all applications where polyphase induction motors are appropriate. Some of the analysis methods are presented, and several of the equivalent circuits which facilitate the determination of harmonic currents and losses, or currents with unbalanced sources, are included. The sometimes large stator currents due to harmonics in the source voltages are pointed out. Filters which can limit these currents were developed. An analysis and description of these filters is included. Experimental results which confirm and illustrate much of the theory are also included. These include locked rotor test results and full-load performance with an open phase. Also shown are oscillograms which display the reduction in harmonic currents when a filter is used with the experimental motor supplied by a non-sinusoidal source.

  9. Bearing Fault Detection in Induction Motor-Gearbox Drivetrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, Jaroslav; Ebbesen, Morten K.; Robbersmyr, Kjell G.

    2012-05-01

    The main contribution in the hereby presented paper is to investigate the fault detection capability of a motor current signature analysis by expanding its scope to include the gearbox, and not only the induction motor. Detecting bearing faults outside the induction motor through the stator current analysis represents an interesting alternative to traditional vibration analysis. Bearing faults cause changes in the stator current spectrum that can be used for fault diagnosis purposes. A time-domain simulation of the drivetrain model is developed. The drivetrain system consists of a loaded single stage gearbox driven by a line-fed induction motor. Three typical bearing faults in the gearbox are addressed, i.e. defects in the outer raceway, the inner raceway, and the rolling element. The interaction with the fault is modelled by means of kinematical and mechanical relations. The fault region is modelled in order to achieve gradual loss and gain of contact. A bearing fault generates an additional torque component that varies at the specific bearing defect frequency. The presented dynamic electromagnetic dq-model of an induction motor is adjusted for diagnostic purpose and considers such torque variations. The bearing fault is detected as a phase modulation of the stator current sine wave at the expected bearing defect frequency.

  10. Advanced motor and motor control development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuertz, Kenneth L.; Beauchamp, Edward D.

    1988-08-01

    The capability of operating a high speed permanent magnet brushless dc motor with electronic controller over a wide load and speed range was demonstrated. A centrifugal pump was used as the loading mechanism and hydraulic fluid was pumped in simulation of an aircraft engine fuel pump requirement. A motor speed of 45,000 rpm was reached and a maximum output of 68.5 hp was demonstrated. The response of the system to step commands for speed change was established. Reduction of size and weight of electronic control was established as a primary future goal. The program system concept with minor rotating machine improvements is viable for high speed drive applications up to 100-hp level.

  11. Induction motor inter turn fault detection using infrared thermographic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurmeet; Anil Kumar, T. Ch.; Naikan, V. N. A.

    2016-07-01

    Induction motors are the most commonly used prime movers in industries. These are subjected to various environmental, thermal and load stresses that ultimately reduces the motor efficiency and later leads to failure. Inter turn fault is the second most commonly observed faults in the motors and is considered the most severe. It can lead to the failure of complete phase and can even cause accidents, if left undetected or untreated. This paper proposes an online and non invasive technique that uses infrared thermography, in order to detect the presence of inter turn fault in induction motor drive. Two methods have been proposed that detect the fault and estimate its severity. One method uses transient thermal monitoring during the start of motor and other applies pseudo coloring technique on infrared image of the motor, after it reaches a thermal steady state. The designed template for pseudo-coloring is in acquiescence with the InterNational Electrical Testing Association (NETA) thermographic standard. An index is proposed to assess the severity of the fault present in the motor.

  12. Advanced simulation model for IPM motor drive with considering phase voltage and stator inductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Myung; Park, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Ju

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes an advanced simulation model of driving system for Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) BrushLess Direct Current (BLDC) motors driven by 120-degree conduction method (two-phase conduction method, TPCM) that is widely used for sensorless control of BLDC motors. BLDC motors can be classified as SPM (Surface mounted Permanent Magnet) and IPM motors. Simulation model of driving system with SPM motors is simple due to the constant stator inductance regardless of the rotor position. Simulation models of SPM motor driving system have been proposed in many researches. On the other hand, simulation models for IPM driving system by graphic-based simulation tool such as Matlab/Simulink have not been proposed. Simulation study about driving system of IPMs with TPCM is complex because stator inductances of IPM vary with the rotor position, as permanent magnets are embedded in the rotor. To develop sensorless scheme or improve control performance, development of control algorithm through simulation study is essential, and the simulation model that accurately reflects the characteristic of IPM is required. Therefore, this paper presents the advanced simulation model of IPM driving system, which takes into account the unique characteristic of IPM due to the position-dependent inductances. The validity of the proposed simulation model is validated by comparison to experimental and simulation results using IPM with TPCM control scheme.

  13. Demonstration of Lenz's Law with an Induction Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of a conductor with a time-dependent magnetic field is an important topic of electromagnetic theory. A computerized classroom demonstration shows how the eddy currents induced in the rotor of an induction motor cause its rotation or braking. Both phenomena are directly related to Lenz's law.

  14. Close up of backup exciter showing induction motor at left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close up of backup exciter showing induction motor at left and direct current generator at right. View to west - Mystic Lake Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, Along West Rosebud Creek, 1 3/4 miles northeast of Mystic Lake Dam, Fishtail, Stillwater County, MT

  15. Power control for ac motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, R. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A motor controller employing a triac through which power is supplied to a motor is described. The open circuit voltage appearing across the triac controls the operation of a timing circuit. This timing circuit triggers on the triac at a time following turn off which varies inversely as a function of the amplitude of the open circuit voltage of the triac.

  16. Evaluation of half wave induction motor drive for use in passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoft, R. G.; Kawamura, A.; Goodarzi, A.; Yang, G. Q.; Erickson, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    Research performed at the University of Missouri-Columbia to devise and design a lower cost inverter induction motor drive for electrical propulsion of passenger vehicles is described. A two phase inverter motor system is recommended. The new design is predicted to provide comparable vehicle performance, improved reliability and a cost advantage for a high production vehicle, decreased total rating of the power semiconductor switches, and a somewhat simpler control hardware compared to the conventional three phase bridge inverter motor drive system. The major disadvantages of the two phase inverter motor drive are that it is larger and more expensive than a three phase machine, the design of snubbers for the power leakage inductances produce higher transient voltages, and the torque pulsations are relatively large because of the necessity to limit the inverter switching frequency to achieve high efficiency.

  17. Remote control for motor vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dale R. (Inventor); Ciciora, John A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A remote controller is disclosed for controlling the throttle, brake and steering mechanism of a conventional motor vehicle, with the remote controller being particularly advantageous for use by severely handicapped individuals. The controller includes a remote manipulator which controls a plurality of actuators through interfacing electronics. The remote manipulator is a two-axis joystick which controls a pair of linear actuators and a rotary actuator, with the actuators being powered by electric motors to effect throttle, brake and steering control of a motor vehicle adapted to include the controller. The controller enables the driver to control the adapted vehicle from anywhere in the vehicle with one hand with minimal control force and range of motion. In addition, even though a conventional vehicle is adapted for use with the remote controller, the vehicle may still be operated in the normal manner.

  18. Coupling an induction motor type generator to ac power lines. [making windmill generators compatible with public power lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system for coupling an induction motor type generator to an A.C. power line includes an electronic switch means that is controlled by a control system and is regulated to turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation. The energizing power supplied by the line to the induction motor type generator is decreased and the net power delivered to the line is increased.

  19. Match explosionproof motors with variable-frequency controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Petro, D.; Basso, D.

    1995-10-01

    The correct application of variable-frequency drive controllers to AC induction motors can be difficult, even for relatively simple applications. When using a variable-frequency controller (inverter), the non-pure sine-wave power output cases additional motor heating, primarily because of harmonics and below-base-speed operation. Add to that a hazardous environment requiring an explosion proof (XP) motor and the selection of a suitable, as well as efficient, motor and variable-frequency controller combination, and selection becomes even more complicated. Hazardous locations are found in a wide range of chemical process industries (CPI) plants, including chemical, petrochemical textile, rubber-making,, agriculture, food-processing, and metalworking facilities. Because standard constant-speed XP motors are not designed of use with variable-frequency controllers in these potentially explosive applications, it is necessary to understand how drive controllers affect motor performance. The multitude of motors and controllers--which can be purchased separately--and the numerous hazardous-application restrictions make it difficult to select the right XP motor/controller combination. The paper discusses how variable frequency affects motors, hazardous environments as found in UL 674 and UL 1836, matching XP motors with variable-frequency controllers, preventing motor overheating, motor and controller packaging, and non-thermostat applications in the CPI.

  20. Concept for sleeve induction motor with 1-msec mechanical time constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegand, D. E.

    1968-01-01

    Conductive sleeve induction motor having a 1-msec mechanical time constant is used with solid-state devices to control all-electric servo power systems. The servomotor rotor inertia is small compared to the maximum force rating of the servo motion, permitting high no-load acceleration.

  1. Torque control for electric motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Method for adjusting electric-motor torque output to accomodate various loads utilizes phase-lock loop to control relay connected to starting circuit. As load is imposed, motor slows down, and phase lock is lost. Phase-lock signal triggers relay to power starting coil and generate additional torque. Once phase lock is recoverd, relay restores starting circuit to its normal operating mode.

  2. A simplified scheme for induction motor condition monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Pedro Vicente Jover; Negrea, Marian; Arkkio, Antero

    2008-07-01

    This work proposes a general scheme to detect induction motor fault by monitoring the motor current. The scheme is based on signal processing (predictive filters) and soft computing technique (fuzzy logic). The predictive filter is used in order to separate the fundamental component from the harmonic components. Fuzzy logic is used to identify the motor state. Finite element method (FEM) is utilised to generate virtual data that allows to test the proposed technique and foresee the change in the current under different motor conditions. A simple and reliable method for the detection of stator winding failures based on the phase current amplitudes is implemented and tested. The layout has been proved in MATLAB/SIMULINK, with both data from FEM motor simulation program and real measurements. The proposed method has the ability to work with variable speed drives and avoids the detailed spectral analysis of the motor current. This work shows the feasibility of spotting broken rotor bars, eccentricities and inter-turn short-circuit by monitoring the motor currents.

  3. Lightweight type linear induction motor and its characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Osawa, S.; Yoshimuro, M.; Karita, M.; Ebihara, D.; Yokoi, T.

    1994-08-01

    At the Institute for Posts and Telecommunications Policy, a postal transportation system has been studied. This system would make use of linear induction motor (LIM)-driven vehicles for transporting mail between post offices in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. The system would connect the main post offices in the Tokyo area with tunnels circularly constructed underground and would transport mail with linear induction motor-driven vehicles. In this study, it is found that if vehicle weight is reduced, climbing capability could be considerably improved. Accordingly, the potential for reducing the weight of vehicle-mounted LIMs has been explored, and a prototype lightweight LIM has been manufactured. This paper reports on the lightweight LIM and its characteristics. 8 refs.

  4. A Fast Induction Motor Speed Estimation based on Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization (HPSO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryza, Solly; Abdallah, Ahmed N.; Khalidin, Zulkeflee bin; Lubis, Zulkarnain; Jie, Ma

    Intelligent control and estimation of power electronic systems by fuzzy logic and neural network techniques with fast torque and flux show tremendous promise in future. This paper proposed the application of Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization (HPSO) for losses and operating cost minimization control in the induction motor drives. The main advantages of the proposed technique are; its simple structure and its straightforward maximization of induction motor efficiency and its operating cost for a given load torque. As will be demonstrated, Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization (HPSO) is so efficient in finding the optimum operating machine's flux level. The results demonstrate the good quality and robustness in the system dynamic response and reduction in the steady-state and transient motor ripple torque.

  5. RBFN Based Efficiency Optimization Method of Induction Motor Utilized in Electrically Driven Marine Propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supari; Syafaruddin; Negara, I. Made Yulistya; Ashari, Mochamad; Hiyama, Takashi

    Thruster controllers of electric propulsion system with fixed pitch propellers are conventionally aimed to control only the shaft speed without utilizing the capabilities of the controllers to apply any other control strategies. In fact, the dynamic operating conditions lead to the fluctuation of motor load. For this reason, utilizing conventional controllers is hard enough due to the critical constraints and limitation of the ship power source. The paper presents study and analysis of efficiency optimization strategy in thruster shaft speed controllers driven by induction motor. The control strategy based on intelligent method called radial basis function neural network (RBFN) is implemented. A set of training data derived from a loss model controller of the induction motor working under indirect field-oriented-control (IFOC) drives is used for training process of RBFN. The loss model controller utilizes schematically the flux generating current as controlling variable. Estimation of the flux generating current through the RBFN process shows significant improvement in motor efficiency especially for low speed and ship transit system.

  6. Full-order Luenberger observer based on fuzzy-logic control for sensorless field-oriented control of a single-sided linear induction motor.

    PubMed

    Holakooie, Mohammad Hosein; Ojaghi, Mansour; Taheri, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates sensorless indirect field oriented control (IFOC) of SLIM with full-order Luenberger observer. The dynamic equations of SLIM are first elaborated to draw full-order Luenberger observer with some simplifying assumption. The observer gain matrix is derived from conventional procedure so that observer poles are proportional to SLIM poles to ensure the stability of system for wide range of linear speed. The operation of observer is significantly impressed by adaptive scheme. A fuzzy logic control (FLC) is proposed as adaptive scheme to estimate linear speed using speed tuning signal. The parameters of FLC are tuned using an off-line method through chaotic optimization algorithm (COA). The performance of the proposed observer is verified by both numerical simulation and real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) implementation. Moreover, a detailed comparative study among proposed and other speed observers is obtained under different operation conditions.

  7. Full-order Luenberger observer based on fuzzy-logic control for sensorless field-oriented control of a single-sided linear induction motor.

    PubMed

    Holakooie, Mohammad Hosein; Ojaghi, Mansour; Taheri, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates sensorless indirect field oriented control (IFOC) of SLIM with full-order Luenberger observer. The dynamic equations of SLIM are first elaborated to draw full-order Luenberger observer with some simplifying assumption. The observer gain matrix is derived from conventional procedure so that observer poles are proportional to SLIM poles to ensure the stability of system for wide range of linear speed. The operation of observer is significantly impressed by adaptive scheme. A fuzzy logic control (FLC) is proposed as adaptive scheme to estimate linear speed using speed tuning signal. The parameters of FLC are tuned using an off-line method through chaotic optimization algorithm (COA). The performance of the proposed observer is verified by both numerical simulation and real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) implementation. Moreover, a detailed comparative study among proposed and other speed observers is obtained under different operation conditions. PMID:26653579

  8. Precision stop control for motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Montenegro, Justino (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved stop control system and method are provided for a motor having a drive mechanism in which the motor is coupled to a motor controller that controls the speed and position of the drive mechanism using a first signal indicative of a commanded position of the drive mechanism, a second signal indicative of the actual speed of the drive mechanism and a third signal indicative of the actual position of the drive mechanism. The improved system/method uses a first circuit that receives the first and third signal and generates an error signal indicative of a difference therebetween. A second circuit receives the error signal and compares same with a threshold position error. The result of this comparison is used to selectively supply the second signal (i.e., speed) to the motor controller at least whenever the error signal is less than the threshold position error so that the motor controller can use the second signal in conjunction with the third signal to stop the motor.

  9. A versatile stepping motor controller for systems with many motors

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, S.K.; Siddons, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    A versatile system for controlling beamlines or complex experimental setups is described. The system as currently configured can control up to 32 motors, with all motors capable of full speed operation concurrently. There are 2 limit switch inputs for each motor, and a further input to accept a reference position marker. The motors can be controlled via a front panel keyboard with display, or by a host computer over an IEEE-488 interface. Both methods can be used together if required. There is an emergency stop'' key on the front panel keyboard to stop the motion of all motors without losing track of the motors' position. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Speed Sensorless Induction Motor Drives for Electrical Actuators: Schemes, Trends and Tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elbuluk, Malik E.; Kankam, M. David

    1997-01-01

    For a decade, induction motor drive-based electrical actuators have been under investigation as potential replacement for the conventional hydraulic and pneumatic actuators in aircraft. Advantages of electric actuator include lower weight and size, reduced maintenance and operating costs, improved safety due to the elimination of hazardous fluids and high pressure hydraulic and pneumatic actuators, and increased efficiency. Recently, the emphasis of research on induction motor drives has been on sensorless vector control which eliminates flux and speed sensors mounted on the motor. Also, the development of effective speed and flux estimators has allowed good rotor flux-oriented (RFO) performance at all speeds except those close to zero. Sensorless control has improved the motor performance, compared to the Volts/Hertz (or constant flux) controls. This report evaluates documented schemes for speed sensorless drives, and discusses the trends and tradeoffs involved in selecting a particular scheme. These schemes combine the attributes of the direct and indirect field-oriented control (FOC) or use model adaptive reference systems (MRAS) with a speed-dependent current model for flux estimation which tracks the voltage model-based flux estimator. Many factors are important in comparing the effectiveness of a speed sensorless scheme. Among them are the wide speed range capability, motor parameter insensitivity and noise reduction. Although a number of schemes have been proposed for solving the speed estimation, zero-speed FOC with robustness against parameter variations still remains an area of research for speed sensorless control.

  11. Electric Machine with Boosted Inductance to Stabilize Current Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, Steve

    2013-01-01

    High-powered motors typically have very low resistance and inductance (R and L) in their windings. This makes the pulse-width modulated (PWM) control of the current very difficult, especially when the bus voltage (V) is high. These R and L values are dictated by the motor size, torque (Kt), and back-emf (Kb) constants. These constants are in turn set by the voltage and the actuation torque-speed requirements. This problem is often addressed by placing inductive chokes within the controller. This approach is undesirable in that space is taken and heat is added to the controller. By keeping the same motor frame, reducing the wire size, and placing a correspondingly larger number of turns in each slot, the resistance, inductance, torque constant, and back-emf constant are all increased. The increased inductance aids the current control but ruins the Kt and Kb selections. If, however, a fraction of the turns is moved from their "correct slot" to an "incorrect slot," the increased R and L values are retained, but the Kt and Kb values are restored to the desired values. This approach assumes that increased resistance is acceptable to a degree. In effect, the heat allocated to the added inductance has been moved from the controller to the motor body, which in some cases is preferred.

  12. Fuzzy logic controllers for electric motors and wind turbines. Report for October 1996-April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, R.J.

    1997-04-01

    The paper discusses a precision laboratory test facility that has been assempbled to test the performance of two fuzzy-logic based controllers for electric motors and wind turbines. Commercial induction motors up to 10 hp (7.46 kWe) in motors and equipped with adjustable-speed drives (ASDs) were used to test the motor optimizers.

  13. Universal adaptive torque control for PM motors for field-weakening region operation

    DOEpatents

    Royak, Semyon; Harbaugh, Mark M.; Breitzmann, Robert J.; Nondahl, Thomas A.; Schmidt, Peter B.; Liu, Jingbo

    2011-03-29

    The invention includes a motor controller and method for controlling a permanent magnet motor. In accordance with one aspect of the present technique, a permanent magnet motor is controlled by, among other things, receiving a torque command, determining a normalized torque command by normalizing the torque command to a characteristic current of the motor, determining a normalized maximum available voltage, determining an inductance ratio of the motor, and determining a direct-axis current based upon the normalized torque command, the normalized maximum available voltage, and the inductance ratio of the motor.

  14. Evaluation of quasi-square wave inverter as a power source for induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynes, B. V.; Haggard, R. L.; Lanier, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The relative merits of quasi-square wave inverter-motor technology versus a sine wave inverter-motor system were investigated. The empirical results of several tests on various sizes of wye-wound induction motors are presented with mathematical analysis to support the conclusions of the study. It was concluded that, within the limitations presented, the quasi-square wave inverter-motor system is superior to the more complex sine wave system for most induction motor applications in space.

  15. Offline detection of broken rotor bars in AC induction motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Craig Stephen

    ABSTRACT. OFFLINE DETECTION OF BROKEN ROTOR BARS IN AC INDUCTION MOTORS. The detection of the broken rotor bar defect in medium- and large-sized AC induction machines is currently one of the most difficult tasks for the motor condition and monitoring industry. If a broken rotor bar defect goes undetected, it can cause a catastrophic failure of an expensive machine. If a broken rotor bar defect is falsely determined, it wastes time and money to physically tear down and inspect the machine only to find an incorrect diagnosis. Previous work in 2009 at Baker/SKF-USA in collaboration with the Korea University has developed a prototype instrument that has been highly successful in correctly detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs where other methods have failed. Dr. Sang Bin and his students at the Korea University have been using this prototype instrument to help the industry save money in the successful detection of the BRB defect. A review of the current state of motor conditioning and monitoring technology for detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs shows improved detection of this fault is still relevant. An analysis of previous work in the creation of this prototype instrument leads into the refactoring of the software and hardware into something more deployable, cost effective and commercially viable.

  16. Three phase AC motor controller

    DOEpatents

    Vuckovich, Michael; Wright, Maynard K.; Burkett, John P.

    1984-03-20

    A motor controller for a three phase AC motor (10) which is adapted to operate bidirectionally from signals received either from a computer (30) or a manual control (32). The controller is comprised of digital logic circuit means which implement a forward and reverse command signal channel (27, 29) for the application of power through the forward and reverse power switching relays (16, 18, 20, 22). The digital logic elements are cross coupled to prevent activation of both channels simultaneously and each includes a plugging circuit (65, 67) for stopping the motor upon the removal of control signal applied to one of the two channels (27, 29) for a direction of rotation desired. Each plugging circuit (65, 67) includes a one-shot pulse signal generator (88, 102) which outputs a single pulse signal of predetermined pulsewidth which is adapted to inhibit further operation of the application of power in the channel which is being activated and to apply a reversal command signal to the other channel which provides a reversed phase application of power to the motor for a period defined by the pulse-width output of the one-shot signal generator to plug the motor (10) which will then be inoperative until another rotational command signal is applied to either of the two channels.

  17. Minimum Principles in Motor Control.

    PubMed

    Engelbrecht, Sascha E.

    2001-06-01

    Minimum (or minimal) principles are mathematical laws that were first used in physics: Hamilton's principle and Fermat's principle of least time are two famous example. In the past decade, a number of motor control theories have been proposed that are formally of the same kind as the minimum principles of physics, and some of these have been quite successful at predicting motor performance in a variety of tasks. The present paper provides a comprehensive review of this work. Particular attention is given to the relation between minimum theories in motor control and those used in other disciplines. Other issues around which the review is organized include: (1) the relation between minimum principles and structural models of motor planning and motor control, (2) the empirically-driven development of minimum principles and the danger of circular theorizing, and (3) the design of critical tests for minimum theories. Some perspectives for future research are discussed in the concluding section of the paper. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11401453

  18. Closed-Loop Motor-Speed Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Matthew A.; Delcher, Ray C.; Huston, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Electronic motor-speed control circuit designed to operate in electrically noisy environment. Includes optoelectronic pick-up device, placed inside motor housing to provide speed feedback signal. Automatically maintains speed motor at commanded value. Measures speed of motor in terms of frequency of pulses of infrared light chopped by fan blades of motor. Difference between measured and commanded speeds serves as control signal for external amplifier driving motor. Major advantage of circuit is low cost.

  19. Development of a linear induction motor based artificial muscle system.

    PubMed

    Gruber, A; Arguello, E; Silva, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the design of a linear induction motor based on electromagnetic interactions. The engine is capable of producing a linear movement from electricity. The design consists of stators arranged in parallel, which produce a magnetic field sufficient to displace a plunger along its axial axis. Furthermore, the winding has a shell and cap of ferromagnetic material that amplifies the magnetic field. This produces a force along the length of the motor that is similar to that of skeletal muscle. In principle, the objective is to use the engine in the development of an artificial muscle system for prosthetic applications, but it could have multiple applications, not only in the medical field, but in other industries.

  20. Method and system for determining induction motor speed

    DOEpatents

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Bharadwaj, Raj M.

    2004-03-30

    A non-linear, semi-parametric neural network-based adaptive filter is utilized to determine the dynamic speed of a rotating rotor within an induction motor, without the explicit use of a speed sensor, such as a tachometer, is disclosed. The neural network-based filter is developed using actual motor current measurements, voltage measurements, and nameplate information. The neural network-based adaptive filter is trained using an estimated speed calculator derived from the actual current and voltage measurements. The neural network-based adaptive filter uses voltage and current measurements to determine the instantaneous speed of a rotating rotor. The neural network-based adaptive filter also includes an on-line adaptation scheme that permits the filter to be readily adapted for new operating conditions during operations.

  1. Development of a linear induction motor based artificial muscle system.

    PubMed

    Gruber, A; Arguello, E; Silva, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the design of a linear induction motor based on electromagnetic interactions. The engine is capable of producing a linear movement from electricity. The design consists of stators arranged in parallel, which produce a magnetic field sufficient to displace a plunger along its axial axis. Furthermore, the winding has a shell and cap of ferromagnetic material that amplifies the magnetic field. This produces a force along the length of the motor that is similar to that of skeletal muscle. In principle, the objective is to use the engine in the development of an artificial muscle system for prosthetic applications, but it could have multiple applications, not only in the medical field, but in other industries. PMID:24111159

  2. Improving Control of Two Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toland, Ronald W.

    2004-01-01

    A computer program controls motors that drive translation stages in a metrology system that consists of a pair of two-axis cathetometers. This program is specific to Compumotor Gemini (or equivalent) motors and the Compumotor 6K-series (or equivalent) motor controller. Relative to the software supplied with the controller, this program affords more capabilities and is easier to use. Written as a Virtual Instrument in the LabVIEW software system, the program presents an imitation control panel that the user can manipulate by use of a keyboard and mouse. There are three modes of operation: command, movement, and joystick. In command mode, single commands are sent to the controller for troubleshooting. In movement mode, distance, speed, and/or acceleration commands are sent to the controller. Position readouts from the motors and from position encoders on the translation stages are displayed in marked fields. At any time, the position readouts can be recorded in a file named by the user. In joystick mode, the program yields control of the motors to a joystick. The program sends commands to, and receives data from, the controller via a serial cable connection, using the serial-communication portion of the software supplied with the controller.

  3. Flywheel induction motor-generator for magnet power supply in small fusion device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyma, S.; Yoshino, F.; Tsutsui, H.; Tsuji-Iio, S.

    2016-04-01

    A flywheel motor-generator (MG) for the toroidal field (TF) coils of a small fusion device was developed which utilizes a commercially available squirrel-cage induction motor. Advantages of the MG are comparably-long duration, quick power response, and easy implementation of power control compared with conventional capacitor-type power supply. A 55-kW MG was fabricated, and TF coils of a small fusion device were energized. The duration of the current flat-top was extended to 1 s which is much longer than those of conventional small devices (around 10-100 ms).

  4. Flywheel induction motor-generator for magnet power supply in small fusion device.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyma, S; Yoshino, F; Tsutsui, H; Tsuji-Iio, S

    2016-04-01

    A flywheel motor-generator (MG) for the toroidal field (TF) coils of a small fusion device was developed which utilizes a commercially available squirrel-cage induction motor. Advantages of the MG are comparably-long duration, quick power response, and easy implementation of power control compared with conventional capacitor-type power supply. A 55-kW MG was fabricated, and TF coils of a small fusion device were energized. The duration of the current flat-top was extended to 1 s which is much longer than those of conventional small devices (around 10-100 ms). PMID:27131676

  5. Flywheel induction motor-generator for magnet power supply in small fusion device.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyma, S; Yoshino, F; Tsutsui, H; Tsuji-Iio, S

    2016-04-01

    A flywheel motor-generator (MG) for the toroidal field (TF) coils of a small fusion device was developed which utilizes a commercially available squirrel-cage induction motor. Advantages of the MG are comparably-long duration, quick power response, and easy implementation of power control compared with conventional capacitor-type power supply. A 55-kW MG was fabricated, and TF coils of a small fusion device were energized. The duration of the current flat-top was extended to 1 s which is much longer than those of conventional small devices (around 10-100 ms).

  6. Tuning the stator resistance of induction motors using artificial neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrera, L.A.; Elbuluk, M.E.; Husain, I.

    1997-09-01

    Tuning the stator resistance of induction motors is very important, especially when it is used to implement direct torque control (DTC) in which the stator resistance is a main parameter. In this paper, an artificial network (ANN) is used to accomplish tuning of the stator resistance of an induction motor. The parallel recursive prediction error and backpropagation training algorithms were used in training the neural network for the simulation and experimental results, respectively. The neural network used to tune the stator resistance was trained on-line, making the DTC strategy more robust and accurate. Simulation results are presented for three different neural-network configurations showing the efficiency of the tuning process. Experimental results were obtained for the one of the three neural-network configuration. Both simulation and experimental results showed that the ANN have tuned the stator resistance in the controller to track actual resistance of the machine.

  7. Diagnostics of DC and Induction Motors Based on the Analysis of Acoustic Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glowacz, A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a non-invasive method of early fault diagnostics of electric motors was proposed. This method uses acoustic signals generated by electric motors. Essential features were extracted from acoustic signals of motors. A plan of study of acoustic signals of electric motors was proposed. Researches were carried out for faultless induction motor, induction motor with one faulty rotor bar, induction motor with two faulty rotor bars and flawless Direct Current, and Direct Current motor with shorted rotor coils. Researches were carried out for methods of signal processing: log area ratio coefficients, Multiple signal classification, Nearest Neighbor classifier and the Bayes classifier. A pattern creation process was carried out using 40 samples of sound. In the identification process 130 five-second test samples were used. The proposed approach will also reduce the costs of maintenance and the number of faulty motors in the industry.

  8. Motor control of fly feeding.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Claire E

    2016-06-01

    Following considerable progress on the molecular and cellular basis of taste perception in fly sensory neurons, the time is now ripe to explore how taste information, integrated with hunger and satiety, undergo a sensorimotor transformation to lead to the motor actions of feeding behavior. I examine what is known of feeding circuitry in adult flies from more than 250 years of work in larger flies and from newer work in Drosophila. I review the anatomy of the proboscis, its muscles and their functions (where known), its motor neurons, interneurons known to receive taste inputs, interneurons that diverge from taste circuitry to provide information to other circuits, interneurons from other circuits that converge on feeding circuits, proprioceptors that influence the motor control of feeding, and sites of integration of hunger and satiety on feeding circuits. In spite of the several neuron types now known, a connected pathway from taste inputs to feeding motor outputs has yet to be found. We are on the threshold of an era where these individual components will be assembled into circuits, revealing how nervous system architecture leads to the control of behavior. PMID:27309215

  9. Ultra-Compact Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, William T.; Crowell, Adam; Hauptman, Traveler; Pratt, Gill Andrews

    2012-01-01

    This invention is an electronically commutated brushless motor controller that incorporates Hall-array sensing in a small, 42-gram package that provides 4096 absolute counts per motor revolution position sensing. The unit is the size of a miniature hockey puck, and is a 44-pin male connector that provides many I/O channels, including CANbus, RS-232 communications, general-purpose analog and digital I/O (GPIO), analog and digital Hall inputs, DC power input (18-90 VDC, 0-l0 A), three-phase motor outputs, and a strain gauge amplifier. This controller replaces air cooling with conduction cooling via a high-thermal-conductivity epoxy casting. A secondary advantage of the relatively good heat conductivity that comes with ultra-small size is that temperature differences within the controller become smaller, so that it is easier to measure the hottest temperature in the controller with fewer temperature sensors, or even one temperature sensor. Another size-sensitive design feature is in the approach to electrical noise immunity. At a very small size, where conduction paths are much shorter than in conventional designs, the ground becomes essentially isopotential, and so certain (space-consuming) electrical noise control components become unnecessary, which helps make small size possible. One winding-current sensor, applied to all of the windings in fast sequence, is smaller and wastes less power than the two or more sensors conventionally used to sense and control winding currents. An unexpected benefit of using only one current sensor is that it actually improves the precision of current control by using the "same" sensors to read each of the three phases. Folding the encoder directly into the controller electronics eliminates a great deal of redundant electronics, packaging, connectors, and hook-up wiring. The reduction of wires and connectors subtracts substantial bulk and eliminates their role in behaving as EMI (electro-magnetic interference) antennas. A shared

  10. Motor Control: The Heart of Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latash, Mark L.

    2008-01-01

    This brief review presents the subjective view of the author on the history of motor control and its current state among the subdisciplines of kinesiology. It summarizes the current controversies and challenges in motor control and emphasizes the necessity for an adequate set of notions that would make motor control (and kinesiology) a science.…

  11. Analytical analysis of single- and three-phase induction motors

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, K.R.

    1998-09-01

    The analysis of single and multiphase induction motors continues to represent a challenge to researchers in computational electromagnetics due to the presence of r{Omega} x B electric fields. This contribution cannot be inserted into the Green`s function for boundary element codes; finite difference and finite element approaches are forced to hard code these effects, compensating at high speeds with upwinding techniques. The direct computation of these affects using transfer relations in a linear environment offers an analytical backdrop both for benchmark testing numerical codes and for design assessment criteria. In addition to torque-speed predictions, the terminal relations and total power dissipation in the rotor are computed for an exposed winding three-phase and single-phase machine.

  12. MRAS state estimator for speed sensorless ISFOC induction motor drives with Luenberger load torque estimation.

    PubMed

    Zorgani, Youssef Agrebi; Koubaa, Yassine; Boussak, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel method for estimating the load torque of a sensorless indirect stator flux oriented controlled (ISFOC) induction motor drive based on the model reference adaptive system (MRAS) scheme. As a matter of fact, this method is meant to inter-connect a speed estimator with the load torque observer. For this purpose, a MRAS has been applied to estimate the rotor speed with tuned load torque in order to obtain a high performance ISFOC induction motor drive. The reference and adjustable models, developed in the stationary stator reference frame, are used in the MRAS scheme in an attempt to estimate the speed of the measured terminal voltages and currents. The load torque is estimated by means of a Luenberger observer defined throughout the mechanical equation. Every observer state matrix depends on the mechanical characteristics of the machine taking into account the vicious friction coefficient and inertia moment. Accordingly, some simulation results are presented to validate the proposed method and to highlight the influence of the variation of the inertia moment and the friction coefficient on the speed and the estimated load torque. The experimental results, concerning to the sensorless speed with a load torque estimation, are elaborated in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The complete sensorless ISFOC with load torque estimation is successfully implemented in real time using a digital signal processor board DSpace DS1104 for a laboratory 3 kW induction motor. PMID:26775088

  13. Comparison of Alternative Equivalent Circuits of Induction Motor with Real Machine Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradna, J.; Bauer, J.; Fligl, S.; Hlinovsky, V.

    The algorithms based on separated control of the motor flux and torque is used in order to gain the maximum performance from the induction machine. To push the efficiency and dynamics limits of the IM to its limits mostly FOC or DTC control strategies are used. Both are based on the knowledge of the hardly measurable variable-machine flux. To obtain the information about inner machine flux models based on the machine equivalent circuit are mostly used. Therefore the accuracy of the equivalent circuits has direct influence on the accuracy of the machine control. To reduce the complexity of the mathematical model the resistances and inductances are concentrated to one component and three phase winding is assumed to be symmetrical. In order to design control strategy for the induction motor, system equations and equivalent circuit must be established at first. This paper examines and compares some of the issues of adequate machine modeling and attempts to provide a firmer basis for selection of an appropriate model and to confirm or disprove the equivalence of different approaches. The results of the IM model run up are then compared to the results obtained from the measurements on the real machine and the equivalency is discussed.

  14. Motorized control for mirror mount apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.

    1989-01-01

    A motorized control and automatic braking system for adjusting mirror mount apparatus is disclosed. The motor control includes a planetary gear arrangement to provide improved pitch adjustment capability while permitting a small packaged design. The motor control for mirror mount adjustment is suitable for laser beam propagation applications. The brake is a system of constant contact, floating detents which engage the planetary gear at selected between-teeth increments to stop rotation instantaneously when the drive motor stops.

  15. Control Circuit For Two Stepping Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratliff, Roger; Rehmann, Kenneth; Backus, Charles

    1990-01-01

    Control circuit operates two independent stepping motors, one at a time. Provides following operating features: After selected motor stepped to chosen position, power turned off to reduce dissipation; Includes two up/down counters that remember at which one of eight steps each motor set. For selected motor, step indicated by illumination of one of eight light-emitting diodes (LED's) in ring; Selected motor advanced one step at time or repeatedly at rate controlled; Motor current - 30 mA at 90 degree positions, 60 mA at 45 degree positions - indicated by high or low intensity of LED that serves as motor-current monitor; Power-on reset feature provides trouble-free starts; To maintain synchronism between control circuit and motors, stepping of counters inhibited when motor power turned off.

  16. Sensorless FOC Performance Improved with On-Line Speed and Rotor Resistance Estimator Based on an Artificial Neural Network for an Induction Motor Drive

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Villalobos, Jose M.; Rodriguez-Resendiz, Juvenal; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A.; Martínez-Hernández, Moisés A.

    2015-01-01

    Three-phase induction motor drive requires high accuracy in high performance processes in industrial applications. Field oriented control, which is one of the most employed control schemes for induction motors, bases its function on the electrical parameter estimation coming from the motor. These parameters make an electrical machine driver work improperly, since these electrical parameter values change at low speeds, temperature changes, and especially with load and duty changes. The focus of this paper is the real-time and on-line electrical parameters with a CMAC-ADALINE block added in the standard FOC scheme to improve the IM driver performance and endure the driver and the induction motor lifetime. Two kinds of neural network structures are used; one to estimate rotor speed and the other one to estimate rotor resistance of an induction motor. PMID:26131677

  17. Sensorless FOC Performance Improved with On-Line Speed and Rotor Resistance Estimator Based on an Artificial Neural Network for an Induction Motor Drive.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Villalobos, Jose M; Rodriguez-Resendiz, Juvenal; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A; Martínez-Hernández, Moisés A

    2015-06-29

    Three-phase induction motor drive requires high accuracy in high performance processes in industrial applications. Field oriented control, which is one of the most employed control schemes for induction motors, bases its function on the electrical parameter estimation coming from the motor. These parameters make an electrical machine driver work improperly, since these electrical parameter values change at low speeds, temperature changes, and especially with load and duty changes. The focus of this paper is the real-time and on-line electrical parameters with a CMAC-ADALINE block added in the standard FOC scheme to improve the IM driver performance and endure the driver and the induction motor lifetime. Two kinds of neural network structures are used; one to estimate rotor speed and the other one to estimate rotor resistance of an induction motor.

  18. Vectorial Command of Induction Motor Pumping System Supplied by a Photovoltaic Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhlouf, Messaoud; Messai, Feyrouz; Benalla, Hocine

    2011-01-01

    With the continuous decrease of the cost of solar cells, there is an increasing interest and needs in photovoltaic (PV) system applications following standard of living improvements. Water pumping system powered by solar-cell generators are one of the most important applications. The fluctuation of solar energy on one hand, and the necessity to optimise available solar energy on the other, it is useful to develop new efficient and flexible modes to control motors that entrain the pump. A vectorial control of an asynchronous motor fed by a photovoltaic system is proposed. This paper investigates a photovoltaic-electro mechanic chain, composed of a PV generator, DC-AC converter, a vector controlled induction motor and centrifugal pump. The PV generator is forced to operate at its maximum power point by using an appropriate search algorithm integrated in the vector control. The optimization is realized without need to adding a DC-DC converter to the chain. The motor supply is also ensured in all insolation conditions. Simulation results show the effectiveness and feasibility of such an approach.

  19. Aerospace induction motor actuators driven from a 20-kHz power link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Aerospace electromechanical actuators utilizing induction motors are under development in sizes up to 40 kW. While these actuators have immediate application to the Advanced Launch System (ALS) program, several potential applications are currently under study including the Advanced Aircraft Program. Several recent advances developed for the Space Station Freedom have allowed induction motors to be selected as a first choice for such applications. Among these technologies are bi-directional electronics and high frequency power distribution techniques. Each of these technologies are discussed with emphasis on their impact upon induction motor operation.

  20. Pain relativity in motor control.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, I T; Seymour, B; Vlaev, I; Trommershäuser, J; Dolan, R J; Chater, N

    2010-06-01

    Motivational theories of pain highlight its role in people's choices of actions that avoid bodily damage. By contrast, little is known regarding how pain influences action implementation. To explore this less-understood area, we conducted a study in which participants had to rapidly point to a target area to win money while avoiding an overlapping penalty area that would cause pain in their contralateral hand. We found that pain intensity and target-penalty proximity repelled participants' movement away from pain and that motor execution was influenced not by absolute pain magnitudes but by relative pain differences. Our results indicate that the magnitude and probability of pain have a precise role in guiding motor control and that representations of pain that guide action are, at least in part, relative rather than absolute. Additionally, our study shows that the implicit monetary valuation of pain, like many explicit valuations (e.g., patients' use of rating scales in medical contexts), is unstable, a finding that has implications for pain treatment in clinical contexts.

  1. Pain relativity in motor control.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, I T; Seymour, B; Vlaev, I; Trommershäuser, J; Dolan, R J; Chater, N

    2010-06-01

    Motivational theories of pain highlight its role in people's choices of actions that avoid bodily damage. By contrast, little is known regarding how pain influences action implementation. To explore this less-understood area, we conducted a study in which participants had to rapidly point to a target area to win money while avoiding an overlapping penalty area that would cause pain in their contralateral hand. We found that pain intensity and target-penalty proximity repelled participants' movement away from pain and that motor execution was influenced not by absolute pain magnitudes but by relative pain differences. Our results indicate that the magnitude and probability of pain have a precise role in guiding motor control and that representations of pain that guide action are, at least in part, relative rather than absolute. Additionally, our study shows that the implicit monetary valuation of pain, like many explicit valuations (e.g., patients' use of rating scales in medical contexts), is unstable, a finding that has implications for pain treatment in clinical contexts. PMID:20435952

  2. High Ripples Reduction in DTC of Induction Motor by Using a New Reduced Switching Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, Bachir; Benkhoris, Mohamed F.

    2016-05-01

    The direct torque and flux control (DTC) of electrical motors is characterized by ripples of torque and flux. Among the many solutions proposed to reduce them is to use modified switching tables which is very advantageous; because its implementation is easy and requires no additional cost compared to other solutions. This paper proposes a new reduced switching table (RST) to improve the DTC by reducing harmful ripples of torque and flux. This new switching table is smaller than the conventional one (CST) and depends principally at the flux error. This solution is studied by simulation under Matlab/Simulink and experimentally validated on a testbed with DSPACE1103. The results obtained of a DTC with RST applied to a three-phase induction motor (IM) show a good improvement and an effectiveness of proposed solution, the torque ripple decreases about 47% and 3% for the stator flux compared with a basic DTC.

  3. The pulsed linear induction motor concept for high-speed trains

    SciTech Connect

    Turman, B.N.; Marder, B.M.; Rohwein, G.J.; Aeschliman, D.P.; Kelley, J.B.; Cowan, M.; Zimmerman, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    The SERAPBIM (SEgmented RAil PHased Induction Motor) concept is a linear induction motor concept which uses rapidly-pulsed magnetic fields and a segmented reaction rail, as opposed to low-frequency fields and continuous reaction rails found in conventional linear induction motors. These improvements give a high-traction, compact, and efficient linear motor that has potential for advanced high speed rail propulsion. In the SERAPBIM concept, coils on the vehicle push against a segmented aluminum rail, which is mounted on the road bed. Current is pulsed as the coils cross an edge of the segmented rail, inducing surface currents which repel the coil. The coils must be pulsed in synchronization with the movement by reaction rail segments. This is provided by a sense-and-fire circuit that controls the pulsing of the power modulators. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the pulsed induction motor and to collect data that could be used for scaling calculations. A 14.4 kg aluminum plate was accelerated down a 4 m track to speeds of over 15 m/sec with peak thrust up to 18 kN per coilset. For a trainset capable of 200 mph speed, the SERAPHIM concept design is based on coils which are each capable of producing up to 3.5 kN thrust, and 30 coil pairs are mounted on each power car. Two power cars, one at each end of the train, provide 6 MW from two gas turbine prime power units. The thrust is about 210.000 N and is essentially constant up to 200 km/hr since wheel slippage does not limit thrust as with conventional wheeled propulsion. A key component of the SERAPHIM concept is the use of passive wheel-on-rah support for the high speed vehicle. Standard steel wheels are capable of handling over 200 mph. The SERAPHIM cost is comparable to that for steel-wheel high-speed rail, and about 10% to 25% of the projected costs for a comparable Maglev system.

