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Sample records for industrial hygiene field

  1. Industrial Hygiene Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brisbin, Steven G.

    1999-01-01

    This breakout session is a traditional conference instrument used by the NASA industrial hygiene personnel as a method to convene personnel across the Agency with common interests. This particular session focused on two key topics, training systems and automation of industrial hygiene data. During the FY 98 NASA Occupational Health Benchmarking study, the training system under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was deemed to represent a "best business practice." The EPA has invested extensively in the development of computer based training covering a broad range of safety, health and environmental topics. Currently, five compact disks have been developed covering the topics listed: Safety, Health and Environmental Management Training for Field Inspection Activities; EPA Basic Radiation Training Safety Course; The OSHA 600 Collateral Duty Safety and Health Course; and Key program topics in environmental compliance, health and safety. Mr. Chris Johnson presented an overview of the EPA compact disk-based training system and answered questions on its deployment and use across the EPA. This training system has also recently been broadly distributed across other Federal Agencies. The EPA training system is considered "public domain" and, as such, is available to NASA at no cost in its current form. Copies of the five CD set of training programs were distributed to each NASA Center represented in the breakout session. Mr. Brisbin requested that each NASA Center review the training materials and determine whether there is interest in using the materials as it is or requesting that EPA tailor the training modules to suit NASA's training program needs. The Safety, Health and Medical Services organization at Ames Research Center has completed automation of several key program areas. Mr. Patrick Hogan, Safety Program Manager for Ames Research Center, presented a demonstration of the automated systems, which are described by the following: (1) Safety

  2. Filtration in industrial hygiene.

    PubMed

    Brown, R C

    2001-01-01

    Filters used in industrial hygiene are of two basic types, corresponding with the two basic airborne hazards: particulate and vapor. They are as different in their construction as they are in their purpose, and each gives negligible protection against the other hazard. By use of the correct type, adequate filtration efficiency can usually be achieved. Most particulate filters are made from fibers, and finer fibers result in higher efficiency. Filters can capture particles much smaller than the fiber diameter, as a result of diffusional motion of the airborne particles and, in the case of filters that hold a permanent electric charge, electrostatic attraction. Most vapor filters are made from granules of activated carbon, which have an extremely large effective surface area, where molecules of contaminant are adsorbed. The performance of all filters tends to alter as the filter material becomes loaded. Electrically neutral particulate filters become more efficient but at the expense of increased resistance to airflow. Particulate filters that act by electric forces may become less efficient, and are often less inclined to clog. Vapor filters usually have a high initial efficiency, but the penetration of vapor increases as the filters become saturated with adsorbed vapor, and the performance of these filters is normally expressed in terms of their lifetime rather than their efficiency. It is important that the choice of a filter should be made with close reference to the situation in which it is to be used, and optimum respiratory protection should be sought, rather than maximum filtration efficiency. Special problems of filters are illustrated by some case histories, and finally the use of filters as size selectors for dust samplers is briefly described. PMID:11669390

  3. Industrial Hygiene Laboratory accreditation: The JSC experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadner, Dawn E.

    1993-01-01

    The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) is a society of professionals dedicated to the health and safety of workers and community. With more than 10,000 members, the AIHA is the largest international association serving occupational and environmental health professionals practicing industrial hygiene in private industry, academia, government, labor, and independent organizations. In 1973, AIHA developed a National Industrial Hygiene Laboratory Accreditation Program. The purposes of this program are shown.

  4. Application of industrial hygiene techniques for work-place exposure assessment protocols related to petro-chemical exploration and production field activities

    SciTech Connect

    Koehn, J.

    1995-12-31

    Standard industrial hygiene techniques for recognition, evaluation, and control can be directly applied to development of technical protocols for workplace exposure assessment activities for a variety of field site locations. Categories of occupational hazards include chemical and physical agents. Examples of these types of hazards directly related to oil and gas exploration and production workplaces include hydrocarbons, benzene, oil mist, hydrogen sulfide, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), asbestos-containing materials, and noise. Specific components of well process chemicals include potential hazardous chemical substances such as methanol, acrolein, chlorine dioxide, and hydrochloric acid. Other types of exposure hazards may result from non-routine conduct of sandblasting and painting operations.

  5. Assessing outcomes of industrial hygiene graduate education.

    PubMed

    Brosseau, Lisa; Fredrickson, Ann

    2009-05-01

    To ensure that industrial hygiene professionals continue to be prepared for current and future trends, it is important to regularly assess the value of their education. Described here are the results of discussions with employers and a mailed survey of graduates. Comparisons are made with past mailed surveys of both groups. Two sets of discussions were held in late 2005 with employers of industrial hygienists and other health and safety professionals. Twenty-eight participants were asked to discuss current and future needs for professionals in their organization and economic sector, their expectations for knowledge and skills when hiring professionals, methods for finding and hiring, and the importance of ABET accreditation. At the same time, a survey was mailed to 71 industrial hygiene students graduating in the last 15 years. Respondents were asked to rank the value of and their proficiency in 42 competencies. Questions also assessed employment experience, certification, the importance of ABET accreditation, and demographic characteristics. There was a lot of agreement between the two stakeholder groups (employers and graduates) about the most important skill and knowledge areas. Most employers identified communicating effectively and exposure assessment among the most important skills, with designing and initiating research as among the least. Hazard recognition, exposure measurement principles, and personal protective equipment were the most highly ranked knowledge areas. Employers discussed the need for good "business skills" such as teamwork, communication, and project management, and the importance of problem-solving skills. Graduates reported that skills in the areas of recognition, evaluation, and control were most valuable in their first jobs and generally reported high levels of proficiency in these skill areas. There was a similar dichotomy in opinions about accreditation within each stakeholder group. The reputation of the academic program was

  6. Assessing outcomes of industrial hygiene graduate education.

    PubMed

    Brosseau, Lisa; Fredrickson, Ann

    2009-05-01

    To ensure that industrial hygiene professionals continue to be prepared for current and future trends, it is important to regularly assess the value of their education. Described here are the results of discussions with employers and a mailed survey of graduates. Comparisons are made with past mailed surveys of both groups. Two sets of discussions were held in late 2005 with employers of industrial hygienists and other health and safety professionals. Twenty-eight participants were asked to discuss current and future needs for professionals in their organization and economic sector, their expectations for knowledge and skills when hiring professionals, methods for finding and hiring, and the importance of ABET accreditation. At the same time, a survey was mailed to 71 industrial hygiene students graduating in the last 15 years. Respondents were asked to rank the value of and their proficiency in 42 competencies. Questions also assessed employment experience, certification, the importance of ABET accreditation, and demographic characteristics. There was a lot of agreement between the two stakeholder groups (employers and graduates) about the most important skill and knowledge areas. Most employers identified communicating effectively and exposure assessment among the most important skills, with designing and initiating research as among the least. Hazard recognition, exposure measurement principles, and personal protective equipment were the most highly ranked knowledge areas. Employers discussed the need for good "business skills" such as teamwork, communication, and project management, and the importance of problem-solving skills. Graduates reported that skills in the areas of recognition, evaluation, and control were most valuable in their first jobs and generally reported high levels of proficiency in these skill areas. There was a similar dichotomy in opinions about accreditation within each stakeholder group. The reputation of the academic program was

  7. Industrial Hygiene Group annual research report, FY 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.O.; Ettinger, H.J.

    1982-10-01

    Field studies have been performed at several oil shale facilities to identify unique industrial hygiene problems and provide input to inhalation toxicology studies aimed at evaluating the hazards of materials associated with this developing technology. Aerosol physics support has also been provided to develop aerosol generation and animal exposure techniques for evaluating the toxicity of oil shale materials and manmade mineral fibers. As part of the effort to assure a safe, orderly, and timely development of various synfuels, field evaluation of indicator-sampling procedures was perfomed, and industrial hygiene work practices for two synfuel technologies are being prepared. Respirator studies are used to evaluate the performances of special devices (some of which are not in the existing government approval schedules) and of a proposed test procedures for self-contained breathing apparatus. An approval procedure is being developed for air-purifying respirators required for protection against radioiodine, evaluating the adequacy of respirator programs at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensee facilities, and developing a program for respirator use under emergency situations. A new aerosol size-characterization stack sampler has been designed, and potential instrument changes to aerosol size monitoring for filter testing are being evaluated. Material permeability tests have identified the protection afforded by protective clothing materials, and improved analytical procedures have been developed for pentachlorophenol and plutonium.

  8. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E.

    1991-08-01

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned.

  9. [Industrial hygiene for subway train operators].

    PubMed

    Elizarov, B B; Sin'kov, A V

    1995-01-01

    Subway train drivers work in specific conditions of underground surroundings, face psychoemotional stress due to high intensity of signals analyzed in short time for the decision, prominent responsibility for passengers' lives. The work is also associated with significant levels of noise, minor artificial illumination, air pollution with dust and unfavorable microclimate. By the end of working shift the drivers demonstrate marked changes in blood pressure, prolonged oculomotor reactions, depressed visual function. Morbidity with transitory disablement is high among the drivers, presenting especially cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases. Unfavorable changes of ageing process are seen in the drivers over 35, in age group of 40-49 years (with length of service at least 20 years). The complex investigations helped to elaborate hygienic norms for new subway cars, to base rational schedule ot work and rest for the drivers. PMID:7767606

  10. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CONDITIONS IN MODERN PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY].

    PubMed

    Badamshina, G G; Karimova, L K; Timasheva, G V

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there are reported the results of the performance of hygiene assessment of working conditions in petrochemical industry. The studies have shown that workers' body is exposed to a complex of hazardous occupational factors including a chemical factor, noise, the severity and intensity of the working process. An overall assessment of working conditions corresponds to Class 3.3.

  11. [Emerging issues concerning hygiene in the Russian aluminum industry].

    PubMed

    Roslyĭ, O F; Gurvich, V B; Plotko, É G; Kuz'min, S V; Fedoruk, A A; Roslaia, N A; Iarushin, S V; Kuz'min, D V

    2012-01-01

    In this study the data of multiyear investigations of occupational and environmental hazards at different enterprises of the Russian aluminum industry are presented. Basing on these data, we have been elaborated the algorithm and methodological approaches on management of the occupational and ecology-related risks using hygienic safety criteria, risk evaluation technique, epidemiological and economic analysis.

  12. [The social and hygienic aspects in the protection of the health of forest industry workers].

    PubMed

    Akhmetzyanov, L M

    1990-01-01

    The study of social and hygiene aspects in the industry of forest exploitation permitted to point out the changes that occurred in the field of mechanization and automation of production processes, which radically influenced the working conditions and characteristics, as well as the health indices. The study approaches some economic, social and hygiene problems. Proposals are made regarding the improvement of medical care organization for workers, for example the drawing up of a complex programme of prophylaxis of diseases in the enterprises for wood industrialization and of utilization of the computation technique.

  13. Influence of legal standards on the practice of industrial hygiene.

    PubMed

    Corn, M

    1976-06-01

    Prescriptive standards for the work environment affect the professional practice of industrial hygiene. Among the advantages are: legal requirements reinforce professional recommendations; penalties encourage abatement of hazards; compliance should ensure a safe and healthful environment; recordkeeping requirements will provide a basis for future action. Among the disadvantages are: rigid evaluation procedures, reporting format, etc., discourage professional judgment and development of new methods; professional reports become legal documents; single standards do not focus on the total environment.

  14. Influence of legal standards on the practice of industrial hygiene.

    PubMed

    Corn, M

    1976-06-01

    Prescriptive standards for the work environment affect the professional practice of industrial hygiene. Among the advantages are: legal requirements reinforce professional recommendations; penalties encourage abatement of hazards; compliance should ensure a safe and healthful environment; recordkeeping requirements will provide a basis for future action. Among the disadvantages are: rigid evaluation procedures, reporting format, etc., discourage professional judgment and development of new methods; professional reports become legal documents; single standards do not focus on the total environment. PMID:937174

  15. Industrial hygiene concerns associated with oil shale development

    SciTech Connect

    Ettinger, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Health protection concerns (including industrial hygiene, safety, and occupational medicine) must be evaluated to insure that development of the oil shale industry proceeds without significant risk to the health of the workers involved. These concerns need to be identified in the early stages of developing this industry. To provide a basis for discussing potential health protection concerns related to oil shale, it is necessary to briefly discuss the magnitude and characteristics of this resource; the alternate proposed technologies; and the unit operations which make up the operating system. This subject has been detailed in many publications, among them reports prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency. This discussion will be limited to providing sufficient background to put industrial hygiene and other health protection concerns in perspective, and will include a brief description of typical technologies under consideration. It will not provide a detailed description of these technologies, or attempt to cover all the alternate technologies which may be applied to the development of oil shale. However, a basis for considering potential health protection problems associated with development of this industry will be established.

  16. [Control of industrial waste consumption residues: ecological and hygienic aspects].

    PubMed

    Rusakov, N V; Korotkova, G I; Orlov, A Iu; Solov'eva, A V; Shemiakina, Iu V

    2007-01-01

    The problem in the provision of safe handling of industrial waste and consumption residues is relatively current. According with the United Nations Organization's data, 25 to 33% of the world's notified diseases are directly associated with the low quality of the human environment. Up to now, a list of chemicals encountered in the waste and residues is unavailable in Russia and foreign countries. By keeping in mind the ubiquitous spread of industrial waste and consumption resides due to human vital activity, their huge formations and their very wide diversity in composition, type, and pattern of a possible dangerous effect, it is important to consider the problem associated with waste handling, by evaluating their environmental and hygienic hazard. PMID:18159741

  17. An integrated occupational hygiene consultation model for the catering industry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Lee, Lien-Hsiung

    2010-07-01

    Vegetable oil used in food processing, during high-temperature exposure, will generate particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are carcinogenic chemical compounds, with the potential to cause lung disease for restaurant kitchen staff. This study's design includes a three-stage consultation process with eight major consultation items, in order to build an integrated consultation model for occupational hygiene. This model combines inspection and consultation, targeting Chinese restaurants in the catering industry. Characteristics of the integrated consultation model include cooperation between different government departments and collaboration with nongovernmental, professional consulting organizations. An additional benefit of the model is the building of a good partnership relationship with the Catering Trade Association. The consultation model helps Chinese restaurants attain improvements in their work environments with minimal investment. Postconsultation, results show a 63.35% and 61.98% (P < 0.001) decrease in the mean time-weighted concentration of exposure to PM and PAHs, respectively. The overall regulation compliance rate of Chinese restaurants significantly increased from 34.3% to 89.6%. These results show that the integrated consultation model for occupational hygiene not only helps small and medium enterprises reduce exposure concentrations in the workplace but also has specific potential for successful implementation in Taiwan. PMID:20332160

  18. Program development to identify and characterize potential emergency situations at a petroleum refinery and determination of industrial hygiene emergency responses

    SciTech Connect

    Oransky, J.J.; Delp, S.N.; Deppen, E.A.; Barrett, D.

    1995-12-31

    In the modern world the field of industrial hygiene continues to grow beyond the traditional definition of the profession. This case study documents the problem solving approach used to identify potential exposures and evaluate industrial hygiene preparedness to handle emergencies due to fire or major spill at a complex multi-process petroleum refinery. In the recent past an environmental engineer and industrial hygiene consulting firm was retained by a mature, multi-process petroleum refinery to assist in the program development to identify and characterize potential emergency situations due to a fire, major release, or spill. This study would assist the refinery in compliance with the process safety and emergency response standards and to protect refinery operations and fire fighting personnel by minimizing potential exposures and risk when responding to such a major incident.

  19. Industrial-hygiene survey report, Parkway Products, Inc. , Cincinnati, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Clapp, D.E.

    1986-05-01

    Industrial hygiene and biomonitoring data were collected during a survey at the Parkway Products Inc. facility located in Cincinnati, Ohio, one of the largest users of 4,4'-methylenebis (2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA). Customized polyurethane products were manufactured for industry at this facility. Urinary concentrations of MBOCA were below the California standard of 100 micrograms/liter, with the exception of two samples taken from MBOCA mixers. The wipe samples taken showed a range of concentrations from 4 to 53 micrograms MBOCA per wipe which were collected near the MBOCA room where the chemical was stored as well as handled. Night-shift workers were exposed to higher concentrations, probably indicating that less care was taken during this shift in controlling the hazardous substance. There was no clear cut relationship established between environmental and biomonitoring results in this study, except for the workers in the MBOCA room. The author recommends frequent washing down of exposed areas, changing protective workclothes in specified facility locations, prohibition of eating or drinking or smoking in work areas, monthly urine monitoring, and continued education as to the hazards of the job.

  20. Industrial Hygiene Concerns during the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    M.E. Lumia; C.A. Gentile

    2002-01-18

    A significant industrial hygiene concern during the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was the oxidation of the lead bricks' surface, which were utilized for radiation shielding. This presented both airborne exposure and surface contamination issues for the workers in the field removing this material. This paper will detail the various protection and control methods tested and implemented to protect the workers, including those technologies deployed to decontaminate the work surfaces. In addition, those techniques employed to recycle the lead for additional use at the site will be discussed.

  1. Industrial hygiene aspects of underground oil shale mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, K.M.; Jackson, J.O.

    1982-01-01

    Health hazards associated with underground oil shale mining are summarized in this report. Commercial oil shale mining will be conducted on a very large scale. Conventional mining techniques of drilling, blasting, mucking, loading, scaling, and roof bolting will be employed. Room-and-pillar mining will be utilized in most mines, but mining in support of MIS retorting may also be conducted. Potential health hazards to miners may include exposure to oil shale dusts, diesel exhaust, blasting products, gases released from the oil shale or mine water, noise and vibration, and poor environmental conditions. Mining in support of MIS retorting may in addition include potential exposure to oil shale retort offgases and retort liquid products. Based upon the very limited industrial hygiene surveys and sampling in experimental oil shale mines, it does not appear that oil shale mining will result in special or unique health hazards. Further animal toxicity testing data could result in reassessment if findings are unusual. Sufficient information is available to indicate that controls for dust will be required in most mining activities, ventilation will be necessary to carry away gases and vapors from blasting and diesel equipment, and a combination of engineering controls and personal protection will likely be required for control of noise. Recommendations for future research are included.

  2. Can Control Banding be better than traditional Industrial Hygiene?

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D

    2009-01-27

    The answer to this question should be 'no' if you can afford it and 'yes' if you cannot. However, Control Banding (CB) is proving itself in areas with uncertainties. This could be either a lack of knowledge--as with nanomaterials or when lacking an OEL--or with the lack or expertise, as can be seen with SMEs and in Economically Developing Countries (EDCs). Over 90% of the world's workers do not have access to occupational safety, health, and hygiene (OSHH) professionals and traditional quantitative risk assessment methods to achieve prevention from acquiring work-related illness and injury. Although risk factors for work-related illness and disease are well known, until the recent growth of CB there had yet to be designed and implemented a comprehensive OSHH process that focuses on achieving minimization of these occupational risk factors for the vast majority of the global workforce. This problem exists for three primary reasons: (1) There are not a sufficient number of trained and qualified OSHH professionals worldwide to attempt to offer comparable levels of traditional services necessary to achieve prevention; (2) The vast majority of OSHH professionals, and the funds to afford their conventional approaches, are concentrated in Developed Countries, such as those in the EU and the US, whereas the greatest need for work-related disease, illness, and injury prevention lies within EDCs; and (3) Even within Developed Countries, the funding to acquire the services of OSHH professionals sits primarily within the largest of industries and governmental institutions. This problem renders a void of occupational risk management for the professions and trades within EDCs and similarly the SMEs within even the richest of Developed Countries. Further, conventional means to achieve such prevention rely heavily on exposure assessment sampling strategies that, although proven successful, are cost-prohibitive in these arenas.

