Science.gov

Sample records for industrial combustion equipment

  1. Industrial Combustion Vision: A Vision by and for the Industrial Combustion Community

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-05-01

    The Industrial Combustion Vision is the result of a collaborative effort by manufacturers and users of burners, boilers, furnaces, and other process heating equipment. The vision sets bold targets for tomorrow's combustion systems.

  2. Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking.

    PubMed

    Melton, Lula H

    1996-08-01

    The following article is excerpted from the document Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking - Proposed Organizational Structure and Process, which is available from the Technology Transfer Network (TTN), a computer bulletin board. To access the TTN, call (919) 541-5742; to obtain help with the TTN, call (919) 541-5384. The Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking (ICCR) document is evolving, reflecting an ongoing dialogue with various stakeholders; therefore, there may be changes between this article and the ICCR as it is implemented. EPA would like to thank all stakeholders (e.g., representatives from various companies and trade associations, state and local air pollution control agencies, and environmental organizations) who have offered suggestions and comments on development of the ICCR. As mentioned in the implications statement, the overall goal of the ICCR is to develop a unified set of federal air emissions regulations. The proposed ICCR will achieve this goal by: • Obtaining active participation from stakeholders, including environmental groups, regulated industries, and state and local regulatory agencies in all phases of regulatory development. • Coordinating the schedule and approach for development of regulations under Sections 111, 112, and 129 of the Clean Air Act that affect ICI combustion. • Determining the most effective ways to address the environmental issues associated with toxic and criteria pollutants from the range of combustion sources. • More effectively considering interactions among the regulations by analyzing the combined benefits and economic impacts of the group of Section 111, 112, and 129 regulations. • Considering strategies to simplify the regulations and allow flexibility in the methods of compliance while maintaining full environmental benefits.

  3. Industrial Combustion Technology Roadmap. A Technology Roadmap by and for the Industrial Combustion Community

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    The U.S. combustion industry is among the most productive, efficient, and technologically sophisticated in the world and remains vital to the nation’s economic competitiveness and national security. As the industry looks forward, it confronts tremendous growth opportunities but also significant technical and market challenges. Future industry success will depend on the industry's ability to respond to competitive pressures as well as public expectations for a clean and sustainable industry. Much progress has been made in understanding the fundamental science of combustion; however, much more is needed as regulatory and competitive forces push the industry to develop combustion equipment with better performance, lower environmental impact, and greater flexibility. Immense opportunities exist for companies to develop and apply new technology responding to these needs. Unfortunately, few companies can accept the high technical and financial risk required for the research if the technology is not adopted widely enough to provide a payback on their investment.

  4. Industrial Facility Combustion Energy Use

    DOE Data Explorer

    McMillan, Colin

    2016-08-01

    Facility-level industrial combustion energy use is calculated from greenhouse gas emissions data reported by large emitters (>25,000 metric tons CO2e per year) under the U.S. EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP, https://www.epa.gov/ghgreporting). The calculation applies EPA default emissions factors to reported fuel use by fuel type. Additional facility information is included with calculated combustion energy values, such as industry type (six-digit NAICS code), location (lat, long, zip code, county, and state), combustion unit type, and combustion unit name. Further identification of combustion energy use is provided by calculating energy end use (e.g., conventional boiler use, co-generation/CHP use, process heating, other facility support) by manufacturing NAICS code. Manufacturing facilities are matched by their NAICS code and reported fuel type with the proportion of combustion fuel energy for each end use category identified in the 2010 Energy Information Administration Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS, http://www.eia.gov/consumption/manufacturing/data/2010/). MECS data are adjusted to account for data that were withheld or whose end use was unspecified following the procedure described in Fox, Don B., Daniel Sutter, and Jefferson W. Tester. 2011. The Thermal Spectrum of Low-Temperature Energy Use in the United States, NY: Cornell Energy Institute.

  5. Special measurements in combustion equipment furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ochodek, T.; Janalik, R.; Vytisk, T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes the authors` knowledge from the measurement of temperature and concentration fields taken from combustion equipment furnaces. The obtained results serve in the research on combustion processes and in the research on the formation of pollutants, for example NO{sub x}. The special measurement technique makes it possible to find the concentration and temperature distribution for a temperature as high as 1,500 C. The measurement results were obtained through tests for grate boilers with an output of 20--50 MW, burning solid fuel (a mixture of powders and small pieces of coal which were burnt separately as black (hard) coal or brown coal). On the basis of the obtained results a proposal was formulated for the reconstruction of existing boilers or the construction of new boilers with an aim to ensure the maximum combustion efficiency with a minimal formation of pollutants.

  6. Industrial Combustion Technology Roadmap: A Technology Roadmap by and for the Industrial Combustion Community (1999)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1999-04-01

    Combustion system users and manufacturers joined forces in 1999 to develop the Industrial Combustion Technology Roadmap. The roadmap outlines R&D priorities for developing advanced, highly efficient combustion systems that U.S. industry will require in the future.

  7. Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Oland, CB

    2002-05-06

    Boiler owners and operators who need additional generating capacity face a number of legal, political, environmental, economic, and technical challenges. Their key to success requires selection of an adequately sized low-emission boiler and combustion equipment that can be operated in compliance with emission standards established by state and federal regulatory agencies. Recognizing that many issues are involved in making informed selection decisions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsored efforts at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop a guide for use in choosing low-emission boilers and combustion equipment. To ensure that the guide covers a broad range of technical and regulatory issues of particular interest to the commercial boiler industry, the guide was developed in cooperation with the American Boiler Manufacturers Association (ABMA), the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The guide presents topics pertaining to industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boilers. Background information about various types of commercially available boilers is provided along with discussions about the fuels that they burn and the emissions that they produce. Also included are discussions about emissions standards and compliance issues, technical details related to emissions control techniques, and other important selection considerations. Although information in the guide is primarily applicable to new ICI boilers, it may also apply to existing boiler installations.

  8. GHGRP Miscellaneous Combustion Sector Industrial Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Miscellaneous Combustion industry.

  9. 49 CFR 173.220 - Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal combustion engines, and battery powered vehicles or equipment. 173.220 Section 173.220 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... equipment containing internal combustion engines, and battery powered vehicles or equipment. (a...

  10. Advanced technology options for industrial heating equipment research

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, R.C.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents a strategy for a comprehensive program plan that is applicable to the Combustion Equipment Program of the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies (the program). The program seeks to develop improved heating equipment and advanced control techniques which, by improvements in combustion and beat transfer, will increase energy-use efficiency and productivity in industrial processes and allow the preferred use of abundant, low grade and waste domestic fuels. While the plan development strategy endeavors to be consistent with the programmatic goals and policies of the office, it is primarily governed by the needs and concerns of the US heating equipment industry. The program, by nature, focuses on energy intensive industrial processes. According to the DOE Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), the industrial sector in the US consumed about 21 quads of energy in 1988 in the form of coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity. This energy was used as fuels for industrial boilers and furnaces, for agricultural uses, for construction, as feedstocks for chemicals and plastics, and for steel, mining, motors, engines and other industrial use over 75 percent of this energy was consumed to provide heat and power for manufacturing industries. The largest consumers of fuel energy were the primary metals, chemical and allied products, paper and allied products, and stone, clay and glass industry groups which accounted for about 60% of the total fuel energy consumed by the US manufacturing sector.

  11. Industrial Combustion Technology Roadmap: A Technology Roadmap by and for the Industrial Combustion Community (2002)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-10-01

    The Industrial Technology Program (ITP) convened industry workshops in 2001 to update the 1999 roadmap. The revised plan, in which the combustion industry lays out the R&D initiatives to meet its performance targets for the next 20 years, is presented in the Industrial Combustion Technology Roadmap. This roadmap showcases a comprehensive R&D plan for the industry and specifies the coordination and alignment of key groups, such as industry, academia, and the federal government, to meet the future energy and environmental goals of the industry.

  12. Functioning condition monitoring of industrial equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungureanu, N. S.; Petrovan, A.; Ungureanu, M.; Alexandrescu, M.

    2017-02-01

    The paper analyses the theoretical aspects related to monitoring industrial equipment. Are treated issues that concern the choosing of industrial equipment to be monitored, the parameters to be monitored, monitoring mode (local or remote) and the mode of collection and transmission of data.

  13. Combustible dusts: a serious industrial hazard.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Giby

    2007-04-11

    After investigating three fatal explosions in manufacturing plants, the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) has concluded: The explosive hazard of combustible dust is not well known, and helping industry to understand this hazard is a priority. Prompted by these three incidents in North Carolina, Kentucky and Indiana and the need to increase the hazard awareness, CSB is conducting a study to examine the nature and scope of dust explosion risks in industry and to identify initiatives that may be necessary to more effectively prevent combustible dust fires and explosions. Such initiatives may include regulatory action, voluntary consensus standards, or other measures that could be taken by industry, labor, government, and other parties. A critical task of the dust study is analyzing past incidents to determine the severity of the problem within industry. The analysis is focusing on the number of incidents, injuries and fatalities, industrial sectors affected, and regulatory oversight. This paper presents the preliminary findings from CSBs analysis of combustible dust incidents over the past 25 years. This paper has not been approved by the Board and is published for general informational purposes only. Every effort has been made to accurately present the contents of any Board-approved report mentioned in this paper. Any material in the paper that did not originate in a Board-approved report is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not represent an official finding, conclusion, or position of the Board.

  14. 49 CFR 173.220 - Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal combustion engines, battery-powered equipment or... engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal combustion engines,...

  15. 49 CFR 173.220 - Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal combustion engines, battery-powered equipment or... engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal combustion engines,...

  16. 49 CFR 173.220 - Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal combustion engines, battery-powered equipment or... engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal combustion engines,...

  17. Gas insulated substation equipment for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kenedy, J.J.

    1984-11-01

    Until recently the only available method for construction of high voltage systems was to use exposed air insulated equipment supported on porcelain columns. The past decade has witnessed the introduction and wide acceptance of compressed gas insulated equipment as a viable alternative to the conventional substation system. The characteristics of gas insulated substations (GIS) and their application for industrial use at service voltages at 69 kV and above are discussed.

  18. Robotic equipment in the meat industry.

    PubMed

    Purnell, G

    1998-01-01

    Robotic technology is beginning to find uses in the meat processing industry. This paper attempts to describe the potential benefits and some of the problems in implementing robots for meat processing. An overview of some of the robotic equipment available and in development for beef, pork, lamb, poultry, fish and seafood processing is given. Standard industrial robots already perform meat industry tasks involving regular and uniform products and processes. Robotic automation is emerging for more skilled tasks but is not yet fully accepted or implemented in the meat industry.

  19. Water-Using Equipment: Commercial and Industrial

    SciTech Connect

    Solana, Amy E.; Mcmordie, Katherine

    2006-01-24

    Water is an important aspect of many facets in energy engineering. While the previous article detailed domestic related water-using equipment such as toilets and showerheads, this article focuses on various types of water-using equipment in commercial and industrial facilities, including commercial dishwashers and laundry, single-pass cooling equipment, boilers and steam generators, cooling towers, and landscape irrigation. Opportunities for water and energy conservation are explained, including both technology retrofits and operation and maintenance changes. Water management planning and leak detection are also included as they are essential to a successful water management program.

  20. Planning and Equipping Industrial Arts Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Robert L.; Myers, Norman L.

    Guidelines for secondary education, industrial arts programs and facility planning are overviewed along with data on their instructional and equipment needs. Spatial organization and dimensions are suggested in terms of flexibility and expansion. Different types of shops are discussed along with their own utilities, ventilation, exhausting,…

  1. 29 CFR 1915.136 - Internal combustion engines, other than ship's equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Internal combustion engines, other than ship's equipment... SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment § 1915.136 Internal combustion engines, other than ship's...) When internal combustion engines furnished by the employer are used in a fixed position below...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.136 - Internal combustion engines, other than ship's equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Internal combustion engines, other than ship's equipment... SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment § 1915.136 Internal combustion engines, other than ship's...) When internal combustion engines furnished by the employer are used in a fixed position below...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.136 - Internal combustion engines, other than ship's equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Internal combustion engines, other than ship's equipment... SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Tools and Related Equipment § 1915.136 Internal combustion engines, other than ship's...) When internal combustion engines furnished by the employer are used in a fixed position below...

  4. 49 CFR 176.905 - Motor vehicles or mechanical equipment powered by internal combustion engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles or mechanical equipment powered by... Vehicles, and Asbestos § 176.905 Motor vehicles or mechanical equipment powered by internal combustion engines. (a) A motor vehicle or any mechanized equipment powered by an internal combustion engine is...

  5. Combustion Control in Industrial Multi-Swirl Stabilized Spray Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-21

    driven mechanism for thermo-acoustic combustion dynamics can be categorized into two groups according to Mongia et al. (2003). First category, which...CONTRACT NUMBER Combustion Control in Industrial Multi-Swirl Stabilized Spray Combustor 02PR12898-01 5b. GRANT NUMBER N00014-02-1-0756 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...ABSTRACT The focus of this study is to investigate the emission characteristics and combustion dynamics of multiple swirl spray combustors either in

  6. Industry-identified combustion research needs: Special study

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.G.; Soelberg, N.R.; Kessinger, G.F.

    1995-11-01

    This report discusses the development and demonstration of innovative combustion technologies that improve energy conservation and environmental practices in the US industrial sector. The report includes recommendations by industry on R&D needed to resolve current combustion-related problems. Both fundamental and applied R&D needs are presented. The report assesses combustion needs and suggests research ideas for seven major industries, which consume about 78% of all energy used by industry. Included are the glass, pulp and paper, refinery, steel, metal casting, chemicals, and aluminum industries. Information has been collected from manufacturers, industrial operators, trade organizations, and various funding organizations and has been supplemented with expertise at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to develop a list of suggested research and development needed for each of the seven industries.

  7. Electronic business in the home medical equipment industry.

    PubMed

    Wei, June; Graham, Michael J; Liu, Lai C

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at developing electronic business solutions to increase value for the home medical equipment industry. First, an electronic strategic value chain model was developed for the home medical equipment industry. Second, electronic business solutions were mapped from this model. Third, the top 20 dominant companies in the home medical equipment industry were investigated to see the current adoption patterns of these electronic business solutions. The solutions will be beneficial to decision-makers in the information technology adoptions in the home medical equipment industry to increase the business values.

  8. Combustion Technology for Incinerating Wastes from Air Force Industrial Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    Conservation and Recovery Act and are properly disposed at cost to the Air Force. Onsite incineration with heat recovery is being considered as a...the heat released during thermal processing could reduce the costs of waste incineration. 0 * Normally, relatively small amounts of individual wastes...wastes. Task 3: Combustion Analysis. Determine and quantify the essential combustion parameters of industrial process wastes with respect to heat

  9. 77 FR 75400 - Labeling Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Equipment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Request... conservation standards for certain commercial and industrial equipment, and requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to administer an energy conservation program for the equipment, including the development of...

  10. Medical equipment industry in India: Production, procurement and utilization.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthi, Indira

    2013-01-01

    This article presents information on the medical equipment industry in India-on production, procurement and utilization related activities of key players in the sector, in light of the current policies of liberalization and growth of a "health-care industry" in India. Policy approaches to medical equipment have been discussed elsewhere.

  11. 78 FR 8998 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... Industrial Equipment: Proposed Determination of Commercial and Industrial Compressors as Covered Equipment... to the notice of proposed determination, published December 31, 2012, about commercial and industrial... proposed determination that commercial and industrial compressors meet the criteria for covered equipment...

  12. Planning and Equipping Industrial Arts Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Educational and Cultural Services, Augusta. Bureau of Vocational Education.

    Architectural details, planning, and facility guidelines for industrial arts facilities are given, with data on planning the number, shape, size, and location of school shops. Industrial art programing and performance criteria for varying levels of education are discussed with regard for the different shop curriculums. The facility planning is…

  13. Industrial equipment for selective charge crushing

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabichenko, A.D.; Belyaev, E.V.; Kochkin, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    The design, operation, and performance of fluidized-bed equipment for the pneumatic separation and selective crushing of the coal charge for coking plants are described. Air blown through gratings sets up a fluidized bed of coal in which separation by size and density is initiated. The oversize fraction is sent to a hammer crusher to be further reduced before returning it to the separator. Since the size is more uniform in the coal charge, the coke quality shows improvement.

  14. Method and equipment for treatment of fuel for fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Beranek, J.; Cermak, J.; Dobrozemsky, J.; Fibinger, V.

    1982-04-20

    The invention relates to the method and equipment for treatment of fuel for fluidized bed combustion, which includes drying, classification and crushing of the fuel. The method for treatment of fuel comprises mixing the fuel with hot ash removed from the fluidized bed combustor and drying said mixture in a fluidized bed dryer in which the velocity of the fluidization fluid equals or is lower than the minimum fluidization velocity of particles in the fluidized bed combustor. The equipment for treatment of fuel comprises a bunker, crusher and dryer, comprising a fluidized bed dryer provided with appropriate piping for interconnection of the fluidized bed dryer, fluidized bed combuster, fuel bunker and crusher.

  15. 48 CFR 245.608-71 - Screening industrial plant equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Screening industrial plant..., and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 245.608-71 Screening industrial plant equipment. (a) Reporting. Within 15 days of receipt, the plant clearance officer will forward two copies of the DD Form 1342, DoD...

  16. Assessment and mitigation of combustible dust hazards in the plastics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Michael C.; Ibarreta, Alfonso; Myers, Timothy J.

    2015-05-01

    A number of recent industrial combustible dust fires and explosions, some involving powders used in the plastics industry, have led to heightened awareness of combustible dust hazards, increased regulatory enforcement, and changes to the current standards and regulations. This paper provides a summary of the fundamentals of combustible dust explosion hazards, comparing and contrasting combustible dust to flammable gases and vapors. The types of tests used to quantify and evaluate the potential hazard posed by plastic dusts are explored. Recent changes in NFPA 654, a standard applicable to combustible dust in the plastics industry, are also discussed. Finally, guidance on the primary methods for prevention and mitigation of combustible dust hazards are provided.

  17. Catalytic converters for exhaust emission control of commercial equipment powered by internal combustion engines.

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, J G

    1975-01-01

    The development of PTX, monolithic catalytic exhaust purifiers, is outlined, and their first use for exhaust emissions control of commercial equipment is described. The main use of PTX converters is on forklift trucks. The purification achievable with PTX-equipped fork-lift trucks under various operational conditions is discussed, and examples from the field are given. During more than ten years of operation, no adverse health effects have been reported, and PTX-equipped internal combustion engines appear safe for use in confined areas. PMID:50933

  18. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Biotechnology equipment. Export Trade Information

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, T.

    1989-06-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A) for biotechnology equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for biotechnology equipment.

  19. Pollution-control equipment (Brazil). Industrial air-pollution-control equipment, March 1992. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The market for air pollution control equipment in Brazil is expected to reach US $120 million in 1992, up 15% from 1991. Imports should also increase to US $17 million as local companies take advantage of the market opening policy implemented by the Brazilian government to raise industrial competitiveness.

  20. Equipment failures and their contribution to industrial incidents and accidents in the manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Dominic; Gauthier, François; Abdul-Nour, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Accidental events in manufacturing industries can be caused by many factors, including work methods, lack of training, equipment design, maintenance and reliability. This study is aimed at determining the contribution of failures of commonly used industrial equipment, such as machines, tools and material handling equipment, to the chain of causality of industrial accidents and incidents. Based on a case study which aimed at the analysis of an existing pulp and paper company's accident database, this paper examines the number, type and gravity of the failures involved in these events and their causes. Results from this study show that equipment failures had a major effect on the number and severity of accidents accounted for in the database: 272 out of 773 accidental events were related to equipment failure, where 13 of them had direct human consequences. Failures that contributed directly or indirectly to these events are analyzed.

  1. Method and equipment for treatment of fuel for fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Beranek, J.; Dobrozemsky, J.; Fibinger, V.; Germak, J.

    1983-11-15

    The invention relates to the method and equipment for treatment of fuel for fluidized bed combustion, which includes drying, classification and crushing of the fuel. The method for treatment of fuel comprises mixing the fuel with hot ash removed from the fluidized bed combustor and drying said mixture in a fluidized bed dryer in which the velocity of the fluidization fluid equals or is lower than the minimum fluidization velocity of particles in the fluidized bed combustor. The equipment for treatment of fuel comprises a bunker, crusher and dryer, comprising a fluidized bed dryer provided with appropriate piping for interconnection of the fluidized bed dryer, fluidized bed combustor, fuel bunker and crusher.

  2. [Industrial first aid equipment: a historical analysis (1840-1914) ].

    PubMed

    Porro, Alessandro; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Falconi, Bruno

    2015-01-09

    Even if references to the tools required to intervene after an accident can be found in the works of Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) or Johann Peter Frank (1745-1821), it was only with the development of industrial manufacturing that the need to study means to prevent and intervene in cases of accident became evident. In October 1894 the III Congrés International des Accidents du Travail et des Assurances Sociales was held in Milan. The following year, the Milanese trade union movement acknowledged the necessity to address the problem of industrial accidents. In 1896 the Association for Medical Assistance in  Industrial Accidents was founded in Milan. A specific medical institute was set up, appropriate first aid tools were collected and first aid rooms in the main Milanese factories were inaugurated. Nevertheless, few data seem to be available regarding the manufacture and use of this equipment in industry. We analyzed more than fifty catalogs of European industrial products, between 1843 and 1914, to study the evolution of first aid equipment for industrial use. They reflect and attest to the evolution of medicine and surgery, although some models seem to be related to certain industrial categories (railways, electrical appliances), some were similar to ordinary first aid boxes, others were strictly related to surgery; some could only be used by physicians, and others only by workers. Identification, conservation, and reappraisal of these tools is essential for historians of occupational health because these objects were normally not preserved. The catalogues of industrial production are also precious sources, since they are rarely preserved in public libraries and deserve to be used for historical studies.

  3. 78 FR 11996 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC54 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... CONTACT: Mr. Charles Llenza, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

  4. 78 FR 40388 - Inadmissibility of Consumer Products and Industrial Equipment Noncompliant With Applicable Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Inadmissibility of Consumer Products and Industrial Equipment Noncompliant With Applicable Energy Conservation or... refuse admission into the customs territory of the United States to consumer products and industrial... Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment, a program covering industrial equipment. Section 6302(a...

  5. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor'. The details of the task 5 effort are

  6. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine industrial plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100{degrees}F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600{degrees}F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  7. The role of equipment warning labels in the industrial workplace.

    PubMed

    McGrath, John M

    2011-01-01

    Among the many ways in which workers can get safety information, the role of equipment warning labels has not been well articulated. Presumably, warning labels help prevent accidents, but questions remain about how well those labels can be expected to work. This essay describes how contextual analysis can assist our understanding of warning label effectiveness. A contextual approach was conceptualized in terms of underlying communication variables and an exploratory study was conducted in which workers were asked if they noticed and remembered warning labels on an industrial table saw that they used over a 3-month period. Results showed that equipment warning labels had a limited impact on workers. The contextual approach explained the relative effectiveness of multiple sources of information. Implications for safety training and accident liability are discussed.

  8. Coal combustion: Science and technology of industrial and utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Junkai, F.

    1988-01-01

    This reference source offers material on theoretical research (including mathematical modeling, low NO/sub x/ combustion, and studies of sulfur), applications of the newest technologies, and actual experience of low-grade coal combustion.

  9. 77 FR 17364 - Inadmissibility of Consumer Products and Industrial Equipment Noncompliant With Applicable Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... Inadmissibility of Consumer Products and Industrial Equipment Noncompliant With Applicable Energy Conservation or... and industrial equipment deemed noncompliant with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA... United States of certain consumer products and industrial equipment that do not meet applicable labeling...

  10. Predictive maintenance of critical equipment in industrial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemian, Hashem M.

    This dissertation is an account of present and past research and development (R&D) efforts conducted by the author to develop and implement new technology for predictive maintenance and equipment condition monitoring in industrial processes. In particular, this dissertation presents the design of an integrated condition-monitoring system that incorporates the results of three current R&D projects with a combined funding of $2.8 million awarded to the author by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This system will improve the state of the art in equipment condition monitoring and has applications in numerous industries including chemical and petrochemical plants, aviation and aerospace, electric power production and distribution, and a variety of manufacturing processes. The work that is presented in this dissertation is unique in that it introduces a new class of condition-monitoring methods that depend predominantly on the normal output of existing process sensors. It also describes current R&D efforts to develop data acquisition systems and data analysis algorithms and software packages that use the output of these sensors to determine the condition and health of industrial processes and their equipment. For example, the output of a pressure sensor in an operating plant can be used not only to indicate the pressure, but also to verify the calibration and response time of the sensor itself and identify anomalies in the process such as blockages, voids, and leaks that can interfere with accurate measurement of process parameters or disturb the plant's operation, safety, or reliability. Today, process data are typically collected at a rate of one sample per second (1 Hz) or slower. If this sampling rate is increased to 100 samples per second or higher, much more information can be extracted from the normal output of a process sensor and then used for condition monitoring, equipment performance measurements, and predictive maintenance. A fast analog-to-digital (A

  11. Industrial Equipment Maintenance. Vocational Education Curriculum Guide. Industrial and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Vocational Curriculum Lab., Cedar Lakes.

    This curriculum guide contains 10 units that provide the basic curriculum components required to develop lesson plans for the industrial equipment maintenance curriculum. The guide is not intended to be a complete, self-contained curriculum, but instead provides the teacher with a number of informational items related to the learning outcomes and…

  12. Industrial Equipment Maintenance. Vocational Education Curriculum Guide. Industrial and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Vocational Curriculum Lab., Cedar Lakes.

    This curriculum guide contains 10 units that provide the basic curriculum components required to develop lesson plans for the industrial equipment maintenance curriculum. The guide is not intended to be a complete, self-contained curriculum, but instead provides the teacher with a number of informational items related to the learning outcomes and…

  13. 76 FR 37678 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Proposed Determination of Commercial and Industrial Fans... Energy (DOE) proposes to determine that commercial and industrial fans, blowers, and fume hoods meet the... pumps and certain other industrial equipment to conserve the energy resources of the nation. DATES: DOE...

  14. Commercialization of Turbulent Combustion Code CREBCOM for Chemical Industry Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, Upendra

    2007-06-30

    This program developed the Kurchatov Institute’s CREBCOM (CRiteria and Experimentally Based COMbustion) code to the point where it could be commercialized and marketed for the special applications described above, as well as for general purpose combustion calculations. The CREBCOM code uses a different approach to model the explosion phenomenon. The code models, with full 3D gas dynamics, the development of an explosion in three characteristics regimes: a) slow flames, b) fast flames, and c) detonation. The transition from one regime to another is governed by a set of empirical criteria and correlations. As part of the commercialization, the code was validated with the use of experimental data. The experimental data covered a range of thermodynamic initial conditions and apparatus scale. Proprietary experimental data were provided to the Kurchatov Institute by the DuPont for this purpose. The flame acceleration and detonation data was obtained from experiments in methane and oxygen enriched air mixtures carried out in two vessels with diameters of 20 and 27 cm. The experimental data covers a wide spectrum of initial temperature (20-525C) and pressure (1-3 atm). As part of this program, the Kurchatov Institute performed experiments in a 52 cm vessel in mixtures of methane-air at room temperature and pressure to be used in the validation of the code. The objective of these tests was to obtain frame acceleration data at a scale close to that found in actual industrial processes. BNL was responsible for managing the DOE/IPP portion of the program, and for satisfying DOE reporting requirements. BNL also participated in an independent assessment of the CREBOM code. DuPont provided proprietary experimental data to the Kurchatov Institute on flame acceleration and detonation in high temperature methane and oxygen enriched air mixtures in addition to the matching fund. In addition, DuPont also supplied to KI instrumentation for pressure and temperature measurement

  15. Personal computer equipment for dental digital subtraction radiography vs. industrial computer equipment and conventional radiography.

    PubMed

    Möystad, A; Svanaes, D B; Larheim, T A

    1992-04-01

    A "low-cost" personal computer (PC) system used to digitize dental radiographs was tested by assessing the accuracy of its subtraction images versus those of "high-cost" industrial equipment and conventional radiography. Subtraction images were made of artificial lesions in human femur bone and subsequently evaluated by students and teachers. The observations were analyzed in terms of true positive and false positive reports. "Low-cost" and "high-cost" subtraction images revealed only small differences in diagnostic accuracy. Compared to conventional radiography, the diagnostic accuracy of the subtraction images with the "low-cost" PC system was significantly higher for all observers. The interexaminer variance was similar for the subtraction and the conventional images for both students and teachers, except for a significantly reduced interexaminer variance for the teachers concerning the true positive reports with the "low-cost" PC subtraction technique.

  16. 76 FR 56125 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy... rulemaking for direct heating equipment is extended to October 14, 2011. ] DATES: DOE will accept comments, data, and information regarding the notice of proposed rulemaking for direct heating equipment...

  17. 78 FR 12251 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Public Meeting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC55 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document for Commercial and Industrial Fans and Blowers AGENCY... industrial fan and blower equipment published on February 1, 2013, is extended to May 2, 2013. DATES: The...

  18. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-30

    Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a ``Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications`` is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the designs of the remaining major components of the integrated system were completed and the equipment was ordered. DOE has elected to modify the scope of the existing R&D program being conducted under this contract to include testing of a simulated TSCA incinerator ash. The modification will be in the form of an additional Task (Task 8 -- TSCA Ash Testing) to the original Statement of Work.

  19. Industrial solution contaminated by polyacrylates: their elimination by electrochemical combustion.

    PubMed

    Masci, M; Chiti, L; De Lorenzo, A; Mantione, D; De Battisti, A; Vatistas, N

    2001-01-01

    The electrochemical combustion of polyacrylates was studied through both direct and indirect oxidation. The obtained results indicate the non elimination of the polyacrylates with the direct oxidation, while the indirect oxidation with NaCl completely eliminates these organic compounds. In the last case the effects of different initial concentrations of NaCl, anode materials and current densities was studied.

  20. Regulated and speciated hydrocarbon emissions from a catalyst equipped internal combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulopoulos, S. G.; Samaras, D. P.; Philippopoulos, C. J.

    In the present work, the effect of engine operating conditions on its exhaust emissions and on catalytic converter operation is studied. A 4-cylinder OPEL 1.6 l internal combustion engine equipped with a hydraulic brake dynamometer was used in all the experiments. For exhaust emissions treatment a typical three-way catalyst was used. The highest hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide engine-out emissions were observed at engine power 2-4 HP. These emissions were decreased as the engine power was increased up to 20 HP. Among the various compounds detected in exhaust emissions, the following ones were monitored at engine and catalyst outlet: methane, hexane, ethylene, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, toluene and acetic acid. The concentration of each compound in the catalytic converter effluent was in the range 45-132, 5-12, 10-125, 15-22, 3-7, 3-12, 2-9, 0-6 ppm, respectively. After the required temperature for catalyst operation had been achieved, carbon monoxide tailpipe emissions were dramatically decreased and the observed hydrocarbon conversions were also high. Methane was the most resistant compound to oxidation while ethylene was the most degradable compound over the catalyst. The order from the easiest to the most resistant to oxidation compound was: Alkene>Aromatic>Aldehyde>Ketone>Alkane.

  1. Heavy Equipment. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the building occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the heavy equipment trade as recommended by the successful heavy equipment operator. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to…

  2. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-30

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy awarded Vortec Corporation this Phase III contract (No. DE-AC22-91PC91161) for the development of {open_quotes}A Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes}. The effective contrast start date was September 3, 1991. The contract period of performance is 36 months. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. Final detailed installation designs for the integrated test system configuration are being completed. The equipment is being fabricated and deliveries have begun. The industry funded testing consisted of vitrifying Spent Aluminum Potliner (SPL) which is a listed hazardous waste. This testing has verified that SPL can be vitrified into a safe recyclable glass product.

  3. 49 CFR 173.220 - Internal combustion engines, self-propelled vehicles, mechanical equipment containing internal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... machinery, fuel cell-powered equipment or machinery. 173.220 Section 173.220 Transportation Other...-powered equipment or machinery, fuel cell-powered equipment or machinery. (a) Applicability. An internal... battery-powered vehicle or equipment, or a fuel cell-powered vehicle or equipment, or any combination...

  4. GUIDES TO POLLUTION PREVENTION: THE MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT REPAIR INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Commercial mechanical equipment repair services are covered under SIC 76 and include activities such as repair of boilers, commercial appliances, lawn mowers, refrigerator and air conditioners, electric motors, generators and transformers, among others. This quide describes the ...

  5. GUIDES TO POLLUTION PREVENTION: THE MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT REPAIR INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Commercial mechanical equipment repair services are covered under SIC 76 and include activities such as repair of boilers, commercial appliances, lawn mowers, refrigerator and air conditioners, electric motors, generators and transformers, among others. This quide describes the ...

  6. Numerical simulations of industrial-scale combustion chamber - LES versus RANS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, Kamil; Jasiński, Daniel; Bajer, Konrad

    2011-12-01

    In this work we focus on the simulation of the process of biomass syngas combustion in the industrial combustion chamber directly linked with gasification chamber, where this gas is continuously producing from the biomass. Conflicting demands from the engineers to have rapid results and hints how to ensure the best conditions for combustion of this particular fuel and to lower the emission of pollutants, with simultaneously deep view inside the process and its stability motivates us to use both the RANS and LES techniques of turbulence modelling, compare it and take their advantages. We designed and performed series of 3D numerical simulations of both cold flow and combustion in complex geometry of industrial burner. It seems to us that the proper approach for modelling of biomass syngas combustion is steady flamelets model. Simulations performed with RANS closure are used as the initialisation of LES models, but their main goal is to predict the long-time oscillation of pressure and temperature observed in the working combustion chamber. On the other hand the main goal of the simulations with LES closure is to predict the proper level of short-time behaviour of the flame and local phenomena.

  7. Data-driven models for predicting the flame spectral behavior in industrial combustion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezoa, Jorge E.; Arias, Luis

    2012-04-01

    Flame spectroscopy is extensively used in the analysis of industrial combustion processes. A flame emits energy over a wide spectral region and its associated spectra contains both continuous and discontinuous components. In the literature there are models, based on either Planck's or Wien's law, for representing the flame spectral behavior under different combustion parameters; however, the non-linear nature of these models, the high dimension of the spectral data, and the superposition between the continuous and the discontinuous spectral emissions complicate the theoretical analysis of combustion processes. In this paper exploratory data analysis is used to derive data-driven models for combustion process monitoring. To do so, a database of measured spectra, collected from a real combustion process in the range of 400 to 800 [nm], is used as a priori information about the process. The database contains spectral information about continuous emissions of natural gas, oil, and bio-oil fuels at different combustion conditions. To summarize in a reduced number of terms the whole spectral information contained in the database, traditional as well as probabilistic Principal Component Analysis is conducted in order to create linear data-driven predictive models for combustion process monitoring. The predicting performance of the models is tested using the goodness-of-fit and the root-mean-squared error. The applicability of the models is finally tested by devising a simple automated solution for separating the discontinuous radiation from the continuous emission.

  8. 75 FR 67637 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Framework Document...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AC28 Energy Conservation Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Framework Document for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... certain commercial and industrial electric motors. The comment period is extended to November 24, 2010...

  9. Design of the optical fiber unit for industrial equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosov, Yuri V.; Romanova, Galina E.; Afanasev, Maxim Ya.

    2017-05-01

    Optical systems with UV lasers are widely used in various areas of manufacturing, for processing materials. To provide high operation accuracy, the equipment with high power UV laser sources requires complicated optical and mechanical unit with control electronic blocks. In order to develop successful and stable equipment and to increase accuracy, the development of each part (optical, mechanical, and electronic) is needed to solve many complex engineering problems. In this article the special features of the development of an optical unit with a high powered UV laser source are considered along with some problems and solutions.

  10. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  11. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  12. Applications of Combustion Research on the International Space Station to Industrial Processes on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F.

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines is to conduct research and educate students in scientific areas related to combustion. The center focuses on those areas where results can be applied to the development of commercial products and processes and where the research can benefit from the unique properties of space. The center is planning combustion-related research aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that will further this mission. The research will be conducted in the two ISS facilities designed for combustion experiments, Space-DRUMSTM and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) of the Fluids and Combustion Facility. Space-DRUMSTM is a containerless processing facility employing dynamic acoustic positioning. Guigne International, Ltd. of St. John's, Newfoundland, a CCACS member, is developing the facility in partnership with Astrium Space- Infrastructure and Teledyne Brown Engineering. This universal processing facility can handle large samples with virtually complete vibration isolation from the space station and no contamination from the experimental processing chamber. The CCACS research to be done in Space-DRUMSTM includes combustion synthesis of glass-ceramics and porous materials, nanoparticle synthesis, catalytic combustion, fluid physics and granular materials. The launch of Space-DRUMSTM to the ISS is currently scheduled for ULF-1 in January of 2003. The CIR is being developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center, and is a general-purpose combustion furnace designed to accommodate a wide range of scientific experiments. The CCACS research to be done in the CIR includes water mist fire suppression, flame synthesis of ceramic powders, nanoparticle synthesis and catalytic combustion. The CIR is currently under development, with an expected launch date in the 2005 timeframe. The applications of this combustion research in manufacturing and processing industries are far

  13. 78 FR 19495 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Scale-Up and Post-Approval Changes: Manufacturing Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... Changes: Manufacturing Equipment Addendum; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... post-approval changes (SUPAC) draft guidance for industry entitled ``SUPAC: Manufacturing Equipment... Modified Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms: Manufacturing Equipment Addendum,'' published on January 1, 1999...

  14. Industry sector analysis, Colombia: Electricity generation equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The article is derived from a report titled: The Electrical Generating Equipment Market in Colombia', dated Janaury 1993, prepared by Mario Cediel, American Embassy - Bogota. The article consists of 21 pages and contains the following subtopics: Overview; Statistical Data; Market Assessment; Best Sales Prospects; Competitive Situation; Market Access; and Trade Promotion Opportunities.

  15. Co-combustion of coal and solid waste (municipal and industrial solid wastes)

    SciTech Connect

    Ketlogetswe, C.