  4. Structured attachment of bacterial molecular motors for defined microflow induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woerdemann, Mike; Hörner, Florian; Denz, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial rotational motor complexes that propel flagellated bacteria possess unique properties like their size of a few nanometres and the ability of selfreproduction that have led to various exciting applications including biohybrid nano-machines. One mandatory prerequisite to utilize bacterial nano motors in fluid applications is the ability to transfer force and torque to the fluid, which usually can be achieved by attachment of the bacterial cell to adequate surfaces. Additionally, for optimal transfer of force or torque, precise control of the position down to the single cell level is of utmost importance. Based on a PIV (particle image velocimetry) evaluation of the induced flow of single bacteria,we propose and demonstrate attachment of arbitrary patterns of motile bacterial cells in a fast light-based two-step process for the first time to our knowledge. First, these cells are pre-structured by holographic optical tweezers and then attached to a homogeneous, polystyrene-coated surface. In contrast to the few approaches that have been implemented up to now and which rely on pre-structured surfaces, our scheme allows for precise control on a single bacterium level, is versatile, interactive and has low requirements with respect to the surface preparation.

  5. Reducing current reversal time in electric motor control

    SciTech Connect

    Bredemann, Michael V

    2014-11-04

    The time required to reverse current flow in an electric motor is reduced by exploiting inductive current that persists in the motor when power is temporarily removed. Energy associated with this inductive current is used to initiate reverse current flow in the motor.

  6. Multilevel DC Link Inverter for Brushless Permanent Magnet Motors with Very Low Inductance

    SciTech Connect

    Su, G.J.

    2001-10-29

    Due to their long effective air gaps, permanent magnet motors tend to have low inductance. The use of ironless stator structure in present high power PM motors (several tens of kWs) reduces the inductance even further (< 100 {micro}H). This low inductance imposes stringent current regulation demands for the inverter to obtain acceptable current ripple. An analysis of the current ripple for these low inductance brushless PM motors shows that a standard inverter with the most commonly used IGBT switching devices cannot meet the current regulation demands and will produce unacceptable current ripples due to the IGBT's limited switching frequency. This paper introduces a new multilevel dc link inverter, which can dramatically reduce the current ripple for brushless PM motor drives. The operating principle and design guidelines are included.

  7. A new method for the design optimization of three-phase induction motors

    SciTech Connect

    Daidone, A.; Parasiliti, F.; Villani, M.; Lucidi, S.

    1998-09-01

    The paper deals with the optimization problem of induction motors design. In particular a new global minimization algorithm is described; it tries to take into account all the features of these particular problems. A first numerical comparison between this new algorithm and a method widely used in the design optimization of induction motors has been performed. The obtained results show that the proposed approach is promising.

  8. Controller for computer control of brushless dc motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieda, L. S.

    1981-02-01

    A motor speed and torque controller for brushless d.c. motors provides an unusually smooth torque control arrangement. The controller provides a means for controlling a current waveform in each winding of a brushless dc motor by synchronization of an excitation pulse train from a programmable oscillator. Sensing of torque for synchronization is provided by a light beam chopper mounted on the motor rotor shaft. Speed and duty cycle are independently controlled by controlling the frequency and pulse width output of the programmable oscillator. A means is also provided so that current transitions from one motor winding to another is effected without abrupt changes in output torque.

  9. Controller for computer control of brushless dc motors. [automobile engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hieda, L. S. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A motor speed and torque controller for brushless d.c. motors provides an unusually smooth torque control arrangement. The controller provides a means for controlling a current waveform in each winding of a brushless dc motor by synchronization of an excitation pulse train from a programmable oscillator. Sensing of torque for synchronization is provided by a light beam chopper mounted on the motor rotor shaft. Speed and duty cycle are independently controlled by controlling the frequency and pulse width output of the programmable oscillator. A means is also provided so that current transitions from one motor winding to another is effected without abrupt changes in output torque.

  10. Motor Control Research Requires Nonlinear Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guastello, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    The author comments on the original article "The Cinderella of psychology: The neglect of motor control in the science of mental life and behavior," by D. A. Rosenbaum. Rosenbaum draws attention to the study of motor control and evaluates seven possible explanations for why the topic has been relatively neglected. The point of this comment is that…

  11. Advanced dc-Traction-Motor Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vittone, O.

    1985-01-01

    Motor-control concept for battery-powered vehicles includes stateof-the-art power-transistor switching and separate excitation of motor windings in traction and regenerative braking. Switching transistors and other components of power-conditioning subsystem operate under control of computer that coordinates traction, braking, and protective functions.

  12. Method and apparatus for controlling multiple motors

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Rollin G.; Kortegaard, Bert L.; Jones, David F.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for simultaneously controlling a plurality of stepper motors. Addressing circuitry generates address data for each motor in a periodic address sequence. Memory circuits respond to the address data for each motor by accessing a corresponding memory location containing a first operational data set functionally related to a direction for moving the motor, speed data, and rate of speed change. First logic circuits respond to the first data set to generate a motor step command. Second logic circuits respond to the command from the first logic circuits to generate a third data set for replacing the first data set in memory with a current operational motor status, which becomes the first data set when the motor is next addressed.

  13. 29. INDUCTION MOTOR (6600 VOLTS, 5750 H.P.) DRIVES THE 21INCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. INDUCTION MOTOR (6600 VOLTS, 5750 H.P.) DRIVES THE 21-INCH AND 18-INCH BILLET MILLS. MOTOR WAS MANUFACTURED BY THE GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  14. Sound based induction motor fault diagnosis using Kohonen self-organizing map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germen, Emin; Başaran, Murat; Fidan, Mehmet

    2014-05-01

    The induction motors, which have simple structures and design, are the essential elements of the industry. Their long-lasting utilization in critical processes possibly causes unavoidable mechanical and electrical defects that can deteriorate the production. The early diagnosis of the defects in induction motors is crucial in order to avoid interruption of manufacturing. In this work, the mechanical and the electrical faults which can be observed frequently on the induction motors are classified by means of analysis of the acoustic data of squirrel cage induction motors recorded by using several microphones simultaneously since the true nature of propagation of sound around the running motor provides specific clues about the types of the faults. In order to reveal the traces of the faults, multiple microphones are placed in a hemispherical shape around the motor. Correlation and wavelet-based analyses are applied for extracting necessary features from the recorded data. The features obtained from same types of motors with different kind of faults are used for the classification using the Self-Organizing Maps method. As it is described in this paper, highly motivating results are obtained both on the separation of healthy motor and faulty one and on the classification of fault types.

  15. Motor torque compensation of an induction electric motor by adjusting a slip command during periods of supposed change in motor temperature

    DOEpatents

    Kelledes, William L.; St. John, Don K.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention maintains constant torque in an inverter driven AC induction motor during variations in rotor temperature. It is known that the torque output of a given AC induction motor is dependent upon rotor temperature. At rotor temperatures higher than the nominal operating condition the rotor impedance increases, reducing the rotor current and motor torque. In a similar fashion, the rotor impedance is reduced resulting in increased rotor current and motor torque when the rotor temperature is lower than the nominal operating condition. The present invention monitors the bus current from the DC supply to the inverter and adjusts the slip frequency of the inverter drive to maintain a constant motor torque. This adjustment is based upon whether predetermined conditions implying increased rotor temperature or decreased rotor temperature exist for longer that a predetermined interval of time.

  16. Voltage harmonic variation in three-phase induction motors with different coil pitches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, Ram; Moses, Anthony John; Anayi, Fatih

    2006-09-01

    A pulse-width modulation (PWM) inverter feeding four different chorded three-phase induction motors was tested for low-order odd harmonic voltage component and efficiency at different loads. Total harmonic distortion (THD) due to 3rd, 5th and 9th harmonics was less in a motor with 160° coil pitch. Particular harmonic order for each coil pitch was suppressed and the efficiency of a 120° coil pitch motor was increased by 7.5%.

  17. Fuzzy control of small servo motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maor, Ron; Jani, Yashvant

    1993-01-01

    To explore the benefits of fuzzy logic and understand the differences between the classical control methods and fuzzy control methods, the Togai InfraLogic applications engineering staff developed and implemented a motor control system for small servo motors. The motor assembly for testing the fuzzy and conventional controllers consist of servo motor RA13M and an encoder with a range of 4096 counts. An interface card was designed and fabricated to interface the motor assembly and encoder to an IBM PC. The fuzzy logic based motor controller was developed using the TILShell and Fuzzy C Development System on an IBM PC. A Proportional-Derivative (PD) type conventional controller was also developed and implemented in the IBM PC to compare the performance with the fuzzy controller. Test cases were defined to include step inputs of 90 and 180 degrees rotation, sine and square wave profiles in 5 to 20 hertz frequency range, as well as ramp inputs. In this paper we describe our approach to develop a fuzzy as well as PH controller, provide details of hardware set-up and test cases, and discuss the performance results. In comparison, the fuzzy logic based controller handles the non-linearities of the motor assembly very well and provides excellent control over a broad range of parameters. Fuzzy technology, as indicated by our results, possesses inherent adaptive features.

  18. Ultra-Compact Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, William T.; Cromwell, Adam; Hauptman, Traveler; Pratt, Gill Andrews

    2012-01-01

    This invention is an electronically commutated brushless motor contro ller that incorporates Hall-array sensing in a small, 42-gram packag e that provides 4096 absolute counts per motor revolution position s ensing. The unit is the size of a miniature hockey puck, and is a 44 -pin male connector that provides many I/O channels, including CANbus , RS-232 communications, general-purpose analog and digital I/O (GPI O), analog and digital Hall inputs, DC power input (18-90 VDC, 0-l0 A), three-phase motor outputs, and a strain gauge amplifier.

  19. Observability analysis for model-based fault detection and sensor selection in induction motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhaeinejad, Mohsen; Bryant, Michael D.

    2011-07-01

    Sensors in different types and configurations provide information on the dynamics of a system. For a specific task, the question is whether measurements have enough information or whether the sensor configuration can be changed to improve the performance or to reduce costs. Observability analysis may answer the questions. This paper presents a general algorithm of nonlinear observability analysis with application to model-based diagnostics and sensor selection in three-phase induction motors. A bond graph model of the motor is developed and verified with experiments. A nonlinear observability matrix based on Lie derivatives is obtained from state equations. An observability index based on the singular value decomposition of the observability matrix is obtained. Singular values and singular vectors are used to identify the most and least observable configurations of sensors and parameters. A complex step derivative technique is used in the calculation of Jacobians to improve the computational performance of the observability analysis. The proposed algorithm of observability analysis can be applied to any nonlinear system to select the best configuration of sensors for applications of model-based diagnostics, observer-based controller, or to determine the level of sensor redundancy. Observability analysis on induction motors provides various sensor configurations with corresponding observability indices. Results show the redundancy levels for different sensors, and provide a sensor selection guideline for model-based diagnostics, and for observer-based controllers. The results can also be used for sensor fault detection and to improve the reliability of the system by increasing the redundancy level in measurements.

  20. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, James M.; Sereshteh, Ahmad

    1988-01-01

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify thetorque commands applied to the motor.

  1. Oscillation control system for electric motor drive

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, J.M.; Sereshteh, A.

    1988-08-30

    A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify the torque commands applied to the motor. 5 figs.

  2. Computerized Torque Control for Large dc Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willett, Richard M.; Carroll, Michael J.; Geiger, Ronald V.

    1987-01-01

    Speed and torque ranges in generator mode extended. System of shunt resistors, electronic switches, and pulse-width modulation controls torque exerted by large, three-phase, electronically commutated dc motor. Particularly useful for motor operating in generator mode because it extends operating range to low torque and high speed.

  3. Immediate Effects of Kinesiology Taping of Quadriceps on Motor Performance after Muscle Fatigued Induction

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ick Keun; Kim, You Lim; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this cross-sectional single-blind study was to investigate the immediate effects of Kinesiology taping of quadriceps on motor performance after muscle fatigued induction. Design. Randomized controlled cross-sectional design. Subjects. Forty-five subjects participated in this study. Participants were divided into three groups: Kinesiology taping group, placebo taping group, and nontaping group. Methods. Subjects performed short-term exercise for muscle fatigued induction, followed by the application of each intervention. Peak torque test, one-leg single hop test, active joint position sense test, and one-leg static balance test were carried out before and after the intervention. Results. Peak torque and single-leg hopping distance were significantly increased when Kinesiology taping was applied (p < 0.05). But there were no significant effects on active joint position sense and single-leg static balance. Conclusions. We proved that Kinesiology taping is effective in restoring muscle power reduced after muscle fatigued induction. Therefore, we suggest that Kinesiology taping is beneficial for fatigued muscles. PMID:26246835

  4. Immediate Effects of Kinesiology Taping of Quadriceps on Motor Performance after Muscle Fatigued Induction.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ick Keun; Kim, You Lim; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this cross-sectional single-blind study was to investigate the immediate effects of Kinesiology taping of quadriceps on motor performance after muscle fatigued induction. Design. Randomized controlled cross-sectional design. Subjects. Forty-five subjects participated in this study. Participants were divided into three groups: Kinesiology taping group, placebo taping group, and nontaping group. Methods. Subjects performed short-term exercise for muscle fatigued induction, followed by the application of each intervention. Peak torque test, one-leg single hop test, active joint position sense test, and one-leg static balance test were carried out before and after the intervention. Results. Peak torque and single-leg hopping distance were significantly increased when Kinesiology taping was applied (p < 0.05). But there were no significant effects on active joint position sense and single-leg static balance. Conclusions. We proved that Kinesiology taping is effective in restoring muscle power reduced after muscle fatigued induction. Therefore, we suggest that Kinesiology taping is beneficial for fatigued muscles.

  5. Efficient foot motor control by Neymar's brain.

    PubMed

    Naito, Eiichi; Hirose, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    How very long-term (over many years) motor skill training shapes internal motor representation remains poorly understood. We provide valuable evidence that the football brain of Neymar da Silva Santos Júnior (the Brasilian footballer) recruits very limited neural resources in the motor-cortical foot regions during foot movements. We scanned his brain activity with a 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while he rotated his right ankle at 1 Hz. We also scanned brain activity when three other age-controlled professional footballers, two top-athlete swimmers and one amateur footballer performed the identical task. A comparison was made between Neymar's brain activity with that obtained from the others. We found activations in the left medial-wall foot motor regions during the foot movements consistently across all participants. However, the size and intensity of medial-wall activity was smaller in the four professional footballers than in the three other participants, despite no difference in amount of foot movement. Surprisingly, the reduced recruitment of medial-wall foot motor regions became apparent in Neymar. His medial-wall activity was smallest among all participants with absolutely no difference in amount of foot movement. Neymar may efficiently control given foot movements probably by largely conserving motor-cortical neural resources. We discuss this possibility in terms of over-years motor skill training effect, use-dependent plasticity, and efficient motor control.

  6. Reluctance network analysis of an orthogonal-core type parametric induction motor

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, Katsubumi; Sato, Kohei; Komukai, Toshihiko; Ichinokura, Osamu

    1999-09-01

    In this paper, an analytical method of an orthogonal-core type parametric induction motor is proposed, based on a reluctance network model of the stator. The model is derived by a similar technique applied to an orthogonal-core transformer. Using this model the parametric oscillation characteristic of the motor, without a rotor, is computed. The simulation results agree well with the experiments. It is obvious that the analytical model of the stator presented here is proper for analysis of the motor and that, by use of this model and suitable analytical model of the rotor, the motor characteristics can be analyzed.

  7. Taking control of the flagellar motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Mathieu; Truchon, Dany; Rainville, Simon

    2008-06-01

    Numerous types of bacteria swim in their environment by rotating long helical filaments. At the base of each filament is a tiny rotary motor called the bacterial flagellar motor. A lot is already known about the structure, assembly and function of this splendid molecular machine of nanoscopic dimensions. Nevertheless many fundamental questions remain open and the study of the flagellar motor is a very exciting area of current research. We are developing an in vitro assay to enable studies of the bacterial flagellar motor in precisely controlled conditions and to gain direct access to the inner components of the motor. We partly squeeze a filamentous E. coli bacterium inside a micropipette, leaving a working flagellar motor outside. We then punch a hole through the cell wall at the end of the bacterium located inside the micropipette using a brief train of ultrashort (~60 fs) laser pulses. This enables us to control the rotation of the motor with an external voltage (for at least 15 minutes). In parallel, new methods to monitor the speed of rotation of the motor in the low load (high speed) regime are being developed using various nanoparticules.

  8. A thermal network model for induction motors of hermetic reciprocating compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, T.; Deschamps, C. J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes a simulation model for small reciprocating compressors with emphasis on the electrical motor modelling. Heat transfer is solved through algebraic equations derived from lumped thermal energy balances applied to the compressor components. Thermal conductances between the motor components are characterized via a thermal network model. The single-phase induction motor is modelled via an equivalent circuit, allowing predictions for the motor performance and distributed losses. The predicted temperature distribution is used to evaluate the stator and rotor windings resistances. The thermal and electric models are solved in a coupled manner with a model for the compression cycle. Predictions of temperature distribution, motor efficiency, as well as isentropic and volumetric efficiencies, are compared with experimental data at different operating conditions. The model is then applied to analyse the motor temperature as a function of input voltage and stator wire diameter.

  9. Rail Brake System Using a Linear Induction Motor for Dynamic Braking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Minoru; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

    One type of braking system for railway vehicles is the eddy current brake. Because this type of brake has the problem of rail heating, it has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of a linear induction motor (LIM) for dynamic braking in eddy current brake systems. The LIM reduces rail heating and uses an inverter for self excitation. In this paper, we estimated the performance of an LIM from experimental results of a fundamental test machine and confirmed that the LIM generates an approximately constant braking force under constant current excitation. At relatively low frequencies, this braking force remains unaffected by frequency changes. The reduction ratio of rail heating is also approximately proportional to the frequency. We also confirmed that dynamic braking resulting in no electrical output can be used for drive control of the LIM. These characteristics are convenient for the realization of the LIM rail brake system.

  10. Two Archetypes of Motor Control Research

    PubMed Central

    Latash, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    This reply to the Commentaries is focused on two archetypes of motor control research, one based on physics and physiology and the other based on control theory and ideas of neural computations. The former approach, represented by the equilibrium-point hypothesis, strives to discover the physical laws and salient physiological variables that make purposeful coordinated movements possible. The latter approach, represented by the ideas of internal models and optimal control, tries to apply methods of control developed for man-made inanimate systems to the human body. Specific issues related to control with subthreshold membrane depolarization, motor redundancy, and the idea of synergies are briefly discussed. PMID:21479107

  11. Artificial neural network based fault identification scheme implementation for a three-phase induction motor.

    PubMed

    Kolla, Sri R; Altman, Shawn D

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents results from the implementation and testing of a PC based monitoring and fault identification scheme for a three-phase induction motor using artificial neural networks (ANNs). To accomplish the task, a hardware system is designed and built to acquire three-phase voltages and currents from a 1/3 HP squirrel-cage, three-phase induction motor. A software program is written to read the voltages and currents, which are first used to train a feed-forward neural network structure using the JavaNNS program. The trained network is placed in a LabVIEW based program formula node that monitors the voltages and currents online and displays the fault conditions and turns the motor off. The complete system is successfully tested in real time by creating different faults on the motor.

  12. Stepper motor control that adjusts to motor loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Nola, Frank J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system and method are provided for controlling a stepper motor having a rotor and a multi-phase stator. Sinusoidal command signals define a commanded position of the motor's rotor. An actual position of the rotor is sensed as a function of an electrical angle between the actual position and the commanded position. The actual position is defined by sinusoidal position signals. An adjustment signal is generated using the sinusoidal command signals and sinusoidal position signals. The adjustment signal is defined as a function of the cosine of the electrical angle. The adjustment signal is multiplied by each sinusoidal command signal to generate a corresponding set of excitation signals, each of which is applied to a corresponding phase of the multi-phase stator.

  13. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL OF ELECTRIC MOTORS AND MOTOR DRIVES: FEASIBILITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study (part 1) of fuzzy logic motor control (FLMC). The study included: 1) reviews of existing applications of fuzzy logic, of motor operation, and of motor control; 2) a description of motor control schemes that can utilize FLMC; 3) selection of a m...

  14. Method and apparatus for large motor control

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Chris R.; Nelson, Ronald O.

    2003-08-12

    Apparatus and method for providing digital signal processing method for controlling the speed and phase of a motor involves inputting a reference signal having a frequency and relative phase indicative of a time based signal; modifying the reference signal to introduce a slew-rate limited portion of each cycle of the reference signal; inputting a feedback signal having a frequency and relative phase indicative of the operation of said motor; modifying the feedback signal to introduce a slew-rate limited portion of each cycle of the feedback signal; analyzing the modified reference signal and the modified feedback signal to determine the frequency of the modified reference signal and of the modified feedback signal and said relative phase between said modified reference signal and said modified feedback signal; and outputting control signals to the motor for adjusting said speed and phase of the motor based on the frequency determination and determination of the relative phase.

  15. Molecular Pathways Controlling Pancreas induction

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Kyle W.; Wells, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in generating pancreatic cell types from human pluripotent stem cells has depended on our knowledge of the developmental processes that regulate pancreas development in vivo. The developmental events between gastrulation and formation of the embryonic pancreatic primordia are both rapid and dynamic and studies in frog, fish, chick, and mouse have identified the molecular basis of how the pancreas develops from multipotent endoderm progenitors. Here, we review the current status of our understanding of molecular mechanisms that control endoderm formation, endoderm patterning, and pancreas specification and highlight how these discoveries have allowed for the development of robust methods to generate pancreatic cells from human pluripotent stem cells. PMID:22743233

  16. Efficient Power Amplifier for Motor Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Pulse-width-modulated amplifier supplies high current as efficiently as low current needed for starting and running motor. Key to efficiency of motor-control amplifier is V-channel metal-oxide/semiconductor transistor Q1. Device has low saturation resistance. However, has large gate input capacitance and small margin between its turn-on voltage and maximum allowable gate-to-source voltage. Circuits for output stages overcome limitations of VMOS device.

  17. The neural optimal control hierarchy for motor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWolf, T.; Eliasmith, C.

    2011-10-01

    Our empirical, neuroscientific understanding of biological motor systems has been rapidly growing in recent years. However, this understanding has not been systematically mapped to a quantitative characterization of motor control based in control theory. Here, we attempt to bridge this gap by describing the neural optimal control hierarchy (NOCH), which can serve as a foundation for biologically plausible models of neural motor control. The NOCH has been constructed by taking recent control theoretic models of motor control, analyzing the required processes, generating neurally plausible equivalent calculations and mapping them on to the neural structures that have been empirically identified to form the anatomical basis of motor control. We demonstrate the utility of the NOCH by constructing a simple model based on the identified principles and testing it in two ways. First, we perturb specific anatomical elements of the model and compare the resulting motor behavior with clinical data in which the corresponding area of the brain has been damaged. We show that damaging the assigned functions of the basal ganglia and cerebellum can cause the movement deficiencies seen in patients with Huntington's disease and cerebellar lesions. Second, we demonstrate that single spiking neuron data from our model's motor cortical areas explain major features of single-cell responses recorded from the same primate areas. We suggest that together these results show how NOCH-based models can be used to unify a broad range of data relevant to biological motor control in a quantitative, control theoretic framework.

  18. Dual-circuit segmented rail phased induction motor

    DOEpatents

    Marder, Barry M.; Cowan, Jr., Maynard

    2002-01-01

    An improved linear motor utilizes two circuits, rather that one circuit and an opposed plate, to gain efficiency. The powered circuit is a flat conductive coil. The opposed segmented rail circuit is either a plurality of similar conductive coils that are shorted, or a plurality of ladders formed of opposed conductive bars connected by a plurality of spaced conductors. In each embodiment, the conductors are preferably cables formed from a plurality of intertwined insulated wires to carry current evenly.

  19. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), as appropriate, for the location where it is installed. In... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1) provides guidance on the differences between devices meeting... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers....

  20. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), as appropriate, for the location where it is installed. In... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1) provides guidance on the differences between devices meeting... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor controllers and motor-control centers....

  1. Neural Control Adaptation to Motor Noise Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Hasson, Christopher J; Gelina, Olga; Woo, Garrett

    2016-01-01

    Antagonistic muscular co-activation can compensate for movement variability induced by motor noise at the expense of increased energetic costs. Greater antagonistic co-activation is commonly observed in older adults, which could be an adaptation to increased motor noise. The present study tested this hypothesis by manipulating motor noise in 12 young subjects while they practiced a goal-directed task using a myoelectric virtual arm, which was controlled by their biceps and triceps muscle activity. Motor noise was increased by increasing the coefficient of variation (CV) of the myoelectric signals. As hypothesized, subjects adapted by increasing antagonistic co-activation, and this was associated with reduced noise-induced performance decrements. A second hypothesis was that a virtual decrease in motor noise, achieved by smoothing the myoelectric signals, would have the opposite effect: co-activation would decrease and motor performance would improve. However, the results showed that a decrease in noise made performance worse instead of better, with no change in co-activation. Overall, these findings suggest that the nervous system adapts to virtual increases in motor noise by increasing antagonistic co-activation, and this preserves motor performance. Reducing noise may have failed to benefit performance due to characteristics of the filtering process itself, e.g., delays are introduced and muscle activity bursts are attenuated. The observed adaptations to increased noise may explain in part why older adults and many patient populations have greater antagonistic co-activation, which could represent an adaptation to increased motor noise, along with a desire for increased joint stability. PMID:26973487

  2. Neural Control Adaptation to Motor Noise Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Christopher J.; Gelina, Olga; Woo, Garrett

    2016-01-01

    Antagonistic muscular co-activation can compensate for movement variability induced by motor noise at the expense of increased energetic costs. Greater antagonistic co-activation is commonly observed in older adults, which could be an adaptation to increased motor noise. The present study tested this hypothesis by manipulating motor noise in 12 young subjects while they practiced a goal-directed task using a myoelectric virtual arm, which was controlled by their biceps and triceps muscle activity. Motor noise was increased by increasing the coefficient of variation (CV) of the myoelectric signals. As hypothesized, subjects adapted by increasing antagonistic co-activation, and this was associated with reduced noise-induced performance decrements. A second hypothesis was that a virtual decrease in motor noise, achieved by smoothing the myoelectric signals, would have the opposite effect: co-activation would decrease and motor performance would improve. However, the results showed that a decrease in noise made performance worse instead of better, with no change in co-activation. Overall, these findings suggest that the nervous system adapts to virtual increases in motor noise by increasing antagonistic co-activation, and this preserves motor performance. Reducing noise may have failed to benefit performance due to characteristics of the filtering process itself, e.g., delays are introduced and muscle activity bursts are attenuated. The observed adaptations to increased noise may explain in part why older adults and many patient populations have greater antagonistic co-activation, which could represent an adaptation to increased motor noise, along with a desire for increased joint stability. PMID:26973487

  3. Spinal metaplasticity in respiratory motor control

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Daryl P.; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2015-01-01

    A hallmark feature of the neural system controlling breathing is its ability to exhibit plasticity. Less appreciated is the ability to exhibit metaplasticity, a change in the capacity to express plasticity (i.e., “plastic plasticity”). Recent advances in our understanding of cellular mechanisms giving rise to respiratory motor plasticity lay the groundwork for (ongoing) investigations of metaplasticity. This detailed understanding of respiratory metaplasticity will be essential as we harness metaplasticity to restore breathing capacity in clinical disorders that compromise breathing, such as cervical spinal injury, motor neuron disease and other neuromuscular diseases. In this brief review, we discuss key examples of metaplasticity in respiratory motor control, and our current understanding of mechanisms giving rise to spinal plasticity and metaplasticity in phrenic motor output; particularly after pre-conditioning with intermittent hypoxia. Progress in this area has led to the realization that similar mechanisms are operative in other spinal motor networks, including those governing limb movement. Further, these mechanisms can be harnessed to restore respiratory and non-respiratory motor function after spinal injury. PMID:25717292

  4. Deep networks for motor control functions

    PubMed Central

    Berniker, Max; Kording, Konrad P.

    2015-01-01

    The motor system generates time-varying commands to move our limbs and body. Conventional descriptions of motor control and learning rely on dynamical representations of our body's state (forward and inverse models), and control policies that must be integrated forward to generate feedforward time-varying commands; thus these are representations across space, but not time. Here we examine a new approach that directly represents both time-varying commands and the resulting state trajectories with a function; a representation across space and time. Since the output of this function includes time, it necessarily requires more parameters than a typical dynamical model. To avoid the problems of local minima these extra parameters introduce, we exploit recent advances in machine learning to build our function using a stacked autoencoder, or deep network. With initial and target states as inputs, this deep network can be trained to output an accurate temporal profile of the optimal command and state trajectory for a point-to-point reach of a non-linear limb model, even when influenced by varying force fields. In a manner that mirrors motor babble, the network can also teach itself to learn through trial and error. Lastly, we demonstrate how this network can learn to optimize a cost objective. This functional approach to motor control is a sharp departure from the standard dynamical approach, and may offer new insights into the neural implementation of motor control. PMID:25852530

  5. Smart Sensor for Online Detection of Multiple-Combined Faults in VSD-Fed Induction Motors

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Ramirez, Armando G.; Osornio-Rios, Roque A.; Granados-Lieberman, David; Garcia-Perez, Arturo; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J.

    2012-01-01

    Induction motors fed through variable speed drives (VSD) are widely used in different industrial processes. Nowadays, the industry demands the integration of smart sensors to improve the fault detection in order to reduce cost, maintenance and power consumption. Induction motors can develop one or more faults at the same time that can be produce severe damages. The combined fault identification in induction motors is a demanding task, but it has been rarely considered in spite of being a common situation, because it is difficult to identify two or more faults simultaneously. This work presents a smart sensor for online detection of simple and multiple-combined faults in induction motors fed through a VSD in a wide frequency range covering low frequencies from 3 Hz and high frequencies up to 60 Hz based on a primary sensor being a commercially available current clamp or a hall-effect sensor. The proposed smart sensor implements a methodology based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT), RMS calculation and artificial neural networks (ANN), which are processed online using digital hardware signal processing based on field programmable gate array (FPGA).

  6. Offline Parameter Estimation of Induction Motor Using a Meta Heuristic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Ritwik; Chowdhury, Aritra; Ghosh, Arnob; Panigrahi, B. K.; Das, Swagatam

    An offline parameter estimation problem of an induction motor using a well known, efficient yet simple meta heuristic algorithm DEGL (Differential Evolution with a neighborhood based mutation scheme) has been presented in this article. Two different induction motor models such as approximate and exact models are considered. The parameter estimation methodology describes a method for estimating the steady-state equivalent circuit parameters from the motor performance characteristics, which is normally available from the manufacturer data or from tests. Differential Evolution is not completely free from the problems of slow or premature convergence, that's why the idea of a much more efficient variant of DE comes. The variant of DE used for solving this problem utilize the concept of the neighborhood of each population member. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated for two different motors and it is compared with the genetic algorithm and the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. From the simulation results it is evident that DEGL outperforms both the algorithms (GA and PSO) in the estimation of the parameters of the induction motor.

  7. 18. Station Service Control and Motor Control Center #2, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Station Service Control and Motor Control Center #2, view to the northeast. Note the circuit breaker switch on cart in left corner of photograph. This switch is part of the motor control center which has been temporarily removed from the slot marked with a tag that is visible at lower left end of control center. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  8. Nature of motor control: perspectives and issues.

    PubMed

    Turvey, Michael T; Fonseca, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Four perspectives on motor control provide the framework for developing a comprehensive theory of motor control in biological systems. The four perspectives, of decreasing orthodoxy, are distinguished by their sources of inspiration: neuroanatomy, robotics, self-organization, and ecological realities. Twelve major issues that commonly constrain (either explicitly or implicitly) the understanding of the control and coordination of movement are identified and evaluated within the framework of the four perspectives. The issues are as follows: (1) Is control strictly neural? (2) Is there a divide between planning and execution? (3) Does control entail a frequently involved knowledgeable executive? (4) Do analytical internal models mediate control? (5) Is anticipation necessarily model dependent? (6) Are movements preassembled? (7) Are the participating components context independent? (8) Is force transmission strictly myotendinous? (9) Is afference a matter of local linear signaling? (10) Is neural noise an impediment? (11) Do standard variables (of mechanics and physiology) suffice? (12) Is the organization of control hierarchical?

  9. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Induction in Purkinje Neurons After Cerebellar Motor Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeds, Nicholas W.; Williams, Brian L.; Bickford, Paula C.

    1995-12-01

    The cerebellar cortex is implicated in the learning of complex motor skills. This learning may require synaptic remodeling of Purkinje cell inputs. An extracellular serine protease, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), is involved in remodeling various nonneural tissues and is associated with developing and regenerating neurons. In situ hybridization showed that expression of tPA messenger RNA was increased in the Purkinje neurons of rats within an hour of their being trained for a complex motor task. Antibody to tPA also showed the induction of tPA protein associated with cerebellar Purkinje cells. Thus, the induction of tPA during motor learning may play a role in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity.

  10. Summary of electric vehicle dc motor-controller tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbrien, E. F.; Tryon, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    The differences in the performance of dc motors are evaluated when operating with chopper type controllers, and when operating on direct current. The interactions between the motor and the controller which cause these differences are investigated. Motor-controlled tests provided some of the data the quantified motor efficiency variations for both ripple free and chopper modes of operation.

  11. Sensorless speed estimation of an AC induction motor by using an artificial neural network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhoraif, Abdulelah Ali

    Sensorless speed detection of an induction motor is an attractive area for researchers to enhance the reliability of the system and to reduce the cost of the components. This paper presents a simple method of estimating a rotational speed by utilizing an artificial neural network (ANN) that would be fed by a set of stator current frequencies that contain some saliency harmonics. This approach allows operators to detect the speed in induction motors such an approach also provides reliability, low cost, and simplicity. First, the proposed method is based on converting the stator current signals to the frequency domain and then applying a tracking algorithm to the stator current spectrum in order to detect frequency peaks. Secondly, the ANN has to be trained by the detected peaks; the training data must be from very precise data to provide an accurate rotor speed. Moreover, the desired output of the training is the speed, which is measured by a tachometer simultaneously with the stator current signal. The databases were collected at many different speeds from two different types of AC induction motors, wound rotor and squirrel cage. They were trained and tested, so when the difference between the desired speed value and the ANN output value reached the wanted accuracy, the system does not need to use the tachometer anymore. Eventually, the experimental results show that in an optimal ANN design, the speed of the wound rotor induction motor was estimated accurately, where the testing average error was 1 RPM. The proposed method has not succeeded to predict the rotor speed of the squirrel cage induction motor precisely, where the smallest testing­average error that was achieved was 5 RPM.

  12. Control System for Bearingless Motor-generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Peter E. (Inventor); Jansen, Ralph H. (Inventor); Dever, Timothy P. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A control system for an electromagnetic rotary drive for bearingless motor-generators comprises a winding configuration comprising a plurality of individual pole pairs through which phase current flows, each phase current producing both a lateral force and a torque. A motor-generator comprises a stator, a rotor supported for movement relative to the stator, and a control system. The motor-generator comprises a winding configuration supported by the stator. The winding configuration comprises at least three pole pairs through which phase current flows resulting in three three-phase systems. Each phase system has a first rotor reference frame axis current that produces a levitating force with no average torque and a second rotor reference frame axis current that produces torque.

  13. Control system for bearingless motor-generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Peter E. (Inventor); Jansen, Ralph H. (Inventor); Dever, Timothy P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A control system for an electromagnetic rotary drive for bearingless motor-generators comprises a winding configuration comprising a plurality of individual pole pairs through which phase current flows, each phase current producing both a lateral force and a torque. A motor-generator comprises a stator, a rotor supported for movement relative to the stator, and a control system. The motor-generator comprises a winding configuration supported by the stator. The winding configuration comprises at least three pole pairs through which phase current flows resulting in three three-phase systems. Each phase system has a first rotor reference frame axis current that produces a levitating force with no average torque and a second rotor reference frame axis current that produces torque.

  14. Influence analysis of structural parameters and operating parameters on electromagnetic properties of HTS linear induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J.; Sheng, L.; Li, D.; Zhao, J.; Li, Sh.; Qin, W.; Fan, Y.; Zheng, Q. L.; Zhang, W.

    A novel High Temperature Superconductor Linear Induction Motor (HTS LIM) is researched in this paper. Since the critical current and the electromagnetic force of the motor are determined mainly by the primary slot leakage flux, the main magnetic flux and eddy current respectively, in order to research the influence of structural parameters and operating parameters on electromagnetic properties of HTS LIM, the motor was analyzed by 2D transient Finite Element Method (FEM). The properties of the motor, such as the maximum slot leakage flux density, motor thrust, motor vertical force and critical current are analyzed with different structural parameters and operating parameters. In addition, an experimental investigation was carried out on prototype HTS motor. Electrical parameters were deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM. AC losses of one HTS coil in the motor were measured and AC losses of all HTS coils in HTS LIM were estimated. The results in this paper could provide reference for the design and research on the HTS LIM.

  15. Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peak, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

  16. 46 CFR 111.70-3 - Motor controllers and motor-control centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1), as appropriate, for the location where it is installed. In... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 110.10-1) provides guidance on the differences between devices meeting NEMA and those meeting IEC for motor service. (b) Low-voltage release. Each motor controller for a...

  17. Microcomputer controlled soft start of motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Miao; Wang, Yanpeng; Li, Shian

    2005-12-01

    Improving the starting characteristics of a motor is an important part of the motor control. An intelligent soft starting technique was adopted in the starter and used in the present study because of its many advantages compared with conventional starting processes. The core of the soft starter was a single chip (Atmel 8098), its soul was the software and its control object was a Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR). The starter achieved not only current-limit starting, but also closed-loop control with a stator current detection circuit. In conclusion, as a result of digital control, starting characteristic can be conveniently chosen according to the load. In addition the starter is of small size, and starting is smooth and reliable due to current feedback.

  18. Neuroplasticity in respiratory motor control.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Gordon S; Johnson, Stephen M

    2003-01-01

    Although recent evidence demonstrates considerable neuroplasticity in the respiratory control system, a comprehensive conceptual framework is lacking. Our goals in this review are to define plasticity (and related neural properties) as it pertains to respiratory control and to discuss potential sites, mechanisms, and known categories of respiratory plasticity. Respiratory plasticity is defined as a persistent change in the neural control system based on prior experience. Plasticity may involve structural and/or functional alterations (most commonly both) and can arise from multiple cellular/synaptic mechanisms at different sites in the respiratory control system. Respiratory neuroplasticity is critically dependent on the establishment of necessary preconditions, the stimulus paradigm, the balance between opposing modulatory systems, age, gender, and genetics. Respiratory plasticity can be induced by hypoxia, hypercapnia, exercise, injury, stress, and pharmacological interventions or conditioning and occurs during development as well as in adults. Developmental plasticity is induced by experiences (e.g., altered respiratory gases) during sensitive developmental periods, thereby altering mature respiratory control. The same experience later in life has little or no effect. In adults, neuromodulation plays a prominent role in several forms of respiratory plasticity. For example, serotonergic modulation is thought to initiate and/or maintain respiratory plasticity following intermittent hypoxia, repeated hypercapnic exercise, spinal sensory denervation, spinal cord injury, and at least some conditioned reflexes. Considerable work is necessary before we fully appreciate the biological significance of respiratory plasticity, its underlying cellular/molecular and network mechanisms, and the potential to harness respiratory plasticity as a therapeutic tool. PMID:12486024

  19. Motor Control Theories and Their Applications

    PubMed Central

    Latash, Mark L.; Levin, Mindy F.; Scholz, John P.; Schöner, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Summary We describe several influential hypotheses in the field of motor control including the equilibrium-point (referent configuration) hypothesis, the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, and the idea of synergies based on the principle of motor abundance. The equilibrium-point hypothesis is based on the idea of control with thresholds for activation of neuronal pools; it provides a framework for analysis of both voluntary and involuntary movements. In particular, control of a single muscle can be adequately described with changes in the threshold of motor unit recruitment during slow muscle stretch (threshold of the tonic stretch reflex). Unlike the ideas of internal models, the equilibrium-point hypothesis does not assume neural computations of mechanical variables. The uncontrolled manifold hypothesis is based on the dynamic system approach to movements; it offers a toolbox to analyze synergic changes within redundant sets of elements related to stabilization of potentially important performance variables. The referent configuration hypothesis and the principle of abundance can be naturally combined into a single coherent scheme of control of multi-element systems. A body of experimental data on healthy persons and patients with movement disorders are reviewed in support of the mentioned hypotheses. In particular, movement disorders associated with spasticity are considered as consequences of an impaired ability to shift threshold of the tonic stretch reflex within the whole normal range. Technical details and applications of the mentioned hypotheses to studies of motor learning are described. We view the mentioned hypotheses as the most promising ones in the field of motor control, based on a solid physical and neurophysiological foundation. PMID:20944446

  20. A universal computer control system for motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szakaly, Zoltan F. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A control system for a multi-motor system such as a space telerobot, having a remote computational node and a local computational node interconnected with one another by a high speed data link is described. A Universal Computer Control System (UCCS) for the telerobot is located at each node. Each node is provided with a multibus computer system which is characterized by a plurality of processors with all processors being connected to a common bus, and including at least one command processor. The command processor communicates over the bus with a plurality of joint controller cards. A plurality of direct current torque motors, of the type used in telerobot joints and telerobot hand-held controllers, are connected to the controller cards and responds to digital control signals from the command processor. Essential motor operating parameters are sensed by analog sensing circuits and the sensed analog signals are converted to digital signals for storage at the controller cards where such signals can be read during an address read/write cycle of the command processing processor.

  1. A single/two-phase, regenerative, variable speed, induction motor drive with sinusoidal input current

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, M.F.; Zhong, L.

    1995-12-31

    The single phase induction motor with two windings, main and auxiliary, is probably the most widely used motor in the world. The mains operated single-phase motor usually operates at low power factor, low efficiency and at fixed speed. At most, two or three fixed speeds are provided when required, through manual intervention. Such fixed speed operation hinders product designers from incorporating many interesting and useful features in their products. The present concern on harmonic pollution of the supply and low power factor operation, as embodied in the recent IEC555-2 standard, also calls for power factor correction measures to be included in applications where a single phase motor is used. This paper presents a variable speed single-phase motor (with two windings) drive that utilizes just six switches as found in the emerging intelligent power modules (IPM). Just one integrated module with six switches serves to implement the input rectifier with sinusoidal input current, and the two-phase VSI or CSI inverter to drive the two phases of the motor with balanced ampere-turns. The input rectifier is also reversible, so that the motor can be braked with energy return to the mains, thus operating with high efficiency at all times.

  2. Applying adjustable speed drives (ASD`s) to 3 phase induction NEMA frame motors

    SciTech Connect

    Manz, L.

    1995-06-01

    The availability, price, and flexibility of ASD`s for use with three phase induction motors (referred to simply as motors in the rest of this article) has made ASD`s very common items in many applications where AC and DC motors have been applied in the past. Mating the ASD to the motor and the load requirements is the responsibility of a system integrator. In some projects the system integrator may be the equipment supplier. In others, it may be the ASD supplier. In still others, it may be the Engineer in the mill who integrates the system. Regardless of who integrates the system, if any of the parts do not function properly, the plant engineer has the frustration of plant down time while trying to get the system running. It is the intention of the author in writing this paper to first explain why the motor gets hotter on ASD power than it does on sine wave power. Second, he will explain how to determine the derating if any required on standard motors when applied to ASD`s. There are other areas of concern in mating a motor to an ASD including noise, vibration, and insulation related issues. These will not be included in this paper and could easily be the subject of another paper in the future.

  3. DC Motor control using motor-generator set with controlled generator field

    DOEpatents

    Belsterling, Charles A.; Stone, John

    1982-01-01

    A d.c. generator is connected in series opposed to the polarity of a d.c. power source supplying a d.c. drive motor. The generator is part of a motor-generator set, the motor of which is supplied from the power source connected to the motor. A generator field control means varies the field produced by at least one of the generator windings in order to change the effective voltage output. When the generator voltage is exactly equal to the d.c. voltage supply, no voltage is applied across the drive motor. As the field of the generator is reduced, the drive motor is supplied greater voltage until the full voltage of the d.c. power source is supplied when the generator has zero field applied. Additional voltage may be applied across the drive motor by reversing and increasing the reversed field on the generator. The drive motor may be reversed in direction from standstill by increasing the generator field so that a reverse voltage is applied across the d.c. motor.