  3. Medical surveillance and programs on industrial hygiene at RCRA facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.E.

    1994-12-31

    Some special areas where much progress in industrial hygiene and safety has been made in the past few years are; training, personal protective equipment, uniforms, personal monitoring, area monitoring, and medical surveillance. Before one can begin to construct programs for worker protection, some knowledge of potential exposures must be gained. The best place to start is the Waste Analysis Plan, and the list of wastes that a particular site is authorized to receive. Waste Codes are listed within a facility`s Part A and Part B permits. Actual facility receipt of wastes are well documented within Load Records and other documentation. A facility`s training program forms the heart of a health and safety program. Every TSD facility should have developed a matrix of job titles and required training. Every facility must also make a commitment to providing a wide range of personal protective equipment, including a wide array of disposables. Some facilities will benefit from the occasional use of the newer respirator quantitative fit-testing devices. All facilities are urged to rent or borrow this type of equipment periodically. Quantitative respirator fit-testers are capable of revealing important deficiencies in a respirator program. Providing uniforms is a newer means of protecting workers. The use of uniforms is an effective means for addressing the idea of carry-home-waste. The use of disposables including boots, must be integrated into a Uniform Program if the program is to be effective. In addition, employees must strictly understand that uniforms must not leave the facility at any time, including lunch time.

  4. [The 70th anniversary of the Saint Petersburg Research Institute of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases].

    PubMed

    Dudarev, A Ia; Trofimov, V A

    1995-01-01

    The article reviews research activities of the Institute for 70 years. The main research spheres represent occupational hygiene, industrial toxicology, sanitary and industrial chemistry, occupational diseases. The Institute is reported to have scientific priority and merits in improving the work conditions and treating the workers engaged into nonferrous metallurgy, in production of polymer materials, in radio and electronic industry.

  5. [Problems of hygienic standardization of electromagnetic fields produced by teletransmitting objects].

    PubMed

    Karachev, I I

    1989-10-01

    Maximum allowable electromagnetic field levels produced by teletransmitting stations and differentiated by frequency have been described. The prospects of further studies on the improvement of hygienic standardization of electromagnetic fields have been set forth.

  6. Resolving the ambiguities: An industrial hygiene Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Gammage, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Resolving the Ambiguities: An Industrial Hygiene (IAQ) Symposium was a one-day event designed to inform practicing industrial hygienists about highlight presentations made at Indoor Air `93. A broad range of topics was presented by invited speakers. Topics included were attempts to deal with guidelines and standards, questionnaires, odors and sensory irritation, respiratory allergies, neuroses, sick building syndrome (SBS), and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS).

  7. Database system for management of health physics and industrial hygiene records.

    SciTech Connect

    Murdoch, B. T.; Blomquist, J. A.; Cooke, R. H.; Davis, J. T.; Davis, T. M.; Dolecek, E. H.; Halka-Peel, L.; Johnson, D.; Keto, D. N.; Reyes, L. R.; Schlenker, R. A.; Woodring; J. L.

    1999-10-05

    This paper provides an overview of the Worker Protection System (WPS), a client/server, Windows-based database management system for essential radiological protection and industrial hygiene. Seven operational modules handle records for external dosimetry, bioassay/internal dosimetry, sealed sources, routine radiological surveys, lasers, workplace exposure, and respirators. WPS utilizes the latest hardware and software technologies to provide ready electronic access to a consolidated source of worker protection.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Industrial Hygiene Air Monitoring Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Maughan, A D.; Glissmeyer, John A.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.

    2004-12-10

    Tests were performed to evaluate the accuracy, precision and response time of certain commercially available handheld toxic gas monitors. The tests were conducted by PNNL in the Chemical Chamber Test Facility for CH2MHill Hanford Company. The instruments were tested with a set of dilute test gases including ammonia, nitrous oxide, and a mixture of organic vapors (acetone, benzene, ethanol, hexane, toluene and xylene). The certified gases were diluted to concentrations that may be encountered in the outdoor environment above the underground tank farms containing radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site, near Richland, Washington. The challenge concentrations are near the lower limits of instrument sensitivity and response time. The performance test simulations were designed to look at how the instruments respond to changes in test gas concentrations that are similar to field conditions.

  9. Industrial Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhorst, Marsha L.; Coyne, Linda B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review focusing on some of the most widely used analytical techniques in monitoring personal exposures in the workplace for assessing human health risk. Discusses several basic techniques: solid sorbents, calibration standards, derivatizations, dosimeters, biomonitoring, gas monitoring, particulates, isocyanates, formaldehyde, and…

  10. Industry-wide hygiene walk-through survey report of Kendall Company, Augusta Facility, Augusta, Georgia. [Ethylene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Steenland, K.; Stayner, L.; Elliott, L.; Ringenburg, V.

    1986-03-06

    A walk-through survey was conducted at Kendall Company, Augusta, Georgia in February, 1984. The purpose of the survey was to determine the feasibility of including the facility in a NIOSH industry wide mortality and industrial hygiene study of ethylene oxide. The company produces medical supplies such as gauze pads, sponges, cotton balls, and trays that ore sterilized with ethylene oxide.

  11. Health physics and industrial hygiene aspects of decontamination as a precursor to decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Card, C.J.; Hoenes, G.R.; Munson, L.F.; Halseth, G.A.

    1982-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting a comprehensive study of the impacts, benefits and effects of decontamination as a precursor to decommissioning for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program deals primarily with chemical cleaning of light-water reactor (LWR) systems that will not be returned to operation. A major section of this study defines the health physics and industrial hygiene and safety concerns during decontamination operations. The primary health physics concerns include providing adequate protection for workers from radiation sources which are transported by the decontamination processes, estimating and limiting radioactive effluents to the environment and maintaining operations in accordance with the ALARA philosophy. Locating and identifying the areas of contamination and measuring the radiation exposure rates throughout the reactor primary system are fundamental to implementing these health physics goals. The principal industrial hygiene and safety concerns stem from the fact that a nuclear power plant is being converted for a time to a chemical plant which will contain large volumes of chemical solutions.

  12. Industrial-hygiene survey report of Borg Warner Chemicals, Inc. , Woodmar Plant, Washington, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.

    1986-08-01

    Due to possible worker exposure to 1,3-butadiene, a walk-through industrial-hygiene survey was conducted at Borg Warner Chemicals Woodmar Facility, Washington, West Virginia. The primary products of the facility are ABS plastics, polybutadiene latex and styrene butadiene rubber latex. In September 1981, a butadiene recovery system was added to the process vent streams. Of the total work force, 54 employees have potential for exposure to 1,3-butadiene. The mean 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) of 23 personal samples collected during several periods in 1983 and 1985 was 4.5 parts per million (ppm). Analysis of a bulk sample showed traces of 1,3-butadiene, in the 0.04 to 0.2 nanograms/milligram range. The exposures to 1,3-butadiene were greater than 10ppm for two job classifications, control room and high heat operators. The company has accurate records on terminated and current employees. The author concludes that the facility is a candidate for inclusion in an in-depth industrial hygiene survey regarding 1,3-butadiene. Recommendations were given.

  13. [Animal hygiene and environmental hygiene].

    PubMed

    Strauch, D

    1986-12-01

    Animal Hygiene has developed historically from the field of Animal Health Care and is as a part of Veterinary Hygiene now about 100 years old. From her very beginning Animal Hygiene has dealt with the influences of the live and inanimate environment on the health of animals an also investigated the reverse developments. From a historical point of view it can be stated that Animal Hygiene has done active research in the field of environmental hygiene ever since. This tendency was intensified by the modern developments of keeping animals in confinements, enlargement of livestock, new kinds of residues like slurry which demanded a change in the management of arable and forage land combined with an increase in the agricultural utilization of residues form the municipal area like sewage sludge and compost made from refuse. Based on selected examples from the field of production and processing of animals the research on Animal Hygiene in the framework of environmental hygiene is described. This refers especially to emissions and other environmental problems (malodor, dust, airborne microbes) which derive from keeping animals in confinements as well as such which are caused by storage and utilization of animal residues (farm-yard manure, urine, slurry). The most serious problems are caused by production and utilization of slurry (transmission of infectious agents, malodors, damages of soils, plants, surface and ground waters by excess fertilization of arable and forage land). It was Animal Hygiene which made most valuable contributions for solving such problems of environmental hygiene. It was also Animal Hygiene which warned of the possible negative environmental influences of disinfectants. Respective investigations were made and recommendations to avoid damages to the environment given. Also in the field of the agricultural utilization of residues from the municipal area (sewage, sewage sludge, refuse composts) Animal Hygiene has developed basic investigation methods

  14. Industrial-hygiene walk-through survey report of Loctite Corporation, Newington, Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, C.S.; Krishnan, E.R.; Goodman, R.J.

    1987-07-17

    A walk-through industrial-hygiene survey was conducted at the Loctite Corporation facility located in Newington, Connecticut in order to evaluate possible employee exposure to acrylates or methacrylates used at the facility. Methacrylate-based anaerobic-curing adhesives have been formulated at the facility since 1968. Difunctional methacrylates were most often used and were, in most cases, purchased from outside companies. There was some on-site manufacturing of methacrylate monomers in enclosed vessels with local exhaust ventilation at the point sources. Enclosed vessels were also used to formulate the intermediate high-viscosity oligomers and the adhesive products. Of the 70 employees at the facility, 47 had potential exposure to methacrylates during manufacturing operations. No air monitoring had been conducted at the company. A few cases of dermatitis have occurred due to exposure to methacrylates. A safety program was in place at the firm and there were records for all employees.

  15. Industrial-hygiene characterization of ethylene oxide exposures of hospital and nursing-home workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ringenburg, V.L.; Elliott, L.J.; Morelli-Schroth, P.; Molina, D.

    1986-12-01

    Industrial-hygiene surveys were conducted at 12 hospitals and one nursing home to determine possible employee exposure to ethylene oxide (EtO). Different types of exposure situations existed at each of the facilities as a result of various engineering controls, administrative controls and work practices. Sampling indicated that the time-weighted averages (TWAs) of exposure over periods of 36 to 724 minutes ranged from below the limit of detection to 6.7 parts per million (ppm). Personal short-term exposure levels covering 2 to 30 minutes ranged from less than the limit of detection to 103.2ppm. Factors found to be responsible for these higher-than-permissible levels of EtO exposure included improper installation or lack of engineering controls (such as improper placement of the sterilizing operations), unbalanced ventilation systems, and lack of administrative controls resulting in inappropriate work practices.

  16. [Present-day hygienic aspects of dealing with industrial and consumption waste].

    PubMed

    Gil'denskiol'd, R S; Kur'ianova, I S

    2005-01-01

    The article covers scientific hygienic positions in forming and solving the acute scientific and technical problem of dealing with waste. The given problem is topical due to growing amount and diversity of waste and relatively small knowledge of ecological, medical and biological aspects of the problem. The paper covers the entire "life cycle" of waste, chiefly industrial and communal, as the most diverse and potentially dangerous to the environment. Special attention is paid to neutralization and recycling of waste for its application as secondary material in various branches of national economy. Having critically analized the results of complex studies, the authors conclude the article with outlining the prospective tasks of research for scientific and practical institutions of sanitary surveillance of Russian Federation Ministry of Health. PMID:15852717

  17. Expert judgment and occupational hygiene: application to aerosol speciation in the nickel primary production industry.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Banerjee, Sudipto; Vincent, James H

    2003-08-01

    In many situations characterized by sparse data, occupational hygienists have used subjective judgments that are claimed to be derived from their experience and knowledge. While this practice is widespread, there has been no systematic study of 'expert judgment' or the 'art' of occupational hygiene. Indeed, there is a need to address the question of whether there is such a thing as 'expert opinion' in occupational hygiene that is broadly shared by practicing professionals. This research, employing 11 experts who estimate an exposure parameter (the percentages of four nickel species) in 12 workplaces in a nickel primary production industry, provides a large dataset from which useful inferences can be drawn about the quality of expert judgments and the variability among the experts. A well-designed questionnaire that provided succinct information about the processes and baseline data served to calibrate the experts. The Bayesian framework has been used in this work to develop posterior means and standard deviations of the percentages of the four nickel species in the 12 workplaces of interest in the company. These estimates of the nickel speciation are at least as precise as--and most of the time more precise than--those provided by the sparse measurement data. There was a very high degree of agreement among the experts. A majority of the experts agreed among themselves 92% of the time, while almost two-thirds agreed 73% of the time. This, coupled with the fact that the experts came from varied backgrounds, seems to suggest that there is indeed some broad body of specialized knowledge that the experts are drawing on to reach similar judgments. It also seems that one type of expert is not necessarily any better than any other kind, and expertise does not necessarily require intimate familiarity with the workplace. In this example, the expert judgment exercise has indeed enhanced the quality of our knowledge of the exposure 'fingerprints' for the nickel industry

  18. Industrial hygiene, occupational safety and respiratory symptoms in the Pakistani cotton industry

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Wali; Moshammer, Hanns Michael; Kundi, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the cotton industry of Pakistan, 15 million people are employed and exposed to cotton dust, toxic chemicals, noise and physical hazards. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of health symptoms, particularly respiratory symptoms, and to measure cotton dust and endotoxin levels in different textile factories of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional investigation was performed in a representative sample of 47 cotton factories in the Faisalabad region in Punjab, Pakistan. Respiratory symptoms of 800 workers were documented by questionnaire. Occupational safety in the factories was assessed by a trained expert following a checklist, and dust and endotoxin levels in different work areas were measured. Results Prevalence of respiratory disease symptoms (fever, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough) was generally high and highest in the weaving section of the cotton industry (20–40% depending on symptoms). This section also displayed the poorest occupational safety ratings and the highest levels of inhalable cotton dust (mean±SD 4.6±2.5 vs 0.95±0.65 mg/m3 in compact units). In contrast, endotoxin levels were highest in the spinning section (median 1521 EU/m3), where high humidity is maintained. Conclusions There are still poor working conditions in the cotton industry in Pakistan where workers are exposed to different occupational hazards. More health symptoms were reported from small weaving factories (power looms). There is a dire need for improvements in occupational health and safety in this industrial sector with particular focus on power looms. PMID:25838509

  19. Industrial hygiene walk-through survey report of Colorado Chemical Specialties, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Fajen, J.M.; Ungers, L.J.

    1986-03-01

    A walk-through survey was conducted at Colorado Chemical Specialties, Golden, Colorado in August, 1985. The purpose of the survey was to evaluate exposure to 1,3-butadiene during the manufacture of homopolymer and copolymer liquid polybutadiene resins. Bulk samples of styrene/butadiene and polybutadiene resins were analyzed for residual 1,3-butadiene. The resin was produced by solution polymerization. Engineering controls consisted of equipping all pumps handling 1,3-butadiene with single or dual mechanical seals. The quality control laboratory was equipped with exhaust hoods. Quality-control sampling was performed using vapor-phase gas chromatography. Personal monitoring for 1,3-butadiene was limited to a single survey conducted by OSHA in the mid 1970s. No detectable concentrations of 1,3-butadiene were reported. No 1,3-butadiene was detected in bulk samples of styrene/butadiene and polybutadiene resins. Employees received periodical physical examinations; however, pre-employment physicals were not required. Employees received on-the-job safety training only. There was no established formalized respirator program. The company did not have an organized industrial-hygiene program. The authors conclude that the facility is not suitable for an in-depth study.

  20. Industrial hygiene walk-through survey report of General Motors Corporation, Fisher Guide Division, Monroe, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, C.S.; Krishnan, E.R.; Goodman, R.J.

    1987-08-17

    A walk-through industrial-hygiene survey was conducted at the General Motors Corporation Fisher Guide manufacturing facility located in Monroe, Louisiana. The investigation centered on possible exposure to acrylates or methacrylates during the manufacture of adhesive-sealed, flame-sealed, or composite headlamps. Methacrylate-based adhesives and acrylated coatings have been used at the facility since 1981. Both the adhesives and coatings were cured by ultraviolet radiation. Ninety-four employees had potential contact with acrylates or methacrylates during the application of adhesives and coatings. Adhesives were used for sealing the lens/reflector area and the bulb location of the terminal area. Base coats were applied to the composite headlamps to provide an adhering surface for the aluminized coating. Top coats were applied as a protective coating for the aluminum coating. Two cases of chemical dermatitis have been reported at the facility since 1981 due to skin contact with acrylates/methacrylates. When an automated system was used to apply adhesive materials during headlamp assembly, there was a lower potential for employee exposure to the hazardous chemicals. The authors recommend that the company move toward complete automation of this part of the production process. Levels of butyl-acetate should be checked as there was a strong smell of this chemical in part of the production line.

  1. Indicator methods to evaluate the hygienic performance of industrial scale operating Biowaste Composting Plants.

    PubMed

    Martens, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    The hygienic performance of biowaste composting plants to ensure the quality of compost is of high importance. Existing compost quality assurance systems reflect this importance through intensive testing of hygienic parameters. In many countries, compost quality assurance systems are under construction and it is necessary to check and to optimize the methods to state the hygienic performance of composting plants. A set of indicator methods to evaluate the hygienic performance of normal operating biowaste composting plants was developed. The indicator methods were developed by investigating temperature measurements from indirect process tests from 23 composting plants belonging to 11 design types of the Hygiene Design Type Testing System of the German Compost Quality Association (BGK e.V.). The presented indicator methods are the grade of hygienization, the basic curve shape, and the hygienic risk area. The temperature courses of single plants are not distributed normally, but they were grouped by cluster analysis in normal distributed subgroups. That was a precondition to develop the mentioned indicator methods. For each plant the grade of hygienization was calculated through transformation into the standard normal distribution. It shows the part in percent of the entire data set which meet the legal temperature requirements. The hygienization grade differs widely within the design types and falls below 50% for about one fourth of the plants. The subgroups are divided visually into basic curve shapes which stand for different process courses. For each plant the composition of the entire data set out of the various basic curve shapes can be used as an indicator for the basic process conditions. Some basic curve shapes indicate abnormal process courses which can be emended through process optimization. A hygienic risk area concept using the 90% range of variation of the normal temperature courses was introduced. Comparing the design type range of variation with the

  2. Indicator methods to evaluate the hygienic performance of industrial scale operating Biowaste Composting Plants.

    PubMed

    Martens, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    The hygienic performance of biowaste composting plants to ensure the quality of compost is of high importance. Existing compost quality assurance systems reflect this importance through intensive testing of hygienic parameters. In many countries, compost quality assurance systems are under construction and it is necessary to check and to optimize the methods to state the hygienic performance of composting plants. A set of indicator methods to evaluate the hygienic performance of normal operating biowaste composting plants was developed. The indicator methods were developed by investigating temperature measurements from indirect process tests from 23 composting plants belonging to 11 design types of the Hygiene Design Type Testing System of the German Compost Quality Association (BGK e.V.). The presented indicator methods are the grade of hygienization, the basic curve shape, and the hygienic risk area. The temperature courses of single plants are not distributed normally, but they were grouped by cluster analysis in normal distributed subgroups. That was a precondition to develop the mentioned indicator methods. For each plant the grade of hygienization was calculated through transformation into the standard normal distribution. It shows the part in percent of the entire data set which meet the legal temperature requirements. The hygienization grade differs widely within the design types and falls below 50% for about one fourth of the plants. The subgroups are divided visually into basic curve shapes which stand for different process courses. For each plant the composition of the entire data set out of the various basic curve shapes can be used as an indicator for the basic process conditions. Some basic curve shapes indicate abnormal process courses which can be emended through process optimization. A hygienic risk area concept using the 90% range of variation of the normal temperature courses was introduced. Comparing the design type range of variation with the

  3. [Constant low-frequency electrical and electromagnetic fields (biological action and hygienic evaluation)].