    1996-12-31

    This work determines the thermal characteristics of various mixtures of carpet waste as an illustrative solid waste. Generally the results revealed that combustion of a mixture of coal with carpet waste yields high fuel bed temperature, in comparison with the combustion of pure solid waste. High fuel bed temperatures of 1,340 C to 1,520 C obtained during the combustion of a mixture of coal with PVC carpet waste would be ideal for energy recovery. The fuel bed temperature of 1,290 C obtained during the combustion of 100% PVC carpet waste suggests that the combustion of general industrial solid waste may be expected to yield a fuel bed temperature of about 1,400 C which would be suitable for energy recovery in the form of power generation or steam generation for general use. The results also revealed that combustion of a mixture of coal and municipal solid waste may require 30% to 35% coal to achieve a fuel bed temperature of about 1,300 C. From economical viewpoint, the % of coal must be kept to a minimum, at least 20% coal or less.

  16. 10 CFR 34.20 - Performance requirements for industrial radiography equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.20 Performance... Standards Institute, N432-1980 “Radiological Safety for the Design and Construction of Apparatus for Gamma...

  17. 10 CFR 34.20 - Performance requirements for industrial radiography equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.20 Performance... Standards Institute, N432-1980 “Radiological Safety for the Design and Construction of Apparatus for Gamma...

  18. Industrial Base Analysis for Support Equipment. Phase 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    can make use of existing SE. o An SE manufacturing manager can use detailed information about SE characteristics for common tooling and to make...Data/Configuration Management System TIM Technical Information Management System T1"E Test Measurement and Diagnostic Equipment TP Test Program Software ...proposed which would aid SE managers with decisions regarding cost, planning, control and performance of SE. This methodology would identify and organize SE

  19. Technical Achievements in Communist China’s Electrical Equipment Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-09-15

    transient analysis instruments. The small-type oscillating return circuit testing equipment, which was manufactured jointly by several scientific research...speed measuring motors), along with the additional work carried out on analysis , testing , and research, we are now capable of - 12 • designing...After carrying out research and testing work, as well as an analysis of technical and economic aspects, the production series of these types of motors

  20. Nebraska Industrial Technology Education Teachers Identify the Equipment Their Students Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, George E.

    A study asked 287 industrial technology education (ITE) teachers in Nebraska to identify what equipment was being used by ITE students. It also compared ITE equipment usage with regard to school type and school size. The response rate was 59.2 percent (n=170). Findings indicated the drill press and band saw were the most widely used pieces of…

  1. Heavy Equipment Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 1912

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The graduate of the Heavy Equipment Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) diagnose repair, and maintain by skills and knowledge gained through training and experience any of the working parts of diesel engines as well as the various components of mobile industrial equipment; (2) use, competently,…

  2. On-line combustion monitoring on dry low NOx industrial gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, S.; James, S.; Goy, C.; Colechin, M. J. F.

    2003-07-01

    To reduce the NOx emissions levels produced by industrial gas turbines most manufacturers have adopted a lean premixed approach to combustion. Such combustion systems are susceptible to combustion-driven oscillations, and much of the installed modern gas turbines continue to suffer from reduced reliability due to instability-related problems. The market conditions which now exist under the New Electricity Trading Arrangements provide a strong driver for power producers to improve the reliability and availability of their generating units. With respect to low-emission gas turbines, such improvements can best be achieved through a combination of sophisticated monitoring, combustion optimization and, where appropriate, plant modifications to reduce component failure rates. On-line combustion monitoring (OLCM) provides a vital contribution to each of these by providing the operator with increased confidence in the health of the combustion system and also by warning of the onset of combustion component deterioration which could cause significant downstream damage. The OLCM systems installed on Powergen's combined cycle gas turbine plant utilize high-temperature dynamic pressure transducers mounted close to the combustor to enable measurement of the fluctuating pressures experienced within the combustion system. Following overhaul, a reference data set is determined over a range of operating conditions. Real-time averaged frequency spectra are then compared to the reference data set to enable identification of abnormalities. Variations in the signal may occur due to changes in ambient conditions, fuel composition, operating conditions, and the onset of component damage. The systems on Powergen's plant have been used successfully to detect each of the above, examples of which are presented here.

  3. Comparative valorisation of agricultural and industrial biowastes by combustion and pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Catarina I A; Calisto, Vânia; Cuerda-Correa, Eduardo M; Otero, Marta; Nadais, Helena; Esteves, Valdemar I

    2016-10-01

    Combustion and pyrolysis processes were assessed and compared for two types of lignocellulosic biowastes: agricultural (Eucalyptus bark, grape seeds, peach stones, walnut shells, olive waste and peanut shells) and industrial (primary and biological paper mill sludge) biowastes. They were characterized by elemental, proximate and thermal analyses; the pyrolysis behaviour was studied by thermogravimetric analysis and the gases produced were identified using mass spectrometry. Agricultural biowastes showed the highest calorific values, close to the fossil fuel values (20-30MJkg(-1)) and, in general, emission of gases containing the carbon element (CH4, C2H2, CO and CO2) was higher than that of the tested industrial biowastes, making the agricultural biowastes highly competitive for combustion applications such as gas fuel. Further, the solid product which resulted from the pyrolysis of industrial biowastes is a material with large specific surface area, which is a good characteristic for possible applications as adsorbent in water remediation.

  4. A three-phase sag generator for testing industrial equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.R. Jr.; Morgan, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    A diesel powered three-phase standby 480V, 15kW, 60Hz synchronous generator has been modified to give controlled three-phase voltage sags. These sags can be controlled in both depth and duration. A 486-based computer with a data acquisition system controls the generator and monitors the system under test. The custom software interface allows the user to select the depth and duration of the each sag. Typically, the user will select a series of sags in selectable increments down to a certain depth. The data acquisition system has both digital and analog inputs, so that data lines, ac and dc voltages and currents, contactors and relays, etc. can be monitored during the tests. The software interface enables the user to select allowable tolerance bands for the monitored signals. If one or more of the signals falls outside the allowable range, the test is suspended. The sag depth and duration that caused the equipment to fail the test is then recorded. After testing over a range of sag durations, a CBEMA-type curve is available for the system under test. The sag generator enables the user to systematically determine the sensitivity of the components of an installed process line. This will enable the user to determine cost-effective ride-through enhancement strategies or to test the effectiveness of currently installed equipment. Although this test generator is small, the basic concept can be scaled up to the 2MVA range.

  5. Evolution of Westinghouse heavy-duty power generation and industrial combustion turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Scalzo, A.J.; Bannister, R.L.; DeCorso, M.; Howard, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    This paper reviews the evolution of heavy-duty power generation and industrial combustion turbines in the United States from a Westinghouse Electric Corporation perspective. Westinghouse combustion turbine genealogy began in March of 1943 when the first wholly American designed and manufactured jet engine went on test in Philadelphia, and continues today in Orlando, Florida, with the 230 MW, 501G combustion turbine. In this paper, advances in thermodynamics, materials, cooling, and unit size will be described. Many basic design features such as two-bearing rotor, cold-end drive, can-annular internal combustors, CURVIC{sup 2} clutched turbine disks, and tangential exhaust struts have endured successfully for over 40 years. Progress in turbine technology includes the clean coal technology and advanced turbine systems initiatives of the US Department of Energy.

  6. 10 CFR 34.20 - Performance requirements for industrial radiography equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance requirements for industrial radiography equipment. 34.20 Section 34.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND... meet the following minimum criteria: (a)(1) Each radiographic exposure device, source assembly...

  7. Mobile Training Laboratories, Mobile Equipment and Programs Offered in Business or Industry. Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Raymond L.

    A literature review and telephone survey examined the following alternate methods for delivering vocational education services: mobile training laboratories, mobile training programs, training programs offered by educational institutions in business and industry facilities, and equipment loaned or supplied as a gift by business and industry for…

  8. 78 FR 26544 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Public Meeting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC55 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document for Commercial and Industrial Fans and Blowers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Extension of...

  9. School Shops. Layouts, Justifications, Equipment for Trade and Industrial Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson.

    Suggestions for school shops are presented in three general areas--(1) planning, (2) layouts, and (3) tools and equipment. Within the planning area, two types of shop programs are discussed--(1) industrial arts education, and (2) trade and industrial education. Layouts and floor plans are provided for the following shops: auto mechanics, building…

  10. Plasma-assisted combustion technology for NOx reduction in industrial burners.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae Hoon; Kim, Kwan-Tae; Kang, Hee Seok; Song, Young-Hoon; Park, Jae Eon

    2013-10-01

    Stronger regulations on nitrogen oxide (NOx) production have recently promoted the creation of a diverse array of technologies for NOx reduction, particularly within the combustion process, where reduction is least expensive. In this paper, we discuss a new combustion technology that can reduce NOx emissions within industrial burners to single-digit parts per million levels without employing exhaust gas recirculation or other NOx reduction mechanisms. This new technology uses a simple modification of commercial burners, such that they are able to perform plasma-assisted staged combustion without altering the outer configuration of the commercial reference burner. We embedded the first-stage combustor within the head of the commercial reference burner, where it operated as a reformer that could host a partial oxidation process, producing hydrogen-rich reformate or synthesis gas product. The resulting hydrogen-rich flow then ignited and stabilized the combustion flame apart from the burner rim. Ultimately, the enhanced mixing and removal of hot spots with a widened flame area acted as the main mechanisms of NOx reduction. Because this plasma burner acted as a low NOx burner and was able to reduce NOx by more than half compared to the commercial reference burner, this methodology offers important cost-effective possibilities for NOx reduction in industrial applications.

  11. Study of industry requirements that can be fulfilled by combustion experimentation aboard space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priem, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define the requirements of commercially motivated microgravity combustion experiments and the optimal way for space station to accommodate these requirements. Representatives of commercial organizations, universities and government agencies were contacted. Interest in and needs for microgravity combustion studies are identified for commercial/industrial groups involved in fire safety with terrestrial applications, fire safety with space applications, propulsion and power, industrial burners, or pollution control. From these interests and needs experiments involving: (1) no flow with solid or liquid fuels; (2) homogeneous mixtures of fuel and air; (3) low flow with solid or liquid fuels; (4) low flow with gaseous fuel; (5) high pressure combustion; and (6) special burner systems are described and space station resource requirements for each type of experiment provided. Critical technologies involving the creation of a laboratory environment and methods for combining experimental needs into one experiment in order to obtain effective use of space station are discussed. Diagnostic techniques for monitoring combustion process parameters are identified.

  12. Energy efficiency opportunities in China. Industrial equipment and small cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    A quick glance at comparative statistics on energy consumption per unit of industrial output reveals that China is one of the least energy efficient countries in the world. Energy waste not only impedes economic growth, but also creates pollution that threatens human health, regional ecosystems, and the global climate. China`s decision to pursue economic reform and encourage technology transfer from developed countries has created a window of opportunity for significant advances in energy efficiency. Policy changes, technical training, public education, and financing can help China realize its energy conservation potential.

  13. Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, Dan

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the emissions related research being conducted as part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project is presented. The overview includes project metrics, milestones, and descriptions of major research areas. The overview also includes information on some of the emissions research being conducted under NASA Research Announcements. Objective: Development of comprehensive detailed and reduced kinetic mechanisms of jet fuels for chemically-reacting flow modeling. Scientific Challenges: 1) Developing experimental facilities capable of handling higher hydrocarbons and providing benchmark combustion data. 2) Determining and understanding ignition and combustion characteristics, such as laminar flame speeds, extinction stretch rates, and autoignition delays, of jet fuels and hydrocarbons relevant to jet surrogates. 3) Developing comprehensive kinetic models for jet fuels.

  14. Test strategies for industrial testers for converter controls equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleniuk, P.; Di Cosmo, M.; Kasampalis, V.; Nisbet, D.; Todd, B.; Uznański, S.

    2017-04-01

    Power converters and their controls electronics are key elements for the operation of the CERN accelerator complex, having a direct impact on its availability. To prevent early-life failures and provide means to verify electronics, a set of industrial testers is used throughout the converters controls electronics' life cycle. The roles of the testers are to validate mass production during the manufacturing phase and to provide means to diagnose and repair failed modules that are brought back from operation. In the converter controls electronics section of the power converters group in the technology department of CERN (TE/EPC/CCE), two main test platforms have been adopted: a PXI platform for mixed analogue-digital functional tests and a JTAG Boundary-Scan platform for digital interconnection and functional tests. Depending on the functionality of the device under test, the appropriate test platforms are chosen. This paper is a follow-up to results presented at the TWEPP 2015 conference, adding the boundary scan test platform and the first results from exploitation of the test system. This paper reports on the test software, hardware design and test strategy applied for a number of devices that has resulted in maximizing test coverage and minimizing test design effort.

  15. 40 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE WITH LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION EQUIPMENT IN THE NUCLEAR INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Drain, F.; Vinoche, R.; Duhamet, J.

    2003-02-27

    Three types of liquid-liquid extraction equipment are used in industrial reprocessing plants. Each is described below, with a special focus on pulsed columns and centrifugal extractors, which have been the subject of an extensive R&D program by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). Various models have been developed to simulate equipment behavior and flowsheets. The excellent results obtained during industrial operation of the UP3 and UP2-800 plants in La Hague have confirmed the validity of the choices made during the design phases and pave the way for future improvement of the reprocessing process, from a technical and a financial standpoint.

  16. The Negro in the Farm Equipment and Construction Machinery Industries. The Racial Policies of American Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozanne, Robert; Klemp, Elsa

    This study covers two related industries in which Negro employment has historical roots, the farm machinery and construction machinery industries. As in several other studies in this series, emphasis is on the major companies in the industries. This emphasis may reflect a more favorable picture of black employment progress than the average, due to…

  17. Statistical modeling of spontaneous combustion in industrial-scale coal stockpiles

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdeniz, H

    2009-07-01

    Companies consuming large amounts of coal should work with coal stocks in order to not face problems due to production delays. The industrial-scale stockpiles formed for the aforementioned reasons cause environmental problems and economic losses for the companies. This study was performed in a coal stock area of a large company in Konya, which uses large amounts of coal in its manufacturing units. The coal stockpile with 5 m width, 10 m length, 3 m height, and having 120 tons of weight was formed in the coal stock area of the company. The inner temperature data of the stockpile was recorded by 17 temperature sensors placed inside the stockpile at certain points. Additionally, the data relating to the air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and wind direction that are the parameters affecting the coal stockpile were also recorded. A statistical model applicable for a spontaneous combustion event was developed during this study after applying multi-regression analyses to the data recorded in the stockpile during the spontaneous combustion event. The correlation coefficients obtained by the developed statistical model were measured approximately at a 0.95 level. Thus, the prediction of temperature variations influential in the spontaneous combustion event of the industrial-scale coal stockpiles will be possible.

  18. Solid by-products of coal combustion: Fly ash as a source of industrial minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Bhagwat, S.B.; Rapp, D.M.; Bukowski, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Fly ash is one of the most important by-products of coal combustion. It is a complex mix of cenospheres, reactive glasses, magnetite and carbon, in addition to minor quantities of other minerals. Fly ash components are determined by the type of coal, the combustion technology, material collection system and the temperature of combustion. The changing mix of coal burned in power plants is increasingly making the fly ash characteristics independent of the locally mined coal. Fly ash is thus becoming a raw material independent of the existence of a local coal mining industry. Currently, about 65 million tons of fly ash are generated annually in the United States. This is equivalent to the crushed stone production of such highly industrialized states as Illinois. Only about twenty percent of the total fly ash are currently used, mostly in low value applications such as road building materials and concrete additions. The fly ash currently represents an environmental and financial liability to electric utilities. The increasingly competitive and boundaryless electricity market in the US increases the incentive to look at fly ash in terms of its individual components and recognize their potential as industrial minerals in the production of value added materials. For example, zeolites and other adsorbents could be produced from reactive glasses, magnetite could be used in pigments and ferrite manufacture, activated carbon could serve in pollution control and cenospheres could be used to make lightweight ceramics. If one begins to look at fly ash as a source of industrial minerals and not as a waste product, this change in perspective could turn a financial and environmental liability into an economic opportunity.

  19. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-01-01

    This Topical Report outlines guidelines and key considerations for design and operation of pulverized coal-fired boilers for oxy-combustion. The scope addressed includes only the boiler island, not the entire oxy-fired CO{sub 2} capture plant. These guidelines are primarily developed for tangential-fired boilers and focus on designs capable of dual air and oxy-fired operation. The guidelines and considerations discussed are applicable to both new units and existing boiler retrofits. These guidelines are largely based on the findings from the extensive 15 MW{sub th} pilot testing and design efforts conducted under this project. A summary level description is provided for each major aspect of boiler design impacted by oxy-combustion, and key considerations are discussed for broader application to different utility and industrial designs. Guidelines address the boiler system arrangement, firing system, boiler thermal design, ducting, materials, control system, and other key systems.

  20. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-03

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications'' is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelling and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, approval of Vortec's Environmental Assessment (EA) required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was approved. The EA approval cycle took approximately 9 months. The preliminary test program which was being held in abeyance pending approval of the EA was initiated. Six preliminary test runs were successfully competed during the period. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the preliminary tests were completed.

  1. 10 CFR 34.20 - Performance requirements for industrial radiography equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... equipment. 34.20 Section 34.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND... inspection at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Library, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. A.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (2) Engineering analysis may be...

  2. Evolution of and projections for automated composite material placement equipment in the aerospace industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarville, Douglas A.

    2009-12-01

    As the commercial aircraft industry attempts to improve airplane fuel efficiency by shifting from aluminum to composites (reinforced plastics), there is a concern that composite processing equipment is not mature enough to meet increasing demand and that delivery delays and loss of high tech jobs could result. The research questions focused on the evolution of composite placement machines, improvement of machine functionality by equipment vendors, and the probability of new inventions helping to avoid production shortfalls. An extensive review of the literature found no studies that addressed these issues. Since the early twentieth century, exploratory case study of pivotal technological advances has been an accepted means of performing historic analysis and furthering understanding of rapidly changing marketplaces and industries. This qualitative case study investigated evolution of automated placement equipment by (a) codifying and mapping patent data (e.g., claims and functionality descriptions), (b) triangulating archival data (i.e., trade literature, vender Web sites, and scholarly texts), and (c) interviewing expert witnesses. An industry-level sensitivity model developed by the author showed that expanding the vendor base and increasing the number of performance enhancing inventions will most likely allow the industry to make the transition from aluminum to composites without schedule delays. This study will promote social change by (a) advancing individual and community knowledge (e.g., teaching modules for students, practitioners, and professional society members) and (b) providing an empirical model that will help in the understanding and projection of next generation composite processing equipment demand and productivity output.

  3. The Potential of Computer Controlled Optimizing Equipment in the Wooden Furniture Industry

    Treesearch

    R. Edward Thomas; Urs Buehlmann; Urs Buehlmann

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the wooden furniture industry is to convert lumber into parts by using the most efficient and cost effective processing methods. The key steps in processing lumber arc removing the regions that contain unacceptable defects or character marks and cutting the remaining areas to the widths and lengths of needed parts. Such equipment has been used in furniture...

  4. 78 FR 48821 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... submission of comments by August 12, 2013. Thereafter, the Consumer Electronics Association (CEA), on behalf... Part 430 RIN 1904-AD04 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Proposed Determination of Computers as a Covered Consumer Product AGENCY: Office...

  5. 78 FR 26711 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC65 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures for Showerheads, Faucets, Water Closets, Urinals and Commercial Prerinse Spray Valves AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...

  6. Metrics for Industrial Electronics, Radio-TV Repair, Audio Equipment Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of students in industrial electronics, radio-tv repair, and audio equipment repair, this instructional package is one of eight for the manufacturing occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who…

  7. An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Larry; Millstein, Dev; Coughlin, Katie; Van Buskirk, Robert; Rosenquist, Gregory; Lekov, Alex; Bhuyan, Sanjib

    2004-01-30

    In this report we calculate the change in final consumer prices due to minimum efficiency standards, focusing on a standard economic model of the air-conditioning and heating equipment (ACHE) wholesale industry. The model examines the relationship between the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment and the final consumer price in this industry. The model predicts that the impact of a standard on the final consumer price is conditioned by its impact on marginal distribution costs. For example, if a standard raises the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment a small amount, the model predicts that the standard will raise the final consumer price a small amount as well. Statistical analysis suggest that standards do not increase the amount of labor needed to distribute equipment the same employees needed to sell lower efficiency equipment can sell high efficiency equipment. Labor is a large component of the total marginal cost to distribute and sell air-conditioning and heating equipment. We infer from this that standards have a relatively small impact on ACHE marginal distribution and sale costs. Thus, our model predicts that a standard will have a relatively small impact on final ACHE consumer prices. Our statistical analysis of U.S. Census Bureau wholesale revenue tends to confirm this model prediction. Generalizing, we find that the ratio of manufacturer price to final consumer price prior to a standard tends to exceed the ratio of the change in manufacturer price to the change in final consumer price resulting from a standard. The appendix expands our analysis through a typical distribution chain for commercial and residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

  8. Plasma-based determination of inorganic contaminants in waste of electric and electronic equipment after microwave-induced combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Paola A.; Diehl, Lisarb O.; Oliveira, Jussiane S. S.; Muller, Edson I.; Mesko, Marcia F.; Flores, Erico M. M.

    2015-03-01

    A systematic study was performed for the determination of inorganic contaminants in polymeric waste from electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) for achieving an efficient digestion to minimize interferences in determination using plasma-based techniques. The determination of As, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and also by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) was carried out after digestion using microwave-induced combustion (MIC). Arsenic and Hg were determined by flow-injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICP-MS). Dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) with ammonia was also used for Cr determination. The suitability of MIC for digestion of sample masses up to 400 mg was demonstrated using microcrystalline cellulose as aid for combustion of polymers from waste of EEEs that usually contain flame retardants that impair the combustion. The composition and concentration of acid solutions (HNO3 or HNO3 plus HCl) were evaluated for metals and metalloids and NH4OH solutions were investigated for Br absorption. Accuracy was evaluated by comparison of results with those obtained using high pressure microwave-assisted wet digestion (HP-MAWD) and also by the analysis of certified reference material (CRM) of polymer (EC680k-low-density polyethylene). Bromine determination was only feasible using digestion by MIC once losses were observed when HP-MAWD was used. Lower limits of detection were obtained for all analytes using MIC (from 0.005 μg g- 1 for Co by ICP-MS up to 3.120 μg g-1 for Sb by ICP OES) in comparison to HP-MAWD due to the higher sample mass that can be digested (400 mg) and the use of diluted absorbing solutions. The combination of HNO3 and HCl for digestion showed to be crucial for quantitative recovery of some elements, as Cr and Sb. In addition, suitable agreement of Cr to

  9. Evaluation and selection of material handling equipment in iron and steel industry using analytic hierarchy process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varun, Sajja; Harshita, Raj; Pramod, Sesha; Nagaraju, Dega

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) as a potential decision making method for use in the selection of the most suitable material handling (MH) system in an iron and steel industry. In this study, AHP is used in assessing the various material transportation systems employed in a steel manufacturing industry and to decide the best equipment to be used. Information on the use of AHP in evaluating MH equipment is provided and an AHP model is proposed to guide the management of an iron and steel Industry, i.e., JSW Steel Ltd. Most important factors while selecting material transportation equipment and their relative influence on the objective of decision-making model are found. A total of seven decision criteria and five different alternatives are considered for this purpose. Each alternative is evaluated in terms of the decision criteria and the relative importance (or weight) of each criterion is estimated. From the obtained pairwise comparison matrices, the best alternative is chosen. This paper provides a good insight into a decision-making model to guide managers for assessing the various material transportation equipment that are commonly employed in a steel manufacturing plant.

  10. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase 3 research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the major effort was completing some of the system modification installation designs, completing industry funded testing, developing a surrogate TSCA ash composition, and completing the TSCA ash Test Plan. The installation designs will be used for the equipment modifications planned for the end of CY 93. The industry funded testing consisted of vitrifying Spent Aluminum Potliner (SPL) which is a listed hazardous waste. This testing has verified that SPL can be vitrified into a safe, recyclable glass product. Some results from this testing are provided in Section 2.2.1. The surrogate TSCA ash composition was developed with input from various DOE laboratories and subcontractors. The surrogate ash consists of a mixture of MSW fly ash and bottom ash spiked with heavy metal contaminants. The levels of metal additives are sufficient to ascertain the partitioning of the contaminants between the glass and effluent flow streams. Details of the surrogate composition and the planned testing is provided in Section 4.2.2.

  11. 19 CFR 12.50 - Consumer products and industrial equipment subject to energy conservation or labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to energy conservation or labeling standards. 12.50 Section 12.50 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... MERCHANDISE Consumer Products and Industrial Equipment Subject to Energy Conservation Or Labeling Standards § 12.50 Consumer products and industrial equipment subject to energy conservation or labeling...

  12. Driver Exposure to Combustion Particles in the U.S. Trucking Industry

    PubMed Central

    Davis, M.E.; Smith, T.J.; Laden, F.; Hart, J.E.; Blicharz, A.P.; Reaser, P.; Garshick, E.

    2008-01-01

    A large study of combustion particle exposures for drivers of diesel-powered trucks was conducted in collaboration with an epidemiologic study of lung cancer outcomes for workers in the trucking industry. Three components of diesel exhaust combustion particles (PM2.5, elemental carbon, and organic carbon) were measured inside the driver cabs of diesel-powered trucks from 36 different trucking terminals across the United States between 2001 and 2005. In-cab particle exposures for drivers assigned to both short and long distance trips were observed, as well as information on the smoking status of the driver, truck characteristics such as age and model, and weather conditions during the sampling session. This article summarizes these findings and describes the relationship between exhaust particles and various determinants of exposure. The results suggest that in-cab particle exposures are positively related to smoking, ambient particle concentrations, truck age, and open windows, with other significant modifying factors such as weather. This study represents the largest and most comprehensive exposure assessment of drivers in the trucking industry, encompassing a 4-year period of observations on diesel and exhaust particle exposures nationwide. The results are relevant not only to the occupational group of truck drivers being examined but also to the general population that live, commute, or work within proximity to diesel-fueled traffic or trucking terminals. PMID:17885912

  13. [Occupational injury risk in the shoe industry: frequency, types of injuries and equipment involved, improvement interventions].

    PubMed

    Tognon, Ilaria Desirée

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the work has been to evaluate the risk of injuries connected to the use of machinery and work tools in the footwear industry. The analysis of the data related to injuries in the footwear industry, deduced from the registers of injuries collected in the investigated factories, shows that most accidents arise from the contact of the operator's hands with tools and machinery parts during their use. Risk factors generally include the inherent specific danger of some work tools and machines, the lack or inadequacy of safety devices, the obsolescence of the equipment, the imprudence and underestimation of risk.

  14. Dose assessment for management alternatives for NORM-contaminated equipment within the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Blunt, D.L.; Smith, K.P.

    1995-08-01

    The contamination of drilling and production equipment by naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is a growing concern for the petroleum industry and regulators. Large volumes of NORM-contaminated scrap metal are generated by the industry each year. The contamination generally occurs as surface contamination on the interior of water-handling equipment. The source of this contamination is accumulation of by-product wastes, in the form of scale and sludge contaminated with NORM that are generated by extraction processes. The primary radionuclides of concern in petroleum industry NORM-wastes are radium-226 (Ra-226), and radium-228 (Ra-228). These isotopes are members of the uranium-238 and thorium-232 decay series, respectively. The uranium and thorium isotopes, which are naturally present in the subsurface formations from which hydrocarbons are extracted, are largely immobile and remain in the subsurface. The more soluble radium can become mobilized in the formation water and be transported to the surface in the produced water waste stream. The radium either remains in solution or precipitates in scale or sludge deposits, depending on water salinity and on temperature and pressure phase changes. NORM-containing scale consists of radium that has coprecipitated with barium, calcium, or strontium sulfates, and sludge typically consists of radium-containing silicates and carbonates. This assessment is limited to the evaluation of potential radiological doses from management options that specifically involve recycle and reuse of contaminated metal. Doses from disposal of contaminated equipment are not addressed. Radiological doses were estimated for workers and the general public for equipment decontamination and smelting. Results of this assessment can be used to examine policy issues concerning the regulation and management of NORM-contaminated wastes generated by the petroleum industry.

  15. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Techology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: • Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs. • Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF). • Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools. • Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems. • Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost. • Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project completion date was April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a

  16. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxins during combustion, electrical equipment fires and PCB incineration.

    PubMed Central

    Hutzinger, O; Choudhry, G G; Chittim, B G; Johnston, L E

    1985-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are likely formed by thermal synthesis of a variety of primary precursors. Highest levels of these compounds are expected, however, when the starting material requires only one or two reaction steps for their formation, as is the case with chlorophenols, chlorobenzenes and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Laboratory pyrolyses have indeed shown that PCBs give significant yields of PCDFs, and chlorobenzenes give both PCDFs and PCDDs. In addition, a variety of other chloroaromatic compounds are formed. From these experiments and from accidents involving PCB fires, it is known that PCDFs are the most important toxic compounds associated with PCBs. Most commercial PCBs contain PCDFs in the low ppm range. PCDF concentration does not increase during normal operation in electrical equipment. Accidents (fires and explosions) involving PCBs can give PCDF levels in soot of up to 1000 ppm and higher. Effective thermal destruction of PCB is possible in modern incineration units, provided high temperatures, excess air and sufficient residence times are used. Exact figures for minimum temperature and residence time cannot be given, since feedstock and incinerator construction greatly influence destruction efficiency. Effluents from EPA-licensed incinerators used for PCB destruction contain only very low levels of PCDDs and PCDFs. PMID:3928357

  17. Ultra-High Efficiency and Low-Emissions Combustion Technology for Manufacturing Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Atreya, Arvind

    2013-04-15

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test a transformational combustion technology for high temperature furnaces to reduce the energy intensity and carbon footprint of U.S. manufacturing industries such as steel, aluminum, glass, metal casting, and petroleum refining. A new technology based on internal and/or external Flue Gas Recirculation (FGR) along with significant enhancement in flame radiation was developed. It produces "Radiative Flameless Combustion (RFC)" and offers tremendous energy efficiency and pollutant reduction benefits over and above the now popular "flameless combustion." It will reduce the energy intensity (or fuel consumption per unit system output) by more than 50% and double the furnace productivity while significantly reducing pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions (10^3 times reduction in NOx and 10 times reduction in CO & hydrocarbons and 3 times reduction in CO2). Product quality improvements are also expected due to uniform radiation, as well as, reduction in scale/dross formation is expected because of non-oxidative atmosphere. RFC is inexpensive, easy to implement, and it was successfully tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at the University of Michigan during the course of this work. A first-ever theory with gas and particulate radiation was also developed. Numerical programs were also written to design an industrial-scale furnace. Nine papers were published (or are in the process of publication). We believe that this early stage research adequately proves the concept through laboratory experiments, modeling and computational models. All this work is presented in the published papers. Important conclusions of this work are: (1) It was proved through experimental measurements that RFC is not only feasible but a very beneficial technology. (2) Theoretical analysis of RFC was done in (a) spatially uniform strain field and (b) a planar momentum jet where the strain rate is neither prescribed nor uniform. Four important non

  18. The development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-16

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications has been selected for Phase III development under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting, recycling, and refining processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase HI research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing glass frits and wool fiber from boiler and incinerator ashes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes has begun. In order to accurately estimate the cost of the primary process vessels, preliminary designs for 25, 50, and 100 ton/day systems have been started under Task 1. This data will serve as input data for life cycle cost analysis performed as part of techno-economic evaluations. The economic evaluations of commercial CMS systems will be an integral part of the commercialization plan.

  19. Physicochemical characterizations and desulfurization properties in coal combustion of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jun Cheng; Junhu Zhou; Jianzhong Liu; Xinyu Cao; Kefa Cen

    2009-05-15

    To recycle industrial wastes and reduce SO{sub 2} pollutant emission in coal combustion, the mineralogical compositions, porosity structures, surface morphologies, and desulfurization properties of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes were investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD), porosimeter, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a fixed-bed reactor. (1) White lime mud (WLM) mainly composed of CaCO{sub 3} with Na{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}O impurities has smaller CaCO{sub 3} particles and a higher surface area than limestone. But calcined WLM has larger CaO particles and a lower surface area than limestone calcined at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s. (2) Calcium carbide residue (CCR) mainly composed of Ca(OH)2, has the highest surface area and smaller Ca(OH){sub 2} particles than the CaCO{sub 3} particles in WLM. Its surface area monotonously and dramatically decreases at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, but the sintered CaO particles are still smaller than those in the limestone. (3) When brine sludge (BS), mainly composed of NaCl and CaCO{sub 3}, is heated at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, the NaCl/CaO eutectic solvent facilitates the aggregation of some complex composites to form many larger particles. (4) WLM gives the highest desulfurization efficiency of 80.4% at 1000{sup o}C and 65.0% at 1100{sup o}C in coal combustion. Combined CCR and limestone give a synergistic desulfurization efficiency of 45.8% at 1200{sup o}C. BS with a molar ratio of Na/Ca at 1:15 effectively promotes the synergistic desulfurization efficiency of combined CCR and limestone to a peak of 54.9% at 1200{sup o}C. 23 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Combustion noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  1. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME II. APPENDICES A-I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  2. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME II. APPENDICES A-I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  3. Ergonomic and usability ratings of helmets and head-mounted personal protective equipment in industry.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Alison A; Eger, Tammy R

    2014-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence from industry suggests that those working as arborists prefer to use minimal brim style, climbing helmets rather than traditional forestry helmets. In the mining industry, workers prefer wireless, LED cap lamps. Workers cite better comfort, better ability to see their work and better ventilation as reasons to use those helmets and cap lamps. Safety personnel in the industry would like to base future helmet decisions and requirements on a complete understanding of the ergonomic and safety issues of all available head-borne equipment. Previous research has found that helmet design, head load and head/neck posture can influence the amount of neck discomfort experienced by users. Specific features of helmets and head-mounted personal protective equipment (PPE) in various industries have been changing to reflect ergonomic design principles. A series of three studies were conducted to evaluate usability and preference of new style cap lamps and helmet brims. PARTICIPANTS (n=10-16) were recruited primarily from undergraduate students, and each study represents a different group of novice participants. Two different courses that included a tunnel were used in the first two studies to evaluate cap lamp styles and wireless cap lamps, while a simulated arborist task was used in the final study to evaluate helmet brim. Measures of ergonomic and discomfort questionnaires were analysed for this paper. The first cap lamp study was able to conclude that LED lamps are preferred over incandescent lamps, while the second study demonstrated that users prefer a multi-directional beam, and adjustability features of the cap lamp. In the final study, participants who must perform extreme overhead tasks prefer a helmet with a minimal brim. Additional research is warranted to determine whether actual, industry workers demonstrate the same preferences for these PPE items.

  4. A technology assessment of solar energy systems. Direct combustion of wood and other biomass in industrial boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelson, H. I.; Habegger, L. J.; Liu, B. C.

    1981-12-01

    The cost, resource requirements, and environmental characteristics of a model combustion system sized to handle an annual feed of 12,500 dry tons of forest residue were evaluated. The cost of the wood combustion system is comparable to that of coal fired boilers in industry. Atmospheric emissions of the wood system are lower in sulfur dioxide than those of coal systems, but emissions of particulate matter are potentially higher. The combined use of multicyclones and wet scrubbers, however, can reduce these emissions to levels produced by coal systems. Cost and environmental characteristics of boilers that burn sugarcane bagasse are compared to those of wood fired boilers because the two systems are similar.

  5. Maintenance service contract model for heavy equipment in mining industry using principal agent theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakpahan, Eka K. A.; Iskandar, Bermawi P.

    2015-12-01

    Mining industry is characterized by a high operational revenue, and hence high availability of heavy equipment used in mining industry is a critical factor to ensure the revenue target. To maintain high avaliability of the heavy equipment, the equipment's owner hires an agent to perform maintenance action. Contract is then used to control the relationship between the two parties involved. The traditional contracts such as fixed price, cost plus or penalty based contract studied is unable to push agent's performance to exceed target, and this in turn would lead to a sub-optimal result (revenue). This research deals with designing maintenance contract compensation schemes. The scheme should induce agent to select the highest possible maintenance effort level, thereby pushing agent's performance and achieve maximum utility for both parties involved. Principal agent theory is used as a modeling approach due to its ability to simultaneously modeled owner and agent decision making process. Compensation schemes considered in this research includes fixed price, cost sharing and revenue sharing. The optimal decision is obtained using a numerical method. The results show that if both parties are risk neutral, then there are infinite combination of fixed price, cost sharing and revenue sharing produced the same optimal solution. The combination of fixed price and cost sharing contract results in the optimal solution when the agent is risk averse, while the optimal combination of fixed price and revenue sharing contract is obtained when agent is risk averse. When both parties are risk averse, the optimal compensation scheme is a combination of fixed price, cost sharing and revenue sharing.

  6. Equipment concept design and development plans for microgravity science and applications research on space station: Combustion tunnel, laser diagnostic system, advanced modular furnace, integrated electronics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhran, M. L.; Youngblood, W. W.; Georgekutty, T.; Fiske, M. R.; Wear, W. O.

    1986-01-01

    Taking advantage of the microgravity environment of space NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. Previous studies have been performed to define from the researcher's perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. Functional requirements for the identified experimental apparatus and support equipment were determined. From these hardware requirements, several items were selected for concept designs and subsequent formulation of development plans. This report documents the concept designs and development plans for two items of experiment apparatus - the Combustion Tunnel and the Advanced Modular Furnace, and two items of support equipment the Laser Diagnostic System and the Integrated Electronics Laboratory. For each concept design, key technology developments were identified that are required to enable or enhance the development of the respective hardware.

  7. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-29

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, a majority of the effort was spent relining the separator/reservoir and the cyclone melter. The relinings were completed, the cyclonemelter was reinstalled, and the test system was returned to operational status. The wet ESP was delivered and placed on its foundation. The focus during the upcoming months will be completing the integration ofthe wet ESP and conducting the first industrial proof-of-concept test. The other system modifications are well underway with the designs of the recuperator installation and the batch/coal feed system progressing smoothly. The program is still slightly behind the original schedule but it is anticipated that it will be back on schedule by the end of the year. The commercialization planning is continuing with the identification of seven potential near-term commercial demonstration opportunities.