  4. Integrated Control of Axonemal Dynein AAA+ Motors

    PubMed Central

    King, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Axonemal dyneins are AAA+ enzymes that convert ATP hydrolysis to mechanical work. This leads to the sliding of doublet microtubules with respect to each other and ultimately the generation of ciliary/flagellar beating. However, in order for useful work to be generated, the action of individual dynein motors must be precisely controlled. In addition, cells modulate the motility of these organelles through a variety of second messenger systems and these signals too must be integrated by the dynein motors to yield an appropriate output. This review describes the current status of efforts to understand dynein control mechanisms and their connectivity focusing mainly on studies of the outer dynein arm from axonemes of the unicellular biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas. PMID:22406539

  5. Artificial Intelligent Controller for a DC Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delavari, Hadi; Ranjbar Noiey, Abolzafl; Minagar, Sara

    The Speed and position control of DC motors is addressed in this paper. An optimal intelligent control scheme is proposed for the system. Preliminary a PID controller is designed using Genetic Algorithms (GA). The proposed controller is implemented by using optimal integral state feedback control with GA and Kalman filter. In the proposed scheme, performance depends on choosing weighting matrices Q and R in the cost function, and accordingly GA is used to find these proper weighting matrices. In order to reduce the control performance degradation due to system parameters variation, a Kalman filter is gained. The performance of the proposed technique (ISF) is compared with PID controller. Computer simulation validates the effectiveness of the proposed scheme even in presence of uncertainties.

  6. Increasing refiner production by using motor thermal capacity for protection and control

    SciTech Connect

    Grainger, L.G.; McDonald, M.C.

    1997-05-01

    Industrial motors are typically controlled and operated by closely monitoring the stator winding temperatures and limiting the phase currents within the motor manufacturer`s full-load ampacity rating. A different approach to motor operation and control was implemented at the Blue Ridge Lumber medium density fiberboard (MDF) plant at Whitecourt, Alta., Canada. The capacity control of the refiner is based on using the remaining thermal capacity of the motor as the primary control parameter. In this installation, a 4,000-hp totally enclosed water air cooled (TEWAC) squirrel-cage induction motor is continuously operating above the manufacturer`s rated full-load current, but is being controlled by maintaining thermal capacity at 50%. Temporary current loadings well above this are permitted for up to several minutes to accommodate variations in the wood feed stock to the refiner. This was implemented by installing a modern motor protection relay, communication with a programmable logic controller (PLC) system, and the development of operator interface displays to provide plant operators with the necessary information to monitor the motor parameters. Factors which needed to be considered were the electrical power system limitations, the motor cooling effectiveness, and mechanical limitations imposed by the refiner shaft design.

  7. Smart Technique for Induction Motors Diagnosis by Monitoring the Power Factor Using Only the Measured Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shnibha, R. A.; Albarabar, A. S.

    2012-05-01

    This paper is concerned with accurate, early and reliable induction motor IM fault detection and diagnosis using an enhanced power parameter measurement technique. IM protection devices typically monitor the motor current and/or voltage to provide the motor protection from e.g. current overload, over/under voltage, etc. One of the interesting parameters to monitor is the operating power factor (PF) of the IM which provides better under-load protection compared to the motor current based approaches. The PF of the motor is determined by the level of the current and voltage that are drawn, and offers non-intrusive monitoring. Traditionally, PF estimation would require both voltage and the current measurements to apply the displacement method. This paper will use a method of determining the operating PF of the IM using only the measured current and the manufacturer data that are typically available from the nameplate and/or datasheet for IM monitoring. The novelty of this work lies in detecting very low phase imbalance related faults and misalignment. Much of the previous work has dealt with detecting phase imbalance faults at higher degrees of severity, i.e. voltage drops of 10% or more. The technique was tested by empirical measurements on test rig comprised a 1.1 kW variable speed three phase induction motor with varying output load (No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% load). One common faults was introduced; imbalance in one phase as the electrical fault The experimental results demonstrate that the PF can be successfully applied for IM fault diagnosis and the present study shows that severity fault detection using PF is promising. The proposed method offers a potentially reliable, non-intrusive, and inexpensive CM tool which can be implemented with real-time monitoring systems

  8. The Development of Oral Motor Control and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcock, Katie

    2006-01-01

    Motor control has long been associated with language skill, in deficits, both acquired and developmental, and in typical development. Most evidence comes from limb praxis however; the link between oral motor control and speech and language has been neglected, despite the fact that most language users talk with their mouths. Oral motor control is…

  9. Application to induction motor faults diagnosis of the amplitude recovery method combined with FFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yukun; Guo, Liwei; Wang, Qixiang; An, Guoqing; Guo, Ming; Lian, Hao

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a signal processing method - amplitude recovery method (abbreviated to ARM) - that can be used as the signal pre-processing for fast Fourier transform (FFT) in order to analyze the spectrum of the other-order harmonics rather than the fundamental frequency in stator currents and diagnose subtle faults in induction motors. In this situation, the ARM functions as a filter that can filter out the component of the fundamental frequency from three phases of stator currents of the induction motor. The filtering result of the ARM can be provided to FFT to do further spectrum analysis. In this way, the amplitudes of other-order frequencies can be extracted and analyzed independently. If the FFT is used without the ARM pre-processing and the components of other-order frequencies, compared to the fundamental frequency, are fainter, the amplitudes of other-order frequencies are not able easily to extract out from stator currents. The reason is when the FFT is used direct to analyze the original signal, all the frequencies in the spectrum analysis of original stator current signal have the same weight. The ARM is capable of separating the other-order part in stator currents from the fundamental-order part. Compared to the existent digital filters, the ARM has the benefits, including its stop-band narrow enough just to stop the fundamental frequency, its simple operations of algebra and trigonometry without any integration, and its deduction direct from mathematics equations without any artificial adjustment. The ARM can be also used by itself as a coarse-grained diagnosis of faults in induction motors when they are working. These features can be applied to monitor and diagnose the subtle faults in induction motors to guard them from some damages when they are in operation. The diagnosis application of ARM combined with FFT is also displayed in this paper with the experimented induction motor. The test results verify the rationality and feasibility of the

  10. Induction factor optimization through variable lift control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooney, John; Corke, Thomas; Nelson, Robert; Williams, Theodore

    2011-11-01

    Due to practical design limitations coupled with the detrimental effects posed by complex wind regimes, modern wind turbines struggle to maintain or even reach ideal operational states. With additional gains through traditional approaches becoming more difficult and costly, active lift control represents a more attractive option for future designs. Here, plasma actuators have been explored experimentally in trailing edge applications for use in attached flow regimes. This authority would be used to drive the axial induction factor toward the ideal given by the Betz limit through distributed lift control thereby enhancing energy capture. Predictions of power improvement achievable by this methodology are made with blade - element momentum theory but will eventually be demonstrated in the field at the Laboratory for Enhanced Wind Energy Design, currently under construction at the University of Notre Dame.

  11. Balanced-Bridge Feedback Control Of Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Boris J.

    1990-01-01

    Sensitivity to variations in electrical and mechanical characteristics reduced. Proposed control system for motor-driven rotary actuator includes three nested feedback loops which, when properly designed, decoupled from each other. Intended to increase accuracy of control by mitigating such degrading effects as vibrations and variations in electrical and mechanical characteristics of structure rotated. Lends itself to optimization of performance via independent optimization of each of three loops. Includes outer, actuator, and driver feedback loops, configured so that actuator is subsystem, and driver is subsystem of actuator.

  12. Induction of plasticity in the dominant and non-dominant motor cortices of humans.

    PubMed

    Ridding, M C; Flavel, S C

    2006-06-01

    There are clear hemispheric differences in the human motor system. Studies using magnetic resonance morphometry have shown that representation of hand muscles is larger in the dominant hemisphere than the non-dominant hemisphere. There is some limited evidence of electrophysiological differences between hemispheres. For example, it has been reported recently that there is less intracortical inhibition in the dominant hemisphere than the non-dominant hemisphere, and it has been hypothesised that this reduction in inhibition may facilitate use-dependent plasticity in the dominant motor cortex. In the present study we examined this hypothesis in human subjects by examining plasticity induction in both dominant and non-dominant hemispheres using an experimental paradigm known to induce motor cortical plasticity, namely paired associative stimulation (PAS). Additionally, we investigated changes in dominant and non-dominant hand performance on a simple ballistic training task. Short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) was also measured for both dominant and non-dominant hands at a range of conditioning intensities. There was significantly less SICI in the dominant motor cortical hand area than in the non-dominant hand area. PAS induced a significant, and similar, increase in motor cortical excitability in both the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. Motor training resulted in significant performance improvement in both dominant and non-dominant hands. However, there was significantly more improvement in the non-dominant hand. The results from these studies provide some further evidence of electrophysiological differences between the motor cortices of the two hemispheres. Additionally, these findings offer no support for the hypothesis that the dominant hemisphere is positioned more favourably, due to decreased inhibitory tone, than the non-dominant hemisphere for use-dependent plasticity. PMID:16501966

  13. Spatial constancy mechanisms in motor control.

    PubMed

    Medendorp, W Pieter

    2011-02-27

    The success of the human species in interacting with the environment depends on the ability to maintain spatial stability despite the continuous changes in sensory and motor inputs owing to movements of eyes, head and body. In this paper, I will review recent advances in the understanding of how the brain deals with the dynamic flow of sensory and motor information in order to maintain spatial constancy of movement goals. The first part summarizes studies in the saccadic system, showing that spatial constancy is governed by a dynamic feed-forward process, by gaze-centred remapping of target representations in anticipation of and across eye movements. The subsequent sections relate to other oculomotor behaviour, such as eye-head gaze shifts, smooth pursuit and vergence eye movements, and their implications for feed-forward mechanisms for spatial constancy. Work that studied the geometric complexities in spatial constancy and saccadic guidance across head and body movements, distinguishing between self-generated and passively induced motion, indicates that both feed-forward and sensory feedback processing play a role in spatial updating of movement goals. The paper ends with a discussion of the behavioural mechanisms of spatial constancy for arm motor control and their physiological implications for the brain. Taken together, the emerging picture is that the brain computes an evolving representation of three-dimensional action space, whose internal metric is updated in a nonlinear way, by optimally integrating noisy and ambiguous afferent and efferent signals. PMID:21242137

  14. One hand clapping: lateralization of motor control

    PubMed Central

    Welniarz, Quentin; Dusart, Isabelle; Gallea, Cécile; Roze, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Lateralization of motor control refers to the ability to produce pure unilateral or asymmetric movements. It is required for a variety of coordinated activities, including skilled bimanual tasks and locomotion. Here we discuss the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological underpinnings of lateralized motor outputs. Significant breakthroughs have been made in the past few years by studying the two known conditions characterized by the inability to properly produce unilateral or asymmetric movements, namely human patients with congenital “mirror movements” and model rodents with a “hopping gait”. Whereas mirror movements are associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity and abnormal corticospinal projections, abnormal spinal cord interneurons trajectory is responsible for the “hopping gait”. Proper commissural axon guidance is a critical requirement for these mechanisms. Interestingly, the analysis of these two conditions reveals that the production of asymmetric movements involves similar anatomical and functional requirements but in two different structures: (i) lateralized activation of the brain or spinal cord through contralateral silencing by cross-midline inhibition; and (ii) unilateral transmission of this activation, resulting in lateralized motor output. PMID:26082690

  15. Spatial constancy mechanisms in motor control

    PubMed Central

    Medendorp, W. Pieter

    2011-01-01

    The success of the human species in interacting with the environment depends on the ability to maintain spatial stability despite the continuous changes in sensory and motor inputs owing to movements of eyes, head and body. In this paper, I will review recent advances in the understanding of how the brain deals with the dynamic flow of sensory and motor information in order to maintain spatial constancy of movement goals. The first part summarizes studies in the saccadic system, showing that spatial constancy is governed by a dynamic feed-forward process, by gaze-centred remapping of target representations in anticipation of and across eye movements. The subsequent sections relate to other oculomotor behaviour, such as eye–head gaze shifts, smooth pursuit and vergence eye movements, and their implications for feed-forward mechanisms for spatial constancy. Work that studied the geometric complexities in spatial constancy and saccadic guidance across head and body movements, distinguishing between self-generated and passively induced motion, indicates that both feed-forward and sensory feedback processing play a role in spatial updating of movement goals. The paper ends with a discussion of the behavioural mechanisms of spatial constancy for arm motor control and their physiological implications for the brain. Taken together, the emerging picture is that the brain computes an evolving representation of three-dimensional action space, whose internal metric is updated in a nonlinear way, by optimally integrating noisy and ambiguous afferent and efferent signals. PMID:21242137

  16. Integrating motor control and motor learning concepts with neuropsychological perspectives on apraxia and developmental dyspraxia.

    PubMed

    Goodgold-Edwards, S A; Cermak, S A

    1990-05-01

    This paper reviews selected pertinent literature on the learning and performance of skilled motor acts. Information on normal motor performance is integrated with that on adult apraxia and related to common problems observed in children with developmental dyspraxia. The process of motor skill acquisition is outlined, and aspects of styles of motor organization, modes of control, premovement organization, sensory organization, and analysis of the types of errors are presented. Recommendations for clinicians working with children with developmental dyspraxia are offered.

  17. Losses in chopper-controlled DC series motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    Motors for electric vehicle (EV) applications must have different features than dc motors designed for industrial applications. The EV motor application is characterized by the following requirements: (1) the need for highest possible efficiency from light load to overload, for maximum EV range, (2) large short time overload capability (The ratio of peak to average power varies from 5/1 in heavy city traffic to 3/1 in suburban driving situations) and (3) operation from power supply voltage levels of 84 to 144 volts (probably 120 volts maximum). A test facility utilizing a dc generator as a substitute for a battery pack was designed and utilized. Criteria for the design of such a facility are presented. Two motors, differing in design detail, commercially available for EV use were tested. Losses measured are discussed, as are waves forms and their harmonic content, the measurements of resistance and inductance, EV motor/chopper application criteria, and motor design considerations.

  18. A centre for accommodative vergence motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D.

    1973-01-01

    Latencies in accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil-diameter responses to changing accommodation stimuli, as well as latencies in pupil response to light-intensity changes were measured. From the information obtained, a block diagram has been derived that uses the least number of blocks for representing the accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil systems. The signal transmission delays over the various circuits of the model have been determined and compared to known experimental physiological-delay data. The results suggest the existence of a motor center that controls the accommodative vergence and is completely independent of the accommodation system.

  19. Control of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors with Special Application to Fractional-Slot Motors with Concentrated Windings

    SciTech Connect

    McKeever, John W; Patil, Niranjan; Lawler, Jack

    2007-07-01

    A 30 pole, 6 kW, and 6000 maximum revolutions per minute (rpm) prototype of the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with fractional-slot concentrated windings (FSCW) has been designed, built, and tested at the University of Wisconsin at Madison (UWM). This machine has significantly more inductance than that of regular PMSMs. The prototype was delivered in April 2006 to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing and development of a controller that will achieve maximum efficiency. In advance of the test/control development effort, ORNL has used the PMSM models developed over a number of previous studies to study how steady state performance of high inductance PMSM machines relates to control issues. This report documents the results of this research. The amount of inductance that enables the motor to achieve infinite constant power speed ratio (CPSR) is given by L{sub {infinity}} = E{sub b}/{Omega}{sub b}I{sub R}, where E{sub b} is the root-mean square (rms) magnitude of the line-to-neutral back-electromotive force (emf) at base speed, {Omega}{sub b} is the base speed in electrical radians per second, and I{sub R} is the rms current rating of the motor windings. The prototype machine that was delivered to ORNL has about 1.5 times as much inductance as a typical PMSM with distributed integral slot windings. The inventors of the FSCW method, who designed the prototype machine, remarked that they were 'too successful' in incorporating inductance into their machine and that steps would be taken to modify the design methodology to reduce the inductance to the optimum value. This study shows a significant advantage of having the higher inductance rather than the optimal value because it enables the motor to develop the required power at lower current thereby reducing motor and inverter losses and improving efficiency. The main problem found with high inductance machines driven by a conventional phase advance (CPA) method is that the motor current at high

  20. Integrated-Circuit Controller For Brushless dc Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Dong Tuan

    1994-01-01

    Generic circuit performs commutation-logic and power-switching functions for control of brushless dc motor. Controller includes commutation-logic and associated control circuitry, power supply, and inverters containing power transistors. Major advantages of controller are size, weight, and power consumption can be made less than other brushless-dc-motor controllers.

  1. Controller for a High-Power, Brushless dc Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David J.; Makdad, Terence A.

    1987-01-01

    Driving and braking torques controllable. Control circuit operates 7-kW, 45-lb-ft (61-N-m), three-phase, brushless dc motor in both motor and generator modes. In motor modes, energy from power source is pulse-width modulated to motor through modified "H-bridge" circuit, in generator mode, energy from motor is pulse-width modulated into bank of load resistors to provide variable braking torques. Circuit provides high-resolution torque control in both directions over wide range of speeds and torques. Tested successfully at bus voltages up to 200 Vdc and currents up to 45 A.

  2. A method of optimal design of single-sided linear induction motor for transit

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, S.B.; Hur, J.; Hyun, D.S.

    1997-09-01

    An optimal design method for a single-sided linear induction motor (SLIM) for transit is described. The authors propose the method which determines the overall parameters of SLIM for transit using only the rated mechanical output. When the optimization is carried out, the slot depth is used as the initial value so that the exact slot depth is calculated iteratively from the circuit equation. The optimization problem of a SLIM design is approached by use of the sequential quadratic programming (SQP). The influence of design variables is analyzed by the rated thrust and the rated velocity respectively.

  3. Real Time Flux Control in PM Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Otaduy, P.J.

    2005-09-27

    Significant research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) is being conducted to develop ways to increase (1) torque, (2) speed range, and (3) efficiency of traction electric motors for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) within existing current and voltage bounds. Current is limited by the inverter semiconductor devices' capability and voltage is limited by the stator wire insulation's ability to withstand the maximum back-electromotive force (emf), which occurs at the upper end of the speed range. One research track has been to explore ways to control the path and magnitude of magnetic flux while the motor is operating. The phrase, real time flux control (RTFC), refers to this mode of operation in which system parameters are changed while the motor is operating to improve its performance and speed range. RTFC has potential to meet an increased torque demand by introducing additional flux through the main air gap from an external source. It can augment the speed range by diverting flux away from the main air gap to reduce back-emf at high speeds. Conventional RTFC technology is known as vector control [1]. Vector control decomposes the stator current into two components; one that produces torque and a second that opposes (weakens) the magnetic field generated by the rotor, thereby requiring more overall stator current and reducing the efficiency. Efficiency can be improved by selecting a RTFC method that reduces the back-emf without increasing the average current. This favors methods that use pulse currents or very low currents to achieve field weakening. Foremost in ORNL's effort to develop flux control is the work of J. S. Hsu. Early research [2,3] introduced direct control of air-gap flux in permanent magnet (PM) machines and demonstrated it with a flux-controlled generator. The configuration eliminates the problem of demagnetization because it diverts all the flux from the magnets instead of

  4. Estimation of the running speed and bearing defect frequencies of an induction motor from vibration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocak, Hasan; Loparo, Kenneth A.

    2004-05-01

    This paper presents two separate algorithms for estimating the running speed and the bearing key frequencies of an induction motor using vibration data. Bearing key frequencies are frequencies at which roller elements pass over a defect point. Most frequency domain-based bearing fault detection and diagnosis techniques (e.g. envelope analysis) rely on vibration measurements and the bearing key frequencies. Thus, estimation of the running speed and the bearing key frequencies are required for failure detection and diagnosis. The paper also incorporates the estimation algorithms with the most commonly used bearing fault detection technique, high-frequency demodulation, to detect bearing faults. Experimental data were used to verify the validity of the algorithms. Data were collected through an accelerometer measuring the vibration from the drive-end ball bearing of an induction motor (Reliance Electric 2HP IQPreAlert)-driven mechanical system. Both inner and outer race defects were artificially introduced to the bearing using electrical discharge machining. A linear vibration model was also developed for generating simulated vibration data. The simulated data were also used to validate the performance of the algorithms. The test results proved the algorithms to be very reliable.

  5. Roles of the orexin system in central motor control.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Yang, Nian; Qiao, Qi-Cheng; Hu, Zhi-An; Zhang, Jun

    2015-02-01

    The neuropeptides orexin-A and orexin-B are produced by one group of neurons located in the lateral hypothalamic/perifornical area. However, the orexins are widely released in entire brain including various central motor control structures. Especially, the loss of orexins has been demonstrated to associate with several motor deficits. Here, we first summarize the present knowledge that describes the anatomical and morphological connections between the orexin system and various central motor control structures. In the next section, the direct influence of orexins on related central motor control structures is reviewed at molecular, cellular, circuitry, and motor activity levels. After the summarization, the characteristic and functional relevance of the orexin system's direct influence on central motor control function are demonstrated and discussed. We also propose a hypothesis as to how the orexin system orchestrates central motor control in a homeostatic regulation manner. Besides, the importance of the orexin system's phasic modulation on related central motor control structures is highlighted in this regulation manner. Finally, a scheme combining the homeostatic regulation of orexin system on central motor control and its effects on other brain functions is presented to discuss the role of orexin system beyond the pure motor activity level, but at the complex behavioral level.

  6. Motor control of Drosophila courtship song.

    PubMed

    Shirangi, Troy R; Stern, David L; Truman, James W

    2013-11-14

    Many animals utilize acoustic signals-or songs-to attract mates. During courtship, Drosophila melanogaster males vibrate a wing to produce trains of pulses and extended tone, called pulse and sine song, respectively. Courtship songs in the genus Drosophila are exceedingly diverse, and different song features appear to have evolved independently of each other. How the nervous system allows such diversity to evolve is not understood. Here, we identify a wing muscle in D. melanogaster (hg1) that is uniquely male-enlarged. The hg1 motoneuron and the sexually dimorphic development of the hg1 muscle are required specifically for the sine component of the male song. In contrast, the motoneuron innervating a sexually monomorphic wing muscle, ps1, is required specifically for a feature of pulse song. Thus, individual wing motor pathways can control separate aspects of courtship song and may provide a "modular" anatomical substrate for the evolution of diverse songs.

  7. Variable current speed controller for eddy current motors

    DOEpatents

    Gerth, H.L.; Bailey, J.M.; Casstevens, J.M.; Dixon, J.H.; Griffith, B.O.; Igou, R.E.

    1982-03-12

    A speed control system for eddy current motors is provided in which the current to the motor from a constant frequency power source is varied by comparing the actual motor speed signal with a setpoint speed signal to control the motor speed according to the selected setpoint speed. A three-phase variable voltage autotransformer is provided for controlling the voltage from a three-phase power supply. A corresponding plurality of current control resistors is provided in series with each phase of the autotransformer output connected to inputs of a three-phase motor. Each resistor is connected in parallel with a set of normally closed contacts of plurality of relays which are operated by control logic. A logic circuit compares the selected speed with the actual motor speed obtained from a digital tachometer monitoring the motor spindle speed and operated the relays to add or substract resistance equally in each phase of the motor input to vary the motor current to control the motor at the selected speed.

  8. Feedback linearisation control of an induction machine augmented by single-hidden layer neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Abbas, Hamou; Belkheiri, Mohammed; Zegnini, Boubakeur

    2016-01-01

    We consider adaptive output feedback control methodology of highly uncertain nonlinear systems with both parametric uncertainties and unmodelled dynamics. The approach is also applicable to systems of unknown, but bounded dimension. However, the relative degree of the regulated output is assumed to be known. This new control strategy is proposed to address the tracking problem of an induction motor based on a modified field-oriented control method. The obtained controller is then augmented by an online neural network that serves as an approximator for the neglected dynamics and modelling errors. The network weight adaptation rule is derived from the Lyapunov stability analysis, that guarantees boundedness of all the error signals of the closed-loop system. Computer simulations of an output feedback controlled induction machine, augmented via single-hidden-layer neural networks, demonstrate the practical potential of the proposed control algorithm.

  9. Coordination and Fine Motor Control Depends on Drosophila TRPγ

    PubMed Central

    Akitake, Bradley; Ren, Qiuting; Boiko, Nina; Ni, Jinfei; Sokabe, Takaaki; Stockand, James D.; Eaton, Benjamin A.; Montell, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Motor coordination is broadly divided into gross and fine motor control, both of which depend on proprioceptive organs. However, the channels that function specifically in fine motor control are unknown. Here, we show that mutations in trpγ disrupt fine motor control while leaving gross motor proficiency intact. The mutants are unable to coordinate precise leg movements during walking, and are ineffective in traversing large gaps due to an inability in making subtle postural adaptations that are requisite for this task. TRPγ is expressed in proprioceptive organs, and is required in both neurons and glia for gap crossing. We expressed TRPγ in vitro, and found that its activity is promoted by membrane stretch. A mutation eliminating the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger suppresses the gap crossing phenotype of trpγ flies. Our findings indicate that TRPγ contributes to fine motor control through mechanical activation in proprioceptive organs, thereby promoting Ca2+ influx, which is required for function. PMID:26028119

  10. Debris control design achievements of the booster separation motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. W.; Chase, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The stringent debris control requirements imposed on the design of the Space Shuttle booster separation motor are described along with the verification program implemented to ensure compliance with debris control objectives. The principal areas emphasized in the design and development of the Booster Separation Motor (BSM) relative to debris control were the propellant formulation and nozzle closures which protect the motors from aerodynamic heating and moisture. A description of the motor design requirements, the propellant formulation and verification program, and the nozzle closures design and verification are presented.

  11. Stepping-Motion Motor-Control Subsystem For Testing Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    Control subsystem closed-loop angular-position-control system causing motor and bearing under test to undergo any of variety of continuous or stepping motions. Also used to test bearing-and-motor assemblies, motors, angular-position sensors including rotating shafts, and like. Monitoring subsystem gathers data used to evaluate performance of bearing or other article under test. Monitoring subsystem described in article, "Monitoring Subsystem For Testing Bearings" (GSC-13432).

  12. Neuronal control of turtle hindlimb motor rhythms.

    PubMed

    Stein, P S G

    2005-03-01

    The turtle, Trachemys scripta elegans, uses its hindlimb during the rhythmic motor behaviors of walking, swimming, and scratching. For some tasks, one or more motor strategies or forms may be produced, e.g., forward swimming or backpaddling. This review discusses experiments that reveal characteristics of the spinal neuronal networks producing these motor behaviors. Limb-movement studies show shared properties such as rhythmic alternation between hip flexion and hip extension, as well as variable properties such as the timing of knee extension in the cycle of hip movements. Motor-pattern studies show shared properties such as rhythmic alternation between hip flexor and hip extensor motor activities, as well as variable properties such as modifiable timing of knee extensor motor activity in the cycle of hip motor activity. Motor patterns also display variations such as the hip-extensor deletion of rostral scratching. Neuronal-network studies reveal mechanisms responsible for movement and motor-pattern properties. Some interneurons in the spinal cord have shared activities, e.g., each unit is active during more than one behavior, and have distinct characteristics, e.g., each unit is most excited during a specific behavior. Interneuronal recordings during variations support the concept of modular organization of central pattern generators in the spinal cord.

  13. Road load simulator tests of the Gould Phase I functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gourash, F.

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  14. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-01-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  15. Motor neurons control locomotor circuit function retrogradely via gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianren; Ampatzis, Konstantinos; Björnfors, E Rebecka; El Manira, Abdeljabbar

    2016-01-21

    Motor neurons are the final stage of neural processing for the execution of motor behaviours. Traditionally, motor neurons have been viewed as the 'final common pathway', serving as passive recipients merely conveying to the muscles the final motor program generated by upstream interneuron circuits. Here we reveal an unforeseen role of motor neurons in controlling the locomotor circuit function via gap junctions in zebrafish. These gap junctions mediate a retrograde analogue propagation of voltage fluctuations from motor neurons to control the synaptic release and recruitment of the upstream V2a interneurons that drive locomotion. Selective inhibition of motor neurons during ongoing locomotion de-recruits V2a interneurons and strongly influences locomotor circuit function. Rather than acting as separate units, gap junctions unite motor neurons and V2a interneurons into functional ensembles endowed with a retrograde analogue computation essential for locomotor rhythm generation. These results show that motor neurons are not a passive recipient of motor commands but an integral component of the neural circuits responsible for motor behaviour.

  16. Beam Control for Ion Induction Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sangster, T.C.; Ahle, L.

    2000-02-17

    Coordinated bending and acceleration of an intense space-charge-dominated ion beam has been achieved for the first time. This required the development of a variable waveform, precision, bi-polar high voltage pulser and a precision, high repetition rate induction core modulator. Waveforms applied to the induction cores accelerate the beam as the bi-polar high voltage pulser delivers a voltage ramp to electrostatic dipoles which bend the beam through a 90 degree permanent magnet quadrupole lattice. Further work on emittance minimization is also reported.

  17. An AC motor drive with power factor control for low cost applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellar, Maria Dias

    2000-10-01

    The front-end rectifier followed by a pulse-width modulated voltage source inverter (PWM-VSI) has been a well-established power converter configuration for many industrial drives. The increasing costs on the utility usage, due to power quality regulations, and the need to improve the VA capacity of systems, e.g. off-shore drilling rigs, have increased the interest in the development of power electronic equipment with power factor control capability. Electrical motors consume a large amount of the available electrical energy, and this energy tends to increase due to the massive emerging applications of electrical motor drives in appliances and in industrial processes. Therefore, the improvement of the power factor of these low power drive systems, usually in the range from fractional horse-power (hp) to 1 hp, is of particular interest. For these power ratings, the system configuration usually comprises a single-phase to three-phase type of converter with additional circuitry for power factor control (PFC). However, this approach has an impact on the system cost and packaging. In this work, a new concept of integrating motor and power factor controls by using a single-phase to three-phase DSP based six-switch converter topology is presented. Unlike other configurations using extra switch(es) and/or extra boost inductor, in this circuit the boost action, for input current shaping, is done by the motor leakage inductances. The power factor control and inverter operation are performed by applying two modulating signals to the SPWM control logic of the converter. In this dissertation, the converter operation and a proposed control strategy will be explained. Simulation and experimental results for a DSP based induction motor drive will be provided as proof of concept. The feasibility and potential of this configuration for ac motor drive applications will be established. The impact of this scheme on the machine operation will also be discussed.

  18. Electrifying the motor engram: effects of tDCS on motor learning and control

    PubMed Central

    de Xivry, Jean-Jacques Orban; Shadmehr, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Learning to control our movements accompanies neuroplasticity of motor areas of the brain. The mechanisms of neuroplasticity are diverse and produce what is referred to as the motor engram, i.e. the neural trace of the motor memory. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) alters the neural and behavioral correlates of motor learning, but its precise influence on the motor engram is unknown. In this review, we summarize the effects of tDCS on neural activity and suggest a few key principles: 1) firing rates are increased by anodal polarization and decreased by cathodal polarization, 2) anodal polarization strengthens newly formed associations, and 3) polarization modulates the memory of new/preferred firing patterns. With these principles in mind, we review the effects of tDCS on motor control, motor learning, and clinical applications. The increased spontaneous and evoked firing rates may account for the modulation of dexterity in non-learning tasks by tDCS. The facilitation of new association may account for the effect of tDCS on learning in sequence tasks while the ability of tDCS to strengthen memories of new firing patterns may underlie the effect of tDCS on consolidation of skills. We then describe the mechanisms of neuroplasticity of motor cortical areas and how they might be influenced by tDCS. We end with current challenges for the fields of brain stimulation and motor learning. PMID:25200178

  19. 26. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE MOTOR CONTROL SWITCHING PANEL FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE MOTOR CONTROL SWITCHING PANEL FOR BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE No. 2 IN THE BOP SHOP'S MOTOR CONTROL CENTER No. 2 ON THE GROUND FLOOR OF THE FURNACE AISLE. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  20. 78 FR 20881 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AQ86 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle... hearings to be held for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as ``Tier 3''),...

  1. Reproducible and controllable induction voltage adder for scaled beam experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Yasuo; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-01

    A reproducible and controllable induction adder was developed using solid-state switching devices and Finemet cores for scaled beam compression experiments. A gate controlled MOSFET circuit was developed for the controllable voltage driver. The MOSFET circuit drove the induction adder at low magnetization levels of the cores which enabled us to form reproducible modulation voltages with jitter less than 0.3 ns. Preliminary beam compression experiments indicated that the induction adder can improve the reproducibility of modulation voltages and advance the beam physics experiments.

  2. Control of power to an inductively heated part

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, D.R.; Frost, C.A.; Kahle, P.M.; Kelley, J.B.; Stanton, S.L.

    1997-05-20

    A process for induction hardening a part to a desired depth with an AC signal applied to the part from a closely coupled induction coil includes measuring the voltage of the AC signal at the coil and the current passing through the coil; and controlling the depth of hardening of the part from the measured voltage and current. The control system determines parameters of the part that are functions of applied voltage and current to the induction coil, and uses a neural network to control the application of the AC signal based on the detected functions for each part. 6 figs.

  3. Control of power to an inductively heated part

    DOEpatents

    Adkins, Douglas R.; Frost, Charles A.; Kahle, Philip M.; Kelley, J. Bruce; Stanton, Suzanne L.

    1997-01-01

    A process for induction hardening a part to a desired depth with an AC signal applied to the part from a closely coupled induction coil includes measuring the voltage of the AC signal at the coil and the current passing through the coil; and controlling the depth of hardening of the part from the measured voltage and current. The control system determines parameters of the part that are functions of applied voltage and current to the induction coil, and uses a neural network to control the application of the AC signal based on the detected functions for each part.

  4. Reproducible and controllable induction voltage adder for scaled beam experiments.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yasuo; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-01

    A reproducible and controllable induction adder was developed using solid-state switching devices and Finemet cores for scaled beam compression experiments. A gate controlled MOSFET circuit was developed for the controllable voltage driver. The MOSFET circuit drove the induction adder at low magnetization levels of the cores which enabled us to form reproducible modulation voltages with jitter less than 0.3 ns. Preliminary beam compression experiments indicated that the induction adder can improve the reproducibility of modulation voltages and advance the beam physics experiments. PMID:27587112

  5. Detection of broken rotor bar faults in induction motor at low load using neural network.

    PubMed

    Bessam, B; Menacer, A; Boumehraz, M; Cherif, H

    2016-09-01

    The knowledge of the broken rotor bars characteristic frequencies and amplitudes has a great importance for all related diagnostic methods. The monitoring of motor faults requires a high resolution spectrum to separate different frequency components. The Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) has been widely used to achieve these requirements. However, at low slip this technique cannot give good results. As a solution for these problems, this paper proposes an efficient technique based on a neural network approach and Hilbert transform (HT) for broken rotor bar diagnosis in induction machines at low load. The Hilbert transform is used to extract the stator current envelope (SCE). Two features are selected from the (SCE) spectrum (the amplitude and frequency of the harmonic). These features will be used as input for neural network. The results obtained are astonishing and it is capable to detect the correct number of broken rotor bars under different load conditions. PMID:27329853

  6. DC torque motor actuated anti-lock brake controller

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, P.D.; Kade, A.

    1989-02-21

    A wheel lock control system is described for limiting the brake pressure applied to the brake of a vehicle wheel traveling over a road surface, the system comprising: an actuator for controlling the brake pressure to the brake of the wheel, the actuator including a torque motor for generating a motor torque in response to motor current to control the applied brake pressure in accordance with the value of the motor torque, the motor torque having a value proportional to the value of the motor current; means for determining the tire torque tending to accelerate the wheel during the application of brake pressure; means for storing the value of motor current corresponding to the maximum determined value of tire torque; means for detecting an incipient wheel lockup condition; and means for establishing the motor current following a detected incipient wheel lockup condition at a value having a predetermined relationship to the stored value of motor current to control the brake pressure at a predetermined braking condition.

  7. Controllable 3D atomic Brownian motor in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dion, C. M.; Sjölund, P.; Petra, S. J. H.; Jonsell, S.; Nylén, M.; Sanchez-Palencia, L.; Kastberg, A.

    2008-06-01

    We study a Brownian motor, based on cold atoms in optical lattices, where atomic motion can be induced in a controlled manner in an arbitrary direction, by rectification of isotropic random fluctuations. In contrast with ratchet mechanisms, our Brownian motor operates in a potential that is spatially and temporally symmetric, in apparent contradiction to the Curie principle. Simulations, based on the Fokker-Planck equation, allow us to gain knowledge on the qualitative behaviour of our Brownian motor. Studies of Brownian motors, and in particular ones with unique control properties, are of fundamental interest because of the role they play in protein motors and their potential applications in nanotechnology. In particular, our system opens the way to the study of quantum Brownian motors.

  8. DC motor proportional control system for orthotic devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaise, H. T.; Allen, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Multi-channel proportional control system for operation of dc motors for use with externally-powered orthotic arm braces is described. Components of circuitry and principles of operation are described. Schematic diagram of control circuit is provided.

  9. Empirical mode decomposition and neural networks on FPGA for fault diagnosis in induction motors.

    PubMed

    Camarena-Martinez, David; Valtierra-Rodriguez, Martin; Garcia-Perez, Arturo; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Romero-Troncoso, Rene de Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, many industrial applications require online systems that combine several processing techniques in order to offer solutions to complex problems as the case of detection and classification of multiple faults in induction motors. In this work, a novel digital structure to implement the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) for processing nonstationary and nonlinear signals using the full spline-cubic function is presented; besides, it is combined with an adaptive linear network (ADALINE)-based frequency estimator and a feed forward neural network (FFNN)-based classifier to provide an intelligent methodology for the automatic diagnosis during the startup transient of motor faults such as: one and two broken rotor bars, bearing defects, and unbalance. Moreover, the overall methodology implementation into a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) allows an online and real-time operation, thanks to its parallelism and high-performance capabilities as a system-on-a-chip (SoC) solution. The detection and classification results show the effectiveness of the proposed fused techniques; besides, the high precision and minimum resource usage of the developed digital structures make them a suitable and low-cost solution for this and many other industrial applications.

  10. Empirical Mode Decomposition and Neural Networks on FPGA for Fault Diagnosis in Induction Motors

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Perez, Arturo; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; Romero-Troncoso, Rene de Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, many industrial applications require online systems that combine several processing techniques in order to offer solutions to complex problems as the case of detection and classification of multiple faults in induction motors. In this work, a novel digital structure to implement the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) for processing nonstationary and nonlinear signals using the full spline-cubic function is presented; besides, it is combined with an adaptive linear network (ADALINE)-based frequency estimator and a feed forward neural network (FFNN)-based classifier to provide an intelligent methodology for the automatic diagnosis during the startup transient of motor faults such as: one and two broken rotor bars, bearing defects, and unbalance. Moreover, the overall methodology implementation into a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) allows an online and real-time operation, thanks to its parallelism and high-performance capabilities as a system-on-a-chip (SoC) solution. The detection and classification results show the effectiveness of the proposed fused techniques; besides, the high precision and minimum resource usage of the developed digital structures make them a suitable and low-cost solution for this and many other industrial applications. PMID:24678281

  11. ARDOLORES: an Arduino based motors control system for DOLORES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Manuel; Ventura, H.; San Juan, J.; Di Fabrizio, L.

    2014-07-01

    We present ARDOLORES a custom made motor control system for the DOLORES instrument in use at the TNG telescope. ARDOLORES replaced the original PMAC based motor control system at a fraction of the cost. The whole system is composed by one master Arduino ONE with its Ethernet shield, to handle the communications with the external world through an Ethernet socket, and by one Arduino ONE with its custom motor shield for each axis to be controlled. The communication between the master and slaves Arduinos is made possible through the I2C bus. Also a Java web-service has been written to control the motors from an higher level and provides an external API for the scientific GUI. The system has been working since January 2012 handling the DOLORES motors and has demonstrated to be stable, reliable, and with easy maintenance in both the hardware and the software parts.

  12. Improved SCR ac Motor Controller for Battery Powered Urban Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latos, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    An improved ac motor controller, which when coupled to a standard ac induction motor and a dc propulsion battery would provide a complete electric vehicle power train with the exception of the mechanical transmission and drive wheels was designed. In such a system, the motor controller converts the dc electrical power available at the battery terminals to ac electrical power for the induction motor in response to the drivers commands. The performance requirements of a hypothetical electric vehicle with an upper weight bound of 1590 kg (3500 lb) were used to determine the power rating of the controller. Vehicle acceleration capability, top speed, and gradeability requisites were contained in the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Schedule 227a(d) driving cycle. The important capabilities contained in this driving cycle are a vehicle acceleration requirement of 0 to 72.4 kmph (0 to 45 mph) in 28 seconds a top speed of 88.5 kmph (55 mph), and the ability to negotiate a 10% grade at 48 kmph (30 mph). A 10% grade is defined as one foot of vertical rise per 10 feet of horizontal distance.

  13. Control Systems Lab Using a LEGO Mindstorms NXT Motor System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a low-cost LEGO Mindstorms NXT motor system for teaching classical and modern control theories in standard third-year undergraduate courses. The LEGO motor system can be used in conjunction with MATLAB, Simulink, and several necessary toolboxes to demonstrate: 1) a modeling technique; 2) proportional-integral-differential…

  14. Gestalt Principles in the Control of Motor Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapp, Stuart T.; Jagacinski, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    We argue that 4 fundamental gestalt phenomena in perception apply to the control of motor action. First, a motor gestalt, like a perceptual gestalt, is holistic in the sense that it is processed as a single unit. This notion is consistent with reaction time results indicating that all gestures for a brief unit of action must be programmed prior to…

  15. Regulating Cognitive Control through Approach-Avoidance Motor Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Severine; Holland, Rob W.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, the regulatory function of approach-avoidance cues in activating cognitive control processes was investigated. It was hypothesized that avoidance motor actions, relative to approach motor actions, increase the recruitment of cognitive resources, resulting in better performance on tasks that draw on these capacities. In Study 1,…

  16. Aging and Concurrent Task Performance: Cognitive Demand and Motor Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albinet, Cedric; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Beasman, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    A motor task that requires fine control of upper limb movements and a cognitive task that requires executive processing--first performing them separately and then concurrently--was performed by 18 young and 18 older adults. The motor task required participants to tap alternatively on two targets, the sizes of which varied systematically. The…

  17. Speech motor control and acute mountain sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cymerman, Allen; Lieberman, Philip; Hochstadt, Jesse; Rock, Paul B.; Butterfield, Gail E.; Moore, Lorna G.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An objective method that accurately quantifies the severity of Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) symptoms is needed to enable more reliable evaluation of altitude acclimatization and testing of potentially beneficial interventions. HYPOTHESIS: Changes in human articulation, as quantified by timed variations in acoustic waveforms of specific spoken words (voice onset time; VOT), are correlated with the severity of AMS. METHODS: Fifteen volunteers were exposed to a simulated altitude of 4300 m (446 mm Hg) in a hypobaric chamber for 48 h. Speech motor control was determined from digitally recorded and analyzed timing patterns of 30 different monosyllabic words characterized as voiced and unvoiced, and as labial, alveolar, or velar. The Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ) was used to assess AMS. RESULTS: Significant AMS symptoms occurred after 4 h, peaked at 16 h, and returned toward baseline after 48 h. Labial VOTs were shorter after 4 and 39 h of exposure; velar VOTs were altered only after 4 h; and there were no changes in alveolar VOTs. The duration of vowel sounds was increased after 4 h of exposure and returned to normal thereafter. Only 1 of 15 subjects did not increase vowel time after 4 h of exposure. The 39-h labial (p = 0.009) and velar (p = 0.037) voiced-unvoiced timed separations consonants and the symptoms of AMS were significantly correlated. CONCLUSIONS: Two objective measures of speech production were affected by exposure to 4300 m altitude and correlated with AMS severity. Alterations in speech production may represent an objective measure of AMS and central vulnerability to hypoxia.

  18. The development of oral motor control and language.

    PubMed

    Alcock, Katie

    2006-08-01

    Motor control has long been associated with language skill, in deficits, both acquired and developmental, and in typical development. Most evidence comes from limb praxis however; the link between oral motor control and speech and language has been neglected, despite the fact that most language users talk with their mouths. Oral motor control is affected in a variety of developmental disorders, including Down syndrome. However, its development is poorly understood. We investigated oral motor control in three groups: adults with acquired aphasia, individuals with developmental dysphasia, and typically developing children. In individuals with speech and language difficulties, oral motor control was impaired. More complex movements and sets of movements were even harder for individuals with language impairments. In typically developing children (21-24 months), oral motor control was found to be related to language skills. In both studies, a closer relationship was found between language and complex oral movements than simple oral movements. This relationship remained when the effect of overall cognitive ability was removed. Children who were poor at oral movements were not good at language, although children who were good at oral movements could fall anywhere on the distribution of language abilities. Oral motor skills may be a necessary precursor for language skills.

  19. Sequential control by speed drive for ac motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoum, Nader

    2012-11-01

    The speed drive for ac motor is widely used in the industrial field to allow direct control for the speed and torque without any feedback from the motor shaft. By using the ABB ACS800 speed drive unit, the speed and torque can be controlled using sequential control method. Sequential control is one of the application control method provided in the ABB ACS800 Drive, where a set of events or action performed in a particular order one after the other to control the speed and torque of the ac motor. It was claimed that sequential control method is using the preset seven constant speeds being provided in ABB ACS800 drive to control the speed and torque in a continuous and sequential manner. The characteristics and features of controlling the speed and torque using sequential control method can be investigated by observing the graphs and curves plotted which are obtained from the practical result. Sequential control can run either in the Direct Torque Control (DTC) or Scalar motor control mode. By using sequential control method, the ABB ACS800 drive can be programmed to run the motor automatically according to the time setting of the seven preset constant speeds. Besides, the intention of this project is to generate a new form of the experimental set up.