    PubMed

    Davydov, B I; Karpov, V N

    1982-01-01

    The literature data are used to analyze the hygienic situation when man is exposed to constant electrical and low frequency electromagnetic radiations. The spectral characteristics and intensities of electrical fields near and on the surface of the Earth generated by natural sources of electromagnetic radiations (electrical quasi-static fields, atmospheric electricity, thunderstorm charges, electromagnetic radiation emitted by the sun and galaxies) are given. They can be employed to determine man's adaptive capabilities to the frequencies described during acute and chronic irradiation. The mechanisms of biological effects of the exposures are discussed. The methods for calculating the safety levels based on the USSR radiation safety standards and the "competing frequencies" procedure proposed can be applied to the design of electrotechnical devices and evaluation of integral hazard of constant electrical and electromagnetic fields of low frequencies.

  4. Static electric and electromagnetic low-frequency fields (biological effects and hygienic assessment)

    SciTech Connect

    Davydov, B.I.; Karpov, V.N.

    1982-11-01

    The literature data are used to analyze the hygienic situation when man is exposed to constant electrical and low frequency electromagnetic radiations. The spectral characteristics and intensities of electrical fields near and on the surface of the earth generated by natural sources of electromagnetic radiations (electrical quasi-static fields, atmospheric electricity, thunderstorm charges, electromagnetic radiation emitted by the Sun and galaxies) are given. They can be employed to determine man's adaptive capabilities to the frequencies described during acute and chronic irradiation. The mechanisms of biological effects of the exposures are discussed. The methods for calculating the safety levels based on the USSR radiation safety standards and the competing frequencies procedure proposed can be applied to the design of electrotechnical devices and evaluation of integral hazard of constant electrical and electromagnetic fields of low frequencies.

  5. Evaluation of different methods to detect microbial hygiene indicators relevant in the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Hervert, C J; Alles, A S; Martin, N H; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

    2016-09-01

    It is estimated that 19% of the total food loss from retail, food service, and households comes from dairy products. A portion of this loss may be attributed to premature spoilage of products due to lapses in sanitation and postpasteurization contamination at the processing level. Bacterial groups including coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae (EB), and total gram-negative organisms represent indicators of poor sanitation or postpasteurization contamination in dairy products worldwide. Although Petrifilms (3M, St. Paul, MN) and traditional selective media are commonly used for the testing of these indicator organism groups throughout the US dairy industry, new rapid methods are also being developed. This project was designed to evaluate the ability of different methods to detect coliforms, EB, and other gram-negative organisms isolated from various dairy products and dairy processing environments. Using the Food Microbe Tracker database, a collection of 211 coliform, EB, and gram-negative bacterial isolates representing 25 genera associated with dairy products was assembled for this study. We tested the selected isolates in pure culture (at levels of approximately 15 to 300 cells/test) to evaluate the ability of 3M Coliform Petrifilm to detect coliforms, 3M Enterobacteriaceae Petrifilm, violet red bile glucose agar, and an alternative flow cytometry-based method (bioMérieux D-Count, Marcy-l'Étoile, France) to detect EB, and crystal violet tetrazolium agar to detect total gram-negative organisms. Of the 211 gram-negative isolates tested, 82% (174/211) had characteristic growth on crystal violet tetrazolium agar. Within this set of 211 gram-negative organisms, 175 isolates representing 19 EB genera were screened for detection using EB selective/differential testing methods. We observed positive results for 96% (168/175), 90% (158/175), and 86% (151/175) of EB isolates when tested on EB Petrifilm, violet red bile glucose agar, and D-Count, respectively; optimization of the

  6. Evaluation of different methods to detect microbial hygiene indicators relevant in the dairy industry.

    PubMed

    Hervert, C J; Alles, A S; Martin, N H; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

    2016-09-01

    It is estimated that 19% of the total food loss from retail, food service, and households comes from dairy products. A portion of this loss may be attributed to premature spoilage of products due to lapses in sanitation and postpasteurization contamination at the processing level. Bacterial groups including coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae (EB), and total gram-negative organisms represent indicators of poor sanitation or postpasteurization contamination in dairy products worldwide. Although Petrifilms (3M, St. Paul, MN) and traditional selective media are commonly used for the testing of these indicator organism groups throughout the US dairy industry, new rapid methods are also being developed. This project was designed to evaluate the ability of different methods to detect coliforms, EB, and other gram-negative organisms isolated from various dairy products and dairy processing environments. Using the Food Microbe Tracker database, a collection of 211 coliform, EB, and gram-negative bacterial isolates representing 25 genera associated with dairy products was assembled for this study. We tested the selected isolates in pure culture (at levels of approximately 15 to 300 cells/test) to evaluate the ability of 3M Coliform Petrifilm to detect coliforms, 3M Enterobacteriaceae Petrifilm, violet red bile glucose agar, and an alternative flow cytometry-based method (bioMérieux D-Count, Marcy-l'Étoile, France) to detect EB, and crystal violet tetrazolium agar to detect total gram-negative organisms. Of the 211 gram-negative isolates tested, 82% (174/211) had characteristic growth on crystal violet tetrazolium agar. Within this set of 211 gram-negative organisms, 175 isolates representing 19 EB genera were screened for detection using EB selective/differential testing methods. We observed positive results for 96% (168/175), 90% (158/175), and 86% (151/175) of EB isolates when tested on EB Petrifilm, violet red bile glucose agar, and D-Count, respectively; optimization of the

  7. [Improving of underground work technology at mining facilities and problems of industrial hygiene].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A; Chebotarev, A G

    1993-10-01

    Mechanization of underground works in mines has induced increased air content of dust and gas, a rise in noise and vibration, microclimate deterioration. The prevalence of occupational pulmonary diseases in mines has increased. Further efforts to improved the situation should be aimed at improvement of requirements to hygienic characteristics of the equipment, setting up of adequate conditioning and health protection measures.

  8. [Industrial hygiene studies in the production of various fibers and plastics].

    PubMed

    Spasovski, M; Khristeva, V; Gincheva, N; Stamova, N; Nasko, M

    1983-01-01

    The results from the labour-hygienic and clinical laboratory studies on working environment and workers engaged in production of polyamide (PAS) and polyacrylnitrile fibres (PAN) are summed up as well as in the production and processing of polyvinylchloride resin, polyurethan, polysterene and glass fibre laminates. The main deleterious factors in those productions are the chemical ones: caprolactam, acrylonitrile,tolyl diisocyanate, vinylchloride, styrene, etc. Noise and microclimate are the other unfavourable on-the-job factors. The concentrations of the toxic substances in the air of the working environment are pointed to be far over MAC, in spite of the new plants. Experiments are reported aiming at the determination of the real exposure of the workers - via individual sample collecting and elaboration of BMAC. The measures for the improvement of the conditions of the working environment in the production of synthetic fibres and plastics are summed up as well as the reduction of occupation risk of the workers.

  9. Can the emotion of disgust be harnessed to promote hand hygiene? Experimental and field-based tests.

    PubMed

    Porzig-Drummond, Renata; Stevenson, Richard; Case, Trevor; Oaten, Megan

    2009-03-01

    Two studies carried out in Sydney, Australia explored whether inducing disgust may be a useful addition to hand-hygiene interventions. Experiment 1 employed a novel laboratory measure of hand hygiene, and tested whether a brief (3-min) video-based intervention using disgust/education, improved hand hygiene relative to education alone and a control condition. On test, a week later, the disgust intervention significantly exceeded the education and control condition combined, although the effect size was modest. Experiment 2 examined the generality of this effect in a field study. During a baseline period, soap and paper towel use in a series of washrooms were covertly monitored. This was followed by an intervention period, in which two washrooms received disgust/education-based posters and a further two, educational posters, exhorting participants to wash their hands. A follow-up period, after the posters were removed, was also monitored. The disgust-based intervention was significantly better at promoting hand hygiene. These findings suggest that even brief disgust-based interventions may be successful and that these can be tested and developed under laboratory conditions. PMID:19181428

  10. Characterizing historical industrial hygiene data: a case study involving benzene exposures at a chemical manufacturing facility (1976-1987).

    PubMed

    Williams, Pamela R D; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2005-07-01

    This article describes how nearly 3700 air samples of benzene collected in a typical chemical manufacturing (acetic acid) facility in the United States from 1976 to 1987 were used to characterize daily time-weighted average (TWA) exposure levels. We found that those workers directly involved in manufacturing operations had likely TWA exposures to benzene of about 2.0 ppm from 1976-1981 and about 1.0 ppm from 1982-1987. These results are consistent with the improved industrial hygiene programs at chemical facilities, which often occurred following the adoption of stricter occupational exposure limits. Additionally, about 97% of all personal TWA samples had reported benzene concentrations less than 10 ppm, which was the permissible exposure limit in place prior to 1987. Because one of the primary objectives of historical workplace air sampling efforts was to understand the source of release of contaminants, a large number of short-term (typically about 1 min) area samples were also collected. Although these types of samples are often not useful for predicting human exposure without time-motion information, airborne benzene concentrations were about five- to tenfold higher for many of the short-term area samples than for the personal TWA measurements. The methodology presented here should be useful for evaluating industrial hygiene data collected after the early 1970s (after the promulgation of OSHA), and our findings support prior reports that large corporations in the United States have tended to reduce workplace exposures to airborne contaminants consistent with historical changes in occupational exposure limits.

  11. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 11. Use of antiseptics and sanitizers in community settings and issues of hand hygiene compliance in health care and food industries.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Michaels, Barry S; Bartleson, Charles A; Smith, Debra; Holah, John

    2010-12-01

    Hand washing with soap is a practice that has long been recognized as a major barrier to the spread of disease in food production, preparation, and service and in health care settings, including hospitals, child care centers, and elder care facilities. Many of these settings present multiple opportunities for spread of pathogens within at-risk populations, and extra vigilance must be applied. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is not always carried out effectively, and both enteric and respiratory diseases are easily spread in these environments. Where water is limited or frequent hand hygiene is required on a daily basis, such as for many patients in hospitals and astronauts in space travel, instant sanitizers or sanitary wipes are thought to be an effective way of preventing contamination and spread of organisms among coworkers and others. Most concerns regarding compliance are associated with the health care field, but the food industry also must be considered. Specific reasons for not washing hands at appropriate times are laziness, time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, and lack of involvement by companies, managers, and workers in supporting proper hand washing. To facilitate improvements in hand hygiene, measurement of compliant and noncompliant actions is necessary before implementing any procedural changes. Training alone is not sufficient for long-lasting improvement. Multiactivity strategies also must include modification of the organization culture to encourage safe hygienic practices, motivation of employees willing to use peer pressure on noncompliant coworkers, a reward and/or penalty system, and an operational design that facilitates regular hand hygiene.

  12. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 11. Use of antiseptics and sanitizers in community settings and issues of hand hygiene compliance in health care and food industries.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Michaels, Barry S; Bartleson, Charles A; Smith, Debra; Holah, John

    2010-12-01

    Hand washing with soap is a practice that has long been recognized as a major barrier to the spread of disease in food production, preparation, and service and in health care settings, including hospitals, child care centers, and elder care facilities. Many of these settings present multiple opportunities for spread of pathogens within at-risk populations, and extra vigilance must be applied. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is not always carried out effectively, and both enteric and respiratory diseases are easily spread in these environments. Where water is limited or frequent hand hygiene is required on a daily basis, such as for many patients in hospitals and astronauts in space travel, instant sanitizers or sanitary wipes are thought to be an effective way of preventing contamination and spread of organisms among coworkers and others. Most concerns regarding compliance are associated with the health care field, but the food industry also must be considered. Specific reasons for not washing hands at appropriate times are laziness, time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, and lack of involvement by companies, managers, and workers in supporting proper hand washing. To facilitate improvements in hand hygiene, measurement of compliant and noncompliant actions is necessary before implementing any procedural changes. Training alone is not sufficient for long-lasting improvement. Multiactivity strategies also must include modification of the organization culture to encourage safe hygienic practices, motivation of employees willing to use peer pressure on noncompliant coworkers, a reward and/or penalty system, and an operational design that facilitates regular hand hygiene. PMID:21219754

  13. Nail Hygiene

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Water, Sanitation & Environmentally-related Hygiene Note: Javascript is disabled or ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene Handwashing Keeping Hands Clean Handwashing: ...

  14. Body Hygiene

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Water, Sanitation & Environmentally-related Hygiene Note: Javascript is disabled or ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene Handwashing Keeping Hands Clean Handwashing: ...

  15. [Protection of working mothers: operational guide document. The Marche Regional Section of the Italian Society of Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene (SIMLII) ].

    PubMed

    Alessandroni, Morena; Balzani, Barbara; Cancellieri, Francesca; Colao, Annamaria; Comai, M; Elezi, Lindita; Mengucci, Rosella; Montesi, Simona; Olivi, Cinzia; Perticaroli, Patrizia; Pettinari, A; Ruschioni, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Protection of working mothers: operational guide document. The aim of this operational guide document is to protect the health of working mothers and their babies during pregnancy, puerperium and breastfeeding. The project was developed by a technical working group which included professionals in the pertinent fields from the Workplace Prevention and Safety Services of the local Vasta-2 Area of the Marche Regional Health Service:physicians, health assistants, and nurses. It is considered to be a useful tool for risk assessment at the workplace aimed at professionals who are involved, with various duties and responsibilities, in the health care of the working mother. This paper consists of two functionally related sections, "Table of risks" and "Technical specifications". In the "Table of Risks" section, the occupational hazards for women during pregnancy or postpartum were analyzed with the highest possible degree of care. To this end the technical group provided, for each occupational hazard, its own operational suggestions, in relation to legislation, current scientific knowledge and Guidelines of other Italian Regions. The Marche Regional Section of the Italian Society of Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene (SIMLII) participated in the final draft of the entire document. The second section, "Technical Specifications", illustrates the main tasks and any risks involved in the 34 manufacturing sectors most prevalent in this area. This operational guide document is intended to be the beginning of a common strategy in public health to achieve a wider field of action in promotion and information aimed at protecting the reproductive health of working mothers.

  16. Efficacy of waterless hand hygiene compared with handwashing with soap: a field study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Amy J; Boehm, Alexandria B; Mwanjali, Mathew; Davis, Jennifer

    2010-02-01

    Effective handwashing with soap requires reliable access to water supplies. However, more than three billion persons do not have household-level access to piped water. This research addresses the challenge of improving hand hygiene within water-constrained environments. The antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer, a waterless hand hygiene product, was evaluated and compared with handwashing with soap and water in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Hand sanitizer use by mothers resulted in 0.66 and 0.64 log reductions per hand of Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. In comparison, handwashing with soap resulted in 0.50 and 0.25 log reductions per hand of E. coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. Hand sanitizer was significantly better than handwashing with respect to reduction in levels of fecal streptococci (P = 0.01). The feasibility and health impacts of promoting hand sanitizer as an alternative hand hygiene option for water-constrained environments should be assessed. PMID:20134005

  17. Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene Compared with Handwashing with Soap: A Field Study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Amy J.; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Mwanjali, Mathew; Davis, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Effective handwashing with soap requires reliable access to water supplies. However, more than three billion persons do not have household-level access to piped water. This research addresses the challenge of improving hand hygiene within water-constrained environments. The antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer, a waterless hand hygiene product, was evaluated and compared with handwashing with soap and water in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Hand sanitizer use by mothers resulted in 0.66 and 0.64 log reductions per hand of Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. In comparison, handwashing with soap resulted in 0.50 and 0.25 log reductions per hand of E. coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. Hand sanitizer was significantly better than handwashing with respect to reduction in levels of fecal streptococci (P = 0.01). The feasibility and health impacts of promoting hand sanitizer as an alternative hand hygiene option for water-constrained environments should be assessed. PMID:20134005

  18. [New methodic approach to hygienic evaluation of electromagnetic energy absorption in near-field zone of irradiation source].

    PubMed

    Perov, S Yu; Bogachova, E V; Belaya, O V

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, essential objective of hygienic evaluation of electromagnetic energy absorption of mobile radio-frequency devices is specification of new approach with consideration of russian and international regulation principles. This approach enables to ealuate correctly users' actual exposure conditions and consider energy absorption by human in near-field zone of the irradiation source. The work is aimed to study applicability of hypothesis on possible relations between magnetic part of electromagnetic field and specific absorbed capacity. This hypothesis is considered a basis for designing a new methodic approach to hygienic evaluation of individual mobile communication devices in near-field zone of the source. Analysis of the data obtained demonstrates that visible difference between suggested and classic methods decreases with higher frequency. Every studied source in its near-field zone can be characterized by optimal conditions for the suggested method usage with error less than 2 dB. The study results on relations between decreasing electromagnetic energy and specific absorbed capacity value make possible further improvement of methods controlling electromagnetic field levels in assessment of personal mobile radio communication devices.

  19. Hand Hygiene: An Update.

    PubMed

    Bolon, Maureen K

    2016-09-01

    The medical field has long recognized the importance of hand hygiene in preventing health care-associated infections, yet studies indicate that this important task is performed only 40% of the time. Health care workers cite several barriers to optimal performance of hand hygiene, but the time required to perform this task is foremost among them. Introduction of alcohol-based hand rubs, bundled interventions, and incorporation of technologies designed to monitor and promote hand hygiene all represent promising advances in this field. PMID:27515139

  20. [Clinical hygienic substantiation for the individual biocorrection of ecologically dependent conditions in the critical population groups industrial areas of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Beletskaya, E N; Onul, N M; Glavatskaya, V I; Antonova, E V; Golovkova, T A

    2014-01-01

    In the article there is considered the problem of environmental and human body pollution with heavy metals, the effectiveness of individual biocorrection in critical population groups--pregnant females and children residing in technologically contaminated areas. It was established that, in spite of the correspondence of the content of abiotic heavy metals to their MACs in the environment, the concentration of lead and cadmium in the internal environment of the organism is 1,6-15,4 times larger than physiological norms and accompanied by substantial deficiency of essential trace elements. The similar situation in children was proved to cause the fall in mental capacity and learning ability, in pregnant females--to various complications. The obtained results were the scientific substantiation for the feasibility of performing of biocorrection for trace elements imbalance and ecologically dependent conditions in the population of the industrial region, proved its high clinical and hygienic efficiency, which is the basis for the wide introduction of pectin containing preparations with the aim to enforce the health, prevent ecologically dependent conditions and increasing the adaptive capacity of the organism.