  8. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. ne primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order toevaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, three preliminary coal-fired tests were successfully completed. These tests used industrial boiler flyash, sewer sludge ash, and waste glass collet as feedstocks. The coal-fired ash vitrification tests are considered near term potential commercial applications of the CMS technology. The waste glass cullet provided necessary dam on the effect of coal firing with respect to vitrified product oxidation state. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the proof-of-concept tests are continuing. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes is continuing. Preliminary designs for 15, 25, 100 and 400 ton/day systems are in progress. This dam will serve as input data to the life cycle cost analysis which will be-an integral part of the CMS commercialization plan.

  9. Laser-induced incandescence: Particulate diagnostics for combustion, atmospheric, and industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Michelsen, H. A.; Schulz, C.; Smallwood, G. J.; Will, S.

    2015-09-09

    The understanding of soot formation in combustion processes and the optimization of practical combustion systems require in situ measurement techniques that can provide important characteristics, such as particle concentrations and sizes, under a variety of conditions. Of equal importance are techniques suitable for characterizing soot particles produced from incomplete combustion and emitted into the environment. Also, the production of engineered nanoparticles, such as carbon blacks, may benefit from techniques that allow for online monitoring of these processes.

  10. Laser-induced incandescence: Particulate diagnostics for combustion, atmospheric, and industrial applications

    DOE PAGES

    Michelsen, H. A.; Schulz, C.; Smallwood, G. J.; ...

    2015-09-09

    The understanding of soot formation in combustion processes and the optimization of practical combustion systems require in situ measurement techniques that can provide important characteristics, such as particle concentrations and sizes, under a variety of conditions. Of equal importance are techniques suitable for characterizing soot particles produced from incomplete combustion and emitted into the environment. Also, the production of engineered nanoparticles, such as carbon blacks, may benefit from techniques that allow for online monitoring of these processes.

  11. Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    Application to an HCCI Engine . Proceedings of the 4th Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion Institute, 2005. [34] K. Fieweger...LARGE EDDY SIMULATION OF TURBULENT COMBUSTION Principle Investigator: Heinz Pitsch Flow Physics and Computation Department of Mechanical Engineering ...burners and engines found in modern, industrially relevant equipment. In the course of this transition of LES from a scientifically interesting method

  12. Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1993--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, a majority of the effort was spent performing the initial industrial proof-of-concept test and installing and integrating the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP). The other system modifications are well underway with the designs of the modifications to the batch/coal feed system being completed. A Purchase Order has been issued to a material conveying equipment vendor for the purchase of the batch/coal feeding equipment. The delivery and installation of the material conveying equipment is expected to occur in July and early August. The commercialization planning is continuing with the completion of a draft Business Plan. This plan is currently undergoing internal review, and will be submitted to Dawnbreaker, a DOE contracted small business consulting firm, for review.

  13. Attitude towards personal protective equipment in the French nuclear fuel industry.

    PubMed

    Guseva Canu, Irina; Faust, Ségolène; Canioni, Pierre; Collomb, Philippe; Samson, Eric; Laurier, Dominique

    2013-06-01

    This descriptive cross-sectional study examines the compliance of workers from the European Gaseous Diffusion Uranium Enrichment Consortium (EURODIF) with personal protection equipment (PPE) in view of the various hazards in the nuclear fuel industry. The PPE inventory was drawn up by an industrial hygienist in charge of the PPE at EURODIF. Two hundred and twenty seven (10%) randomly selected, active and retired, EURODIF workers filled in a questionnaire on their attitudes towards PPE. Exposure data from the EURODIF job exposure matrix were used to examine whether PPE usage varies according to exposure level. The study suggests a PPE usage profile that varies depending on the hazards present and PPE available. Anti-uranium PPE and gloves were among the best rated, while anti-spray goggles were the least used. We found that, for most hazards known to cause cancer or irreversible health damage, PPE usage varied according to exposure (homogeneity test, p<0.05; trend test, p<0.05). The continuous use of PPE among workers should be encouraged through improvements to the PPE management system. A precise model of individual exposure can only be designed if the use and efficiency of PPE are taken into consideration.

  14. Non-destructive inspection in industrial equipment using robotic mobile manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurtua, Iñaki; Susperregi, Loreto; Ansuategui, Ander; Fernández, Ane; Ibarguren, Aitor; Molina, Jorge; Tubio, Carlos; Villasante, Cristobal; Felsch, Torsten; Pérez, Carmen; Rodriguez, Jorge R.; Ghrissi, Meftah

    2016-05-01

    MAINBOT project has developed service robots based applications to autonomously execute inspection tasks in extensive industrial plants in equipment that is arranged horizontally (using ground robots) or vertically (climbing robots). The industrial objective has been to provide a means to help measuring several physical parameters in multiple points by autonomous robots, able to navigate and climb structures, handling non-destructive testing sensors. MAINBOT has validated the solutions in two solar thermal plants (cylindrical-parabolic collectors and central tower), that are very demanding from mobile manipulation point of view mainly due to the extension (e.g. a thermal solar plant of 50Mw, with 400 hectares, 400.000 mirrors, 180 km of absorber tubes, 140m height tower), the variability of conditions (outdoor, day-night), safety requirements, etc. Once the technology was validated in simulation, the system was deployed in real setups and different validation tests carried out. In this paper two of the achievements related with the ground mobile inspection system are presented: (1) Autonomous navigation localization and planning algorithms to manage navigation in huge extensions and (2) Non-Destructive Inspection operations: thermography based detection algorithms to provide automatic inspection abilities to the robots.

  15. REVISED EMISSIONS ESTIMATION METHODOLOGIES FOR INDUSTRIAL, RESIDENTIAL, AND ELECTRIC UTILITY STATIONARY COMBUSTION SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of improved and streamlined EPA emission estimation methods for stationary combustion area sources by the Joint Emissions Inventory Oversight Group (JEIOG) research program. These sources include categories traditionally labeled "other statio...

  16. REVISED EMISSIONS ESTIMATION METHODOLOGIES FOR INDUSTRIAL, RESIDENTIAL, AND ELECTRIC UTILITY STATIONARY COMBUSTION SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of improved and streamlined EPA emission estimation methods for stationary combustion area sources by the Joint Emissions Inventory Oversight Group (JEIOG) research program. These sources include categories traditionally labeled "other statio...

  17. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1992--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-03

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a ``Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications`` is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelling and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, approval of Vortec`s Environmental Assessment (EA) required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was approved. The EA approval cycle took approximately 9 months. The preliminary test program which was being held in abeyance pending approval of the EA was initiated. Six preliminary test runs were successfully competed during the period. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the preliminary tests were completed.

  18. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial processing heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1995--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a {open_quotes}Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes} is a project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The test program consisted of one test run, with a duration of 100 hours at a nominal feed rate of 1000 lbs/hr. Throughout the test, the CMS was fired with coal and a coal by-product (i.e. coal-fired boiler fly ash) as the primary fuels. Natural gas was used as an auxiliary fuel as necessary to provide process trim. The feedstock consisted of a coal-fired utility boiler fly ash and dolomite and produced a stable, fully-reacted vitrified product. The fly ash, supplied by PENELEC, contained between 6 and 12% by weight of carbon because of the low NOx burners on the PENELEC boilers. Therefore, a substantial portion of the required thermal input came from the fly ash.

  19. Combustion characterization of coals for industrial applications. Final technical report, January 1, 1981-May 29, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala, N.; Patel, R.L.; Lao, T.C.

    1985-03-01

    In-depth fundamental information was obtained from a two-inch inner diameter laminar flow reactor referred to as the Drop Tube Furnace System (DTFS). This information consists of the following: (1) pyrolysis kinetic characteristics of four coals of various rank (Texas lignite, Montana subbituminous, Alabama high volatile bituminous, and Pennsylvania anthracite); and (2) combustion kinetic studies of chars produced from the foregoing parent coals. A number of standard ASTM and special in-house bench scale tests were also performed on the coals and chars prepared therefrom to characterize their physicochemical properties. The pilot scale (500,000 Btu/hr) Controlled Mixing History Furnace (CMHF) was used to determine the effect of staged combustion on NO/sub x/ emissions control from an overall combustion performance of the Alabama high volatile bituminous coal. The quantitative fundamental data developed from this study indicate significant differences in coal/char chemical, physical, and reactivity characteristics, which should be useful to those interested in modeling coal combustion and pyrolysis processes. These results underscore the fact that coal selection is one of the keys governing a successful coal conversion/utilization process. The combustion kinetic information obtained on the high volatile bituminous coal has been used in conjunction with combustion engineering's proprietary mathematical models to predict the combustion performance of this coal in the Controlled Mixing History Furnace. Comparison of the predicted data with the experimental results shows a virtually one-to-one scale-up from the DTFS to the CMHF. These data should provide vital information to designers in the area of carbon burnout and NO/sub x/ reduction for large scale coal utilization applications. 31 refs., 28 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. Heavy equipment maintenance wastes and environmental management in the mining industry.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Turlough F

    2002-10-01

    Maintenance wastes, if not managed properly, represent significant environmental issues for mining operations. Petroleum hydrocarbon liquid wastes were studied at an Australian site and a review of the literature and technology vendors was carried out to identify oil/water separation technologies. Treatment technologies and practices for managing oily wastewater, used across the broader mining industry in the Asia-Pacific region, were also identified. Key findings from the study were: (1) primary treatment is required to remove grease oil contamination and to protect secondary oily wastewater treatment systems from being overloaded; (2) selection of an effective secondary treatment system is dependent on influent oil droplet size and concentration, suspended solids concentration, flow rates (and their variability), environmental conditions, maintenance schedules and effectiveness, treatment targets and costs; and (3) oily wastewater treatment systems, based on mechanical separation, are favoured over those that are chemically based, as they simplify operational requirements. Source reduction, through housekeeping, equipment and reagent modifications, and segregation and/or consolidation of hydrocarbon waste streams, minimizes treatment costs, safety and environmental impact.

  1. 77 FR 2355 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ...- Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 10 / Tuesday... Commercial Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... standards for several classes of commercial heating, air-conditioning, and water-heating equipment. Pursuant...

  2. Outdoor Power Equipment Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 5111.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The graduate of the Outdoor Power Equipment Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) supervise, train and coach apprentices; (2) service, maintain, repair and rebuild outdoor power equipment and outdoor power equipment accessories; (3) communicate clearly with customers, staff, suppliers, as required;…

  3. Japanese industrial research on lean combustion: A case study: International Research Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.; Hutchinson, R.A.

    1987-08-01

    In recent years, Japanese automakers have introduced a number of successful lean-combustion engines. These engines, in addition to the general expertise in building small cars, have made the Japanese automobiles into the gas mileage champions of the US market. The lean-combustion engines also provide very satisfactory performance and acceptable emissions. United States automakers and research managers, who were probably better informed about lean-combustion than the Japanese were, actively investigated lean-combustion but did not develop an engine. This report examines the basis for the Japanese innovations, the research that took the Japanese past the US state of the art to permit engine development. A preliminary review of recent (1980s) Japanese literature did not turn up strong evidence of new research activity in the lean-combustion area, but did provide background on new engines developed by several major manufacturers. The study was conducted solely through the Japanese and US published literature, with emphasis on early research conducted in the 1970s. This report presents an example of how Japanese research progress can be examined by reviewing the Japanese research literature. Although useful information was obtained by this method, it is still difficult to get a complete picture. When reviewing the literature, as was done for this report, one must remember that the marginal use of references by Japanese researchers obscures prior work, as does the tendency of the Japanese to publish several articles on similar or identical topics. 50 refs., 15 figs.

  4. Coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. This includes new installations and those existing installations that were originally designed for oil or gas firing. The data generated by these projects must be sufficient for private-sector decisions on the feasibility of using coal as the fuel of choice. This work should also provide incentives for the private sector to continue and expand the development, demonstration, and application of these combustion systems. Vortec Corporation`s Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications is being developed under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 as part of this DOE development program. The current contract represents the third phase of a three-phase development program. Phase I of the program addressed the technical and economic feasibility of the process, and was initiated in 1987 and completed 1989. Phase II was initiated in 1989 and completed in 1990. During Phase II of the development, design improvements were made to critical components and the test program addressed the performance of the process using several different feedstocks. Phase III of the program was initiated September 1991 and is scheduled for completion in 1994. The Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value-added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and selected industrial wastes.

  5. 75 FR 4795 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Publication of the Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... commercial package air-conditioning and heating equipment, EPCA provides that ``the test procedures shall be... Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute or by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and...-conditioning ] and heating equipment, effective January 8, 2007. 71 FR 71340. DOE adopted the...

  6. Industrial Technology Modernization Program. Project 87. Improve Process and Automate Equipment. Revision 1. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    operations and the proposed FM & TS manufacturing operations respectively. Factory The factory level (also known as the plant level) is responsible for...application is produced by Cyborg Corporation, Newton, Massachusetts. Transformer Marking Equipment Considerable effort has been expended by Production...the equipment ($3000 - $4000) is not a significant factor in the savings calculations. Oven Monitor Network No reasonable alternative to the Cyborg

  7. 76 FR 34914 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    .... Proposed Definition(s) IV. Evaluation of Set-Top Boxes and Network Equipment as a Covered Product Subject.... Proposed Definition(s) DOE proposes to add a definition for ``Set-top Boxes and Network Equipment'' in the... standard that may arise from today's proposed determination. There currently is no statutory definition of...

  8. Trade and Industrial Education. Course of Study for Mine Equipment Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, James C., Comp.; Tweed, Stephen C., Comp.

    Intended as a teaching and learning guide for use with high school students who are interested in the occupation of mine equipment repairman, this beginning course is designed to give students the opportunity to develop the necessary skills required to perform the tasks of a mine equipment repairman; acquire the related information necessary to…

  9. Advanced combustion system for industrial boilers. Phase 2, Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.; Millard, W.P.; Attig, R.C.; Schulz, R.J.

    1990-12-31

    Initial work in Phase II concentrated on: (a) adapting a commercially available automotive oxygen sensor for use in the boiler control system; (b) developing a more commercially oriented dense-phase coal transport system; (c) designing, fabricating and testing an improved burner for better combustion efficiency; and (d) adding deep-air-staging capabilities to the new burner to decrease NO{sub x} emissions.

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Bert Zauderer

    1999-03-11

    In the second half of calendar year 1998, no work was performed on the present project. The 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility was operated for 11 tests, primarily with Coal Tech resources on biomass combustion and gasification. The total test days on the Philadelphia facility to the end of August 1998 was 119. Of these, 36 tests were part of another DOE project on sulfur retention is slag, and 8 were on an in-house biomass combustion effort. The test days on the other project are listed here because they demonstrate the durability of the combustor, which is one of the objectives of the present project. Also, the test work of 1998 revealed for the first time the major potential of this combustor for biomass combustion. These tests are double the 63 tests in the original plan for this project. All key project objectives have been exceeded including combustor durability, automated combustor operation, NO{sub x} emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO{sub 2} emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu. In addition, a novel post-combustion NOx control process has been tested on a 37 MW and 100 MW utility boiler. The only effort remaining on this project is facility disassembly and Final Report. However, as part of the commercialization effort for this combustor technology, Coal Tech is planning to maintain the combustor facility in an operational mode at least through 2001. Coal Tech is focusing on utilizing the combustor with biomass fuels in very low cost, small (1 MW nominal) steam power plants. Worldwide application of this technology would have a major impact in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions because the energy content of agricultural biomass is equal to the energy content of the USA's annual coal production.

  11. A review of acoustic dampers applied to combustion chambers in aerospace industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dan; Li, X. Y.

    2015-04-01

    In engine combustion systems such as rockets, aero-engines and gas turbines, pressure fluctuations are always present, even during normal operation. One of design prerequisites for the engine combustors is stable operation, since large-amplitude self-sustained pressure fluctuations (also known as combustion instability) have the potential to cause serious structural damage and catastrophic engine failure. To dampen pressure fluctuations and to reduce noise, acoustic dampers are widely applied as a passive control means to stabilize combustion/engine systems. However, they cannot respond to the dynamic changes of operating conditions and tend to be effective over certain narrow range of frequencies. To maintain their optimum damping performance over a broad frequency range, extensive researches have been conducted during the past four decades. The present work is to summarize the status, challenges and progress of implementing such acoustic dampers on engine systems. The damping effect and mechanism of various acoustic dampers, such as Helmholtz resonators, perforated liners, baffles, half- and quarter-wave tube are introduced first. A summary of numerical, experimental and theoretical studies are then presented to review the progress made so far. Finally, as an alternative means, ';tunable acoustic dampers' are discussed. Potential, challenges and issues associated with the dampers practical implementation are highlighted.

  12. Nondestructive test and inspection requirements for aeromechanical lifting and handling equipment - A comparison of launch site to industry standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, Donald E.

    Launch site safety regulations require lifting devices to provide a safety factor of five at ultimate to be periodically proof load tested to 200 percent of capacity; visually inspected prior to use; and undergo nondestructive crack detection tests such as magnetic particle, dye penetrant, or X-ray. Industry standards are similar, but do not require crack detection tests. A TQM process improvement study has found the additional tests do not improve the quality of safety for this type equipment.

  13. Biomass energy industry sourcebook

    SciTech Connect

    Troxell, D.L.

    1989-03-01

    The report is a directory of persons/establishments involved with different aspects of the biomass energy industry. These include consulting, engineering design, construction, manufacturing, retail, information, education, and research. Listings include name, address, phone, and a brief description of each firm/organization. Entries are categorized as follows: Consultants and Engineers, Alcohol Production Equipment/Systems, Methane Production Equipment/Systems, Combustion Equipment/Systems, Fuel Processing, Harvesting Equipment/Systems, Silviculture, Transportation, Storage, and Handling, Information Sources, and Databases. The report has been expanded and revised from a previous edition.

  14. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a {open_quotes}Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes} is a project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the major effort was concentrated on conducting the 100 hour demonstration test. The test was successfully conducted from September 12th through the 16th. The test program consisted of one test run, with a duration of 100 hours at a nominal feed rate of 1000 lbs/hr. Throughout the test, the CMS was fired with coal and a coal by-product (i.e. coal-fired boiler flyash) as the primary fuels. Natural gas was used as an auxiliary fuel as necessary to provide process trim. The feedstock consisted of a coal-fired utility boiler flyash and dolomite and produced a stable, fully-reacted vitrified product. The fly ash, supplied by PENELEC, contained between 6 and 12% by weight of carbon because of the low NO{sub x} burners on the PENELEC boilers.

  15. Combustion Fundamentals Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Increased emphasis is placed on fundamental and generic research at Lewis Research Center with less systems development efforts. This is especially true in combustion research, where the study of combustion fundamentals has grown significantly in order to better address the perceived long term technical needs of the aerospace industry. The main thrusts for this combustion fundamentals program area are as follows: analytical models of combustion processes, model verification experiments, fundamental combustion experiments, and advanced numeric techniques.

  16. A higher-order projection method for the simulation of unsteady turbulent nonpremixed combustion in an industrial burner

    SciTech Connect

    Pember, R.B.; Almgren, A.S.; Bell, J.B.; Colella, P.; Howell, L.; Lai, M.

    1994-12-01

    The modeling of transient effects in burners is becoming increasingly important. The problem of ensuring the safe performance of an industrial burner, for example, is much more difficult during the startup or shutdown phases of operation. The peak formation of pollutants is also much more dependent on transient behavior, in particular, on peak temperatures, than on average operating conditions. In this paper we present a new methodology for the modeling of unsteady, nonpremixed, reacting flow in industrial burners. The algorithm uses a second-order projection method for unsteady, low-Mach number reacting flow and accounts for species diffusion, convective and radiative heat transfer, viscous transport, turbulence, and chemical kinetics. The time step used by the method is restricted solely by an advective CFL condition. The methodology is applicable only in the low-Mach number regime (M < .3), typically met in industrial burners. The projection method for low-Mach number reacting flow is an extension of a higher-order projection method for incompressible flow [9, 5, 3,4] to the low-Mach number equations of reacting flow. Our method is based on an approximate projection formulation. Radiative transport is modeled using the discrete ordinates method. The main goal of this work is to introduce and investigate the simulation of burners using a higher-order projection method for low-Mach number combustion. As such, the methodology is applied here only to axisymmetric flow in gas-fired burners for which the boundaries can be aligned with a rectangular grid. The perfect gas law is also assumed. In addition, we use a one-step reduced kinetics mechanism, a {kappa} {minus} {epsilon} model for turbulent transport, and a simple turbulent combustion model.

  17. 78 FR 54197 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Packaged Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency... collection process to consider amending the energy conservation standards for commercial packaged boilers... Technologies Office, Mailstop EE-2J, Framework Document for Commercial Packaged Boilers, Docket No....

  18. Combustion dynamics linked to flame behaviour in a partially premixed swirled industrial burner

    SciTech Connect

    Biagioli, Fernando; Guethe, Felix; Schuermans, Bruno

    2008-07-15

    Previous work [Biagioli, F., Stabilization mechanism of turbulent premixed flames in strongly swirled flows, Combustion, Theory and Modelling 10 (3) (2006) 389-412; Guethe, F., Lachner, R., Schuermans, B., Biagioli, F., Geng, W., Inauen, A., Schenker, S., Bombach, R., Hubschmid, W., Flame imaging on the ALSTOM EV-burner: thermo acoustic pulsations and CFD-validation, in: AIAA Paper 2006-437 presented at the 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, January 9-12, 2006] has shown that turbulent dry low NO{sub x} (partially premixed) flames in high swirl conical burners may be subject to a large change of their anchoring location at the symmetry axis when a critical value of the bulk equivalence ratio is reached, i.e. they are bi-stable. This flame behavior is linked here to combustion pressure dynamics measured in an atmospheric test rig for a prototype version of the Alstom EnVironmental (EV) conical burner. The link is made via the solution of the problem of the 'travelling flameholder', which shows that the unsteady displacement of the flame anchoring location implies an unsteady variation of the flame surface area and therefore unsteady heat release. The relevance of this source of unsteady heat release - which is different from more usual ones due to variations in turbulent burning rate and in the sensible enthalpy jump across the flame - to the generation of combustion dynamics in strongly swirled flows is confirmed here by the strong positive correlation between the tendency of the flame to be displaced and the measured amplitude of pressure pulsations. (author)

  19. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal-fire combustion system: phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, Dr. Bert

    1997-08-15

    In the second quarter of calendar year 1997, 9 days of combustor- boiler tests were performed, including 3 days of tests on a parallel DOE sponsored project on sulfur retention in a slagging combustor. Between tests, modifications and improvements that were indicated by these tests were implemented. This brings the total number of test days to the end of June 1997 in the task 5 effort to 83 days. This compares with a total of 63 test days needed to complete the task 5 test effort, and the number of tests days required to meet the task 5 project plan have been completed. The key project objectives in the areas of combustor performance and environmental performance have been exceeded. With sorbent injection in the combustion gas train, NO{sub x} emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO{sub 2} emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu have been measured in tests in the previous quarter. The emphasis of tests in the present quarter have been on further optimizing post-combustion sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control processes, with most of the test effort focused on the NO{sub x} control process. Many factors which control the NO{sub x} reduction were identified in tests on the 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler. Another very important milestone in this quarter was the successful test of this Coal Tech post combustion NO{sub x} control process on a 100 MW utility boiler, where in a preliminary test 25% NO{sub x} reduction was measured.

  20. Development of a combustion technology for ultra-low emission (< 5 ppm nox) industrial burner

    SciTech Connect

    Littlejohn, D.; Majeski, A.J.; Cheng, R.K.; Castaldini, C.

    2002-11-01

    A combustion concept to achieve ultra-low emissions (NO{sub x} {le} 2 ppm and CO {le} 20 ppm) was tested on an 18 kW low swirl burner (LSB). It is based on lean premixed combustion combined with flue gas recirculation (FGR) and partially reformed natural gas (PRNG). Flame stability and emissions were assessed as a function of {phi}, FGR, and PRNG. The results show that PRNG improves flame stability and reduces CO, with no impact on NO{sub x} at {phi} = 0.8. A 1D flame simulation satisfactorily predicted prompt NO{sub x} at lean conditions with high FGR. Two catalysts were tested in a prototype steam reformer, and the results were used to estimate reactor volume and steam requirements in a practical system. An advanced Sud Chemie catalyst displayed good conversion efficiency at relatively low temperatures and high space velocities, which indicates that the reformer can be small and will track load changes. Tests conducted on the LSB with FGR and 0.05 PRNG shows that boilers using a LSB with PRNG and high FGR and {phi} close to stoichiometry can operate with low emissions and high efficiency.

  1. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal-Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, Bert

    1997-02-27

    In the fourth quarter of calendar year 1996, 15 days of combust-boiler tests were performed, including 10 days of tests on a parallel DOE sponsored project on sulfur retention in a slagging combustor. Between tests, modifications and improvements that were indicated by these tests were implemented. This brings the total number of test days to the end of December in the task 5 effort to 57, increased to 65 as of the date of this Report, 1/27/97. This compares with a total of 63 test days needed to complete the task 5 test effort, and it completes the number of tests days required to meet the task 5 project plan. The key project objectives of the areas of combustor performance and environmental performance have been exceeded. With sorbent injection in the combustion gas train, NOX emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and S02 emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu have been measured in tests in this quarter. Work in the next quarter will focus on even greater reductions in environmental emissions. Also tests are planned with coals other than the Eastern US bituminous coals tested in this project. For example, it is planned to tests Indian coals whose ash concentration is in the 40 {approx} 0 range.

  2. Dispersion and co-combustion studies for disposal of agro-industrial effluents in bubbling fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Miccio, F.

    1997-12-31

    The present work was developed in the frame of a collaboration between CNR/Istituto Ricerche Combustione, University of Parma and ENEA. It was aimed at exploiting and recovering the thermal energy from liquid effluents and solid wastes derived from typical Italian manufacturing of agro-industrial companies. This paper focuses on an organic sludge that is obtained as a residue during steam concentration of waste water from alcohol production in distilleries. This sludge has a very low calorific value and cannot be directly used in a combustion process. The first objective was to turn the sludge into a coal/waste/water mixture, easy to prepare and to burn on site in a bubbling fluidized combustor. To do so, some preliminary runs were carried out on a significant experimental scale by employing the 2100 kW{sub t} FBC-370 pre-pilot facility and by feeding underbed a South African coal/dry residue/water mixture with a maximum particle size of 1 mm. Very satisfactory values of co-combustion efficiency (i.e., larger than 98%), were attained as a function of the dispersing air velocity. It was proven that the mechanism of combustion passes through the formation of carbon-sand aggregates and tiny carbon deposits on bed sand particles. Another outcome was that pumping the mixture directly into the bed without any atomization is feasible and favorable from the point of view of co-combustion efficiency. Therefore, a second objective was to investigate aggregate formation as a result of mixture injection into the hot bed. This has been pursued through a review of the fundamental aspects underlying the behavior of a liquid issuing from an orifice. Two simple approaches, one based on Scheele and Meister`s (1968) results and the other one based on a balance of force moments, were followed. These two approaches provided two different equations to predict the diameter of a drop that detaches from the injection nozzle. Furthermore, aggregate formation was investigated through the set

  3. Control schemes for an industrial rotary calciner with a heat shield around the combustion zone

    SciTech Connect

    Ciftci, S.; Kim, N.K.

    1999-03-01

    Soda ash (sodium carbonate) is produced by calcining natural trona ore (sodium sesquicarbonate) in rotary calciners. Shell overheating, the consequent deformation of the calciner shell, and heat loss are frequently encountered problems during this operation. Installation of a concentric, metallic heat shield around the calciner`s combustion zone can help to reduce the shell temperature and recover some of the energy that would otherwise be lost. Another problem often encountered is the deterioration of product quality when the system inputs deviate from their design rates. A mathematical model of the calciner with a heat shield is used to design different control schemes in order to maintain the product quality. Performance of the designed control schemes is demonstrated via computer simulation.

  4. Advanced combustion system for industrial boilers. Phase 2, Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.; Millard, W.P.; Attig, R.C.; Schulz, R.J.

    1991-12-31

    Work in Phase II has concentrated on: (a) adapting a commercially available automotive oxygen sensor for use in the boiler control system; ( b.) developing a commercially oriented dense-phase coal transport system; (c.) designing, fabricating, testing, and fine tuning an improved burner for better combustion efficiency; and (d) adding deep-air-staging capabilities to the new burner to decrease NO{sub x} emissions to slightly above 0.4 lb-NO{sub x}/MBtu with ultra fine coal. This performance is considerably better than the DOE goal for Phase 11 work. Reburning tests were conducted using ultra fine coal and propane in the external, water-cooled 15-foot long test duct. When propane supplied approximately 14% of the heat input, NO{sub x} levels were as low as 0.295 lb-NO{sub x}/MBtu. Initial testing of the UTSI boiler control and automation system was successful.

  5. 10 CFR 34.20 - Performance requirements for industrial radiography equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... by an applicant or licensee to demonstrate the applicability of previously performed testing on... acceptable alternative to actual testing of the component pursuant to the above referenced standard. (b) In... in American National Standards Institute N432-1980, if the prototype equipment has been tested...

  6. 78 FR 28812 - Energy Efficiency Program for Industrial Equipment: Petition of UL Verification Services Inc. for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... Countries with UL employees Today, globally UL is made up of over 11,800 staff of which approximately 2,700... This work is conducted in the same facilities, using the same equipment and staff as is UL's product... assign a qualified UL staff member to be responsible for handling the investigation. Initial Product...

  7. Industry sector analysis, Indonesia: Electric power distribution equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Sihombing, P.

    1991-08-20

    The market survey covers the electric power distribution equipment market in Indonesia. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Indonesian consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information.

  8. Industry sector analysis, Ecuador: Thermal power generating equipment. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The article is derived from a report titled: The Thermal Power Generation Equipment Market in Ecuador, dated April 1993, prepared by P. Zaldumbide, A. Moreno, and N. Ordonez, American Embassy - Quito. The article consists of 10 pages and contains the following subtopics: Overview; Statistical Data; Market Assessment; Best Sales Prospects; Competitive Situation; Market Access; and Trade Promotion Opportunities.

  9. Small Engine and Related Equipment Repair Curriculum Guide. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for small engine and related equipment repair is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a career ladder, a matrix relating duty/task numbers to job titles, and a…

  10. Small Engine and Related Equipment Repair Curriculum Guide. Michigan Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for small engine and related equipment repair is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a career ladder, a matrix relating duty/task numbers to job titles, and a…

  11. 78 FR 79419 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Effect...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... microwave oven standby and off modes, metal halide lighting fixtures, commercial refrigeration equipment... and released to the public in May 2013 by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). OMB has issued... coolers and freezers, metal halide lighting fixtures, and furnace fans. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  12. 78 FR 14024 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Public Meeting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... Equipment: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document for Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners and Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps; Correction AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... terminal air conditioners and heat pumps. This document corrects the date of the public meeting....

  13. Agricultural Equipment Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 3212

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The graduate of the Agricultural Equipment Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) repair, diagnose and maintain by skill and knowledge gained through training and experience any of the working parts of diesel engines as well as the various components of mobile farm machinery; (2) use, competently,…

  14. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system -- combustion development

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.

    1994-06-01

    This topical report summarizes the combustor development work accomplished under the subject contract. The objective was to develop a combustion system for the Solar 4MW Type H Centaur gas turbine generator set which was to be used to demonstrate the economic, technical and environmental feasibility of a direct coal-fueled gas turbine in a 100 hour proof-of-concept test. This program started with a design configuration derived during the CSC program. The design went through the following evolution: CSC design which had some known shortcomings, redesigned CSC now designated as the Two Stage Slagging Combustor (TSSC), improved TSSC with the PRIS evaluated in the IBSTF, and full scale design. Supporting and complimentary activities included computer modelling, flow visualization, slag removal, SO{sub x} removal, fuel injector development and fuel properties evaluation. Three combustor rigs were utilized: the TSSC, the IBSTF and the full scale rig at Peoria. The TSSC rig, which was 1/10th scale of the proposed system, consisted of a primary and secondary zone and was used to develop the primary zone performance and to evaluate SO{sub x} and slag removal and fuel properties variations. The IBSTF rig which included all the components of the proposed system was also 1/10th scale except for the particulate removal system which was about 1/30th scale. This rig was used to verify combustor performance data obtained on the TSSC and to develop the PRIS and the particulate removal system. The full scale rig initially included the primary and secondary zones and was later modified to incorporate the PRIS. The purpose of the full scale testing was to verify the scale up calculations and to provide a combustion system for the proof-of-concept engine test that was initially planned in the program.

  15. 75 FR 22031 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... the electromagnetic (magnetic) type. The industry-accepted life of magnetic ballasts is 50,000 hours... most efficient broad spectrum (``white light'') HID technology, and has a higher first cost than MV...

  16. Combustion physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. R.

    1985-11-01

    Over 90% of our energy comes from combustion. By the year 2000 the figure will still be 80%, even allowing for nuclear and alternative energy sources. There are many familiar examples of combustion use, both domestic and industrial. These range from the Bunsen burner to large flares, from small combustion chambers, such as those in car engines, to industrial furnaces for steel manufacture or the generation of megawatts of electricity. There are also fires and explosions. The bountiful energy release from combustion, however, brings its problems, prominent among which are diminishing fuel resources and pollution. Combustion science is directed towards finding ways of improving efficiency and reducing pollution. One may ask, since combustion is a chemical reaction, why physics is involved: the answer is in three parts. First, chemicals cannot react unless they come together. In most flames the fuel and air are initially separate. The chemical reaction in the gas phase is very fast compared with the rate of mixing. Thus, once the fuel and air are mixed the reaction can be considered to occur instantaneously and fluid mechanics limits the rate of burning. Secondly, thermodynamics and heat transfer determine the thermal properties of the combustion products. Heat transfer also plays a role by preheating the reactants and is essential to extracting useful work. Fluid mechanics is relevant if work is to be performed directly, as in a turbine. Finally, physical methods, including electric probes, acoustics, optics, spectroscopy and pyrometry, are used to examine flames. The article is concerned mainly with how physics is used to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  17. Measuring Systems for Temperature Monitoring of Thermal Spraying and Combustion Processes in Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senchenko, V. N.; Dozhdikov, V. S.

    2003-09-01

    Conventional optical pyrometry methods do not always yield satisfactory results in cases of temperature monitoring in complicated industrial processes. For example, measuring the temperature of heated particles in thermal plasma spraying jets requires recognizing the object being measured by solving a mathematical problem. In addition to diagnosis of the temperature of a heated gas flow based on its self-radiation, it is necessary to utilize an irradiation physical model of IR active molecules. The paper briefly describes two diagnostic systems and methods for the above-mentioned industrial application. The main details of the system design, calibration and performance are presented.

  18. Mechatronic module for monitoring the hydraulic parameters of the industrial production equipments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blejan, Marian; Drumea, Petrin; Mirea, Adrian; Ilie, Ioana

    2009-01-01

    The large scale use of hydropneumatic equipments into fabrication process, combined with the production pursuit informational systems impose complex measurements of parameters must be transmitted to the informational systems. The integration of some mechatronic ensembles into the hydropneumatic equipments, ensembles which allow the measurement and the network transmission of the measurement results through the informational systems, makes an easy way for the production centers to informational improve their fabrication process whit all the benefits implied. The global evolution of embedded systems, combined whit new tips of sensors and measuring methods of hydro pneumatic devices specific physic parameters, allows the tackle of those measuring mechatronic ensembles in partnership whit the European research centers that have the same goals in those fields.

  19. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 6: VENTED & COMBUSTION SOURCE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  20. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 6: VENTED & COMBUSTION SOURCE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  1. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1993-02-15

    A major part of the work in this quarter was on the combustor tests in task 2. Three of the six planned tests in this task were completed. The first two were parametric tests of nominal one shift, (8 hour) duration on coal. Due to failure of the UV detector in the first test only several hours of coal fired operation were completed. In the second test, coal fired operation continued for the planned one shift until the 4 ton coal bin was empty. After reviewing this work with DOE, it was decided to focus the remaining test on longer duration operation with each test at one optimum condition. The third test was planned for two shift coal fired operation. Due to a problem with the pilot gas ignitor, combustion was delayed by 5 hours from 7 AM to Noon. As a result coal fired operation was limited to one shift between 3 PM and 11 PM. Throughout this period the combustor remained at one fixed condition with the use of computer control. Results for these three tests are presented in this report. Most of the work on the task 4 design and cost of a 20 MW combined gas-steam turbine power plant using the air cooled combustor was completed in the previous quarter. The results obtained by the A/E subcontractor on the installation desip and cost were evaluated in the present quarter and they are summarized in this report.

  2. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale, Coal-Fired Combustion System: Phase 3.

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1997-04-21

    In the first quarter of calendar year 1997, 17 days of combustor- boiler tests were performed, including one day of tests on a parallel DOE sponsored project on sulfur retention in a slagging combustor. Between tests, modifications and improvements that were indicated by these tests were implemented. This brings the total number of test days required to meet the task 5 project plan. The key project objectives in the areas of combustor performance and environmental performance have been exceeded. With sorbent injection in the combustion gas train, NO{sub x} emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO{sub 2} emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu have been measured in tests in this quarter. Tests in the present quarter have resulted in further optimizing the sorbent injection and NO{sub x} control processes. A very important milestone in this quarter was two successful combustor tests on a very high ash (37%) Indian coal. Work in the next quarter will focus on commercialization of the combustor- boiler system. In addition, further tests of the NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} control process and on the Indian coal will be performed.

  3. Development & Testing of Industrial Scale, Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bert Lauderer

    1998-01-17

    In the fourth quarter of calendar year 1997, 11 days of tests on the 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility were performed as part of a parallel project on sulfur capture in slag. No work was performed on the present project in this quarter. The total test days on the Philadelphia facility to the end of December 1997 was 103, of which 30 tests were part of the other DOE project. This exceeds the planned 63 test days for this project. All key project objectives have been exceeded including combustor durability, automated combustor operation, NO emissions as x low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu. In addition, a novel post- 2 combustion NOx control process has been tested on a 37 MW and 100 MW utility boiler. Any further tests will depend on the results of evaluations of current and prior tests. The only effort remaining on this project is facility disassembly and Final Report. This report also contains clarification of project results reported in the 22 Quarterly Technical Report in response to nd comments by DOE.