  20. Control of Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet Motors with Special Application to Fractional-Slot Concentrated Windings

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J.S.

    2005-12-21

    It is well known that the ability of the permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) to operate over a wide constant power speed range (CPSR) is dependent upon the machine inductance [1,2,3,4,5]. Early approaches for extending CPSR operation included adding supplementary inductance in series with the motor [1] and the use of anti-parallel thyristor pairs in series with the motor-phase windings [5]. The increased inductance method is compatible with a voltage-source inverter (VSI) controlled by pulse-width modulation (PWM) which is called the conventional phase advance (CPA) method. The thyristor method has been called the dual mode inverter control (DMIC). Neither of these techniques has met with wide acceptance since they both add cost to the drive system and have not been shown to have an attractive cost/benefit ratio. Recently a method has been developed to use fractional-slot concentrated windings to significantly increase the machine inductance [6]. This latest approach has the potential to make the PMSM compatible with CPA without supplemental external inductance. If the performance of such drive is acceptable, then the method may make the PMSM an attractive option for traction applications requiring a wide CPSR. A 30 pole, 6 kW, 6000 maximum revolutions per minute (rpm) prototype of the fractional-slot PMSM design has been developed [7]. This machine has significantly more inductance than is typical of regular PMSMs. The prototype is to be delivered in late 2005 to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing and development of a suitable controller. In advance of the test/control development effort, ORNL has used the PMSM models developed over a number of previous studies to study the steady-state performance of high-inductance PMSM machines with a view towards control issues. The detailed steady-state model developed includes all motor and inverter-loss mechanisms and will be useful in assessing the performance of the dynamic controller to be

  1. Recurrent neural network control for LCC-resonant ultrasonic motor drive.

    PubMed

    Lin, F J; Wai, R J; Hong, C M

    2000-01-01

    A newly designed driving circuit for the traveling wave-type ultrasonic motor (USM), which consists of a push-pull DC-DC power converter and a two-phase voltage source inverter using one inductance and two capacitances (LCC) resonant technique, is presented in this study. Moreover, because the dynamic characteristics of the USM are difficult to obtain and the motor parameters are time varying, a recurrent neural network (RNN) controller is proposed to control the USM drive system. In the proposed controller, the dynamic backpropagation algorithm is adopted to train the RNN on-line using the proposed delta adaptation law. Furthermore, to guarantee the convergence of tracking error, analytical methods based on a discrete-type Lyapunov function are proposed to determine the varied learning rates for the training of the RNN. Finally, the effectiveness of the RNN-controlled USM drive system is demonstrated by some experimental results.

  2. Evolution of Motor Control: From Reflexes and Motor Programs to the Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Latash, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    This brief review analyzes the evolution of motor control theories along two lines that emphasize active (motor programs) and reactive (reflexes) features of voluntary movements. It suggests that the only contemporary hypothesis that integrates both approaches in a fruitful way is the equilibrium-point hypothesis. Physical, physiological, and behavioral foundations of the EP-hypothesis are considered as well as relations between the EP-hypothesis and the recent developments of the notion of motor synergies. The paper ends with a brief review of the criticisms of the EP-hypothesis and challenges that the hypothesis faces at this time. PMID:19823595

  3. New Technique of High-Performance Torque Control Developed for Induction Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Barbara H.

    2003-01-01

    Two forms of high-performance torque control for motor drives have been described in the literature: field orientation control and direct torque control. Field orientation control has been the method of choice for previous NASA electromechanical actuator research efforts with induction motors. Direct torque control has the potential to offer some advantages over field orientation, including ease of implementation and faster response. However, the most common form of direct torque control is not suitable for the highspeed, low-stator-flux linkage induction machines designed for electromechanical actuators with the presently available sample rates of digital control systems (higher sample rates are required). In addition, this form of direct torque control is not suitable for the addition of a high-frequency carrier signal necessary for the "self-sensing" (sensorless) position estimation technique. This technique enables low- and zero-speed position sensorless operation of the machine. Sensorless operation is desirable to reduce the number of necessary feedback signals and transducers, thus improving the reliability and reducing the mass and volume of the system. This research was directed at developing an alternative form of direct torque control known as a "deadbeat," or inverse model, solution. This form uses pulse-width modulation of the voltage applied to the machine, thus reducing the necessary sample and switching frequency for the high-speed NASA motor. In addition, the structure of the deadbeat form allows the addition of the high-frequency carrier signal so that low- and zero-speed sensorless operation is possible. The new deadbeat solution is based on using the stator and rotor flux as state variables. This choice of state variables leads to a simple graphical representation of the solution as the intersection of a constant torque line with a constant stator flux circle. Previous solutions have been expressed only in complex mathematical terms without a

  4. 6. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH OF OPERATOR DECK, SHOWING MOTOR CONTROLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH OF OPERATOR DECK, SHOWING MOTOR CONTROLS AND LEVERS AND HOIST FOR TRASH RAKE - Cabot Station Electric Generating Plant, Gantry Crane, Montague City Road, Turners Falls vicinity, Montague, Franklin County, MA

  5. 76. VIEW OF THE MOTOR CONTROL PANEL IN THE NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. VIEW OF THE MOTOR CONTROL PANEL IN THE NORTH SIDE OF THE EAST SERVICE BUILDING FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  6. Looking East at Motor Control System, Clarity Columns and Blend ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking East at Motor Control System, Clarity Columns and Blend Tank Along East Side of Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  7. 48. AUTOMATIC WATER CONTROL MOTOR DRIVE FOR NEEDLES CONSTRUCTION DETAILS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. AUTOMATIC WATER CONTROL MOTOR DRIVE FOR NEEDLES CONSTRUCTION DETAILS, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, JAN. 24, 1977. SCE drawing no. 455667-0. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. Disrupting vagal feedback affects birdsong motor control

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Jorge M.; Dall'Asén, Analía G.; Goller, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Coordination of different motor systems for sound production involves the use of feedback mechanisms. Song production in oscines is a well-established animal model for studying learned vocal behavior. Whereas the online use of auditory feedback has been studied in the songbird model, very little is known about the role of other feedback mechanisms. Auditory feedback is required for the maintenance of stereotyped adult song. In addition, the use of somatosensory feedback to maintain pressure during song has been demonstrated with experimentally induced fluctuations in air sac pressure. Feedback information mediating this response is thought to be routed to the central nervous system via afferent fibers of the vagus nerve. Here, we tested the effects of unilateral vagotomy on the peripheral motor patterns of song production and the acoustic features. Unilateral vagotomy caused a variety of disruptions and alterations to the respiratory pattern of song, some of which affected the acoustic structure of vocalizations. These changes were most pronounced a few days after nerve resection and varied between individuals. In the most extreme cases, the motor gestures of respiration were so severely disrupted that individual song syllables or the song motif were atypically terminated. Acoustic changes also suggest altered use of the two sound generators and upper vocal tract filtering, indicating that the disruption of vagal feedback caused changes to the motor program of all motor systems involved in song production and modification. This evidence for the use of vagal feedback by the song system with disruption of song during the first days after nerve cut provides a contrast to the longer-term effects of auditory feedback disruption. It suggests a significant role for somatosensory feedback that differs from that of auditory feedback. PMID:21113000

  9. Self-controlled practice benefits motor learning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lessa, Helena Thofehrn; Chiviacowsky, Suzete

    2015-04-01

    Providing learners with the chance to choose over certain aspects of practice has been consistently shown to facilitate the acquisition of motor skills in several populations. However, studies investigating the effects of providing autonomy support during the learning process of older adults remain scarce. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of self-controlled amount of practice on the learning of a sequential motor task in older adults. Participants in the self-control group were able to choose when to stop practicing a speed cup stacking task, while the number of practice trials for a yoked group was pre-determined, mirroring the self-control group. The opportunity to choose when stop practicing facilitated motor performance and learning compared to the yoked condition. The findings suggest that letting older adult learners choose the amount of practice, supporting their autonomy needs, has a positive influence on motor learning.

  10. Measurement of position deviation and eccentricity for μ-disc-type inductive micro-motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chih-Che; Tsai, Nan-Chyuan

    2015-12-01

    An innovative capacitive gap-sensing readout circuit to replace traditional gap sensor is designed to measure the motion of the levitated micro-disc embedded in an inductive micro-motor. Twelve equivalent capacitor pairs are constructed to detect the position deviation of the disc. As the position deviation of disc occurs, the capacitances of the corresponding capacitor pairs are altered. In addition, by applying the effects of inertial force and centrifugal force, an innovative non-contact measurement method to quantify the unbalance degree of the micro-disc, i.e., eccentricity, is also proposed. By commercial computer simulations and realistic experiments undertaken, the performance of the proposed capacitive gap-sensing readout circuit has been successfully verified. The mean of output voltage of gap-sensing readout circuit is about 327 mV under the position deviation of the disc being 8 μm. Moreover, the unbalance degree of the disc is approximately proportional to the square of the position deviation of the disc.

  11. Gestalt principles in the control of motor action.

    PubMed

    Klapp, Stuart T; Jagacinski, Richard J

    2011-05-01

    We argue that 4 fundamental gestalt phenomena in perception apply to the control of motor action. First, a motor gestalt, like a perceptual gestalt, is holistic in the sense that it is processed as a single unit. This notion is consistent with reaction time results indicating that all gestures for a brief unit of action must be programmed prior to initiation of any part of the movement. Additional reaction time results related to initiation of longer responses are consistent with processing in terms of a sequence of indivisible motor gestalts. Some actions (e.g., many involving coordination of the hands) can be carried out effectively only if represented as a unitary gestalt. Second, a perceptual gestalt is independent of specific sensory receptors, as evidenced by perceptual constancy. In a similar manner a motor gestalt can be represented independently of specific muscular effectors, thereby allowing motor constancy. Third, just as a perceptual pattern (e.g., a Necker cube) is exclusively structured into only 1 of its possible configurations at any moment in time, processing prior to action is limited to 1 motor gestalt. Fourth, grouping in apparent motion leads to stream segregation in visual and auditory perception; this segregation is present in motor action and is dependent on the temporal rate. We discuss congruence of gestalt phenomena across perception and motor action (a) in relation to a unitary perceptual-motor code, (b) with respect to differences in the role of awareness, and (c) in conjunction with separate neural pathways for conscious perception and motor control.

  12. Precision electronic speed controller for an alternating-current motor

    DOEpatents

    Bolie, V.W.

    A high precision controller for an alternating-current multi-phase electrical motor that is subject to a large inertial load. The controller was developed for controlling, in a neutron chopper system, a heavy spinning rotor that must be rotated in phase-locked synchronism with a reference pulse train that is representative of an ac power supply signal having a meandering line frequency. The controller includes a shaft revolution sensor which provides a feedback pulse train representative of the actual speed of the motor. An internal digital timing signal generator provides a reference signal which is compared with the feedback signal in a computing unit to provide a motor control signal. The motor control signal is a weighted linear sum of a speed error voltage, a phase error voltage, and a drift error voltage, each of which is computed anew with each revolution of the motor shaft. The speed error signal is generated by a novel vernier-logic circuit which is drift-free and highly sensitive to small speed changes. The phase error is also computed by digital logic, with adjustable sensitivity around a 0 mid-scale value. The drift error signal, generated by long-term counting of the phase error, is used to compensate for any slow changes in the average friction drag on the motor. An auxillary drift-byte status sensor prevents any disruptive overflow or underflow of the drift-error counter. An adjustable clocked-delay unit is inserted between the controller and the source of the reference pulse train to permit phase alignment of the rotor to any desired offset angle. The stator windings of the motor are driven by two amplifiers which are provided with input signals having the proper quadrature relationship by an exciter unit consisting of a voltage controlled oscillator, a binary counter, a pair of read-only memories, and a pair of digital-to-analog converters.

  13. Distributed Motor Controller (DMC) for Operation in Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinney, Colin M.; Yager, Jeremy A.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Some, Rafi; Sirota, Allen; Kopf, Ted; Stern, Ryan; Hunter, Don

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an extreme environment capable Distributed Motor Controller (DMC) module suitable for operation with a distributed architecture of future spacecraft systems. This motor controller is designed to be a bus-based electronics module capable of operating a single Brushless DC motor in extreme space environments: temperature (-120 C to +85 C required, -180 C to +100 C stretch goal); radiation (>;20K required, >;100KRad stretch goal); >;360 cycles of operation. Achieving this objective will result in a scalable modular configuration for motor control with enhanced reliability that will greatly lower cost during the design, fabrication and ATLO phases of future missions. Within the heart of the DMC lies a pair of cold-capable Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) that enable its miniaturization and operation in extreme environments. The ASICs are fabricated in the IBM 0.5 micron Silicon Germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS process and are comprised of Analog circuitry to provide telemetry information, sensor interface, and health and status of DMC. The FPGA contains logic to provide motor control, status monitoring and spacecraft interface. The testing and characterization of these ASICs have yielded excellent functionality in cold temperatures (-135 C). The DMC module has demonstrated successful operation of a motor at temperature.

  14. Remote control of molecular motors using light-activated gearshifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Zev

    2013-03-01

    Engineering molecular motors with dynamically controllable properties will allow selective perturbation of mechanical processes in vivo and provide sophisticated components for directed nanoscale transport in vitro. We previously constructed myosin motors that respond to a change in [Ca++] by reversing their direction of motion along the polarized actin filament. To expand the potential applications of controllable molecular motors, we have now developed myosins that shift gears in response to blue light illumination. Light is a versatile control signal that can be readily modulated in time and space, and is generally orthogonal to cellular signaling. Using structure-guided protein engineering, we have incorporated LOV photoreceptor domains into the lever arms of chimeric myosins, resulting in motors that robustly speed up, slow down, or switch directions upon illumination. These genetically encoded motors should be directly deployable inside living cells. Our successful designs include constructs based on two different myosin classes, and we show that optical velocity control can be implemented in motors that move at microns/sec speeds, enabling practical biological and bioengineering applications.

  15. A flight simulator control system using electric torque motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musick, R. O.; Wagner, C. A.

    1975-01-01

    Control systems are required in flight simulators to provide representative stick and rudder pedal characteristics. A system has been developed that uses electric dc torque motors instead of the more common hydraulic actuators. The torque motor system overcomes certain disadvantages of hydraulic systems, such as high cost, high power consumption, noise, oil leaks, and safety problems. A description of the torque motor system is presented, including both electrical and mechanical design as well as performance characteristics. The system develops forces sufficiently high for most simulations, and is physically small and light enough to be used in most motion-base cockpits.

  16. Redundant speed control for brushless Hall effect motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A speed control system for a brushless Hall effect device equipped direct current (D.C.) motor is described. Separate windings of the motor are powered by separate speed responsive power sources. A change in speed, upward or downward, because of the failure of a component of one of the power sources results in a corrective signal being generated in the other power source to supply an appropriate power level and polarity to one winding to cause the motor to be corrected in speed.

  17. Motor Learning and Control Foundations of Kinesiology: Defining the Academic Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischman, Mark G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the kinesiological foundations of the motor behavior subdisciplines of motor learning and motor control. After defining the components of motor behavior, the paper addresses the undergraduate major and core knowledge by examining several classic textbooks in motor learning and control, as well as a number of contemporary…

  18. A comparison of motor submodels in the optimal control model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancraft, R. E.; Kleinman, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Properties of several structural variations in the neuromotor interface portion of the optimal control model (OCM) are investigated. For example, it is known that commanding control-rate introduces an open-loop pole at S=O and will generate low frequency phase and magnitude characteristics similar to experimental data. However, this gives rise to unusually high sensitivities with respect to motor and sensor noise-ratios, thereby reducing the models' predictive capabilities. Relationships for different motor submodels are discussed to show sources of these sensitivities. The models investigated include both pseudo motor-noise and actual (system driving) motor-noise characterizations. The effects of explicit proprioceptive feedback in the OCM is also examined. To show graphically the effects of each submodel on system outputs, sensitivity studies are included, and compared to data obtained from other tests.

  19. Developmental kinesiology: three levels of motor control in the assessment and treatment of the motor system.

    PubMed

    Kobesova, Alena; Kolar, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Three levels of sensorimotor control within the central nervous system (CNS) can be distinguished. During the neonatal stage, general movements and primitive reflexes are controlled at the spinal and brain stem levels. Analysis of the newborn's spontaneous general movements and the assessment of primitive reflexes is crucial in the screening and early recognition of a risk for abnormal development. Following the newborn period, the subcortical level of the CNS motor control emerges and matures mainly during the first year of life. This allows for basic trunk stabilization, a prerequisite for any phasic movement and for the locomotor function of the extremities. At the subcortical level, orofacial muscles and afferent information are automatically integrated within postural-locomotor patterns. Finally, the cortical (the highest) level of motor control increasingly becomes activated. Cortical control is important for the individual qualities and characteristics of movement. It also allows for isolated segmental movement and relaxation. A child with impaired cortical motor control may be diagnosed with developmental dyspraxia or developmental coordination disorder. Human ontogenetic models, i.e., developmental motor patterns, can be used in both the diagnosis and treatment of locomotor system dysfunction.

  20. Advanced dc motor controller for battery-powered electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belsterling, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    A motor generation set is connected to run from the dc source and generate a voltage in the traction motor armature circuit that normally opposes the source voltage. The functional feasibility of the concept is demonstrated with tests on a Proof of Principle System. An analog computer simulation is developed, validated with the results of the tests, applied to predict the performance of a full scale Functional Model dc Controller. The results indicate high efficiencies over wide operating ranges and exceptional recovery of regenerated energy. The new machine integrates both motor and generator on a single two bearing shaft. The control strategy produces a controlled bidirectional plus or minus 48 volts dc output from the generator permitting full control of a 96 volt dc traction motor from a 48 volt battery, was designed to control a 20 hp traction motor. The controller weighs 63.5 kg (140 lb.) and has a peak efficiency of 90% in random driving modes and 96% during the SAE J 227a/D driving cycle.

  1. Comparison of experimental and theoretical reaction rail currents, rail voltages, and airgap fields for the linear induction motor research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of reaction rail currents, reaction rail voltages, and airgap magnetic fields in tests of the Linear Induction Motor Research Vehicle (LIMRV) were compared with theoretical calculations from the mesh/matrix theory. It was found that the rail currents and magnetic fields predicted by the theory are within 20 percent of the measured currents and fields at most motor locations in most of the runs, but differ by as much as a factor of two in some cases. The most consistent difference is a higher experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the entrance of the motor and a lower experimental than theoretical magnetic field near the exit. The observed differences between the theoretical and experimental magnetic fields and currents do not account for the differences of as much as 26 percent between the theoretical and experimental thrusts.

  2. Performances improvements and torque ripple minimization for VSI fed induction machine with direct control torque.

    PubMed

    Abdelli, R; Rekioua, D; Rekioua, T

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes a torque ripple reduction technique with constant switching frequency for direct torque control (DTC) of an induction motor (IM). This method enables a minimum torque ripple control. In order to obtain a constant switching frequency and hence a torque ripple reduction, we propose a control technique for IM. It consists of controlling directly the electromagnetic torque by using a modulated hysteresis controller. The design methodology is based on space vector modulation (SVM) of electrical machines with digital vector control. MATLAB simulations supported with experimental study are used. The simulation and experimental results of this proposed algorithm show an adequate dynamic to IM; however, the research can be extended to include synchronous motors as well. The implementation of the proposed algorithm is described. It doesn't require any PI controller in the torque control loop. The hardware inverter is controlled digitally using a Texas Instruments TMS320F240 digital signal processor (DSP) with composed C codes for generating the required references. The results obtained from simulation and experiments confirmed the feasibility of the proposed strategy compared to the conventional one.

  3. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Electric Motor Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziller, T.

    This Electric Motor Repair Course is designed to provide the student with practical information for winding, repairing, and troubleshooting alternating current and direct current motors, and controllers. The course is comprised of eight units: (1) Electric Motor Fundamentals, (2) Rewinding, (3) Split-phase Induction Motors, (4) Capacitor Motors,…

  4. Heartbeat control in leeches. II. Fictive motor pattern.

    PubMed

    Wenning, Angela; Hill, Andrew A V; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2004-01-01

    The rhythmic beating of the tube-like hearts in the medicinal leech is driven and coordinated by rhythmic activity in segmental heart motor neurons. The motor neurons are controlled by rhythmic inhibitory input from a network of heart interneurons that compose the heartbeat central pattern generator. In the preceding paper, we described the constriction pattern of the hearts in quiescent intact animals and showed that one heart constricts in a rear-to-front wave (peristaltic coordination mode), while the other heart constricts in near unison over its length (synchronous coordination mode) and that they regularly switch coordination modes. Here we analyze intersegmental and side-to-side-coordination of the fictive motor pattern for heartbeat in denervated nerve cords. We show that the intersegmental phase relations among heart motor neurons in both coordination modes are independent of heartbeat period. This finding enables us to combine data from different experiments to form a detailed analysis of the relative phases, duty cycle, and intraburst spike frequency of the bursts of the segmental heart motor neurons. The fictive motor pattern and the constriction pattern seen in intact leeches closely match in their intersegmental and side-to-side coordination, indicating that sensory feedback is not necessary for properly phased intersegmental coordination. Moreover, the regular switches in coordination mode of the fictive motor pattern mimic those seen in intact animals indicating that these switches likely arise by a central mechanism.

  5. Extending the Constant Power Speed Range of the Brushless DC Motor through Dual Mode Inverter Control -- Part I: Theory and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J.S.

    2001-10-29

    An inverter topology and control scheme has been developed that can drive low-inductance, surface-mounted permanent magnet motors over the wide constant power speed range required in electric vehicle applications. This new controller is called the dual-mode inverter control (DMIC) [1]. The DMIC can drive either the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) with sinusoidal back emf, or the brushless dc machine (BDCM) with trapezoidal emf in the motoring and regenerative braking modes. In this paper we concentrate on the BDCM under high-speed motoring conditions. Simulation results show that if all motor and inverter loss mechanisms are neglected, the constant power speed range of the DMIC is infinite. The simulation results are supported by closed form expressions for peak and rms motor current and average power derived from analytical solution to the differential equations governing the DMIC/BDCM drive for the lossless case. The analytical solution shows that the range of motor inductance that can be accommodated by the DMIC is more than an order of magnitude such that the DMIC is compatible with both low- and high-inductance BDCMs. Finally, method is given for integrating the classical hysteresis band current control, used for motor control below base speed, with the phase advance of DMIC that is applied above base speed. The power versus speed performance of the DMIC is then simulated across the entire speed range.

  6. Motor control differs for increasing and releasing force.

    PubMed

    Park, Seoung Hoon; Kwon, MinHyuk; Solis, Danielle; Lodha, Neha; Christou, Evangelos A

    2016-06-01

    Control of the motor output depends on our ability to precisely increase and release force. However, the influence of aging on force increase and release remains unknown. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine whether force control differs while increasing and releasing force in young and older adults. Sixteen young adults (22.5 ± 4 yr, 8 females) and 16 older adults (75.7 ± 6.4 yr, 8 females) increased and released force at a constant rate (10% maximum voluntary contraction force/s) during an ankle dorsiflexion isometric task. We recorded the force output and multiple motor unit activity from the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle and quantified the following outcomes: 1) variability of force using the SD of force; 2) mean discharge rate and variability of discharge rate of multiple motor units; and 3) power spectrum of the multiple motor units from 0-4, 4-10, 10-35, and 35-60 Hz. Participants exhibited greater force variability while releasing force, independent of age (P < 0.001). Increased force variability during force release was associated with decreased modulation of multiple motor units from 35 to 60 Hz (R(2) = 0.38). Modulation of multiple motor units from 35 to 60 Hz was further correlated to the change in mean discharge rate of multiple motor units (r = 0.66) and modulation from 0 to 4 Hz (r = -0.64). In conclusion, these findings suggest that force control is altered while releasing due to an altered modulation of the motor units.

  7. Adaptive Fuzzy Control of a Direct Drive Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, E.; Kim, Y. T.; Akbaradeh-T., M. -R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a state feedback adaptive control method for position and velocity control of a direct drive motor. The proposed control scheme allows for integrating heuristic knowledge with mathematical knowledge of a system. It performs well even when mathematical model of the system is poorly understood. The controller consists of an adaptive fuzzy controller and a supervisory controller. The supervisory controller requires only knowledge of the upper bound and lower bound of the system parameters. The fuzzy controller is based on fuzzy basis functions and states of the system. The adaptation law is derived based on the Lyapunov function which ensures that the state of the system asymptotically approaches zero. The proposed controller is applied to a direct drive motor with payload and parameter uncertainty, and the effectiveness is verified by simulation results.

  8. Adaptive Fuzzy Control of a Direct Drive Motor: Experimental Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, E.; Akbarzadeh-T, M.-R.; Kim, Y. T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a state feedback adaptive control method for position and velocity control of a direct drive motor. The proposed control scheme allows for integrating heuristic knowledge with mathematical knowledge of a system. It performs well even when mathematical model of the system is poorly understood. The controller consists of an adaptive fuzzy controller and a supervisory controller. The supervisory controller requires only knowledge of the upper bound and lower bound of the system parameters. The fuzzy controller is based on fuzzy basis functions and states of the system. The adaptation law is derived based on the Lyapunov function which ensures that the state of the system asymptotically approaches zero. The proposed controller is applied to a direct drive motor with payload and parameter uncertainty, and the effectiveness is experimentally verified. The real-time performance is compared with simulation results.

  9. Effect of motor dynamics on nonlinear feedback robot arm control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Li, Zuofeng; Bejczy, Antal K.; Yun, Xiaoping

    1991-01-01

    A nonlinear feedback robot controller that incorporates the robot manipulator dynamics and the robot joint motor dynamics is proposed. The manipulator dynamics and the motor dynamics are coupled to obtain a third-order-dynamic model, and differential geometric control theory is applied to produce a linearized and decoupled robot controller. The derived robot controller operates in the robot task space, thus eliminating the need for decomposition of motion commands into robot joint space commands. Computer simulations are performed to verify the feasibility of the proposed robot controller. The controller is further experimentally evaluated on the PUMA 560 robot arm. The experiments show that the proposed controller produces good trajectory tracking performances and is robust in the presence of model inaccuracies. Compared with a nonlinear feedback robot controller based on the manipulator dynamics only, the proposed robot controller yields conspicuously improved performance.

  10. Motor control and low back pain in dancers.

    PubMed

    Roussel, N; De Kooning, M; Schutt, A; Mottram, S; Truijen, S; Nijs, J; Daenen, L

    2013-02-01

    Professional dancers suffer a high incidence of injuries, especially to the spine and lower extremities. There is a lack of experimental research addressing low back pain (LBP) in dancers. The aim of this study is to compare lumbopelvic motor control, muscle extensibility and sacroiliac joint pain between dancers with and without a history of LBP. 40 pre-professional dancers (mean age of 20.3 years) underwent a clinical test battery, consisting of an evaluation of lumbopelvic motor control, muscle extensibility, generalized joint hypermobility, and sacroiliac joint pain provocation tests. Also self-reported measurements and standardized questionnaires were used. 41% of the dancers suffered from LBP during at least 2 consecutive days in the previous year. Only one dancer suffered from sacroiliac joint pain. Compared to dancers without a history of LBP, dancers with a history of LBP showed poorer lumbopelvic motor control (p<0.05). No differences in muscle extensibility or joint hypermobility were observed between dancers (p>0.05). Despite their young age, pre-professional dancers suffer from LBP frequently. Sacroiliac joint pain, generalized joint hypermobility or muscle extensibility appears unrelated to LBP in dancers. Motor control is decreased in those with a history of LBP. Further research should examine whether motor control is etiologically involved in LBP in dancers.

  11. Decoupled 3D moment control using in-wheel motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuyama, Etsuo

    2013-01-01

    Vehicles equipped with in-wheel motors are being studied and developed as a type of electric vehicle. Since these motors are attached to the suspension, a large vertical suspension reaction force is generated during driving. Based on this mechanism, this paper describes the development of a method for independently controlling roll and pitch as well as yaw using driving force distribution control at each wheel. It also details the theoretical calculation of a method for decoupling the dynamic motions. Finally, it describes the application of these 3D dynamic motion control methods to a test vehicle and the confirmation of the performance improvement.

  12. A human motor control perspective to multiple manipulator modelling.

    PubMed

    Kambhampati, C; Rajasekharan, S

    2003-10-01

    This paper describes the aspects involved in modelling a multi-robot system from a human motor control perspective. The human motor control system has a hierarchical and decentralised structure, and building a control system for a multi-robot system that attains human features would require a decomposable model. Decomposition of a complex robotic system is difficult due to the interactions between the subsystems, so these have to be first separated before the system is modelled. The proposed method of separating the interconnections is applied with the aid of fuzzy modelling to derive a fully decomposable model of two manipulator robots handling a common object.

  13. Modeling of power control schemes in induction cooking devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beato, Alessio; Conti, Massimo; Turchetti, Claudio; Orcioni, Simone

    2005-06-01

    In recent years, with remarkable advancements of power semiconductor devices and electronic control systems, it becomes possible to apply the induction heating technique for domestic use. In order to achieve the supply power required by these devices, high-frequency resonant inverters are used: the force commutated, half-bridge series resonant converter is well suited for induction cooking since it offers an appropriate balance between complexity and performances. Power control is a key issue to attain efficient and reliable products. This paper describes and compares four power control schemes applied to the half-bridge series resonant inverter. The pulse frequency modulation is the most common control scheme: according to this strategy, the output power is regulated by varying the switching frequency of the inverter circuit. Other considered methods, originally developed for induction heating industrial applications, are: pulse amplitude modulation, asymmetrical duty cycle and pulse density modulation which are respectively based on variation of the amplitude of the input supply voltage, on variation of the duty cycle of the switching signals and on variation of the number of switching pulses. Each description is provided with a detailed mathematical analysis; an analytical model, built to simulate the circuit topology, is implemented in the Matlab environment in order to obtain the steady-state values and waveforms of currents and voltages. For purposes of this study, switches and all reactive components are modelled as ideal and the "heating-coil/pan" system is represented by an equivalent circuit made up of a series connected resistance and inductance.

  14. Inductively heated particulate matter filter regeneration control system

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore Jr., Michael J; Kirby, Kevin W; Phelps, Amanda; Gregoire, Daniel J

    2012-10-23

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter with an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas, a downstream end and zones. The system also includes a heating element. A control module selectively activates the heating element to inductively heat one of the zones.

  15. The minimum transition hypothesis for intermittent hierarchical motor control.

    PubMed

    Karniel, Amir

    2013-01-01

    In intermittent control, instead of continuously calculating the control signal, the controller occasionally changes this signal at certain sparse points in time. The control law may include feedback, adaptation, optimization, or any other control strategies. When, where, and how does the brain employ intermittency as it controls movement? These are open questions in motor neuroscience. Evidence for intermittency in human motor control has been repeatedly observed in the neural control of movement literature. Moreover, some researchers have provided theoretical models to address intermittency. Even so, the vast majority of current models, and I would dare to say the dogma in most of the current motor neuroscience literature involves continuous control. In this paper, I focus on an area in which intermittent control has not yet been thoroughly considered, the structure of muscle synergies. A synergy in the muscle space is a group of muscles activated together by a single neural command. Under the assumption that the motor control is intermittent, I present the minimum transition hypothesis (MTH) and its predictions with regards to the structure of muscle synergies. The MTH asserts that the purpose of synergies is to minimize the effort of the higher level in the hierarchy by minimizing the number of transitions in an intermittent control signal. The implications of the MTH are not only for the structure of the muscle synergies but also to the intermittent and hierarchical nature of the motor system, with various predictions as to the process of skill learning, and important implications to the design of brain machine interfaces and human robot interaction.

  16. Novel intelligent PID control of traveling wave ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Jingzhuo, Shi; Yu, Liu; Jingtao, Huang; Meiyu, Xu; Juwei, Zhang; Lei, Zhang

    2014-09-01

    A simple control strategy with acceptable control performance can be a good choice for the mass production of ultrasonic motor control system. In this paper, through the theoretic and experimental analyses of typical control process, a simpler intelligent PID speed control strategy of TWUM is proposed, involving only two expert rules to adjust the PID control parameters based on the current status. Compared with the traditional PID controller, this design requires less calculation and more cheap chips which can be easily involved in online performance. Experiments with different load torques and voltage amplitudes show that the proposed controller can deal with the nonlinearity and load disturbance to maintain good control performance of TWUM.

  17. Engineering controllable bidirectional molecular motors based on myosin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lu; Nakamura, Muneaki; Schindler, Tony D.; Parker, David; Bryant, Zev

    2012-04-01

    Cytoskeletal motors drive the transport of organelles and molecular cargoes within cells and have potential applications in molecular detection and diagnostic devices. Engineering molecular motors with controllable properties will allow selective perturbation of mechanical processes in living cells and provide optimized device components for tasks such as molecular sorting and directed assembly. Biological motors have previously been modified by introducing activation/deactivation switches that respond to metal ions and other signals. Here, we show that myosin motors can be engineered to reversibly change their direction of motion in response to a calcium signal. Building on previous protein engineering studies and guided by a structural model for the redirected power stroke of myosin VI, we have constructed bidirectional myosins through the rigid recombination of structural modules. The performance of the motors was confirmed using gliding filament assays and single fluorophore tracking. Our strategy, in which external signals trigger changes in the geometry and mechanics of myosin lever arms, should make it possible to achieve spatiotemporal control over a range of motor properties including processivity, stride size and branchpoint turning.

  18. Sensory-motor networks involved in speech production and motor control: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Shebek, Rachel; Hansen, Daniel R; Oya, Hiroyuki; Robin, Donald A; Howard, Matthew A; Greenlee, Jeremy D W

    2015-04-01

    Speaking is one of the most complex motor behaviors developed to facilitate human communication. The underlying neural mechanisms of speech involve sensory-motor interactions that incorporate feedback information for online monitoring and control of produced speech sounds. In the present study, we adopted an auditory feedback pitch perturbation paradigm and combined it with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings in order to identify brain areas involved in speech production and motor control. Subjects underwent fMRI scanning while they produced a steady vowel sound /a/ (speaking) or listened to the playback of their own vowel production (playback). During each condition, the auditory feedback from vowel production was either normal (no perturbation) or perturbed by an upward (+600 cents) pitch-shift stimulus randomly. Analysis of BOLD responses during speaking (with and without shift) vs. rest revealed activation of a complex network including bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), Heschl's gyrus, precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area (SMA), Rolandic operculum, postcentral gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Performance correlation analysis showed that the subjects produced compensatory vocal responses that significantly correlated with BOLD response increases in bilateral STG and left precentral gyrus. However, during playback, the activation network was limited to cortical auditory areas including bilateral STG and Heschl's gyrus. Moreover, the contrast between speaking vs. playback highlighted a distinct functional network that included bilateral precentral gyrus, SMA, IFG, postcentral gyrus and insula. These findings suggest that speech motor control involves feedback error detection in sensory (e.g. auditory) cortices that subsequently activate motor-related areas for the adjustment of speech parameters during speaking.

  19. Infrared sensor-based temperature control for domestic induction cooktops.

    PubMed

    Lasobras, Javier; Alonso, Rafael; Carretero, Claudio; Carretero, Enrique; Imaz, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a precise real-time temperature control system based on infrared (IR) thermometry for domestic induction cooking is presented. The temperature in the vessel constitutes the control variable of the closed-loop power control system implemented in a commercial induction cooker. A proportional-integral controller is applied to establish the output power level in order to reach the target temperature. An optical system and a signal conditioning circuit have been implemented. For the signal processing a microprocessor with 12-bit ADC and a sampling rate of 1 Ksps has been used. The analysis of the contributions to the infrared radiation permits the definition of a procedure to estimate the temperature of the vessel with a maximum temperature error of 5 °C in the range between 60 and 250 °C for a known cookware emissivity. A simple and necessary calibration procedure with a black-body sample is presented. PMID:24638125

  20. Infrared sensor-based temperature control for domestic induction cooktops.

    PubMed

    Lasobras, Javier; Alonso, Rafael; Carretero, Claudio; Carretero, Enrique; Imaz, Eduardo

    2014-03-14

    In this paper, a precise real-time temperature control system based on infrared (IR) thermometry for domestic induction cooking is presented. The temperature in the vessel constitutes the control variable of the closed-loop power control system implemented in a commercial induction cooker. A proportional-integral controller is applied to establish the output power level in order to reach the target temperature. An optical system and a signal conditioning circuit have been implemented. For the signal processing a microprocessor with 12-bit ADC and a sampling rate of 1 Ksps has been used. The analysis of the contributions to the infrared radiation permits the definition of a procedure to estimate the temperature of the vessel with a maximum temperature error of 5 °C in the range between 60 and 250 °C for a known cookware emissivity. A simple and necessary calibration procedure with a black-body sample is presented.

  1. Infrared Sensor-Based Temperature Control for Domestic Induction Cooktops

    PubMed Central

    Lasobras, Javier; Alonso, Rafael; Carretero, Claudio; Carretero, Enrique; Imaz, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a precise real-time temperature control system based on infrared (IR) thermometry for domestic induction cooking is presented. The temperature in the vessel constitutes the control variable of the closed-loop power control system implemented in a commercial induction cooker. A proportional-integral controller is applied to establish the output power level in order to reach the target temperature. An optical system and a signal conditioning circuit have been implemented. For the signal processing a microprocessor with 12-bit ADC and a sampling rate of 1 Ksps has been used. The analysis of the contributions to the infrared radiation permits the definition of a procedure to estimate the temperature of the vessel with a maximum temperature error of 5 °C in the range between 60 and 250 °C for a known cookware emissivity. A simple and necessary calibration procedure with a black-body sample is presented. PMID:24638125

  2. Adaptive hybrid control for linear piezoelectric ceramic motor drive using diagonal recurrent CMAC network.

    PubMed

    Wai, Rong-Jong; Lin, Chih-Min; Peng, Ya-Fu

    2004-11-01

    This paper presents an adaptive hybrid control system using a diagonal recurrent cerebellar-model-articulation-computer (DRCMAC) network to control a linear piezoelectric ceramic motor (LPCM) driven by a two-inductance two-capacitance (LLCC) resonant inverter. Since the dynamic characteristics and motor parameters of the LPCM are highly nonlinear and time varying, an adaptive hybrid control system is therefore designed based on a hypothetical dynamic model to achieve high-precision position control. The architecture of DRCMAC network is a modified model of a cerebellar-model-articulation-computer (CMAC) network to attain a small number of receptive-fields. The novel idea of this study is that it employs the concept of diagonal recurrent neural network (DRNN) in order to capture the system dynamics and convert the static CMAC into a dynamic one. This adaptive hybrid control system is composed of two parts. One is a DRCMAC network controller that is used to mimic a conventional computed torque control law due to unknown system dynamics, and the other is a compensated controller with bound estimation algorithm that is utilized to recover the residual approximation error for guaranteeing the stable characteristic. The effectiveness of the proposed driving circuit and control system is verified with hardware experiments under the occurrence of uncertainties. In addition, the advantages of the proposed control scheme are indicated in comparison with a traditional integral-proportional (IP) position control system.

  3. Induction of human umbilical Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells toward motor neuron-like cells.

    PubMed

    Bagher, Zohreh; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Azami, Mahmoud; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Ai, Jafar; Nourani, Mohammad Reza; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-10-01

    The most important property of stem cells from different sources is the capacity to differentiate into various cells and tissue types. However, problems including contamination, normal karyotype, and ethical issues cause many limitations in obtaining and using these cells from different sources. The cells in Wharton's jelly region of umbilical cord represent a pool source of primitive cells with properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The aim of this study was to determine the potential of human Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) for differentiation to motor neuron cells. WJMSCs were induced to differentiate into motor neuron-like cells by using different signaling molecules and neurotrophic factors in vitro. Differentiated neurons were then characterized for expression of motor neuron markers including nestin, PAX6, NF-H, Islet 1, HB9, and choline acetyl transferase (ChAT) by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and immunocytochemistry. Our results showed that differentiated WJMSCs could significantly express motor neuron biomarkers in RNA and protein levels 15 d post induction. These results suggested that WJMSCs can differentiate to motor neuron-like cells and might provide a potential source in cell therapy for neurodegenerative disease.

  4. Redundant information encoding in primary motor cortex during natural and prosthetic motor control.

    PubMed

    So, Kelvin; Ganguly, Karunesh; Jimenez, Jessica; Gastpar, Michael C; Carmena, Jose M

    2012-06-01

    Redundant encoding of information facilitates reliable distributed information processing. To explore this hypothesis in the motor system, we applied concepts from information theory to quantify the redundancy of movement-related information encoded in the macaque primary motor cortex (M1) during natural and neuroprosthetic control. Two macaque monkeys were trained to perform a delay center-out reaching task controlling a computer cursor under natural arm movement (manual control, 'MC'), and using a brain-machine interface (BMI) via volitional control of neural ensemble activity (brain control, 'BC'). During MC, we found neurons in contralateral M1 to contain higher and more redundant information about target direction than ipsilateral M1 neurons, consistent with the laterality of movement control. During BC, we found that the M1 neurons directly incorporated into the BMI ('direct' neurons) contained the highest and most redundant target information compared to neurons that were not incorporated into the BMI ('indirect' neurons). This effect was even more significant when comparing to M1 neurons of the opposite hemisphere. Interestingly, when we retrained the BMI to use ipsilateral M1 activity, we found that these neurons were more redundant and contained higher information than contralateral M1 neurons, even though ensembles from this hemisphere were previously less redundant during natural arm movement. These results indicate that ensembles most associated to movement contain highest redundancy and information encoding, which suggests a role for redundancy in proficient natural and prosthetic motor control.

  5. PD control for robot manipulators actuated by switched reluctance motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Guzmán, Victor M.; Carrillo-Serrano, Roberto V.; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón

    2013-03-01

    This article is concerned with position regulation in direct-drive n degrees of freedom rigid robots equipped only with revolute joints when actuated by switched reluctance motors. Our controller represents an extension to this case of a previous work in the literature which was proposed for a single-switched reluctance motor when moving a simple linear mechanical load. We show how to avoid a singularity present in such a previous controller. We also introduce some simplifications since the number of terms to be fedback is smaller. Further, a linear proportional inner electric current loop is included instead of a velocity dependent one.

  6. Active Fault Tolerant Control for Ultrasonic Piezoelectric Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhnifer, Moussa

    2012-07-01

    Ultrasonic piezoelectric motor technology is an important system component in integrated mechatronics devices working on extreme operating conditions. Due to these constraints, robustness and performance of the control interfaces should be taken into account in the motor design. In this paper, we apply a new architecture for a fault tolerant control using Youla parameterization for an ultrasonic piezoelectric motor. The distinguished feature of proposed controller architecture is that it shows structurally how the controller design for performance and robustness may be done separately which has the potential to overcome the conflict between performance and robustness in the traditional feedback framework. A fault tolerant control architecture includes two parts: one part for performance and the other part for robustness. The controller design works in such a way that the feedback control system will be solely controlled by the proportional plus double-integral PI2 performance controller for a nominal model without disturbances and H∞ robustification controller will only be activated in the presence of the uncertainties or an external disturbances. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fault tolerant control architecture.