  1. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Task III, Demonstration plant safety, industrial hygiene, and major disaster plan (Deliverable No. 35)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-03-01

    This Health and Safety Plan has been adopted by the IFG Demonstration Plant managed by Memphis Light, Gas and Water at Memphis, Tennessee. The plan encompasses the following areas of concern: Safety Plan Administration, Industrial Health, Industrial Safety, First Aid, Fire Protection (including fire prevention and control), and Control of Safety Related Losses. The primary objective of this plan is to achieve adequate control of all potentially hazardous activities to assure the health and safety of all employees and eliminate lost work time to both the employees and the company. The second objective is to achieve compliance with all Federal, state and local laws, regulations and codes. Some thirty specific safe practice instruction items are included.

  2. [Nature and hygienic importance of industrial dust from the high-temperature processing of quartz].

    PubMed

    Lukanova, R; Duneva, G; Tsvetanova, T

    1987-01-01

    The study aims at assessing, according to the physiochemical indices for silicosogenicity of the dusts, the risk of industrial aerosols of condensed SiO2, entailing the production of quartz glass in plant "Lenin" - Sliven and of ferrosilicon in plant "Kremikovci". The evaluation is done according to the present norms for quartz in this country (State Gazette No. 61/1977), accepted temporary on the basis of foreign experiment and as norms for condensed SiO2. The quantitative determination of free SiO2 in dusts is performed after infrared spectrophotometric method. In most of the studied processes on both working places pollution above the norm is registered with total and fine dust and condensed SiO2. In order to specify the silicogenicity of the respective dusts a study is to be carried out according to biological indices. PMID:2831533

  3. Cumulative Retrospective Exposure Assessment (REA) as a predictor of amphibole asbestos lung burden: validation procedures and results for industrial hygiene and pathology estimates

    PubMed Central

    Roggli, Victor L.; Boelter, Fred W.; Rasmuson, Eric J.; Redinger, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Context A detailed evaluation of the correlation and linearity of industrial hygiene retrospective exposure assessment (REA) for cumulative asbestos exposure with asbestos lung burden analysis (LBA) has not been previously performed, but both methods are utilized for case-control and cohort studies and other applications such as setting occupational exposure limits. Objective (a) To correlate REA with asbestos LBA for a large number of cases from varied industries and exposure scenarios; (b) to evaluate the linearity, precision, and applicability of both industrial hygiene exposure reconstruction and LBA; and (c) to demonstrate validation methods for REA. Methods A panel of four experienced industrial hygiene raters independently estimated the cumulative asbestos exposure for 363 cases with limited exposure details in which asbestos LBA had been independently determined. LBA for asbestos bodies was performed by a pathologist by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and free asbestos fibers by SEM. Precision, reliability, correlation and linearity were evaluated via intraclass correlation, regression analysis and analysis of covariance. Plaintiff’s answers to interrogatories, work history sheets, work summaries or plaintiff’s discovery depositions that were obtained in court cases involving asbestos were utilized by the pathologist to provide a summarized brief asbestos exposure and work history for each of the 363 cases. Results Linear relationships between REA and LBA were found when adjustment was made for asbestos fiber-type exposure differences. Significant correlation between REA and LBA was found with amphibole asbestos lung burden and mixed fiber-types, but not with chrysotile. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for the precision of the industrial hygiene rater cumulative asbestos exposure estimates and the precision of repeated laboratory analysis were found to be in the excellent range. The ICC estimates were performed

  4. [Hygienic assessment of the water quality of water reservoirs in regions with developed petrochemical and petroleum refining industries].

    PubMed

    Suleĭmanov, R A

    1996-01-01

    The pollution intensity of the Belay River was studied in different periods of petroleum refining processes over many years. The extent of river pollution was determined. The calculated complex indices for river pollution allow one to make hygienic ranging of the river by the basic hazard indices.

  5. Hygiene Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Who wants to worry about whether their underarms smell, anyway? Read below for information on some hygiene ... Your feet and genitals might also have new smells. The best way to keep clean is to ...

  6. [Hygienic evaluation and prediction of population morbidity in the region of the Karachaganak field].

    PubMed

    Kenesariev, U I; Erzhanova, A E; Amrin, M K; Kenesary, D U; Dosmukhametov, A T; Baĭmukhamedov, A A

    2013-01-01

    The state of pollution of the environment in the area of operation of the Karachaganak oil and gas field depends on the development and operation of oil and gas objects. According to the analysis of retrospective studies, periods of the increase in air pollution have two peaks occurring in 1990 and 1997. However, these negative environmental moments are significantly different. In 1990, due to a sharp increase in the production of hydrocarbon crude, as well as the low efficiency of gas cleaning devices air pollution has increased significantly. The second period was characterized by a slight increase in the concentration of nitrogen dioxide only that was directly connected to the introduction of new technologies reducing environmental pollution. At the same time, the average population morbidity rate in settlement Berezovka is 336.8 cases per 1,000 surveyed, which is lower in 1.6 times than the reference data in the control townships. The leading place in the structure of morbidity are taken by digestive diseases, respiratory diseases and diseases of the nervous system, diseases of the eye and its appendages, diseases of the genitourinary system, diseases of the circulatory system, accounting for 87.6% of all diseases of the surveyed residents of settlement Berezovka. There was shown a multi-dimensional model of the dependence of general population morbidity in settlement Berezovka on the concentration of SO2 and NO2 in air. Also found depending on the influence of the concentrations of H2S, SO2 and NO2 in the air on the population on basic classes of diseases.

  7. Characteristics of a Model Industrial Technology Education Field Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Phillip R.; Kozak, Michael R.

    1986-01-01

    This report contains selected findings from a research project that investigated field experiences in industrial technology education. Funded by the Texas Education Agency, the project addressed the identification of characteristics of a model field experience in industrial technology education. This was accomplished using the Delphi technique.…

  8. Industrial hygiene walk-through survey report of E. I. Dupont de Nemours and Company, Inc. , Chocolate Bayou Plant, Alvin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Fajen, J.M.

    1985-05-01

    A walkthrough survey of EI duPont deNemours and Company, Incorporated, Alvin, Texas was conducted in November, 1984. The purpose of the survey was to obtain information on the 1,3-butadiene monomer manufacturing process and the potential for exposure. The facility manufactured a crude product stream containing 1,3-butadiene as a coproduct of its ethylene process. The crude was refined to a 99.5% 1,3-butadiene product. The refining process occurred in a closed system, tightly maintained for economic, fire, and health-hazard reasons. The product was transferred by way of a pipeline to storage spheres for later transport off site. The facility used an open-loop cylinder (bomb) technique for quality control sampling. All pumps were equipped with single mechanical seals, which were in the process of being replaced by tandem seals. Since 1962, the facility had experienced process changes and three changes of ownership. Because of these changes, records from previous owners of industrial hygiene monitoring were not available. Job titles identified as having potential exposure were processors, wage employee supervisors, production engineers, and laboratory technicians. The author concludes that a closed-loop manual quality-control sampling system should be installed to reduce exposure from this source.

  9. Industrial-hygiene report, walk-through survey, papaya packing/shipping facilities, Hilo, Hawaii, July 1983. [Ethylene dibromide exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Clapp, D.

    1983-07-01

    Worker exposure to ethylene dibromide (EDB) was investigated at three papaya packing and shipping facilities in Hilo, Hawaii. Breathing-zone samples were collected in the three facilities over a three day period. Blind spikes were submitted as a control on time and temperature effects. Blank samples were also prepared. Spike results reflected the effects of time and temperature in shipment from Hawaii to Massachusetts. All spikes were roughly comparable and showed a recovery of about 68%. Overnight laboratory results were adjusted upward by 72% and NIOSH laboratory results by 68%. Six out of 38 samples exceeded the NIOSH recommended amount of 130 ppb. The author concludes that there is a chronic, low-concentration exposure to EDB for all workers in the papaya industry in Hilo. An epidemiological study of reproductive and cytogenetic effects of EDB exposure on these workers is recommended.

  10. Development of microbiological field methodology for water and food-chain hygiene analysis of Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia spp. in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Hakalehto, Elias; Nyholm, Outi; Bonkoungou, Isidore J O; Kagambega, Assèta; Rissanen, Kari; Heitto, Anneli; Barro, Nicolas; Haukka, Kaisa

    2014-09-01

    Field-adaptable research methods for identifying Campylobacter sp., Yersinia sp. and other pathogenic and indicator bacteria were designed in Finland and tested in Burkina Faso. Several bacterial groups were also validated from artificially contaminated samples. Campylobacter strains were cultivated using an innovative gas generation system: The 'Portable Microbe Enrichment Unit' (PMEU) which provides microaerobic gas flow into the enrichment broth. This enhanced cultivation system produced rapid growth of several isolates of campylobacteria from water and chicken samples. The latter were obtained from local marketplace samples. No yersinias were found in the field studies, whereas they were readily recovered from the spiked samples, as well as Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli strains. The PMEU method turned out to be reliable for monitoring of water and food hygiene in remote locations. PMID:25156815

  11. Gender and the hygiene hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Clough, Sharyn

    2011-02-01

    The hygiene hypothesis offers an explanation for the correlation, well-established in the industrialized nations of North and West, between increased hygiene and sanitation, and increased rates of asthma and allergies. Recent studies have added to the scope of the hypothesis, showing a link between decreased exposure to certain bacteria and parasitic worms, and increased rates of depression and intestinal auto-immune disorders, respectively. What remains less often discussed in the research on these links is that women have higher rates than men of asthma and allergies, as well as many auto-immune disorders, and also depression. The current paper introduces a feminist understanding of gender socialization to the epidemiological and immunological picture. That standards of cleanliness are generally higher for girls than boys, especially under the age of five when children are more likely to be under close adult supervision, is a robust phenomenon in industrialized nations, and some research points to a cross-cultural pattern. I conclude that, insofar as the hygiene hypothesis successfully identifies standards of hygiene and sanitation as mediators of immune health, then attention to the relevant patterns of gender socialization is important. The review also makes clear that adding a feminist analysis of gender socialization to the hygiene hypothesis helps explain variation in morbidity rates not addressed by other sources and responds to a number of outstanding puzzles in current research. Alternative explanations for the sex differences in the relevant morbidity rates are also discussed (e.g., the effects of estrogens). Finally, new sources of evidence for the hygiene hypothesis are suggested in the form of cross-cultural and other natural experiments. PMID:21195519

  12. Tsunamis: Sanitation and Hygiene

    MedlinePlus

    ... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Tsunamis: Sanitation and Hygiene Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... your family by following these steps Hygiene and Sanitation From the CDC Water-Related Emergencies and Outbreaks ...

  13. Clothing and personal hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finogenov, A. M.; Azhayev, A. N.; Kaliberdin, G. V.

    1975-01-01

    The biomedical maintenance of astronauts is discussed in terms of personal hygiene. Principal characteristics and general requirements are described which must be followed in perfecting a system of hygienic practices and in devising means to maintain personal hygiene, flight clothing, underwear, bedding, and medical-domestic equipment for manned space flights of varying durations. Factors discussed include: disposable clothing, thermal protection, oral hygiene, cleansing of the skin, and grooming of the hair.

  14. Work in the Healthcare Field: Artisanal or Industrial Models?

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    This text analyzes work within the health field and the differences and similarities with artisanal and industrial work models. In this framework, we consider the object of work, the worker, the work process, relational and organizational aspects, industrial logics, and ways of acquiring knowledge, influence of the general management theory, the role of language, symbolic aspects and enjoyment. The humanizing elements that care work maintains as a type of artisanal work are highlighted, and the costs, not just economic, of reducing care work to industrial logics, with a subsequent depersonalization of the process not just for the worker but also for the user, health teams, health institutions, and social groups are discussed.

  15. Operation and design of selected industrial process heat field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, D. W.

    1981-02-01

    The DOE program of solar industrial process heat field tests has shown solar energy to be compatible with numerous industrial needs. Both the operational projects and the detailed designs of systems that are not yet operational have resulted in valuable insights into design and hardware practice. Typical of these insights are the experiences discussed for the four projects reviewed. Future solar IPH systems should benefit greatly not only from the availability of present information, but also from the wealth of operating experience from projects due to start up in 1981.

  16. [Evaluation of air hygiene in health resorts].

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, H G

    1990-10-01

    Concerning the maintenance and restoration of health in patients being subjected to health resort treatment, the spas play an important role. Therefore, legal provisions in this field establish the elimination of unfavourable environmental conditions, as air pollution, for instance. The geographical situation of a health resort exercises influences on its air quality considered in terms of hygiene. This is linked with different atmospheric and bioclimatic conditions in various regions. The major source of air pollution in a health resort is represented by housing and the communal area, by traffic on the roads and partly by industry. Instructions for measuring and evaluating of pollutants are given. Furthermore, various possibilities for improving the air quality in health resorts are mentioned.

  17. [Measurement and hygienic evaluation of electromagnetic fields in the environment of diathermy, welding machines and induction heaters].

    PubMed

    Aniołczyk, H

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of electromagnetic field intensity at work-stations, as well as in the environment of 36 induction heaters, 24 welders and 6 diathermies have been taken. Maximum values of field E intensity at the work-stations with induction heaters ranged from below 2 V/m to 96 V/m, and for field H -- from below 0.5 A/m to 8.2 A/m. Maximum values of field E intensity at the work-stations with welders ranged from 25 V/m to 480 V/m. And Maximum values of field E with diathermy exceeded 300 V/m near electrodes. At the work-station of medical staff operating diathermy, the field intensity values ranged from 5.1 to 16 V/m. Basing on the obtained values of the e-m intensity at work-stations and in the environment of the mentioned instruments, protective zones ranges have been determined: intermediate, weerning and dangerous. In addition, effective e-m field exposure duration, at specific instruments, has been determined.

  18. Dental hygiene in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Luciak-Donsberger, C; Krizanová, M

    2004-08-01

    This article reports on the development of the dental hygiene profession in Slovakia from a global perspective. The aim is to inform about current developments and to examine, how access to qualified dental hygiene care might be improved and how professional challenges might be met. For an international study on dental hygiene, secondary source data were obtained from members of the House of Delegates of the International Federation of Dental Hygienists (IFDH) or by fax and e-mail from experts involved in the national professional and educational organization of dental hygiene in non-IFDH member countries, such as Slovakia. Responses were followed-up by interviews, e-mail correspondence, visits to international universities, and a review of supporting studies and reference literature. Results show that the introduction of dental hygiene in Slovakia in 1992 was inspired by the delivery of preventive care in Switzerland. Initiating local dentists and dental hygienists strive to attain a high educational level, equitable to that of countries in which dental hygiene has an established tradition of high quality care. Low access to qualified dental hygiene care may be a result of insufficient funding for preventive services, social and cultural lack of awareness of the benefits of preventive care, and of limitations inherent in the legal constraints preventing unsupervised dental hygiene practice. These may be a result of gender politics affecting a female-dominated profession and of a perception that dental hygiene is auxiliary to dental care. International comparison show that of all Eastern European countries, the dental hygiene profession appears most advanced in Slovakia. This is expressed in high evidence-based academic goals, in extensive work with international consultants from the Netherlands and Switzerland, in annual congresses of high professional quality, and in the establishment of a profession, which has not been introduced in all Western EU countries

  19. [Hygienic evaluation of environment, morbidity among pregnant women and newborns within social hygienic monitoring system].

    PubMed

    Kuz'min, D V

    2014-01-01

    Hygienic evaluation covered health state of pregnant women and newborns, subjected to chemical pollution of environment by aluminium industrial enterprises. The data obtained helped to suggest methodic approach to selection of priority territories, environmental and health state parameters within social hygienic monitoring system, to form recommendations on creation of system supporting management decisions to lower negative influence of chemical environmental factors on health of pregnant women and newborns.

  20. Preliminary operational results of the industrial process heat field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.; Davenport, R.

    1980-04-01

    There are currently six DOE-funded solar industrial process heat (IPH) field tests which have been operational for one year or longer. These are all low temperature first generation projects which supply heat at temperatures below 100/sup 0/C - three hot water and three hot air. During the 1979 calendar year, personnel from the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) visited all of these sites; the performance and cost results obtained for each project and the operational problems encountered at each site are discussed.

  1. The Hygiene Games.

    PubMed

    Klein, Frederic; Severijns, Cassandra; Albiez, Daniela; Seljutin, Eugen; Jovanović, Marko; Eyvazi Hesar, Milad

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the correlation of hospital acquired infections and insufficient hand hygiene, we propose a supportive system to enhance the individual hygiene habits of health care workers. By applying gamification to incentivize health care professionals while maintaining a high standard of privacy and usability, the system focuses on technical simplicity by using concepts like bring your own device in a scaleable proof of concept implementation. PMID:27332297

  2. Personal hygiene and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    PubMed

    Turabelidze, George; Lin, Mei; Wolkoff, Barbara; Dodson, Douglas; Gladbach, Stephen; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2006-03-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections outside the healthcare setting are an increasing concern. We conducted a case-control study to investigate an MRSA outbreak during 2002-2003 in a Missouri prison and focused on hygiene factors. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, and hygiene practices of study participants was collected by interview and medical record review. Logistic regression was used to evaluate MRSA infection in relation to hygiene factors individually and as a composite hygiene score; potential confounding factors were controlled. Selected MRSA isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). MRSA infection was significantly associated with a low composite hygiene score. Transmission among prison inmates appeared to be responsible for this outbreak. PFGE analysis showed that isolates were indistinguishable and associated with community-onset MRSA infections in other US prisons. Improving hygiene practices and environmental conditions may help prevent and interrupt future MRSA outbreaks in prison settings. PMID:16704779

  3. Applied fields for energy conservation, water treatment, and industrial applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reimers, R.S.; Bock, S.F.; White, L.E.

    1986-06-01

    A detailed evaluation was performed on the use of applied fields (nonionizing radiations, ultrasound, magnetic fields, etc.) for industrial waste treatment, wastewater treatment, and disinfection. Other industrial uses of applied fields and biological considerations were also studied. The evaluation was conducted in the following phases: literature review and personal contacts, papers from field and laboratory professionals, and a workshop with contributed papers. (DLC)

  4. Increasing hygiene productivity.

    PubMed

    Levin, Roger P

    2003-03-01

    Dentists have many opportunities to expand the role of dental hygienists and provide patients with better oral health care, while increasing production and profits. But the proper business systems and verbal skills need to be incorporated. You must train hygienists to do all they can do for every patient. Begin with one service and add others, as the hygienists becomes familiar with each one. Set a goal of a 15% increase in production per year for the hygiene department. Clinicians using these strategies have experienced as much as a 100% to 200% increase in hygiene revenue during the first year of incorporating these services. An added benefit is that these dentists often see a substantial increase in dental treatment diagnosis and case acceptance. An effective and efficient hygiene department will often identify and help secure more than 50% of a doctor's production.

  5. Hygiene Fast Facts: Information on Water-Related Hygiene

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Water, Sanitation & Environmentally-related Hygiene Note: Javascript is disabled or ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene Handwashing Keeping Hands Clean Handwashing: ...

  6. Hygiene Etiquette: Coughing and Sneezing

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Water, Sanitation & Environmentally-related Hygiene Note: Javascript is disabled or ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene Handwashing Keeping Hands Clean Handwashing: ...

  7. Accreditation in Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Accrediting, Washington, DC.

    The Council on Dental Education cooperates with the American Dental Hygienists' Association in developing educational requirements for schools of dental hygiene. To be eligible for accreditation, schools must operate on a non-profit basis. A school applying for accreditation completes a previsitation questionnaire concerning its program. The…

  8. Chemical hygiene plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This plan was written to administer and monitor safety measures and chemical hygiene principles in the TAC Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action Project sample preparation facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It applies to toxic and/or hazardous materials to radioactive materials.