  4. Development & Testing of Industrial Scale, Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bert Lauderer

    1998-04-01

    In the first quarter of calendar year 1998, 4 days of tests on the 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility were performed as part of a parallel project on sulfur capture in slag. No work was performed on the present project in this quarter. The total test days on the Philadelphia facility to the end of March 1998 was 108, of which 34 tests were part of the other DOE project. This exceeds the planned 63 test days for this project. All key project objectives have been exceeded including combustor durability, automated combustor operation, NOx emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO2 emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu. In addition, a novel post-combustion NOx control process has been tested on a 37 MW and 100 MW utility boiler. Any further tests will depend on the results of evaluations of current and prior tests. The only effort remaining on this project is facility disassembly and Final Report. Almost all of the effort in the present quarter focussed on applying the results of this project and the parallel sulfur capture in slag project on new applications of this technology. Several very promising areas were identified and a number of proposals to implement them were prepared.

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Bert Zauderer

    1998-07-08

    In the second quarter of calendar year 1998, no work was performed on the present project. The 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility was not operated during this period. The total test days on the Philadelphia facility to the end of June 1998 remained at 108 as in the previous quarter. Of these, 34 tests were part of the other DOE project. The test days on the other project are listed here because they demonstrate the durability of the combustor, which is one of the objectives of the present project. As noted previously, this exceeds the planned 63 test days for this project. All key project objectives have been exceeded including combustor durability, automated combustor operation, NO{sub x} emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO{sub 2} emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu. In addition, a novel post-combustion NO{sub x} control process has been tested on a 37 MW and 100 MW utility boiler. Any further tests will depend on the results of evaluations of current and prior tests. The only effort remaining on this project is facility disassembly and Final Report. Also, as part of the commercialization effort for this combustor technology, Coal Tech is developing alternative designs of the combustor that allow its fabrication as substantially reduced costs from the present unit.

  6. A survey of gas-side fouling in industrial heat-transfer equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marner, W. J.; Suitor, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Gas-side fouling and corrosion problems occur in all of the energy intensive industries including the chemical, petroleum, primary metals, pulp and paper, glass, cement, foodstuffs, and textile industries. Topics of major interest include: (1) heat exchanger design procedures for gas-side fouling service; (2) gas-side fouling factors which are presently available; (3) startup and shutdown procedures used to minimize the effects of gas-side fouling; (4) gas-side fouling prevention, mitigation, and accommodation techniques; (5) economic impact of gas-side fouling on capital costs, maintenance costs, loss of production, and energy losses; and (6) miscellaneous considerations related to gas-side fouling. The present state-of-the-art for industrial gas-side fouling is summarized by a list of recommendations for further work in this area.

  7. A survey of gas-side fouling in industrial heat-transfer equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marner, W. J.; Suitor, J. W.

    1983-11-01

    Gas-side fouling and corrosion problems occur in all of the energy intensive industries including the chemical, petroleum, primary metals, pulp and paper, glass, cement, foodstuffs, and textile industries. Topics of major interest include: (1) heat exchanger design procedures for gas-side fouling service; (2) gas-side fouling factors which are presently available; (3) startup and shutdown procedures used to minimize the effects of gas-side fouling; (4) gas-side fouling prevention, mitigation, and accommodation techniques; (5) economic impact of gas-side fouling on capital costs, maintenance costs, loss of production, and energy losses; and (6) miscellaneous considerations related to gas-side fouling. The present state-of-the-art for industrial gas-side fouling is summarized by a list of recommendations for further work in this area.

  8. Measurement of Radiated Emissions from Industrial Heating Device Equipment as IT Relates to Aeronautical Services.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    regarding ISM equipment. The radiated levels with respect to the CISPR limits are well above allowable levels. There did not appear to be a significant dif...distance from the IHD unit under test. The plots also indicate the limits of the FCC and CISPR allowable emissions. The plots of Figure 17 and 18 are...3400 Elev. Ang. - 0* Elev. Ang. - 740 100 JiV/m 196 uV/m FCC Limit (1000 ft., decay factor - 1.95) - 257 1JV/m CISPR Limit (1000 ft., decay factor

  9. 77 FR 49701 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... to estimating the FFC energy and emission impacts of alternative energy conservation standards levels... / Friday, August 17, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 430 and 431 RIN 1904-AC24 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial...

  10. 75 FR 62122 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Publication of the Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial.... The waiver request is specific to the Daikin Altherma air-to-water heat pump with integrated domestic water heating. Through this document, DOE: Solicits comments, data, and information with respect to...

  11. 78 FR 49202 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...\\ the California Energy Commission (CEC) appliance database,\\9\\ and additional industry and manufacturer... ). \\9\\ See California Energy Commission: Appliance Database (Available at: http://www.appliances.energy...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AD01 Energy Conservation Program for Certain Commercial and...

  12. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 8: EQUIPMENT LEAKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  13. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 8: EQUIPMENT LEAKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  14. 75 FR 59657 - Energy Efficiency Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Public Meeting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Electric Motors AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION... commercial and industrial electric motors under section 342(b) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act..._standards/commercial/electric_motors.html . For information on obtaining a copy of the framework...

  15. Process burner and combustion system hazards: 10 key issues that save lives.

    PubMed

    John R Puskar, P E

    2007-04-11

    Burner and combustion safety is crucial for the safe operation of fuel-fired heaters and boilers at process industry facilities. This paper discusses 10 of the most common burner and combustion system hazards that impact the safe operation of combustion equipment. The paper includes a discussion of three burner related explosion incidents that occurred at plants and how to avoid them. Strategies are also presented for training of maintenance and operations personnel on hazard recognition and avoidance. A protocol for walking down equipment prior to light offs is also presented as an extra safety step.

  16. Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    of Surrogate Fuels for Gasoline and Application to an HCCI Engine . Proceedings of the 4th Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of the Combustion...Department of Mechanical Engineering Stanford University Stanford, CA 94305-3030 Grant number: F49620-03-1-0258 DITRI DUTIO STATErNT A Approved for Public...and engines found in modern, industrially relevant equipment. In the course of this transition of LES from a scientifically interesting method in its

  17. Estimation and characterization of gaseous pollutant emissions from agricultural crop residue combustion in industrial and household sectors of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Saleem, Farhan; -Rahman, Naveed-ur; van den Berg, Leon; Abbas, Farhat

    2014-02-01

    A long-term energy crisis has resulted in increased combustion of biomass fuel in industrial and household sectors in Pakistan. We report results of a study on the emission characteristics of rice husk, rice straw, corncobs and bagasse since they are frequently used as biomass fuel and differed remarkably in physico-chemical and combustion characteristics. Emission concentrations and emission factors were determined experimentally by burning the biomass fuel using a burning tower. Modified combustion efficiency (MCE) of rice husk, rice straw, corncobs and bagasse was >0.97 indicating that combustion was dominated by flaming mode. Emission factors of gaseous pollutants CO, CO2, NO2, NO, NOx and SO2 for rice straw were calculated to be 17.19 ± 0.28, 1090.07 ± 24.0, 0.89 ± 0.03, 1.48 ± 0.04, 3.16 ± 0.08 and 0.38 ± 0.03 g kg-1 respectively which were significantly (p < 0.05) higher compared to those from rice husk (14.05 ± 0.18, 880.48 ± 8.99, 0.19 ± 0.01, 1.38 ± 0.02, 2.31 ± 0.04 and 0.11 ± 0.03 g kg-1), corncobs (8.63 ± 0.12, 595.44 ± 10.38, 0.16 ± 0.01, 0.70 ± 0.01, 1.23 ± 0.02 and 0.02 ± 0.00 g kg-1) and bagasse (12.39 ± 0.08, 937.03 ± 9.07, 0.36 ± 0.03, 1.44 ± 0.02, 2.57 ± 0.04 and 0.18 ± 0.02 g kg-1). Total emissions of CO, CO2, NO2, NO, NOx and SO2 were estimated to be 3.68, 230.51, 0.05, 0.36, 0.60 and 0.03 Gg for rice husk, 33.75, 2140.35, 1.75, 2.91, 6.20 and 0.75 Gg for rice straw, 1.11, 76.28, 0.02, 0.02 and 0.03 Gg for corncobs and 42.12, 3185.53, 1.22, 4.90, 8.74 and 0.61 Gg for bagasse respectively. Rice straw, however, had significantly (p < 0.05) higher potential of gaseous pollutant emission factors. Bagasse had the highest values of total emissions followed by rice straw, rice husk and corncobs. Rice straw and bagasse, on cumulative basis, contributed more than 90% of total emissions of gaseous pollutants. Results reported in this study are important in formulating provincial and regional emission budgets of gaseous pollutants

  18. 78 FR 66201 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to revise its test procedure for residential water heaters and certain commercial water heaters established under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. This rulemaking will fulfill DOE's statutory obligation for residential and certain commercial water heaters to review its test procedure for covered products and equipment at least once every seven years. In addition, this rulemaking will satisfy DOE's statutory obligation to develop a uniform efficiency descriptor for residential and commercial water heaters. The proposed test method would apply the same efficiency descriptor to all residential and certain commercial water heaters, and it would extend coverage to eliminate certain gaps in the current residential test procedure, update the simulated-use-test draw pattern, and update the water delivery temperature requirement. DOE is also announcing a public meeting to discuss and receive comments on issues presented in this test procedure rulemaking.

  19. Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

  20. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1992--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-29

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, a majority of the effort was spent relining the separator/reservoir and the cyclone melter. The relinings were completed, the cyclonemelter was reinstalled, and the test system was returned to operational status. The wet ESP was delivered and placed on its foundation. The focus during the upcoming months will be completing the integration ofthe wet ESP and conducting the first industrial proof-of-concept test. The other system modifications are well underway with the designs of the recuperator installation and the batch/coal feed system progressing smoothly. The program is still slightly behind the original schedule but it is anticipated that it will be back on schedule by the end of the year. The commercialization planning is continuing with the identification of seven potential near-term commercial demonstration opportunities.

  1. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1992--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. ne primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order toevaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, three preliminary coal-fired tests were successfully completed. These tests used industrial boiler flyash, sewer sludge ash, and waste glass collet as feedstocks. The coal-fired ash vitrification tests are considered near term potential commercial applications of the CMS technology. The waste glass cullet provided necessary dam on the effect of coal firing with respect to vitrified product oxidation state. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the proof-of-concept tests are continuing. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes is continuing. Preliminary designs for 15, 25, 100 and 400 ton/day systems are in progress. This dam will serve as input data to the life cycle cost analysis which will be-an integral part of the CMS commercialization plan.

  2. Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-09-15

    A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy equipment developed at beamline BL46XU of SPring-8 for industrial researches

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuno, Satoshi Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Takeshi; Oji, Hiroshi

    2016-07-27

    Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) is a powerful tool for investigating the chemical and electronic states of bulk and buried interface in a non-destructive manner due to the large probing depth of this technique. At BL46XU of SPring-8, there are two HAXPES systems equipped with different electron spectrometers, which can be utilized appropriately according to the purpose in various industrial researches. In this article, these systems are outlined, and two typical examples of HAXPES studies performed by them are presented, which focus on the silicidation at Ni/SiC interface and the energy distribution of interface states at SiO{sub 2}/a-InGaZnO.

  4. Fully automated measuring equipment for aqueous boron and its application to online monitoring of industrial process effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Seiichi Ohyama; Keiko Abe; Hitoshi Ohsumi; Hirokazu Kobayashi; Naotsugu Miyazaki; Koji Miyadera; Kin-ichi Akasaka

    2009-06-15

    Fully automated measuring equipment for aqueous boron (referred to as the online boron monitor) was developed on the basis of a rapid potentiometric determination method using a commercial BF{sub 4}{sup -} ion-selective electrode (ISE). The equipment can measure boron compounds with concentration ranging from a few to several hundred mg/L, and the measurement is completed in less than 20 min without any pretreatment of the sample. In the monitor, a series of operations for the measurement, i.e., sampling and dispensing of the sample, addition of the chemicals, acquisition and processing of potentiometric data, rinsing of the measurement cell, and calibration of the BF{sub 4}{sup -} ISE, is automated. To demonstrate the performance, we installed the monitor in full-scale coal-fired power plants and measured the effluent from a flue gas desulfurization unit. The boron concentration in the wastewater varied significantly depending on the type of coal and the load of power generation. An excellent correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.987) was obtained in the measurements between the online boron monitor and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, which proved that the developed monitor can serve as a useful tool for managing boron emission in industrial process effluent. 22 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Fully automated measuring equipment for aqueous boron and its application to online monitoring of industrial process effluents.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Seiichi; Abe, Keiko; Ohsumi, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Miyazaki, Naotsugu; Miyadera, Koji; Akasaka, Kin-ichi

    2009-06-01

    Fully automated measuring equipment for aqueous boron (referred to as the online boron monitor) was developed on the basis of a rapid potentiometric determination method using a commercial BF4(-) ion-selective electrode (ISE). The equipment can measure boron compounds with concentration ranging from a few to several hundred mg/L, and the measurement is completed in less than 20 min without any pretreatment of the sample. In the monitor, a series of operations for the measurement, i.e., sampling and dispensing of the sample, addition of the chemicals, acquisition and processing of potentiometric data, rinsing of the measurement cell, and calibration of the BF4(-) ISE, is automated. To demonstrate the performance, we installed the monitor in full-scale coal-fired power plants and measured the effluent from a flue gas desulfurization unit. The boron concentration in the wastewater varied significantly depending on the type of coal and the load of power generation. An excellent correlation (R2 = 0.987) was obtained in the measurements between the online boron monitor and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, which proved that the developed monitor can serve as a useful tool for managing boron emission in industrial process effluent.

  6. Effect of combustion variables on PAHs emission from incineration of cellulose waste filters from acrylic industry.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Vinit; Singh, Satnam

    2010-04-01

    Incineration of cellulose waste filter from acrylic industry showed the presence of 13-16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the list of 16 priority pollutants with an airflow rate of 1, 2, 3, and 4 L min(-1) in laboratory scale quartz tube vertical incinerator at 700-1,000 degrees C at an interval of 100 degrees C. The amount of total 16 PAHs increases with the increase in temperature with airflow rate of 1 L min(-1) and was found to be 9.4 times at 1,000 degrees C than at 700 degrees C. Studies at 800-1,000 degrees C showed the decrease in total 16 PAHs with increase in airflow rate from 1 to 2 L min(-1). The amount of total 16 PAHs increases at 700, 800, and 1,000 degrees C with increase in airflow rate from 2-4 L min(-1). At 900 degrees C, amount of 16 PAHs decreases with increase in flow rate from 1 to 3 and increases at 4 L min(-1). The lesser amount of 2A PAHs was found at 700-900 degrees C with airflow rates of 1-3 L min(-1), while less amount of 2B PAHs was found at 700 degrees C and 800 degrees C (with airflow rate of 1-2 L min(-1)), at 900 degrees C (with airflow rate of 1-3 L min(-1)) and at 1,000 degrees C (with airflow rate of 3 L min(-1)). However, the sum total of 2A and 2B PAHs were found to be less at 700-900 degrees C with airflow rate of 1-2 L min(-1).

  7. 77 FR 31742 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ...In this notice of proposed rulemaking (NOPR), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to update its test procedures for showerheads, faucets, water closets, and urinals. Specifically, DOE proposes to incorporate by reference the American Society of Mechanical Engineers/American National Standards Institute (ASME/ANSI) Standard A112.18.1-2011 test procedure for faucets and showerheads, which would replace the 1996 version currently referenced by DOE in its test procedure. DOE also proposes to incorporate by reference ASME/ANSI Standard A112.19.2-2008 procedure for water closets and urinals, which would replace the 1995 version currently referenced by DOE in its test procedure. These updates fulfill DOE's obligation under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) to review its test procedures for covered products at least once every 7 years and either amend the applicable test procedures or publish a determination in the Federal Register not to amend them. DOE also expects that incorporation of the updated procedures will bring DOE's testing requirements more closely in line with current industry practices, reduce the burden associated with testing and reporting test results for these products, and improve the accuracy of test results. For commercial prerinse spray valves, DOE has preliminarily determined that no changes are needed to the existing DOE test procedure in order to accurately measure the water consumption of these products, and proposes to retain the existing procedure without change. However, since the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) reapproved this standard in 2009 as F2324-03 (2009), DOE is proposing to incorporate by reference this most recent version. This action would also satisfy the EPCA requirement for DOE to review the test procedures for these products at least once every 7 years. This notice also announces a public meeting to receive comments on these proposed amendments to the test procedures.

  8. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced system concepts applicable to small industrial and commercial markets. Topical report, Level 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ake, T.R.; Dixit, V.B.; Mongeon, R.K.

    1992-09-01

    As part of an overall strategy to promote FBC coal combustion and to improve the marketability of the eastern coals, the US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Research Center awarded a three level contract to Riley Stoker Corporation to develop advanced Multi Solids Fluidized Bed (MSFB) boiler designs. The first level of this contract targeted the small package boiler (10,000--50,000 lb/hr steam) and industrial size boiler (75,000--150,000 lb/hr steam) markets. Two representative sizes, 30,000 lb/hr and 110,000 lb/hr of steam, were selected for the two categories for a detailed technical and economic evaluation. Technically, both the designs showed promise, however, the advanced industrial design was favored on economic considerations. It was thus selected for further study in the second level of the contract. Results of this Level-2 effort, presented in this report, consisted of testing the design concept in Riley`s 4.4 MBtu/hr pilot MSFB facility located at Riley Research Center in Worcester, Mass. The design and economics of the proof of concept facility developed in Level-1 of the contract were then revised in accordance with the findings of the pilot test program. A host site for commercial demonstration in Level-3 of the contract was also secured. It was determined that co-firing coal in combination with paper de-inking sludge will broaden the applicability of the design beyond conventional markets. International Paper (IP), the largest paper company in the world, is willing to participate in this part of the program. IP has offered its Hammermill operation at Lockhaven, Pa, site of a future paper de-inking plant, for the proof of concept installation. This plant will go in operation in 1994. It is recommended that METC proceed to the commercial demonstration of the design developed. The approach necessary to satisfy the needs of the customer while meeting the objectives of this program is presented along with a recommended plan of action.

  9. Distribution of SO 2, NO x and CO 2 emissions from fuel combustion and industrial activities in Asia with 1° × 1° resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Hajime; Narita, Hirohito

    Spatial distribution of SO 2, NO x and CO 2 emissions from fuel combustion and industrial activities in Asia has been obtained with 1° × 1° latitude-longitude resolution for 1975, 1980 and 1987 covering the geographical area of 60°E-150°E and 10°S-55°N. Locations of major power plants, iron and steel industry, chemical and petrochemical industry, oil refineries, airports and harbors have been identified for improving accuracy of the allocation of emissions to each grid. Intensive emissions are observed in the Pacific rim region of Asia including Japan, North and South Korea, the coastal area of China and Taiwan where several grids have annual emissions exceeding 100 GgS, 50 GgN and 10 TgC for SO 2, NO x and CO 2, respectively. High emission of SO 2 is also observed for several grids in the inland area of China.

  10. Practical approaches to field problems of stationary combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.W.

    1997-09-01

    The CANMET Energy Technology Centre (CETC) business plan dictates collaboration with industrial clients and other government agencies to promote energy efficiency, health and safety, pollution reduction and productivity enhancement. The Advanced Combustion Technologies group of CETC provides consultation to numerous organizations in combustion related areas by conducting laboratory and field investigations of fossil fuel-fired combustion equipment. CETC, with its modern research facilities and technical expertise, has taken this practical approach since the seventies and has assisted many organizations in overcoming field problems and in providing cost saving measures and improved profit margins. This paper presents a few selected research projects conducted for industrial clients in north and central America. The combustion systems investigated are mostly liquid fuel fired, with the exception of the utility boiler which was coal-fired. The key areas involved include fuel quality, fuel storage/delivery system contamination, waste derived oils, crude oil combustion, unacceptable pollutant emissions, ambient soot deposition, slagging, fouling, boiler component degradation, and particulate characterization. Some of the practical approaches taken to remedy these field problems on several combustion systems including residential, commercial and industrial scale units are discussed.

  11. Residential proximity to industrial combustion facilities and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Nuckols, John R; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Airola, Matthew; Colt, Joanne S; Cerhan, James R; Morton, Lindsay; Cozen, Wendy; Severson, Richard; Blair, Aaron; Cleverly, David; Ward, Mary H

    2013-02-22

    Residence near municipal solid waste incinerators, a major historical source of dioxin emissions, has been associated with increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in European studies. The aim of our study was to evaluate residence near industrial combustion facilities and estimates of dioxin emissions in relation to NHL risk in the United States. We conducted a population-based case-control study of NHL (1998-2000) in four National Cancer Institute-Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results centers (Detroit, Iowa, Los Angeles, Seattle). Residential histories 15 years before diagnosis (similar date for controls) were linked to an Environmental Protection Agency database of dioxin-emitting facilities for 969 cases and 749 controls. We evaluated proximity (3 and 5 km) to 10 facility types that accounted for >85% of U.S. emissions and a distance-weighted average emission index (AEI [ng toxic equivalency quotient (TEQ)/year]). Proximity to any dioxin-emitting facility was not associated with NHL risk (3 km OR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.8-1.3). Risk was elevated for residence near cement kilns (5 km OR = 1.7, 95% CI 0.8-3.3; 3 km OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.1-14.0) and reduced for residence near municipal solid waste incinerators (5 km OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9; 3 km OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-1.4). The AEI was not associated with risk of NHL overall. Risk for marginal zone lymphoma was increased for the highest versus lowest quartile (5 km OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.0-6.8; 3 km OR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.1-8.3). Overall, we found no association with residential exposure to dioxins and NHL risk. However, findings for high emissions and marginal zone lymphoma and for specific facility types and all NHL provide some evidence of an association and deserve future study.

  12. Residential proximity to industrial combustion facilities and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Residence near municipal solid waste incinerators, a major historical source of dioxin emissions, has been associated with increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in European studies. The aim of our study was to evaluate residence near industrial combustion facilities and estimates of dioxin emissions in relation to NHL risk in the United States. Methods We conducted a population-based case–control study of NHL (1998–2000) in four National Cancer Institute-Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results centers (Detroit, Iowa, Los Angeles, Seattle). Residential histories 15 years before diagnosis (similar date for controls) were linked to an Environmental Protection Agency database of dioxin-emitting facilities for 969 cases and 749 controls. We evaluated proximity (3 and 5 km) to 10 facility types that accounted for >85% of U.S. emissions and a distance-weighted average emission index (AEI [ng toxic equivalency quotient (TEQ)/year]). Results Proximity to any dioxin-emitting facility was not associated with NHL risk (3 km OR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.8-1.3). Risk was elevated for residence near cement kilns (5 km OR = 1.7, 95% CI 0.8-3.3; 3 km OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.1-14.0) and reduced for residence near municipal solid waste incinerators (5 km OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9; 3 km OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-1.4). The AEI was not associated with risk of NHL overall. Risk for marginal zone lymphoma was increased for the highest versus lowest quartile (5 km OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.0-6.8; 3 km OR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.1-8.3). Conclusions Overall, we found no association with residential exposure to dioxins and NHL risk. However, findings for high emissions and marginal zone lymphoma and for specific facility types and all NHL provide some evidence of an association and deserve future study. PMID:23433489

  13. INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT SPECTRUM SIGNATURES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ELECTROTHERAPY , IGNITION SYSTEMS, INDUCTION HEATING, INDUCTION MOTORS, NOISE, NOISE(RADIO), RECTIFIERS, REDUCTION, RESISTANCE WELDING, TRANSMISSION LINES, VERY LOW FREQUENCY, WAVE PROPAGATION, WELDING.

  14. Industrial boiler combustion modification Nox controls. Volume III: stoker-coal-fired boiler field test - Site B. Final report Jul 78-Jul 79

    SciTech Connect

    Lips, H.I.; Higginbotham, E.B.

    1981-07-01

    The report gives methods and results of an environmental assessment test program at an industrial site. The aim of the program was to measure multimedia emissions changes as a result of applying NOx controls. Emissions of trace elements, organic materials, sulfur species, SO2, NOx, CO, and particulate matter were measured. These emissions, under normal and controlled (for NOx) were compared. Test results show that applying combustion modification NOx controls did not affect total particulate emissions from ESP outlet or sulfur species emissions. Some changes in trace element partitioning occurred with the application of NOx controls. Bioassays of ash samples for LEA operation had low or nondetectable toxicity/mutagenicity.

  15. TENORM: Coal Combustion Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burning coal in boilers to create steam for power generation and industrial applications produces a number of combustion residuals. Naturally radioactive materials that were in the coal mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag.

  16. Solar Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  17. Solar Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  18. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Sixteenth quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1996-01-03

    In the fourth quarter of calendar year 1995 the installation and checkout of the 20 MMBtu/hr combustor and auxiliary equipment in Philadelphia was completed. The task 5, Site Demonstration Testing, combustor-boiler tests on gas, oil, and coal were initiated. The task 5 effort involves testing the combustor over extended periods under conditions that fully simulate commercial operation and that meet the combustion and environmental specifications for this project. To meet this project objective within the current work scope requires up to 500 hours of testing. The focus of this testing will be on the component and environmental performance of combustor, boiler, coal preparation and feeding, and the stack gas equipment. The facility can be converted to a 500 kW power plant by the addition of a steam turbine, condenser, and cooling tower. However, this added effort is beyond the current work scope and its implementation will depend on recovering the added costs by placing the steam production from the boiler to beneficial use. During the present quarterly reporting period, all the components needed to implement the initial 100 hours of testing under task 5 were installed at the test site, and checkout of this equipment was performed. Since the present installation contained substantial improvements and simplifications to all sub-systems that had been used in the Williamsport facility, each component and sub-system had to be tested individually.

  19. Nonfatal tool- or equipment-related injuries treated in US emergency departments among workers in the construction industry, 1998-2005.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Shishlov, Kirill S; Myers, Douglas J

    2010-06-01

    Individuals in the construction industry are exposed to a variety of tools and pieces of equipment as they work. Data from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) occupational supplement to the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS-Work) were used to characterize tool- and equipment-related injuries among workers in the construction industry that were treated in US emergency departments between 1998 and 2005. Based on a national stratified probability sample of US hospitals with 24 hr emergency services, NEISS-Work allows calculation of national injury estimates. Over the 8-year period between 1998 and 2005, we estimated 786,900 (95% CI 546,600-1,027,200) ED-treated tool- or equipment-related injuries identified by the primary or secondary source of injury code. These injuries accounted for a quarter of all ED-treated construction industry injuries. Although over 100 different tools or pieces of equipment were responsible for these injuries, seven were responsible for over 65% of the injury burden: ladders, nail guns, power saws, hammers, knives, power drills, and welding tools in decreasing order. Current injury estimates and their severity, marked by the proportion of cases that were not released after ED treatment, indicate interventions are particularly needed to prevent injuries associated with use of ladders as well as nail guns and power saws. Attention should focus on design and guarding to more efficiently prevent these injuries rather than simply calling for the training of workers in how to safely use a dangerous tool or piece of equipment. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Time Resolved FTIR Analysis of Combustion of Ethanol and Gasoline Combustion in AN Internal Combustion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Allen R.; Sakai, Stephen; Devasher, Rebecca B.

    2011-06-01

    In order to pursue In Situ measurements in an internal combustion engine, a MegaTech Mark III transparent spark ignition engine was modified with a sapphire combustion chamber. This modification will allow the transmission of infrared radiation for time-resolved spectroscopic measurements by an infrared spectrometer. By using a Step-scan equipped Fourier transform spectrometer, temporally resolved infrared spectral data were acquired and compared for combustion in the modified Mark III engine. Measurements performed with the FTIR system provide insight into the energy transfer vectors that precede combustion and also provides an in situ measurement of the progress of combustion. Measurements were performed using ethanol and gasoline.

  1. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications. Task 4 - Testing in Alstom's 15 MWth Boiler Simulation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs; Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF); Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools; Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems; Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost; and, Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project is scheduled for completion by April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a matrix of

  2. Development of an Industry Dynamometer/Spin Test Facility--Equipment Only: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-05-164

    SciTech Connect

    McDade, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) owns and operates a megawatt-scale dynamometer used for testing wind turbine drive trains up to 1.5 megawatt (MW) in rated capacity. At this time, this unit is the only unit of its type in the United States, available for use by the American Wind Industry. Currently this dynamometer is heavily backlogged and unavailable to provide testing needed by various wind industry members. DOE/NREL is in possession of two critical pieces of equipment that may be used to develop an alternative Dynamometer facility, but does not have the funds or other resources necessary to develop such a facility. The Participant possesses complimentary facilities and infrastructure that when combined with the NREL equipment can create such a test facility. The Participant is also committed to expending funds to develop and operate such a facility to the subsequent benefit of the Wind Industry and DOE Wind Energy program. In exchange for DOE/NREL providing the critical equipment, the Participant will grant DOE/NREL a minimum of 90 days of testing time per year in the new facility while incurring no facilities fees.

  3. Electro-gas-dynamic CO lasers with combustion products: a new scientific direction to the creation of the industrial high-power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, Igor M.

    1997-04-01

    An industrial high-power laser is a technical system to be characterized primarily by the efficiency. For a high-power laser system to become like an industrial one the efficiency must be more than 10%. As is well known a steam-engine has such an efficiency. In welding and in cutting thick materials to provide required power density in a spot for the device with long focus the value of output power of radiation must be no less than 100 kW at beam divergence 10-3 rad. At the present time there is a problem in concurrent fulfillment of the requirements on an output power, the divergence, and the efficiency as well as the requirements on the stability of output parameters, total resource of operation, the safety of operation, and the use of standard components. A line of attack on this problem is proposed by the present author through the use of continuous formation of a CO laser mixture by combustion of a chemical fuel and the use of atmospheric air as a buffer gas (up to 80%), which is cooled in supersonic nozzles followed by excitation in a radio-frequency (rf) electric discharge without an electron gun. A small-scale model system of electrogasdynamic CO laser was used by the present author and his colleagues to demonstrate for the first time the laser radiation was possible in a system with combustion products and air. A technical proposal for a multipurpose self-contained industrial cw high-power CO laser system is proposed. This laser system is based on standard electrical machinery with a gas-turbine drive without ejecting toxic CO into the atmosphere.

  4. The development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1992--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-16

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications has been selected for Phase III development under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting, recycling, and refining processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase HI research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing glass frits and wool fiber from boiler and incinerator ashes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes has begun. In order to accurately estimate the cost of the primary process vessels, preliminary designs for 25, 50, and 100 ton/day systems have been started under Task 1. This data will serve as input data for life cycle cost analysis performed as part of techno-economic evaluations. The economic evaluations of commercial CMS systems will be an integral part of the commercialization plan.

  5. Reduction of PCDD, PCDF and PCB during co-combustion of biomass with waste products from pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Lisa; Gomez-Rico, Maria Francisca; Forsberg, Christer; Nordenskjöld, Carl; Jansson, Stina

    2013-05-01

    The use of waste wood as an energy carrier has increased during the last decade. However, elevated levels of alkali metals and chlorine in waste wood compared to virgin biomass can cause increased deposit formation and higher concentrations of organic pollutants. In this study, we investigated the effect of the ChlorOut technique on concentrations of organic pollutants. Ammonium sulfate was injected into the combustion system to inhibit formation of KCl (which causes deposits) and persistent organic pollutants, namely polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs). The results showed that concentrations of the toxic congeners of PCDD, PCDF and PCB decreased in the presence of ammonium sulfate.

  6. Effect of industrial and domestic ash from biomass combustion, and spent coffee grounds, on soil fertility and plant growth: experiments at field conditions.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, João Peres; Vicente, Estela Domingos; Gomes, Ana Paula; Nunes, Maria Isabel; Alves, Célia; Tarelho, Luís A C

    2017-06-01

    An experimental study was conducted at field conditions in order to evaluate the effect of application of ash from biomass combustion on some soil fertility characteristics and plant growth. Application of 7.5 Mg ha(-1) industrial fly ash (IA), domestic ash (DA), and a 50:50 mix of domestic ash (DA) and spent coffee grounds (SCG) was made in different soil parcels. Lolium perenne seeds were sown and the grown biomass was harvested and quantified after 60 days. Soil samples from each parcel were also collected after that period and characterized. Both soil and grown biomass samples were analyzed for Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Al contents. Soil pH was determined before and after amendment. All applications rose significantly soil pH. Domestic ash, whether combined with coffee grounds or not, proved to be efficient at supplying available macronutrients Ca, Mg, K, and P to the soil and also reducing availability of Al (more than industrial ash). However, it inhibited plant growth, even more when combined with spent coffee grounds. As regards to elemental abundance in plant tissue, both domestic ash treatments reduced Ca and enhanced Al contents, unlike industrial ash, which proved less harmful for the load applied in the soil. Hence, it was possible to conclude that application load should be a limiting factor for this management option for the studied materials.

  7. Drying wood waste with a pulse combustion dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Buchkowski, A.G.; Kitchen, J.A.

    1993-12-31

    There is a vast amount of wood waste available to be used as an alternate fuel if its moisture could be reduced efficiently. Tests have been conducted to assess an industrial dryer using pulse combustion as a heating source for drying wood waste; specifically sawdust and pulverized wet hog fuel. Pulse combustion offers the advantage of high heat transfer, efficient combustion, and low NO{sub x} emissions. The material is injected into the exhaust gases in the tailpipe of the combustor which uses natural gas or propane as a fuel. The turbulence created by the pulsations enhance the drying process by reducing the boundary layer thicknesses. The materials is further dried in a rotary drum. The material has been dried without scorching or burning in tests where the inlet moisture content has been as high as 60% on a wet basis. The outlet moisture contents achieved have typically been 10%. Analysis of the test data and cost estimates of the equipment indicate that the pulse combustion drying system is at least comparable to existing systems in terms of operating costs, and offers very significant savings in capital costs. Testing with various other materials such as wood pulp, sludges and peat is continuing to further assess the equipment`s performance.

  8. Crane and Hoisting Equipment Operator Boom Truck Operator: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 34-305.2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The graduate of the Crane and Hoisting Equipment Operator Boom Truck Operator apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to: (1) responsibly do all work tasks expected of a journeyperson; (2) correctly use and care for tools and materials which are required to carry out the normal service and maintenance of the machines…

  9. Automated Equipment Repair Series. Educational Resources for the Machine Tool Industry. Course Syllabi, Instructor's Handbook, [and] Student Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll. System, Waco.

    This package consists of course syllabi, an instructor's handbook, and a student laboratory manual for a 1-year vocational training program to prepare students for entry-level employment as automated equipment repair technicians. The program was developed through a modification of the DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) technique. The course syllabi…

  10. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Steam Tip Fact Sheet No.21

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    Steam turbines are well suited as prime movers for driving boiler feedwater pumps, forced or induced-draft fans, blowers, air compressors, and other rotating equipment. This service generally calls for a backpressure non-condensing steam turbine. The low-pressure steam turbine exhaust is available for feedwater heating, preheating of deaerator makeup water, and/or process requirements.

  11. A Statistical Method for Estimating Missing GHG Emissions in Bottom-Up Inventories: The Case of Fossil Fuel Combustion in Industry in the Bogota Region, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; Rojas, A. M.; Pulido-Guio, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    The development of environmentally, socially and financially suitable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation portfolios requires detailed disaggregation of emissions by activity sector, preferably at the regional level. Bottom-up (BU) emission inventories are intrinsically disaggregated, but although detailed, they are frequently incomplete. Missing and erroneous activity data are rather common in emission inventories of GHG, criteria and toxic pollutants, even in developed countries. The fraction of missing and erroneous data can be rather large in developing country inventories. In addition, the cost and time for obtaining or correcting this information can be prohibitive or can delay the inventory development. This is particularly true for regional BU inventories in the developing world. Moreover, a rather common practice is to disregard or to arbitrarily impute low default activity or emission values to missing data, which typically leads to significant underestimation of the total emissions. Our investigation focuses on GHG emissions by fossil fuel combustion in industry in the Bogota Region, composed by Bogota and its adjacent, semi-rural area of influence, the Province of Cundinamarca. We found that the BU inventories for this sub-category substantially underestimate emissions when compared to top-down (TD) estimations based on sub-sector specific national fuel consumption data and regional energy intensities. Although both BU inventories have a substantial number of missing and evidently erroneous entries, i.e. information on fuel consumption per combustion unit per company, the validated energy use and emission data display clear and smooth frequency distributions, which can be adequately fitted to bimodal log-normal distributions. This is not unexpected as industrial plant sizes are typically log-normally distributed. Moreover, our statistical tests suggest that industrial sub-sectors, as classified by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC

  12. Plasma-aided solid fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect

    E.I. Karpenko; V.E. Messerle; A.B. Ustimenko

    2007-07-01

    Plasma supported solid fuel combustion is promising technology for use in thermal power plants (TPP). The realisation of this technology comprises two main steps. The first is the execution of a numerical simulation and the second involves full-scale trials of plasma supported coal combustion through plasma-fuel systems (PFS) mounted on a TPP boiler. For both the numerical simulation and the full-scale trials, the boiler of 200 MW power of Gusinoozersk TPP (Russia) was selected. The optimization of the combustion of low-rank coals using plasma technology is described, together with the potential of this technology for the general optimization of the coal burning process. Numerical simulation and full-scale trials have enabled technological recommendations for improvement of existing conventional TPP to be made. PFS have been tested for boilers plasma start-up and flame stabilization in different countries at 27 power boilers steam productivity of 75-670 tons per hour (TPH) equipped with different type of pulverised coal burners. At PFS testing power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures) were used. Volatile content of them varied from 4 to 50%, ash from 15 to 48% and calorific values from 6700 to 25,100 KJ/kg. In summary, it is concluded that the developed and industrially tested PFS improve coal combustion efficiency and decrease harmful emission from pulverised coal-fired TPP. 9 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Dust Combustion Safety Issues for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety research task to identify the safety issues and phenomenology of metallic dust fires and explosions that are postulated for fusion experiments. There are a variety of metal dusts that are created by plasma erosion and disruptions within the plasma chamber, as well as normal industrial dusts generated in the more conventional equipment in the balance of plant. For fusion, in-vessel dusts are generally mixtures of several elements; that is, the constituent elements in alloys and the variety of elements used for in-vessel materials. For example, in-vessel dust could be composed of beryllium from a first wall coating, tungsten from a divertor plate, copper from a plasma heating antenna or diagnostic, and perhaps some iron and chromium from the steel vessel wall or titanium and vanadium from the vessel wall. Each of these elements has its own unique combustion characteristics, and mixtures of elements must be evaluated for the mixture’s combustion properties. Issues of particle size, dust temperature, and presence of other combustible materials (i.e., deuterium and tritium) also affect combustion in air. Combustion in other gases has also been investigated to determine if there are safety concerns with “inert” atmospheres, such as nitrogen. Several coolants have also been reviewed to determine if coolant breach into the plasma chamber would enhance the combustion threat; for example, in-vessel steam from a water coolant breach will react with metal dust. The results of this review are presented here.