  7. Motor Skill Learning, Retention, and Control Deficits in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pendt, Lisa Katharina; Reuter, Iris; Müller, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease, which affects the basal ganglia, is known to lead to various impairments of motor control. Since the basal ganglia have also been shown to be involved in learning processes, motor learning has frequently been investigated in this group of patients. However, results are still inconsistent, mainly due to skill levels and time scales of testing. To bridge across the time scale problem, the present study examined de novo skill learning over a long series of practice sessions that comprised early and late learning stages as well as retention. 19 non-demented, medicated, mild to moderate patients with Parkinson's disease and 19 healthy age and gender matched participants practiced a novel throwing task over five days in a virtual environment where timing of release was a critical element. Six patients and seven control participants came to an additional long-term retention testing after seven to nine months. Changes in task performance were analyzed by a method that differentiates between three components of motor learning prominent in different stages of learning: Tolerance, Noise and Covariation. In addition, kinematic analysis related the influence of skill levels as affected by the specific motor control deficits in Parkinson patients to the process of learning. As a result, patients showed similar learning in early and late stages compared to the control subjects. Differences occurred in short-term retention tests; patients' performance constantly decreased after breaks arising from poorer release timing. However, patients were able to overcome the initial timing problems within the course of each practice session and could further improve their throwing performance. Thus, results demonstrate the intact ability to learn a novel motor skill in non-demented, medicated patients with Parkinson's disease and indicate confounding effects of motor control deficits on retention performance. PMID:21760898

  8. Chaotic operation and chaos control of travelling wave ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jingzhuo; Zhao, Fujie; Shen, Xiaoxi; Wang, Xiaojie

    2013-08-01

    The travelling wave ultrasonic motor, which is a nonlinear dynamic system, has complex chaotic phenomenon with some certain choices of system parameters and external inputs, and its chaotic characteristics have not been studied until now. In this paper, the preliminary study of the chaos phenomenon in ultrasonic motor driving system has been done. The experiment of speed closed-loop control is designed to obtain several groups of time sampling data sequence of the amplitude of driving voltage, and phase-space reconstruction is used to analyze the chaos characteristics of these time sequences. The largest Lyapunov index is calculated and the result is positive, which shows that the travelling wave ultrasonic motor has chaotic characteristics in a certain working condition Then, the nonlinear characteristics of travelling wave ultrasonic motor are analyzed which includes Lyapunov exponent map, the bifurcation diagram and the locus of voltage relative to speed based on the nonlinear chaos model of a travelling wave ultrasonic motor. After that, two kinds of adaptive delay feedback controllers are designed in this paper to control and suppress chaos in USM speed control system. Simulation results show that the method can control unstable periodic orbits, suppress chaos in USM control system. Proportion-delayed feedback controller was designed following and arithmetic of fuzzy logic was used to adaptively adjust the delay time online. Simulation results show that this method could fast and effectively change the chaos movement into periodic or fixed-point movement and make the system enter into stable state from chaos state. Finally the chaos behavior was controlled.

  9. Mixed eccentricity diagnosis in Inverter-Fed Induction Motors via the Adaptive Slope Transform of transient stator currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons-Llinares, J.; Antonino-Daviu, J.; Roger-Folch, J.; Moríñigo-Sotelo, D.; Duque-Pérez, O.

    2014-10-01

    This paper researches the detection of mixed eccentricity in Inverter-Fed Induction Motors. The classic FFT method cannot be applied when the stator current captured is not in steady state, which is very common in these motors. Therefore, a transform able to detect the time-frequency evolutions of the components present in the transient signal captured must be applied. In order to optimize the result, a method to calculate the theoretical time-frequency evolution of the stator current components is presented, using only the captured current. This previously obtained information enables the use of the proposed transform: the Adaptive Slope Transform, based on appropriately choosing the atom slope in each point analyzed. Thanks to its adaptive characteristics, the time-frequency evolution of the main components in a stator transient current is traced precisely and with high detail in the 2D time-frequency plot obtained. As a consequence, the time-frequency plane characteristic patterns produced by the Eccentricity Related Harmonics are easily and clearly identified enabling a reliable diagnosis. Moreover, the problem of quantifying the presence of the fault is solved presenting a simple and easy to apply method. The transform capabilities have been shown successfully diagnosing an Inverter-Fed Induction Motor with mixed eccentricity during a startup, a decrease in the assigned frequency, and a load variation with and without slip compensation.

  10. Automatic fault feature extraction of mechanical anomaly on induction motor bearing using ensemble super-wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wangpeng; Zi, Yanyang; Chen, Binqiang; Wu, Feng; He, Zhengjia

    2015-03-01

    Mechanical anomaly is a major failure type of induction motor. It is of great value to detect the resulting fault feature automatically. In this paper, an ensemble super-wavelet transform (ESW) is proposed for investigating vibration features of motor bearing faults. The ESW is put forward based on the combination of tunable Q-factor wavelet transform (TQWT) and Hilbert transform such that fault feature adaptability is enabled. Within ESW, a parametric optimization is performed on the measured signal to obtain a quality TQWT basis that best demonstrate the hidden fault feature. TQWT is introduced as it provides a vast wavelet dictionary with time-frequency localization ability. The parametric optimization is guided according to the maximization of fault feature ratio, which is a new quantitative measure of periodic fault signatures. The fault feature ratio is derived from the digital Hilbert demodulation analysis with an insightful quantitative interpretation. The output of ESW on the measured signal is a selected wavelet scale with indicated fault features. It is verified via numerical simulations that ESW can match the oscillatory behavior of signals without artificially specified. The proposed method is applied to two engineering cases, signals of which were collected from wind turbine and steel temper mill, to verify its effectiveness. The processed results demonstrate that the proposed method is more effective in extracting weak fault features of induction motor bearings compared with Fourier transform, direct Hilbert envelope spectrum, different wavelet transforms and spectral kurtosis.

  11. Optimal motor control may mask sensory dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kiemel, Tim; Cowan, Noah J.; Jeka, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Properties of neural controllers for closed-loop sensorimotor behavior can be inferred with system identification. Under the standard paradigm, the closed-loop system is perturbed (input), measurements are taken (output), and the relationship between input and output reveals features of the system under study. Here we show that under common assumptions made about such systems (e.g. the system implements optimal control with a penalty on mechanical, but not sensory, states) important aspects of the neural controller (its zeros mask the modes of the sensors) remain hidden from standard system identification techniques. Only by perturbing or measuring the closed-loop system “between” the sensor and the control can these features be exposed with closed-loop system identification methods; while uncommon, there exist noninvasive techniques such as galvanic vestibular stimulation that perturb between sensor and controller in this way. PMID:19408009

  12. Age peculiarities of human motor control in aging.

    PubMed

    Mankovsky, N B; Mints, A Y; Lisenyuk, V P

    1982-01-01

    A clinicophysiological investigation of motor control was carried out in 199 apparently healthy, socially active elderly (aged 60-69 years) and long-living (90 years and over) subjects in order to establish the peculiarities of the motor sphere specific to age-related changes of the nervous system. Analyzing the experimentally induced state of readiness (intention) before a spontaneous movement, we found an increase with age in the latent period of the muscle intentional activity (IA) parallel to an increase in the latent period of the spontaneous movement, a decrease in IA amplitude with more frequent structural deviations of the EMG in the prestarting period and a reduction of the required IA selectiveness. The described changes in the organization of readiness for a spontaneous movement seemed to be related with age impairment of supraspinal (mainly corticospinal) influences and may be used for an explanation of a number of clinical peculiarities of human motor control in late ontogenesis.

  13. The Design and its Verification of the Double Rotor Double Cage Induction Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Sumita; Deb, Nirmal K.; Biswas, Sujit K.

    2016-06-01

    The concept of a double rotor motor presented earlier and its equivalent circuit has been developed, showing a non-linear parameter content. The two rotors (which are recommended to be double cage type for development of high starting torque) can run with equal or unequal speed independently, depending on their individual loading. This paper presents the elaborate design procedure, step-by-step, for the double rotor double cage motor and verifies the designed data with that obtained from three separate tests (compared to two for conventional motor) on a prototype, such that optimum performance can be obtained from the motor.

  14. Voluntary motor commands reveal awareness and control of involuntary movement.

    PubMed

    De Havas, Jack; Ghosh, Arko; Gomi, Hiroaki; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    The capacity to inhibit actions is central to voluntary motor control. However, the control mechanisms and subjective experience involved in voluntarily stopping an involuntary movement remain poorly understood. Here we examined, in humans, the voluntary inhibition of the Kohnstamm phenomenon, in which sustained voluntary contraction of shoulder abductors is followed by involuntary arm raising. Participants were instructed to stop the involuntary movement, hold the arm in a constant position, and 'release' the inhibition after ∼2s. Participants achieved this by modulating agonist muscle activity, rather than by antagonist contraction. Specifically, agonist muscle activity plateaued during this voluntary inhibition, and resumed its previous increase thereafter. There was no discernible antagonist activation. Thus, some central signal appeared to temporarily counter the involuntary motor drive, without directly affecting the Kohnstamm generator itself. We hypothesise a form of "negative motor command" to account for this novel finding. We next tested the specificity of the negative motor command, by inducing bilateral Kohnstamm movements, and instructing voluntary inhibition for one arm only. The results suggested negative motor commands responsible for inhibition are initially broad, affecting both arms, and then become focused. Finally, a psychophysical investigation found that the perceived force of the aftercontraction was significantly overestimated, relative to voluntary contractions with similar EMG levels. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that the Kohnstamm generator does not provide an efference copy signal. Our results shed new light on this interesting class of involuntary movement, and provide new information about voluntary inhibition of action. PMID:27399155

  15. Speed tracking and synchronization of multiple motors using ring coupling control and adaptive sliding mode control.

    PubMed

    Li, Le-Bao; Sun, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Sheng-Zhou; Yang, Qing-Quan

    2015-09-01

    A new control approach for speed tracking and synchronization of multiple motors is developed, by incorporating an adaptive sliding mode control (ASMC) technique into a ring coupling synchronization control structure. This control approach can stabilize speed tracking of each motor and synchronize its motion with other motors' motion so that speed tracking errors and synchronization errors converge to zero. Moreover, an adaptive law is exploited to estimate the unknown bound of uncertainty, which is obtained in the sense of Lyapunov stability theorem to minimize the control effort and attenuate chattering. Performance comparisons with parallel control, relative coupling control and conventional PI control are investigated on a four-motor synchronization control system. Extensive simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  16. Mean deviation coupling synchronous control for multiple motors via second-order adaptive sliding mode control.

    PubMed

    Li, Lebao; Sun, Lingling; Zhang, Shengzhou

    2016-05-01

    A new mean deviation coupling synchronization control strategy is developed for multiple motor control systems, which can guarantee the synchronization performance of multiple motor control systems and reduce complexity of the control structure with the increasing number of motors. The mean deviation coupling synchronization control architecture combining second-order adaptive sliding mode control (SOASMC) approach is proposed, which can improve synchronization control precision of multiple motor control systems and make speed tracking errors, mean speed errors of each motor and speed synchronization errors converge to zero rapidly. The proposed control scheme is robustness to parameter variations and random external disturbances and can alleviate the chattering phenomena. Moreover, an adaptive law is employed to estimate the unknown bound of uncertainty, which is obtained in the sense of Lyapunov stability theorem to minimize the control effort. Performance comparisons with master-slave control, relative coupling control, ring coupling control, conventional PI control and SMC are investigated on a four-motor synchronization control system. Extensive comparative results are given to shown the good performance of the proposed control scheme. PMID:26899554

  17. Mean deviation coupling synchronous control for multiple motors via second-order adaptive sliding mode control.

    PubMed

    Li, Lebao; Sun, Lingling; Zhang, Shengzhou

    2016-05-01

    A new mean deviation coupling synchronization control strategy is developed for multiple motor control systems, which can guarantee the synchronization performance of multiple motor control systems and reduce complexity of the control structure with the increasing number of motors. The mean deviation coupling synchronization control architecture combining second-order adaptive sliding mode control (SOASMC) approach is proposed, which can improve synchronization control precision of multiple motor control systems and make speed tracking errors, mean speed errors of each motor and speed synchronization errors converge to zero rapidly. The proposed control scheme is robustness to parameter variations and random external disturbances and can alleviate the chattering phenomena. Moreover, an adaptive law is employed to estimate the unknown bound of uncertainty, which is obtained in the sense of Lyapunov stability theorem to minimize the control effort. Performance comparisons with master-slave control, relative coupling control, ring coupling control, conventional PI control and SMC are investigated on a four-motor synchronization control system. Extensive comparative results are given to shown the good performance of the proposed control scheme.

  18. Fluid logic control circuit operates nutator actuator motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Fluid logic control circuit operates a pneumatic nutator actuator motor. It has no moving parts and consists of connected fluid interaction devices. The operation of this circuit demonstrates the ability of fluid interaction devices to operate in a complex combination of series and parallel logic sequence.

  19. Motor Room, overall view to the west. The control cabinet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Motor Room, overall view to the west. The control cabinet and cement pipes along the south wall are being temporarily stored in the Pumping Plant and are not part of the original equipment - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  20. Analysis and modelling of human motor control systems.

    PubMed

    Denier van der Gon, J J

    1978-01-01

    In this contribution the aims and possibilities of model studies and simulations are briefly discussed. Next, a simulation kit for the peripheral motor control system is presented in outline and, finally, some results which can be obtained with it are given.

  1. The paternity of the power law of human motor control.

    PubMed

    Kvålseth, T O

    1993-02-01

    It is pointed out that, contrary to a recent paternity claim, the power law of human motor control was first discovered by this author more than ten years ago. The classical Fitts' law is shown to be a special case of the power law.

  2. 31. DETAIL OF CONTROLS, ELECTRIC MOTOR, AND LOWER SHEAVES OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. DETAIL OF CONTROLS, ELECTRIC MOTOR, AND LOWER SHEAVES OF OTIS PASSENGER ELEVATOR ADDED IN 1921, BASEMENT. The original equipment, shown here, operated on direct current from the Massachusetts Avenue trolley line, abandoned in 1961. - Woodrow Wilson House, 2340 South S Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. Motor and Executive Control in Repetitive Timing of Brief Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Linus; Ullen, Fredrik; Madison, Guy

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the causal role of executive control functions in the production of brief time intervals by means of a concurrent task paradigm. To isolate the influence of executive functions on timing from motor coordination effects, we dissociated executive load from the number of effectors used in the dual task situation. In 3 experiments,…

  4. Induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Whitney H.

    1980-01-01

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  5. An investigation on the characteristics of a single-sided linear induction motor at standstill for maglev vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.; Lee, J.

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents the single-sided linear induction motor (SLIM) developed as electrical drives for magnetic levitation vehicle with a cruising speed 40--100Km/h for EXPO`93 in Taejon, Korea. The SLIM is designed to produce a 2,440 Newtons thrust from an active area of 2,836mm long by 235 mm wide at the airgap of 14 mm. In order to investigate its performance characteristics both experimentally and theoretically, the static test facilities was designed and equipped. At standstill, the experimental results are compared with the analytical ones.

  6. A linearly controlled direct-current power source for high-current inductive loads in a magnetic suspension wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Daniels, Taumi S.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Langley 6 inch magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) requires an independently controlled bidirectional DC power source for each of six positioning electromagnets. These electromagnets provide five-degree-of-freedom control over a suspended aerodynamic test model. Existing power equipment, which employs resistance coupled thyratron controlled rectifiers as well as AC to DC motor generator converters, is obsolete, inefficient, and unreliable. A replacement six phase bidirectional controlled bridge rectifier is proposed, which employs power MOSFET switches sequenced by hybrid analog/digital circuits. Full load efficiency is 80 percent compared to 25 percent for the resistance coupled thyratron system. Current feedback provides high control linearity, adjustable current limiting, and current overload protection. A quenching circuit suppresses inductive voltage impulses. It is shown that 20 kHz interference from positioning magnet power into MSBS electromagnetic model position sensors results predominantly from capacitively coupled electric fields. Hence, proper shielding and grounding techniques are necessary. Inductively coupled magnetic interference is negligible.

  7. Controlled Rotation and Manipulation of Individual Molecular Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersell, Heath; Perera, U. G. E.; Ample, F.; Zhang, Y.; Vives, G.; Echeverria, J.; Grisolia, M.; Rapenne, G.; Joachim, C.; Hla, S.-W.

    2015-03-01

    The design of artificial molecular machines often takes inspiration from macroscopic machines, but the parallels between the two are frequently only superficial because many molecular machines are governed by quantum processes. Previously, chemically and light driven rotary molecular motors have been developed. For electrically driven motors, tunneling electrons from the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) have been used to drive rotation in a simple rotor into a single direction and to move a wheeled molecule across a surface. Here, we show that a single standalone molecular motor adsorbed on a gold surface can be made to rotate in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction [1] by selective inelastic electron tunneling through different sub-units of the motor. Our motor is composed of a tripodal stator for vertical positioning, a five-arm rotator for controlled rotations, and a Ru atomic ball bearing connecting the static and rotational parts. The directional rotation originates from saw-tooth-like rotational potentials, which are determined by the internal molecular structure and are independent of the surface adsorption site. This project is supported by the US DOE, BES grant: DE-FG02-02ER46012.

  8. Integration simulation method concerning speed control of ultrasonic motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyauchi, R.; Yue, B.; Matsunaga, N.; Ishizuka, S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the configuration of control system of the ultrasonic motor (USM) from finite element method (FEM) model by applying the nonlinear model order reduction (MOR) is proposed. First, the USM and the FEM model is introduced. Second, FEM model order reduction method is described. Third, the result of comparing the computing time and accuracy of the FEM model and reduced order model is shown. Finaly, nominal model for control is derived by system identification from reduced order model. Nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) is applied to the nominal model, and speed is controlled. the controller effect is comfirmed by applying the proposed reduced order model.

  9. Control system for a wound-rotor motor

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, James N.

    1983-01-01

    A load switching circuit for switching two or more transformer taps under load carrying conditions includes first and second parallel connected bridge rectifier circuits which control the selective connection of a direct current load to taps of a transformer. The first bridge circuit is normally conducting so that the load is connected to a first tap through the first bridge circuit. To transfer the load to the second tap, a switch is operable to connect the second bridge circuit to a second tap, and when the second bridge circuit begins to conduct, the first bridge circuit ceases conduction because the potential at the second tap is higher than the potential at the first tap, and the load is thus connected to the second tap through the second bridge circuit. The load switching circuit is applicable in a motor speed controller for a wound-rotor motor for effecting tap switching as a function of motor speed while providing a stepless motor speed control characteristic.

  10. Microgravity induced changes in the control of motor units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luca, C.; Roy, S.

    The goal of this project is to understand the effects of microgravity on the control of muscles. It is motivated by the notion that in order to adequately address microgravity-induced deterioration in the force generating capacity of muscles, one needs to understand the changes in the control aspects in addition to histochemical and morphological changes. The investigations into muscle control need to include the regulation of the firing activity of motor units that make up a muscle and the coordination of different muscles responsible for the control of a joint. In order to understand the effects of microgravity on these two aspects of muscle control, we will test astronauts before and after spaceflight. The investigations of the control of motor units will involve intramuscular EMG techniques developed in our laboratory. We will use a quadrifilar electrode to detect simultaneously three differential channels of EMG activity. These data will be decomposed accurately using a sophisticated set of algorithms constructed with artificial intelligence knowledge- based techniques. Particular attention will be paid to the firing rate and recruitment behavior of motor units and we will study the degree of cross-correlation of the firing rates. This approach will enable us to study the firing behavior of several (approx. 10) concurrently active motor units. This analysis will enable us to detect modifications in the control of motor units. We will perform these investigations in a hand muscle, which continues being used in prehensile tasks in space, and a leg muscle whose antigravity role is not needed in space. The comparison of the effects of weightlessness on these muscles will determine if continued use of muscles in space deters the possible deleterious effects of microgravity on the control of motor units, in addition to slowing down atrophy. We are particularly interested in comparing the results of this study to similar data already obtained from elderly subjects

  11. Control technology for surface treatment of materials using induction hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, J.B.; Skocypec, R.D.

    1997-04-01

    In the industrial and automotive industries, induction case hardening is widely used to provide enhanced strength, wear resistance, and toughness in components made from medium and high carbon steels. The process uses significantly less energy than competing batch process, is environmentally benign, and is a very flexible in-line manufacturing process. As such, it can directly contribute to improved component reliability, and the manufacture of high-performance lightweight parts. However, induction hardening is not as widely used as it could be. Input material and unexplained process variations produce significant variation in product case depth and quality. This necessitates frequent inspection of product quality by destructive examination, creates higher than desired scrap rates, and causes de-rating of load stress sensitive components. In addition, process and tooling development are experience-based activities, accomplished by trial and error. This inhibits the use of induction hardening for new applications, and the resultant increase in energy efficiency in the industrial sectors. In FY96, a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement under the auspices of the Technology Transfer Initiative and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles was completed. A multidisciplinary team from Sandia National Labs and Delphi Saginaw Steering Systems investigated the induction hardening by conducting research in the areas of process characterization, computational modeling, materials characterization, and high speed data acquisition and controller development. The goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of closed-loop control for a specific material, geometry, and process. Delphi Steering estimated annual savings of $2-3 million per year due to reduced scrap losses, inspection costs, and machine down time if reliable closed-loop control could be achieved. A factor of five improvement in process precision was demonstrated and is now operational on the factory floor.

  12. 78 FR 32223 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 80, 85, 86, 600, 1036, 1037, 1065, and 1066 RIN 2060-A0 Control of Air Pollution From... (``EPA'') is announcing an extension of the public comment period for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule...

  13. Method for controlling a motor vehicle powertrain

    DOEpatents

    Burba, J.C.; Landman, R.G.; Patil, P.B.; Reitz, G.A.

    1990-05-22

    A multiple forward speed automatic transmission produces its lowest forward speed ratio when a hydraulic clutch and hydraulic brake are disengaged and a one-way clutch connects a ring gear to the transmission casing. Second forward speed ratio results when the hydraulic clutch is engaged to connect the ring gear to the planetary carrier of a second gear set. Reverse drive and regenerative operation result when an hydraulic brake fixes the planetary and the direction of power flow is reversed. Various sensors produce signals representing the position of the gear selector lever operated manually by the vehicle operator, the speed of the power source, the state of the ignition key, and the rate of release of an accelerator pedal. A control algorithm produces input data representing a commanded upshift, a commanded downshift and a torque command and various constant torque signals. A microprocessor processes the input and produces a response to them in accordance with the execution of a control algorithm. Output or response signals cause selective engagement and disengagement of the clutch and brake to produce the forward drive, reverse and regenerative operation of the transmission. 7 figs.

  14. Method for controlling a motor vehicle powertrain

    DOEpatents

    Burba, Joseph C.; Landman, Ronald G.; Patil, Prabhakar B.; Reitz, Graydon A.

    1990-01-01

    A multiple forward speed automatic transmission produces its lowest forward speed ratio when a hydraulic clutch and hydraulic brake are disengaged and a one-way clutch connects a ring gear to the transmission casing. Second forward speed ratio results when the hydraulic clutch is engaged to connect the ring gear to the planetary carrier of a second gear set. Reverse drive and regenerative operation result when an hydraulic brake fixes the planetary and the direction of power flow is reversed. Various sensors produce signals representing the position of the gear selector lever operated manually by the vehicle operator, the speed of the power source, the state of the ignition key, and the rate of release of an accelerator pedal. A control algorithm produces input data representing a commanded upshift, a commanded downshift and a torque command and various constant torque signals. A microprocessor processes the input and produces a response to them in accordance with the execution of a control algorithm. Output or response signals cause selective engagement and disengagement of the clutch and brake to produce the forward drive, reverse and regenerative operation of the transmission.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF BRAIN LATERALIZATION ON MOTOR CONTROL AND ADAPTATION

    PubMed Central

    Mutha, Pratik K.; Haaland, Kathleen Y.; Sainburg, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Lateralization of mechanisms mediating functions such as language and perception is widely accepted as a fundamental feature of neural organization. Recent research has revealed that a similar organization exists for the control of motor actions, in that each brain hemisphere contributes unique control mechanisms to the movements of each arm. We now review current research that addresses the nature of the control mechanisms that are lateralized to each hemisphere and how they impact motor adaptation and learning. In general, the studies reviewed here suggest an enhanced role for the left hemisphere during adaptation, and the learning of new sequences and skills. We suggest that this specialization emerges from a left hemisphere specialization for predictive control – the ability to effectively plan and coordinate motor actions, possibly by optimizing certain cost functions. In contrast, right hemisphere circuits appear to be important for updating ongoing actions and stopping at a goal position, through modulation of sensorimotor stabilization mechanisms such as reflexes. We also propose that each brain hemisphere contributes its mechanism to the control of both arms. We conclude by examining the potential advantages of such a lateralized control system. PMID:23237468

  16. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gourash, F.

    1984-02-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  17. Effects of muscle atrophy on motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    As a biological tissue, muscle adapts to the demands of usage. One traditional way of assessing the extent of this adaptation has been to examine the effects of an altered-activity protocol on the physiological properties of muscles. However, in order to accurately interpret the changes associated with an activity pattern, it is necessary to employ an appropriate control model. A substantial literature exists which reports altered-use effects by comparing experimental observations with those from animals raised in small laboratory cages. Some evidence suggests that small-cage-reared animals actually represent a model of reduced use. For example, laboratory animals subjected to limited physical activity have shown resistance to insulin-induced glucose uptake which can be altered by exercise training. This project concerned itself with the basic mechanisms underlying muscle atrophy. Specifically, the project addressed the issue of the appropriateness of rats raised in conventional-sized cages as experimental models to examine this phenomenon. The project hypothesis was that rats raised in small cages are inappropriate models for the study of muscle atrophy. The experimental protocol involved: 1) raising two populations of rats, one group in conventional (small)-sized cages and the other group in a much larger (133x) cage, from weanling age (21 days) through to young adulthood (125 days); 2) comparison of size- and force-related characteristics of selected test muscles in an acute terminal paradigm.

  18. Propulsion control of superconducting linear synchronous motor vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Tetsuzo; Shiromizu, Tsunehiro

    1997-09-01

    The armature current of a superconducting Linear Synchronous Motor (LSM) for a maglev vehicle is controlled to produce a suitable propulsion force so that the vehicle follows the reference speed signal sent from a control station. Besides the power is supplied from some inverters to the LSM armature sections where the vehicle exists. This paper shows an exact mathematical modeling of the propulsion control system to treat the system analytically, which is used for designing controllers and performance computer simulations. The calculated results include the simulations when the vehicle goes through power feeder section borders and tunnels that have a large aerodynamic drag force with taking account of an inverter failure.

  19. Motor Control and Regulation for a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Barbara; Lyons, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    This talk will focus on the motor control algorithms used to regulate the flywheel system at the NASA Glenn Research Center. First a discussion of the inner loop torque control technique will be given. It is based on the principle of field orientation and is implemented without a position or speed sensor (sensorless control). Then the outer loop charge and discharge algorithm will be presented. This algorithm controls the acceleration of the flywheel during charging and the deceleration while discharging. The algorithm also allows the flywheel system to regulate the DC bus voltage during the discharge cycle.

  20. Torsional Vibration Analysis of Reciprocating Compressor Trains driven by Induction Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunelli, M.; Fusi, A.; Grasso, F.; Pasteur, F.; Ussi, A.

    2015-08-01

    The dynamic study of electric motor driven compressors, for Oil&Gas (O&G) applications, are traditionally performed in two steps separating the mechanical and the electrical systems. The packager conducts a Torsional Vibration Analysis (TVA) modeling the mechanical system with a lumped parameter scheme, without taking into account the electrical part. The electric motor supplier later performs a source current pulsation analysis on the electric motor system, based on the TVA results. The mechanical and the electrical systems are actually linked by the electromagnetic effect. The effect of the motor air-gap on TVA has only recently been taken into account by adding a spring and a damper between motor and ground in the model. This model is more accurate than the traditional one, but is applicable only to the steady-state condition and still fails to consider the reciprocal effects between the two parts of the system. In this paper the torsional natural frequencies calculated using both the traditional and the new model have been compared. Furthermore, simulation of the complete system has been achieved through the use of LMS AMESim, multi-physics, one-dimensional simulation software that simultaneously solves the shafts rotation and electric motor voltage equation. Finally, the transient phenomena that occur during start-up have been studied.

  1. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    PubMed

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-01

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus.

  2. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    PubMed

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-01

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus. PMID:25891406

  3. Functional MRI in human motor control studies and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Toma, Keiichiro; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2002-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been a useful tool for the noninvasive mapping of brain function associated with various motor and cognitive tasks. Because fMRI is based on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect, it does not directly record neural activity. With the fMRI technique, distinguishing BOLD signals created by cortical projection neurons from those created by intracortical neurons appears to be difficult. Two major experimental designs are used in fMRI studies: block designs and event-related designs. Block-designed fMRI presupposes the steady state of regional cerebral blood flow and has been applied to examinations of brain activation caused by tasks requiring sustained or repetitive movements. By contrast, the more recently developed event-related fMRI with time resolution of a few seconds allows the mapping of brain activation associated with a single movement according to the transient aspects of the hemodynamic response. Increasing evidence suggests that multiple motor areas are engaged in a networked manner to execute various motor acts. In order to understand functional brain maps, it is important that one understands sequential and parallel organizations of anatomical connections between multiple motor areas. In fMRI studies of complex motor tasks, elementary parameters such as movement length, force, velocity, acceleration and frequency should be controlled, because inconsistency in those parameters may alter the extent and intensity of motor cortical activation, confounding interpretation of the findings obtained. In addition to initiation of movements, termination of movements plays an important role in the successful achievement of complex movements. Brain areas exclusively related to the termination of movements have been, for the first time, uncovered with an event-related fMRI technique. We propose the application of fMRI to the elucidation of the pathophysiology of movement disorders, particularly dystonia

  4. Novel intelligent PID control of traveling wave ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Jingzhuo, Shi; Yu, Liu; Jingtao, Huang; Meiyu, Xu; Juwei, Zhang; Lei, Zhang

    2014-09-01

    A simple control strategy with acceptable control performance can be a good choice for the mass production of ultrasonic motor control system. In this paper, through the theoretic and experimental analyses of typical control process, a simpler intelligent PID speed control strategy of TWUM is proposed, involving only two expert rules to adjust the PID control parameters based on the current status. Compared with the traditional PID controller, this design requires less calculation and more cheap chips which can be easily involved in online performance. Experiments with different load torques and voltage amplitudes show that the proposed controller can deal with the nonlinearity and load disturbance to maintain good control performance of TWUM. PMID:24957274

  5. Control Code for Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R.

    2007-01-01

    A computer program has been devised for controlling a machine that is an integral combination of magnetic bearings and a switched-reluctance motor. The motor contains an eight-pole stator and a hybrid rotor, which has both (1) a circular lamination stack for levitation and (2) a six-pole lamination stack for rotation. The program computes drive and levitation currents for the stator windings with real-time feedback control. During normal operation, two of the four pairs of opposing stator poles (each pair at right angles to the other pair) levitate the rotor. The remaining two pairs of stator poles exert torque on the six-pole rotor lamination stack to produce rotation. This version is executable in a control-loop time of 40 s on a Pentium (or equivalent) processor that operates at a clock speed of 400 MHz. The program can be expanded, by addition of logic blocks, to enable control of position along additional axes. The code enables adjustment of operational parameters (e.g., motor speed and stiffness, and damping parameters of magnetic bearings) through computer keyboard key presses.

  6. Physiological and pathological tremors and rhythmic central motor control.

    PubMed

    McAuley, J H; Marsden, C D

    2000-08-01

    In recent years there has been increasing interest in oscillatory neural activity in the CNS and in the role that such activity may have in motor control. It is thought that physiological tremor may be a manifestation in the periphery of such central oscillatory activity and that some pathological tremors are the result of derangement of these oscillators. This review re-evaluates both early and recent studies on physiological and pathological tremors and other peripheral oscillations in order to gain a new perspective on the nature and function of their central progenitors. This approach, namely using tremor as a 'window' into the function of central oscillations, is particularly suited to human investigations because of the obvious limitations of direct central recording. It is argued that physiological tremor is likely to be multifactorial in origin, with contributions not only from CNS 10-Hz range oscillatory activity, but also from motor unit firing properties, mechanical resonances and reflex loop resonances. Different origins are likely to dominate under different conditions. While some pathological tremors appear to arise as a distortion of central or peripheral components of physiological tremor, others arise de novo, such as the pathological oscillation of 3- to 6-Hz parkinsonian tremor. CNS oscillations outside the 10-Hz range are also found to modulate limb activity in normal individuals, and oscillatory activity exists in other motor systems such as eye movements. Finally, it is shown how studies of peripheral oscillations may help develop hypotheses on the role of CNS oscillations in motor control, including the proposed 'binding' function of synchronized oscillations and the possibility that motor signals could be coded by frequency of modulating oscillation as well as by synaptic connectivity. PMID:10908186

  7. Low speed phaselock speed control system. [for brushless dc motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulcher, R. W.; Sudey, J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A motor speed control system for an electronically commutated brushless dc motor is provided which includes a phaselock loop with bidirectional torque control for locking the frequency output of a high density encoder, responsive to actual speed conditions, to a reference frequency signal, corresponding to the desired speed. The system includes a phase comparator, which produces an output in accordance with the difference in phase between the reference and encoder frequency signals, and an integrator-digital-to-analog converter unit, which converts the comparator output into an analog error signal voltage. Compensation circuitry, including a biasing means, is provided to convert the analog error signal voltage to a bidirectional error signal voltage which is utilized by an absolute value amplifier, rotational decoder, power amplifier-commutators, and an arrangement of commutation circuitry.

  8. Zebrafish and motor control over the last decade

    PubMed Central

    Fetcho, Joseph R.; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; McLean, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The combination of transparency and accessible genetics is making zebrafish an increasingly important model in studies of motor control. Much of the work on the model has been done over the past decade. Here we review some of the highlights of this work that serve to reveal both the power of the model and its prospects for providing important future insights into the links between neural networks and behavior. PMID:17825423

  9. Mechanisms of motor adaptation in reactive balance control.

    PubMed

    Welch, Torrence D J; Ting, Lena H

    2014-01-01

    Balance control must be rapidly modified to provide stability in the face of environmental challenges. Although changes in reactive balance over repeated perturbations have been observed previously, only anticipatory postural adjustments preceding voluntary movements have been studied in the framework of motor adaptation and learning theory. Here, we hypothesized that adaptation occurs in task-level balance control during responses to perturbations due to central changes in the control of both anticipatory and reactive components of balance. Our adaptation paradigm consisted of a Training set of forward support-surface perturbations, a Reversal set of novel countermanding perturbations that reversed direction, and a Washout set identical to the Training set. Adaptation was characterized by a change in a motor variable from the beginning to the end of each set, the presence of aftereffects at the beginning of the Washout set when the novel perturbations were removed, and a return of the variable at the end of the Washout to a level comparable to the end of the Training set. Task-level balance performance was characterized by peak center of mass (CoM) excursion and velocity, which showed adaptive changes with repetitive trials. Only small changes in anticipatory postural control, characterized by body lean and background muscle activity were observed. Adaptation was found in the evoked long-latency muscular response, and also in the sensorimotor transformation mediating that response. Finally, in each set, temporal patterns of muscle activity converged towards an optimum predicted by a trade-off between maximizing motor performance and minimizing muscle activity. Our results suggest that adaptation in balance, as well as other motor tasks, is mediated by altering central sensitivity to perturbations and may be driven by energetic considerations. PMID:24810991

  10. Induction plasma calcining of pigment particles for thermal control coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, E. P.

    1971-01-01

    Induction plasma heating techniques were studied for calcining zinc orthotitanate particles for use in thermal control coatings. Previous studies indicated that the optimum calcining temperature is between 1400 and 1750 C. An intermediate temperature (1670 C) was chosen as a reference point for running a temperature series at the reference point and 220 C on both sides. The effect of varying chamber temperature on the reflectance spectra, before and after vacuum UV irradiation, is presented. The correlation between Zn2Ti04 paramagnetic resonance activity and its susceptibility to vacuum UV damage is discussed.

  11. The influence of scopolamine on motor control and attentional processes

    PubMed Central

    Bestaven, Emma; Kambrun, Charline; Guehl, Dominique; Cazalets, Jean-René

    2016-01-01

    Background: Motion sickness may be caused by a sensory conflict between the visual and the vestibular systems. Scopolamine, known to be the most effective therapy to control the vegetative symptoms of motion sickness, acts on the vestibular nucleus and potentially the vestibulospinal pathway, which may affect balance and motor tasks requiring both attentional process and motor balance. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of scopolamine on motor control and attentional processes. Methods: Seven subjects were evaluated on four different tasks before and after a subcutaneous injection of scopolamine (0.2 mg): a one-minute balance test, a subjective visual vertical test, a pointing task and a galvanic vestibular stimulation with EMG recordings. Results: The results showed that the reaction time and the movement duration were not modified after the injection of scopolamine. However, there was an increase in the center of pressure displacement during the balance test, a decrease in EMG muscle response after galvanic vestibular stimulation and an alteration in the perception of verticality. Discussion: These results confirm that low doses of scopolamine such as those prescribed to avoid motion sickness have no effect on attentional processes, but that it is essential to consider the responsiveness of each subject. However, scopolamine did affect postural control and the perception of verticality. In conclusion, the use of scopolamine to prevent motion sickness must be considered carefully because it could increase imbalances in situations when individuals are already at risk of falling (e.g., sailing, parabolic flight). PMID:27169000

  12. Dual capacity compressor with reversible motor and controls arrangement therefor

    DOEpatents

    Sisk, Francis J.

    1980-12-02

    A hermetic reciprocating compressor such as may be used in heat pump applications is provided for dual capacity operation by providing the crankpin of the crankshaft with an eccentric ring rotatably mounted thereon, and with the end of the connecting rod opposite the piston encompassing the outer circumference of the eccentric ring, with means limiting the rotation of the eccentric ring upon the crankpin between one end point and an opposite angularly displaced end point to provide different values of eccentricity depending upon which end point the eccentric ring is rotated to upon the crankpin, and a reversible motor in the hermetic shell of the compressor for rotating the crankshaft, the motor operating in one direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the one end point, and in the opposite direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the opposite end point, this arrangement automatically giving different stroke lengths depending upon the direction of motor rotation. The mechanical structure of the arrangement may take various forms including at least one in which any impact of reversal is reduced by utilizing lubricant passages and chambers at the interface area of the crankpin and eccentric ring to provide a dashpot effect. In the main intended application of the arrangement according to the invention, that is, in a refrigerating or air conditioning system, it is desirable to insure a delay during reversal of the direction of compressor operation. A control arrangement is provided in which the control system controls the direction of motor operation in accordance with temperature conditions, the system including control means for effecting operation in a low capacity direction or alternatively in a high capacity direction in response to one set, and another set, respectively, of temperature conditions and with timer means delaying a restart of the compressor

  13. Cortical oscillatory activity and the induction of plasticity in the human motor cortex.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Suzanne M; Rothwell, John C; Ridding, Michael C

    2011-05-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigms such as continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) induce long-term potentiation- and long-term depression-like plasticity in the human motor cortex. However, responses to cTBS are highly variable and may depend on the activity of the cortex at the time of stimulation. We investigated whether power in different electroencephalogram (EEG) frequency bands predicted the response to subsequent cTBS, and conversely whether cTBS had after-effects on the EEG. cTBS may utilize similar mechanisms of plasticity to motor learning; thus, we conducted a parallel set of experiments to test whether ongoing electroencephalography could predict performance of a visuomotor training task, and whether training itself had effects on the EEG. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) provided an index of cortical excitability pre- and post-intervention. The EEG was recorded over the motor cortex pre- and post-intervention, and power spectra were computed. cTBS reduced MEP amplitudes; however, baseline power in the delta, theta, alpha or beta frequencies did not predict responses to cTBS or learning of the visuomotor training task. cTBS had no effect on delta, theta, alpha or beta power. In contrast, there was an increase in alpha power following visuomotor training that was positively correlated with changes in MEP amplitude post-training. The results suggest that the EEG is not a useful state-marker for predicting responses to plasticity-inducing paradigms. The correlation between alpha power and changes in corticospinal excitability following visuomotor training requires further investigation, but may be related to disengagement of the somatosensory system important for motor memory consolidation. PMID:21488985

  14. Voltage Controller Saves Energy, Prolongs Life of Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In 1985, Power Efficiency Corporation of Las Vegas licensed NASA voltage controller technology from Marshall Space Flight Center. In the following years, Power Efficiency made patented improvements to the technology and marketed the resulting products throughout the world as the Performance Controller and the Power Efficiency energy-saving soft start. Soft start gradually introduces power to an electric motor, thus eliminating the harsh, violent mechanical stresses of having the device go from a dormant state to one of full activity; prevents it from running too hot; and increases the motor's lifetime. The product can pay for itself through the reduction in electricity consumed (according to Power Efficiency, within 3 years), depending on the duty cycle of the motor and the prevailing power rates. In many instances, the purchaser is eligible for special utility rebates for the environmental protection it provides. Common applications of Power Efficiency's soft start include mixers, grinders, granulators, conveyors, crushers, stamping presses, injection molders, elevators with MG sets, and escalators. The device has been retrofitted onto equipment at major department store chains, hotels, airports, universities, and for various manufacturers

  15. Synchronization of motor controller and PC system clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittmann, Frank; Bertram, Thomas; Briegel, Florian; Mohr, Lars; Berwein, Jürgen

    2010-07-01

    The power of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) with its two 8.4m primary mirrors sharing a common mount will unfold its full potential with the LINC-NIRVANA (LN) instrument. LINC-NIRVANA is a German-Italian beam combiner for the LBT and will interfere the light from the two 8.4m mirrors of the LBT in Fizeau mode. More than 140 motors have to be handled by custom developed Motor Controllers (MoCons). One important feature of the MoCon is the support of externally computed trajectories. Motion profiles provide information on the movement of the motor along a defined path over a certain period of time. Such profiles can be uploaded to the MoCon over Ethernet and can be started at a specific time. For field derotation it is critical that the derotation trajectories are executed with a very precise relative and absolute timing. This raises the problem of the synchronization of the MoCon internal clock with the system time of the servers that are hosting LINCNIRVANA's Instrument Control Software. The MoCon time should be known by the servers with an uncertainty of few milliseconds in order to match the start time of the motion profile and the field rotation trajectory. In this paper we will discuss how to synchronize the MoCon internal time and the PC system time.

  16. Neuromodulation of lower limb motor control in restorative neurology

    PubMed Central

    Minassian, Karen; Hofstoetter, Ursula; Tansey, Keith; Mayr, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    One consequence of central nervous system injury or disease is the impairment of neural control of movement, resulting in spasticity and paralysis. To enhance recovery, restorative neurology procedures modify altered, yet preserved nervous system function. This review focuses on functional electrical stimulation (FES) and spinal cord stimulation (SCS) that utilize remaining capabilities of the distal apparatus of spinal cord, peripheral nerves and muscles in upper motor neuron dysfunctions. FES for the immediate generation of lower limb movement along with current rehabilitative techniques is reviewed. The potential of SCS for controlling spinal spasticity and enhancing lower limb function in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury is discussed. The necessity for precise electrode placement and appropriate stimulation parameter settings to achieve therapeutic specificity is elaborated. This will lead to our human work of epidural and transcutaneous stimulation targeting the lumbar spinal cord for enhancing motor functions in spinal cord injured people, supplemented by pertinent human research of other investigators. We conclude that the concept of restorative neurology recently received new appreciation by accumulated evidence for locomotor circuits residing in the human spinal cord. Technological and clinical advancements need to follow for a major impact on the functional recovery in individuals with severe damage to their motor system. PMID:22464657

  17. Brushless DC motor control system responsive to control signals generated by a computer or the like

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, D. T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A control system for a brushless DC motor responsive to digital control signals is disclosed. The motor includes a multiphase wound stator and a permanent magnet rotor. The motor is arranged so that each phase winding, when energized from a DC source, will drive the rotor through a predetermined angular position or step. A commutation signal generator responsive to the shaft position provides a commutation signal for each winding. A programmable control signal generator such as a computer or microprocessor produces individual digital control signals for each phase winding. The control signals and commutation signals associated with each winding are applied to an AND gate for that phase winding. Each gate controls a switch connected in series with the associated phase winding and the DC source so that each phase winding is energized only when the commutation signal and the control signal associated with that phase winding are present. The motor shaft may be advanced one step at a time to a desired position by applying a predetermined number of control signals in the proper sequence to the AND gates and the torque generated by the motor be regulated by applying a separate control signal and each AND gate which is pulse width modulated to control the total time that each switch connects its associated winding to the DC source during each commutation period.

  18. Brushless DC motor control system responsive to control signals generated by a computer or the like

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packard, D. T.

    1985-04-01

    A control system for a brushless DC motor responsive to digital control signals is disclosed. The motor includes a multiphase wound stator and a permanent magnet rotor. The motor is arranged so that each phase winding, when energized from a DC source, will drive the rotor through a predetermined angular position or step. A commutation signal generator responsive to the shaft position provides a commutation signal for each winding. A programmable control signal generator such as a computer or microprocessor produces individual digital control signals for each phase winding. The control signals and commutation signals associated with each winding are applied to an AND gate for that phase winding. Each gate controls a switch connected in series with the associated phase winding and the DC source so that each phase winding is energized only when the commutation signal and the control signal associated with that phase winding are present. The motor shaft may be advanced one step at a time to a desired position by applying a predetermined number of control signals in the proper sequence to the AND gates and the torque generated by the motor be regulated by applying a separate control signal and each AND gate which is pulse width modulated to control the total time that each switch connects its associated winding to the DC source during each commutation period.

  19. Experiments in robotic sensori-motor control during grasp

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, S.A.