  9. Prospectus for Dental Hygiene. April 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Hygienists' Association, Chicago, IL.

    A prospectus providing a rational basis for decision and action in the field of dental hygiene is presented, noting that all occupations are obliged to assess their value to society and take whatever actions are indicated to fulfill their social contract. A philosophical and conceptual foundation for change is examined. Three chapters focus on the…

  10. History of dental hygiene research.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Denise M

    2013-01-01

    Dental hygiene is defined as the science and practice of the recognition, treatment and prevention of oral diseases. The history of dental hygiene research is considered in the context of the development of the discipline and an emerging infrastructure. Research-related events supporting the growth and maturation of the profession are considered from the early years to the most recent. The benefits of preventive oral health services provided by dental hygienists have been supported by research, and the practice of dental hygiene has expanded as a result of research findings since its inception 100 years ago. Dental hygienists' engagement in research, however, did not begin until the 1960s as research associates or administrators, primarily with dental researchers as primary investigators. The Journal of Dental Hygiene (JDH) has provided information for dental hygiene practice since 1927, and has been the primary venue for dissemination of dental hygiene research since 1945. Graduate education in dental hygiene at the master's degree level and the work of early dental hygiene researchers led to the first conference on dental hygiene research in 1982. Over 30 years later, dental hygiene has established a meta-paradigm and defined conceptual models, built an initial infrastructure to support research endeavors and contributed much to the development of dental hygiene as a unique discipline. A doctoral degree in the discipline, continued theory-based research, initiatives to foster collaborations between dental hygiene and other researchers and enhanced capabilities to attract funding to support large scale studies are goals that must be attained through the efforts of future researchers to address the needs for additional development in the discipline of dental hygiene. Dental hygiene research supports the growing discipline and its value to society. PMID:24046337

  11. History of dental hygiene research.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Denise M

    2013-01-01

    Dental hygiene is defined as the science and practice of the recognition, treatment and prevention of oral diseases. The history of dental hygiene research is considered in the context of the development of the discipline and an emerging infrastructure. Research-related events supporting the growth and maturation of the profession are considered from the early years to the most recent. The benefits of preventive oral health services provided by dental hygienists have been supported by research, and the practice of dental hygiene has expanded as a result of research findings since its inception 100 years ago. Dental hygienists' engagement in research, however, did not begin until the 1960s as research associates or administrators, primarily with dental researchers as primary investigators. The Journal of Dental Hygiene (JDH) has provided information for dental hygiene practice since 1927, and has been the primary venue for dissemination of dental hygiene research since 1945. Graduate education in dental hygiene at the master's degree level and the work of early dental hygiene researchers led to the first conference on dental hygiene research in 1982. Over 30 years later, dental hygiene has established a meta-paradigm and defined conceptual models, built an initial infrastructure to support research endeavors and contributed much to the development of dental hygiene as a unique discipline. A doctoral degree in the discipline, continued theory-based research, initiatives to foster collaborations between dental hygiene and other researchers and enhanced capabilities to attract funding to support large scale studies are goals that must be attained through the efforts of future researchers to address the needs for additional development in the discipline of dental hygiene. Dental hygiene research supports the growing discipline and its value to society.

  12. Chemical Hygiene Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayor, Antoinette C.

    1999-01-01

    The Chemical Management Team is responsible for ensuring compliance with the OSHA Laboratory Standard. The program at Lewis Research Center (LeRC) evolved over many years to include training, developing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPS) for each laboratory process, coordinating with other safety and health organizations and teams at the Center, and issuing an SOP binder. The Chemical Hygiene Policy was first established for the Center. The Chemical Hygiene Plan was established and reviewed by technical, laboratory and management for viability and applicability to the Center. A risk assessment was conducted for each laboratory. The laboratories were prioritized by order of risk, higher risk taking priority. A Chemical Management Team staff member interviewed the lead researcher for each laboratory process to gather the information needed to develop the SOP for the process. A binder containing the Chemical Hygiene Plan, the SOP, a map of the laboratory identifying the personal protective equipment and best egress, and glove guides, as well as other guides for safety and health. Each laboratory process has been captured in the form of an SOP. The chemicals used in the procedure have been identified and the information is used to reduce the number of chemicals in the lab. The Chemical Hygiene Plan binder is used as a training tool for new employees. LeRC is in compliance with the OSHA Standard. The program was designed to comply with the OSHA standard. In the process, we have been able to assess the usage of chemicals in the laboratories, as well as reduce or relocate the chemicals being stored in the laboratory. Our researchers are trained on the hazards of the materials they work with and have a better understanding of the hazards of the process and what is needed to prevent any incident. From the SOP process, we have been able to reduce our chemical inventory, determine and implement better hygiene procedures and equipment in the laboratories, and provide

  13. [Scientific approaches to modernization of the regulatory framework in the field of hygiene of planning and building of settlements in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Makhnyuk, V M

    2014-01-01

    In the paper there are investigated and analyzed the new laws and regulations of sanitary and town planning legislation, introduced in 2011-2012 which concern issues of planning and building of settlements. It is established that the functions of the State for Sanitary and Epidemiological Oversight have been given up and the necessity of incorporation in the Law of Ukraine "On ensuring sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population" alterations which touch upon the implementation of a new approach to the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Oversight of the objects, namely for the placement of objects with low and moderate epidemic risk accordingly to hygienic declarations, objects with high risk--using an approach directed to the risk assessment of the impact of such facilities on public health.

  14. Field survey analysis of the public's cognition on the new energy industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Q. F.; Song, Y.

    2016-08-01

    The public enjoy an important role in the development of China's new energy industry. However, the role has not attracted sufficient attention. By the way of field investigation, the paper acquired the first hand data of the public cognition on the China's new energy industry. Survey data showed that the public enjoyed awareness of China's new energy industry to some extent. And the public had optimistic expectations on the future development of new energy industry. Moreover, there were obvious differences in the degree of public's familiarity with different new energy varieties. The education level and age of the individual public had a significant impact on his awareness of China's new energy industry. To raise public participation in China's new energy industry, it entailed highlighting the status of the public in China's new energy industry, increasing the publicity of the new energy industry with different measures for different types of public group.

  15. [Hygienic aspects of the hot water supply].

    PubMed

    Dergacheva, T S

    1991-08-01

    Hygienic significance of hot water-supply was demonstrated. In the case of the sanitary inspection deficiency it may be the complaints appearance. Hygiene of hot water-supply seems as an independent scientific branch of hygiene. PMID:1937089

  16. Clinical Guidelines. Dental Hygiene Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Bonnie

    This manual contains information concerning the policies and procedures of the Southern Illinois University-Carbondale Dental Hygiene Clinic. The manual is presented in a question/answer format for the information and convenience of dental hygiene students in the program, and is intended to answer their questions concerning clinical policies and…

  17. Home hygiene: a risk approach.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Sally F

    2003-01-01

    The need to place "prevention through hygiene" at the core of strategies for infection prevention has been emphasised by recent events. Indications are that re-evaluation of current practice and the promotion of improved hygiene in the domestic setting could have a significant impact in reducing infectious disease. If the public are to play a part however they must be properly informed. Encouraging the concept of the home as a setting in which the whole range of activities occur, including food hygiene, personal hygiene and hygiene related to medical care, provides the opportunity for a rational approach to home hygiene based on risk assessment. In the home surfaces (including hand surfaces) and other sites play an important part in the transmission of infection, especially food-borne infections. From an assessment of the frequency of occurrence of pathogens and potential pathogens at reservoirs, disseminators and hand and food contact sites together with the potential for transfer within the home, the risks of exposure can be assessed. This can be used to develop a rational approach in which effective hygiene procedures involving cleaning and disinfection as appropriate are targeted at these sites to reduce risks of cross contamination. This approach is consistent with the view that good home hygiene is not about "getting rid of household germs" but about targeting hygiene measures appropriately to reduce exposure to germs and thereby prevent cross infection. In motivating change, education programmes must take account of concerns related to antimicrobial resistance, the environment and the "health" of the immune system. PMID:12621897

  18. Space Station personal hygiene study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prejean, Stephen E.; Booher, Cletis R.

    1986-01-01

    A personal hygiene system is currently under development for Space Station application that will provide capabilities equivalent to those found on earth. This paper addresses the study approach for specifying both primary and contingency personal hygiene systems and provisions for specified growth. Topics covered are system definition and subsystem descriptions. Subsystem interfaces are explored to determine which concurrent NASA study efforts must be monitored during future design phases to stay up-to-date on critical Space Station parameters. A design concept for a three (3) compartment personal hygiene facility is included as a baseline for planned test and verification activities.

  19. Reading Teacher's Text Selection for Industrial Arts and Other Technical Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matt, Stephen R.

    To provide learners with the most reliable information, individuals and committees responsible for text selection examine texts for classroom use in steps. Since very few people have the specialized knowledge of all the technical fields like drafting, electronics, or graphics that make up the field of Industrial Arts, a committee is required to…

  20. An industrial light-field camera applied for 3D velocity measurements in a slot jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredkin, A. V.; Shestakov, M. V.; Tokarev, M. P.

    2016-10-01

    Modern light-field cameras have found their application in different areas like photography, surveillance and quality control in industry. A number of studies have been reported relatively low spatial resolution of 3D profiles of registered objects along the optical axis of the camera. This article describes a method for 3D velocity measurements in fluid flows using an industrial light-field camera and an alternative reconstruction algorithm based on a statistical approach. This method is more accurate than triangulation when applied for tracking small registered objects like tracer particles in images. The technique was used to measure 3D velocity fields in a turbulent slot jet.

  1. Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

    2008-01-01

    Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

  2. Hand hygiene knowledge of college students.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J Kyle; Basco, Roselyne; Zaied, Aya; Ward, Chelsea

    2010-01-01

    An observational study was conducted to evaluate hygiene habits of students with fields of study, gender, and understanding of hygiene at a university in Alabama. One hundred students were randomly observed in ten restrooms on campus to determine whether or not students washed their hands. The study was divided into an observational stage, a quiz to ascertain student's knowledge of hygiene and the spread of pathogens, and a survey of self-reported illness rates. Females had a tendency to wash their hands more often than males while visiting the bathroom (p = 0.02, chi2 = 11.6). Science majors were more likely to wash their hands than non-science majors (p < or = 0.001, chi2 = 5.2). Females (p < or = 0.0001, df = 98, F = 21.5) and science majors (p < or = 0.0001, df = 98, F = 81.4) scored significantly higher on the survey than males and nonscience majors, and that those observed not washing their hands reported being sick more often than those observed washing their hands (chi2 = 155.0, df= 3, p < 0.001, Fisher's exact p < 0.001). PMID:20499532

  3. [Hygienic assessment of waste of soda production].

    PubMed

    Samutin, N M; Vaisman, Y I; Rudakova, L V; Kalinina, E V; Glushankova, I S; Batrakova, G M

    2013-01-01

    The object of investigations was soda industry waste. Slimes are formed at slimes storage which occupy considerable areas and are considered to be the source of permanent impact on the hydrosphere objects. Slimes storage placement within settlement boundaries and water protection zone of large watercourses leads to the deterioration of sanitary, hygienic and environmental situation and to the rising of risks to health of communities. Waste processing with getting new materials on the base of soda industry waste with wide application is seems to be one of the way for problem solving. It is essential to take into account sanitary and hygienic characteristics of slimes within justifying possible directions of its use. Thus, researches concerning assessment of physical, chemical and toxicological waste characteristics are considered to be actual. The aim of researches is to examine physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of soda production slimes for justifying directions of its use including delivery of new materials respondent to the all regulatory sanitary and hygienic requirements. Experimental investigations of assessment physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of slimes were carried out according to standard methods. Within assessment of toxicological slimes characteristics the following test-objects were used: Ceriodaphnia affinis, Paramecium caudatum. As a result of investigations watered slime samples were determined to be referred to the 4th hazard level (low-hazard) waste; samples with preliminary mechanical dehydration are referred to the 5th hazard level (practically nonhazardous) waste for environment. These are correspond to the 3rd and 4th hazard level according to sanitary regulations, respectively.

  4. Curriculum Guidelines for Periodontics for Dental Hygiene Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    American Association of Dental Schools guidelines consist of an introduction to the field and its interrelationships with other fields of dental hygiene; an overview of the curriculum; outlines of primary educational goals, prerequisites, and specific content-related and clinical behavioral objectives; and recommendations concerning sequencing,…

  5. Hygiene at work: An engineering perspective on the development of hygiene science

    PubMed Central

    Pityn, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    The present article examines the work of contemporary hygiene practitioners. Discussion converges from a broad examination of hygiene at work in our society serving the common good to occupational hygiene in the workplace. The article considers the expanding role of hygiene today, juxtaposed against the lack of awareness and perceptions of hygiene. It considers some of the current social challenges facing hygiene, perceptions of risk and problems specifically encountered by occupational hygienists. PMID:19352447

  6. Systemic mistakes in hand hygiene practice in Ukraine: detection, consequences and ways of elimination

    PubMed Central

    Klymenko, Iryna; Kampf, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Every year, millions of people around the world suffer from different infectious diseases, considerable part of which are hospital-acquired infections. WHO considers hand hygiene as a priority measure aimed to reduce the level of infection. We evaluated various aspects related to the situational behavior and prioritization regarding hand hygiene measures among the healthcare workers of Ukraine. Method: Identification of system mistakes in hand hygiene was carried out first of all by direct and indirect observation of the activities of medical and pharmaceutical personnel in their everyday practice as well as during their participation in trainings on routine hand hygiene. Questionnaires also were used to estimate the level of hand hygiene compliance of participants of the study. During this period 112 training courses, 315 master-classes and presentations on proper hand hygiene were realized. The target audience included health care workers of medical centers, clinics, maternity hospitals, health care organizations and staff of pharmacies and pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises in all regions of Ukraine. 638 respondents took part in anonymous survey on hand hygiene practice. Results: The most common mistakes were to regard hand washing and hand disinfection equally, to wash hands before doing a hand disinfection, to neglect the five moments for hand hygiene and to ignore hand hygiene before and after wearing protective gloves. Practitioners, medical attendants, pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry workers highlighted the need for practical and understandable instructions of various hand hygiene procedures, including the clarification of the possible technical mistakes. This became a ground for us to create individual master classes on hand hygiene for each cluster of healthcare workers. Conclusions: Changing hand hygiene behavior and attitude is possible by beginning to observe clinical practice and by involving healthcare workers in teaching and training

  7. [Hygienic problems in dumping, composting and incineration of urban refuse].

    PubMed

    Knoll, K H

    1983-09-01

    Hygiene of waste disposal embraces all preventive measures which ensure an unobjectionable and, wherever possible final elimination of all sorts of urban refuse. As the hazards to our environment largely result from unsolved waste disposal problems in residential areas and congested industrial zones, such disposal measures are increasingly given priority. In view of the decreasing resources, the methods of waste disposal must also allow for the possibility of recycling of waste material. With respect to what is objectionable hygienically, differences exist in infectiousness and toxicity between solid and sludy refuse. For this reason the necessary treatment methods and the procedures for collection, treatment, elimination, and exploitation must comply with the various requirements of hygiene. From the hygienic point of view, waste disposal commences already with the collection of refuse and ends with its final elimination. Such a complete appreciation of hygienic parameters necessarily leads to waste disposal procedures which are innocuous to our environment. The importance of innocuous waste disposal is, however, not restricted to the prevention of epidemics and infectious diseases. Even abiogenous noxa in urban refuse are likely to threaten the environment in a direct or indirect manner.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6649992

  8. Field Testing: Independent, Accredited Testing and Validation for the Wind Industry (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    This fact sheet describes the field testing capabilities at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). NREL's specialized facilities and personnel at the NWTC provide the U.S. wind industry with scientific and engineering support that has proven critical to the development of wind energy for U.S. energy needs. The NWTC's specialized field-testing capabilities have evolved over 30 years of continuous support by the U.S. Department of Energy Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program and long standing industry partnerships. The NWTC provides wind industry manufacturers, developers, and operators with turbine and component testing all in one convenient location. Although industry utilizes sophisticated modeling tools to design and optimize turbine configurations, there are always limitations in modeling capabilities, and testing is a necessity to ensure performance and reliability. Designs require validation and testing is the only way to determine if there are flaws. Prototype testing is especially important in capturing manufacturing flaws that might require fleet-wide retrofits. The NWTC works with its industry partners to verify the performance and reliability of wind turbines that range in size from 400 Watts to 3 megawatts. Engineers conduct tests on components and full-scale turbines in laboratory environments and in the field. Test data produced from these tests can be used to validate turbine design codes and simulations that further advance turbine designs.

  9. Engineering and Industrial Fields. Revised Summary Report: Technical Employment in Northeast Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William E.; And Others

    The document is one of five summary reports, all part of a Pre-Technical Curriculum Planning Project for secondary students who aspire to technical employment or post secondary technical education. This report represents the results of an assessment of the northeast Florida area's technical occupations in engineering and industrial fields. A…

  10. Field Heat Treatment Technician: Competency Profile. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 20908.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The graduate of the Field Heat Treatment Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able: (1) use heat treatment equipment to apply heat to materials in order to change a material's properties; (2) Use their knowledge of the properties of heat, industry codes and specifications to determine how heat treatment will…

  11. [Barriers to the enforcement of hygiene requirements in dental practice].

    PubMed

    Bergler, R; Borneff, M

    1986-12-01

    In a psychological exploration study 40 dentists were interviewed on the basis of an attitude-orientated decision-making model; 20 of them also made dental units in their consulting rooms available to M. Borneff (10) for analysis and examination. Both subsamples are comparable in terms of structure; differences in the way of answering were not detected. The study focuses on the analysis of complex psychological barriers which would permit us to explain and predict unsatisfactory hygienic behavior in dental practice. The following major results deserve attention: Hygiene and infection prophylaxis in dental practice are questions of relatively high current relevance and sensitivity. The dealing with hygienic hazards and related prophylactic measures is relatively varied and indicates that dentists are willing to further receive and absorb information. But the elimination of possible risk factors is impaired by a variety of psychological barriers which do not exist independently from each other and which also tend to reciprocally intensify one another: Barriers for lack of knowledge While interviewees attribute increasing significance to hygiene in the study of dentistry, the compulsory subject hygienics plays a rather minor role within one's individual education. Knowledge in the field of hygiene and hygienic behavior are essentially a question of further training. But sources of information providing additional continued training are used rather sporadically and judged diversely. Incomprehensibilities and inconsistencies in scientific publications, unsatisfactory effectiveness and practicability of possible hygienic measures do not contribute to a coherent, systematic formation of opinion relevant to behaviour. Deficiencies in terms of knowledge also occur in dental assistants who play a crucial role in carrying out hygienic measures in dental practice. Barriers on account of probability Being aware of the essential hygienic risk factors (dental staff and patients

  12. [Comprehensive hygienic assessment of solaria].