  14. Sandia Combustion Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, S.C.; Palmer, R.E.; Montana, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    During the late 1970s, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy (DOE) a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''user facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative-involving US inventories, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions several research projects which have been simulated by working groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship program, supported through the Office of Energy Research, has been instrumental in the success of some of these joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents results of calendar year 1988, separated thematically into eleven categories. Referred journal articles appearing in print during 1988 and selected other publications are included at the end of Section 11. Our traditional'' research activities--combustion chemistry, reacting flows, diagnostics, engine and coal combustion--have been supplemented by a new effort aimed at understanding combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  15. What`s available in industrial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Holzhauer, R.

    1997-01-01

    A large assortment of material handling vehicles are available for transporting and lifting products. Equipment is offered with electric (battery) and internal combustion power, operator walking alongside or riding, and inside or outside applications. Factors such as load capacity, turning radius, aisle width, travel speed, lifting height, controls, and cost also enter the selection equation. The various types of vehicles serving the industrial truck market are broken into seven classes, according to guidelines established by the Industrial Truck Association (ITA). This association deals with issues of common interests to manufacturers of fork lifts, tow tractors, rough terrain vehicles, hand pallet trucks, automated guided vehicles, and their suppliers; develops voluntary engineering practices; and collects and disseminates statistical information relating to the industrial truck marketplace. The seven classes are: Electric Motor Rider Trucks; Electric Motor Narrow Aisle Trucks; Electric Motor Hand Trucks; Internal Combustion Engine Trucks, cushion tired; Internal Combustion Engine Trucks, pneumatic tired; Electric and Internal Combustion Engine Tractors; and Rough Terrain Fork Lift Trucks. The following pages present a descriptive and pictorial overview of the equipment available in the first five vehicle classes. The last two categories are not covered because of their limited industrial use.

  16. Industrial Technology Modernization Program. Project 44. Modernize Facility Equipment and Processes. Volume 1. Revision 2. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    meter tape storage (262 feet). - FANUC 11 MA with 14" CRT. - Machine dimensions: Length 106" X Depth 73". ROTARY TABLE LAP * (1) Lapmaster Model 24...vertical machining center specifically designed for super close tolerance parts. The machine features a 10,000 RPM spindle for small hole drilling, Fanuc ...rigid construction. This machine is equipped with a Yasnac control as opposed to the Fanuc control. Where possible, the Fabrication Facility is

  17. Analysis on critical success factors for agile manufacturing evaluation in original equipment manufacturing industry-an AHP approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajay Guru Dev, C.; Senthil Kumar, V. S.

    2016-09-01

    Manufacturing industries are facing challenges in the implementation of agile manufacturing in their products and processes. Agility is widely accepted as a new competitive concept in the manufacturing sector in fulfilling varying customer demand. Thus, evaluation of agile manufacturing in industries has become a necessity. The success of an organisation depends on its ability to manage finding the critical success factors and give them special and continued attention in order to bring about high performance. This paper proposes a set of critical success factors (CSFs) for evaluating agile manufacturing considered appropriate for the manufacturing sector. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) method is applied for prioritizing the success factors, by summarizing the opinions of experts. It is believed that the proposed CSFs enable and assist manufacturing industries to achieve a higher performance in agile manufacturing so as to increase competitiveness.

  18. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1993--February 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Poe, R.L.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first demonstrations been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler has been determined to be unacceptable. Consequently, the first demonstration has been concluded at 500 hours. The second demonstration will be conducted after a proven CWSF-designed burner is installed on the boiler. During this reporting period, the construction of the fuel preparation facility that will contain the CWSF circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) was completed. Proposals from potential suppliers of the flue gas treatment systems were reviewed by Penn State and DOE.

  19. Evaluation of the efficiency of respiratory protective equipment based on the biological monitoring of styrene in fibreglass reinforced plastics industries.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Shoji; Nishide, Tadashi; Horike, Tokushi; Kishimoto, Takumi; Kira, Shohei

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the efficiency of respiratory protective equipment in a fibreglass reinforced plastic factory by comparing results of environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to styrene. Five factories including 39 workers were investigated. Three types of respiratory protective equipment were tested: one was a half-mask air-purifying respirator equipped with a cartridge for organic solvents, another was a disposable gauze respirator impregnated with charcoal filter, and the third was a dust-proof respirator. The frequency of cartridge exchange of a half-mask respirator was twice a day only at one factory, and that was less than once a month at other factories. The site concentrations exceeded 20 ppm at 10 of the 82 sampling points (12.2%), and 22 of the 39 workers' (56.4%) personal exposure exceeded 20 ppm which is the current occupational exposure limit recommended by the Japan Society for Occupational Health. The efficiency of disposable gauze respirators and dust-proof respirators was low or rather zero. The average efficiency of half-mask respirators in which cartridges were exchanged twice a day and once a month was 83.6% and 46.6%, respectively. There was a significant disparity in the efficiency of the respirator depending on the frequency of cartridge exchange (p<0.05). Overall this study showed that even though a half-mask respirator is used and its cartridge is exchanged every half a day, workers exposed to a styrene concentration at or over 122 ppm are expected to inhale more than 20 ppm of styrene.

  20. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous

  1. Industrial utilization research, September 1993. Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Gas Research Institute's industrial utilization research program is described. Its three primary objectives are: to maintain the dominant position of natural gas in traditional industrial applications by developing technologies that improve productivity and product quality, and lower emissions and costs; to develop new applications for gas which provide significant environmental, productivity, quality, and economic benefits to users; to ensure that industrial gas equipment remains economically competitive and can meet ever-tightening emission standards in the future by improving burners, controls, and materials. The discussion of the objectives, issues, benefits, goals, accomplishments, and research strategies is illustrated with the contract summaries and arranged according to the five project areas: Industrial Combustion, Metals Industrial Processes, Nonmetals Industrial Processes, Industrial Materials, and Industrial Controls.

  2. Assessing the impact of space weather on the electric power grid based on insurance claims for industrial electrical equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Dobbins, R.; Murtagh, W.; Petrinec, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    Geomagnetically induced currents are known to induce disturbances in the electric power grid. Here we perform a statistical analysis of 11,242 insurance claims from 2000 through 2010 for equipment losses and related business interruptions in North American commercial organizations that are associated with damage to, or malfunction of, electrical and electronic equipment. We find that claim rates are elevated on days with elevated geomagnetic activity by approximately 20% for the top 5% and by about 10% for the top third of most active days ranked by daily maximum variability of the geomagnetic field. When focusing on the claims explicitly attributed to electrical surges (amounting to more than half the total sample), we find that the dependence of claim rates on geomagnetic activity mirrors that of major disturbances in the U.S. high-voltage electric power grid. The claim statistics thus reveal that large-scale geomagnetic variability couples into the low-voltage power distribution network and that related power-quality variations can cause malfunctions and failures in electrical and electronic devices that, in turn, lead to an estimated 500 claims per average year within North America. We discuss the possible magnitude of the full economic impact associated with quality variations in electrical power associated with space weather.

  3. Glass Furnace Combustion and Melting Research Facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Connors, John J.; McConnell, John F.; Henry, Vincent I.; MacDonald, Blake A.; Gallagher, Robert J.; Field, William B.; Walsh, Peter M.; Simmons, Michael C.; Adams, Michael E.; Leadbetter, James M.; Tomasewski, Jack W.; Operacz, Walter J.; Houf, William G.; Davis, James W.; Marvin, Bart G.; Gunner, Bruce E.; Farrell, Rick G.; Bivins, David P.; Curtis, Warren; Harris, James E.

    2004-08-01

    The need for a Combustion and Melting Research Facility focused on the solution of glass manufacturing problems common to all segments of the glass industry was given high priority in the earliest version of the Glass Industry Technology Roadmap (Eisenhauer et al., 1997). Visteon Glass Systems and, later, PPG Industries proposed to meet this requirement, in partnership with the DOE/OIT Glass Program and Sandia National Laboratories, by designing and building a research furnace equipped with state-of-the-art diagnostics in the DOE Combustion Research Facility located at the Sandia site in Livermore, CA. Input on the configuration and objectives of the facility was sought from the entire industry by a variety of routes: (1) through a survey distributed to industry leaders by GMIC, (2) by conducting an open workshop following the OIT Glass Industry Project Review in September 1999, (3) from discussions with numerous glass engineers, scientists, and executives, and (4) during visits to glass manufacturing plants and research centers. The recommendations from industry were that the melting tank be made large enough to reproduce the essential processes and features of industrial furnaces yet flexible enough to be operated in as many as possible of the configurations found in industry as well as in ways never before attempted in practice. Realization of these objectives, while still providing access to the glass bath and combustion space for optical diagnostics and measurements using conventional probes, was the principal challenge in the development of the tank furnace design. The present report describes a facility having the requirements identified as important by members of the glass industry and equipped to do the work that the industry recommended should be the focus of research. The intent is that the laboratory would be available to U.S. glass manufacturers for collaboration with Sandia scientists and engineers on both precompetitive basic research and the

  4. Combustion of liquid paint wastes in fluidized bed boiler as element of waste management system in the paint factory

    SciTech Connect

    Soko, W.A.; Biaecka, B.

    1998-12-31

    In this paper the solution to waste problems in the paint industry is presented by describing their combustion in a fluidized bed boiler as a part of the waste management system in the paint factory. Based on the Cleaner Production idea and concept of integration of design process with a future exploitation of equipment, some modifications of the waste management scheme in the factory are discussed to reduce the quantity of toxic wastes. To verify this concept combustion tests of paint production wastes and cocombustion of paint wastes with coal in an adopted industrial boiler were done. Results of these tests are presented in the paper.

  5. Combustibility of tetraphenylborate solids

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    1989-05-03

    Liquid slurries expected under normal in-tank processing (ITP) operations are not ignitible because of their high water content. However, deposits of dry solids from the slurries are combustible and produce dense, black smoke when burned. The dry solids burn similarly to Styrofoam and more easily than sawdust. It is the opinion of fire hazard experts that a benzene vapor deflagration could ignite the dry solids. A tetraphenylborate solids fire will rapidly plug the waste tank HEPA ventilation filters due to the nature of the smoke produced. To prevent ignition and combustion of these solids, the waste tanks have been equipped with a nitrogen inerting system.

  6. Combustion Technology Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Lewis' High Speed Research (HSR) Propulsion Project Office initiated a targeted outreach effort to market combustion-related technologies developed at Lewis for the next generation of supersonic civil transport vehicles. These combustion-related innovations range from emissions measurement and reduction technologies, to diagnostics, spray technologies, NOx and SOx reduction of burners, noise reduction, sensors, and fuel-injection technologies. The Ohio Aerospace Institute and the Great Lakes Industrial Technology Center joined forces to assist Lewis' HSR Office in this outreach activity. From a database of thousands of nonaerospace firms considered likely to be interested in Lewis' combustion and emission-related technologies, the outreach team selected 41 companies to contact. The selected companies represent oil-gas refineries, vehicle/parts suppliers, and manufacturers of residential furnaces, power turbines, nonautomobile engines, and diesel internal combustion engines.

  7. Measurement of air toxic emissions from a coal-fired boiler equipped with a tangentially-fired low NOx combustion system

    SciTech Connect

    Dismukes, E.B.; Clarkson, R.J.; Hardman, R.R.; Elia, G.G.

    1993-11-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements of chemical emissions from a coal-burning, tangentially-fired, utility boiler equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a low NOx firing system. The tests were conducted in response to Title III of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act which lists 189 chemicals to be evaluated as {open_quotes}Air Toxics.{close_quotes} The project was jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and the US Department of Energy under an existing Innovative Clean Coal Technology Cooperative Agreement managed by Southern Company Services. Field chemical emissions monitoring was conducted in two phases: a baseline {open_quotes}pre-low NOx burner{close_quotes} condition in September 1991 and in the LNCFS Level III low NOx firing condition in January 1992. In addition to stack emissions measurements of both organic and inorganic chemicals, plant material balance evaluations were performed to determine the efficiency of the hot-side ESP at controlling emissions of air toxics and to determine the fate of the target chemicals in various plant process streams.

  8. 46 CFR 108.123 - Isolation of combustible material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Fire Protection: General § 108.123 Isolation of combustible material. Each internal combustion engine exhaust, boiler and galley uptake, and similar heat...

  9. 46 CFR 108.123 - Isolation of combustible material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Fire Protection: General § 108.123 Isolation of combustible material. Each internal combustion engine exhaust, boiler and galley uptake, and similar heat...

  10. 46 CFR 108.123 - Isolation of combustible material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Fire Protection: General § 108.123 Isolation of combustible material. Each internal combustion engine exhaust, boiler and galley uptake, and similar heat...

  11. Quantification of Global Primary Emissions of PM2.5, PM10, and TSP from Combustion and Industrial Process Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ye; Tao, Shu

    2015-04-01

    Emission quantification of primary particulate matter (PM) is essential for assessment of its related climate and health impacts. To reduce uncertainty associated with global emissions of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5, we compiled data with high spatial (0.1° ×0.1° ) and sectorial (77 primary sources) resolutions for 2007 based on a newly released global fuel data product (PKU-FUEL-2007), and an emission factor database including emission factors measured recently in developing countries. Total emissions for TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 were estimated to be 162 (123-224), 99 (80-130), and 78 (64-101) Tg, respectively. Our estimates for developing countries are higher than those previously reported. Spatial bias associated with large countries could be reduced by using sub-national fuel consumption data. Despite the fact that most industrial and transport sources locate in urban areas, residential fuel consumptions are quite different between rural and urban areas, especially in developing countries. As a result, per person annual primary PM emission in rural areas are much higher than those in urban areas. Further, this difference in developed countries (12 and 2.8 kg PM2.5 for rural and urban areas) is larger than that in developing countries (8.4 and 4.6 kg PM2.5 for rural and urban areas). Additionally, we looked at temporal trends from 1960 to 2009 at country-scale resolution. Although total emissions are still increasing in developing countries, their intensities in terms of gross domestic production or energy consumption have decreased. PM emitted in developed countries is finer owing to a larger contribution from non-industrial sources, and use of abatement technologies. In contrast, countries like China, with strong industry emissions and limited abatement facilities, emit coarser PM. The health impacts of PM are intensified in hotspots and cities owing to covariance of sources and receptors. Although urbanization reduces the per person emission, overall health impacts

  12. An embedded boundary method for the modeling of unsteady combustion in an industrial gas-fired furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Pember, R.B.; Almgren, A.S.; Crutchfield, W.Y.; Howell, L.H.; Bell, J.B.; Colella, P.; Beckner, V.E.

    1995-10-18

    A new methodology for the modeling of unsteady, nonpremixed, axisymmetric reacting flow in industrial furnaces is presented. The method is an extension of previous work by the authors to complex geometries, multistep kinetics mechanisms, and realistic properties, especially thermochemical data. The walls of the furnace are represented as an embedded boundary in a uniform, rectangular grid. The grid then consists of uniform rectangular cells except at the furnace wall where irregular (mixed) cells may be present. We use finite volume differencing techniques for the convective, viscous, and radiative heat transport terms in the mixed cells, while a finite element-based technique is used to solve the elliptic equation arising from the low-Mach number formulation. Results from the simulation of an experimental natural gas-fired furnace are shown.

  13. 75 FR 10739 - Combustible Dust

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ..., rubber, drugs, dried blood, dyes, certain textiles, and metals (such as aluminum and magnesium). Industries that may have combustible dust hazards include, among others: animal food manufacturing, grain handling, food manufacturing, wood product manufacturing, chemical manufacturing, textile...

  14. 75 FR 3881 - Combustible Dust

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ..., dyes, certain textiles, and metals (such as aluminum and magnesium). Industries that may have combustible dust hazards include, among others: Animal food manufacturing, grain handling, food manufacturing... milling, food (including sugar), pharmaceutical or chemical manufacturing, paper products, rubber...

  15. Industrial Application of an Improved Multiple Injection and Multiple Staging Combustion Technology in a 600 MWe Supercritical Down-Fired Boiler.

    PubMed

    Song, Minhang; Zeng, Lingyan; Chen, Zhichao; Li, Zhengqi; Zhu, Qunyi; Kuang, Min

    2016-02-02

    To solve the water wall overheating in lower furnace, and further reduce NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash, continuous improvement of the previously proposed multiple injection and multiple staging combustion (MIMSC) technology lies on three aspects: (1) along the furnace arch breadth, changing the previously centralized 12 burner groups into a more uniform pattern with 24 burners; (2) increasing the mass ratio of pulverized coal in fuel-rich flow to that in fuel-lean flow from 6:4 to 9:1; (3) reducing the arch-air momentum by 23% and increasing the tertiary-air momentum by 24%. Industrial-size measurements (i.e., adjusting overfire air (OFA) damper opening of 20-70%) uncovered that, compared with the prior MIMSC technology, the ignition distance of fuel-rich coal/air flow shortened by around 1 m. The gas temperature in the lower furnace was symmetric and higher, the flame kernel moved upward and therefore made the temperature in near-wall region of furnace hopper decrease by about 400 °C, the water wall overheating disappeared completely. Under the optimal OFA damper opening (i.e, 55%), NOx emissions and carbon in fly ash attained levels of 589 mg/m(3) at 6% O2 and 6.18%, respectively, achieving NOx and carbon in fly ash significant reduction by 33% and 37%, respectively.

  16. Industrial boiler combustion modification Nox controls. Volume II: stoker-coal-fired boiler field test - Site A. Final report Jul 78-Jul 79

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, P.M.; Higginbotham, E.B.

    1981-07-01

    The report gives methods and results of an environmental assessment test program at an industrial site. The aim of the program was to measure multimedia emissions changes as a result of applying NOx controls. Emissions of trace elements, organic materials, sulfur species, SO/sub 2/, NOx, CO, and particulate matter were measured. These emissions, under normal and controlled (for NOx) operating conditions, were compared. Source operating data were also analyzed so that changes in operating parameters and efficiency could be assessed. This unit is a spreader-stoker coal-fired boiler rated at 38 kg/s (300,000 lb/hr) of steam. The fuel tested was low-sulfur coal. High overfire air firing (constant overall air flow) was used for NOx control. These measures reduced NOx by about 10% from baseline. Increased overfire air levels also improved boiler efficiency. These tests lasted about 5 hours; long-term operation under test conditions was not addressed in this program. Test results suggest that applying combustion modification NOx controls increased particulate and organic emissions.

  17. Development and testing of an industrial scale coal fired slagging combustion system, Phase 3. Task 2.1, Preliminary systems test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-11

    The planned effort for the task 2 tests has four major objectives. They are computer controlled combustor operation, optimization of SO2 reduction, combustor materials durability, and testing focused on application to industrial coal fired boilers. Several major advances in the combustor development have occurred since this original plan was proposed in 1991. Some of these advances occurred in tests performed in a project that was completed in June 1992, while others occurred during the design and shakedown tests of equipment that was installed in task I of this project. Therefore, the present test plan is based on the current status of the combustor technology, and it differs somewhat from the preliminary test plan that was prepared in April 1992. Depending on the results in the early tests in this task, further test plan modifications may be required. However, the general objectives will most probably remain unchanged.

  18. The Diesel Combustion Collaboratory: Combustion Researchers Collaborating over the Internet

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Pancerella; L. A. Rahn; C. Yang

    2000-02-01

    The Diesel Combustion Collaborator (DCC) is a pilot project to develop and deploy collaborative technologies to combustion researchers distributed throughout the DOE national laboratories, academia, and industry. The result is a problem-solving environment for combustion research. Researchers collaborate over the Internet using DCC tools, which include: a distributed execution management system for running combustion models on widely distributed computers, including supercomputers; web-accessible data archiving capabilities for sharing graphical experimental or modeling data; electronic notebooks and shared workspaces for facilitating collaboration; visualization of combustion data; and video-conferencing and data-conferencing among researchers at remote sites. Security is a key aspect of the collaborative tools. In many cases, the authors have integrated these tools to allow data, including large combustion data sets, to flow seamlessly, for example, from modeling tools to data archives. In this paper the authors describe the work of a larger collaborative effort to design, implement and deploy the DCC.

  19. The FCF Combustion Integrated Rack: Microgravity Combustion Science Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OMalley, Terence F.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2002-01-01

    The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of three facility payload racks being developed for the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). Most microgravity combustion experiments will be performed onboard the Space Station in the Combustion Integrated Rack. Experiment-specific equipment will be installed on orbit in the CIR to customize it to perform many different scientific experiments during the ten or more years that it will operate on orbit. This paper provides an overview of the CIR, including a description of its preliminary design and planned accommodations for microgravity combustion science experiments, and descriptions of the combustion science experiments currently planned for the CIR.

  20. Combustible dust tests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sugar dust explosion in Georgia on February 7, 2008 killed 14 workers and injured many others (OSHA, 2009). As a consequence of this explosion, OSHA revised its Combustible Dust National Emphasis (NEP) program. The NEP targets 64 industries with more than 1,000 inspections and has found more tha...

  1. Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

  2. METC Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Halow, J.S.; Maloney, D.J.; Richards, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) high pressure combustion facility is to provide a mid-scale facility for combustion and cleanup research to support DOE`s advanced gas turbine, pressurized, fluidized-bed combustion, and hot gas cleanup programs. The facility is intended to fill a gap between lab scale facilities typical of universities and large scale combustion/turbine test facilities typical of turbine manufacturers. The facility is now available to industry and university partners through cooperative programs with METC. Currently two combustion rigs are operating and one additional project is under construction for the facility. Space is available in the test cells for at least one additional test rig. A pressurized pulsed combustor began operating in July of 1993. The combustor will carry out pulsed combustion of natural gas at pressures up to 10 atmospheres. A high pressure steady flow rig is currently completely fabricated. The objective of this rig is to test novel, steady-flow, pressurized combustors that produce very low NO{sub x} and other emissions. An evaporation rig currently is in startup. This rig will test the concept of water injection in an externally fired cycle. The specific technical issue that the unit will address is evaporation rates of water droplets in high pressure flows.

  3. Computational Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Mizobuchi, Y; Poinsot, T J; Smith, P J; Warnatz, J

    2004-08-26

    Progress in the field of computational combustion over the past 50 years is reviewed. Particular attention is given to those classes of models that are common to most system modeling efforts, including fluid dynamics, chemical kinetics, liquid sprays, and turbulent flame models. The developments in combustion modeling are placed into the time-dependent context of the accompanying exponential growth in computer capabilities and Moore's Law. Superimposed on this steady growth, the occasional sudden advances in modeling capabilities are identified and their impacts are discussed. Integration of submodels into system models for spark ignition, diesel and homogeneous charge, compression ignition engines, surface and catalytic combustion, pulse combustion, and detonations are described. Finally, the current state of combustion modeling is illustrated by descriptions of a very large jet lifted 3D turbulent hydrogen flame with direct numerical simulation and 3D large eddy simulations of practical gas burner combustion devices.

  4. Simulating Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merker, G.; Schwarz, C.; Stiesch, G.; Otto, F.

    The content spans from simple thermodynamics of the combustion engine to complex models for the description of the air/fuel mixture, ignition, combustion and pollutant formation considering the engine periphery of petrol and diesel engines. Thus the emphasis of the book is on the simulation models and how they are applicable for the development of modern combustion engines. Computers can be used as the engineers testbench following the rules and recommendations described here.

  5. Principles of commercially available pretreatment and feeding equipment for baled biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, T.; Hummelshoej, R.M.

    1993-12-31

    During the last 15 years, there has been a growing interest in utilizing waste biomass for energy production in Denmark. Since 1990, it has been unlawful to burn surplus straw on open land. Before the year 2000, it is intended to utilize most of the 2--3 million tons of surplus straw as an energy resource. The type of plants that were built in the beginning were combustion plants for district heating. The feeding equipment for these plants has been developed to an acceptable standard. Later, combustion plants for combined heat and power production based on a steam turbine were introduced. This type of plant demands a much greater continuity in the fuel flow, and the consequences of minor discontinuities are to be dropped from the grid. Gasification and pyrolysis demands a high sealing ability of the feeding equipment, because of the explosive and poisonous gas in the plant and a need for a very high continuity in the fuel feed. The first plants were built with the equipment and experiences from the farming industries, which have a long tradition in working with biomass-handling. The experiences gained with this type of equipment were not very promising, and in the early eighties, a more industrial type of biomass-handling equipment was developed. This paper presents the principles of the heavy-duty biomass pretreatment and feeding equipment that was commercially available in Denmark in May, 1993.

  6. Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system, controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The past quarter began with a two-day test performed in January to determine the cause of pulsations in the batch feed system observed during pilot-scale testing of surrogate TSCA incinerator ash performed in December of 1993. Two different batch feedstocks were used during this test: flyash and cullet. The cause of the pulsations was traced to a worn part in the feeder located at the bottom of the batch feed tank. The problem was corrected by replacing the wom part with the corresponding part on the existing coal feed tank. A new feeder for the existing coal tank, which had previously been ordered as part of the new coal handling system, was procured and installed. The data from the pilot-scale tests performed on surrogate TSCA incinerator ash during December of 1993 was collected and analyzed. All of the glass produced during the test passed both the Toxicity characteristics Leach Procedure (TCLP) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT) by approximately two orders of magnitude.

  7. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1994--August 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new system specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. During this reporting period, the construction of the CWSF preparation circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) continued. The CWSF preparation circuit will be completed by November 1,1994. Additional activities included receiving a coal-designed burner and installing it on the demonstration boiler, and working with DOE in selecting pollution control systems to install on the boiler.

  8. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  9. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Eighteenth quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1996-08-18

    In the second quarter of calendar year 1996, 16 days of combust- boiler tests were performed, including 2 days of tests on a parallel DOE sponsored project on sulfur retention in a slagging combustor. Between tests, modifications and improvements that were indicated by these tests were implemented. This brings the total number of test days to the end of June in the task 5 effort to 28, increased to 36 as of the date of this Report, 8/18/96. This compares with a total of 63 test days needed to complete the task 5 test effort. It is important to note that the only major modification to the Williamsport combustor has been the addition of a new downstream section, which lengthens the combustor and improves the combustor-boiler interface. The original combustor section, which includes the fuel, air, and cooling water delivery systems remained basically unchanged. Only the refractory liner was completely replaced, a task which occurs on an annual basis in all commercial slagging utility combustors. Therefore, this combustor has been operated since 1988 without replacement. The tests in the present reporting period are of major significance in that beginning with the first test on March 31st, for the first time slagging opening conditions were achieved in the upgraded combustor. The first results showed that the present 20 MMBtu/hr combustor design is far superior to the previous one tested since 1988 in Williamsport, PA. The most important change is that over 95% of the slag was drained from the slag tap in the combustor. This compares with an range of one-third to one-half in Williamsport. In the latter, the balance of the slag flowed out of the exit nozzle into the boiler floor. In addition, the overall system performance, including the combustor, boiler, and stack equipment, ranged from good to excellent. Those areas requiring improvement were of a nature that could be corrected with some work. but in no case were the problems encountered of a barrier type.

  10. Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Botros, P E

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the activities of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's research and development program in fluidized-bed combustion from October 1, 1987, to September 30, 1989. The Department of Energy program involves atmospheric and pressurized systems. Demonstrations of industrial-scale atmospheric systems are being completed, and smaller boilers are being explored. These systems include vortex, multi-solid, spouted, dual-sided, air-cooled, pulsed, and waste-fired fluidized-beds. Combustion of low-rank coal, components, and erosion are being studied. In pressurized combustion, first-generation, combined-cycle power plants are being tested, and second-generation, advanced-cycle systems are being designed and cost evaluated. Research in coal devolatilization, metal wastage, tube corrosion, and fluidization also supports this area. 52 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Environmental impact of residential wood combustion emissions and its implications

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Currently available information suggests a substantial environmental impact from residential wood combustion emissions. Air pollution from this source is widespread and increasing. Current ambient measurements, surveys, and model predictions indicate winter respirable (<2 micrometers) emissions from residential wood combustion can easily exceed all other sources. Both the chemical potency and deliverability of the emissions from this source are of concern. The emissions are almost entirely in the inhalable size range and contain toxic and priority pollutants, carcinogens, co-carcinogens, cilia toxic, mucus coagulating agents, and other respiratory irritants such as phenols, aldehydes, etc. This source is contributing substantially to the nonattainment of current particulate, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbon ambient air quality standards and will almost certainly have a significant impact on potential future standards such as inhalable particulates, visibility, and other chemically specific standards. Emission from this growing source is likely to require additional expenditures by industry for air pollution control equipment in nonattainment areas.

  12. Advanced radiant combustion system. Final report, September 1989--September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J.D.; Carswell, M.G.; Long, F.S.

    1996-09-01

    Results of the Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) project are presented in this report. This work was performed by Alzeta Corporation as prime contractor under a contract to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies as part of a larger DOE program entitled Research Program for Advanced Combustion Systems. The goals of the Alzeta ARCS project were to (a) Improve the high temperature performance characteristics of porous surface ceramic fiber burners, (b) Develop an Advanced Radiant Combustion System (ARCS) that combines combustion controls with an advanced radiant burner, and (c) Demonstrate the advanced burner and controls in an industrial application. Prior to the start of this project, Alzeta had developed and commercialized a porous surface radiant burner, the Pyrocore{trademark} burner. The product had been commercially available for approximately 5 years and had achieved commercial success in a number of applications ranging from small burners for commercial cooking equipment to large burners for low temperature industrial fluid heating applications. The burner was not recommended for use in applications with process temperatures above 1000{degrees}F, which prevented the burner from being used in intermediate to high temperature processes in the chemical and petroleum refining industries. The interest in increasing the maximum use temperature of the burner was motivated in part by a desire to expand the number of applications that could use the Pyrocore product, but also because many of the fluid sensitive heating applications of interest would benefit from the distributed flux characteristic of porous surface burners. Background information on porous surface radiant burners, and a discussion of advantages that would be provided by an improved product, are presented in Section 2.

  13. Control of mercury emissions from stationary coal combustion sources in China: Current status and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-11-01

    Coal burning in power plants and industrial boilers is the largest combustion source of mercury emissions in China. Together, power plants and industrial boilers emit around 250 tonnes of mercury each year, or around half of atmospheric mercury emissions from anthropogenic sources in the country. Power plants in China are generally equipped with multi-pollutant control technologies, which offer the co-benefit of mercury removal, while mercury-specific control technologies have been installed in some facilities. In contrast, most industrial boilers have only basic or no flue gas cleaning. A combination of measures, including energy conservation, coal switching and blending, reducing the mercury contents of coals through washing, combustion controls, and flue gas cleaning, can be used to reduce mercury emissions from these stationary combustion sources. More stringent emission standards for the major air pollutants from coal-fired power plants and industrial boiler, along with standards for the previously unregulated mercury, were implemented recently, which is expected to bring significant reduction in their mercury emissions through the necessary upgrades of multi-pollutant and mercury-specific control technologies. Meanwhile, strong monitoring capacity and strict enforcement are necessary to ensure that the combustion sources operate in compliance with the new emission standards and achieve significant reduction in the emissions of mercury and other air pollutants.

  14. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as an Agricultural-Industrial Equipment Dealership Partsman. Determination of a Common Core of a Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Edgar P.; McCracken, J. David

    To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the agricultural-industrial equipment dealership partsman is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which…

  15. German mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

  16. Automated Boiler Combustion Controls for Emission Reduction and Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-12-02

    In the late 1980s, then President Bush visited Krakow, Poland. The terrible air quality theremotivated him to initiate a USAID-funded program, managed by DOE, entitled "Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program." The primary objective of this program was to encourage the formation of commercial ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and/or services to reduce pollution from low-emission sources in Krakow, Poland. This program led to the award of a number of cooperative agreements, including one to Control Techtronics International. The technical objective of CTI's cooperative agreement is to apply combustion controls to existing boiler plants in Krakow and transfer knowledge and technology through a joint U.S. and Polish commercial venture. CTI installed automatic combustion controls on five coal boilers for the district heating system in Krakow. Three of these were for domestic hot-water boilers, and two were for steam for industrial boilers. The following results have occurred due to the addition of CTI's combustion controls on these five existing boilers: ! 25% energy savings ! 85% reduction in particulate emissions The joint venture company CTI-Polska was then established. Eleven additional technical and costing proposals were initiated to upgrade other coal boilers in Krakow. To date, no co-financing has been made available on the Polish side. CTI-Polska continues in operation, serving customers in Russia and Ukraine. Should the market in Poland materialize, the joint venture company is established there to provide equipment and service.

  17. Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lachowicz, Y.V.; LaFlesh, R.C.

    1987-07-01

    This five-year research project was established to provide sufficient data on coal-water fuel (CWF) chemical, physical, and combustion properties to assess the potential for commercial firing in furnaces designed for gas or oil firing. Extensive laboratory testing was performed at bench-scale, pilot-scale (4 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) and commercial-scale (25 {times} 10{sup 6} to 50 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) on a cross-section of CWFs. Fuel performance characteristics were assessed with respect to coal properties, level of coal beneficiation, and slurry formulation. The performance of four generic burner designs was also assessed. Boiler performance design models were applied to analyze the impacts associated with conversion of seven different generic unit designs to CWF firing. Equipment modifications, operating limitations, and retrofit costs were determined for each design when utilizing several CWFs. This report summarizes studies conducted under Task 4. The objective was to quantify CWF atomization and combustion properties utilizing industrial/utility scale equipment. Burners were evaluated and combustion performance differences identified for various CWF formulations. 12 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Combustion engineering issues for solid fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Miller; David Tillman

    2008-05-15

    The book combines modeling, policy/regulation and fuel properties with cutting edge breakthroughs in solid fuel combustion for electricity generation and industrial applications. This book provides real-life experiences and tips for addressing the various technical, operational and regulatory issues that are associated with the use of fuels. Contents are: Introduction; Coal Characteristics; Characteristics of Alternative Fuels; Characteristics and Behavior of Inorganic Constituents; Fuel Blending for Combustion Management; Fuel Preparation; Conventional Firing Systems; Fluidized-Bed Firing Systems; Post-Combustion Emissions Control; Some Computer Applications for Combustion Engineering with Solid Fuels; Gasification; Policy Considerations for Combustion Engineering.

  19. Thermogravimetric characterization of irrigated bermudagrass as a combustion feedstock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The bioenergy production industry can benefit from a greater understanding of potential differences among the various feedstock materials and production influences on thermochemical conversion processes such as combustion. The thermal degradation of biomass during combustion can quickly be assessed ...

  20. 77 FR 31815 - Hazardous Materials Regulations: Combustible Liquids

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    .../delay of international shipments in the port area); Increased burden on domestic industry (elimination of domestic combustible liquid exceptions); and Driver Eligibility (exception from placarding which... 5 ANPRM; two suggesting that domestic requirements for the transportation of combustible...

  1. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  2. Combustion detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimpi, R. L.; Nealy, J. E.; Grose, W. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A device has been developed for generating a rapid response signal upon the radiation-emitting combustion reaction of certain gases in order to provide a means for the detection and identification of such reaction and concurrently discriminate against spurious signals. This combustion might be the first stage of a coal mine explosion process, and thereby this device could provide a warning of the impending explosion in time to initiate quenching action. This device has the capability of distinguishing between the light emitted from a combustion reaction and the light emitted by miners' lamps, electric lamps, welding sparks or other spurious events so that the quenching mechanism is triggered only when an explosion-initiating combustion occurs.

  3. Combustion Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-04-01

    This photograph depicts one of over thirty tests conducted on the Vortex Combustion Chamber Engine at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) test stand 115, a joint effort between NASA's MSFC and the U.S. Army AMCOM of Redstone Arsenal. The engine tests were conducted to evaluate an irnovative, "self-cooled", vortex combustion chamber, which relies on tangentially injected propellants from the chamber wall producing centrifugal forces that keep the relatively cold liquid propellants near the wall.

  4. Manifold methods for methane combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, B.; Pope, S.B.

    1995-10-01

    Great progresses have been made in combustion research, especially, the computation of laminar flames and the probability density function (PDF) method in turbulent combustion. For one-dimensional laminar flames, by considering the transport mechanism, the detailed chemical kinetic mechanism and the interactions between these two basic processes, today it is a routine matter to calculate flame velocities, extinction, ignition, temperature, and species distributions from the governing equations. Results are in good agreement with those obtained for experiments. However, for turbulent combustion, because of the complexities of turbulent flow, chemical reactions, and the interaction between them, in the foreseeable future, it is impossible to calculate the combustion flow field by directly integrating the basic governing equations. So averaging and modeling are necessary in turbulent combustion studies. Averaging, on one hand, simplifies turbulent combustion calculations, on the other hand, it introduces the infamous closure problems, especially the closure problem with chemical reaction terms. Since in PDF calculations of turbulent combustion, the averages of the chemical reaction terms can be calculated, PDF methods overcome the closure problem with the reaction terms. It has been shown that the PDF method is a most promising method to calculate turbulent combustion. PDF methods have been successfully employed to calculate laboratory turbulent flames: they can predict phenomena such as super equilibrium radical levels, and local extinction. Because of these advantages, PDF methods are becoming used increasingly in industry combustor codes.