    1991-09-06

    This paper presents a series of experiments in robotic sensori-motor control during grasping. The work utilizes a multifingered, dextrous robot hand equipped with a fingertip force sensor to explore dynamic grasp force adjustment during manipulation. The work is primarily concerned with the relationship between the weight of an object and the grasp force required to lift it. Too weak a grasp is unstable and the object will slip from the hand. Too strong a grasp may damage the object and/or the manipulator. An algorithm is presented which uses tactile information from the sensor to dynamically adjust the grasp force during lift. It is assumed that there is no a priori knowledge about the object to be manipulated. The effects of different arm/hand postures and object surfaces is explored. Finally, the use of sensory data to detect unexpected object motion and to signal transitions between manipulation phases - with the coincident triggering of new motor programs - is investigated.

  20. Reusable solid rocket motor case - Optimum probabilistic fracture control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanagud, S.; Uppaluri, B.

    1979-01-01

    A methodology for the reliability analysis of a reusable solid rocket motor case is discussed in this paper. The analysis is based on probabilistic fracture mechanics and probability distribution for initial flaw sizes. The developed reliability analysis can be used to select the structural design variables of the solid rocket motor case on the basis of minimum expected cost and specified reliability bounds during the projected design life of the case. Effects on failure prevention plans such as nondestructive inspection and the material erosion between missions can also be considered in the developed procedure for selection of design variables. The reliability-based procedure that has been discussed in this paper can easily be modified to consider other similar structures of reusable space vehicle systems with different fracture control plans.

  1. Feedback control of chlorine inductively coupled plasma etch processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Chaung; Leou, K.-C.; Shiao, K.-M.

    2005-03-01

    Feedback control has been applied to poly-Si etch processing using a chlorine inductively coupled plasma. Since the positive ion flux and ion energy incident upon the wafer surface are the key factors that influence the etch rate, the ion current and the root mean square (rms) rf voltage on the wafer stage, which are measured using an impedance meter connected to the wafer stage, are adopted as the controlled variables to enhance etch rate. The actuators are two 13.56 MHz rf power generators, which adjust ion density and ion energy, respectively. The results of closed-loop control show that the advantages of feedback control can be achieved. For example, with feedback control, etch rate variation under the transient chamber wall condition is reduced roughly by a factor of 2 as compared to the open-loop case. In addition, the capability of the disturbance rejection was also investigated. For a gas pressure variation of 20%, the largest etch rate variation is about 2.4% with closed-loop control as compared with as large as about 6% variation using open-loop control. Also the effect of ion current and rms rf voltage on etch rate was studied using 2{sup 2} factorial design whose results were used to derive a model equation. The obtained formula was used to adjust the set point of ion current and rf voltage so that the desired etch rate was obtained.

  2. Linear motor drive system for continuous-path closed-loop position control of an object

    DOEpatents

    Barkman, William E.

    1980-01-01

    A precision numerical controlled servo-positioning system is provided for continuous closed-loop position control of a machine slide or platform driven by a linear-induction motor. The system utilizes filtered velocity feedback to provide system stability required to operate with a system gain of 100 inches/minute/0.001 inch of following error. The filtered velocity feedback signal is derived from the position output signals of a laser interferometer utilized to monitor the movement of the slide. Air-bearing slides mounted to a stable support are utilized to minimize friction and small irregularities in the slideway which would tend to introduce positioning errors. A microprocessor is programmed to read command and feedback information and converts this information into the system following error signal. This error signal is summed with the negative filtered velocity feedback signal at the input of a servo amplifier whose output serves as the drive power signal to the linear motor position control coil.

  3. [Fast determination of induction period of motor gasoline using Fourier transform attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Fei; Yuan, Hong-Fu; Song, Chun-Feng; Xie, Jin-Chun; Li, Xiao-Yu; Yan, De-Lin

    2014-11-01

    A new method is proposed for the fast determination of the induction period of gasoline using Fourier transform attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). A dedicated analysis system with the function of spectral measurement, data processing, display and storage was designed and integrated using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer module and chemometric software. The sample presentation accessory designed which has advantages of constant optical path, convenient sample injection and cleaning is composed of a nine times reflection attenuated total reflectance (ATR) crystal of zinc selenide (ZnSe) coated with a diamond film and a stainless steel lid with sealing device. The influence of spectral scanning number and repeated sample loading times on the spectral signal-to-noise ratio was studied. The optimum spectral scanning number is 15 times and the optimum sample loading number is 4 times. Sixty four different gasoline samples were collected from the Beijing-Tianjin area and the induction period values were determined as reference data by standard method GB/T 8018-87. The infrared spectra of these samples were collected in the operating condition mentioned above using the dedicated fast analysis system. Spectra were pretreated using mean centering and 1st derivative to reduce the influence of spectral noise and baseline shift A PLS calibration model for the induction period was established by correlating the known induction period values of the samples with their spectra. The correlation coefficient (R2), standard error of calibration (SEC) and standard error of prediction (SEP) of the model are 0.897, 68.3 and 91.9 minutes, respectively. The relative deviation of the model for gasoline induction period prediction is less than 5%, which meets the requirements of repeatability tolerance in GB method. The new method is simple and fast. It takes no more than 3 minutes to detect one sample. Therefore, the method is feasible for implementing

  4. Investigating human motor control by transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Nicolas T; Pyndt, Henrik S; Nielsen, Jens B

    2003-09-01

    In this review we discuss the contribution of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the understanding of human motor control. Compound motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) may provide valuable information about corticospinal transmission, especially in patients with neurological disorders, but generally do not allow conclusions regarding the details of corticospinal function to be made. Techniques such as poststimulus time histograms (PSTHs) of the discharge of single, voluntarily activated motor units and conditioning of H reflexes provide a more optimal way of evaluating transmission in specific excitatory and inhibitory pathways. Through application of such techniques, several important issues have been clarified. TMS has provided the first real evidence that direct monosynaptic connections from the motor cortex to spinal motoneurons exist in man, and it has been revealed that the distribution of these projections roughly follows the same proximal-distal gradient as in other primates. However, pronounced differences also exist. In particular, the tibialis anterior muscle appears to receive as significant a monosynaptic corticospinal drive as muscles in the hand. The reason for this may be the importance of this muscle in controlling the foot trajectory in the swing phase of walking. Conditioning of H reflexes by TMS has provided evidence of changes in cortical excitability prior to and during various movements. These experiments have generally confirmed information obtained from chronic recording of the activity of corticospinal cells in primates, but information about the corticospinal contribution to movements for which information from other primates is sparse or lacking has also been obtained. One example is walking, where TMS experiments have revealed that the corticospinal tract makes an important contribution to the ongoing EMG activity during treadmill walking. TMS experiments have also documented the convergence of descending corticospinal projections

  5. Emergence of Virtual Reality as a Tool for Upper Limb Rehabilitation: Incorporation of Motor Control and Motor Learning Principles

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Patrice L.; Keshner, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    The primary focus of rehabilitation for individuals with loss of upper limb movement as a result of acquired brain injury is the relearning of specific motor skills and daily tasks. This relearning is essential because the loss of upper limb movement often results in a reduced quality of life. Although rehabilitation strives to take advantage of neuroplastic processes during recovery, results of traditional approaches to upper limb rehabilitation have not entirely met this goal. In contrast, enriched training tasks, simulated with a wide range of low- to high-end virtual reality–based simulations, can be used to provide meaningful, repetitive practice together with salient feedback, thereby maximizing neuroplastic processes via motor learning and motor recovery. Such enriched virtual environments have the potential to optimize motor learning by manipulating practice conditions that explicitly engage motivational, cognitive, motor control, and sensory feedback–based learning mechanisms. The objectives of this article are to review motor control and motor learning principles, to discuss how they can be exploited by virtual reality training environments, and to provide evidence concerning current applications for upper limb motor recovery. The limitations of the current technologies with respect to their effectiveness and transfer of learning to daily life tasks also are discussed. PMID:25212522

  6. Motor Control in Children and Adults during a Non-Speech Oral Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heather M.; Robin, Donald A.; McCullagh, Gail; Schmidt, Richard A.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the accuracy and stability of oral motor control in 20 adults and 20 children. Although the children were less accurate and less stable, adults and children exhibited similar variability in their generalized motor program. Results are discussed within the framework of a schema model of motor control, especially the strategic…

  7. Control of beam dynamics in high energy induction linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G.J.

    1986-07-29

    The Advent of laser-ion-guiding in the Advanced test Accelerator along with the development of accelerator cavities optimized with respect to beam breakup coupling impedence now make it possible to consider a new class of high current, high emergy linear induction accelerators. The control of the beam breakup and other instabilities by laser guiding and by various magnetic focusing schemes will be discussed along with the scaling laws for the design of such machines to minimize the growth of the beam breakup instability. Many linacs, particularly induction linacs are limited in performance by the beam breakup (BBU) instability. The instability is found in two forms. In the first form the accelerating cavities communicate with one another through interaction with the beam and through propagation of cavity fields through the accelerator structure. In the second form which is the more virulent of the two, the cavities couple to each other only through their interactions with the beam. It is this second form of PPU that will be discussed in this paper.

  8. Digital signal processing control of induction machine`s torque and stator flux utilizing the direct stator flux field orientation method

    SciTech Connect

    Seiz, J.B.

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents a review of the Direct Stator Flux Field Orientation control method. This method can be used to control an induction motor`s torque and flux directly and is the application of interest for this thesis. This control method is implemented without the traditional feedback loops and associated hardware. Predictions are made, by mathematical calculations, of the stator voltage vector. The voltage vector is determined twice a switching period. The switching period is fixed throughout the analysis. The three phase inverter duty cycle necessary to control the torque and flux of the induction machine is determined by the voltage space vector Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique. Transient performance of either the flux or torque requires an alternate modulation scheme which is also addressed in this thesis. A block diagram of this closed loop system is provided. 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Delays and tori in a nonlinear model from motor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Sue A.; Belair, Jacques

    1993-11-01

    A model is derived for a `simple' motor control task. An artificial delay is introduced in the experiments to assess the dynamic influence it may have on normal and/or pathological conditions. The model takes the form of a delay-differential equation containing two time delays, associated with two (proprioceptive and visual) negative feedback loops. A linear stability analysis reveals a rich structure in the parameter values destabilizing the equilibrium. A nonlinear analysis, by a reduction on a center manifold when two Hopf bifurcations interact, reveals the existence of stable and unstable 2D tori. These results are contrasted with systems involving a single feedback loop, and a single time delay.

  10. Fast recovery, high voltage silicon diodes for AC motor controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balodis, V.; Berman, A. H.; Gaugh, C.

    1982-01-01

    The fabrication and characterization of a high voltage, high current, fast recovery silicon diode for use in AC motor controllers, originally developed for NASA for use in avionics power supplies, is presented. The diode utilizes a positive bevel PIN mesa structure with glass passivation and has the following characteristics: peak inverse voltage - 1200 volts, forward voltage at 50 amperes - 1.5 volts, reverse recovery time of 200 nanoseconds. Characterization data for the diode, included in a table, show agreement with design concepts developed for power diodes. Circuit diagrams of the diode are also given.

  11. Thrust vector control for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counter, D. N.; Brinton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Thrust vector control (TVC) for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) is obtained by omniaxis vectoring of the nozzle. The development and integration of the system are under the cognizance of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The nozzle and flexible bearing have been designed and will be built by Thiokol Corporation/Wasatch Division. The vector requirements of the system, the impact of multiple reuse on the components, and the unique problems associated with a large flexible bearing are discussed. The design details of each of the major TVC subcomponents are delineated. The subscale bearing development program and the overall development schedule also are presented.

  12. Plasticity of motor control systems demonstrated by yoga training.

    PubMed

    Telles, S; Hanumanthaiah, B H; Nagarathna, R; Nagendra, H R

    1994-04-01

    The static motor performance was tested in two groups with 20 subjects in each (age range 17 to 22 years, and 5 females in each group). Tests were carried out at the beginning and end of a 10 day period. The test required being able to insert and hold a metal stylus within holes of varying sizes for 15 sec. Accidental contacts between the stylus and the sides of the holes, were registered on a counter as errors. During the 10 days one group (the yoga group) practised asanas (physical postures), pranayama (voluntary regulation of breathing), meditation, devotional sessions, and tratakas (visual focussing exercises). The control group followed their usual routine. At the end of 10 days the yoga group showed a significant reduction in number of errors (Wilcoxon paired signed ranks test), while the control group did not change. Our earlier study showed a similar improvement in children (9-13 years). It was interesting to note the same degree of plasticity in motor control systems in young adults. The implications for rehabilitation programmes have been discussed.

  13. Proactive Motor Control Reduces Monetary Risk Taking in Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Rachel; Chambers, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    Less supervision by the executive system after disruption of the right prefrontal cortex leads to increased risk taking in gambling because superficially attractive—but risky—choices are not suppressed. Similarly, people might gamble more in multitask situations than in single-task situations because concurrent executive processes usually interfere with each other. In the study reported here, we used a novel monetary decision-making paradigm to investigate whether multitasking could reduce rather than increase risk taking in gambling. We found that performing a task that induced cautious motor responding reduced gambling in a multitask situation (Experiment 1). We then found that a short period of inhibitory training lessened risk taking in gambling at least 2 hr later (Experiments 2 and 3). Our findings indicate that proactive motor control strongly affects monetary risk taking in gambling. The link between control systems at different cognitive levels might be exploited to develop new methods for rehabilitation of addiction and impulse-control disorders. PMID:22692336

  14. Computational motor control as a window to understanding schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Jun; Asai, Tomohisa; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    In addition to mental disorders such as attention, emotion, delusions, hallucinations, and difficulties in social skills, the patients with schizophrenia exhibits significant abnormality in sensorimotor perception and control. To seek a neurobiological cause of the heterogeneous symptoms in schizophrenia, we focused on the impaired inference mechanism of the self-agency of the schizophrenia's brain where the sensory outcome generated by the self-initiated action was misattributed to the other agent's action. By developing a novel computational model of agency experience using a Bayesian decision making framework, we united the computational mechanisms of agency and motor control via internal model: a model for one to predict the sensory consequence of action. Our theory based on optimal feedback control with Kalman filtering successfully predicted a variety of schizophrenia's motor abnormalities assuming a deformed internal model. To discuss the plausibility of these model predictions, we reviewed literature that might support these predictions. We further proposed some experiments that potentially examine the proposed model of schizophrenia. Our approach in investigating a problem of mind by projecting it on the coordinates system of the embodiment effectively shed light on a central neuropathology of this disease that had been latent behind the observed behaviors. PMID:26592778

  15. Brushless DC motor control system responsive to control signals generated by a computer or the like

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, Douglas T. (Inventor); Schmitt, Donald E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A control system for a brushless DC motor responsive to digital control signals is disclosed. The motor includes a multiphase wound stator and a permanent magnet rotor. The rotor is arranged so that each phase winding, when energized from a DC source, will drive the rotor through a predetermined angular position or step. A commutation signal generator responsive to the shaft position provides a commutation signal for each winding. A programmable control signal generator such as a computer or microprocessor produces individual digital control signals for each phase winding. The control signals and commutation signals associated with each winding are applied to an AND gate for that phase winding. Each gate controls a switch connected in series with the associated phase winding and the DC source so that each phase winding is energized only when the commutation signal and the control signal associated with that phase winding are present. The motor shaft may be advanced one step at a time to a desired position by applying a predetermined number of control signals in the proper sequence to the AND gates and the torque generated by the motor may be regulated by applying a separate control signal to each AND gate which is pulse width modulated to control the total time that each switch connects its associated winding to the DC source during each commutation period.

  16. Electronic control for a motor vehicle variable geometry turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, J.F.; Yuille, R.D.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes a motor vehicle power plant including a combustion engine, and engine exhaust gas driven turbocharger adapted to boost the pressure of a combustible mixture supplied to the engine, and an adjustable turbocharger control mechanism for effectively varying the turbocharger geometry to provide increased or decreased boost for a given engine operating condition. The method of adjusting the control mechanism, comprises: sensing the actual pressure of the combustible mixture supplied to the engine; determining based on the sensed pressure whether the engine is operating in a vacuum mode wherein the pressure of the mixture is less than atmospheric pressure, or a boost mode wherein the turbocharger boosts the pressure of the mixture above atmospheric pressure; and generating a control signal in accordance with sensed engine and vehicle conditions.

  17. Induction of phase 3 of the migrating motor complex in human small intestine by trimebutine.

    PubMed

    Chaussade, S; Grandjouan, S; Couturier, D; Thierman-Duffaud, D; Henry, J F

    1987-01-01

    The effects of trimebutine, a drug used in the treatment of various gastrointestinal motility disorders, have been investigated fed and fasted healthy subjects. Duodenojejunal motility was recorded manometrically with a 4-lumen probe. Trimebutine 50 or 100 mg was injected i.v. 3 or 25 min after observing a spontaneous Phase 3 complex in the fasted state. Other experiments were done in the postprandial state and after intravenous naloxone 0.8 mg. In the fasted state, trimebutine 100 mg, injected 25 min after a spontaneous Phase 3 complex consistently induced a premature Phase 3 complex. The mean duration of the migrating motor complex cycle decreased from 86.4 +/- 10.8 min to 32.5 +/- 1.0 min. Trimebutine 50 mg injected 3 and 25 min after a spontaneous Phase 3 complex did not significantly modify the periodicity of the migrating motor complex. Trimebutine 100 mg initiated Phase 3-like activity in the post-prandial state. Previous intravenous administration of naloxone 0.8 mg (Narcan) suppressed the stimulatory action of TMB. Thus, trimebutine is able to modify the motility pattern in the small intestine of man, possibly by acting at opioid receptors. PMID:2820749

  18. Deficient grip force control in schizophrenia: behavioral and modeling evidence for altered motor inhibition and motor noise.

    PubMed

    Teremetz, Maxime; Amado, Isabelle; Bendjemaa, Narjes; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Lindberg, Pavel G; Maier, Marc A

    2014-01-01

    Whether upper limb sensorimotor control is affected in schizophrenia and how underlying pathological mechanisms may potentially intervene in these deficits is still being debated. We tested voluntary force control in schizophrenia patients and used a computational model in order to elucidate potential cerebral mechanisms underlying sensorimotor deficits in schizophrenia. A visuomotor grip force-tracking task was performed by 17 medicated and 6 non-medicated patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV) and by 15 healthy controls. Target forces in the ramp-hold-and-release paradigm were set to 5 N and to 10% maximal voluntary grip force. Force trajectory was analyzed by performance measures and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). A computational model incorporating neural control signals was used to replicate the empirically observed motor behavior and to explore underlying neural mechanisms. Grip task performance was significantly lower in medicated and non-medicated schizophrenia patients compared to controls. Three behavioral variables were significantly higher in both patient groups: tracking error (by 50%), coefficient of variation of force (by 57%) and duration of force release (up by 37%). Behavioral performance did not differ between patient groups. Computational simulation successfully replicated these findings and predicted that decreased motor inhibition, together with an increased signal-dependent motor noise, are sufficient to explain the observed motor deficits in patients. PCA also suggested altered motor inhibition as a key factor differentiating patients from control subjects: the principal component representing inhibition correlated with clinical severity. These findings show that schizophrenia affects voluntary sensorimotor control of the hand independent of medication, and suggest that reduced motor inhibition and increased signal-dependent motor noise likely reflect key pathological mechanisms of the sensorimotor deficit.

  19. A neuro-inspired spike-based PID motor controller for multi-motor robots with low cost FPGAs.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Fernandez, Angel; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Dominguez-Morales, Manuel J; Paz-Vicente, Rafael; Civit-Balcells, Anton

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a neuro-inspired spike-based close-loop controller written in VHDL and implemented for FPGAs. This controller has been focused on controlling a DC motor speed, but only using spikes for information representation, processing and DC motor driving. It could be applied to other motors with proper driver adaptation. This controller architecture represents one of the latest layers in a Spiking Neural Network (SNN), which implements a bridge between robotics actuators and spike-based processing layers and sensors. The presented control system fuses actuation and sensors information as spikes streams, processing these spikes in hard real-time, implementing a massively parallel information processing system, through specialized spike-based circuits. This spike-based close-loop controller has been implemented into an AER platform, designed in our labs, that allows direct control of DC motors: the AER-Robot. Experimental results evidence the viability of the implementation of spike-based controllers, and hardware synthesis denotes low hardware requirements that allow replicating this controller in a high number of parallel controllers working together to allow a real-time robot control.

  20. A Neuro-Inspired Spike-Based PID Motor Controller for Multi-Motor Robots with Low Cost FPGAs

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Fernandez, Angel; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Dominguez-Morales, Manuel J.; Paz-Vicente, Rafael; Civit-Balcells, Anton

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a neuro-inspired spike-based close-loop controller written in VHDL and implemented for FPGAs. This controller has been focused on controlling a DC motor speed, but only using spikes for information representation, processing and DC motor driving. It could be applied to other motors with proper driver adaptation. This controller architecture represents one of the latest layers in a Spiking Neural Network (SNN), which implements a bridge between robotics actuators and spike-based processing layers and sensors. The presented control system fuses actuation and sensors information as spikes streams, processing these spikes in hard real-time, implementing a massively parallel information processing system, through specialized spike-based circuits. This spike-based close-loop controller has been implemented into an AER platform, designed in our labs, that allows direct control of DC motors: the AER-Robot. Experimental results evidence the viability of the implementation of spike-based controllers, and hardware synthesis denotes low hardware requirements that allow replicating this controller in a high number of parallel controllers working together to allow a real-time robot control. PMID:22666004

  1. A neuro-inspired spike-based PID motor controller for multi-motor robots with low cost FPGAs.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Fernandez, Angel; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Dominguez-Morales, Manuel J; Paz-Vicente, Rafael; Civit-Balcells, Anton

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a neuro-inspired spike-based close-loop controller written in VHDL and implemented for FPGAs. This controller has been focused on controlling a DC motor speed, but only using spikes for information representation, processing and DC motor driving. It could be applied to other motors with proper driver adaptation. This controller architecture represents one of the latest layers in a Spiking Neural Network (SNN), which implements a bridge between robotics actuators and spike-based processing layers and sensors. The presented control system fuses actuation and sensors information as spikes streams, processing these spikes in hard real-time, implementing a massively parallel information processing system, through specialized spike-based circuits. This spike-based close-loop controller has been implemented into an AER platform, designed in our labs, that allows direct control of DC motors: the AER-Robot. Experimental results evidence the viability of the implementation of spike-based controllers, and hardware synthesis denotes low hardware requirements that allow replicating this controller in a high number of parallel controllers working together to allow a real-time robot control. PMID:22666004

  2. Low-Cost Undergraduate Control Systems Experiments Using Microcontroller-Based Control of a DC Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunasekaran, M.; Potluri, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents low-cost experiments for a control systems laboratory module that is worth one and a third credits. The experiments are organized around the microcontroller-based control of a permanent magnet dc motor. The experimental setups were built in-house. Except for the operating system, the software used is primarily freeware or free…

  3. Altered motor control patterns in whiplash and chronic neck pain

    PubMed Central

    Woodhouse, Astrid; Vasseljen, Ottar

    2008-01-01

    Background Persistent whiplash associated disorders (WAD) have been associated with alterations in kinesthetic sense and motor control. The evidence is however inconclusive, particularly for differences between WAD patients and patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain. The aim of this study was to investigate motor control deficits in WAD compared to chronic non-traumatic neck pain and healthy controls in relation to cervical range of motion (ROM), conjunct motion, joint position error and ROM-variability. Methods Participants (n = 173) were recruited to three groups: 59 patients with persistent WAD, 57 patients with chronic non-traumatic neck pain and 57 asymptomatic volunteers. A 3D motion tracking system (Fastrak) was used to record maximal range of motion in the three cardinal planes of the cervical spine (sagittal, frontal and horizontal), and concurrent motion in the two associated cardinal planes relative to each primary plane were used to express conjunct motion. Joint position error was registered as the difference in head positions before and after cervical rotations. Results Reduced conjunct motion was found for WAD and chronic neck pain patients compared to asymptomatic subjects. This was most evident during cervical rotation. Reduced conjunct motion was not explained by current pain or by range of motion in the primary plane. Total conjunct motion during primary rotation was 13.9° (95% CI; 12.2–15.6) for the WAD group, 17.9° (95% CI; 16.1–19.6) for the chronic neck pain group and 25.9° (95% CI; 23.7–28.1) for the asymptomatic group. As expected, maximal cervical range of motion was significantly reduced among the WAD patients compared to both control groups. No group differences were found in maximal ROM-variability or joint position error. Conclusion Altered movement patterns in the cervical spine were found for both pain groups, indicating changes in motor control strategies. The changes were not related to a history of neck trauma, nor

  4. 40 CFR 80.24 - Controls applicable to motor vehicle manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... spout meeting the specifications of § 80.22(f)(2). (c) A motorcycle, as defined at 40 CFR 86.402 for the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Controls applicable to motor vehicle... applicable to motor vehicle manufacturers. (a) (b) The manufacturer of any motor vehicle equipped with...

  5. 40 CFR 80.24 - Controls applicable to motor vehicle manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... spout meeting the specifications of § 80.22(f)(2). (c) A motorcycle, as defined at 40 CFR 86.402 for the... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Controls applicable to motor vehicle... applicable to motor vehicle manufacturers. (a) (b) The manufacturer of any motor vehicle equipped with...

  6. 40 CFR 80.24 - Controls applicable to motor vehicle manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... spout meeting the specifications of § 80.22(f)(2). (c) A motorcycle, as defined at 40 CFR 86.402 for the... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controls applicable to motor vehicle... applicable to motor vehicle manufacturers. (a) (b) The manufacturer of any motor vehicle equipped with...

  7. A robotic model to investigate human motor control.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Tommaso; Vitiello, Nicola; McIntyre, Joseph; Roccella, Stefano; Carrozza, Maria Chiara

    2011-07-01

    The role of the mechanical properties of the neuromuscular system in motor control has been investigated for a long time in both human and animal subjects, mainly through the application of mechanical perturbations to the limb during natural movements and the observation of its corrective responses. These methods have provided a wealth of insight into how the central nervous system controls the limb. They suffer, however, from the fact that it is almost impossible to separate the active and passive components of the measured arm stiffness and that the measurement may themselves alter the stiffness characteristic of the arm. As a complement to these analyses, the implementation of a given neuroscientific hypothesis on a real mechanical system could overcome these measurement artifact and provide a tool that is, under full control of the experimenter, able to replicate the relevant functional features of the human arm. In this article, we introduce the NEURARM platform, a robotic arm intended to test hypotheses on the human motor control system. As such, NEURARM satisfies two key requirements. First, its kinematic parameters and inertia are similar to that of the human arm. Second, NEURARM mimics the main physical features of the human actuation system, specifically, the use of tendons to transfer force, the presence of antagonistic muscle pairs, the passive elasticity of muscles in the absence of any neural feedback and the non-linear elastic behaviour. This article presents the design and characterization of the NEURARM actuation system. The resulting mechanical behaviour, which has been tested in joint and Cartesian space under static and dynamic conditions, proves that the NEURARM platform can be exploited as a robotic model of the human arm, and could thus represent a powerful tool for neuroscience investigations.

  8. Global models: Robot sensing, control, and sensory-motor skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenker, Paul S.

    1989-01-01

    Robotics research has begun to address the modeling and implementation of a wide variety of unstructured tasks. Examples include automated navigation, platform servicing, custom fabrication and repair, deployment and recovery, and science exploration. Such tasks are poorly described at onset; the workspace layout is partially unfamiliar, and the task control sequence is only qualitatively characterized. The robot must model the workspace, plan detailed physical actions from qualitative goals, and adapt its instantaneous control regimes to unpredicted events. Developing robust representations and computational approaches for these sensing, planning, and control functions is a major challenge. The underlying domain constraints are very general, and seem to offer little guidance for well-bounded approximation of object shape and motion, manipulation postures and trajectories, and the like. This generalized modeling problem is discussed, with an emphasis on the role of sensing. It is also discussed that unstructured tasks often have, in fact, a high degree of underlying physical symmetry, and such implicit knowledge should be drawn on to model task performance strategies in a methodological fashion. A group-theoretic decomposition of the workspace organization, task goals, and their admissible interactions are proposed. This group-mechanical approach to task representation helps to clarify the functional interplay of perception and control, in essence, describing what perception is specifically for, versus how it is generically modeled. One also gains insight how perception might logically evolve in response to needs of more complex motor skills. It is discussed why, of the many solutions that are often mathematically admissible to a given sensory motor-coordination problem, one may be preferred over others.

  9. Growth hormone combined with child-specific motor training improves motor development in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Reus, Linda; Pelzer, Ben J; Otten, Barto J; Siemensma, Elbrich P C; van Alfen-van der Velden, Janielle A A E M; Festen, Dederieke A M; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2013-10-01

    Although severe motor problems in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are striking, motor development has never been studied longitudinally and the results of growth hormone (GH) treatment on motor development are contradictory. The authors studied whether GH treatment can enhance the effect of physical training on motor development in infants with PWS. Twenty-two infants were followed for two years during a randomized controlled trial. The treatment and control groups began GH after baseline or following a control period, respectively. Both groups followed a child-specific physical training program. Motor performance was measured every three months. Multi-level regression analysis revealed that motor development differed significantly between infants (p<.001), and this could be partially explained by baseline motor developmental level (p<.01). GH treatment enhanced the effects of child-specific physical training on both motor developmental rate and motor developmental potential. Moreover, this effect was more pronounced when GH treatment was initiated at a younger age.

  10. Motor planning modulates sensory-motor control of collision avoidance behavior in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Hideki; Nishida, Yuuya

    2012-01-01

    Summary In this study, we examined the collision avoidance behavior of the frog, Rana catesbeiana to an approaching object in the upper visual field. The angular velocity of the frog's escape turn showed a significant positive correlation with the turn angle (r2 = 0.5741, P<0.05). A similar mechanism of velocity control has been known in head movements of the owl and in human saccades. By analogy, this suggests that the frog planned its escape velocity in advance of executing the turn, to make the duration of the escape behavior relatively constant. For escape turns less than 60°, the positive correlation was very strong (r2 = 0.7097, P<0.05). Thus, the frog controlled the angular velocity of small escape turns very accurately and completed the behavior within a constant time. On the other hand, for escape turns greater than 60°, the same correlation was not significant (r2 = 0.065, P>0.05). Thus, the frog was not able to control the velocity of the large escape turns accurately and did not complete the behavior within a constant time. In the latter case, there was a small but significant positive correlation between the threshold angular size and the angular velocity (r2 = 0.1459, P<0.05). This suggests that the threshold is controlled to compensate for the insufficient escape velocity achieved during large turn angles, and could explain a significant negative correlation between the turn angle and the threshold angular size (r2 = 0.1145, P<0.05). Thus, it is likely that the threshold angular size is also controlled by the turn angle and is modulated by motor planning. PMID:23213389

  11. CONTROLLING ABSOLUTE FREQUENCY OF FEEDBACK IN A SELF-CONTROLLED SITUATION ENHANCES MOTOR LEARNING.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Min-Jen; Jwo, Hank

    2015-12-01

    The guidance hypothesis suggested that excessive extrinsic feedback facilitates motor performance but blocks the processing of intrinsic information. The present study tested the tenet of guidance hypothesis in self-controlled feedback by controlling the feedback frequency. The motor learning effect of limiting absolute feedback frequency was examined. Thirty-six participants (25 men, 11 women; M age=25.1 yr., SD=2.2) practiced a hand-grip force control task on a dynamometer by the non-dominant hand with varying amounts of feedback. They were randomly assigned to: (a) Self-controlled, (b) Yoked with self-controlled, and (c) Limited self-controlled conditions. In acquisition, two-way analysis of variance indicated significantly lower absolute error in both the yoked and limited self-controlled groups than the self-controlled group. The effect size of absolute error between trials with feedback and without feedback in the limited self-controlled condition was larger than that of the self-controlled condition. In the retention and transfer tests, the Limited self-controlled feedback group had significantly lower absolute error than the other two groups. The results indicated an increased motor learning effect of limiting absolute frequency of feedback in the self-controlled condition.

  12. Robust control of integrated motor-transmission powertrain system over controller area network for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Hui; Cao, Dongpu; Fang, Zongde

    2015-06-01

    Integrated motor-transmission (IMT) powertrain system with directly coupled motor and gearbox is a good choice for electric commercial vehicles (e.g., pure electric buses) due to its potential in motor size reduction and energy efficiency improvement. However, the controller design for powertrain oscillation damping becomes challenging due to the elimination of damping components. On the other hand, as controller area network (CAN) is commonly adopted in modern vehicle system, the network-induced time-varying delays that caused by bandwidth limitation will further lead to powertrain vibration or even destabilize the powertrain control system. Therefore, in this paper, a robust energy-to-peak controller is proposed for the IMT powertrain system to address the oscillation damping problem and also attenuate the external disturbance. The control law adopted here is based on a multivariable PI control, which ensures the applicability and performance of the proposed controller in engineering practice. With the linearized delay uncertainties characterized by polytopic inclusions, a delay-free closed-loop augmented system is established for the IMT powertrain system under discrete-time framework. The proposed controller design problem is then converted to a static output feedback (SOF) controller design problem where the feedback control gains are obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The effectiveness as well as robustness of the proposed controller is demonstrated by comparing its performance against that of a conventional PI controller.

  13. Space motion sickness: The sensory motor controls and cardiovascular correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souvestre, Philippe A.; Blaber, Andrew P.; Landrock, Clinton K.

    Background and PurposeSpace motion sickness (SMS) and related symptoms remain a major limiting factor in Space operations. A recent comprehensive literature review [J.R. Lackner, Z. DiZio, Space motion sickness, Experimental Brain Research 175 (2006) 377-399, doi 10.1007/s00221-006-0697-y] concluded that SMS does not represent a unique diagnostic entity, and there is no adequate predictor of SMS' susceptibility and severity. No countermeasure has been found reliable to prevent or treat SMS symptoms onset. Recent neurophysiological findings on sensory-motor controls monitoring [P.A. Souvestre, C. Landrock, Biomedical-performance monitoring and assessment of astronauts by means of an ocular vestibular monitoring system, Acta Astronautica, 60 (4-7) (2007) 313-321, doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.08.013] and heart-rate variability (HRV) measurements relationship could explain post-flight orthostatic intolerance (PFOI) in astronauts [A.P. Blaber, R.L. Bondar, M.S. Kassam, Heart rate variability and short duration space flight: relationship to post-flight orthostatic intolerance, BMC Physiology 4 (2004) 6]. These two methodologies are generally overlooked in SMS' analysis. In this paper we present the case for a strong relationship between sensory-motor controls related symptoms, including orthostatic intolerance (OI) and SMS symptoms. MethodsThis paper expands on several previously published papers [J.R. Lackner, Z. DiZio, Space motion sickness, Experimental Brain Research 175 (2006) 377-399, doi 10.1007/s00221-006-0697-y; P.A. Souvestre, C. Landrock, Biomedical-performance monitoring and assessment of astronauts by means of an ocular vestibular monitoring system, Acta Astronautica, 60 (4-7) (2007) 313-321, doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.08.013] along with an updated literature review. An analysis of a 10-year period clinical data from trauma patients experiencing postural deficiency syndrome (PDS) show assessment and monitoring techniques which successfully identify trauma

  14. Experiments in robotic sensori-motor control during grasp

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, S.A.

    1991-08-30

    This paper presents a series of experiments in robotic sensori-motor control during grasping. The work utilizes a multifingered, dextrous robot hand equipped with a fingertip force sensor to explore dynamic grasp force adjustment during manipulation. The work is primarily concerned with the relationship between the weight of an object and the grasp force required to lift it. Too weak a grasp is unstable and the object will slip from the hand. Too strong a grasp may damage the object and/or the manipulator. An algorithm is presented which uses tactile information from the sensor to dynamically adjust the grasp force during lift. It is assumed that there is no a priori knowledge about the object to be manipulated. The effects of different arm/hand postures and object surfaces is explored. Finally, the use of sensory data to detect unexpected object motion and to signal transitions between manipulation phases -- with the coincident triggering of new motor programs -- is investigated. 15 refs., 12 figs.

  15. Combining modalities with different latencies for optimal motor control

    PubMed Central

    Bissmarck, Fredrik; Nakahara, Hiroyuki; Doya, Kenji; Hikosaka, Okihide

    2010-01-01

    Feedback signals may be of different modality, latency and accuracy. To learn and control motor tasks the feedback available may be redundant, and it would not be necessary to rely on every accessible feedback loop. Which feedback loops should then be utilized? In this article, we propose that the latency is a critical factor to determine which signals will be influential at different learning stages. We use a computational framework to study the role of feedback modules with different latencies in optimal motor control. Instead of explicit gating between modules, the reinforcement learning algorithm learns to rely on the more useful module. We tested our paradigm for two different implementations, which confirmed our hypthesis. In the first, we examined how feedback latency affects the competitiveness of two identical modules. In the second, we examined an example of visuomotor sequence learning, where a plastic, faster somatosensory module interacts with a preacquired, slower visual module. We found that the overall performance depended on the latency of the faster module alone, while the relative latency determines the independence of the faster from the slower. In the second implementation, the somatosensory module with shorter latency overtook the slower visual module, and realized better overall performance. The visual module played different roles in early and late learning. First, it worked as a guide for the exploration of the somatosensory module. Then, when learning had converged, it contributed to robustness against system noise and external perturbations. Overall, these results demonstrate that our framework successfully learns to utilize the most useful available feedback for optimal control. PMID:18416676

  16. The sensory-motor theory of rhythm and beat induction 20 years on: a new synthesis and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Neil P. M.; Lee, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Some 20 years ago Todd and colleagues proposed that rhythm perception is mediated by the conjunction of a sensory representation of the auditory input and a motor representation of the body (Todd, 1994a, 1995), and that a sense of motion from sound is mediated by the vestibular system (Todd, 1992a, 1993b). These ideas were developed into a sensory-motor theory of rhythm and beat induction (Todd et al., 1999). A neurological substrate was proposed which might form the biological basis of the theory (Todd et al., 2002). The theory was implemented as a computational model and a number of experiments conducted to test it. In the following time there have been several key developments. One is the demonstration that the vestibular system is primal to rhythm perception, and in related work several experiments have provided further evidence that rhythm perception is body dependent. Another is independent advances in imaging, which have revealed the brain areas associated with both vestibular processing and rhythm perception. A third is the finding that vestibular receptors contribute to auditory evoked potentials (Todd et al., 2014a,b). These behavioral and neurobiological developments demand a theoretical overview which could provide a new synthesis over the domain of rhythm perception. In this paper we suggest four propositions as the basis for such a synthesis. (1) Rhythm perception is a form of vestibular perception; (2) Rhythm perception evokes both external and internal guidance of somatotopic representations; (3) A link from the limbic system to the internal guidance pathway mediates the “dance habit”; (4) The vestibular reward mechanism is innate. The new synthesis provides an explanation for a number of phenomena not often considered by rhythm researchers. We discuss these along with possible computational implementations and alternative models and propose a number of new directions for future research. PMID:26379522

  17. Induction of Long-term Depression-like Plasticity by Pairings of Motor Imagination and Peripheral Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Jochumsen, Mads; Signal, Nada; Nedergaard, Rasmus W.; Taylor, Denise; Haavik, Heidi; Niazi, Imran K.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity are models of synaptic plasticity which have been associated with memory and learning. The induction of LTD and LTP-like plasticity, using different stimulation protocols, has been proposed as a means of addressing abnormalities in cortical excitability associated with conditions such as focal hand dystonia and stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the excitability of the cortical projections to the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle could be decreased when dorsiflexion of the ankle joint was imagined and paired with peripheral electrical stimulation (ES) of the nerve supplying the antagonist soleus muscle. The effect of stimulus timing was evaluated by comparing paired stimulation timed to reach the cortex before, at and after the onset of imagined movement. Fourteen healthy subjects participated in six experimental sessions held on non-consecutive days. The timing of stimulation delivery was determined offline based on the contingent negative variation (CNV) of electroencephalography brain data obtained during imagined dorsiflexion. Afferent stimulation was provided via a single pulse ES to the peripheral nerve paired, based on the CNV, with motor imagination of ankle dorsiflexion. A significant decrease (P = 0.001) in the excitability of the cortical projection of TA was observed when the afferent volley from the ES of the tibial nerve (TN) reached the cortex at the onset of motor imagination based on the CNV. When TN stimulation was delivered before (P = 0.62), or after (P = 0.23) imagined movement onset there was no significant effect. Nor was a significant effect found when ES of the TN was applied independent of imagined movement (P = 0.45). Therefore, the excitability of the cortical projection to a muscle can be inhibited when ES of the nerve supplying the antagonist muscle is precisely paired with the onset of imagined movement. PMID:26648859

  18. Induction of cysteine-rich motor neuron 1 mRNA expression in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yukiko; Takahashi, Satoru

    2014-08-22

    Cysteine-rich motor neuron 1 (CRIM1) is expressed in vascular endothelial cells and plays a crucial role in angiogenesis. In this study, we investigated the expression of CRIM1 mRNA in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). CRIM1 mRNA levels were not altered in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated monolayer HUVECs or in cells in collagen gels without VEGF. In contrast, the expression of CRIM1 mRNA was elevated in VEGF-stimulated cells in collagen gels. The increase in CRIM1 mRNA expression was observed even at 2h when HUVECs did not form tubular structures in collagen gels. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) 1/2, Akt and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were activated by VEGF in HUVECs. The VEGF-induced expression of CRIM1 mRNA was significantly abrogated by PD98059 or PF562271, but was not affected by LY294002. These results demonstrate that CRIM1 is an early response gene in the presence of both angiogenic stimulation (VEGF) and environmental (extracellular matrix) factors, and Erk and FAK might be involved in the upregulation of CRIM1 mRNA expression in vascular endothelial cells.

  19. Motor abundance and control structure in the golf swing.

    PubMed

    Morrison, A; McGrath, D; Wallace, E S

    2016-04-01

    Variability and control structure are under-represented areas of golf swing research. This study investigated the use of the abundant degrees of freedom in the golf swing of high and intermediate skilled golfers using uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis. The variance parallel to (VUCM) and orthogonal to (VOrth) the UCM with respect to the orientation and location of the clubhead were calculated. The higher skilled golfers had proportionally higher values of VUCM than lower skilled players for all measured outcome variables. Motor synergy was found in the control of the orientation of the clubhead and the combined outcome variables but not for clubhead location. Clubhead location variance zeroed-in on impact as has been previously shown, whereas clubhead orientation variance increased near impact. Both skill levels increased their control over the clubhead location leading up to impact, with more control exerted over the clubhead orientation in the early downswing. The results suggest that to achieve higher skill levels in golf may not lie simply in optimal technique, but may lie more in developing control over the abundant degrees of freedom in the body.

  20. Motor abundance and control structure in the golf swing.

    PubMed

    Morrison, A; McGrath, D; Wallace, E S

    2016-04-01

    Variability and control structure are under-represented areas of golf swing research. This study investigated the use of the abundant degrees of freedom in the golf swing of high and intermediate skilled golfers using uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis. The variance parallel to (VUCM) and orthogonal to (VOrth) the UCM with respect to the orientation and location of the clubhead were calculated. The higher skilled golfers had proportionally higher values of VUCM than lower skilled players for all measured outcome variables. Motor synergy was found in the control of the orientation of the clubhead and the combined outcome variables but not for clubhead location. Clubhead location variance zeroed-in on impact as has been previously shown, whereas clubhead orientation variance increased near impact. Both skill levels increased their control over the clubhead location leading up to impact, with more control exerted over the clubhead orientation in the early downswing. The results suggest that to achieve higher skill levels in golf may not lie simply in optimal technique, but may lie more in developing control over the abundant degrees of freedom in the body. PMID:26784706

  1. Motor Control of Two Flywheels Enabling Combined Attitude Control and Bus Regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Barbara H.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation discussed the flywheel technology development work that is ongoing at NASA GRC with a particular emphasis on the flywheel system control. The "field orientation" motor/generator control algorithm was discussed and explained. The position-sensorless angle and speed estimation algorithm was presented. The motor current response to a step change in command at low (10 kRPM) and high (60 kRPM) was discussed. The flywheel DC bus regulation control was explained and experimental results presented. Finally, the combined attitude control and energy storage algorithm that controls two flywheels simultaneously was presented. Experimental results were shown that verified the operational capability of the algorithm. shows high speed flywheel energy storage (60,000 RPM) and the successful implementation of an algorithm to simultaneously control both energy storage and a single axis of attitude with two flywheels. Overall, the presentation demonstrated that GRC has an operational facility that

  2. Powerline Coupler for Windmill Motor/Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F.

    1985-01-01

    Efficiency at low windspeed increased by firing-angle control. Power coupled from wind-driven induction motor/generator to ac powerline with help from circuit. Circuit reduces power consumed by field windings thereby improving efficiency at low windspeeds. Circuit includes zerocrossing detector, ramp generator and comparator similar to those used to set firing angles for thyristors in power factor motor controllers.