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, O K

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives data on the positive and negative effects of human exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). It provides the hygienic characteristics of solaria used to produce an artificial tan. This device has been found to present a high health risk to its users. There are considerable problems in the hygienic assessment of this type of exposure. The ways of solving the arising problems in developing the metrological monitoring of UVR and compiling a document regulating the sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance of solaria are defined. PMID:22250385

  13. Role of veterinarians in modern food hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Matyáš, Z.

    1978-01-01

    Veterinary services and veterinary education and training must keep pace with the constantly changing patterns of agriculture and food processing. Changes in methods of animal production are associated with many problems of food processing and food quality. Veterinary supervision of the animal feed industry and of meat and distribution is essential. Quality testing of meat, milk, and eggs requires the introduction of suitable routine sampling systems, laboratory procedures, and complex evaluation procedures. Food hygiene problems have changed in recent years not only as a result of new methods of animal production, but also because of changes in food processing technology and in the presentation of food to the consumer, increased environmental pollution, increased international trade, and increased tourist travel. Food hygienists must adopt an active and progressive policy and change the scope of food control from a purely negative measure into a positive force working towards improved food quality and the avoidance of losses during production. A modern food hygiene programme should cover all stages of production, processing, and distribution of food and also other ingredients, additives and the water used for production and processing. Veterinarians should also be involved in the registration and licensing of enterprises and this should take into account the premises, the procedures to be used, new techniques in animal husbandry, machines and equipment, etc. In order to facilitate the microbiological analysis of foodstuffs, new mechanized or automated laboratory methods are required, and consideration must be given to adequate sampling techniques. PMID:310716

  14. Role of veterinarians in modern food hygiene.

    PubMed

    Matyás, Z

    1978-01-01

    Veterinary services and veterinary education and training must keep pace with the constantly changing patterns of agriculture and food processing. Changes in methods of animal production are associated with many problems of food processing and food quality. Veterinary supervision of the animal feed industry and of meat and distribution is essential. Quality testing of meat, milk, and eggs requires the introduction of suitable routine sampling systems, laboratory procedures, and complex evaluation procedures.Food hygiene problems have changed in recent years not only as a result of new methods of animal production, but also because of changes in food processing technology and in the presentation of food to the consumer, increased environmental pollution, increased international trade, and increased tourist travel.Food hygienists must adopt an active and progressive policy and change the scope of food control from a purely negative measure into a positive force working towards improved food quality and the avoidance of losses during production. A modern food hygiene programme should cover all stages of production, processing, and distribution of food and also other ingredients, additives and the water used for production and processing. Veterinarians should also be involved in the registration and licensing of enterprises and this should take into account the premises, the procedures to be used, new techniques in animal husbandry, machines and equipment, etc.In order to facilitate the microbiological analysis of foodstuffs, new mechanized or automated laboratory methods are required, and consideration must be given to adequate sampling techniques.

  15. Patient Hand Hygiene at Home Predicts Their Hand Hygiene Practices in the Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Anna; Sethi, Ajay; Shulkin, Emily; Caniza, Rachell; Zerbel, Sara; Safdar, Nasia

    2014-01-01

    We examine factors associated with hand hygiene practices of hospital patients. Hygiene decreased compared to at home, and home practices were strongly associated with hospital practices. Understanding and leveraging the intrinsic value some patients associate with hand hygiene may be important for improving overall hospital hygiene and decreasing healthcare-associated infections. PMID:24709731

  16. Health & Hygiene in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snapp, Mary

    Developed by educators from the Emily Griffith Opportunity School with input from employees--both workplace literacy students and nonstudents--this guide contains activities for teaching health and hygiene on the job. Flowing from a perspective of respecting cultural diversity and guided by a common thread of good work practices, the activities…

  17. Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The handbook contains laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state. It describes licensure requirements and includes complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist. Applicants are…

  18. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  19. Parenting Education - Health and Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.

    The second in a series on parenting education for American Indians, the booklet offers information on health and hygiene for the mother-to-be and the newborn baby. Chapters include care during pregnancy, mother's weight, mother's health, feeding newborns, washing the baby, baby's early diet, and baby's health care. (ERB)

  20. Occupational Medicine and Hygiene: applied research in Italy.

    PubMed

    Copello, F; Garbarino, S; Messineo, A; Campagna, M; Durando, P

    2015-01-01

    The goal of Occupational Medicine and Hygiene is that of ensuring safety, health and well-being at workplaces, mainly assessing and preventing existing occupational risks. Scientific research in this field can provide useful arguments and further evidence upon which effective, efficient and sustainable policies and preventive measures have to be chosen and applied by the occupational physician in work-life. This paper summarizes four original studies, conducted in different professional settings across Italy, focusing on critical items, such as stress and violence, biological risks and sleep hygiene. The knowledge obtained can be useful to orientate proper preventive programs aimed at improving workplace health. PMID:26789987

  1. Educational Hygiene. Bulletin, 1923, No. 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Willard S.

    1923-01-01

    The early history of educational hygiene was largely the history of "school hygiene." The name was accurately indicative of character--the hygiene of the school as an environment rather than as a "community of children" learning under the leadership of teachers to know and live health. Environment bulked large; the education of individuals for…

  2. Handrub Consumption Mirrors Hand Hygiene Compliance.

    PubMed

    Haubitz, Sebastian; Atkinson, Andrew; Kaspar, Tanja; Nydegger, Doris; Eichenberger, Anne; Sommerstein, Rami; Marschall, Jonas

    2016-06-01

    We assessed handrub consumption as a surrogate marker for hand hygiene compliance from 2007 to 2014. Handrub consumption varied substantially between departments but correlated in a mixed effects regression model with the number of patient-days and the observed hand hygiene compliance. Handrub consumption may supplement traditional hand hygiene observations. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:707-710.

  3. Industrial hazardous waste management in Turkey: current state of the field and primary challenges.

    PubMed

    Salihoglu, Güray

    2010-05-15

    A holistic evaluation of a country's hazardous waste management (HWM) practices is useful in identifying the necessary actions to focus on. Based on an analysis of industrial hazardous waste (HW) generation in Turkey, this paper attempts to critically evaluate and report current Turkish HWM practices and discuss the primary challenges to be addressed. The generation of industrial HW for Turkey reported in 2004 was 1.195 million tons, which accounted for 7% of the total industrial solid waste (ISW) generated by the manufacturing industry, and for nearly 4.9% of the total solid waste generated in the country. The HW generated by the top five manufacturing product categories--basic metals, chemicals and chemical products, food and beverages, coke and refined petroleum, motor vehicles and trailers--accounted for 89.0% of total industrial HW. 21% of the HW generated in 2004 was recycled or reused, and 6% was sold or donated, whereas 73% was sent to ultimate disposal. 67% of the HW sent to ultimate disposal was disposed of at municipal landfills. The total capacity of the existing regional HW facilities is 212,500 tons/year, which accounts for about 24% of the HW to be disposed. Turkey has identified the HW problem in the country and enacted legislation, designated a lead agency, and promulgated rules and regulations. Several new initiatives are planned for improving HW management nationally; however, some HWM problems will be persistent due to previous and existing industrial development plans. These development policies led to the concentration of industry in regions marked by precious agricultural fields and high population density. This occurred because the government previously exhibited a default prioritization towards industrial development, leading to insufficient implementation of regulations on HW generators. Some of the problems may also be rooted in other countries that allow illegal trans boundary HW movements despite international regulations.

  4. Food hygiene on the wards.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Walter

    2007-09-13

    A PROBLEM THAT IS OFTEN OVERLOOKED OR SIMPLY NOT GIVEN ENOUGH ATTENTION: the food served to patients from the kitchen is not sterile. If food is allowed to stand at room temperature for a long time, both in the case of food cooked for lunch and of food intended for supper which has been previously chilled, there is the possibility of massive spore germination or of dangerous toxin formation. Therefore regulations on how to handle food and beverages (e.g. tea) must be set out in the infection control policy, and checks carried out to monitor compliance with the rules relating to temperature checks, duration and type of storage, need for reheating, etc. Making staff aware of the issues involved is of paramount importance. These include monitoring hygiene standards in the ward kitchen, formulation of a cleaning policy, periodic bacteriological checks (not only of workstations but also of the dishwasher results), whenever possible the use of disposable cloths for working surfaces and equipment, changing cleaning cloths at least once daily and hygienic hand disinfection before and after handing out food. Foodstuffs brought in by visitors represent a special hygienic and organizational problem because in many cases they already have a high baseline microbial count. Visitors must be made aware that, for example, slices of cake left in the patient's room and often eaten only hours later can pose a risk of infection.In summary, the following principles of food hygiene must be observed on the wards:Maintenance of the cold-hot chainNot only reheat food, but ensure it is well heated throughout Avoid situations giving rise to spore germination in foodstuffs brought in by visitorsCleanliness and minimal contamination of kitchen worktopsCleanliness of crockery and kitchen towels Do not allow food to stand at room temperature for a long time, in particular desserts and confectionery A standard policy must be enforced to define the hygienic status and organization for food

  5. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of professional oral hygiene].

    PubMed

    Olesov, E E; Shaĭmieva, N I; Kononenko, V I; Bersanov, R U; Monakova, N E

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal status and oral hygiene indexes were studied in 125 young employee of Kurchatov Institute. Oral hygiene values dynamic was assessed after professional oral hygiene in persons with unsatisfactory oral hygiene at baseline examination. When compared with the same values in the absence of professional oral hygiene procedures the results allowed calculating cost-effectiveness rate for biannual professional oral hygiene.

  6. Regulations on Meat Hygiene in the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seward, Robert (Skip) A.

    Regulations on meat hygiene in the United States of America (US) stem from the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA, 21 USC §§ 601 et. seq.), promulgated in 1906, that gives the US Secretary of Agriculture (the Secretary) the power to oversee the conversion of livestock into meat products. The FMIA is reviewed herein to provide a background for discussion on how the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and its departments, particularly the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), control and regulate the meat industry. This chapter discusses regulations that pertain to meat, herein meant to mean beef, veal, and pork, and does not specifically address poultry, although the regulations for poultry slaughter and processing are in many ways similar to those for meat and meat food products.

  7. [Branches of the National Institute of Hygiene].

    PubMed

    Gromulska, Marta

    2008-01-01

    National Epidemiological Institute (National Institute of Hygiene, from 7th September 1923) was established in 1918 in Warsaw and acted at national level. Its actions in the field of diseases combat were supported by bacteriological stations and vaccine production in voivodeship cities, which were taken charge of by the state, and names "National Epidemiological Institutes". According to the ministers resolution from 6th July 1921,Epidemiological Institutes were merged to National Central Epidemiological Institutes (PZH), the epidemiological institutes outside Warsaw were named branches, which were to be located in every voivodeship city, according to the initial organizational resolutions. There were country branches of NCEI in: Cracow, Lwów, Lódź, Toruń, Lublin, and Wilno in the period 1919-1923. New branches in Poznań (1925), Gdynia(1934), Katowice (Voivodeship Institute of Hygiene (1936), Luck (1937), Stanisławów (1937), Kielce(1938), and Brześć/Bug (Municipal Station acting as branch of National Central Epidemiological Institute. Branches were subordinated to NCEI-PZH) in Warsaw where action plans and unified research and diagnostic method were established and annual meeting of the country branches managers took place. All branches cooperated with hospitals, national health services, district general practitioners and administration structure in control of infectious diseases. In 1938, the post of branch inspector was established, the first of whom was Feliks Przesmycki PhD. Branches cooperated also with University of Cracow, University of Lwów and University of Wilno. In 1935, National Institutes of Food Research was incorporated in PZH, Water Department was established, and these areas of activity began to develop in the branches accordingly. In 1938 there were 13 branches of PZH, and each had three divisions: bacteriological, food research and water research. Three branches in Cracow, Kielce and Lublin worked during World War II under German

  8. Application of magnetic fields in industrial growth of silicon single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Ammon, W.; Gelfgat, Yu.; Gorbunov, L.; Mulbauer, A.; Muiznieks, A.; Makarov, Y.; Virbulis, J.; Muller, G.

    2006-12-01

    The use of magnetic fields for the growth of semiconductor crystals has already been considered many decades ago. As early as in 1966, Chedzey et al te{1} and Utech et al te{2} reported about InSb crystals grown in a horizontal boat under the influence of a magnetic field. They found a suppression of temperature fluctuations in the InSb melt and a decrease of growth variations (striations) in the crystal. In 1970, Witt et al te{3} applied a static transverse (horizontal) magnetic field to the Czochralski (CZ) growth of InSb crystals. 10 years later, in 1980, the transverse field was also used for the CZ growth of silicon single crystals te{4,5}. Since then, the method has received considerable attention over the years. One of the major driving forces for introducing magnetic fields in the industrial CZ growth of silicon crystals was the request by the semiconductor industry to replace floating zone (FZ) grown crystals, which had been the preferred substrate material for the manufacturing of high power devices, by low oxygen CZ crystals te{6}. The reason for this changeover was the fact that the FZ method in the early 80's could not follow the rapid crystal diameter increase as required by the industry, namely, the switch from 4" to 5" diameter in the early 80's. The application of magnetic fields to the CZ technique (MCZ) allowed the growth of low oxygen crystals with the required diameter and having similar properties as the FZ grown crystals. Figs 12, Refs 59.

  9. Hand hygiene--comparison of international recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wendt, C

    2001-08-01

    The value of hand hygiene for the prevention of cross-infection was first observed in the middle of the 19th century. Since then, which procedure is the most suitable for hand hygiene has been repeatedly discussed and several different guidelines and recommendations have been published. The aim of this review is to compare different recommendations for hand hygiene regarding technique and indication. Medline, the internet and a personal library were searched to obtain as many written recommendations as possible. In addition, a small questionnaire was sent by e-mail to 20 international colleagues. As a result, written recommendations from 10 countries could be compared. Recommended methods of hand hygiene include handwashing (washing hands with plain soap), hygienic handwash (washing hands with medicated soap) and hygienic hand-rub (use of antiseptic rubs). In most countries handwashing and hygienic handwash are the methods of choice and only in central European countries is hygienic hand-rub the preferred technique. Situations in which performance of hand hygiene is recommended are comparable. However, no single indication is recommended in all guidelines. Hand hygiene is most often recommended before performing invasive procedures and after microbial contamination. Guidelines should be clear and easy to follow for them to become standard of care. Thus, guidelines are needed that do not leave to the health care worker a decision as to whether hand hygiene is indicated.

  10. Thermodynamic properties for applications in chemical industry via classical force fields.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Carrion, Gabriela; Hasse, Hans; Vrabec, Jadran

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties of fluids are of key importance for the chemical industry. Presently, the fluid property models used in process design and optimization are mostly equations of state or G (E) models, which are parameterized using experimental data. Molecular modeling and simulation based on classical force fields is a promising alternative route, which in many cases reasonably complements the well established methods. This chapter gives an introduction to the state-of-the-art in this field regarding molecular models, simulation methods, and tools. Attention is given to the way modeling and simulation on the scale of molecular force fields interact with other scales, which is mainly by parameter inheritance. Parameters for molecular force fields are determined both bottom-up from quantum chemistry and top-down from experimental data. Commonly used functional forms for describing the intra- and intermolecular interactions are presented. Several approaches for ab initio to empirical force field parameterization are discussed. Some transferable force field families, which are frequently used in chemical engineering applications, are described. Furthermore, some examples of force fields that were parameterized for specific molecules are given. Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods for the calculation of transport properties and vapor-liquid equilibria are introduced. Two case studies are presented. First, using liquid ammonia as an example, the capabilities of semi-empirical force fields, parameterized on the basis of quantum chemical information and experimental data, are discussed with respect to thermodynamic properties that are relevant for the chemical industry. Second, the ability of molecular simulation methods to describe accurately vapor-liquid equilibrium properties of binary mixtures containing CO(2) is shown.

  11. Building health: The need for electromagnetic hygiene?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, Isaac A.; Holdstock, Paul; ApSimon, Helen M.; Bell, J. Nigel B.

    2010-04-01

    Whilst the electromagnetic nature of the built environment has changed considerably over the past century, little thought is at present given to the possible advantages of creating electromagnetic microenvironments that more closely resemble those found in nature and/or developing biologically-friendly technology aligned more closely to its operating principles. This review paper examines how more natural exposures to a variety of electromagnetic phenomena could be re-introduced into the built environment, possible benefits that might arise, and discusses the extent to which there may be tangible benefits obtainable from introducing more rigorous properly considered electromagnetic hygiene measures. Amongst the matters discussed are: the effects of different materials, finishes and electrical items on charge generation (and the effects of excess charge on contaminant deposition); the possible benefits of suitably grounding conductive objects (including humans) in order to reduce excess charge and contaminant deposition; how the presence of vertical electric field regimes, similar to those found in nature, may enhance biological performance; and possible pitfalls to avoid when seeking to introduce appropriate electromagnetic hygiene regimes.

  12. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  13. [DEONTOLOGICAL ISSUES IN RAILWAY HYGIENE].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A

    2015-01-01

    There are presented the main ethical and deontological problems encountered in practice and research activities of the hygienist in transport. There is shown the importance of strict compliance with hygienic standards, disregard for the principle of "technical attainability", the necessity of continuous training, improvement of skills of sanitary-educational activity and readiness to solve emerging ethical issues in connection with the development of scientific and technical progress. PMID:26302557

  14. Service robotics: an emergent technology field at the interface between industry and services.

    PubMed

    Ott, Ingrid

    2012-12-01

    The paper at hand analyzes the economic implications of service robots as expected important future technology. The considerations are embedded into global trends, focusing on the interdependencies between services and industry not only in the context of the provision of services but already starting at the level of the innovation process. It is argued that due to the various interdependencies combined with heterogenous application fields, the resulting implications need to be contextualized. Concerning the net labor market effects, it is reasonable to assume that the field of service robotics will generate overall job creation that goes along with increasing skill requirements demanded from involved employees. It is analyzed which challenges arise in evaluating and further developing the new technology field and some policy recommendations are given. PMID:23226996

  15. [Industry-Academia Collaboration in the Clinical Laboratory Field: Chairmen's Introductory Remarks].

    PubMed

    Inaba, Tohru; Ikemoto, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Industry-academia collaboration has become essential in contemporary medicine. Therefore, many institutes including university corporations have promoted the establishment of an endowed chair and/or performed collaborative research. This symposium was held to overview the present status of industry-academia collaboration in the clinical laboratory field. As a representative of the industry, Mr. Taniguchi (Sysmex) presented the development process of M2BP Glycosylation Isomer, a new marker for liver fibrosis. Mr. Saitoh (Horiba) introduced the achievements of joint collaborative research with Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, especially the practical realization of an automated hematology analyzer capable of simultaneously measuring C-reactive protein. Mr. Setoyama (LSI Medience) presented on the characteristic collaboration between academia and commercial laboratories such as Tsukuba Medical Laboratory of Education and Research (TMER). On the other hand, as a representative of academia, Associate Prof. Imai (Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine) summarized the necessity of clinical laboratories spread regenerative medicine. Finally, Prof. Koshiba (Hyogo College of Medicine) presented on the industry-academia collaboration in routine laboratory work in his institute. PMID:27192804

  16. Food hygiene on the wards.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Walter

    2007-01-01

    A PROBLEM THAT IS OFTEN OVERLOOKED OR SIMPLY NOT GIVEN ENOUGH ATTENTION: the food served to patients from the kitchen is not sterile. If food is allowed to stand at room temperature for a long time, both in the case of food cooked for lunch and of food intended for supper which has been previously chilled, there is the possibility of massive spore germination or of dangerous toxin formation. Therefore regulations on how to handle food and beverages (e.g. tea) must be set out in the infection control policy, and checks carried out to monitor compliance with the rules relating to temperature checks, duration and type of storage, need for reheating, etc. Making staff aware of the issues involved is of paramount importance. These include monitoring hygiene standards in the ward kitchen, formulation of a cleaning policy, periodic bacteriological checks (not only of workstations but also of the dishwasher results), whenever possible the use of disposable cloths for working surfaces and equipment, changing cleaning cloths at least once daily and hygienic hand disinfection before and after handing out food. Foodstuffs brought in by visitors represent a special hygienic and organizational problem because in many cases they already have a high baseline microbial count. Visitors must be made aware that, for example, slices of cake left in the patient's room and often eaten only hours later can pose a risk of infection.In summary, the following principles of food hygiene must be observed on the wards:Maintenance of the cold-hot chainNot only reheat food, but ensure it is well heated throughout Avoid situations giving rise to spore germination in foodstuffs brought in by visitorsCleanliness and minimal contamination of kitchen worktopsCleanliness of crockery and kitchen towels Do not allow food to stand at room temperature for a long time, in particular desserts and confectionery A standard policy must be enforced to define the hygienic status and organization for food

  17. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields of uninterruptible power supply industry workers.