  5. EMISSIONS OF TRACE PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM A PILOT-SCALE INCINERATOR SECONDARY COMBUSTION CHAMBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator equipped with a 73 kW secondary combustion chamber (SCC) to examine emissions of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) resulting from incineration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and dichlorometh...

  6. EMISSIONS OF TRACE PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM A PILOT-SCALE INCINERATOR SECONDARY COMBUSTION CHAMBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator equipped with a 73 kW secondary combustion chamber (SCC) to examine emissions of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) resulting from incineration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and dichlorometh...

  7. Classification of Indian coals for combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Vasudevan, R.

    1996-12-31

    In annual coal production India ranks fourth in the world, behind China, USA and Russia, with an estimated production of 225 million tons in 1995-96. The utilities burn nearly 60% of the mined coal while industries consume 25-30% of the coal for captive power generation and process heat. The remaining 10-15% goes for the production of coke and miscellaneous applications. Combustion is thus the most important use of coal in India or for that matter, anywhere in the world. Countries like USA have national coal sample banks and databases. The Pennsylvania state (PENN) coal sample bank and database are well known, which are also used by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Argonne National Laboratory has used 200 samples from the PENN coal database and using cluster analysis, has identified 8 representative samples among American coals. Similar exercises have been carried out by Illinois Coal Development Board, US DOE`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and several universities. The need for a similar coal data bank/database for India and the lack of it at present have been highlighted by Nandakumar and Gopalakrishnan. Especially, for the design of combustion equipment, it will be highly helpful if one can come up with a set of typical Indian coals.

  8. Biofuels combustion*

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  9. Biofuels combustion*

    DOE PAGES

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-01-04

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acidsmore » and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. As a result, research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.« less

  10. Biofuels combustion.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Charles K

    2013-01-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  11. Bubble Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    A method of energy production that is capable of low pollutant emissions is fundamental to one of the four pillars of NASA s Aeronautics Blueprint: Revolutionary Vehicles. Bubble combustion, a new engine technology currently being developed at Glenn Research Center promises to provide low emissions combustion in support of NASA s vision under the Emissions Element because it generates power, while minimizing the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), both known to be Greenhouse gases. and allows the use of alternative fuels such as corn oil, low-grade fuels, and even used motor oil. Bubble combustion is analogous to the inverse of spray combustion: the difference between bubble and spray combustion is that spray combustion is spraying a liquid in to a gas to form droplets, whereas bubble combustion involves injecting a gas into a liquid to form gaseous bubbles. In bubble combustion, the process for the ignition of the bubbles takes place on a time scale of less than a nanosecond and begins with acoustic waves perturbing each bubble. This perturbation causes the local pressure to drop below the vapor pressure of the liquid thus producing cavitation in which the bubble diameter grows, and upon reversal of the oscillating pressure field, the bubble then collapses rapidly with the aid of the high surface tension forces acting on the wall of the bubble. The rapid and violent collapse causes the temperatures inside the bubbles to soar as a result of adiabatic heating. As the temperatures rise, the gaseous contents of the bubble ignite with the bubble itself serving as its own combustion chamber. After ignition, this is the time in the bubble s life cycle where power is generated, and CO2, and NOx among other species, are produced. However, the pollutants CO2 and NOx are absorbed into the surrounding liquid. The importance of bubble combustion is that it generates power using a simple and compact device. We conducted a parametric study using CAVCHEM

  12. Biofuels Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, Charles K.

    2013-04-01

    This review describes major features of current research in renewable fuels derived from plants and from fatty acids. Recent and ongoing fundamental studies of biofuel molecular structure, oxidation reactions, and biofuel chemical properties are reviewed, in addition to combustion applications of biofuels in the major types of engines in which biofuels are used. Biofuels and their combustion are compared with combustion features of conventional petroleum-based fuels. Two main classes of biofuels are described, those consisting of small, primarily alcohol, fuels (particularly ethanol, n-butanol, and iso-pentanol) that are used primarily to replace or supplement gasoline and those derived from fatty acids and used primarily to replace or supplement conventional diesel fuels. Research efforts on so-called second- and third-generation biofuels are discussed briefly.

  13. Bubble Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corrigan, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    A method of energy production that is capable of low pollutant emissions is fundamental to one of the four pillars of NASA s Aeronautics Blueprint: Revolutionary Vehicles. Bubble combustion, a new engine technology currently being developed at Glenn Research Center promises to provide low emissions combustion in support of NASA s vision under the Emissions Element because it generates power, while minimizing the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxides (NOx), both known to be Greenhouse gases. and allows the use of alternative fuels such as corn oil, low-grade fuels, and even used motor oil. Bubble combustion is analogous to the inverse of spray combustion: the difference between bubble and spray combustion is that spray combustion is spraying a liquid in to a gas to form droplets, whereas bubble combustion involves injecting a gas into a liquid to form gaseous bubbles. In bubble combustion, the process for the ignition of the bubbles takes place on a time scale of less than a nanosecond and begins with acoustic waves perturbing each bubble. This perturbation causes the local pressure to drop below the vapor pressure of the liquid thus producing cavitation in which the bubble diameter grows, and upon reversal of the oscillating pressure field, the bubble then collapses rapidly with the aid of the high surface tension forces acting on the wall of the bubble. The rapid and violent collapse causes the temperatures inside the bubbles to soar as a result of adiabatic heating. As the temperatures rise, the gaseous contents of the bubble ignite with the bubble itself serving as its own combustion chamber. After ignition, this is the time in the bubble s life cycle where power is generated, and CO2, and NOx among other species, are produced. However, the pollutants CO2 and NOx are absorbed into the surrounding liquid. The importance of bubble combustion is that it generates power using a simple and compact device. We conducted a parametric study using CAVCHEM

  14. Development, Implementation, and Analysis of Desktop-Scale Model Industrial Equipment and a Critical Thinking Rubric for Use in Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golter, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    In order to address some of the challenges facing engineering education, namely the demand that students be better prepared to practice professional as well as technical skills, we have developed an intervention consisting of equipment, assessments and a novel pedagogy. The equipment consists of desktop-scale replicas of common industrial…

  15. Development, Implementation, and Analysis of Desktop-Scale Model Industrial Equipment and a Critical Thinking Rubric for Use in Chemical Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golter, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    In order to address some of the challenges facing engineering education, namely the demand that students be better prepared to practice professional as well as technical skills, we have developed an intervention consisting of equipment, assessments and a novel pedagogy. The equipment consists of desktop-scale replicas of common industrial…

  16. 46 CFR 153.466 - Electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical equipment. 153.466 Section 153.466 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING... Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.466 Electrical equipment. A tankship carrying a...

  17. 46 CFR 153.466 - Electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electrical equipment. 153.466 Section 153.466 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING... Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.466 Electrical equipment. A tankship carrying a...

  18. 46 CFR 153.466 - Electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electrical equipment. 153.466 Section 153.466 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING... Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.466 Electrical equipment. A tankship carrying...

  19. 46 CFR 153.466 - Electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electrical equipment. 153.466 Section 153.466 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING... Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.466 Electrical equipment. A tankship carrying...

  20. 46 CFR 153.466 - Electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electrical equipment. 153.466 Section 153.466 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING... Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.466 Electrical equipment. A tankship carrying...

  1. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  2. Atmospheric emission of mercury due to combustion of steam coal and domestic coal in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaobin; Luo, Kunli

    2017-08-01

    To study the mercury emission due to the combustion of steam coal and domestic coal in China, we analyzed the mercury contents of coal, fly ash, bottom ash and sluicing water in thermal power plants, steam boilers as well as domestic coal-stoves, in Shaanxi, Shanxi, Shandong and Yunnan Provinces. This study conduct an estimate of the Hg emission rates from steam coal and domestic coal combustion based on the method of mass distribution ratio of fly ash and bottom ash. The results show that the Hg emission rate of coal combustion in thermal power plants is about 50.21% (electrostatic precipitators + wet flue gas desulfurization), and that in heating boilers is about 67.23%, and 92.28% in industrial boilers without flue gas desulphurisation equipment. Furthermore, Hg emission rate is 83.61% due to domestic coal combustion in coal-stoves. The Hg emission amount into the atmosphere from power and heat generation, industrial boilers, domestic coal-stoves and spontaneous combustion of coal gangue is roughly estimated to be 133 ± 4, 100 ± 17, 11 ± 0.1 and 47 ± 26 tons in China in 2014, respectively, and the total Hg emission amount from this paper is estimated at 292 tons. The trends of Hg emission in China from 1991 to 2014 show an accelerating growth after 2002. The proportion of mercury emission due to thermal power, heating generation and industrial energy utilization continuously increased. The atmospheric emission of mercury due to combustion of steam coal, domestic coal and coal gangue accounts nearly 50% in total anthropogenic Hg emissions in China, indicating one of the largest sources of Hg emission in China which should draw more public and scientific attention in the future.

  3. Coal combustion byproducts and environmental issues

    SciTech Connect

    Sajwan, K.S.; Twardowska, I.; Punshon, T.; Alva, A.K.

    2006-07-01

    The book addresses the major implications and critical issues surrounding coal combustion products and their impact upon the environment. It provides essential information for scientists conducting research on coal and coal combustion products, but also serves as a valuable reference for a wide variety of researchers and other professionals in the energy industry and in the fields of public health, engineering, and environmental sciences.

  4. Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    2001-01-01

    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 22-24, 2001. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  5. Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of 120 papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 18-20, 1999. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from at least eight international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for the Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  6. Development of combustion data to utilize low-Btu gases as industrial process fuels: modification of flame characteristics. Project 61041 quarterly report, 1 January-31 March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Waibel, R.T.

    1980-04-01

    This program consists of an experimental program to determine the burner modifications that will yield suitable flame characteristics and shapes with oxygen-blown gases manufactured from coal. Experiments will also be conducted to evaluate methods of enchancing the flame characteristics of manufactured gases from air-blown gasifiers. Progress to date includes a partial completion of the oxygen-enrichment system, preparation of the furnace for the trials, and discussions of the burner modifications needed for combustion trials with the burner manufacturer.

  7. Turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K.

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  8. Lennox - Student Training Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox Industries, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

    Presents a series of demonstration units designed by Lennox Industries for the purpose of training students to become familiar with Lennox mechanical equipment. Demonstrators are designed to present technical information in a clear simplified manner thus reducing frustration for the beginning trainee. The following demonstrators are available--(1)…

  9. Lennox - Student Training Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox Industries, Inc., Marshalltown, IA.

    Presents a series of demonstration units designed by Lennox Industries for the purpose of training students to become familiar with Lennox mechanical equipment. Demonstrators are designed to present technical information in a clear simplified manner thus reducing frustration for the beginning trainee. The following demonstrators are available--(1)…

  10. Analysis of potential combustion source impacts on acid deposition using an independently derived inventory. Volume II, appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    This document contains 2 appendices. The first documents the methodologies used to calculate production, unit energy consumption, fuel type and emission estimates for 16 industries and 35 types of facilities utilizing direct-fired industrial combustion processes, located in 26 states (and the District of Columbia) east of the Mississippi River. As discussed in the text of this report, a U.S. total of 16 industries and 45 types of facilities utilizing direct-fired combustion processes were identified by an elimination type method that was developed based on evaluation of fuel use in industrial SIC codes 20-39 to identify pollutant sources contributing to acid rain. The final population included only plants that have direct-fired fuel consumption greater than or equal to 100 x 10/sup 9/ Btu/yr of equivalent energy consumption. The goal for this analysis was to provide at least a 1980 base year for the data. This was achieved for all of the industries and in fact, 1981 data were used for a number of the industries evaluated. The second contains an analysis of all consumption of major fossil fuels to: (1) identify all fuel usage categories, and (2) identify the kinds of combustion equipment used within each category. This analysis provides a frame of reference for the balance of the study and permits using an energy accounting methodology to quantify the degree to which the inventoried sources in individual consuming sectors are complete and representative of the total population for the sector.

  11. 47 CFR 18.203 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 18.203 Section 18.203 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT Applications and Authorizations § 18.203 Equipment authorization. (a) Consumer ISM equipment, unless otherwise specified, must be authorized...

  12. 47 CFR 18.203 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 18.203 Section 18.203 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT Applications and Authorizations § 18.203 Equipment authorization. (a) Consumer ISM equipment, unless otherwise specified, must be authorized...

  13. 47 CFR 18.203 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment authorization. 18.203 Section 18.203 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT Applications and Authorizations § 18.203 Equipment authorization. (a) Consumer ISM equipment, unless otherwise specified, must be authorized...

  14. Regenerative combustion device

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2004-03-16

    A regenerative combustion device having a combustion zone, and chemicals contained within the combustion zone, such as water, having a first equilibrium state, and a second combustible state. Means for transforming the chemicals from the first equilibrium state to the second combustible state, such as electrodes, are disposed within the chemicals. An igniter, such as a spark plug or similar device, is disposed within the combustion zone for igniting combustion of the chemicals in the second combustible state. The combustion products are contained within the combustion zone, and the chemicals are selected such that the combustion products naturally chemically revert into the chemicals in the first equilibrium state following combustion. The combustion device may thus be repeatedly reused, requiring only a brief wait after each ignition to allow the regeneration of combustible gasses within the head space.

  15. Sandia combustion research program: Annual report, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.E.; Sanders, B.R.; Ivanetich, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    More than a decade ago, in response to a national energy crisis, Sandia proposed to the US Department of Energy a new, ambitious program in combustion research. Our strategy was to apply the rapidly increasing capabilities in lasers and computers to combustion science and technology. Shortly thereafter, the Combustion Research Facility (CRF) was established at Sandia's Livermore location. Designated a ''User Facility,'' the charter of the CRF was to develop and maintain special-purpose resources to support a nationwide initiative--involving US universities, industry, and national laboratories--to improve our understanding and control of combustion. This report includes descriptions of several research projects which have been stimulated by Working Groups and involve the on-site participation of industry scientists. DOE's Industry Technology Fellowship Program has been instrumental in the success of some of the joint efforts. The remainder of this report presents research results of calendar year 1987, separated thematically into nine categories. Refereed journal articles appearing in print during 1987, along with selected other publications, are included at the end of Section 10. In addition to our ''traditional'' research--chemistry, reacting flow, diagnostics, engine combustion, and coal combustion--you will note continued progress in somewhat recent themes: pulse combustion, high temperature materials, and energetic materials, for example. Moreover, we have just started a small, new effort to understand combustion-related issues in the management of toxic and hazardous materials.

  16. Advanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  17. EPA USDA Agricultural Equipment Statement of Principles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Agricultural Equipment Statement of Principles was developed jointly between EPA and USDA at the request of agriculture industry stakeholders seeking support for programs to assist farmers looking to invest in cleaner agricultural equipment

  18. BIODIESEL BLENDS IN SPACE HEATING EQUIPMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    KRISHNA,C.R.

    2001-12-01

    Biodiesel is a diesel-like fuel that is derived from processing vegetable oils from various sources, such as soy oil, rapeseed or canola oil, and also waste vegetable oils resulting from cooking use. Brookhaven National laboratory initiated an evaluation of the performance of blends of biodiesel and home heating oil in space heating applications under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This report is a result of this work performed in the laboratory. A number of blends of varying amounts of a biodiesel in home heating fuel were tested in both a residential heating system and a commercial size boiler. The results demonstrate that blends of biodiesel and heating oil can be used with few or no modifications to the equipment or operating practices in space heating. The results also showed that there were environmental benefits from the biodiesel addition in terms of reductions in smoke and in Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). The latter result was particularly surprising and of course welcome, in view of the previous results in diesel engines where no changes had been seen. Residential size combustion equipment is presently not subject to NOx regulation. If reductions in NOx similar to those observed here hold up in larger size (commercial and industrial) boilers, a significant increase in the use of biodiesel-like fuel blends could become possible.

  19. Characterisation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in flue gas and residues of a full scale fluidized bed combustor combusting non-hazardous industrial waste.

    PubMed

    Van Caneghem, J; Vandecasteele, C

    2014-11-01

    This paper studies the fate of PAHs in full scale incinerators by analysing the concentration of the 16 EPA-PAHs in both the input waste and all the outputs of a full scale Fluidized Bed Combustor (FBC). Of the analysed waste inputs i.e. Waste Water Treatment (WWT) sludge, Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) and Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR), RDF and ASR were the main PAH sources, with phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene being the most important PAHs. In the flue gas sampled at the stack, naphthalene was the only predominant PAH, indicating that the PAHs in FBC's combustion gas were newly formed and did not remain from the input waste. Of the other outputs, the boiler and fly ash contained no detectable levels of PAHs, whereas the flue gas cleaning residue contained only low concentrations of naphthalene, probably adsorbed from the flue gas. The PAH fingerprint of the bottom ash corresponded rather well to the PAH fingerprint of the RDF and ASR, indicating that the PAHs in this output, in contrast to the other outputs, were mainly remainders from the PAHs in the waste inputs. A PAH mass balance showed that the total PAH input/output ratio of the FBC ranged from about 100 to about 2600 depending on the waste input composition and the obtained combustion conditions. In all cases, the FBC was clearly a net PAH sink. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3. Seventeenth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1996-04-07

    In the first quarter of calendar year 1996, 9 days of combust-boiler tests were performed. Between these tests, modifications and improvements that were indicated by these tests were implemented. In January and early February, the modifications and installations indicated by the 6 days of testing in December 1995 were implemented. This was followed by 6 additional consecutive test days in mid- February. This was in turn followed by additional modifications, followed by a series of 3 one day, coal fired tests at end of March. These latter tests were the first ones in which slagging conditions were achieved in the combustor. The maximum thermal input was 13 MMBtu/hr, which equals two-thirds of the rated boiler heat input. The measured thermal, combustion, and slagging performance achieved in the combustor was superior to that achieved in the final series of tests conducted in Williamsport in 1993. The combustor-boiler facility is now ready for implementation of the task 5 site demonstration.

  1. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale, Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3: Twentieth quarterly technical progress report, October 1-December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, Bert

    1997-02-27

    In the fourth quarter of calendar year 1996, 15 days of combust boiler tests were performed, including 10 days of tests on a parallel DOE sponsored project on sulfur retention in a slagging combustor. Between tests, modifications and improvements that were indicated by these tests were implemented. This brings the total number of test days to the end of December in the task 5 effort to 57, increased to 65 as of the date of this Report, 1/27/97. This compares with a total of 63 test days needed to complete the task 5 test effort, and it completes the number of tests days required to meet the task 5 project plan. The key project objectives of the areas of combustor performance and environmental performance have been exceeded. With sorbent injection in the combustion gas train, NO{sub x} emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO{sub 2} emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu have been measured in tests in this quarter. Work in the next quarter will focus on even greater reductions in environmental emissions. Also tests are planned with coals other than the Eastern U.S. bituminous coals tested in this project. For example, it is planned to tests Indian coals whose ash concentration is in the 40% range.

  2. Improving RDF combustion: Case histories

    SciTech Connect

    Kubin, P.Z.

    1996-09-01

    During the past ten years Ogden has acquired or took over operating of several waste-to-energy facilities using RDF technology. Based on the diversified design, construction, and operating experience, Ogden conducted a multifaceted program to understand and improve the general plant operation and in particular the combustion in these RDF plants. This program has resulted in improved combustion stability, reduced corrosion/erosion of boiler components, and lower air pollutant emission rates. The program began with a detailed evaluation of furnace design parameters and historical operating and maintenance data. This evaluation identified specific areas of concern at each plant, such as equipment with high maintenance requirements, low reliability, or high operating costs.Design parameters at the various facilities were compared to each other and to Ogden`s mass-burn plants to gain insight into combustion issues such as fuel feed, combustion air supply, flame stability, and boiler corrosion. This was followed by detailed studies of the combustion process in the plants, including furnace air flow modeling and corrosion and erosion processes in the boilers. This generated an understanding of many of the processes taking place in the furnace, and suggested opportunities for improvement.

  3. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  4. Combustion Science

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-07

    Interior of a combustion experiment apparatus used in the 2.2-second drop tower at NASA's Glenn Research Center. This was shown to students participating in the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  5. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, 'clean coal' combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered 'allowable' under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and private-sector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  6. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  7. [Effect of combustion devices on the quality of indoor air].

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, G

    1982-01-01

    Combustion devices and the equipment conducting their effluent gases such as ducts and chimneys are factors which might have an unreasonable or even dangerous impact on the quality of air inside buildings. There is a danger of flue gases entering the indoor environment during the heating process (a) if the air-circulation associated with the operation of a combustion device is disturbed or even interrupted, (b) if the air stream - as far as flue gases are involved - flows under elevated pressure, and (c) if the combustion device and the flue gas conducting equipment are not leak-proof. These three cases and their influence on indoor air quality are extensively discussed. In the German Combustion Device Code from 1980 care is taken to minimize the pollutant concentrations in rooms with combustion devices by setting special requirements for the room in which the device is located, and by prescribing the standardization of the technical characteristics of chimneys and combustion devices.

  8. Regulating the combustion temperature of the fuel in kilns for firing electrical porcelain

    SciTech Connect

    Etingen, L.A.; Koren, M.G.; Tishkevich, L.B.

    1986-11-01

    It can be assumed that the use of ballasted air in burner devices of kilns working with natural gas and equipped with low-pressure burners will give an increase in the consumption and pressure of the ballasted air compared with pure (nonballasted) air; there should be an improvement in the introduction of the fuel, its mixing conditions, and the combustion conditions. The proposed method of regulating the temperature in kilns can be used in other industries with similar heattreatment conditions for the goods.

  9. 76 FR 72902 - Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee (MPETAC) will meet... controls applicable to materials processing equipment and related technology. Agenda Open Session...

  10. Development and Industrialization of 2/8/34 Mbit/s Optical terminal equipments with complexity saving -- Application to Videocommunication networks -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, G.; Robin-Jouan, Y.

    1986-07-01

    A product line is under development at [CT for cheap optical transmissions at 2/8/34 Mbit/s. Each hidirectionna] terminal is implemented on a single polyvalent hoard. Electrical interfaces are standardized HD83 junctions or Rinary + cslock (TTL) links. Optical accesses are equiped with Optical to Electrical Connections (OCC). Flexihility for PIN or PDA (arid shortly for DEL or LASER) is provided by choosing the type of DEC.

  11. Fuel gas combustion research at METC

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, T.S.

    1995-06-01

    The in-house combustion research program at METC is an integral part of many METC activities, providing support to METC product teams, project managers, and external industrial and university partners. While the majority of in-house combustion research in recent years has been focussed on the lean premixed combustion of natural gas fuel for Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) applications, increasing emphasis is being placed on issues of syngas combustion, as the time approaches when the ATS and coal-fired power systems programs will reach convergence. When the METC syngas generator is built in 1996, METC will have the unique combination of mid-scale pressurized experimental facilities, a continuous syngas supply with variable ammonia loading, and a team of people with expertise in low-emissions combustion, chemical kinetics, combustion modeling, combustion diagnostics, and the control of combustion instabilities. These will enable us to investigate such issues as the effects of pressure, temperature, and fuel gas composition on the rate of conversion of fuel nitrogen to NOx, and on combustion instabilities in a variety of combustor designs.

  12. Management methodology for pressure equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bletchly, P. J.

    Pressure equipment constitutes a significant investment in capital and a major proportion of potential high-risk plant in many operations and this is particularly so in an alumina refinery. In many jurisdictions pressure equipment is also subject to statutory regulation that imposes obligations on Owners of the equipment with respect to workplace safety. Most modern technical standards and industry codes of practice employ a risk-based approach to support better decision making with respect to pressure equipment. For a management system to be effective it must demonstrate that risk is being managed within acceptable limits.

  13. Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Subsonic Combustion Rig (ASCR), a unique, state-of-the-art facility for conducting combustion research, is located at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The ASCR, which was nearing completion at the close of 1995, will be capable of simulating the very high pressure and high temperature conditions that are expected to exist in future, advanced subsonic gas turbine (jet) engines. Future environmental regulations will require much cleaner burning (more environmentally friendly) aircraft engines. The ASCR is critical to the development of these cleaner engines. It will allow NASA and U.S. aircraft engine industry researchers to identify and test promising clean-burning gas turbine engine combustion concepts under the pressure and temperature conditions that are expected for those future engines. Combustion processes will be investigated for a variety of next-generation aircraft engine sizes, including engines for large, long-range aircraft (with typical trip lengths of about 3000 mi) and for regional aircraft (with typical trip lengths of about 400 mi). The ASCR design was conceived and initiated in 1993, and fabrication and construction of the rig, including the buildup of an advanced control room, took place throughout 1994 and 1995. In early 1996, the ASCR will be operational for obtaining research data. The ASCR is an intricate part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Propulsion Program, which is aimed at developing technologies critical to the next generation of gas turbine engines. This effort is in collaboration with the U.S. aircraft gas turbine engine industry. A goal of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Propulsion Program is to develop combustion concepts and technologies that will result in gas turbine engines that produce 50 percent less nitrous oxide (NO_x) pollutants than current engines do. This facility is unique in its capability to simulate advanced subsonic engine pressure, temperature, and air flow rate conditions

  14. Development & testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Eleventh quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1994-11-15

    The primary objective of the present effort is to perform the final testing, at a 20Mmbtu/hr commercial scale, of an air cooled, slagging coal combustor for application to industrial steam boilers and power plants. The focus of the test effort is on combustor durability, automatic control of the combustor`s operation, and optimal environmental control of emissions inside the combustor.

  15. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3. Nineteenth quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1996-10-27

    In the third quarter of calendar year 1996, 13 days of combust-boiler tests were performed, including 3 days of tests on a parallel DOE sponsored project on sulfur retention in a stagging combustor. Between tests, modifications and improvements that were indicated by these tests were implemented. This brings the total number of test days to the end of September in the task 5 effort to 41, increased to 46 as of the date of this Report, 10/27/96. This compares with a total of 63 test days needed to complete the task 5 test effort. As reported previously, the only major modification to the Williamsport combustor has been the addition of a new downstream section, which lengthens the combustor and improves the combustor-boiler interface. The original combustor section, which includes the fuel, air, and cooling water delivery systems remained basically unchanged. Only the refractory liner was completely replaced, a task which occurs on an annual basis in all commercial stagging utility combustors. Therefore, this combustor has been operated since 1988 without replacement.

  16. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1993-02-15

    A major part of the work in this quarter was on the combustor tests in task 2. Three of the six planned tests in this task were completed. The first two were parametric tests of nominal one shift, (8 hour) duration on coal. Due to failure of the UV detector in the first test only several hours of coal fired operation were completed. In the second test, coal fired operation continued for the planned one shift until the 4 ton coal bin was empty. After reviewing this work with DOE, it was decided to focus the remaining test on longer duration operation with each test at one optimum condition. The third test was planned for two shift coal fired operation. Due to a problem with the pilot gas ignitor, combustion was delayed by 5 hours from 7 AM to Noon. As a result coal fired operation was limited to one shift between 3 PM and 11 PM. Throughout this period the combustor remained at one fixed condition with the use of computer control. Results for these three tests are presented in this report. Most of the work on the task 4 design and cost of a 20 MW combined gas-steam turbine power plant using the air cooled combustor was completed in the previous quarter. The results obtained by the A/E subcontractor on the installation desip and cost were evaluated in the present quarter and they are summarized in this report.

  17. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1993-05-17

    In the present reporting period, the first quarter of calendar year 1993, the effort was divided between Task 2. ``Pre Systems Tests`` and Task 4 ``Economics and Commercialization Plan.`` A major part of the task 2 effort was devoted converting the nozzle from adiabatic to air cooted operation. This conversion will allow immediate implementation of the longer duration task 3.2 tests after the completion of the task 2 tests. Therefore, a significant pan of the exit nozzle conversion effort is also part of task 3.1, ``Combustor Refurbishment.`` In task 1 the only activity remaining is to receive the results of the BYU combustion modeling. The results are anticipated this Spring. One of the three remaining tests in task 2 was implemented in late January under freezing weather and snow conditions. Ice plugged the coal feed lines and stack scrubber water outlet and ice jammed and damaged the coal metering auger. While these lines were thawed, the combustor was fired with oil. The coal used in this test contained fine fibrous tramp material which passed through the two tramp material retaining screens and eventually plugged several of the coal feed lines to the combustor. This cut the planned coal feed rate in half. As a result it was decided for the next test to increase the number of coal injection ports by 50% in order to provide excess capacity in the pneumatic feed feed. This will allow continued operation even in the presence of fine tramp material in the coal.

  18. Combustion chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.J.

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  19. Telescope Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Renaissance Telescope for high resolution and visual astronomy has five 82-degree Field Tele-Vue Nagler Eyepieces, some of the accessories that contribute to high image quality. Telescopes and eyepieces are representative of a family of optical equipment manufactured by Tele-Vue Optics, Inc.

  20. Multi-stage combustion using nitrogen-enriched air

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.

    2004-09-14

    Multi-stage combustion technology combined with nitrogen-enriched air technology for controlling the combustion temperature and products to extend the maintenance and lifetime cycles of materials in contact with combustion products and to reduce pollutants while maintaining relatively high combustion and thermal cycle efficiencies. The first stage of combustion operates fuel rich where most of the heat of combustion is released by burning it with nitrogen-enriched air. Part of the energy in the combustion gases is used to perform work or to provide heat. The cooled combustion gases are reheated by additional stages of combustion until the last stage is at or near stoichiometric conditions. Additional energy is extracted from each stage to result in relatively high thermal cycle efficiency. The air is enriched with nitrogen using air separation technologies such as diffusion, permeable membrane, absorption, and cryogenics. The combustion method is applicable to many types of combustion equipment, including: boilers, burners, turbines, internal combustion engines, and many types of fuel including hydrogen and carbon-based fuels including methane and coal.

  1. 46 CFR 32.35-5 - Installation of internal combustion engines-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of internal combustion engines-TB/ALL. 32... EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-5 Installation of internal combustion engines—TB/ALL. Each internal combustion engine located on the weather deck shall be provided...

  2. 46 CFR 32.35-5 - Installation of internal combustion engines-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Installation of internal combustion engines-TB/ALL. 32... EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-5 Installation of internal combustion engines—TB/ALL. Each internal combustion engine located on the weather deck shall be provided...

  3. 46 CFR 32.35-5 - Installation of internal combustion engines-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Installation of internal combustion engines-TB/ALL. 32... EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-5 Installation of internal combustion engines—TB/ALL. Each internal combustion engine located on the weather deck shall be provided...

  4. 46 CFR 32.35-5 - Installation of internal combustion engines-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Installation of internal combustion engines-TB/ALL. 32... EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-5 Installation of internal combustion engines—TB/ALL. Each internal combustion engine located on the weather deck shall be provided...

  5. 46 CFR 32.35-5 - Installation of internal combustion engines-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Installation of internal combustion engines-TB/ALL. 32... EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-5 Installation of internal combustion engines—TB/ALL. Each internal combustion engine located on the weather deck shall be provided...

  6. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Third quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1992-10-17

    In the third quarter of calendar year 1992, work continued on Task l. ``Design, Installation, and Shakedown of the Modifications to the 20 MMBtu/hr Air Cooled Combustor and Boiler Components``. Task 2. ``Preliminary Systems Tests`` and Task 4 ``Economics and Commercialization Plan``. In task 1, the design of the planned modifications were mostly completed. The equipment to implement these modifications was procured, and most of the installation of this equipment was completed. Finally, a series of two shakedown tests was performed to test the operability of these modifications. As previously reported, no modifications to the combustor were made. All the changes were improvements in overall combustor-boiler operation, maintenance and repair of components, and addition of diagnostics. In addition, during shakedown tests of these modifications the need for additional improvements or modifications became apparent, and these were or a-re being implemented. The major improvements focused on coal and sorbent storage, transport, and combustor injection, real time control of ash deposition in the boiler, unproved combustor wall cooling, expanded computer control and diagnostics, and refurbishment of the scrubber and combustor temperature measurements. AD this work has been described in a detailed topical report on task 1, which was recently submitted to DOE, and it will not be repeated here. Instead the focus of this report will be on the analysis of the test results obtained in the two shakedown tests. This work was partly reported in the 7th 8th and 9th monthly reports. An important result of these tests has been the observation of high (over 85%) SO{sub 2} reduction obtained with sorbent injection in the combustor.

  7. Experimental investigations of the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of inert and combustible dust cloud mixtures.

    PubMed

    Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich

    2016-04-15

    The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety (moderation). This is achieved by adding an inert material to a highly combustible material in order to decrease the ignition sensitivity of the combustible dust. The presented paper deals with the experimental investigation of the influence of adding an inert dust on the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of the combustible/inert dust mixtures. The experimental investigation was done in two laboratory scale equipment: the Hartmann apparatus and the Godbert-Greenwald furnace for the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature test respectively. This was achieved by mixing various amounts of three inert materials (magnesium oxide, ammonium sulphate and sand) and six combustible dusts (brown coal, lycopodium, toner, niacin, corn starch and high density polyethylene). Generally, increasing the inert materials concentration increases the minimum ignition energy as well as the minimum ignition temperatures until a threshold is reached where no ignition was obtained. The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%.

  8. 10 CFR 431.405 - Exported equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exported equipment. 431.405 Section 431.405 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.405 Exported equipment. Under Sections 330 and 345 of the Act, this...

  9. 10 CFR 431.404 - Imported equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported equipment. 431.404 Section 431.404 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.404 Imported equipment. (a) Under sections 331 and 345 of the Act,...

  10. 10 CFR 431.404 - Imported equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Imported equipment. 431.404 Section 431.404 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.404 Imported equipment. (a) Under sections 331 and 345 of the Act,...

  11. 10 CFR 431.405 - Exported equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exported equipment. 431.405 Section 431.405 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 431.405 Exported equipment. Under Sections 330 and 345 of the Act, this Part...

  12. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must be... times the system's maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with at...

  13. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must be... times the system's maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped with at...

  14. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems, Phase 3. Technical progress report, October 1990--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  15. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Handbook of infrared radiation from combustion gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, C. B.; Malkmus, W.; Reardon, J. E.; Thomson, J. A. L.; Goulard, R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The treatment of radiant emission and absorption by combustion gases are discussed. Typical applications include: (1) rocket combustion chambers and exhausts, (2) turbojet engines and exhausts, and (3) industrial furnaces. Some mention is made of radiant heat transfer problems in planetary atmospheres, in stellar atmospheres, and in reentry plasmas. Particular consideration is given to the temperature range from 500K to 3000K and the pressure range from 0.001 atmosphere to 30 atmospheres. Strong emphasis is given to the combustion products of hydrocarbon fuels with oxygen, specifically to carbon dioxide, water vapor, and carbon monoxide. In addition, species such as HF, HC1, CN, OH, and NO are treated.

  17. Vortex Simulation of Turbulent Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-19

    TURBULENT COMBUSTION (AFOSR Grant No. 89-0491) Principal Investigator: Ahmed F. Ghoniem Department of Mechanical Engineering Massachusetts Institute of...Heavy Industries, Nagoya, Japan.(talk and discussion). 17. 1990, Mazda Motor Co., Yokohama, Japan, (talk and discussion). 18. 1990, American Math Society...VORTICITY LAYERS UNDER NON-SYMMETRIC CONDITIONS Omar M. Kniot and Ahmed F. Ghoniem Department of Mechanical Engineering Massachusetts Institute of

  18. Where is the coiled tubing wave headed. [The increased use of coiled tube drilling equipment in the oil and gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, K. )

    1994-09-01

    In the late 1980s, the coiled tubing (CT) service market began a wave of growth and expansion unparalleled by other oil field services. In 1989, market growth was so rapid it was referred to as a ''CT revolution.'' The trend has continued through the early 1990s with annual growth rates of 20%--30%, while other oil field service markets have been stagnant or even shrinking. With the recent advent of open-hole CT drilling (CTD) and CT completions (CTC), the wave's momentum is increasing with no end in sight. Advances in CT manufacturing, fatigue prediction, larger-diameter tubing, CT logging and other CT equipment made in the late 1980s improved the reliability and effectiveness of CT services, triggering this wave of activity. The status of this technology is discussed along with the performance and reliability of coiled tubing drills.

  19. Basic concepts and issues: a primer on distribution and sales representative agreements in the medical device and durable medical equipment industries.

    PubMed

    Burow, Heiko E; Kolls, Raymond C

    2006-01-01

    Counsel for a manufacturer of medical devices or durable medical equipment must have working knowledge of various legal disciplines to draft contracts with intermediaries (sales representatives and distributors) for the marketing and sale of the manufacturer's products. If the manufacturer wishes to sell its products abroad, counsel must become familiar with the laws and business practices of the target country, and methods of gaining access to the foreign market. This Article gives readers an overview of the applicable legal principles, under U.S. and foreign laws, in the areas of agency, contracts, healthcare regulation, consumer protection, intellectual property protection, and dealer protection. To aid counsel in drafting intermediary agreements, specific contractual terms and issues are explored in depth, including: appointment clauses, performance provisions, provisions concerning pricing and payment, protective clauses (shielding the manufacturer from liability), term and termination provisions, independent contractor clauses, export control clauses, recordkeeping and audit provisions, choice of law clauses, and dispute resolution clauses.