  3. Feed-forward motor control of ultrafast, ballistic movements.

    PubMed

    Kagaya, K; Patek, S N

    2016-02-01

    To circumvent the limits of muscle, ultrafast movements achieve high power through the use of springs and latches. The time scale of these movements is too short for control through typical neuromuscular mechanisms, thus ultrafast movements are either invariant or controlled prior to movement. We tested whether mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda: Neogonodactylus bredini) vary their ultrafast smashing strikes and, if so, how this control is achieved prior to movement. We collected high-speed images of strike mechanics and electromyograms of the extensor and flexor muscles that control spring compression and latch release. During spring compression, lateral extensor and flexor units were co-activated. The strike initiated several milliseconds after the flexor units ceased, suggesting that flexor activity prevents spring release and determines the timing of strike initiation. We used linear mixed models and Akaike's information criterion to serially evaluate multiple hypotheses for control mechanisms. We found that variation in spring compression and strike angular velocity were statistically explained by spike activity of the extensor muscle. The results show that mantis shrimp can generate kinematically variable strikes and that their kinematics can be changed through adjustments to motor activity prior to the movement, thus supporting an upstream, central-nervous-system-based control of ultrafast movement. Based on these and other findings, we present a shishiodoshi model that illustrates alternative models of control in biological ballistic systems. The discovery of feed-forward control in mantis shrimp sets the stage for the assessment of targets, strategic variation in kinematics and the role of learning in ultrafast animals. PMID:26643091

  4. PHARYNGEAL MOTOR CONTROL AND THE PATHOGENESIS OF OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Amy S; White, David P

    2008-01-01

    The upper airway in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is thought to collapse during sleep at least in part, because of a sleep related reduction in upper airway dilator muscle activity. Therefore a comprehensive understanding of the neural regulation of these muscles is warranted. The dilator muscles can be classified in two broad categories; those that have respiratory related activity and those that fire constantly throughout the respiratory cycle. The motor control of these two groups likely differs with the former receiving input from respiratory neurons and negative pressure reflex circuits. The activity of both muscle groups is reduced shortly after sleep onset, indicating that both receive input from brainstem neurons involved in sleep regulation. In the apnea patient, this may lead to pharyngeal airway collapse. This review briefly describes the currently proposed sleep and respiratory neural pathways and how these circuits interact with the upper airway dilator muscle motorneurones, including recent evidence from animal studies. PMID:17869188

  5. Dynamic actin controls polarity induction de novo in protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Zaban, Beatrix; Maisch, Jan; Nick, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Cell polarity and axes are central for plant morphogenesis. To study how polarity and axes are induced de novo, we investigated protoplasts of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum cv. BY-2 expressing fluorescently-tagged cytoskeletal markers. We standardized the system to such a degree that we were able to generate quantitative data on the temporal patterns of regeneration stages. The synthesis of a new cell wall marks the transition to the first stage of regeneration, and proceeds after a long preparatory phase within a few minutes. During this preparatory phase, the nucleus migrates actively, and cytoplasmic strands remodel vigorously. We probed this system for the effect of anti-cytoskeletal compounds, inducible bundling of actin, RGD-peptides, and temperature. Suppression of actin dynamics at an early stage leads to aberrant tripolar cells, whereas suppression of microtubule dynamics produces aberrant sausage-like cells with asymmetric cell walls. We integrated these data into a model, where the microtubular cytoskeleton conveys positional information between the nucleus and the membrane controlling the release or activation of components required for cell wall synthesis. Cell wall formation is followed by the induction of a new cell pole requiring dynamic actin filaments, and the new cell axis is manifested as elongation growth perpendicular to the orientation of the aligned cortical microtubules.

  6. Limits in motor control bandwidth during stick balancing.

    PubMed

    Reeves, N Peter; Pathak, Pramod; Popovich, John M; Vijayanagar, Vilok

    2013-05-01

    Why can we balance a yardstick but not a pencil on the tip of our finger? As with other physical systems, human motor control has constraints, referred to as bandwidth, which restricts the range of frequency over which the system can operate within some tolerated level of error. To investigate control bandwidth, the natural frequency of a stick used during a stick-balancing task was modified by adjusting the height of a mass attached to the stick. The ability to successfully balance the stick with the mass positioned at four different heights was determined. In addition, electromyographic signals from forearm and trunk muscles were recorded during the trials. We hypothesized that 1) the probability of successfully balancing would decrease as mass height decreased; and 2) the level of muscle activation in both agonist and antagonist would increase as the natural frequency of the stick increased. Results showed that as the mass height decreased the probability of successfully balancing the stick decreased. Changes in the probability of success with respect to mass height showed a threshold effect, suggesting that limits in human control bandwidth were approached at the lowest mass height. Also, the level of muscle activation in both the agonist and antagonist of the forearm and trunk increased linearly as the natural frequency of the stick increased. These changes in muscle activation suggest that the central nervous system adapts muscle activation to task dynamics, possibly to improve control bandwidth.

  7. Design of an integral computer-based wheelchair controller/linear synchronous motor system.

    PubMed

    Kelly, G W; Ross, D A; Bass, R M; Davey, K R

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the advantages of designing computer-based motor controllers together with innovative motors, such that maximum controller/motor system benefits are obtained. Specifically, this paper describes how a computer-based controller/drive system for powered wheelchairs has been designed and is being built and tested. This type of integral controller/drive system has been possible to build into a wheelchair only with the advent of the microprocessor-based feedback motor controller. The type of motor chosen for this project was a linear synchronous motor (LSM), which is highly efficient (90%+) and could easily be made an integral part of a wheelchair wheel, providing a "no-moving-parts" drive system. However, an LSM cannot be variable-speed-controlled without knowledge of, and controlled adjustment to, the absolute rotor versus stator position at each point in time. Microprocessor-based feedback motor controllers make precise, efficient control of LSMs possible at a reasonable cost. In addition, this combination of controller and motor provides a very flexible wheelchair control/drive system that may be easily programmed to suit the needs and necessities of the wide variety of over 200,000 persons now using powered wheelchairs. PMID:3537184

  8. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. D-C MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, UNIT 7, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING DIRECT CURRENT MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 15 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, AND PROBLEMS. SOME OF THE LESSONS…

  9. Fine Motor Control Is Related to Cognitive Control in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chih-Chia; Ringenbach, Shannon D. R.; Albert, Andrew; Semken, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The connection between human cognitive development and motor functioning has been systematically examined in many typical and atypical populations; however, only a few studies focus on people with Down syndrome (DS). Twelve adolescents with DS participated and their cognitive control, measured by the Corsi-Block tapping test (e.g., visual working…

  10. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. D-C MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, UNIT 7, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF DIRECT CURRENT MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 15 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, AND STEP-BY-STEP SOLUTIONS OF THE…

  11. Feed-forward control of a redundant motor system.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Simon R; Latash, Mark L

    2006-09-01

    We describe a model of feed-forward control of a redundant motor system and validate it using, as examples, tasks of multi-finger force production. The model assumes the existence of two input signals at an upper level of the control hierarchy, related and unrelated to a task variable. Knowledge of the Jacobian of the system is assumed at the level of generation of elemental variables (variables at the level of effectors). Variance at the level of elemental variables is considered as the sum of two components, related and unrelated to variability in the task variable. An index of stabilization of the task variable is similarly introduced as to how it was done in several studies using the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis. Several phenomena have been simulated including data point distributions corresponding to presence and absence of force-stabilizing synergies in two-finger tasks, changes in synergies with practice, and changes in synergy indices in preparation to a fast action. The model is discussed in comparison to other models of control of multi-element systems based on feedback processes. It shows that patterns of structured variability in the space of elemental variables can result from feed-forward processes. Relations of the model to the equilibrium-point hypothesis are also discussed. PMID:16838148

  12. Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Attitude Control Motor Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Kelly J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Paschal, Keith B.; Chan, David T.; Walker, Eric L.; Foley, Robert; Mayfield, David; Cross, Jared

    2011-01-01

    Current Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) configurations use an eight-jet, solid-fueled Attitude Control Motor (ACM) to provide required vehicle control for all proposed abort trajectories. Due to the forward position of the ACM on the LAV, it is necessary to assess the effects of jet-interactions (JI) between the various ACM nozzle plumes and the external flow along the outside surfaces of the vehicle. These JI-induced changes in flight control characteristics must be accounted for in developing ACM operations and LAV flight characteristics. A test program to generate jet interaction aerodynamic increment data for multiple LAV configurations was conducted in the NASA Ames and NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels from August 2007 through December 2009. Using cold air as the simulant gas, powered subscale models were used to generate interaction data at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic test conditions. This paper presents an overview of the complete ACM JI experimental test program for Orion LAV configurations, highlighting ACM system modeling, nozzle scaling assumptions, experimental test techniques, and data reduction methodologies. Lessons learned are discussed, and sample jet interaction data are shown. These data, in conjunction with computational predictions, were used to create the ACM JI increments for all relevant flight databases.

  13. Resource allocation in neural networks for motor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, J.; Cummins, J.; Gunnoe, J.; Tollefson, M.; Cabrera, J. L.; Ohira, T.

    2006-03-01

    Multiplicative noise plays an important part of a non-predictive control mechanism for stick balancing at the fingertip. However, intentionally-directed movements are also used in stick balancing, particularly by beginners. The interplay between intentional and non-predictive control mechanisms for stick balancing was assessed using two dual task paradigms: the subject was asked to either move one of their legs rhythmically or to imagine moving their leg while balancing a stick (55.4 cm, 35 g) at their fingertip. Performance was measured by determining the stick survival function, i.e. the fraction of trials (total >=25) for which the stick remained balanced at time t as a function of t. Performance was increased by concurrent rhythmic leg movements (50% survival time shifted from 8-9s to 15s in a typical subject). Imagined movements resulted in a similar improvement (50% survival time of 20s for the above subject) suggesting that this enhancement is not simply related to mechanical vibrations of the fingertip induced by leg movement. These observations emphasize the importance of the development of mathematical models for neural control of skilled motor movements that take into resource allocation of limited resources, such as intention.

  14. Excited state dynamics & optical control of molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, Ted; Sension, Roseanne

    2014-03-01

    Chiral overcrowded alkenes are likely candidates for light driven rotary molecular motors. At their core, these molecular motors are based on the chromophore stilbene, undergoing ultrafast cis/trans photoisomerization about their central double bond. Unlike stilbene, the photochemistry of molecular motors proceeds in one direction only. This unidirectional rotation is a result of helicity in the molecule induced by steric hindrance. However, the steric hindrance which ensures unidirectional excited state rotation, has the unfortunate consequence of producing large ground state barriers which dramatically decrease the overall rate of rotation. These molecular scale ultrafast motors have only recently been studied by ultrafast spectroscopy. Our lab has studied the photochemistry and photophysics of a ``first generation'' molecular motor with UV-visible transient absorption spectroscopy. We hope to use optical pulse shaping to enhance the efficiency and turnover rate of these molecular motors.

  15. Hybrid sliding mode position control for a piston air motor ball screw table.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chia-Hua; Hwang, Yean-Ren

    2012-05-01

    Air motors have been generally applied in the automation industry. Since air motors operate without electricity, they will not produce sparks, explosions or short circuit phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the behavior of a ball screw table actuated by a piston air motor and design a hybrid (backstepping and fuzzy) sliding mode controller for accomplishing accurate position performance. The experimental results validate the proposed position control strategy.

  16. Compound intelligent control system combining fuzzy control with neural networks in a permanent magnetic synchronous motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Li, Weili; Li, Taifu

    2005-12-01

    An AC motor belongs to the category of a controlled object that is multi-variable, nonlinear and strong correlation, complex to mathematical model, and whose control performance is affected by a time-changing parameter. Therefore, it is very difficult to obtain the desired static and dynamic characteristic through a general fixed regulator. In this paper, the authors present a compound intelligent control strategy, combined with a neural network and fuzzy control. Considering that a neural network is good at self-learning, and a single fuzzy control algorithm is rapid in its response characteristics, the compound control strategy can compensate for a disadvantage of fuzzy control, which is associated with poor stability and precision and also requires solving a puzzle in the time-changing parameters in the controlled object. On the basis of a dynamic model of the permanent magnetic synchronous motor and its working principle, the authors designed the block diagram of a control system, combined a neural PID control and fuzzy control, and studied the corresponding control algorithm in detail. The simulation results show that the compound intelligent control system is good in dynamic performance and robustness.

  17. Space motion sickness: The sensory motor controls and cardiovascular correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souvestre, Philippe A.; Blaber, Andrew P.; Landrock, Clinton K.

    Background and PurposeSpace motion sickness (SMS) and related symptoms remain a major limiting factor in Space operations. A recent comprehensive literature review [J.R. Lackner, Z. DiZio, Space motion sickness, Experimental Brain Research 175 (2006) 377-399, doi 10.1007/s00221-006-0697-y] concluded that SMS does not represent a unique diagnostic entity, and there is no adequate predictor of SMS' susceptibility and severity. No countermeasure has been found reliable to prevent or treat SMS symptoms onset. Recent neurophysiological findings on sensory-motor controls monitoring [P.A. Souvestre, C. Landrock, Biomedical-performance monitoring and assessment of astronauts by means of an ocular vestibular monitoring system, Acta Astronautica, 60 (4-7) (2007) 313-321, doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.08.013] and heart-rate variability (HRV) measurements relationship could explain post-flight orthostatic intolerance (PFOI) in astronauts [A.P. Blaber, R.L. Bondar, M.S. Kassam, Heart rate variability and short duration space flight: relationship to post-flight orthostatic intolerance, BMC Physiology 4 (2004) 6]. These two methodologies are generally overlooked in SMS' analysis. In this paper we present the case for a strong relationship between sensory-motor controls related symptoms, including orthostatic intolerance (OI) and SMS symptoms. MethodsThis paper expands on several previously published papers [J.R. Lackner, Z. DiZio, Space motion sickness, Experimental Brain Research 175 (2006) 377-399, doi 10.1007/s00221-006-0697-y; P.A. Souvestre, C. Landrock, Biomedical-performance monitoring and assessment of astronauts by means of an ocular vestibular monitoring system, Acta Astronautica, 60 (4-7) (2007) 313-321, doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2006.08.013] along with an updated literature review. An analysis of a 10-year period clinical data from trauma patients experiencing postural deficiency syndrome (PDS) show assessment and monitoring techniques which successfully identify trauma

  18. Synchronization controller design of two coupling permanent magnet synchronous motors system with nonlinear constraints.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhenhua; Shang, Jing; Nian, Xiaohong

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, two coupling permanent magnet synchronous motors system with nonlinear constraints is studied. First of all, the mathematical model of the system is established according to the engineering practices, in which the dynamic model of motor and the nonlinear coupling effect between two motors are considered. In order to keep the two motors synchronization, a synchronization controller based on load observer is designed via cross-coupling idea and interval matrix. Moreover, speed, position and current signals of two motor all are taken as self-feedback signal as well as cross-feedback signal in the proposed controller, which is conducive to improving the dynamical performance and the synchronization performance of the system. The proposed control strategy is verified by simulation via Matlab/Simulink program. The simulation results show that the proposed control method has a better control performance, especially synchronization performance, than that of the conventional PI controller.

  19. Imparting Motion to a Test Object Such as a Motor Vehicle in a Controlled Fashion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southward, Stephen C. (Inventor); Reubush, Chandler (Inventor); Pittman, Bryan (Inventor); Roehrig, Kurt (Inventor); Gerard, Doug (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus imparts motion to a test object such as a motor vehicle in a controlled fashion. A base has mounted on it a linear electromagnetic motor having a first end and a second end, the first end being connected to the base. A pneumatic cylinder and piston combination have a first end and a second end, the first end connected to the base so that the pneumatic cylinder and piston combination is generally parallel with the linear electromagnetic motor. The second ends of the linear electromagnetic motor and pneumatic cylinder and piston combination being commonly linked to a mount for the test object. A control system for the linear electromagnetic motor and pneumatic cylinder and piston combination drives the pneumatic cylinder and piston combination to support a substantial static load of the test object and the linear electromagnetic motor to impart controlled motion to the test object.

  20. Motor Controls for the NIFFTE Time Projection Chamber Positioning Stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamplin, Daniel; Pickle, Nathan

    2010-11-01

    The next generation nuclear power plants will be more efficient and produce smaller amounts of radioactive waste. Design of these new reactors is limited partially by the lack of precise neutron induced fission cross sections at certain incident neutron energies of several isotopes. In order to reduce the uncertainty of the cross sections to less than 1 percent, a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) was built by the Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) collaboration. These improvements in precision will be possible due to the TPC's ability for a full 3-D reconstruction of the fission fragment tracks. The NIFFTE TPC will be installed at Los Alamos National Lab's LANSCE facility. Thin targets will be mounted in the center of the TPC in a pressurized hydrogen gas chamber so that both hemispheres of the reaction will be covered. In this work we will discuss the control of the stepper motors that drive the positioning table of the TPC, which has all of its readout electronics attached, to be lined up with the beam. This includes both the controlling software and its graphical interface to the MIDAS online data acquisition system.

  1. Motor Controls for the NIFFTE Time Projection Chamber Positioning Stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamplin, Daniel; Pickle, Nathan

    2010-10-01

    The next generation nuclear power plants will be more efficient and produce smaller amounts of radioactive waste. Design of these new reactors is limited partially by the lack of precise neutron induced fission cross sections at certain incident neutron energies of several isotopes. In order to reduce the uncertainty of the cross sections to less than 1%, a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) was built by the Neutron Induced Fission Fragment Tracking Experiment (NIFFTE) collaboration. These improvements in precision will be possible due to the TPC's ability for a full 3-D reconstruction of the fission fragment tracks. The NIFFTE TPC will be installed at Los Alamos National Lab's LANSCE facility. Thin targets will be mounted in the center of the TPC in a pressurized hydrogen gas chamber so that both hemispheres of the reaction will be covered. This talk considers the control of the stepper motors that drive the positioning table of the TPC, which has all of its readout electronics attached, to be lined up with the beam. This includes both the controlling software and its graphical interface to the MIDAS online data acquisition system.

  2. Study on self-tuning pole assignment speed control of an ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jingzhuo; Bo, Liu; Yu, Zhang

    2011-10-01

    Ultrasonic motors have a heavy nonlinearity, which varies with driving conditions. The nonlinearity is a problem as an accurate motion actuator for industrial applications and it is important to eliminate the nonlinearity in order to improve the control performance. In general, complicated control strategies are used to deal with the nonlinearity of ultrasonic motors. This paper proposes a new speed control scheme for ultrasonic motors to overcome the nonlinearity employing a simplified self-tuning control. The speed control model which can reflect the main nonlinear characteristics is obtained using a system identification method based on the step response. Then, a pole assignment speed controller is designed. To avoid the influence of the motor's nonlinearity on the speed control performance, a control parameters' on-line self-tuning strategy utilizing the gain of the model is designed. The proposed control strategy is realized using a DSP circuit, and experiments prove the validity of the proposed speed control scheme.

  3. Deeper into schizotypy and motor performance: Investigating the nature of motor control in a non-psychiatric sample

    PubMed Central

    Roché, Matthew W.; Fowler, Mark L.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that motor control deficits are characteristic of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and those at-risk for the development of the disorder. Recent advances in the quantification of motor dysfunction have confirmed this, but these methods fail to consider an important aspect of subject performance: the qualitative nature of their psychomotor dyscontrol. We report on a novel technique used to quantify the qualitative nature of psychomotor performance and its relation to schizotypy. Control (n = 35) and schizotypic subjects (n = 47) completed a line-drawing task that yields metrics for psychomotor control and predominant frequency. Schizotypes evidenced greater psychomotor dyscontrol and lower predominant frequencies than controls. These results are interpreted as evidence of reduced visual-motor integration, self-monitoring capacity, or adherence to basic motor principles in schizotypes. The potential use of these metrics as putative endophenotypes for the liability for schizophrenia and the implications of these findings for the relationship between schizophrenia and schizotypy are discussed. PMID:25887054

  4. Motor Disorder and Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology: A Monozygotic Co-Twin Control Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearsall-Jones, Jillian G.; Piek, Jan P.; Rigoli, Daniela; Martin, Neilson C.; Levy, Florence

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between poor motor ability and anxious and depressive symptomatology in child and adolescent monozygotic twins. The co-twin control design was used to explore these mental health issues in MZ twins concordant and discordant for a motor disorder, and controls. This methodology offers the…

  5. Comparative analysis of two methods for time-harmonic solution of the steady state in induction motors (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWeerdt, Robrecht; Brandisky, Kostadin; Pahner, Uwe; Belmans, Ronnie

    1994-05-01

    The abstract presents two methods of solving induction motor problems using a time-harmonic approach, taking into account the saturation of the iron material. The first method uses the following algorithm. Initially, two static nonlinear problems are solved: one problem using the real part of the stator currents, and the other using the imaginary part. From both solutions, a reluctivity vector is generated. This reluctivity vector is then used in solving a time-harmonic problem to calculate the induced rotor currents. These currents are used to solve two new static problems. From the solution, a more accurate reluctivity vector can be generated. Convergence of this method occurs after 4 or 5 steps. The second method is an iterative method of solving nonlinear time-dependent problems by harmonic representation. It is assumed that H(t) is a sinusoidal function of time. A new sinusoidal Beq is introduced based on energy equivalence with the real nonsinusoidal B. This new Beq is used to calculate the new B-H curve for the iron materials involved and after that an equivalent reluctivity. The nonlinear algorithm represents under-relaxation of the equivalent reluctivity, based on the formula: RELUCTnew=RELUCTold+ALPHA*(RELUCTcrnt-RELUCTold), where ALPHA is a relaxation factor usually chosen between 0 and 1. The algorithm shows a good convergence rate (from 10 to 20 steps) if the initial starting vector for reluctivities and the relaxation factor are chosen appropriately. Rules for this choice are given. Both methods are compared. The difference between the induced currents in both methods is about 1%, with a linear solution it is about 300%. Also stored energy, losses, reluctivities, and other quantities are compared.

  6. Osseoperception: An Implant Mediated Sensory Motor Control- A Review

    PubMed Central

    Karani, Jyoti T.; Khanna, Anshul; Badwaik, Praveen; Pai, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Osseointegration of dental implants has been researched extensively, covering various aspects such as bone apposition, biomechanics and microbiology etc however, physiologic integration of implants and the associated prosthesis in the body has received very little attention. This integration is due to the development of a special sensory ability, which is able to restore peripheral sensory feedback mechanism. The underlying mechanism of this so-called ‘osseoperception’ phenomenon remains a matter of debate. The following article reveals the histological, neurophysiologic and psychophysical aspects of osseoperception. A comprehensive research to provide scientific evidence of osseoperception was carried out using various online resources such as Pubmed, Google scholar etc to retrieve studies published between 1985 to 2014 using the following keywords: “osseoperception”, “mechanoreceptors”, “tactile sensibility”. Published data suggests that a peripheral feedback pathway can be restored with osseointegrated implants. This implant-mediated sensory-motor control may have important clinical implications in the normal functioning of the implant supported prosthesis. PMID:26501033

  7. Hemispheric asymmetries and the control of motor sequences.

    PubMed

    Serrien, Deborah J; Sovijärvi-Spapé, Michiel M

    2015-04-15

    Sequencing of finger positions reflects a prototype of skilled behaviour. In order to perform sequencing, cognitive control supports the requirements and postural transitions. In this electroencephalography (EEG) study, we evaluate the effects of hand dominance and assess the neural correlates of unimanual and bimanual sequencing in left- and right-handers. The behavioural measurements provided an index of response planning (response time to first key press) and response execution (time between successive key presses, taps/s and percentage of correct responses), whereas the neural dynamics was determined by means of EEG coherence, expressing the functional connectivity between brain areas. Correlations between brain activity and behaviour were calculated for exploring the neural correlates that are functionally relevant for sequencing. Brain-behavioural correlations during response planning and execution revealed the significance of circuitry in the left hemisphere, underlining its significant role in the organisation of goal-directed behaviour. This lateralisation profile was independent of intrinsic constraints (hand dominance) and extrinsic demands (task requirements), suggesting essential higher-order computations in the left hemisphere. Overall, the observations highlight that the left hemisphere is specialised for sequential motor organisation in left- and right-handers, suggesting an endogenous hemispheric asymmetry for compound actions and the representation of skill; processes that can be separated from those that are involved in hand dominance. PMID:25617529

  8. Development of speech motor control: lip movement variability.

    PubMed

    Schötz, Susanne; Frid, Johan; Löfqvist, Anders

    2013-06-01

    This study examined variability of lip movements across repetitions of the same utterance as a function of age in Swedish speakers. The specific purpose was to extend earlier findings by examining variability in both phase and amplitude. Subjects were 50 typically developed native Swedish children and adults (28 females, 22 males, aged 5 to 31 yr). Lip movements were recorded during 15 to 20 repetitions of a short Swedish phrase using three-dimensional articulography. After correction for head movements, the kinematic records were expressed in a maxilla-based coordinate system. Movement onset and offset of the utterance were identified using kinematic landmarks. The Euclidean distance between receivers on the upper and lower lips was calculated and subjected to functional data analysis to assess both phase and amplitude variability. Results show a decrease in both indices as a function of age, with a greater reduction of amplitude variability. There was no difference between males and females for either index. The two indices were moderately correlated with each other, suggesting that they capture different aspects of speech production. Utterance duration also decreased with age, but variability was unrelated to duration. The standard deviation of utterance duration also decreased with age. The present results thus suggest that age related changes in speech motor control continue up until 30 years of age.

  9. Key parameters controlling the performance of catalytic motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esplandiu, Maria J.; Afshar Farniya, Ali; Reguera, David

    2016-03-01

    The development of autonomous micro/nanomotors driven by self-generated chemical gradients is a topic of high interest given their potential impact in medicine and environmental remediation. Although impressive functionalities of these devices have been demonstrated, a detailed understanding of the propulsion mechanism is still lacking. In this work, we perform a comprehensive numerical analysis of the key parameters governing the actuation of bimetallic catalytic micropumps. We show that the fluid motion is driven by self-generated electro-osmosis where the electric field originates by a proton current rather than by a lateral charge asymmetry inside the double layer. Hence, the surface potential and the electric field are the key parameters for setting the pumping strength and directionality. The proton flux that generates the electric field stems from the proton gradient induced by the electrochemical reactions taken place at the pump. Surprisingly the electric field and consequently the fluid flow are mainly controlled by the ionic strength and not by the conductivity of the solution, as one could have expected. We have also analyzed the influence of the chemical fuel concentration, electrochemical reaction rates, and size of the metallic structures for an optimized pump performance. Our findings cast light on the complex chemomechanical actuation of catalytic motors and provide important clues for the search, design, and optimization of novel catalytic actuators.

  10. Key parameters controlling the performance of catalytic motors.

    PubMed

    Esplandiu, Maria J; Afshar Farniya, Ali; Reguera, David

    2016-03-28

    The development of autonomous micro/nanomotors driven by self-generated chemical gradients is a topic of high interest given their potential impact in medicine and environmental remediation. Although impressive functionalities of these devices have been demonstrated, a detailed understanding of the propulsion mechanism is still lacking. In this work, we perform a comprehensive numerical analysis of the key parameters governing the actuation of bimetallic catalytic micropumps. We show that the fluid motion is driven by self-generated electro-osmosis where the electric field originates by a proton current rather than by a lateral charge asymmetry inside the double layer. Hence, the surface potential and the electric field are the key parameters for setting the pumping strength and directionality. The proton flux that generates the electric field stems from the proton gradient induced by the electrochemical reactions taken place at the pump. Surprisingly the electric field and consequently the fluid flow are mainly controlled by the ionic strength and not by the conductivity of the solution, as one could have expected. We have also analyzed the influence of the chemical fuel concentration, electrochemical reaction rates, and size of the metallic structures for an optimized pump performance. Our findings cast light on the complex chemomechanical actuation of catalytic motors and provide important clues for the search, design, and optimization of novel catalytic actuators. PMID:27036470

  11. The performance and efficiency of four motor/controller/battery systems for the simpler electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipps, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    A test and analysis program performed on four complete propulsion systems for an urban electric vehicle (EV) is described and results given. A dc series motor and a permanent magnet (PM) motor were tested, each powered by an EV battery pack and controlled by (1) a series/parallel voltage-switching (V-switch) system; and (2) a system using a pulse width modulation, 400 Hz transistorized chopper. Dynamometer tests were first performed, followed by eV performance predictions and data correlating road tests. During dynamometer tests using chopper control; current, voltage, and power were measured on both the battery and motor sides of the chopper, using three types of instrumentation. Conventional dc instruments provided adequate accuracy for eV power and energy measurements, when used on the battery side of the controller. When using the chopper controller, the addition of a small choke inductor improved system efficiency in the lower duty cycle range (some 8% increase at 50% duty cycle) with both types of motors. Overall system efficiency rankings during road tests were: (1) series motor with V-switch; (2) PM motor with V-switch; (3) series motor with chopper; and (4) PM motor with chopper. Chopper control of the eV was smoother and required less driver skill than V-switch control.

  12. The performance and efficiency of four motor/controller/battery systems for the simpler electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipps, P. R.

    1980-05-01

    A test and analysis program performed on four complete propulsion systems for an urban electric vehicle (EV) is described and results given. A dc series motor and a permanent magnet (PM) motor were tested, each powered by an EV battery pack and controlled by (1) a series/parallel voltage-switching (V-switch) system; and (2) a system using a pulse width modulation, 400 Hz transistorized chopper. Dynamometer tests were first performed, followed by eV performance predictions and data correlating road tests. During dynamometer tests using chopper control; current, voltage, and power were measured on both the battery and motor sides of the chopper, using three types of instrumentation. Conventional dc instruments provided adequate accuracy for eV power and energy measurements, when used on the battery side of the controller. When using the chopper controller, the addition of a small choke inductor improved system efficiency in the lower duty cycle range (some 8% increase at 50% duty cycle) with both types of motors. Overall system efficiency rankings during road tests were: (1) series motor with V-switch; (2) PM motor with V-switch; (3) series motor with chopper; and (4) PM motor with chopper. Chopper control of the eV was smoother and required less driver skill than V-switch control.

  13. Control of rotor motion in a light-driven molecular motor: towards a molecular gearbox.

    PubMed

    Ter Wiel, Matthijs K J; van Delden, Richard A; Meetsma, Auke; Feringa, Ben L

    2005-11-21

    Controlled intramolecular movement and coupling of motor and rotor functions is exerted by this new molecular device. The rate of rotation of the rotor part of the molecule can be adjusted by alteration of the conformation of the motor part of the molecule. For all states of the motor part, different rates of rotation were measured for the rotor part. Conversion between the four propeller orientations was achieved by irradiation and heating.

  14. Relationship between writing skills and visual-motor control in low-vision students.

    PubMed

    Atasavun Uysal, Songül; Aki, Esra

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between handwriting skills and visual motor control among students with low vision and to compare this with the performance of their normal sighted peers. 42 students with low vision and 26 normal sighted peers participated. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Motor Proficiency Test-Short Form (BOTMP-SF), Jebsen Taylor Hand Function Test's writing subtest, and a legibility assessment were administered. Significant differences were found between groups for students' writing speed, legibility, and visual motor control. Visual motor control was correlated both writing speed and legibility. Students with low vision had poorer handwriting performance, with lower legibility and slower writing speed. Writing performance time was related to visual motor control in students with low vision.

  15. Design of a Mode Conversion Ultrasonic Motor for Position Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeLetty, Ronan; Bouchilloux, Philippe; Claeyssen, Frank; Lhermet, Nicolas

    1996-01-01

    The many useful characteristics of ultrasonic motors, such as high holding torques, and high torque at low speeds, have made them the subject of increasing interest. In addition, several of their characteristics make them attractive for aerospace applications: they have a torque to weight ratio, and they require neither gearing mechanisms nor lubrication. Moreover, they create negligible magnetic fields, and conversely, they are not affected by external magnetic fields. Ultrasonic motors based on bolt-tightened structures offer simplicity and high stress capability. They use the inverse piezoelectric effect in the stator to produce vibrational energy, which is transferred to the rotor by friction. We designed a bolt-tightened ultrasonic motor using numerical modelling tools (finite element and electromechanical circuit analyses), creating an equivalent circuit model that takes into account the electromechanical energy conversion in the stator and the contact between the stator and the rotor. Analysis of the circuit gives insight into the behavior of the motor and allows its performance to be calculated. Two prototypes of the motor were built; their transient responses and other quantities, such as starting torque, were measured. In this paper, we discuss the numerical and the experimental results, and demonstrate the usefulness of numerical analysis in designing ultrasonic motors and estimating their performance.

  16. Prototype Motor Controllers Demonstrated for the James Webb Space Telescope Cryogenic Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Richard L.; Hammond, Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    NASA is in the process of designing the James Webb Space Telescope. This telescope will investigate images of objects in deep space (stars, galaxies, etc.) by using light in the infrared region of the light spectrum. To make such observations, the telescope must have light sensors that operate at very cold temperatures, near absolute zero. To achieve this low-temperature tolerance, designers must place the light sensors behind a Sun shield that will prevent sunlight, and its heat, from reaching the sensors. In this cold region inside the telescope, electric motors and some motor controls must operate at temperatures near 40 K (40 degrees above absolute zero). These motors will be used to position light filters needed by the telescope. There are motors that operate at the low temperatures, but there is little technology for low-temperature motor-control electronics. The drawing shows how the motors and their controls are positioned behind the Sun shield. Simplified version of the layout of the motor and control electronics that are located, as dictated by mission requirements, in the cold zone of the James Webb Space Telescope. A Sun shield provides protection and isolation of these electronics from the heat of the rays of the sun. Room temperature compoenets (control computer, motor select command, motor phase drive, power supply, parallel to serial, and sun shield) as well as 40-kelvin components (motor select, serial to parallel, and motors) are shown. The Low Temperature Electronics Group at the NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to develop motor control electronics that will operate at a temperature of 40 K. The group conducted tests to determine which electronic components will operate at such very low temperatures. Then, components that were determined to operate successfully at the low temperatures were used to design low-temperature motor-controller circuits. A prototype motor controller circuit was built, evaluated, and demonstrated to operate at

  17. Fuzzy auto-tuning PID control of multiple joint robot driven by ultrasonic motors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhijun; Xing, Rentao; Zhao, Chunsheng; Huang, Weiqing

    2007-11-01

    A three-joint robot is directly driven by ultrasonic motors with advantage of high torque at low speed. The speed of the ultrasonic motors is actually controlled by regulating their operating frequencies. The kinematic and kinetic analyses of the robot have been carried out using Adams. Due to the lack of accurate control model of ultrasonic motors and the time-varying motor parameters, a fuzzy auto-tuning proportional integral derivative (PID) controller for the robot is experimented, in which a simple method to tune parameters of the PID type fuzzy controller on-line is developed and a new position-speed feedback strategy is proposed and implemented. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy and fuzzy logic controller is verified by experimental investigation.

  18. Real-time haptic-teleoperated robotic system for motor control analysis.

    PubMed

    Shull, Pete B; Gonzalez, Roger V

    2006-03-15

    A versatile teleoperated robotic system was created as an assessment device for testing upper-extremity motor control adaptation using different control strategies. While many systems display output virtually on a computer monitor, this system was designed to output in three-dimensional physical space. The system accepts haptic force and torque input, and outputs robot end-effector displacements and rotations in three spatial dimensions. Benefits of this system include flexibility to conduct a variety of dissimilar tasks and reality of user feedback in physical space. Two separate experiments validated the teleoperated robotic system. The first experiment tested unimanual human motor control and the second tested bimanual motor control. This teleoperated robotic system can be used as an assessment device to study neuromuscular adaptability via a variety of control strategies providing a new and functional approach to human motor control analysis.

  19. Artificial neural network based controller for permanent magnet DC motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Hoque, M.A.; Zaman, M.R.; Rahman, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper introduces a novel approach of designing a controller using multi-layer feed-forward neural network (FFNN) for the speed control of a permanent magnet (PM) dc motor. Artificial neural network (ANN) controller with its massive parallel properties and learning capabilities offers a promising way to solving the problem of system non-linearity, parameter variations and unexpected load excursions associated with a PM dc motor drive system. Self-tuning technique of the controller in real time is achieved through an improved on-line back-propagation training algorithm based on an output error propagation. The proposed ANN controller is implemented with a PM dc motor drive system in the laboratory. The laboratory test results validate the efficacy of the based controller for a high performance PM dc motor drive.

  20. Self-Controlled Practice Enhances Motor Learning in Introverts and Extroverts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaefer, Angélica; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Meira, Cassio de Miranda, Jr.; Tani, Go

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of self-controlled feedback on the learning of a sequential-timing motor task in introverts and extroverts. Method: Fifty-six university students were selected by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. They practiced a motor task consisting of pressing computer keyboard keys…

  1. Motor Control Test Responses to Balance Perturbations in Adults with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Leigh; Miller, Rebekah; Barach, Alice; Skinner, Margot; Gray, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aims of this small exploratory study were to determine (1) whether adults with intellectual disability who had a recent history of falling had slower motor responses to postural perturbations than a sample of adults without disability when measured with the Motor Control Test (MCT) and (2) to identify any learning effects…

  2. Effects of Dispositional Mindfulness on the Self-Controlled Learning of a Novel Motor Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Ying Hwa; Liu, Yeou-Teh

    2011-01-01

    Current literature suggests that mindful learning is beneficial to learning but its links with motor learning is seldom examined. In the present study, we examine the effects of learners' mindfulness disposition on the self-controlled learning of a novel motor task. Thirty-two participants undertook five practice sessions, in addition to a pre-,…

  3. Motor Signs Distinguish Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome from Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansiewicz, Eva M.; Goldberg, Melissa C.; Newschaffer, Craig J.; Denckla, Martha B.; Landa, Rebecca; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2006-01-01

    While many studies of motor control in autism have focused on specific motor signs, there has been a lack of research examining the complete range of subtle neuromotor signs. This study compared performance on a neurologic examination standardized for children (PANESS, Physical and Neurological Exam for Subtle Signs, Denckla ["1974 Developmental…

  4. Research on Speech Motor Control and Its Disorders: A Review and Prospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Ray D.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews issues in speech motor control and a class of communication disorders known as motor speech disorders that include dysarthrias, apraxia of speech, developmental apraxia of speech, developmental stuttering, acquired (neurogenic and psychogenic) stuttering, and cluttering. Assessment, classification, and treatment of these…

  5. Motor Planning and Control in Autism. A Kinematic Analysis of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forti, Sara; Valli, Angela; Perego, Paolo; Nobile, Maria; Crippa, Alessandro; Molteni, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Kinematic recordings in a reach and drop task were compared between 12 preschool children with autism without mental retardation and 12 gender and age-matched normally developing children. Our aim was to investigate whether motor anomalies in autism may depend more on a planning ability dysfunction or on a motor control deficit. Planning and…

  6. High accuracy motor controller for positioning optical filters in the CLAES Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thatcher, John B.

    1989-01-01

    The Etalon Drive Motor (EDM), a precision etalon control system designed for accurate positioning of etalon filters in the IR spectrometer of the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) experiment is described. The EDM includes a brushless dc torque motor, which has an infinite resolution for setting an etalon filter to any desired angle, a four-filter etalon wheel, and an electromechanical resolver for angle information. An 18-bit control loop provides high accuracy, resolution, and stability. Dynamic computer interaction allows the user to optimize the step response. A block diagram of the motor controller is presented along with a schematic of the digital/analog converter circuit.

  7. Experimental testing of axial induction based control strategies for wake control and wind farm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartl, J.; Sætran, L.

    2016-09-01

    In state-of-the-art wind farms each turbine is controlled individually aiming for optimum turbine power not considering wake effects on downstream turbines. Wind farm control concepts aim for optimizing the overall power output of the farm taking wake interactions between the individual turbines into account. This experimental wind tunnel study investigates axial induction based control concepts. It is examined how the total array efficiency of two in-line model turbines is affected when the upstream turbine's tip speed ratio (λcontrol) or blade pitch angle (β-control) is modified. The focus is particularly directed on how the wake flow behind the upstream rotor is affected when its axial induction is reduced in order to leave more kinetic energy in the wake to be recovered by a downstream turbine. It is shown that the radial distribution of kinetic energy in the wake area can be controlled by modifying the upstream turbine's tip speed ratio. By pitching out the upstream turbine's blades, however, the available kinetic energy in the wake is increased at an equal rate over the entire blade span. Furthermore, the total array efficiency of the two turbine setup is mapped depending on the upstream turbines tip speed ratio and pitch angle. For a small turbine separation distance of x/D=3 the downstream turbine is able to recover the major part of the power lost on the upstream turbine. However, no significant increase in the two-turbine array efficiency is achieved by altering the upstream turbine's operation point away from its optimum.

  8. The role of endocannabinoid signaling in motor control.

    PubMed

    El Manira, A; Kyriakatos, A

    2010-08-01

    Cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoid signaling are distributed throughout the rostrocaudal neuraxis. Retrograde signaling via endocannabinoid mediates synaptic plasticity in many regions in the central nervous system. Here, we review the role of endocannabinoid signaling in different parts of the vertebrate motor system from networks responsible for the execution of movement to planning centers in the basal ganglia and cortex. The ubiquity of endocannabinoid-mediated plasticity suggests that it plays an important role in producing motion from defined circuitries and also for reconfiguring networks to learn new motor skills. The long-term plasticity induced by endocannabinoids may provide a long-term buffer that stabilizes the organization of motor circuits and their activity. PMID:20699469

  9. Mathematical Description of an Asynchronous Motor with the Indirect Control of the Output Mechanical Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazachev, A. V.; Dementyev, Yu. N.; Negodin, K. N.; Umursakova, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    The article gives the mathematical description of an asynchronous motor with the indirect control of the output mechanical variables of an asynchronous motor in the electric drive. To determine the electromagnetic torque and angular velocity of the asynchronous motor in the electric drive the mathematical description is used in which the values are determined by the readings of the motor and easily measured values by means of known in practice devices. The proposed in the article the mathematical description for the indirect measuring the electromagnetic torque and angular velocity of the asynchronous motor in the electric drive does not contain the integral components that introduce the great error into the value of the controlled electromagnetic torque and angular velocity.

  10. Remote control of myosin and kinesin motors using light-activated gearshifting.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Muneaki; Chen, Lu; Howes, Stuart C; Schindler, Tony D; Nogales, Eva; Bryant, Zev

    2014-09-01

    Cytoskeletal motors perform critical force generation and transport functions in eukaryotic cells. Engineered modifications of motor function provide direct tests of protein structure-function relationships and potential tools for controlling cellular processes or for harnessing molecular transport in artificial systems. Here, we report the design and characterization of a panel of cytoskeletal motors that reversibly change gears--speed up, slow down or switch directions--when exposed to blue light. Our genetically encoded structural designs incorporate a photoactive protein domain to enable light-dependent conformational changes in an engineered lever arm. Using in vitro motility assays, we demonstrate robust spatiotemporal control over motor function and characterize the kinetics of the optical gearshifting mechanism. We have used a modular approach to create optical gearshifting motors for both actin-based and microtubule-based transport.

  11. Remote control of myosin and kinesin motors using light-activated gearshifting.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Muneaki; Chen, Lu; Howes, Stuart C; Schindler, Tony D; Nogales, Eva; Bryant, Zev

    2014-09-01

    Cytoskeletal motors perform critical force generation and transport functions in eukaryotic cells. Engineered modifications of motor function provide direct tests of protein structure-function relationships and potential tools for controlling cellular processes or for harnessing molecular transport in artificial systems. Here, we report the design and characterization of a panel of cytoskeletal motors that reversibly change gears--speed up, slow down or switch directions--when exposed to blue light. Our genetically encoded structural designs incorporate a photoactive protein domain to enable light-dependent conformational changes in an engineered lever arm. Using in vitro motility assays, we demonstrate robust spatiotemporal control over motor function and characterize the kinetics of the optical gearshifting mechanism. We have used a modular approach to create optical gearshifting motors for both actin-based and microtubule-based transport. PMID:25086603

  12. Remote control of myosin and kinesin motors using light-activated gearshifting

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Muneaki; Chen, Lu; Howes, Stuart C.; Schindler, Tony D.; Nogales, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Cytoskeletal motors perform critical force generation and transport functions in eukaryotic cells1,2. Engineered modifications of motor function provide direct tests of protein structure-function relationships and potential tools for controlling cellular processes or for harnessing molecular transport in artificial systems3,4. Here, we report the design and characterization of a panel of cytoskeletal motors that reversibly change gears—speed up, slow down or switch directions—when exposed to blue light. Our genetically encoded structural designs incorporate a photoactive protein domain to enable light-dependent conformational changes in an engineered lever arm. Using in vitro motility assays, we demonstrate robust spatiotemporal control over motor function and characterize the kinetics of the optical gearshifting mechanism. We have used a modular approach to create optical gearshifting motors for both actin-based and microtubule-based transport. PMID:25086603

  13. SDRE control strategy applied to a nonlinear robotic including drive motor

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, Jeferson J. de E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br Tusset, Angelo M. E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br Janzen, Frederic C. E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br Piccirillo, Vinicius E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br Nascimento, Claudinor B. E-mail: tusset@utfpr.edu.br E-mail: piccirillo@utfpr.edu.br; Balthazar, José M.; Brasil, Reyolando M. L. R. da Fonseca

    2014-12-10

    A robotic control design considering all the inherent nonlinearities of the robot-engine configuration is developed. The interactions between the robot and joint motor drive mechanism are considered. The proposed control combines two strategies, one feedforward control in order to maintain the system in the desired coordinate, and feedback control system to take the system into a desired coordinate. The feedback control is obtained using State-Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE). For link positioning two cases are considered. Case I: For control positioning, it is only used motor voltage; Case II: For control positioning, it is used both motor voltage and torque between the links. Simulation results, including parametric uncertainties in control shows the feasibility of the proposed control for the considered system.