    PubMed

    Teşneli, N Berna; Teşneli, Ahmet Y

    2014-12-01

    There is an increasing concern that exposure to extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may cause or contribute to adverse health effects. To assess exposure to ELF EMFs, electric and magnetic field spot measurements were performed extensively at the workplace of a worldwide uninterruptible power supply (UPS) factory. The measurements were carried out in order to get the electric and magnetic field exposure results in real working situations in test areas, production lines and power substations. The electric and magnetic fields reached up to 992.0 V m(-1) and 215.6 μT in the test areas, respectively. The fields existed up to 26.7 V m(-1) and 7.6 μT in the production lines. The field levels in the vicinity of the power substations did not exceed 165.5 V m(-1) and 65 μT. The data presented are useful in determining the occupational exposure levels of UPS industry workers. The measurements are below the reference levels recommended by the guideline published in 2010 by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and action levels of the directive adopted in 2013 by European Parliament and Council.

  18. Radiation Field Forming for Industrial Electron Accelerators Using Rare-Earth Magnetic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, A. N.; Khankin, V. V.; Shvedunov, N. V.; Shvedunov, V. I.; Yurov, D. S.

    2016-09-01

    The article describes the radiation field forming system for industrial electron accelerators, which would have uniform distribution of linear charge density at the surface of an item being irradiated perpendicular to the direction of its motion. Its main element is non-linear quadrupole lens made with the use of rare-earth magnetic materials. The proposed system has a number of advantages over traditional beam scanning systems that use electromagnets, including easier product irradiation planning, lower instantaneous local dose rate, smaller size, lower cost. Provided are the calculation results for a 10 MeV industrial electron accelerator, as well as measurement results for current distribution in the prototype build based on calculations.

  19. Improving hand hygiene adherence among nursing staff.

    PubMed

    Harne-Britner, Sarah; Allen, Marianne; Fowler, Kimberly A

    2011-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study explored initial and sustained effects of educational and behavioral interventions on hand hygiene adherence and the relationships between hand hygiene adherence and health care-associated infections. Education paired with positive reinforcement behavioral interventions significantly improved hand hygiene adherence after the first month (χ² = 4.27; P = .039); however, the improvement was not sustained over 6 months. There were no significant differences in infection rates between the treatment and control groups. PMID:20407392

  20. Max von Pettenkofer (1818-1901) as a pioneer of modern hygiene and preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Locher, Wolfgang Gerhard

    2007-11-01

    Max von Pettenkofer (1818-1901) belonged to the scientific elite of the 19th century. With his stringent search for the laws of nature and his fight for scientific truth, Pettenkofer was the prototype of a modern researcher. In the field of hygiene, he sought ways and means of preserving health and preventing sickness. With his consistent application of the experimental method to the field of public health, Pettenkofer helped the discipline of hygiene to provide precise and reliable answers to sanitary questions. In his experimental work on hygiene, Pettenkofer sought an answer to every imaginable question concerning the connection between the human organism and its environment.To proceed in this direction, Pettenkofer combined medical expertise with physics, chemistry, technique and statistics. This even today modern "crossover-thinking" made hygiene to the first interdisciplinary medical field. With his Institute of Hygiene, Pettenkofer established 1879 the first centre of competence for hygiene and environment in the world, opening a new era of environmental observation.In the framework of hygiene, Pettenkofer turned also to questions of nutrition and the quality of foodstuff. The science of hygiene owes to Max von Pettenkofer not only its development and cartography, but also its introduction as an academic discipline. Finally he regarded hygiene also as an economic and cultural feature. His idea about a clean soil in the cities and his promotion of adequate water supply and sufficient sewage networks are linked to his theory of the cholera. Pettenkofer believed that a battle against this epidemic could be won. PMID:21432069

  1. Kaiser Permanente National Hand Hygiene Program

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Sue; Barron, Dana; Becker, Linda; Canola, Teresa; Salemi, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Hand hygiene has historically been identified as an important intervention for preventing infection acquired in health care settings. Recently, the advent of waterless, alcohol-based skin degermer and elimination of artificial nails have been recognized as other important interventions for preventing infection. Supplied with this information, the National Infection Control Peer Group convened a KP Hand Hygiene Work Group, which, in August 2001, launched a National Hand Hygiene Program initiative titled “Infection Control: It’s In Our Hands” to increase compliance with hand hygiene throughout the Kaiser Permanente (KP) organization. Design: The infection control initiative was designed to include employee and physician education as well as to implement standard hand hygiene products (eg, alcohol degermers), eliminate use of artificial nails, and monitor outcomes. Results: From 2001 through September 2003, the National KP Hand Hygiene Work Group coordinated implementation of the Hand Hygiene initiative throughout the KP organization. To date, outcome monitoring has shown a 26% increase in compliance with hand hygiene as well as a decrease in the number of bloodstream infections and methycillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. As of May 2003, use of artificial nails had been reduced by 97% nationwide. Conclusions: Endorsement of this Hand Hygiene Program initiative by KP leadership has led to implementation of the initiative at all medical centers throughout the KP organization. Outcome indicators to date suggest that the initiative has been successful; final outcome monitoring will be completed in December 2003. PMID:26704605

  2. Total Cyanide Field Spikes for Industrial Wastewater Samples Verify Successful Sample Integrity, Preservation, Pre-Treatment and Testing.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Michael F; Blodget, Charles

    2015-06-01

    Obtaining accurate and precise results for total cyanide concentrations in wastewater samples is fraught with positive and negative interferences. Even the United States Environmental Protection Agency has acknowledged that it may be difficult or impossible to adequately mitigate all interferences. We demonstrated that a field spike of complex cyanide can be successfully used to demonstrate when sampling, preservation, pre-treatment, and analysis techniques are working adequately to retain any cyanide present in the sample without causing false positives or false negatives. For 257 industrial wastewater effluent samples collected at a wide variety of Greater Boston industries, 237 (92.2%) had usable field spike recoveries, averaging 86.2% recovery. Field spike recoveries for problematic industries that had very high or very low field spike recoveries were useful to show when alternative preservations and field dilutions were successfully preserving total cyanide. The field spike approach is general and should also work in a similar manner for raw and treated drinking water samples.

  3. Control of predators in industrial scale microalgae cultures with Pulsed Electric Fields.

    PubMed

    Rego, D; Redondo, L M; Geraldes, V; Costa, L; Navalho, J; Pereira, M T

    2015-06-01

    This work describes the utilization of Pulsed Electric Fields to control the protozoan contamination of a microalgae culture, in an industrial 2.7 m(3) microalgae photobioreactor. The contaminated culture was treated with Pulsed Electric Fields, PEF, for 6h with an average of 900 V/cm, 65 μs pulses of 50 Hz. Working with recirculation, all the culture was uniformly exposed to the PEF throughout the assay. The development of the microalgae and protozoan populations was followed and the results showed that PEF is effective on the selective elimination of protozoa from microalgae cultures, inflicting on the protozoa growth halt, death or cell rupture, without affecting microalgae productivity. Specifically, the results show a reduction of the active protozoan population of 87% after 6h treatment and 100% after few days of normal cultivation regime. At the same time, microalgae growth rate remained unaffected.

  4. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanzani, Claudio

    This report provides an initial analysis of the occupational and qualification structures in the field of environmental protection in the Italian metal and chemical industries. The first two chapters review the legislative background, situation in industry, and provision of environmental education and training. The third chapter presents results…

  5. [Ergonomics, hygiene and rationality: the "electric house" of Monza (1930)].

    PubMed

    Colombo, A; Porro, A; Franchini, A F

    2012-01-01

    The "Electric House" of Monza is seen as one of the early example of rationalist architecture produced in Italy. Sponsored by the Italian Edison General Company for Electricity and produced by the Group 7, it was built for the "IV International Triennial Exhibition of Decorative and Modern Industry Arts", held in Monza in 1930. It was conceived as an environment in which the designers showed their interest towards new concepts of rationalist hygiene. Special care was taken to select the environments in relation to the surrounding nature and the needs of life of the house inhabitants: new materials more comfortable, hygienic and rational were inserted. In the kitchen, for example, the architect P. Bottoni, created a space in which the housewife's work was marked by lower energy expenditure, thanks to a careful study of the actions and movements according to the principles of taylorism, here applied to domestic work.

  6. Dynamics of Industrial Forests in Southeast United States Assessed using Satellite and Field Inventory Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Tao, X.; Zhao, F. A.; Schleeweis, K.; Ling, P. Y.; Goward, S. N.; Masek, J. G.; Michaelis, A.

    2015-12-01

    The southeast United States (SE-US) is dominated by tree plantations and other forms of industrial forests that provide vital socio-ecological services to the human society. Most of these forests are managed to maximize economic outcome, and hence are often subject to intensive management practices and have different harvest-regrowth cycles as compared with natural forest ecosystems. Through the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) study, we have mapped forest disturbances for the conterminous United States using dense time series Landsat observations. The derived map products revealed that more than 50% of the forests in SE-US were harvested or disturbed by other forms of human or natural disturbance events at least once between 1986 and 2010. These products are being analyzed together with ancillary GIS data sets and field inventory data to identify industrial forests and to quantify their logging intensity, timber output, recovery rate, and the harvest-regrowth cycle. The derived results will be summarized in this presentation, along with discussions of the underlying environmental and management factors that may drive the spatio-temporal dynamics of the industrial forests in SE-US.

  7. Soil microbial respiration and PICT responses to an industrial and historic lead pollution: a field study.

    PubMed

    Bérard, Annette; Capowiez, Line; Mombo, Stéphane; Schreck, Eva; Dumat, Camille; Deola, Frédéric; Capowiez, Yvan

    2016-03-01

    We performed a field investigation to study the long-term impacts of Pb soil contamination on soil microbial communities and their catabolic structure in the context of an industrial site consisting of a plot of land surrounding a secondary lead smelter. Microbial biomass, catabolic profiles, and ecotoxicological responses (PICT) were monitored on soils sampled at selected locations along 110-m transects established on the site. We confirmed the high toxicity of Pb on respirations and microbial and fungal biomasses by measuring positive correlations with distance from the wall factory and negative correlation with total Pb concentrations. Pb contamination also induced changes in microbial and fungal catabolic structure (from carbohydrates to amino acids through carboxylic malic acid). Moreover, PICT measurement allowed to establish causal linkages between lead and its effect on biological communities taking into account the contamination history of the ecosystem at community level. The positive correlation between qCO2 (based on respiration and substrate use) and PICT suggested that the Pb stress-induced acquisition of tolerance came at a greater energy cost for microbial communities in order to cope with the toxicity of the metal. In this industrial context of long-term polymetallic contamination dominated by Pb in a field experiment, we confirmed impacts of this metal on soil functioning through microbial communities, as previously observed for earthworm communities.

  8. Soil microbial respiration and PICT responses to an industrial and historic lead pollution: a field study.

    PubMed

    Bérard, Annette; Capowiez, Line; Mombo, Stéphane; Schreck, Eva; Dumat, Camille; Deola, Frédéric; Capowiez, Yvan

    2016-03-01

    We performed a field investigation to study the long-term impacts of Pb soil contamination on soil microbial communities and their catabolic structure in the context of an industrial site consisting of a plot of land surrounding a secondary lead smelter. Microbial biomass, catabolic profiles, and ecotoxicological responses (PICT) were monitored on soils sampled at selected locations along 110-m transects established on the site. We confirmed the high toxicity of Pb on respirations and microbial and fungal biomasses by measuring positive correlations with distance from the wall factory and negative correlation with total Pb concentrations. Pb contamination also induced changes in microbial and fungal catabolic structure (from carbohydrates to amino acids through carboxylic malic acid). Moreover, PICT measurement allowed to establish causal linkages between lead and its effect on biological communities taking into account the contamination history of the ecosystem at community level. The positive correlation between qCO2 (based on respiration and substrate use) and PICT suggested that the Pb stress-induced acquisition of tolerance came at a greater energy cost for microbial communities in order to cope with the toxicity of the metal. In this industrial context of long-term polymetallic contamination dominated by Pb in a field experiment, we confirmed impacts of this metal on soil functioning through microbial communities, as previously observed for earthworm communities. PMID:26233741

  9. Oil industry first field trial of inter-well reservoir nanoagent tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanj, Mazen Y.; Kosynkin, Dmitry V.

    2015-05-01

    This short manuscript highlights the industry's first proven reservoir nanoagents' design and demonstrates a successful multi-well field trial using these agents. Our fundamental nanoparticles tracer template, A-Dots or Arab-D Dots, is intentionally geared towards the harsh but prolific Arab-D carbonate reservoir environment of 100+°C temperature, 150,000+ppm salinity, and an abundant presence of divalent ions in the connate water. Preliminary analyses confirmed nanoparticles' breakthrough at a producer nearly 500m from the injector at the reservoir level; thus, proving the tracer nanoparticles' mobility and transport capability. This is considered industry-first and a breakthrough achievement complementing earlier accomplishments in regard to the nanoagents' reservoir stability with the first successful single well test and ease of scale up with the synthesis of one metric ton of this material. The importance of this accomplishment is not in how sophisticated is the sensing functionalities of this design but rather in its stability, mobility, scalability, and field application potentials. This renders the concept of having active, reactive, and even communicative, in-situ reservoir nanoagents for underground sensing and intervention a well anticipated near-future reality.

  10. [Hygiene is not cleanliness. For a new definition of hygiene promotion in emergency humanitarian aid].

    PubMed

    Larose, L

    2001-03-01

    Following the Kosovo crisis, this paper questions the contents of hygiene kits to be distributed to refugees, the definition of hygiene and the hygiene promotion practises in emergency aid work. Hygiene promotion cannot be reduced to cleanness promotion. We have to consider refugees' psychosocial needs and trauma as well as the problems of refugees settlement as a community and of community mobilisation to conceive programmes meeting population's needs and demands. Hygiene promotion should include systematic attempts to implement community services by volunteer refugees. One has to be careful also that the financial mechanisms of aid do not pervert programmation.

  11. Varroa Sensitive Hygiene and Drone Brood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bees have been bred to express high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH), which is the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped worker brood. This hygienic behavior is a complex interaction of bees and brood in which brood cells sometimes are inspected, and then brood is either removed (...

  12. 28 CFR 551.6 - Personal hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal hygiene. 551.6 Section 551.6 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Grooming § 551.6 Personal hygiene. The Warden shall make available to an inmate those articles...

  13. Model Teacher - School Dental Hygiene Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lowell W.

    The purpose of this study, which was carried out during the 1972-73 school year at three parochial schools in the Houston area, was to determine the effectiveness of the Toothkeeper Program, a multimedia program of oral hygiene training carefully developed and packaged to establish effective long-term dental hygiene practice. The study population…

  14. It's not all about me: motivating hand hygiene among health care professionals by focusing on patients.

    PubMed

    Grant, Adam M; Hofmann, David A

    2011-12-01

    Diseases often spread in hospitals because health care professionals fail to wash their hands. Research suggests that to increase health and safety behaviors, it is important to highlight the personal consequences for the actor. However, because people (and health care professionals in particular) tend to be overconfident about personal immunity, the most effective messages about hand hygiene may be those that highlight its consequences for other people. In two field experiments in a hospital, we compared the effectiveness of signs about hand hygiene that emphasized personal safety ("Hand hygiene prevents you from catching diseases") or patient safety ("Hand hygiene prevents patients from catching diseases"). We assessed hand hygiene by measuring the amount of soap and hand-sanitizing gel used from dispensers (Experiment 1) and conducting covert, independent observations of health care professionals' hand-hygiene behaviors (Experiment 2). Results showed that changing a single word in messages motivated meaningful changes in behavior: The hand hygiene of health care professionals increased significantly when they were reminded of the implications for patients but not when they were reminded of the implications for themselves.

  15. Preliminary operational results of the low-temperature solar industrial process heat field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.F.; Davenport, R.L.

    1980-06-01

    Six solar industrial process heat field tests have been in operation for a year or more - three are hot water systems and three are hot air systems. All are low-temperature projects (process heat at temperatures below 212/sup 0/F). Performance results gathered by each contractor's data acquisition system are presented and project costs and problems encountered are summarized. Flat-plate, evacuated-tube, and line-focus collectors are all represented in the program, with collector array areas ranging from 2500 to 21,000 ft/sup 2/. Collector array efficiencies ranged from 12% to 36% with net system efficiencies from 8% to 33%. Low efficiencies are attributable in some cases to high thermal losses and, for the two projects using air collectors, are due in part to high parasitic power consumption. Problems have included industrial effluents on collectors, glazing and absorber surface failures, excessive thermal losses, freezing and overheating, control problems, and data acquisition system failure. With design and data acquisition costs excluded costs of the projects ranged from $25/ft/sup 2/ to $87/ft/sup 2/ and $499/(MBtu/yr) to $1537/(MBtu/yr).

  16. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Berkner, K.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops). It sets forth safety procedures and describes how LBL employees are informed about the potential chemical hazards in their work areas so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Generally, communication of this Plan will occur through training and the Plan will serve as a the framework and reference guide for that training.

  17. "Dictating the suitable way of life": mental hygiene for children and workers in socialist Mexico, 1934-1940.

    PubMed

    Molina, Andrés Ríos

    2013-01-01

    After the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920), an ambitious project of national reconstruction began in which education and health were two priorities in the consolidation of a new nation. In this context of social, cultural, and political transformation, mental hygiene was a field that made it possible to articulate the professional practice of psychiatrists with the project of the nation promoted by postrevolutionary governments. In Mexico, the mental hygiene movement was headed by the same doctors who professionalized the practice of psychiatry and made it a specialized field of knowledge. The first generation of psychiatrists managed to integrate mental hygiene into health and education policies during the socialist administration of president Lázaro Cárdenas; a phenomenon that made evident the articulation between mental hygiene, social medicine, and nationalist discourse. Discussion will focus on proposals made from the perspective of mental hygiene as a function of two social sectors regarded as priorities by the Cárdenas government: children and workers.

  18. Motivational interviewing in dental hygiene education: curriculum modification and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bray, Kimberly Krust; Catley, Delwyn; Voelker, Marsha A; Liston, Robin; Williams, Karen B

    2013-12-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a person-centered, goal-directed method of communication for eliciting and strengthening intrinsic motivation for behavior change. Originally developed in the field of addiction therapy, MI has been increasing applied in the health professions with a growing body of successful outcomes for tobacco cessation and diabetic control, which can significantly impact oral health. MI has shown preliminary value for impacting oral behaviors that reduce early childhood caries, plaque, and gingival inflammation. While the training in and use of MI by oral health providers is emerging, full integration into dental and dental hygiene curricula has yet to be explored. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the full implementation of MI in the classroom and clinic of a dental hygiene curriculum.