  20. Advanced Combustion Diagnostics and Control for Furnaces, Fired Heaters and Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Tate, J. D.; Le, Linh D.; Knittel,Trevor; Cowie, Alan

    2010-03-20

    The objective of this project was to develop and apply enabling tools and methods towards advanced combustion diagnostics and control of fired-equipment in large-scale petrochemical manufacturing. There are a number of technology gaps and opportunities for combustion optimization, including technologies involving advanced in-situ measurements, modeling, and thermal imaging. These technologies intersect most of manufacturing and energy systems within the chemical industry. This project leveraged the success of a previous DOE funded project led by Dow, where we co-developed an in-situ tunable diode laser (TDL) analyzer platform (with Analytical Specialties Inc, now owned by Yokogawa Electric Corp.). The TDL platform has been tested and proven in a number of combustion processes within Dow and outside of Dow. The primary focus of this project was on combustion diagnostics and control applied towards furnaces, fired heaters and boilers. Special emphasis was placed on the development and application of in-situ measurements for O2, CO and methane since these combustion gases are key variables in optimizing and controlling combustion processes safely. Current best practice in the industry relies on measurements that suffer from serious performance gaps such as limited sampling volume (point measurements), poor precision and accuracy, and poor reliability. Phase I of the project addressed these gaps by adding improved measurement capabilities such as CO and methane (ppm analysis at combustion zone temperatures) as well as improved optics to maintain alignment over path lengths up to 30 meters. Proof-of-concept was demonstrated on a modern olefins furnace located at Dow Chemical's facility in Freeport TX where the improved measurements were compared side-by-side to accepted best practice techniques (zirconium oxide and catalytic bead or thick film sensors). After developing and installing the improved combustion measurements (O2, CO, and methane), we also demonstrated the

  1. Combustible particluate fuel heater

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.H.; Jurgens, H.J.W.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a combustible particulate fired heater. It consists of: a combustion chamber defined by upright side walls extending between open top and bottom ends; an enclosure surrounding the combustion chamber; a retort within the combustion chamber adjacent the bottom end and having a lower particulate receiving end and an upper open end; feed conveyor means leading through the enclosure to the retort for delivering metered quantities of combustible particulates to the lower particulate receiving end of the retort; primary combustion air supply means having a primary combustion air supply manifold extending at least partially about the upper open end of the retort; primary air control means on the primary air supply means for selectively allowing entry of combustion air from outside the enclosure in to the retort; secondary combustion air supply means including a secondary air supply manifold within the combustion chamber above the primary combustion air supply manifold; secondary air control means independent of the primary air control means for selectively allowing entry of secondary air from outside the enclosure to an area within the combustion chamber above the retort; an exhaust duct opening into the enclosure; and vacuum means connected to the exhaust duct for producing a pressure differential between the area confined by the enclosure and the ambient atmosphere such that ambient air is drawn through at least one of the combustion air supply means to induce a high level of gasification and to support combustion at the retort and for drawing combustion exhaust gases out through the exhaust duct.

  2. Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Phase 3 final report, November 1992--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-26

    A three phase research and development program has resulted in the development and commercialization of a Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}), capable of being fueled by pulverized coal, natural gas, and other solid, gaseous, or liquid fuels, for the vitrification of industrial wastes. The Phase 3 research effort focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added glass products from the vitrification of boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project was to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential for successful commercialization. The demonstration test consisted of one test run with a duration of 105 hours, approximately one-half (46 hours) performed with coal as the primary fuel source (70% to 100%), the other half with natural gas. Approximately 50 hours of melting operation were performed vitrifying approximately 50,000 lbs of coal-fired utility boiler flyash/dolomite mixture, producing a fully-reacted vitrified product.

  3. Integrated management of ash from industrial and domestic combustion: a new sustainable approach for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Benassi, Laura; Dalipi, Rogerta; Consigli, Veronica; Pasquali, Michela; Borgese, Laura; Depero, Laura E; Clegg, Francis; Bingham, Paul A; Bontempi, Elza

    2017-06-01

    This work supports, for the first time, the integrated management of waste materials arising from industrial processes (fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration and coal fly ash), agriculture (rice husk ash), and domestic activities (ash from wood biomass burning in domestic stoves). The main novelty of the paper is the reuse of wood pellet ash, an underestimated environmental problem, by the application of a new technology (COSMOS-RICE) that already involves the reuse of fly ashes from industrial and agricultural origins. The reaction mechanism involves carbonation: this occurs at room temperature and promotes permanent carbon dioxide sequestration. The obtained samples were characterized using XRD and TGA (coupled with mass spectroscopy). This allowed quantification of the mass loss attributed to different calcium carbonate phases. In particular, samples stabilized using wood pellet ash show a weight loss, attributed to the decomposition of carbonates greater than 20%. In view of these results, it is possible to conclude that there are several environmental benefits from wood pellet ash reuse in this way. In particular, using this technology, it is shown that for wood pellet biomass the carbon dioxide conversion can be considered negative.

  4. Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial processing heating applications: Appendix A. Phase 3 final report, November 1992--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-26

    A three phase research and development program has resulted in the development and commercialization of a Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}), capable of being fueled by pulverized coal, natural gas, and other solid, gaseous, or liquid fuels, for the vitrification of industrial wastes. The Phase 3 research effort focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added glass products from the vitrification of boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project was to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential for successful commercialization. The demonstration test consisted of one test run with a duration of 105 hours, approximately one-half (46 hours) performed with coal as the primary fuel source (70% to 100%), the other half with natural gas. Approximately 50 hours of melting operation were performed vitrifying approximately 50,000 lbs of coal-fired utility boiler flyash/dolomite mixture, producing a fully-reacted vitrified product. Appendix A contains 89 figures containing the data from the demonstration tests undertaken under Phase 3.

  5. Combustion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Barsin, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    The presentation will cover the highlights of sludge, providing information as to where it comes from, projection of how much more is expected, what is sludge, what can be done with them, and finally focus in one combustion technology that can be utilized and applied to recycle sludge. The author is with Gotaverken Energy Systems Inc. where for the past 100 years they have been involved in the recovery of chemicals in chemical pulp mills. One week ago, our name was changed to Kvaerner Pulping Inc. to better reflect our present make-up which is a combination of Kamyr AB (suppliers of proprietary highly engineered totally chlorine free chemical pulp manufacturing systems, including digesters, O{sub 2} delignification systems, and bleach plant systems) and Goetaverken. Sludges that we are concerned with derive from several sources within chemical pulp mills such as: such as primary clarifier sludges, secondary clarifier sludges, and most recently those sludges derived from post consumer paper and board recycle efforts including de-inking and those from the thermal mechanical pulping processes. These sludges have been classified as non-hazardous therefore, residue can be landfilled, but the volumes involved are growing at an alarming rate.

  6. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Stanton

    2010-12-31

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy's Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: (1) Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today's state-of-the-art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle; (2) Develop and design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements; (3) Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class; and (4) Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: (1) A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target; (2) An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system; (3) Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system; (4) Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle - Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx

  7. Condensing economizers for small coal-fired equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, W.

    1994-04-01

    Condensing economizers can be used to increase the thermal efficiency of boilers and furnaces. This study focuses on evaluating indirect contact economizers as applied to heating equipment burning coal-water mixtures although the results can be extended to other fuels. In addition to dry gas sensible heat, latent heat is recovered from flue gas water vapor, improving system efficiency markedly. In addition to improving thermal efficiency, condensing economizers can also capture particulates. In tests to date up to 98% total removal has been measured. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the most important mechanisms involved in particle capture and to enhance capture in practical systems. The intent of the work is to contribute to the ongoing program at the Department of Energy/Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center in the development of coal-fired combustion equipment. These results are expected to be most applicable to smaller scale equipment where the low temperature heat from the economizer can be used. However, interest in the use of condensing economizers for industrial and utility applications is increasing and this work certainly is relevant in these sections also. The approach involves determining thermal efficiency improvement and particulate removal efficiency (experimental), and developing models capable of predicting system performance under varied operating conditions (theoretical). Gas temperature and condensation profiles through the economizers have been predicted and overall predicted performance are consistent with test results. Mechanisms for particle removal are discussed in this paper and predicted removal efficiencies as a function of particle diameter are presented.

  8. Combustion instability modeling and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A.; Sheppard, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors. The present study represents a coordinated effort between industry, government and academia to investigate gas turbine combustion dynamics. Specific study areas include development of advanced diagnostics, definition of controlling phenomena, advancement of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities, and assessment of the current status of our ability to apply these tools to practical gas turbine combustors. The present work involves four tasks which address, respectively, (1) the development of a fiber-optic probe for fuel-air ratio measurements, (2) the study of combustion instability using laser-based diagnostics in a high pressure, high temperature flow reactor, (3) the development of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities for describing combustion instability which will be validated against experimental data, and (4) the preparation of a literature survey and establishment of a data base on practical experience with combustion instability.

  9. 40 CFR 60.4242 - What other requirements must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? 60.4242... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements for Manufacturers § 60.4242 What...

  10. 40 CFR 60.4242 - What other requirements must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? 60.4242... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements for Manufacturers § 60.4242 What...

  11. 40 CFR 60.4242 - What other requirements must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? 60.4242... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements for Manufacturers § 60.4242 What...

  12. 40 CFR 60.4242 - What other requirements must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? 60.4242... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements for Manufacturers § 60.4242 What...

  13. 40 CFR 60.4242 - What other requirements must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing stationary SI internal combustion engines or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? 60.4242... Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements for Manufacturers § 60.4242 What...

  14. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-30

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Combustion 2000 - Phase II.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: {lg_bullet} thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% {lg_bullet} NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) {lg_bullet} coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input {lg_bullet} all solid wastes benign {lg_bullet} cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.4 Pilot Scale Testing {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.5.2 Laboratory and Bench Scale Activities

  15. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    A. Levasseur; S. Goodstine; J. Ruby; M. Nawaz; C. Senior; F. Robson; S. Lehman; W. Blecher; W. Fugard; A. Rao; A. Sarofim; P. Smith; D. Pershing; E. Eddings; M. Cremer; J. Hurley; G. Weber; M. Jones; M. Collings; D. Hajicek; A. Henderson; P. Klevan; D. Seery; B. Knight; R. Lessard; J. Sangiovanni; A. Dennis; C. Bird; W. Sutton; N. Bornstein; F. Cogswell; C. Randino; S. Gale; Mike Heap

    2001-06-30

    . To achieve these objectives requires a change from complete reliance of coal-fired systems on steam turbines (Rankine cycles) and moving forward to a combined cycle utilizing gas turbines (Brayton cycles) which offer the possibility of significantly greater efficiency. This is because gas turbine cycles operate at temperatures well beyond current steam cycles, allowing the working fluid (air) temperature to more closely approach that of the major energy source, the combustion of coal. In fact, a good figure of merit for a HIPPS design is just how much of the enthalpy from coal combustion is used by the gas turbine. The efficiency of a power cycle varies directly with the temperature of the working fluid and for contemporary gas turbines the optimal turbine inlet temperature is in the range of 2300-2500 F (1260-1371 C). These temperatures are beyond the working range of currently available alloys and are also in the range of the ash fusion temperature of most coals. These two sets of physical properties combine to produce the major engineering challenges for a HIPPS design. The UTRC team developed a design hierarchy to impose more rigor in our approach. Once the size of the plant had been determined by the choice of gas turbine and the matching steam turbine, the design process of the High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF) moved ineluctably to a down-fired, slagging configuration. This design was based on two air heaters: one a high temperature slagging Radiative Air Heater (RAH) and a lower temperature, dry ash Convective Air Heater (CAH). The specific details of the air heaters are arrived at by an iterative sequence in the following order:-Starting from the overall Cycle requirements which set the limits for the combustion and heat transfer analysis-The available enthalpy determined the range of materials, ceramics or alloys, which could tolerate the temperatures-Structural Analysis of the designs proved to be the major limitation-Finally the commercialization

  16. Rescue Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Lifeshear cutter, a rescue tool for freeing accident victims from wreckage, was developed under the Clinton Administration's Technology Reinvestment Program. Prior cutting equipment was cumbersome and expensive; the new cutter is 50 percent lighter and 70 percent cheaper. The cutter is pyrotechnically-actuated, using a miniature version of the power cartridges used for separation devices on the Space Shuttle and other NASA spacecraft. Hi-Shear Technology Corporation developed the cutter with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and input from the City of Torrance (California) Fire Department.

  17. Combustive management of oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Extensive experiments with in situ incineration were performed on a desert site at the University of Arizona with very striking results. The largest incinerator, 6 feet in diameter with a 30 foot chimney, developed combustion temperatures of 3000, F, and attendant soot production approximately 1000 times less than that produced by conventional in situ burning. This soot production, in fact, is approximately 30 times less than current allowable EPA standards for incinerators and internal combustion engines. Furthermore, as a consequence of the high temperature combustion, the bum rate was established at a very high 3400 gallons per hour for this particular 6 foot diameter structure. The rudimentary design studies we have carried out relative to a seagoing 8 foot diameter incinerator have predicted that a continuous burn rate of 7000 gallons per hour is realistic. This structure was taken as a basis for operational design because it is compatible with C130 flyability, and will be inexpensive enough ($120,000 per copy) to be stored at those seaside depots throughout the US coast line in which the requisite ancillary equipments (booms, service tugs, etc.) are already deployed. The LOX experiments verified our expectations with respect to combustion of debris and various highly weathered or emulsified oils. We have concluded, however, that the use of liquid oxygen in actual beach clean up is not promising because the very high temperatures associated with this combustion are almost certain to produce environmentally deleterious effects on the beach surface and its immediately sublying structures. However, the use of liquid oxygen augmentation for shore based and flyable incinerators may still play an important role in handing the problem of accumulated debris.

  18. Lambda Point Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipa, J. A.; Fairbank, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    A compilation of the active research tasks as of the end of the fiscal year 1984 of the Microgravity Science and Applications Program, NASA-Office of Space Science and Applications, involving several NASA centers and other organizations is presented. The purpose is to provide an overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. An introductory description of the program, strategy and overall goal; identification of the organizational structures and people involved; and a description of each research task, together with a list of recent publications is presented. The tasks are grouped into six categories: Electronic Materials; Solidification of Metals, Alloys, and Composites; Fluid Dynamics and Transports; Biotechnology; Glasses and Ceramics; and Combustion.

  19. Plasma Torch for Plasma Ignition and Combustion of Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustimenko, Alexandr; Messerle, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    Plasma-fuel systems (PFS) have been developed to improve coal combustion efficiency. PFS is a pulverized coal burner equipped with arc plasma torch producing high temperature air stream of 4000 - 6000 K. Plasma activation of coal at the PFS increases the coal reactivity and provides more effective ignition and ecologically friendly incineration of low-rank coal. The main and crucial element of PFS is plasma torch. Simplicity and reliability of the industrial arc plasma torches using cylindrical copper cathode and air as plasma forming gas predestined their application at heat and power engineering for plasma aided coal combustion. Life time of these plasma torches electrodes is critical and usually limited to 200 hours. Considered in this report direct current arc plasma torch has the cathode life significantly exceeded 1000 hours. To ensure the electrodes long life the process of hydrocarbon gas dissociation in the electric arc discharge is used. In accordance to this method atoms and ions of carbon from near-electrode plasma deposit on the active surface of the electrodes and form electrode carbon condensate which operates as ``actual'' electrode. Complex physicochemical investigation showed that deposit consists of nanocarbon material.

  20. Combustion 2000

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-31

    This report presents work carried out under contract DE-AC22-95PC95144 ''Combustion 2000 - Phase II.'' The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: {lg_bullet} thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47% {lg_bullet} NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) {lg_bullet} coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input {lg_bullet} all solid wastes benign {lg_bullet} cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants Phase I, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase I also included preliminary R&D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. Phase II, had as its initial objective the development of a complete design base for the construction and operation of a HIPPS prototype plant to be constructed in Phase III. As part of a descoping initiative, the Phase III program has been eliminated and work related to the commercial plant design has been ended. The rescoped program retained a program of engineering research and development focusing on high temperature heat exchangers, e.g. HITAF development (Task 2); a rescoped Task 6 that is pertinent to Vision 21 objectives and focuses on advanced cycle analysis and optimization, integration of gas turbines into complex cycles, and repowering designs; and preparation of the Phase II Technical Report (Task 8). This rescoped program deleted all subsystem testing (Tasks 3, 4, and 5) and the development of a site-specific engineering design and test plan for the HIPPS prototype plant (Task 7). Work reported herein is from: {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.4 Pilot Scale Testing {lg_bullet} Task 2.2.5.2 Laboratory and Bench Scale Activities

  1. Filtration Combustion in Smoldering and SHS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matkowsky, Bernard J.

    2001-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of filtration combustion waves propagating in porous media. Smoldering combustion is important for the study of fire safety. Smoldering itself can cause damage, its products are toxic and it can also lead to the more dangerous gas phase combustion which corresponds to faster propagation at higher temperatures. In SHS , a porous solid sample, consisting of a finely ground powder mixture of reactants, is ignited at one end. A high temperature thermal wave, having a frontal structure, then propagates through the sample converting reactants to products. The SHS technology appears to enjoy a number of advantages over the conventional technology, in which the sample is placed in a furnace and "baked" until it is "well done". The advantages include shorter synthesis times, greater economy, in that the internal energy of the reactions is employed rather than the costly external energy of the furnace, purer products, simpler equipment and no intrinsic limitation on the size of the sample to be synthesized as exists in the conventional technology. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the combustion process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to ensure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application differ. Smoldering generally occurs at lower temperatures and propagation velocities than in SHS nevertheless, the two applications have much in common so that what is learned fit make application can be used to advantage in the other. In porous

  2. Development & testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, phase 3. Eighth quarterly technical progress report, 1 October, 1993--31 December, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1994-01-31

    The primary objective of the present Phase 3 effort is to perform the final testing at a 20 MMBtu/hr commercial scale of an air cooled, slagging coal combustor for application to industrial steam boilers and power plants. The focus of the test effort will be on combustor durability, automatic control of the combustor`s operation, and optimum environmental control of emissions inside the combustor. In connection with the latter, the goal is to achieve 0.4 lb/MMBtu of SO{sub 2} emissions, 0.2 lb/MMBtu of NO{sub x} emissions, and 0.02 lb particulates/MMBtu. Meeting the particulate goal will require the use of a baghouse or electrostatic precipitator to augment the nominal slag retention in the combustor. The NO{sub x} emission goal will require a modest improvement over maximum reduction achieved to date in the combustor to a level of 0.26 lb/MMBtu. To reach the SO{sub 2} emissions goal may require a combination of sorbent injection inside the combustor and sorbent injection inside the boiler, especially in high (>3.5%) sulfur coals. Prior to the initiation of the project, SO{sub 2} levels as low as 0.6 lb/MMBtu, equal to 81% reduction in 2% sulfur coals, were measured with boiler injection of calcium hydrate. The final objective is to define suitable commercial power or steam generating systems to which the use of the air cooled combustor offers significant technical and economic benefits. In implementing this objective both simple steam generation and combined gas turbine-steam generation systems will be considered.

  3. Artificial neural network modeling of the spontaneous combustion occurring in the industrial-scale coal stockpiles with 10-18 mm coal grain sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdeniz, A.H.; Yilmaz, N.

    2009-07-01

    Companies consuming large amounts of coal should work with coal stocks in order to not face problems due to production delays. The industrial-scale stockpiles formed for the aforementioned reasons cause environmental problems and economic losses for the companies. This study was performed in a coal stock area of a large company in Konya, which uses large amounts of coal in its manufacturing units. The coal stockpile with 5 m width, 10 m length, 3 m height, and having 120 tons of weight was formed in the coal stock area of the company. The inner temperature data of the stockpile was recorded by 17 temperature sensors placed inside the stockpile at certain points. In order to achieve this goal, the electrical signal conversion of temperatures sensed by 17 temperature sensors placed in certain points inside the coal stockpile, the transfer of these electrical signals into computer media by using analog-digital conversion unit after applying necessary filtration and upgrading processes, and the record of these information into a database in particular time intervals are provided. Additionally, the data relating to the air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and wind direction that are the parameters affecting the coal stockpile were also recorded. Afterwards, these measurement values were used for training and testing of an artificial neural network model. Comparison of the experimental and artificial neural network results, accuracy rates of training and testing were found to be 99.5% and 99.17%, respectively. It is shown that possible coal stockpile behavior with this artificial neural network model is powerfully estimated.

  4. Fundamentals of Gas Turbine combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstein, M.

    1979-01-01

    Combustion problems and research recommendations are discussed in the areas of atomization and vaporization, combustion chemistry, combustion dynamics, and combustion modelling. The recommendations considered of highest priority in these areas are presented.

  5. Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-22

    NASA Glenn engineer Chris Mroczka installs a gas-jet burner in a chamber within the center’s Combustion Integrated Rack. This chamber is where scientists conduct gaseous combustion experiments in a zero gravity environment.

  6. Rapid Deployment of Rich Catalytic Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Richard S. Tuthill

    2004-06-10

    The overall objective of this research under the Turbines Program is the deployment of fuel flexible rich catalytic combustion technology into high-pressure ratio industrial gas turbines. The resulting combustion systems will provide fuel flexibility for gas turbines to burn coal derived synthesis gas or natural gas and achieve NO{sub x} emissions of 2 ppmvd or less (at 15 percent O{sub 2}), cost effectively. This advance will signify a major step towards environmentally friendly electric power generation and coal-based energy independence for the United States. Under Phase 1 of the Program, Pratt & Whitney (P&W) performed a system integration study of rich catalytic combustion in a small high-pressure ratio industrial gas turbine with a silo combustion system that is easily scalable to a larger multi-chamber gas turbine system. An implementation plan for this technology also was studied. The principal achievement of the Phase 1 effort was the sizing of the catalytic module in a manner which allowed a single reactor (rather than multiple reactors) to be used by the combustion system, a conclusion regarding the amount of air that should be allocated to the reaction zone to achieve low emissions, definition of a combustion staging strategy to achieve low emissions, and mechanical integration of a Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) combustor liner with the catalytic module.

  7. Flameless Combustion Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-20

    future roadmap. "Flameless Combustion " is characterized by high stability levels with virtually no thermoacoustic instabilities, very low lean... future roadmap. "Flameless Combustion " is characterized by high stability levels with virtually no thermoacoustic instabilities, very low lean stability...C. Bruno, Italy 1430-1500 Technology to Ramjet Combustion Application of FLameless H. Mongia , GE Transportation, 1500-1530 Combustion (FLC) for

  8. Trends in medical equipment service.

    PubMed

    1997-06-01

    Driven by the recent emphasis on cost containment in the healthcare industry as a whole, hospitals, manufacturers, and service providers have been spurred to try to find ways to reduce their costs and increase their revenues. As a result of the measures taken to achieve these goals, the medical equipment service industry has been experiencing a period of rapid change. In this environment, traditional alternatives for servicing medical equipment are being challenged, and new alternatives are being developed. The changes occurring in this industry are of vital interest to clinical engineers and technicians because it is those changes that will determine the future role of these professionals in the hospital. While such technology experts will not become obsolete-the reliance on medical technology to provide optimal healthcare will certainly continue in the United States and throughout the rest of the developed world-the roles of these experts could very likely change. As hospitals focus more narrowly on their core functions, noncore functions such as servicing and managing technology will come under scrutiny as possible candidates for outsourcing to reduce the hospital's administrative responsibilities and cut its cost burden. In this article, we review the recent past of the medical equipment service industry and describe some current trends that will play a role in shaping the future of this industry. We also discuss how the changes currently taking place will likely affect the viability of in-house clinical engineering departments. In our discussion, we spotlight service issues related to radiology equipment because (1) this equipment dominates service expenditures and (2) the servicing of these devices has spawned some of the changes causing hospitals to reexamine how all their medical equipment is being serviced and managed.

  9. Mechanisms of droplet combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, C. K.

    1982-01-01

    The fundamental physico-chemical mechanisms governing droplet vaporization and combustion are discussed. Specific topics include governing equations and simplifications, the classical d(2)-Law solution and its subsequent modification, finite-rate kinetics and the flame structure, droplet dynamics, near- and super-critical combustion, combustion of multicomponent fuel blends/emulsions/suspensions, and droplet interaction. Potential research topics are suggested.

  10. Pulse combustion apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchen, J.A.

    1986-07-22

    A pulse combustion apparatus is described which includes: a combustion chamber; an exhaust system including an exhaust pipe forming a resonant system with the combustion chamber and a generally cylindrical exhaust cushion chamber downstream of the exhaust pipe for receiving combustion gases from the pipe and communicating with an exhaust outlet form the apparatus; means for delivering successive fuel charges to the chamber; combustion air supply means including a housing of generally rectangular, box shape enclosing the exhaust cushion chamber and defining a space around the chamber through which combustion air can be conducted from an air inlet to the combustion chamber for permitting heat exchange between exhaust gases in the exhaust cushion chamber and the combustion air when the apparatus is in operation, for pre-heating the combustion air; means adapted to cause combustion air to flow in a convoluted path in the space for promoting improved heat transfer between exhaust gases in the chamber and the combustion air, the means comprising partitions between the exhaust cushion chamber and housing extending generally longitudinally of the exhaust cushion chamber and arranged to cause the combustion air to flow alternately from end to end of the chamber in the convoluted path.

  11. Modeling JP-8 Fuel Effects on Diesel Combustion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-24

    curve, and cetane number) that may result in fuel-affected varying combustion behavior in diesel engines under various operating conditions. Since... engine manufacturers rely solely on DF- 2 for commercial vehicle applications most domestic industry, university, and national laboratory lead diesel... engine combustion system research activities have not encompassed JP fuels. Instead, much effort has been spent exploring DF-2 evaporation behavior

  12. Modeling JP-8 Fuel Effects on Diesel Combustion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    curve, and cetane number) that may result in fuel-affected varying combustion behavior in diesel engines under various operating conditions. Since... engine manufacturers rely solely on DF- 2 for commercial vehicle applications most domestic industry, university, and national laboratory led diesel... engine combustion system research activities have not encompassed JP fuels. Instead, much effort has been spent exploring DF-2 evaporation behavior

  13. Pulsating combustion of gas fuel in the combustion chamber with closed resonant circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yallina, E. V.; Larionov, V. M.; Iovleva, O. V.

    2013-12-01

    In the combustion chambers of the pulsation of gas flow oscillation greatly accelerate heat dissipation to the walls of the combustion chamber and improve combustion efficiency as compared with a uniform combustion mode. This allows you to effectively solve a number of problems of industrial power, including an environmentally friendly combustion products. Significant drawback of such systems - the emitted noise exceeding the permissible requirements. One solution to this problem - the separation of the resonance tube into 2 parts connected at the output to the interference of sound waves. The results of theoretical studies pulsating combustion technical mixture of propane in the system, consisting of a combustion chamber and two resonance tubes forming a closed resonant circuit. Resonators have a variable length. Calculations have shown that under certain oscillation of the resonator length to the first resonant frequency of the system is achieved by reducing SPL more than 15 dB. For oscillations at a second resonant frequency is the complete elimination of noise while maintaining intense oscillations in the combustion chamber.

  14. 40 CFR 60.4238 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines â¤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements... SI internal combustion engines ≤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer of equipment containing such...

  15. 40 CFR 60.4239 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or... manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? Stationary SI internal combustion engine manufacturers who are subject......

  16. 40 CFR 60.4238 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines â¤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements... SI internal combustion engines ≤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer of equipment containing such...

  17. 40 CFR 60.4238 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines â¤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements... SI internal combustion engines ≤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer of equipment containing such...

  18. 40 CFR 60.4239 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or... manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? Stationary SI internal combustion engine manufacturers who are subject......

  19. 40 CFR 60.4238 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines â¤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements... SI internal combustion engines ≤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer of equipment containing such...

  20. 40 CFR 60.4239 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or... manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? Stationary SI internal combustion engine manufacturers who are subject......

  1. 40 CFR 60.4238 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines â¤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer... Standards of Performance for Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Compliance Requirements... SI internal combustion engines ≤19 KW (25 HP) or a manufacturer of equipment containing such...

  2. 40 CFR 60.4239 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or... manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? Stationary SI internal combustion engine manufacturers who are subject......

  3. 40 CFR 60.4239 - What are my compliance requirements if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or... manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines >19 KW (25 HP) that use gasoline or a manufacturer of equipment containing such engines? Stationary SI internal combustion engine manufacturers who are subject......

  4. 10 CFR 429.44 - Commercial water heating equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial water heating equipment. 429.44 Section 429.44... PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.44 Commercial water heating equipment... to commercial WH equipment; and (2) For each basic model of commercial water heating (WH)...

  5. 10 CFR 429.44 - Commercial water heating equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial water heating equipment. 429.44 Section 429.44... PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.44 Commercial water heating equipment... each basic model of commercial water heating (WH) equipment, efficiency must be determined either...

  6. Opportunities in pulse combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Brenchley, D.L.; Bomelburg, H.J.

    1985-10-01

    In most pulse combustors, the combustion occurs near the closed end of a tube where inlet valves operate in phase with the pressure amplitude variations. Thus, within the combustion zone, both the temperature and the pressure oscillate around a mean value. However, the development of practical applications of pulse combustion has been hampered because effective design requires the right combination of the combustor's dimensions, valve characteristics, fuel/oxidizer combination, and flow pattern. Pulse combustion has several additional advantages for energy conversion efficiency, including high combustion and thermal efficiency, high combustion intensity, and high convective heat transfer rates. Also, pulse combustion can be self-aspirating, generating a pressure boost without using a blower. This allows the use of a compact heat exchanger that may include a condensing section and may obviate the need for a chimney. In the last decade, these features have revived interest in pulse combustion research and development, which has resulted in the development of a pulse combustion air heater by Lennox, and a pulse combustion hydronic unit by Hydrotherm, Inc. To appraise this potential for energy savings, a systematic study was conducted of the many past and present attempts to use pulse combustion for practical purposes. The authors recommended areas where pulse combustion technology could possibly be applied in the future and identified areas in which additional R and D would be necessary. Many of the results of the study project derived from a special workshop on pulse combustion. This document highlights the main points of the study report, with particular emphasis on pulse combustion application in chemical engineering.

  7. Waste disposal and treatment in the food-processing industry. March 1985-October 1989 (Citations from the Biobusiness data base). Report for March 1985-October 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food-processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. Specific areas include waste-heat recovery, meat processing, seafood processing, dairy wastes, beverage industry, fruits and vegetables, and other food-industry wastes. Waste utilization includes animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, conversion to fertilizer, composting, and recovery and recycling of usable chemicals. Food-packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 169 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  8. Aquatic Equipment Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sova, Ruth

    Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

  9. Combustion modeling in advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Fletcher, T.H.

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program is to help develop and commercialize ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive gas turbine systems for base-load applications in the utility, independent power producer, and industrial markets. Combustion modeling, including emission characteristics, has been identified as a needed, high-priority technology by key professionals in the gas turbine industry.

  10. Starting procedure for internal combustion vessels

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Harry A.

    1978-09-26

    A vertical vessel, having a low bed of broken material, having included combustible material, is initially ignited by a plurality of ignitors spaced over the surface of the bed, by adding fresh, broken material onto the bed to buildup the bed to its operating depth and then passing a combustible mixture of gas upwardly through the material, at a rate to prevent back-firing of the gas, while air and recycled gas is passed through the bed to thereby heat the material and commence the desired laterally uniform combustion in the bed. The procedure permits precise control of the air and gaseous fuel mixtures and material rates, and permits the use of the process equipment designed for continuous operation of the vessel.

  11. Combustion experimentation aboard the space transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the preliminary concept, specifications, and general requirements of a proposed Combustion Facility (CF) for the Spacelab payload of the Space Transportation System. The CF will permit an experimenter to use suitably contained liquid, gas, or solid fuels. He can specify and establish the composition and pressure level of the atmosphere in which the combustion will take place. It will be possible to characterize the experiment with common types of instrumentation as well as selected specialized equipment, to study the combustion process visually by direct observation and by motion picture coverage, and to obtain time histories of pertinent experimental parameters. During an experimental period, the CF will depend on Spacelab resources for power, heat rejection, and vacuum. Activating the CF and preparing it for the various experiments, performing the experiments, and shutting down the facility will be largely manual operations performed by flight personnel.

  12. REDUCTION OF NOx VIA COAL COMBUSTION CATALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    George Ford; Stan Harding; Jeff Hare

    2003-04-28

    The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the effect of different iron catalysts on the production of NO{sub x} during fuel-rich and fuel-lean combustion of coal. Iron in various forms and quantities will be introduced with the pulverized coal and tested in a laboratory-scale combustion furnace. The testing protocol is based on simulation of the near burner region in a full-scale boiler. This semi-annual report describes the selection of the iron catalysts used in the program as well as catalyst preparation. A detailed description of the combustion reactor and ancillary equipment is provided combined with a discussion of the test procedures. The first preliminary data have been collected and are presented followed by the plans to complete the project over the next six months.

  13. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic

  14. Filtration Combustion in Smoldering and SHS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matkowsky, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of filtration combustion waves propagating in porous media. Smoldering combustion is important for the study of fire safety. Smoldering itself can cause damage, its products are toxic and it can also lead to the more dangerous gas phase combustion which corresponds to faster propagation at higher temperatures. In SHS, a porous solid sample, consisting of a finely ground powder mixture of reactants, is ignited at one end. A high temperature thermal wave, having a frontal structure, then propagates through the sample converting reactants to products. The SHS technology appears to enjoy a number of advantages over the conventional technology, in which the sample is placed in a furnace and "baked" until it is "well done". The advantages include shorter synthesis times, greater economy, in that the internal energy of the reactions is employed rather than the costly external energy of the furnace, purer products, simpler equipment and no intrinsic limitation on the size of the sample to be synthesized, as exists in the conventional technology. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the combustion process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to insure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application differ. Smoldering generally occurs at lower temperatures and propagation velocities than in SHS. Nevertheless, the two applications have much in common, so that what is learned in one application can be used to advantage in the other. We have

  15. Filtration Combustion in Smoldering and SHS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matkowsky, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Smolder waves and SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis) waves are both examples of filtration combustion waves propagating in porous media. Smoldering combustion is important for the study of fire safety. Smoldering itself can cause damage, its products are toxic and it can also lead to the more dangerous gas phase combustion which corresponds to faster propagation at higher temperatures. In SHS, a porous solid sample, consisting of a finely ground powder mixture of reactants, is ignited at one end. A high temperature thermal wave, having a frontal structure, then propagates through the sample converting reactants to products. The SHS technology appears to enjoy a number of advantages over the conventional technology, in which the sample is placed in a furnace and "baked" until it is "well done". The advantages include shorter synthesis times, greater economy, in that the internal energy of the reactions is employed rather than the costly external energy of the furnace, purer products, simpler equipment and no intrinsic limitation on the size of the sample to be synthesized, as exists in the conventional technology. When delivery of reactants through the pores to the reaction site is an important aspect of the combustion process, it is referred to as filtration combustion. The two types of filtration combustion have a similar mathematical formulation, describing the ignition, propagation and extinction of combustion waves in porous media. The goal in each case, however, is different. In smoldering the desired goal is to prevent propagation, whereas in SHS the goal is to insure propagation of the combustion wave, leading to the synthesis of desired products. In addition, the scales in the two areas of application differ. Smoldering generally occurs at lower temperatures and propagation velocities than in SHS. Nevertheless, the two applications have much in common, so that what is learned in one application can be used to advantage in the other. We have

  16. Combustion modeling in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental assumptions of the Blizard and Keck combustion model for internal combustion engines are examined and a generalization of that model is derived. The most significant feature of the model is that it permits the occurrence of unburned hydrocarbons in the thermodynamic-kinetic modeling of exhaust gases. The general formulas are evaluated in two specific cases that are likely to be significant in the applications of the model.

  17. Boiler using combustible fluid

    DOEpatents

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  18. Analytical and test equipment: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A compilation is presented of innovations in testing and measuring technology for both the laboratory and industry. Topics discussed include spectrometers, radiometers, and descriptions of analytical and test equipment in several areas including thermodynamics, fluid flow, electronics, and materials testing.

  19. Fuel and Combustion Characteristics of Organic Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namba, Kunihiko; Ida, Tamio

    From a viewpoint of environmental preservation and resource protection, the recycling of wastes has been promoting. Expectations to new energy resource are growing by decrease of fossil fuel. Biomass is one of new energies for prevent global warning. This study is an attempt to burn biomass lamps made from residues in order to thermally recycle waste products of drink industries. The pyrolytic properties of shochu dregs and used tea leaves were observed by thermo-gravimertic analysis (TG) to obtained fundamental data of drink waste pyrolysis. It observed that shochu dregs pyrolyze under lower temperature than used tea leaves. These wastes were compressed by hot press apparatus in the temperature range from 140 to 180 °C for use as Bio-fuel (BF). The combustion behavior of BF was observed in fall-type electric furnace, where video-recording was carried out at sequential steps, such as ignition, visible envelope flame combustion and char combustion to obtain combustion characteristics such as ignition delay, visible flame combustion time and char combustion time.

  20. Pulse combustion space heater

    SciTech Connect

    Thrasher, W.H.; Pavlik, C.M.; Moon, L.

    1990-07-17

    This patent describes a pulse combustion space heater for heating air in a space to be temperature conditioned. It comprises: a cabinet having exterior walls providing a cabinet volume for enclosing and supporting the heater, interior housing means located within the cabinet volume including walls providing a substantially closed heat transfer chamber having inlet and outlet openings through which air to be heated is circulated and a chamber volume substantially smaller than the cabinet volume, pulse combustion burner means including an assembly of closely spaced elongate burner elements operably connected in a fluid-tight manner for pulse combustion of a combustible gaseous mixture and discharge of combustion products to the atmosphere. The burner elements having exterior heat transfer surface located within the heat transfer chamber for transfer of combustion heat to air contacting the heat transfer surfaces, and blower means for circulating air from the space through the heat transfer chamber.

  1. Lump wood combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  2. 29 CFR 1910.263 - Bakery equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bakery equipment. 1910.263 Section 1910.263 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.263 Bakery equipment. (a)...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.263 - Bakery equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bakery equipment. 1910.263 Section 1910.263 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.263 Bakery equipment. (a)...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.263 - Bakery equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bakery equipment. 1910.263 Section 1910.263 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.263 Bakery equipment. (a)...