  14. SDRE control strategy applied to a nonlinear robotic including drive motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, Jeferson J.; Tusset, Angelo M.; Janzen, Frederic C.; Piccirillo, Vinicius; Nascimento, Claudinor B.; Balthazar, José M.; Brasil, Reyolando M. L. R. da Fonseca

    2014-12-01

    A robotic control design considering all the inherent nonlinearities of the robot-engine configuration is developed. The interactions between the robot and joint motor drive mechanism are considered. The proposed control combines two strategies, one feedforward control in order to maintain the system in the desired coordinate, and feedback control system to take the system into a desired coordinate. The feedback control is obtained using State-Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE). For link positioning two cases are considered. Case I: For control positioning, it is only used motor voltage; Case II: For control positioning, it is used both motor voltage and torque between the links. Simulation results, including parametric uncertainties in control shows the feasibility of the proposed control for the considered system.

  15. Filtering and Control of High Speed Motor Current in a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Santiago, Walter

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been developing technology to enable the use of high speed flywheel energy storage units in future spacecraft for the last several years. An integral part of the flywheel unit is the three phase motor/generator that is used to accelerate and decelerate the flywheel. The motor/generator voltage is supplied from a pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter operating from a fixed DC voltage supply. The motor current is regulated through a closed loop current control that commands the necessary voltage from the inverter to achieve the desired current. The current regulation loop is the innermost control loop of the overall flywheel system and, as a result, must be fast and accurate over the entire operating speed range (20,000 to 60,000 rpm) of the flywheel. The voltage applied to the motor is a high frequency PWM version of the DC bus voltage that results in the commanded fundamental value plus higher order harmonics. Most of the harmonic content is at the switching frequency and above. The higher order harmonics cause a rapid change in voltage to be applied to the motor that can result in large voltage stresses across the motor windings. In addition, the high frequency content in the motor causes sensor noise in the magnetic bearings that leads to disturbances for the bearing control. To alleviate these problems, a filter is used to present a more sinusoidal voltage to the motor/generator. However, the filter adds additional dynamics and phase lag to the motor system that can interfere with the performance of the current regulator. This paper will discuss the tuning methodology and results for the motor/generator current regulator and the impact of the filter on the control. Results at speeds up to 50,000 rpm are presented.

  16. Approximate Optimal Control as a Model for Motor Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthier, Neil E.; Rosenstein, Michael T.; Barto, Andrew G.

    2005-01-01

    Current models of psychological development rely heavily on connectionist models that use supervised learning. These models adapt network weights when the network output does not match the target outputs computed by some agent. The authors present a model of motor learning in which the child uses exploration to discover appropriate ways of…

  17. Motor vehicle exhaust emissions and control in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Laurikko, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper outlines the status and trends of atmospheric pollution in Finland caused by motor vehicles and evaluates the effect of the current regulatory policy. Details of new emission regulations for passenger cars and heavy duty vehicles are given. Research activities and items of particular concern like the effect of low ambient temperature on emissions are also discussed.

  18. Motor vehicle fuel economy, the forgotten HC control stragegy?

    SciTech Connect

    Deluchi, M.; Wang, Quanlu; Greene, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    Emissions of hydrocarbons from motor vehicles are recognized as major contributors to ozone pollution in urban areas. Petroleum-based motor fuels contain volatile organic compounds (VOC) which, together with oxides of nitrogen, promote the formation of ozone in the troposphere via complex photochemical reactions. VOC emissions from the tailpipe and evaporation from the fuel and engine systems of highway vehicles are believed to account for about 40% of total VOC emissions in any region. But motor fuels also generate emissions throughout the fuel cycle, from crude oil production to refining, storage, transportation, and handling, that can make significant contributions to the total inventory of VOC emissions. Many of these sources of emissions are directly related to the quantity of fuel produced and handled throughout the fuel cycle. It is, therefore, reasonable to expect that a reduction in total fuel throughput might result in a reduction of VOC emissions. In particular, reducing vehicle fuel consumption by increasing vehicle fuel economy should reduce total fuel throughput, thereby cutting total emissions of VOCS. In this report we identify the sources of VOC emissions throughout the motor fuel cycle, quantify them to the extent possible, and describe their dependence on automobile and light truck fuel economy.

  19. Decoding human motor activity from EEG single trials for a discrete two-dimensional cursor control.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dandan; Lin, Peter; Fei, Ding-Yu; Chen, Xuedong; Bai, Ou

    2009-08-01

    This study aims to explore whether human intentions to move or cease to move right and left hands can be decoded from spatiotemporal features in non-invasive EEG in order to control a discrete two-dimensional cursor movement for a potential multidimensional brain-computer interface (BCI). Five naïve subjects performed either sustaining or stopping a motor task with time locking to a predefined time window by using motor execution with physical movement or motor imagery. Spatial filtering, temporal filtering, feature selection and classification methods were explored. The performance of the proposed BCI was evaluated by both offline classification and online two-dimensional cursor control. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) and post-movement event-related synchronization (ERS) were observed on the contralateral hemisphere to the hand moved for both motor execution and motor imagery. Feature analysis showed that EEG beta band activity in the contralateral hemisphere over the motor cortex provided the best detection of either sustained or ceased movement of the right or left hand. The offline classification of four motor tasks (sustain or cease to move right or left hand) provided 10-fold cross-validation accuracy as high as 88% for motor execution and 73% for motor imagery. The subjects participating in experiments with physical movement were able to complete the online game with motor execution at an average accuracy of 85.5 +/- 4.65%; the subjects participating in motor imagery study also completed the game successfully. The proposed BCI provides a new practical multidimensional method by noninvasive EEG signal associated with human natural behavior, which does not need long-term training.

  20. Decoding human motor activity from EEG single trials for a discrete two-dimensional cursor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dandan; Lin, Peter; Fei, Ding-Yu; Chen, Xuedong; Bai, Ou

    2009-08-01

    This study aims to explore whether human intentions to move or cease to move right and left hands can be decoded from spatiotemporal features in non-invasive EEG in order to control a discrete two-dimensional cursor movement for a potential multidimensional brain-computer interface (BCI). Five naïve subjects performed either sustaining or stopping a motor task with time locking to a predefined time window by using motor execution with physical movement or motor imagery. Spatial filtering, temporal filtering, feature selection and classification methods were explored. The performance of the proposed BCI was evaluated by both offline classification and online two-dimensional cursor control. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) and post-movement event-related synchronization (ERS) were observed on the contralateral hemisphere to the hand moved for both motor execution and motor imagery. Feature analysis showed that EEG beta band activity in the contralateral hemisphere over the motor cortex provided the best detection of either sustained or ceased movement of the right or left hand. The offline classification of four motor tasks (sustain or cease to move right or left hand) provided 10-fold cross-validation accuracy as high as 88% for motor execution and 73% for motor imagery. The subjects participating in experiments with physical movement were able to complete the online game with motor execution at an average accuracy of 85.5 ± 4.65%; the subjects participating in motor imagery study also completed the game successfully. The proposed BCI provides a new practical multidimensional method by noninvasive EEG signal associated with human natural behavior, which does not need long-term training.

  1. A 2D magnetic and 3D mechanical coupled finite element model for the study of the dynamic vibrations in the stator of induction motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, J.; Belahcen, A.; Detoni, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a coupled Finite Element Model in order to study the vibrations in induction motors under steady-state. The model utilizes a weak coupling strategy between both magnetic and elastodynamic fields on the structure. Firstly, the problem solves the magnetic vector potential in an axial cut and secondly the former solution is coupled to a three dimensional model of the stator. The coupling is performed using projection based algorithms between the computed magnetic solution and the three-dimensional mesh. The three-dimensional model of the stator includes both end-windings and end-shields in order to give a realistic picture of the motor. The present model is validated using two steps. Firstly, a modal analysis hammer test is used to validate the material characteristic of this complex structure and secondly an array of accelerometer sensors is used in order to study the rotating waves using multi-dimensional spectral techniques. The analysis of the radial vibrations presented in this paper firstly concludes that slot harmonic components are visible when the motor is loaded. Secondly, the multidimensional spectrum presents the most relevant mechanical waves on the stator such as the ones produced by the space harmonics or the saturation of the iron core. The direct retrieval of the wave-number in a multi-dimensional spectrum is able to show the internal current distribution in a non-intrusive way. Experimental results for healthy induction motors are showing mechanical imbalances in a multi-dimensional spectrum in a more straightforward form.

  2. Construction of AC Motor Controllers for NOvA Experiment Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, Patrick; /Fermilab

    2011-08-04

    I have been constructing Alternating Current (AC) motor controllers for manipulation of particle beam detectors. The capability and reliability of these motor controllers are essential to the Laboratory's mission of accurate analysis of the particle beam's position. The device is moved in and out of the beam's path by the motor controller followed by the Neutrinos at the Main Injector Off-Axis {nu}{sub e} Appearance (NOvA) Experiment further down the beam pipe. In total, I built and tested ten ac motor controllers for new beam operations in the NOvA experiment. These units will prove to be durable and provide extremely accurate beam placement for NOvA Experiment far into the future.

  3. 75 FR 11878 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to the California Zero...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to the California Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Regulation; Waiver Request; Opportunity for Public Hearing AGENCY: Environmental... related to zero emission vehicles (ZEVs) in California. By letter dated September 17, 2009, CARB...

  4. Four quadrant control circuit for a brushless three-phase dc motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, Frank J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A control circuit is provided for a brushless three-phase dc motor which affords four quadrant control from a single command. The control circuit probes acceleration of the motor in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions and braking and generation in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions. In addition to turning on individual transistors of the transistor pairs connected to the phase windings of the motor for 120 deg periods while the other transistor of that pair is off, the control circuit also provides, in a future mode of operation, turning the two transistors of each pair on and off alternately at a phase modulation frequency during such a 120 deg period. A feedback signal is derived which is proportional to the motor current and which has a polarity consistent with the command signal, such that negative feedback results.

  5. System modeling for the longitudinal beam dynamics control problem in heavy ion induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, A.N.

    1993-05-17

    We address the problem of developing system models that are suitable for studying the control of the longitudinal beam dynamics in induction accelerators for heavy ions. In particular, we present the preliminary results of our efforts to devise a general framework for building detailed, integrated models of accelerator systems consisting of pulsed power modular circuits, induction cells, beam dynamics, and control system elements. Such a framework will permit us to analyze and design the pulsed power modulators and the control systems required to effect precise control over the longitudinal beam dynamics.

  6. Prematurely Delivered Rats Show Improved Motor Coordination During Sensory-evoked Motor Responses Compared to Age-matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729

  7. Suspension force control of bearingless permanent magnet slice motor based on flux linkage identification.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Suming; Zhu, Huangqiu

    2015-07-01

    The control accuracy and dynamic performance of suspension force are confined in the traditional bearingless permanent magnet slice motor (BPMSM) control strategies because the suspension force control is indirectly achieved by adopting a closed loop of displacement only. Besides, the phase information in suspension force control relies on accurate measurement of rotor position, making the control system more complex. In this paper, a new suspension force control strategy with displacement and radial suspension force double closed loops is proposed, the flux linkage of motor windings is identified based on voltage-current model and the flexibility of motor control can be improved greatly. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed suspension force control strategy is effective to realize the stable operation of the BPMSM.

  8. Position versus force control: using the 2-DOF robotic ankle trainer to assess ankle's motor control.

    PubMed

    Farjadian, Amir B; Nabian, Mohsen; Hartman, Amber; Corsino, Johnathan; Mavroidis, Constantinos; Holden, Maureen K

    2014-01-01

    An estimated of 2,000,000 acute ankle sprains occur annually in the United States. Furthermore, ankle disabilities are caused by neurological impairments such as traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy and stroke. The virtually interfaced robotic ankle and balance trainer (vi-RABT) was introduced as a cost-effective platform-based rehabilitation robot to improve overall ankle/balance strength, mobility and control. The system is equipped with 2 degrees of freedom (2-DOF) controlled actuation along with complete means of angle and torque measurement mechanisms. Vi-RABT was used to assess ankle strength, flexibility and motor control in healthy human subjects, while playing interactive virtual reality games on the screen. The results suggest that in the task with 2-DOF, subjects have better control over ankle's position vs. force.

  9. Demonstration of a Controllable Three-Dimensional Brownian Motor in Symmetric Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoelund, P.; Petra, S.J.H.; Dion, C.M.; Jonsell, S.; Nylen, M.; Kastberg, A.; Sanchez-Palencia, L.

    2006-05-19

    We demonstrate a Brownian motor, based on cold atoms in optical lattices, where isotropic random fluctuations are rectified in order to induce controlled atomic motion in arbitrary directions. In contrast to earlier demonstrations of ratchet effects, our Brownian motor operates in potentials that are spatially and temporally symmetric, but where spatiotemporal symmetry is broken by a phase shift between the potentials and asymmetric transfer rates between them. The Brownian motor is demonstrated in three dimensions and the noise-induced drift is controllable in our system.

  10. Applying principles of motor learning and control to upper extremity rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Muratori, Lisa M.; Lamberg, Eric M.; Quinn, Lori; Duff, Susan V.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief review of the principles of motor control and learning. Different models of motor control from historical to contemporary are presented with emphasis on the systems model. Concepts of motor learning including skill acquisition, measurement of learning, and methods to promote skill acquisition by examining the many facets of practice scheduling and use of feedback are provided. A fictional client case is introduced and threaded throughout the article to facilitate understanding of these concepts and how they can be applied to clinical practice. PMID:23598082

  11. DC-SIGN(+) Macrophages Control the Induction of Transplantation Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Conde, Patricia; Rodriguez, Mercedes; van der Touw, William; Jimenez, Ana; Burns, Matthew; Miller, Jennifer; Brahmachary, Manisha; Chen, Hui-ming; Boros, Peter; Rausell-Palamos, Francisco; Yun, Tae Jin; Riquelme, Paloma; Rastrojo, Alberto; Aguado, Begoña; Stein-Streilein, Joan; Tanaka, Masato; Zhou, Lan; Zhang, Junfeng; Lowary, Todd L; Ginhoux, Florent; Park, Chae Gyu; Cheong, Cheolho; Brody, Joshua; Turley, Shannon J; Lira, Sergio A; Bronte, Vincenzo; Gordon, Siamon; Heeger, Peter S; Merad, Miriam; Hutchinson, James; Chen, Shu-Hsia; Ochando, Jordi

    2015-06-16

    Tissue effector cells of the monocyte lineage can differentiate into different cell types with specific cell function depending on their environment. The phenotype, developmental requirements, and functional mechanisms of immune protective macrophages that mediate the induction of transplantation tolerance remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that costimulatory blockade favored accumulation of DC-SIGN-expressing macrophages that inhibited CD8(+) T cell immunity and promoted CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cell expansion in numbers. Mechanistically, that simultaneous DC-SIGN engagement by fucosylated ligands and TLR4 signaling was required for production of immunoregulatory IL-10 associated with prolonged allograft survival. Deletion of DC-SIGN-expressing macrophages in vivo, interfering with their CSF1-dependent development, or preventing the DC-SIGN signaling pathway abrogated tolerance. Together, the results provide new insights into the tolerogenic effects of costimulatory blockade and identify DC-SIGN(+) suppressive macrophages as crucial mediators of immunological tolerance with the concomitant therapeutic implications in the clinic.

  12. Apparent and Actual Trajectory Control Depend on the Behavioral Context in Upper Limb Motor Tasks.

    PubMed

    Cluff, Tyler; Scott, Stephen H

    2015-09-01

    A central problem in motor neuroscience is to understand how we select, plan, and control motor actions. An influential idea is that the motor system computes and implements a desired limb trajectory, an intermediary control process between the behavioral goal (reach a spatial goal) and motor commands to move the limb. The most compelling evidence for trajectory control is that corrective responses are directed back toward the unperturbed trajectory when the limb is disturbed during movement. However, the idea of trajectory control conflicts with optimal control theories that emphasize goal-directed motor corrections. Here we show that corrective responses in human subjects can deviate back toward the unperturbed trajectory, but these reversals were only present when there were explicit limits on movement time. Our second experiment asked whether trajectory control could be generated if the trajectory was made an explicit goal of the task. Participants countered unexpected loads while reaching to a static goal, tracking a moving target, or maintaining their hand within a visually constrained path to a static goal. Corrective responses were directed back toward the constrained path or to intercept the moving target. However, corrections back to the unperturbed path disappeared when reaching to the static target. Long-latency muscle responses paralleled changes in the behavioral goal in both sets of experiments, but goal-directed responses were delayed by 15-25 ms when tracking the moving goal. Our results show the motor system can behave like a trajectory controller but only if a "desired trajectory" is the goal of the task. Significance statement: One of the most influential ideas in motor control is that the motor system computes a "desired trajectory" when reaching to a spatial goal. Here we revisit the experimental paradigm from seminal papers supporting trajectory control to illustrate that corrective responses appear to return to the original trajectory of the

  13. Adaptive intermittent control: A computational model explaining motor intermittency observed in human behavior.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Masato; Inoue, Yasuyuki

    2015-07-01

    It is a fundamental question how our brain performs a given motor task in a real-time fashion with the slow sensorimotor system. Computational theory proposed an influential idea of feed-forward control, but it has mainly treated the case that the movement is ballistic (such as reaching) because the motor commands should be calculated in advance of movement execution. As a possible mechanism for operating feed-forward control in continuous motor tasks (such as target tracking), we propose a control model called "adaptive intermittent control" or "segmented control," that brain adaptively divides the continuous time axis into discrete segments and executes feed-forward control in each segment. The idea of intermittent control has been proposed in the fields of control theory, biological modeling and nonlinear dynamical system. Compared with these previous models, the key of the proposed model is that the system speculatively determines the segmentation based on the future prediction and its uncertainty. The result of computer simulation showed that the proposed model realized faithful visuo-manual tracking with realistic sensorimotor delays and with less computational costs (i.e., with fewer number of segments). Furthermore, it replicated "motor intermittency", that is, intermittent discontinuities commonly observed in human movement trajectories. We discuss that the temporally segmented control is an inevitable strategy for brain which has to achieve a given task with small computational (or cognitive) cost, using a slow control system in an uncertain variable environment, and the motor intermittency is the side-effect of this strategy.

  14. Test Platform for Advanced Digital Control of Brushless DC Motors (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    A FY 2001 Center Director's Discretionary Fund task to develop a test platform for the development, implementation. and evaluation of adaptive and other advanced control techniques for brushless DC (BLDC) motor-driven mechanisms is described. Important applications for BLDC motor-driven mechanisms are the translation of specimens in microgravity experiments and electromechanical actuation of nozzle and fuel valves in propulsion systems. Motor-driven aerocontrol surfaces are also being utilized in developmental X vehicles. The experimental test platform employs a linear translation stage that is mounted vertically and driven by a BLDC motor. Control approaches are implemented on a digital signal processor-based controller for real-time, closed-loop control of the stage carriage position. The goal of the effort is to explore the application of advanced control approaches that can enhance the performance of a motor-driven actuator over the performance obtained using linear control approaches with fixed gains. Adaptive controllers utilizing an exact model knowledge controller and a self-tuning controller are implemented and the control system performance is illustrated through the presentation of experimental results.

  15. Direct torque control of induction machine under square wave conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chapuis, Y.A.; Pelissou, C.; Roye, D.

    1995-12-31

    The authors of this paper present the direct torque control (DTC) under square wave conditions. After describing the principles of the control system at high speed, they propose a control structure under square wave operation to optimize power and losses in the inverter and the machine. A transition method allowing transient problems between the two control modes to be minimized, is presented. Finally, they estimate the structure of the proposal by simulating good results on torque control obtained during square wave passage and up to very high machine speeds. They validate the control system at high speed by DSP implementation and experimental results.

  16. Preschoolers' motor and verbal self-control strategies during a resistance-to-temptation task.

    PubMed

    Manfra, Louis; Davis, Kelly D; Ducenne, Lesley; Winsler, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Although prior research has shown that young children exhibit enhanced self-control when they use verbal strategies provided through adult instructions, little work has examined the role of children's spontaneous verbalizations or motor behavior as strategies for enhancing self-control. The present study examined the usefulness of spontaneous verbal and motor strategies for 39 3- and 4-year-old children's ability to exercise self-control during a resistance-to-temptation task. After a 2-min play period, participants were asked by an experimenter not to touch an attractive train set while he was out of the room. Children were videotaped during the 3-min waiting period and videos were coded for frequency and duration of touches, motor movements, and verbalizations. Results indicated that self-control was improved by using both motor and verbal strategies. Children who were unable to resist touching the forbidden toy used limited motor or verbal strategies. These findings add to the growing literature demonstrating the positive role of verbalizations on cognitive control and draw attention to motor behaviors as additional strategies used by young children to exercise self-control.

  17. On-Line Tracking Controller for Brushless DC Motor Drives Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubaai, Ahmed

    1996-01-01

    A real-time control architecture is developed for time-varying nonlinear brushless dc motors operating in a high performance drives environment. The developed control architecture possesses the capabilities of simultaneous on-line identification and control. The dynamics of the motor are modeled on-line and controlled using an artificial neural network, as the system runs. The control architecture combines the experience and dependability of adaptive tracking systems with potential and promise of the neural computing technology. The sensitivity of real-time controller to parametric changes that occur during training is investigated. Such changes are usually manifested by rapid changes in the load of the brushless motor drives. This sudden change in the external load is simulated for the sigmoidal and sinusoidal reference tracks. The ability of the neuro-controller to maintain reasonable tracking accuracy in the presence of external noise is also verified for a number of desired reference trajectories.

  18. Cognitive Control Reflects Context Monitoring, Not Motoric Stopping, in Response Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chatham, Christopher H.; Claus, Eric D.; Kim, Albert; Curran, Tim; Banich, Marie T.; Munakata, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    The inhibition of unwanted behaviors is considered an effortful and controlled ability. However, inhibition also requires the detection of contexts indicating that old behaviors may be inappropriate – in other words, inhibition requires the ability to monitor context in the service of goals, which we refer to as context-monitoring. Using behavioral, neuroimaging, electrophysiological and computational approaches, we tested whether motoric stopping per se is the cognitively-controlled process supporting response inhibition, or whether context-monitoring may fill this role. Our results demonstrate that inhibition does not require control mechanisms beyond those involved in context-monitoring, and that such control mechanisms are the same regardless of stopping demands. These results challenge dominant accounts of inhibitory control, which posit that motoric stopping is the cognitively-controlled process of response inhibition, and clarify emerging debates on the frontal substrates of response inhibition by replacing the centrality of controlled mechanisms for motoric stopping with context-monitoring. PMID:22384038

  19. Motor imagery and EEG-based control of spelling devices and neuroprostheses.

    PubMed

    Neuper, Christa; Müller-Putz, Gernot R; Scherer, Reinhold; Pfurtscheller, Gert

    2006-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) transforms signals originating from the human brain into commands that can control devices or applications. With this, a BCI provides a new non-muscular communication channel, which can be used to assist patients who have highly compromised motor functions. The Graz-BCI uses motor imagery and associated oscillatory EEG signals from the sensorimotor cortex for device control. As a result of research in the past 15 years, the classification of ERD/ERS patterns in single EEG trials during motor execution and motor imagery forms the basis of this sensorimotor-rhythm controlled BCI. The major frequency bands of cortical oscillations considered here are the 8-13 and 15-30 Hz bands. This chapter describes the basic methods used in Graz-BCI research and outlines possible clinical applications.

  20. Motor imagery and EEG-based control of spelling devices and neuroprostheses.

    PubMed

    Neuper, Christa; Müller-Putz, Gernot R; Scherer, Reinhold; Pfurtscheller, Gert

    2006-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) transforms signals originating from the human brain into commands that can control devices or applications. With this, a BCI provides a new non-muscular communication channel, which can be used to assist patients who have highly compromised motor functions. The Graz-BCI uses motor imagery and associated oscillatory EEG signals from the sensorimotor cortex for device control. As a result of research in the past 15 years, the classification of ERD/ERS patterns in single EEG trials during motor execution and motor imagery forms the basis of this sensorimotor-rhythm controlled BCI. The major frequency bands of cortical oscillations considered here are the 8-13 and 15-30 Hz bands. This chapter describes the basic methods used in Graz-BCI research and outlines possible clinical applications. PMID:17071244

  1. Incorporation of fractional-order dynamics into an existing PI/PID DC motor control loop.

    PubMed

    Tepljakov, Aleksei; Gonzalez, Emmanuel A; Petlenkov, Eduard; Belikov, Juri; Monje, Concepción A; Petráš, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    The problem of changing the dynamics of an existing DC motor control system without the need of making internal changes is considered in the paper. In particular, this paper presents a method for incorporating fractional-order dynamics in an existing DC motor control system with internal PI or PID controller, through the addition of an external controller into the system and by tapping its original input and output signals. Experimental results based on the control of a real test plant from MATLAB/Simulink environment are presented, indicating the validity of the proposed approach.

  2. Digital phase-locked loop speed control for a brushless dc motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, M. G.

    1985-06-01

    Speed control of d.c. motors by phase-locked loops (PLL) is becoming increasingly popular. Primary interest has been in employing PLL for constant speed control. This thesis investigates the theory and techniques of digital PLL to speed control of a brushless d.c. motor with a variable speed of operation. Addition of logic controlled count enable/disable to a synchronous up/down counter, used as a phase-frequency detector, is shown to improve the performance of previously proposed PLL control schemes.

  3. Closed-loop motor control using high-speed fiber optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Reginald (Inventor); Rodriquiz, Dagobert (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A closed-loop control system for controlling the operation of one or more servo motors or other controllable devices is described. The system employs a fiber optics link immune to electromagnetic interference, for transmission of control signals from a controller or controllers at a remote station to the power electronics located in proximity to the motors or other devices at the local station. At the remote station the electrical control signals are time-multiplexed, converted to a formatted serial bit stream, and converted to light signals for transmission over a single fiber of the fiber optics link. At the local station, the received optical signals are reconstructed as electrical control signals for the controlled motors or other devices. At the local station, an encoder sensor linked to the driven device generates encoded feedback signals which provide information as to a condition of the controlled device. The encoded signals are placed in a formatted serial bit stream, multiplexed, and transmitted as optical signals over a second fiber of the fiber optic link which closes the control loop of the closed-loop motor controller. The encoded optical signals received at the remote station are demultiplexed, reconstructed and coupled to the controller(s) as electrical feedback signals.

  4. Similar Motor Cortical Control Mechanisms for Precise Limb Control during Reaching and Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Yakovenko, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the course of evolution there has been a parallel development of the complexity and flexibility of the nervous system and the skeletomuscular system that it controls. This development is particularly evident for the cerebral cortical areas and the transformation of the use of the upper limbs from a purely locomotor function to one including, or restricted to, reaching and grasping. This study addresses the issue of whether the control of reaching has involved the development of new cortical circuits or whether the same neurons are used to control both locomotion and reaching. We recorded the activity of pyramidal tract neurons in the motor cortex of the cat both during voluntary gait modifications and during reaching. All cells showed generally similar patterns of activity in both tasks. More specifically, we showed that, in many cases, cells maintained a constant temporal relationship to the activity of synergistic muscle groups in each task. In addition, in some cells the relationship between the intensity of the cell discharge activity and the magnitude of the EMG activity was equally constant during gait modifications and reaching. As such, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that the corticospinal circuits used to control reaching evolved from those used to precisely modify gait. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In an article in 1989, Georgopoulos and Grillner (1989) proposed that the corticospinal control mechanisms used for reaching movements in primates may have evolved from those used to control precise modifications of gait during quadrupedal locomotion. In this article, we provide a test of this hypothesis by recording the activity of individual motor cortical cells during both behaviors. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis in that they demonstrate that individual cortical neurons exhibit similar qualitative and quantitative patterns during each behavior. Beyond a general similarity of activity patterns, we show that some cortical

  5. High-order sliding mode control of a DC motor drive via a switched controlled multi-cellular converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djemaï, M.; Busawon, K.; Benmansour, K.; Marouf, A.

    2011-11-01

    In this article, we present a high-order sliding mode controller of a DC motor drive connected to a multi-cellular converter. More specifically, we design a second-order (super-twisting) control algorithm for the speed regulation of a DC motor. For this, a switching control for the multi-cellular converter is derived in order to supply the correct reference value for the speed regulation. A practical implementation of the controller is realised using a laboratory set-up. The performance and the validity of the controller are shown experimentally.

  6. Spoken language and arm gestures are controlled by the same motor control system.

    PubMed

    Gentilucci, Maurizio; Dalla Volta, Riccardo

    2008-06-01

    Arm movements can influence language comprehension much as semantics can influence arm movement planning. Arm movement itself can be used as a linguistic signal. We reviewed neurophysiological and behavioural evidence that manual gestures and vocal language share the same control system. Studies of primate premotor cortex and, in particular, of the so-called "mirror system", including humans, suggest the existence of a dual hand/mouth motor command system involved in ingestion activities. This may be the platform on which a combined manual and vocal communication system was constructed. In humans, speech is typically accompanied by manual gesture, speech production itself is influenced by executing or observing transitive hand actions, and manual actions play an important role in the development of speech, from the babbling stage onwards. Behavioural data also show reciprocal influence between word and symbolic gestures. Neuroimaging and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) data suggest that the system governing both speech and gesture is located in Broca's area. In general, the presented data support the hypothesis that the hand motor-control system is involved in higher order cognition.

  7. Neurological and robot-controlled induction of an apparition.

    PubMed

    Blanke, Olaf; Pozeg, Polona; Hara, Masayuki; Heydrich, Lukas; Serino, Andrea; Yamamoto, Akio; Higuchi, Toshiro; Salomon, Roy; Seeck, Margitta; Landis, Theodor; Arzy, Shahar; Herbelin, Bruno; Bleuler, Hannes; Rognini, Giulio

    2014-11-17

    Tales of ghosts, wraiths, and other apparitions have been reported in virtually all cultures. The strange sensation that somebody is nearby when no one is actually present and cannot be seen (feeling of a presence, FoP) is a fascinating feat of the human mind, and this apparition is often covered in the literature of divinity, occultism, and fiction. Although it is described by neurological and psychiatric patients and healthy individuals in different situations, it is not yet understood how the phenomenon is triggered by the brain. Here, we performed lesion analysis in neurological FoP patients, supported by an analysis of associated neurological deficits. Our data show that the FoP is an illusory own-body perception with well-defined characteristics that is associated with sensorimotor loss and caused by lesions in three distinct brain regions: temporoparietal, insular, and especially frontoparietal cortex. Based on these data and recent experimental advances of multisensory own-body illusions, we designed a master-slave robotic system that generated specific sensorimotor conflicts and enabled us to induce the FoP and related illusory own-body perceptions experimentally in normal participants. These data show that the illusion of feeling another person nearby is caused by misperceiving the source and identity of sensorimotor (tactile, proprioceptive, and motor) signals of one's own body. Our findings reveal the neural mechanisms of the FoP, highlight the subtle balance of brain mechanisms that generate the experience of "self" and "other," and advance the understanding of the brain mechanisms responsible for hallucinations in schizophrenia. PMID:25447995

  8. Neurological and robot-controlled induction of an apparition.

    PubMed

    Blanke, Olaf; Pozeg, Polona; Hara, Masayuki; Heydrich, Lukas; Serino, Andrea; Yamamoto, Akio; Higuchi, Toshiro; Salomon, Roy; Seeck, Margitta; Landis, Theodor; Arzy, Shahar; Herbelin, Bruno; Bleuler, Hannes; Rognini, Giulio

    2014-11-17

    Tales of ghosts, wraiths, and other apparitions have been reported in virtually all cultures. The strange sensation that somebody is nearby when no one is actually present and cannot be seen (feeling of a presence, FoP) is a fascinating feat of the human mind, and this apparition is often covered in the literature of divinity, occultism, and fiction. Although it is described by neurological and psychiatric patients and healthy individuals in different situations, it is not yet understood how the phenomenon is triggered by the brain. Here, we performed lesion analysis in neurological FoP patients, supported by an analysis of associated neurological deficits. Our data show that the FoP is an illusory own-body perception with well-defined characteristics that is associated with sensorimotor loss and caused by lesions in three distinct brain regions: temporoparietal, insular, and especially frontoparietal cortex. Based on these data and recent experimental advances of multisensory own-body illusions, we designed a master-slave robotic system that generated specific sensorimotor conflicts and enabled us to induce the FoP and related illusory own-body perceptions experimentally in normal participants. These data show that the illusion of feeling another person nearby is caused by misperceiving the source and identity of sensorimotor (tactile, proprioceptive, and motor) signals of one's own body. Our findings reveal the neural mechanisms of the FoP, highlight the subtle balance of brain mechanisms that generate the experience of "self" and "other," and advance the understanding of the brain mechanisms responsible for hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  9. Comparative Study of Motor Performance of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students in Reaction Time, Visual-Motor Control and Upper Limb Speed and Dexterity Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gkouvatzi, Anastasia N.; Mantis, Konstantinos; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    Using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test the motor performance of 34 deaf--hard-of-hearing pupils, 6-14 year, was evaluated in reaction time, visual-motor control and upper limb speed and dexterity. The two-way ANOVA variance analysis for two independent variables, group, age, and the Post Hoc (Scheffe test) for multiple comparisons were used. The…

  10. Rolling Stability Control Utilizing Rollover Index for In-wheel Motor Electric Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Kiyotaka; Uchida, Toshiyuki; Hori, Yoichi

    In this paper, a novel integrated stability program (ISP) based on robust rolling stability control (RSC) for in-wheel electric vehicle (EV) is proposed. Since EVs are driven by electric motors, they have the following four remarkable advantages: (1) motor torque generation is quick and accurate, (2) motor torque can be estimated precisely, (3) a motor can be attached to each wheel, and (4) a motor can output negative torque as a brake actuator. These advantages enable a high-performance three-dimensional vehicle motion control with a distributed in-wheel-motor system. Rolling stability is important for all classes of light-vehicles, especially, for EVs that have narrow tread and high center of gravity. In this study, RSC is designed using two-degree-of-freedom control (2-DOF), which achieves tracking capability to reference value and disturbance suppression. However, as the drivability of the vehicle will be changed significantly if only RSC is applied, vehicle rolling motion should be controlled depending on the rolling state. Therefore, variable weight-ISP and variable reference-ISP are proposed using rolling state information. For detecting rolling state, rollover index (RI) is introduced. The validity of the proposed methods is shown by the simulation and the experimental results.

  11. Hypothalamic histaminergic and orexinergic modulation on cerebellar and vestibular motor control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yang; Yu, Lei; Zhuang, Qian-Xing; Zhang, Jun; Zhu, Jing-Ning; Wang, Jian-Jun

    2013-06-01

    Somatic-nonsomatic integration is critical for generation and execution of an appropriate and coordinated behavioral response to changes in internal and external environments. However, the underlying neural substrates and mechanisms are still enigmatic. Intriguingly, the central histaminergic and orexinergic systems originating from the hypothalamus, a high autonomic regulatory center, innervate almost the whole brain including various subcortical motor structures, particularly the cerebellum and vestibular nuclei. Here, we suggest that the hypothalamic histaminergic and orexinergic system bridging the nonsomatic center to somatic motor structures may actively modulate the cerebellar and vestibular nuclear neurons and subsequently participate in motor control and somatic-nonsomatic integration.

  12. Data-Driven Based Asynchronous Motor Control for Printing Servo Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Min; Guo, Qingyun

    Modern digital printing equipment aims to the environmental-friendly industry with high dynamic performances and control precision and low vibration and abrasion. High performance motion control system of printing servo systems was required. Control system of asynchronous motor based on data acquisition was proposed. Iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm was studied. PID control was widely used in the motion control. However, it was sensitive to the disturbances and model parameters variation. The ILC applied the history error data and present control signals to approximate the control signal directly in order to fully track the expect trajectory without the system models and structures. The motor control algorithm based on the ILC and PID was constructed and simulation results were given. The results show that data-driven control method is effective dealing with bounded disturbances for the motion control of printing servo systems.

  13. Extracting motor synergies from random movements for low-dimensional task-space control of musculoskeletal robots.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kin Chung Denny; Dalla Libera, Fabio; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2015-10-08

    In the field of human motor control, the motor synergy hypothesis explains how humans simplify body control dimensionality by coordinating groups of muscles, called motor synergies, instead of controlling muscles independently. In most applications of motor synergies to low-dimensional control in robotics, motor synergies are extracted from given optimal control signals. In this paper, we address the problems of how to extract motor synergies without optimal data given, and how to apply motor synergies to achieve low-dimensional task-space tracking control of a human-like robotic arm actuated by redundant muscles, without prior knowledge of the robot. We propose to extract motor synergies from a subset of randomly generated reaching-like movement data. The essence is to first approximate the corresponding optimal control signals, using estimations of the robot's forward dynamics, and to extract the motor synergies subsequently. In order to avoid modeling difficulties, a learning-based control approach is adopted such that control is accomplished via estimations of the robot's inverse dynamics. We present a kernel-based regression formulation to estimate the forward and the inverse dynamics, and a sliding controller in order to cope with estimation error. Numerical evaluations show that the proposed method enables extraction of motor synergies for low-dimensional task-space control.

  14. Extracting motor synergies from random movements for low-dimensional task-space control of musculoskeletal robots.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kin Chung Denny; Dalla Libera, Fabio; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    In the field of human motor control, the motor synergy hypothesis explains how humans simplify body control dimensionality by coordinating groups of muscles, called motor synergies, instead of controlling muscles independently. In most applications of motor synergies to low-dimensional control in robotics, motor synergies are extracted from given optimal control signals. In this paper, we address the problems of how to extract motor synergies without optimal data given, and how to apply motor synergies to achieve low-dimensional task-space tracking control of a human-like robotic arm actuated by redundant muscles, without prior knowledge of the robot. We propose to extract motor synergies from a subset of randomly generated reaching-like movement data. The essence is to first approximate the corresponding optimal control signals, using estimations of the robot's forward dynamics, and to extract the motor synergies subsequently. In order to avoid modeling difficulties, a learning-based control approach is adopted such that control is accomplished via estimations of the robot's inverse dynamics. We present a kernel-based regression formulation to estimate the forward and the inverse dynamics, and a sliding controller in order to cope with estimation error. Numerical evaluations show that the proposed method enables extraction of motor synergies for low-dimensional task-space control. PMID:26448530

  15. A voice coil motor based measuring force control system for tactile scanning profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shengdong; Liu, Xiaojun; Chen, Liangzhou; Zhou, Liping; Lu, Wenlong

    2015-02-01

    In tactile scanning profiler, the measuring force would change in a wide range when it was used for profile measurement in a large range, which could possibly destroy the measured surface. To solve the problem, measuring force control system for tactile scanning profiler was needed. In the paper, a voice coil motor-based measuring force control system for tactile scanning profiler was designed. In the design, a low stiffness coefficient spring was used to provide contact force, while a voice coil motor (VCM) to balance the spring force so that the contact force could be kept for constant measuring force. A VCM was designed specially, and for active measuring force control, a precision current source circuit under the control of a DSP unit was designed to drive the VCM. The performance of voice coil motor based measuring force control system had been tested, and its good characteristics were verified.

  16. Higher Levels of Psychopathy Predict Poorer Motor Control: Implications for Understanding the Psychopathy Construct

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Michael D.; Bresin, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature suggests that higher levels of psychopathy may be linked to less effective behavioral control. However, several commentators have urged caution in making statements of this type in the absence of direct evidence. In two studies (total N = 142), moment-to-moment accuracy in a motor control task was examined as a function of dimensional variations in psychopathy in an undergraduate population. As hypothesized, motor control was distinctively worse at higher levels of psychopathy relative to lower levels, both as a function of primary and secondary psychopathy and particularly their shared variance. These novel findings provide support for the idea that motor control systematically varies by psychopathy, in a basic manner, consistent with views of psychopathy emphasizing lesser control. PMID:25419045

  17. Detection of air-gap eccentricity and broken-rotor bar conditions in a squirrel-cage induction motor using the radial flux sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Don-Ha; Woo, Byung-Chul; Sun, Jong-Ho; Kang, Dong-Sik; Han, Sang-Bo; Kim, Byung-Kuk; Cho, Youn-Hyun

    2008-04-01

    A new method for detecting eccentricity and broken rotor bar conditions in a squirrel-cage induction motor is proposed. Air-gap flux variation analysis is done using search coils, which are inserted at stator slots. Using this method, the leakage flux in radial direction can be directly detected. Using finite element method, the air-gap flux variation is accurately modeled and analyzed. From the results of the simulation, a motor under normal condition shows maximum magnetic flux density of 1.3 T. On the other hand, the eccentric air-gap condition displays about 1.1 T at 60 deg. and 1.6 T at 240 deg. A difference of flux density is 0.5 T in the abnormal condition, whereas no difference is detected in the normal motor. In the broken rotor bar conditions, the flux densities at 65 deg. and 155 deg. are about 0.4 T and 0.8 T, respectively. These simulation results are coincided with those of experiment. Consequently, the measurement of the magnetic flux at air gap is one of effective ways to discriminate the faulted conditions of the eccentricity and broken rotor bars.

  18. Detection of air-gap eccentricity and broken-rotor bar conditions in a squirrel-cage induction motor using the radial flux sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Don-Ha; Han, Sang-Bo; Woo, Byung-Chul; Sun, Jong-Ho; Kang, Dong-Sik; Kim, Byung-Kuk; Cho, Youn-Hyun

    2008-04-01

    A new method for detecting eccentricity and broken rotor bar conditions in a squirrel-cage induction motor is proposed. Air-gap flux variation analysis is done using search coils, which are inserted at stator slots. Using this method, the leakage flux in radial direction can be directly detected. Using finite element method, the air-gap flux variation is accurately modeled and analyzed. From the results of the simulation, a motor under normal condition shows maximum magnetic flux density of 1.3T. On the other hand, the eccentric air-gap condition displays about 1.1T at 60° and 1.6T at 240°. A difference of flux density is 0.5T in the abnormal condition, whereas no difference is detected in the normal motor. In the broken rotor bar conditions, the flux densities at 65° and 155° are about 0.4 T and 0.8T, respectively. These simulation results are coincided with those of experiment. Consequently, the measurement of the magnetic flux at air gap is one of effective ways to discriminate the faulted conditions of the eccentricity and broken rotor bars.

  19. Motor/generator and electronic control considerations for energy storage flywheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    A spacecraft electric power supply system is described. Requirements of the system are to accelerate a momentum wheel to a fixed maximum speed when solar energy is available and to maintain a constant voltage on the spacecraft bus under varying loads when solar energy is not available. Candidate motor types, pulse width modulated current control systems, and efficiency considerations are discussed. In addition, the Lunar Roving Vehicle motors are described along with their respective efficiencies.

  20. Simultaneous brain-computer interfacing and motor control: expanding the reach of non-invasive BCIs.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Willy; Sarma, Devapratim; Scherer, Reinhold; Rao, Rajesh P N

    2012-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have traditionally been developed for paralyzed and locked-in individuals with no motor control. However, there is a much larger population of patients with some residual motor function as well as the general population of able-bodied individuals, both of whom could benefit significantly from BCIs. An important question that has yet to be systematically studied is: can subjects use BCIs simultaneously with overt motor activity? We present results from a preliminary study aimed at exploring this question. Three subjects used hand motor imagery in an electroencephalographic (EEG) BCI while simultaneously using a joystick to control a cursor. Particular attention was paid to preventing potential muscle artifacts from influencing imagery-based control. All three subjects were able to use the hybrid "imagery+joystick" mode of control over two days, demonstrating the ability to learn and significantly improve performance. These results suggest that subjects can potentially augment their normal human sensorimotor capability by exercising direct brain control over devices concurrently with overt motor control. PMID:23367470