  5. Coal combustion products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  6. Fuels Combustion Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-18

    uncertainties in the future sources and characteristics of fuels has emphasized the need to better understand fuel effects on combustion , e.g. energy release...experimentally to be made. Unsuccessful comparisons can lead to impro- vements in modelling concepts . Two simplified models for the combustion of slurry...AD-A149 186 FUELS COMBUSTION RESEACCH(U) PRINCETON UNIV NJ DEPT OF i/i MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING F L DRYER ET AL. 18 JUL 84 NAE-i668 AFOSR

  7. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Institute of Gas Technology

    2004-01-30

    High-temperature, natural gas-fired furnaces, especially those fired with preheated air, produce large quantities of NO{sub x} per ton of material processed. Regulations on emissions from industrial furnaces are becoming increasingly more stringent. In addition, competition is forcing operators to make their furnaces more productive and/or efficient. Switching from preheated air to industrial oxygen can increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}, but oxygen is significantly more costly than air and may not be compatible with the material being heated. What was needed, and what was developed during this project, is a technology that reduces NO{sub x} emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxy-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace. Heat transfer from the flame to the load increases due to the more luminous fuel-rich zones, a longer overall flame length, and the breakup of the thermal boundary layer. The increased heat transfer shortens heat up times, thereby increasing furnace productivity, and reduces the heat going up the stack, thereby increasing efficiency. The fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones also produce substantially less NO{sub x} than firing at a constant excess air level. The longer flames and higher heat transfer rate reduces overall peak flame temperature and thus reduces additional NO{sub x} formation from the eventual mixing of the zones and burnout of combustibles from the rich zones. This project involved the development of hardware to implement oscillating combustion on an industrial scale, the laboratory testing of oscillating combustion on various types of industrial burners, and the field testing of oscillating combustion on several types of industrial furnace. Before laboratory testing began, a market study was conducted, based on the

  8. NOx Emission Reduction by Oscillating Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Wagner

    2004-03-31

    High-temperature, natural gas-fired furnaces, especially those fired with preheated air, produce large quantities of NO{sub x} per ton of material processed. Regulations on emissions from industrial furnaces are becoming increasingly more stringent. In addition, competition is forcing operators to make their furnaces more productive and/or efficient. Switching from preheated air to industrial oxygen can increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}, but oxygen is significantly more costly than air and may not be compatible with the material being heated. What was needed, and what was developed during this project, is a technology that reduces NO{sub x} emissions while increasing furnace efficiency for both air- and oxy-fired furnaces. Oscillating combustion is a retrofit technology that involves the forced oscillation of the fuel flow rate to a furnace. These oscillations create successive, fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones within the furnace. Heat transfer from the flame to the load increases due to the more luminous fuel-rich zones, a longer overall flame length, and the breakup of the thermal boundary layer. The increased heat transfer shortens heat up times, thereby increasing furnace productivity, and reduces the heat going up the stack, thereby increasing efficiency. The fuel-rich and fuel-lean zones also produce substantially less NO{sub x} than firing at a constant excess air level. The longer flames and higher heat transfer rate reduces overall peak flame temperature and thus reduces additional NO{sub x} formation from the eventual mixing of the zones and burnout of combustibles from the rich zones. This project involved the development of hardware to implement oscillating combustion on an industrial scale, the laboratory testing of oscillating combustion on various types of industrial burners, and the field testing of oscillating combustion on several types of industrial furnace. Before laboratory testing began, a market study was conducted, based on the

  9. Waste disposal and treatment in the food-processing industry. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning waste treatment and disposal in the food processing industry. Methods, equipment, and technology are considered. Specific areas include waste heat recovery, and food industry wastes from meat and seafood processing, dairy and beverage production, and processing of fruits and vegetables. The citations explore conversion of the treated waste to fertilizer, and uses in animal feeds, combustion for energy production, biogas production, and composting. The recovery and recycling of usable chemicals from the food waste is also covered. Food packaging recycling is considered in a related bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Combustion and fuel characterization of coal-water fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, O.K.; Gralton, G.W.; Lachowicz, Y.V.; Laflesh, R.C.; Levasseur, A.A.; Liljedahl, G.N.

    1989-02-01

    This five-year research project was established to provide sufficient data on coal-water fuel (CWF) chemical, physical, and combustion properties to assess the potential for commercial firing in furnaces designed for gas or oil firing. Extensive laboratory testing was performed at bench-scale, pilot-scale (4 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) and commercial-scale (25 {times} 10{sup 6} to 50 {times} 10{sup 6}Btu/hr) on a cross-section of CWFs. Fuel performance characteristics were assessed with respect to coal properties, level of coal beneficiation, and slurry formulation. The performance of four generic burner designs was also assessed. Boiler performance design models were applied to analyze the impacts associated with conversion of seven different generic unit designs to CWF firing. Equipment modifications, operating limitations, and retrofit costs were determined for each design when utilizing several CWFs. Unit performance analyses showed significantly better load capacity for utility and industrial boilers as the CWF feed coal ash content is reduced to 5% or 2.6%. In general, utility units had more attractive capacity limits and retrofit costs than the industrial boilers and process heaters studied. Economic analyses indicated that conversion to CWF firing generally becomes feasible when differential fuel costs are above $1.00/10{sup 6}Btu. 60 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Reaction and diffusion in turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, S.B.

    1993-12-01

    The motivation for this project is the need to obtain a better quantitative understanding of the technologically-important phenomenon of turbulent combustion. In nearly all applications in which fuel is burned-for example, fossil-fuel power plants, furnaces, gas-turbines and internal-combustion engines-the combustion takes place in a turbulent flow. Designers continually demand more quantitative information about this phenomenon-in the form of turbulent combustion models-so that they can design equipment with increased efficiency and decreased environmental impact. For some time the PI has been developing a class of turbulent combustion models known as PDF methods. These methods have the important virtue that both convection and reaction can be treated without turbulence-modelling assumptions. However, a mixing model is required to account for the effects of molecular diffusion. Currently, the available mixing models are known to have some significant defects. The major motivation of the project is to seek a better understanding of molecular diffusion in turbulent reactive flows, and hence to develop a better mixing model.

  12. Supersonic combustion engine and method of combustion initiation and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Stickler, D.B.; Ballantyne, A.; Kyuman Jeong.

    1993-06-29

    A supersonic combustion ramjet engine having a combustor with a combustion zone intended to channel gas flow at relatively high speed therethrough, the engine comprising: means for substantially continuously supplying fuel into the combustion zone; and means for substantially instantaneously igniting a volume of fuel in the combustion zone for providing a spatially controlled combustion distribution, the igniting means having means for providing a diffuse discharge of energy into the volume, the volume extending across a substantially complete cross-sectional area of the combustion zone, the means for discharging energy being capable of generating free radicals within the volume of reactive fuel in the combustion zone such that fuel in the volume can initiate a controlled relatively rapid combustion of fuel in the combustion zone whereby combustion distribution in relatively high speed gas flows through the combustion zone can be initiated and controlled without dependence upon a flame holder or relatively high local static temperature in the combustion zone.

  13. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  14. Tripropellant combustion process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kmiec, T. D.; Carroll, R. G.

    1988-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of hydrogen to the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants in large rocket booster engines has the potential to enhance the system stability. Programs being conducted to evaluate the effects of hydrogen on the combustion of LOX/hydrocarbon propellants at supercritical pressures are described. Combustion instability has been a problem during the development of large hydrocarbon fueled rocket engines. At the higher combustion chamber pressures expected for the next generation of booster engines, the effect of unstable combustion could be even more destructive. The tripropellant engine cycle takes advantage of the superior cooling characteristics of hydrogen to cool the combustion chamber and a small amount of the hydrogen coolant can be used in the combustion process to enhance the system stability. Three aspects of work that will be accomplished to evaluate tripropellant combustion are described. The first is laboratory demonstration of the benefits through the evaluation of drop size, ignition delay and burning rate. The second is analytical modeling of the combustion process using the empirical relationship determined in the laboratory. The third is a subscale demonstration in which the system stability will be evaluated. The approach for each aspect is described and the analytical models that will be used are presented.

  15. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Energy, Engines, and Combustion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the energy, engines, and combustion industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  16. Technology Awareness Workshop on Active Combustion Control (ACC) in Propulsion Systems: JANNAF Combustion Subcommittee Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    A JANNAF Combustion Subcommittee Technology Awareness Seminar on Active Combustion Control (ACC) in Propulsion Systems' was held 12 November 1997 at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC), Cleveland, Ohio. The objectives of the seminar were: 1) Define the need and potential of ACC to meet future requirements for gas turbines and ramjets; 2) Explain general principles of ACC and discuss recent successes to suppress combustion instabilities, increase combustion efficiency, reduce emission, and extend flammability limits; 3) Identify R&D barriers/needs for practical implementation of ACC; 4) Explore potential for improving coordination of future R&D activities funded by various government agencies. Over 40 individuals representing senior management from over 20 industry and government organizations participated. This document summarizes the presentations and findings of this seminar.

  17. Technology Awareness Workshop on Active Combustion Control (ACC) in Propulsion Systems: JANNAF Combustion Subcommittee Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ronald S. (Editor); Gannaway, Mary T. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    A JANNAF Combustion Subcommittee Technology Awareness Seminar on Active Combustion Control (ACC) in Propulsion Systems' was held 12 November 1997 at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC), Cleveland, Ohio. The objectives of the seminar were: 1) Define the need and potential of ACC to meet future requirements for gas turbines and ramjets; 2) Explain general principles of ACC and discuss recent successes to suppress combustion instabilities, increase combustion efficiency, reduce emission, and extend flammability limits; 3) Identify R&D barriers/needs for practical implementation of ACC; 4) Explore potential for improving coordination of future R&D activities funded by various government agencies. Over 40 individuals representing senior management from over 20 industry and government organizations participated. This document summarizes the presentations and findings of this seminar.

  18. Robot Would Reconfigure Modular Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    1993-01-01

    Special-purpose sets of equipment, packaged in identical modules with identical interconnecting mechanisms, attached to or detached from each other by specially designed robot, according to proposal. Two-arm walking robot connects and disconnects modules, operating either autonomously or under remote supervision. Robot walks along row of connected modules by grasping successive attachment subassemblies in hand-over-hand motion. Intended application for facility or station in outer space; robot reconfiguration scheme makes it unnecessary for astronauts to venture outside spacecraft or space station. Concept proves useful on Earth in assembly, disassembly, or reconfiguration of equipment in such hostile environments as underwater, near active volcanoes, or in industrial process streams.

  19. SPONTANEOUS COAL COMBUSTION; MECHANISMS AND PREDICTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, James R.; Rich, Fredrick J.

    1983-01-01

    Spontaneous ignition and combustion of coal is a major problem to the coal mining, shipping, and use industries; unintentional combustion causes loss of the resource as well as jeopardy to life and property. The hazard to life is especially acute in the case of underground coal mine fires that start by spontaneous ignition. It is the intention of this research to examine previously suggested causes of spontaneous ignition, to consider new evidence, and to suggest an experimental approach to determine which of these suggested causes is relevant to western U. S. coal. This discussion focuses only on causes and mechanism of spontaneous ignition.

  20. Coal combustion science. Quarterly progress report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a quarterly status report of the Coal Combustion Science Project that is being conducted at the Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories. The information reported is for Apr-Jun 1993. The objective of this work is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This project consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the PETC Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. The objective of the kinetics and mechanisms of pulverized coal char combustion task is to characterize the combustion behavior of selected US coals under conditions relevant to industrial pulverized coal-fired furnaces. Work is being done in four areas: kinetics of heterogeneous fuel particle populations; char combustion kinetics at high carbon conversion; the role of particle structure and the char formation process in combustion and; unification of the Sandia char combustion data base. This data base on the high temperature reactivities of chars from strategic US coals will permit identification of important fuel-specific trends and development of predictive capabilities for advanced coal combustion systems. The objective of the fate of inorganic material during coal combustion task is the establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of inorganic material during coal combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of inorganic species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition. In addition, optical diagnostic capabilities are being developed for in situ, real-time detection of inorganic vapor species and surface species during ash deposition. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. ELECTRIC WELDING EQUIPMENT AND AUTOMATION OF WELDING IN CONSTRUCTION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    WELDING , *ARC WELDING , AUTOMATION, CONSTRUCTION, INDUSTRIES, POWER EQUIPMENT, GENERATORS, POWER TRANSFORMERS, RESISTANCE WELDING , SPOT WELDING , MACHINES, AUTOMATIC, STRUCTURES, WIRING DIAGRAMS, USSR.

  2. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bradley; Davis, Kevin; Senior, Constance; Shim, Hong Shim; Otten, Brydger Van; Fry, Andrew; Wendt, Jost; Eddings, Eric; Paschedag, Alan; Shaddix, Christopher; Cox, William; Tree, Dale

    2013-09-30

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4

  3. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  4. Personal protective equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000447.htm Personal protective equipment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Personal protective equipment is special equipment you wear to create a ...

  5. Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion: Small gas turbine induustrial plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Shenker, J.; Garland, R.; Horazak, D.; Seifert, F.; Wenglarz, R.

    1992-07-01

    Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) plants provide a coal-fired, high-efficiency, combined-cycle system for the generation of electricity and steam. The plants use lime-based sorbents in PFB combustors to meet environmental air standards without back-end gas desulfurization equipment. The second-generation system is an improvement over earlier PFBC concepts because it can achieve gas temperatures of 2100[degrees]F and higher for improved cycle efficiency while maintaining the fluidized beds at 1600[degrees]F for enhanced sulfur capture and minimum alkali release. Second-generation PFBC systems are capable of supplying the electric and steam process needs of industrial plants. The basic second-generation system can be applied in different ways to meet a variety of process steam and electrical requirements. To evaluate the potential of these systems in the industrial market, conceptual designs have been developed for six second-generation PFBC plants. These plants cover a range of electrical outputs from 6.3 to 41.5 MWe and steam flows from 46,067 to 442,337 lb/h. Capital and operating costs have been estimated for these six plants and for equivalent (in size) conventional, coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion cogeneration plants. Economic analyses were conducted to compare the cost of steam for both the second-generation plants and the conventional plants.

  6. Fifteenth combustion research conference

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-01

    The BES research efforts cover chemical reaction theory, experimental dynamics and spectroscopy, thermodynamics of combustion intermediates, chemical kinetics, reaction mechanisms, combustion diagnostics, and fluid dynamics and chemically reacting flows. 98 papers and abstracts are included. Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers.

  7. Coal Combustion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. )

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  8. Japan's microgravity combustion science program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Junichi

    1993-01-01

    Most of energy used by us is generated by combustion of fuels. On the other hand, combustion is responsible for contamination of our living earth. Combustion, also, gives us damage to our life as fire or explosive accidents. Therefore, clean and safe combustion is now eagerly required. Knowledge of the combustion process in combustors is needed to achieve proper designs that have stable operation, high efficiency, and low emission levels. However, current understanding on combustion is far from complete. Especially, there is few useful information on practical liquid and solid particle cloud combustion. Studies on combustion process under microgravity condition will provide many informations for basic questions related to combustors.

  9. National Combustion Code: Parallel Implementation and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quealy, A.; Ryder, R.; Norris, A.; Liu, N.-S.

    2000-01-01

    The National Combustion Code (NCC) is being developed by an industry-government team for the design and analysis of combustion systems. CORSAIR-CCD is the current baseline reacting flow solver for NCC. This is a parallel, unstructured grid code which uses a distributed memory, message passing model for its parallel implementation. The focus of the present effort has been to improve the performance of the NCC flow solver to meet combustor designer requirements for model accuracy and analysis turnaround time. Improving the performance of this code contributes significantly to the overall reduction in time and cost of the combustor design cycle. This paper describes the parallel implementation of the NCC flow solver and summarizes its current parallel performance on an SGI Origin 2000. Earlier parallel performance results on an IBM SP-2 are also included. The performance improvements which have enabled a turnaround of less than 15 hours for a 1.3 million element fully reacting combustion simulation are described.

  10. National Combustion Code Parallel Performance Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quealy, Angela; Benyo, Theresa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The National Combustion Code (NCC) is being developed by an industry-government team for the design and analysis of combustion systems. The unstructured grid, reacting flow code uses a distributed memory, message passing model for its parallel implementation. The focus of the present effort has been to improve the performance of the NCC code to meet combustor designer requirements for model accuracy and analysis turnaround time. Improving the performance of this code contributes significantly to the overall reduction in time and cost of the combustor design cycle. This report describes recent parallel processing modifications to NCC that have improved the parallel scalability of the code, enabling a two hour turnaround for a 1.3 million element fully reacting combustion simulation on an SGI Origin 2000.

  11. 29 CFR 1910.107 - Spray finishing using flammable and combustible materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... combustible residues may readily accumulate, except wiring in rigid conduit or in boxes or fittings containing..., power packs, control apparatus, and all other electrical portions of the equipment, with the exception...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.107 - Spray finishing using flammable and combustible materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... combustible residues may readily accumulate, except wiring in rigid conduit or in boxes or fittings containing..., power packs, control apparatus, and all other electrical portions of the equipment, with the exception...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.107 - Spray finishing using flammable and combustible materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... combustible residues may readily accumulate, except wiring in rigid conduit or in boxes or fittings containing..., power packs, control apparatus, and all other electrical portions of the equipment, with the exception...

  14. A Review of LOX/Kerosene Combustion Instability in American and Russian Combustion Devices in Application to Next-Generation Launch Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocker, Marvin; Nesman, Tomas E.; Hulka, James R.; Dougherty, N. Sam

    2003-01-01

    The Next-Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) project was introduced with its objectives. To meet the objectives, NASA has directed aerospace industry to perform advances and risk reduction of relevant technologies, including propulsion. Originally, the propulsion industry focused on producing both LOWLH2 and LOWkerosene flight engine technology demonstrators. These flight engine technology demonstrators were briefly reviewed. NASA recently redirected this focus to Lowkerosene only. Discussion of LOWkerosene combustion devices was and is prefaced by grave concerns about combustion instability. These concerns have prompted a review of LOWkerosene combustion instability in American and Russian combustion devices. In the review of the Russian propulsion industry's experience in eliminating LOWkerosene combustion instabilities, the history of principal Russian rocket scientists and their role in the development of LOXkerosene combustion devices is presented. The innovative methods implemented by the Russians of eliminations combustion instabilities in LOXkerosene combustion devices were reviewed. The successful elimination of these combustion instabilities has resulted in two generations of Russian-produced, high-performance LOWkerosene combustion devices.

  15. Outdoor Power Equipment Technician Program. Apprenticeship Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the outdoor power equipment technician program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee…

  16. Coal Combustion Science. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.R.; Baxter, L.L.; Davis, K.A.; Hurt, R.H.; Yang, N.Y.C.

    1996-02-01

    The objective of this work is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This project consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: Task 1--Kinetics and mechanisms of pulverized coal char combustion; and Task 2--deposit growth and property development in coal-fired furnaces. The objective of task 1 is to characterize the combustion behavior of selected US coals under conditions relevant to industrial pulverized coal-fired furnaces. Work is being done in four areas: (a) kinetics of heterogeneous fuel particle populations; (b) char combustion kinetics at high carbon conversion; (c) the role of particle structure and the char formation process in combustion and; (d) unification of the Sandia char combustion data base. The objectives of Task 2 are to provide a self-consistent database of simultaneously measured, time-resolved, ash deposit properties in well-controlled and well-defined environments and to provide analytical expressions that relate deposit composition and structure to deposit properties of immediate relevance to PETC`s Combustion 2000 program. The task include the development and use of diagnostics to monitor, in situ and in real time, deposit properties, including information on both the structure and composition of the deposits.

  17. Residential wood-combustion-equipment standards and testing workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Explored are concerns related to proper safety, acceptable practices, and consumer protection as related to woodburning. Issues relating to safety and efficiency testing are discussed and the implications of these programs for the manufacturer, dealer and distributor are related. Also, consumer related problems regarding truth in advertising, product safety, building codes and standards, and insurance implications are dealt with. (LEW)

  18. Remote welding equipment for TPX

    SciTech Connect

    Silke, G.W.; Junge, R.

    1995-12-31

    Remote welding equipment and techniques are necessary for maintenance of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) Plasma Facing Components (PFCs). The processes identified for this application includes inside diameter (i.d.) and outside diameter (o.d.) Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) welding of titanium and stainless steel alloys. Welding equipment developed for this application includes some unique features due to the specialized environment of the TPX vessel. Remote features of this equipment must include the ability to acquire and align the parts being welded, perform all welding operations and visually inspect the weld area. Designs for weld heads require the integration of industry proven hardware with the special features include compact size, remote manipulation, remote clamping and alignment, remote vision, full inert gas coverage, arc voltage control, wire feed, programmable weld schedules and failure recovery.

  19. FINE PARTICLE EMISSIONS FROM RESIDUAL FUEL OIL COMBUSTION: CHARACTERIZATION AND MECHANISMS OF FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a comparison of the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from residual fuel oil combustion in two types of combustion equipment. A small commercial 732-kW fire-tube boiler yielded a weakly bi-modal particulate size distribution (PSD) with...

  20. FINE PARTICLE EMISSIONS FROM RESIDUAL FUEL OIL COMBUSTION: CHARACTERIZATION AND MECHANISMS OF FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a comparison of the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from residual fuel oil combustion in two types of combustion equipment. A small commercial 732-kW-rated fire-tube boiler yielded a weakly bimodal PM size distribution (PSD) with over...

  1. FINE PARTICLE EMISSIONS FROM RESIDUAL FUEL OIL COMBUSTION: CHARACTERIZATION AND MECHANISMS OF FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a comparison of the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from residual fuel oil combustion in two types of combustion equipment. A small commercial 732-kW-rated fire-tube boiler yielded a weakly bimodal PM size distribution (PSD) with over...

  2. FINE PARTICLE EMISSIONS FROM RESIDUAL FUEL OIL COMBUSTION: CHARACTERIZATION AND MECHANISMS OF FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a comparison of the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from residual fuel oil combustion in two types of combustion equipment. A small commercial 732-kW fire-tube boiler yielded a weakly bi-modal particulate size distribution (PSD) with...

  3. LIEKKI and JALO: Combustion and fuel conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, Thomas M.; Renz, Ulrich; Sarofim, Adel F.

    LIEKKI and JALO are well conceived and structured programs designed to strengthen Finland's special needs in combustion and gasification to utilize a diversity of fuels, increase the ratio of electrical to heat output, and to support the export market. Started in 1988, these two programs provide models of how universities, Technical research center's laboratories (VTT's), and industry can collaborate successfully in order to achieve national goals. The research is focused on long term goals in certain targeted niche areas. This is an effective way to use limited resources. The niche areas were chosen in a rational manner and appear to be appropriate for Finland. The LIEKKl and JALO programs have helped pull together research efforts that were previously more fragmented. For example, the combustion modeling area still appears fragmented. Individual project objectives should be tied to program goals at a very early stage to provide sharper focusing to the research. Both the LIEKKl and JALO programs appear to be strongly endorsed by industry. Industrial members of the Executive Committees were very supportive of these programs. There are good mechanisms for technology transfer in place, and the programs provide opportunities to establish good interfaces between industrial people and the individual researchers. The interest of industry is shown by the large number of applied projects that are supported by industry. This demonstrates the relevancy of the programs. There is a strong interaction between the JALO program and industry in black liquor gasification.

  4. Industrial Assessment Center Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarik, William J.

    2007-02-26

    proficiency in using the combustion analyzer, IR camera, logging equipment, light metering equipment, and other equipment. Instruction included usage and basic maintenance. While undergraduate students worked with the coursework and on-the-job training, graduate students were expected to do more. A typical MS student was required to complete a 3-hour independent study in some interesting facet of energy management under the supervision of a director. PhD students were expected to complete from three to six hours of independent study work in the energy management field, as well as center their dissertation research in the general area of energy/productivity/quality management. During the project period, two PhDs were completed, with several more near completion.

  5. Oil-fueled equipment research: program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the basis for a US Department of Energy (DOE) program for oil-fueled equipment research. The needs for an benefits of the technical research are explained, and a research plan is presented. This program was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) with assistance from Steven Winters Associates and input from Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and many representatives of the heating-oil and oil-fueled equipment industries. The private sector input was extensive, obtained through a series of workshops and formal and informal surveys. The planning effort was directed by the Building Equipment Division of the DOE Office of Buildings and Community Systems. The objective of the oil-fueled equipment research program is to develop the technological basis for new equipment and operating strategies based on improved understanding of oil-burning fundamentals. The program will provide the oil-fueled equipment industry with the basis for developing a new, high-tech generation of equipment, and the oil distributors and equipment installers and consumers with improved knowledge of how best to install and operate such equipment.

  6. Oxidation of volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. Final technical report, September 1980-February 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Malte, P.C.; Thornton, M.M.; Kamber, P.D.

    1984-04-01

    The objectives of this project are to measure, through the use of laboratory combustors, those conditions which promote complete combustion of wood volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. The conditions of interest are combustion temperature, residence time, stoichiometry, and air mixing. The project objectives are met through two laboratory approaches: (1) model compound studies: in order to measure the overall rates of oxidative pyrolysis of biomass volatiles, and to determine the types of intermediate organic species which are likely to form as part of this process, model compounds have been reacted in a specialized jet-stirred reactor, which has been developed as part of this research. (2) high-intensity wood combustion: in order to study the clean combustion of wood, that is, to investigate the conceptual design features required for clean burning, and to ascertain the levels and types of pollutant and condensible species which are most difficult to oxidize, a high-intensity, research wood combustor has been developed and examined for the different phases of the wood burning cycle. Although the objectives of the project have been met, it has not been possible, because of support limitations, to thoroughly explore several interesting aspects which have arisen because of this research. For example, a third laboratory system in which wood pyrolysis gas is injected directly into the a well characterized reactor, so that the kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reaction of the actual biomass volatiles can be studied, could not be thoroughly developed. Refinements in the high-intensity wood combustor, which would bring its design features closer to practicality for the industry, could not be considered. 32 references, 37 figures, 10 tables.

  7. Industrial Education. "Small Engines".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  8. Industrial Education. "Small Engines".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  9. Equipment. Out of order.

    PubMed

    Connolly, C

    2000-08-17

    The NHS has underinvested in equipment for more than 20 years. Most hospitals have inadequate equipment inventories. More than half the anaesthetic machines in use are more than five years old and should be replaced. Almost a fifth of the equipment used in cancer treatment is obsolete. Current accounting systems act as a disincentive to replacing old equipment.

  10. Mathematical modelling of post combustion in Dofasco`s KOBM

    SciTech Connect

    Gou, H.; Irons, G.A.; Lu, W.K.

    1992-12-31

    In the AISI Direct Steelmaking program, trials were undertaken in Dofasco`s 300 Tonne KOBM to examine post combustion. To support this work, a two-dimensional turbulent mathematical model has been developed to describe gas flow, combustion reactions and heat transfer (radiation and convection) in converter-type steelmaking processes. Gaseous flow patterns, temperature and heat flux distributions in the furnace were calculated with this model. Key findings are: The post combustion ratio is determined from the rates of oxygen supply, oxygen used for decarburization and the remainder available for post combustion, i.e. deducible from a mass balance calculation, comparison between the heat transfer fluxes calculated based on the model and those measured industrially indicates that the conventionally defined heat transfer efficiency over-estimates the heat recovered by the bath by about 20%, and the location of the combustion zone can be controlled, to a certain extent, by adjusting the lance practice.

  11. Mathematical modelling of post combustion in Dofasco's KOBM

    SciTech Connect

    Gou, H.; Irons, G.A.; Lu, W.K.

    1992-01-01

    In the AISI Direct Steelmaking program, trials were undertaken in Dofasco's 300 Tonne KOBM to examine post combustion. To support this work, a two-dimensional turbulent mathematical model has been developed to describe gas flow, combustion reactions and heat transfer (radiation and convection) in converter-type steelmaking processes. Gaseous flow patterns, temperature and heat flux distributions in the furnace were calculated with this model. Key findings are: The post combustion ratio is determined from the rates of oxygen supply, oxygen used for decarburization and the remainder available for post combustion, i.e. deducible from a mass balance calculation, comparison between the heat transfer fluxes calculated based on the model and those measured industrially indicates that the conventionally defined heat transfer efficiency over-estimates the heat recovered by the bath by about 20%, and the location of the combustion zone can be controlled, to a certain extent, by adjusting the lance practice.

  12. Conceptual design for the space station Freedom modular combustion facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A definition study and conceptual design for a combustion science facility that will be located in the Space Station Freedom's baseline U.S. Laboratory module is being performed. This modular, user-friendly facility, called the Modular Combustion Facility, will be available for use by industry, academic, and government research communities in the mid-1990's. The Facility will support research experiments dealing with the study of combustion and its byproducts. Because of the lack of gravity-induced convection, research into the mechanisms of combustion in the absence of gravity will help to provide a better understanding of the fundamentals of the combustion process. The background, current status, and future activities of the effort are covered.

  13. Combustion Stages of a Single Heavy Oil Droplet in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikegami, M.; Xu, G.; Ikeda, K.; Honma, S.; Nagaishi, H.; Dietrich, D. L.; Struk, P. M.; Takeshita, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy oil is a common fuel for industrial furnaces, boilers, marines and diesel engines. Previous studies showed that the combustion of heavy oil involves not only the complete burning of volatile matters but also the burn-out of coke residues. Detailed knowledge about heavy oil combustion therefore requires an understanding of the different burning stages of heavy oil droplets in the burner. This in turn, demands knowledge about the single droplet evaporation and combustion characteristics. This study measured the temperature and size histories of heavy oil (C glass) droplets burning in microgravity to elucidate the various stages that occur during combustion. The elimination of the gravity-induced gas convection in microgravity allows the droplet combustion to be studied in greater detail. Noting that the compositions of heavy oil are various, we also tested the fuel blends of a diesel light oil (LO) and a heavy oil residue (HOR).

  14. Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves and Improved Stove Emission Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    HATFIELD, MICHAEL; Still, Dean

    2013-04-15

    In developing countries, there is an urgent need for access to safe, efficient, and more affordable cooking technologies. Nearly 2.5 billion people currently use an open fire or traditional cookstove to prepare their meals, and recent models predict that use of biomass for cooking will continue to be the dominant energy use in rural, resource-poor households through 2030. For these families, cooking poses serious risks to health, safety, and income. An alarming 4 million people, primarily women and children, die prematurely each year from indoor and outdoor exposure to the harmful emissions released by solid fuel combustion. Use of traditional stoves can also have a significant impact on deforestation and climate change. This dire situation creates a critical need for cookstoves that significantly and verifiably reduce fuel use and emissions in order to reach protective levels for human health and the environment. Additionally, advances in the scientific equipment needed to measure and monitor stove fuel use and emissions have not kept pace with the significant need within the industry. While several testing centers in the developed world may have hundred thousand-dollar emissions testing systems, organizations in the field have had little more than a thermometer, a scale, and subjective observations to quantify the performance of stove designs. There is an urgent need for easy-to-use, inexpensive, accurate, and robust stove testing equipment for use by laboratory and field researchers around the world. ASAT and their research partner, Aprovecho Research Center (ARC), have over thirty years of experience addressing these two needs, improved cookstoves and emissions monitoring equipment, with expertise spanning the full spectrum of development from conceptual design to product manufacturing and dissemination. This includes: 1) research, design, and verification of clean biomass cookstove technology and emissions monitoring equipment; 2) mass production of quality

  15. Alternate Fuels Combustion Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    AFWAL-TR-84-2042 ESL-TR-84-29 ALTERNATE FUELS COMBUSTION RESEARCH 0) PRATT & WHITNEY CANADA MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO CANADA In JULY 1984 Final Report for...in small engincs. -291 REFERENCES 1. Gratton, M., Sampath, P., " Alternate Fuels Combustion Research Phase If", Pratt & Whitney Canada , AFWAL-TR-83-2057...for Period May 80 Sep e ALTERNATE FUELS COMBUSTION RESEARCHMa80-Sp3 4. PERFORMING ORIJ. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOR(s) 4. 60ONTRA-CT-WI GANUMNER(s) *M

  16. Combustion characteristics of fine-ground coal. Project 61052 quarterly technical report, June 1-August 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1982-03-01

    This program consists of a research study to investigate the effect of coal particle size on the flame characteristics of pulverized coal. The purpose is to determine if fine grinding will allow replacement of oil by coal in some industrial applications. The Plant Engineering Development Department of General Motors Corporation (GM) and the Research and Development Staff of York-Shipley, Inc. (Y-S), a major boiler manufacturer, are assisting IGT in this effort. These companies have offered to donate time to the program as industrial consultants. Pulverized coal will be fired at about 2 million Btu/h (approximately 160 lb/h) in a special experimental furnace designed to collect data on the combustion and heat-transfer characteristics of flames. Combustion trials with No. 6 oil are also planned to allow for direct correlation with the coal combustion data. Some of the information to be obtained from this study will be a determination of how the flame heat release density, mass burning rate, flame temperatures, and heat-transfer characteristics change with fuel particle size (fineness of coal grinding). It will also be possible to directly compare these parameters from the various coal flames with comparable oil flames to determine the feasibility of substituting fine-ground pulverized coal flames for heavy-oil flames. Data will also be collected to allow for the correlation of the flue-gas pollutant emissions with the fuel characteristics. Progress included purchasing the major equipment for the coal milling system, coal selection, and preparation of the combustion facility.

  17. New Combustion Regimes and Kinetic Studies of Plasma Assisted Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    New combustion regimes and kinetic studies of plasma assisted combustion Nov.6-7, 2012 MURI Plasma 3rd Yr Review Meeting MURI Topic #11: Chemical...TITLE AND SUBTITLE New combustion regimes and kinetic studies of plasma assisted combustion 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Flow reactor Species and kinetics (Ju) 1. New combustion regimes and kinetic studies of in situ plasma discharge in counterflow flames

  18. Dry low combustion system with means for eliminating combustion noise

    DOEpatents

    Verdouw, Albert J.; Smith, Duane; McCormick, Keith; Razdan, Mohan K.

    2004-02-17

    A combustion system including a plurality of axially staged tubular premixers to control emissions and minimize combustion noise. The combustion system includes a radial inflow premixer that delivers the combustion mixture across a contoured dome into the combustion chamber. The axially staged premixers having a twist mixing apparatus to rotate the fluid flow and cause improved mixing without causing flow recirculation that could lead to pre-ignition or flashback.

  19. 40 CFR 60.4231 - What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing such... Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4231 What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines...

  20. 46 CFR 32.50-35 - Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine... for Cargo Handling § 32.50-35 Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels—TB/ALL. (a) Any tank vessel which is equipped with an internal combustion...

  1. 46 CFR 32.50-35 - Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine... for Cargo Handling § 32.50-35 Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels—TB/ALL. (a) Any tank vessel which is equipped with an internal combustion...

  2. 46 CFR 32.50-35 - Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine... for Cargo Handling § 32.50-35 Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels—TB/ALL. (a) Any tank vessel which is equipped with an internal combustion...

  3. 46 CFR 32.50-35 - Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine... for Cargo Handling § 32.50-35 Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels—TB/ALL. (a) Any tank vessel which is equipped with an internal combustion...

  4. 46 CFR 32.50-35 - Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine... for Cargo Handling § 32.50-35 Remote manual shutdown for internal combustion engine driven cargo pump on tank vessels—TB/ALL. (a) Any tank vessel which is equipped with an internal combustion...

  5. 40 CFR 60.4231 - What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing such... Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4231 What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines...

  6. 40 CFR 60.4231 - What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing such... Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4231 What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines...

  7. 40 CFR 60.4231 - What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing such... Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4231 What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4231 - What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines or equipment containing such... Stationary Spark Ignition Internal Combustion Engines Emission Standards for Manufacturers § 60.4231 What emission standards must I meet if I am a manufacturer of stationary SI internal combustion engines...

  9. 46 CFR 28.70 - Approved equipment and material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approved equipment and material. 28.70 Section 28.70 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS General Provisions § 28.70 Approved equipment and material. (a) Equipment and...

  10. 27 CFR 6.88 - Equipment and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equipment and supplies. 6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.88 Equipment and supplies. (a) General. The act by an industry member of selling equipment or supplies to a retailer does not constitute a...

  11. 27 CFR 6.88 - Equipment and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equipment and supplies. 6..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.88 Equipment and supplies. (a) General. The act by an industry member of selling equipment or supplies to a retailer does not constitute a...

  12. 21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., propane, or natural gas. The combustion equipment shall be provided with an absorption-type filter capable... additive is passed into the isooctane solution through a gas-absorption train consisting of the following... input pressure. 2. An absorption apparatus consisting of an inlet gas dispersion tube inserted to...

  13. 21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., propane, or natural gas. The combustion equipment shall be provided with an absorption-type filter capable... additive is passed into the isooctane solution through a gas-absorption train consisting of the following... input pressure. 2. An absorption apparatus consisting of an inlet gas dispersion tube inserted to...

  14. 21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., propane, or natural gas. The combustion equipment shall be provided with an absorption-type filter capable... additive is passed into the isooctane solution through a gas-absorption train consisting of the following... input pressure. 2. An absorption apparatus consisting of an inlet gas dispersion tube inserted to...

  15. 21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., propane, or natural gas. The combustion equipment shall be provided with an absorption-type filter capable... additive is passed into the isooctane solution through a gas-absorption train consisting of the following... input pressure. 2. An absorption apparatus consisting of an inlet gas dispersion tube inserted to...

  16. Steam generation by combustion of processed waste fats

    SciTech Connect

    Pudel, F.; Lengenfeld, P.

    1993-12-31

    The use of specially processed waste fats as a fuel oil substitute offers, at attractive costs, an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional disposal like refuse incineration or deposition. For that purpose the processed fat is mixed with EL fuel oil and burned in a standard steam generation plant equipped with special accessories. The measured emission values of the combustion processes are very low.

  17. FUEL RICH SULFUR CAPTURE IN A COMBUSTION ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A refractory-lined, natural gas furnace was used to study fuel rich sulfur capture reactions of calcium sorbents under typical combustion conditions. The fuel rich sulfur species H2S and COS were monitored in a near-continuous fashion using a gas chromatograph equipped with a fl...

  18. FUEL RICH SULFUR CAPTURE IN A COMBUSTION ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A refractory-lined, natural gas furnace was used to study fuel rich sulfur capture reactions of calcium sorbents under typical combustion conditions. The fuel rich sulfur species H2S and COS were monitored in a near-continuous fashion using a gas chromatograph equipped with a fl...

  19. 46 CFR 108.123 - Isolation of combustible material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Isolation of combustible material. 108.123 Section 108.123 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Fire Protection: General § 108.123 Isolation...

  20. 46 CFR 108.123 - Isolation of combustible material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Isolation of combustible material. 108.123 Section 108.123 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Fire Protection: General § 108.123 Isolation...