  19. MediHandTrace ®: a tool for measuring and understanding hand hygiene adherence.

    PubMed

    Boudjema, S; Dufour, J C; Aladro, A S; Desquerres, I; Brouqui, P

    2014-01-01

    The proper implementation of hand hygiene at key moments during patient care is the most important means of preventing healthcare-associated infection. Although there are many programmes aimed at enhancing hand hygiene, the compliance of healthcare workers (HCWs) remains incredibly low. One limiting factor is the lack of standardized measures and reports of hand hygiene opportunities. Direct observational audits have reported the weaknesses in this field. We report here a radiofrequency identification-based real-time automated continuous recording system (MediHandTrace(®)) that permits the tracking of hand hygiene opportunities and the disinfection compliance of HCWs that we evaluated against video recordings as being accurate (99.02%), sensitive (95.65%) and specific (100%). The system can also provide information that is useful to understand HCW non-compliance and will allow the evaluation of future intervention studies. PMID:24261513

  20. Cancer incidence and magnetic field exposure in industries using resistance welding in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Hakansson, N; Floderus, B; Gustavsson, P; Johansen, C; Olsen, J

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate cancer incidence in workers exposed to high levels of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF). Methods: A cohort based on the engineering industry was established. Industries assumed to use resistance welding in production were chosen in order to increase the prevalence of high exposed subjects and to reduce the influence of confounding factors. All men and women employed in these branches during 1985–94 were selected, 537 692 men and 180 529 women. Occupation, based on census information from 1980, 1985, and 1990, was linked to a job exposure matrix on ELF-MF. Four exposure groups were used by stratifying on mean workday ELF-MF exposure, using the lowest exposure group as reference. Cancer incidence was obtained by linkage to the Swedish Cancer Registry. Results: Men in the very high exposure group showed an increased incidence of tumours of the kidney, pituitary gland, and biliary passages and liver; for these cancer sites an exposure–response relation was indicated. Women in the very high exposure group showed an increased incidence of astrocytoma I–IV, with a clear exposure–response pattern. An association was suggested in the high exposure group only, for cancer of the corpus uteri and multiple myeloma. Decreased risks in the very high exposure group among men were found for cancer of the colon and connective tissue/muscle. Conclusions: The results on cancer of the liver, kidney, and pituitary gland among men are in accordance with previous observations. Regarding brain tumours and leukaemia, the outcome for women provided further support of an association. The hypothesis of a biological mechanism involving the endocrine system was partly supported. PMID:12107298

  1. [Hygienic prerequisites of the construction of equipment for vocational education of schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Gumener, P I; Sharshatkina, G A; Karasev, A P; Sova, A Ia

    1989-08-01

    Improvement of the industrial training programme needs optimization of tooling. The above problem can be solved through a systems approach. Special methodological procedures based on the comparison of actual values of physiological functions with the work's physiological value should be utilized for the hygienic assessment of the tooling used by schoolchildren.

  2. Curriculum Guidelines for Clinical Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools curriculum guidelines for clinical dental hygiene include definitions, notes on the interrelationship of courses, an overview of course objectives, and suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific objectives, sequencing, faculty, and facilities. (MSE)

  3. Implementing AORN recommended practices for hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Marcia; Van Wicklin, Sharon A

    2012-04-01

    This article focuses on implementing the revised AORN "Recommended practices for hand hygiene in the perioperative setting." The content of the document has been expanded and reorganized from the previous iteration and now includes specific activity statements about water temperature, water and soap dispensing controls, the type of dispensers to use, paper towel dispenser requirements, placement of soap and rub dispensers, and regulatory requirements for products and recommendations for hand hygiene practices. A successful hand hygiene program allows end users to have input into the selection and evaluation of products and should include educating personnel about proper hand hygiene, product composition and safety, and how and when to use specific products. Measures for competency evaluation and compliance monitoring include observations, quizzes, skills labs, electronic monitoring systems, handheld device applications, and data collection forms. PMID:22464622

  4. Teething & Dental Hygiene for Young Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Sleep Growing Healthy Healthy Children > Healthy Living > Oral Health > Dental Health & Hygiene for Young Children Healthy Living Listen Español Text ...

  5. [Parmentier hygiene and public health].

    PubMed

    Lafont, O

    2014-05-01

    The legend about Parmentier is quite reductive when it limits his activity to the promotion of potato. This military pharmacist intended mainly to make science serve human being, whatever could be his various activities. Actor of the foundation of food chemistry, reorganizer of military pharmacy, he has always been highly concerned with hygiene and public health. He then studied the quality of water, particularly in the case of river Seine, or the purity of air, especially in hospitals. The affair of Dunkerque exhumations or that of cesspools, or the utilisation of human excrements in agriculture were parts of the occurrences for which he had the opportunity to find a scientific approach allowing to solve the difficult questions that were asked to him, for the best benefit of public health. The exhaustive study he published in "Bulletin de pharmacie" for the conservation of meat shows that he did not ignore anything about freezing of food in order to preserve it. It is necessary not to forget the important role he played, as soon as he were informed of Jenner's discovery, for the diffusion of vaccination in France. It is simply astounding to observe how modern were the questions he solved and how intense was his spirit of dedication to the public good, when exerting his functions in "Comité de Salubrité de la Seine" or "Conseil de Santé des Armées", as well as outside these prestigious institutions.

  6. A hygienic multiple-pontic design.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, G R

    1997-04-01

    Fixed partial dentures should be designed for function, esthetics, and easy maintenance. The gingivolingual embrasures between multiple adjacent pontics are unnecessary for function and esthetics and create crevices where food, plaque, and calculus can accumulate. These spaces make oral hygiene procedures more difficult for the patient and the dentist to accomplish. A hygienic design for multiple pontics is suggested that eliminates these unnecessary embrasures and still displays an anatomically realistic, cosmetically acceptable facade.

  7. [Historical materials of Chinese food hygiene (1927-1949)].

    PubMed

    Li, X; Wang, X

    1997-01-01

    The author discusses the situation on the work of food hygiene from 1928 to 1949 in China. During this period, the Health and Epidemic Prevention Bureau under the Ministry of Health were all in charge of food hygiene work. They formulated a series of standards, laws and rules on food hygiene which were carried out by hygienic policemen of the Bureau of Public Security. There were two ways for the education of food hygiene: Short-term course teaching class for food hygiene in medical college. The inspection and research work of food hygiene were performed by the Central Testing House of Hygiene, The Central Experimental Office of Hygienic Facilities and the Central Office of Epidemic Prevention and Nutritional Institute of the Health Office. After anti-Japanese war was broken out in 1937, food hygiene work were carried out mainly in the service in the war.

  8. Occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in surface waters near industrial hog operation spray fields.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, S M; Myers, K W; Heaney, C D; Larsen, J; Hall, D; Miller, M B; Stewart, J R

    2016-09-15

    Industrial hog operations (IHOs) have been identified as a source of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). However, few studies have investigated the presence of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus in the environment near IHOs, specifically surface waters proximal to spray fields where IHO liquid lagoon waste is sprayed. Surface water samples (n=179) were collected over the course of approximately one year from nine locations in southeastern North Carolina and analyzed for the presence of presumptive MRSA using CHROMagar MRSA media. Culture-based, biochemical, and molecular tests, as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry were used to confirm that isolates that grew on CHROMagar MRSA media were S. aureus. Confirmed S. aureus isolates were then tested for susceptibility to 16 antibiotics and screened for molecular markers of MRSA (mecA, mecC) and livestock adaptation (absence of scn). A total of 12 confirmed MRSA were detected in 9 distinct water samples. Nine of 12 MRSA isolates were also multidrug-resistant (MDRSA [i.e., resistant to ≥3 antibiotic classes]). All MRSA were scn-positive and most (11/12) belonged to a staphylococcal protein A (spa) type t008, which is commonly associated with humans. Additionally, 12 confirmed S. aureus that were methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) were recovered, 7 of which belonged to spa type t021 and were scn-negative (a marker of livestock-adaptation). This study demonstrated the presence of MSSA, MRSA, and MDRSA in surface waters adjacent to IHO lagoon waste spray fields in southeastern North Carolina. To our knowledge, this is the first report of waterborne S. aureus from surface waters proximal to IHOs. PMID:27261430

  9. Building wake dispersion at an Arctic industrial site: Field tracer observations and plume model evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Alex; Lamb, Brian; Allwine, Eugene

    Ten multi-hour atmospheric dispersion SF 6 tracer experiments were conducted during October and November of 1987 near a large oil gathering facility in the Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, oilfield reservation. The purpose of this study was to investigate dispersion under arctic conditions and in situations where building-generated airflow disturbances dominate downwind distributions of ground level pollutant concentrations. This was accomplished with a network of micrometeorological instruments, portable syringe tracer samplers, continuous tracer analyzers, and infrared visualization of near source plume behavior. Atmospheric stability and wind speed profiles at this arctic site are influenced by the smooth (surface roughness = 0.03 cm), snow covered tundra surface which receives negligible levels of solar isolation in winter. The dispersion of pollutants emitted from sources within the oil gathering facility, however, is dominated by the influence of nearby buildings when high winds generate elevated ground level concentrations. An order of magnitude increase in maximum ground level concentration was observed as wind speeds increased from 5 to 8 m s -1 and another order of magnitude increase was observed as winds increased from 8 to 16 m s -1. Variation in maximum concentrations was also observed with changes in wind direction. Vertical plume diffusion ( σz) near the buildings was a factor of 2-3 greater than that observed in open terrain and was dependent on both wind speed and the projected building width and location of nearby buildings. Wind tunnel tracer distributions for east winds agree with field observations but also indicate that a significant increase in plume downwash occurs with other wind directions. Concentration distributions were calculated using several versions of the Industrial Source Complex (ISC) model. Model estimates of ground level concentrations were within a factor of three depending on wind direction. The model predictions are extremely sensitive

  10. Occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in surface waters near industrial hog operation spray fields.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, S M; Myers, K W; Heaney, C D; Larsen, J; Hall, D; Miller, M B; Stewart, J R

    2016-09-15

    Industrial hog operations (IHOs) have been identified as a source of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). However, few studies have investigated the presence of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus in the environment near IHOs, specifically surface waters proximal to spray fields where IHO liquid lagoon waste is sprayed. Surface water samples (n=179) were collected over the course of approximately one year from nine locations in southeastern North Carolina and analyzed for the presence of presumptive MRSA using CHROMagar MRSA media. Culture-based, biochemical, and molecular tests, as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry were used to confirm that isolates that grew on CHROMagar MRSA media were S. aureus. Confirmed S. aureus isolates were then tested for susceptibility to 16 antibiotics and screened for molecular markers of MRSA (mecA, mecC) and livestock adaptation (absence of scn). A total of 12 confirmed MRSA were detected in 9 distinct water samples. Nine of 12 MRSA isolates were also multidrug-resistant (MDRSA [i.e., resistant to ≥3 antibiotic classes]). All MRSA were scn-positive and most (11/12) belonged to a staphylococcal protein A (spa) type t008, which is commonly associated with humans. Additionally, 12 confirmed S. aureus that were methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) were recovered, 7 of which belonged to spa type t021 and were scn-negative (a marker of livestock-adaptation). This study demonstrated the presence of MSSA, MRSA, and MDRSA in surface waters adjacent to IHO lagoon waste spray fields in southeastern North Carolina. To our knowledge, this is the first report of waterborne S. aureus from surface waters proximal to IHOs.

  11. ISS Hygiene Activities - Issues and Resolutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokhorov, Kimberlee S.; Feldman, Brienne; Walker, Stephanie; Bruce, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    Hygiene is something that is usually taken for granted by those of us on the Earth. The ability to perform hygiene satisfactorily during long duration space flight is crucial for the crew's ability to function. Besides preserving the basic health of the crew, crew members have expressed that the ability to clean up on-orbit is vital for mental health. Providing this functionality involves more than supplying hygiene items such as soap and toothpaste. On the International Space Station (ISS), the details on where and how to perform hygiene were left to the crew discretion for the first seventeen increments. Without clear guidance, the methods implemented on-orbit have resulted in some unintended consequences to the ISS environment. This paper will outline the issues encountered regarding hygiene activities on-board the ISS, and the lessons that have been learned in addressing those issues. Additionally, the paper will address the resolutions that have been put into place to protect the ISS environment while providing the crew sufficient means to perform hygiene.

  12. Improving compliance with hand hygiene in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Pittet, D

    2000-06-01

    Hand hygiene prevents cross-infection in hospitals, but compliance with recommended instructions often is poor among healthcare workers. Although some previous interventions to improve compliance have been successful, none has achieved lasting improvement. This article reviews reported barriers to appropriate hand hygiene and factors associated with poor compliance. Easy access to hand hygiene in a timely fashion and the availability of skin-care lotion both appear to be necessary prerequisites for appropriate hand-hygiene behavior. In particular, in high-demand situations, hand rub with an alcohol-based solution appears to be the only alternative that allows a decent compliance. The hand-hygiene compliance level does not rely on individual factors alone, and the same can be said for its promotion. Because of the complexity of the process of change, it is not surprising that solo interventions often fail, and multimodal, multidisciplinary strategies are necessary. A framework that includes parameters to be considered for hand-hygiene promotion is proposed, based on epidemiologically driven evidence and review of the current knowledge. Strategies for promotion in hospitals should include reasons for noncompliance with recommendations at individual, group, and institutional levels. Potential tools for change should address each of these elements and consider their interactivity.

  13. Four Moments for Patient Hand Hygiene: A Patient-Centered, Provider-Facilitated Model to Improve Patient Hand Hygiene.

    PubMed

    Sunkesula, Venkata C K; Knighton, Shanina; Zabarsky, Trina F; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Higgins, Patricia A; Donskey, Curtis J

    2015-08-01

    We found that a majority of hospitalized patients were aware of the importance of hand hygiene, but observations indicated that performance of hand hygiene was uncommon. An intervention in which healthcare personnel facilitated hand hygiene at specific moments significantly increased performance of hand hygiene by patients.

  14. Four Moments for Patient Hand Hygiene: A Patient-Centered, Provider-Facilitated Model to Improve Patient Hand Hygiene.

    PubMed

    Sunkesula, Venkata C K; Knighton, Shanina; Zabarsky, Trina F; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Higgins, Patricia A; Donskey, Curtis J

    2015-08-01

    We found that a majority of hospitalized patients were aware of the importance of hand hygiene, but observations indicated that performance of hand hygiene was uncommon. An intervention in which healthcare personnel facilitated hand hygiene at specific moments significantly increased performance of hand hygiene by patients. PMID:25857700

  15. Hand hygiene knowledge and practices of nursing students in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Nasirudeen, A M A; Koh, Josephine W N; Lau, Adeline Lee Chin; Li, Wenjie; Lim, Lay Seng; Ow, Cynthia Yi Xuan

    2012-10-01

    Hand hygiene is an important means of preventing nosocomial infections. Studies have shown a <50% compliance rate for hand hygiene among health care workers. A hand hygiene survey was administered to nursing students in a tertiary institution in Singapore. The results of this survey strongly indicate that nursing students understand the importance of hand hygiene compliance and perceive clinical internship programs and practical laboratory sessions to be effective methods of hand hygiene education.

  16. [The hygienic situation of the central drinking water supply in the former East Germany--an evaluation of the annual reports on water hygiene from 1984 to 1989].

    PubMed

    Schlosser, F U; Schulze, E

    1991-12-01

    In the former GDR an annual report on the situation in the field of communal hygiene had to be elaborated and submitted to the minister of public health. One part of this was the report on the hygienic situation in water supply, worked out by the Reference Laboratory for Water Hygiene in Bad Elster. After the political changes in autumn 1989 it became possible to analyse these reports as a whole. In this paper the reports from 1984 to 1989 are interpreted. The results of the laboratory measurements and field controls by the State Sanitary Inspectorates are shown in 17 graphics and compared to the bacteriological and chemical limits in drinking water standards. Special issue is drawn on the estimation of the number of inhabitants concerned by reduced drinking-water quality or any hazardous situations. The special problems of the different districts are compared in some graphics. The hygienic safety of the central drinking-water supply units is assessed basing on the results of the field controls by the State Sanitary Inspectorate. The Sanitation of the central drinking-water supply facilities in the new federal countries of the FRG is connected with the solution of a variety of technological problems, particularly the improvement of the water treatment techniques and the restoration of the pipe systems. The use of surface waters from extremely polluted rivers generates a high hygienic risk and requires the sanitation of the rivers. The high number of existing protection zones in the catchment areas for drinking-water is a valuable precondition to ensure the hygienic safety of the drinking-water supply in the new federal countries.

  17. Economic analysis of a self-propelled apple harvest and in-field sorting machine for the apple industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. apple industry, which generated more than $2.7 billion revenue at the farm gate in 2013, is facing critical challenges in decreased availability of labor and increased labor and production cost. To address these challenges, a self-propelled apple harvest and automated in-field sorting machi...

  18. Spanish activities (research and industrial applications) in the field of microwave material treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Catala Civera, J.M.; Reyes Davo, E.R. de los

    1996-12-31

    The GCM (Microwave Heating Group) within the Communications Department at the Technical University of Valencia is dedicated to the study of microwaves and their use in the current industrial processes in the Valencian Community and in Spain. To this end, a microwave heating laboratory has been developed and the benefits of incorporating microwave technologies into current industrial processes have been demonstrated. In this paper some of the industrial applications which are being investigated are presented.

  19. Cross-Cultural Competency Adaptability of Dental Hygiene Educators in Entry Level Dental Hygiene Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engeswick, Lynnette Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to discover the extent dental hygiene educators in 25 entry-level dental hygiene programs from the Upper Midwest demonstrate Emotional Resilience, Flexibility and Openness, Perceptual Acuity, and Personal Autonomy as they relate to their level of education and multicultural experiences. An additional purpose was to examine…

  20. [Disinfectants - bacterial cells interactions in the view of hygiene and public health].

    PubMed

    Książczyk, Marta; Krzyżewska, Eva; Futoma-Kołoch, Bożena; Bugla-Płoskońska, Gabriela

    2015-09-20

    In recent years, the use of biocides has increased rapidly. One common example is triclosan, with wide application in households as well as medical and industrial fields, especially food industry and animal husbandry. Chemical disinfection is a major mean to control and eliminate pathogenic bacteria, particularly those with multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. However, exposition to biocides results in an adaptive response in microorganisms, causing them to display a wide range of resistance mechanisms. Numerous microorganisms are characterized by either natural resistance to chemical compounds or an ability to adapt to biocides using various strategies, such as: modification of cell surface structures (lipopolisaccharide), membrane fatty acids), over-expression of efflux pumps (a system for active transport of toxic compounds out of bacterial cell), enzymatic inactivation of biocides or altering biocide targets. For instance, it was shown that in vitro exposition of Salmonella Typhimurium to subinhibitory concentration of biocides (triclosan, quaternary ammonium compounds [QACs]) resulted in selection of variants resistant to tested biocides and, additionally, to acridine dyes and antibiotics. Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus strains isolated from chlorine dioxide containing disinfection devices were found to be resistant to chlorine dioxide and also to other oxidizing compounds, such as peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Interaction between chemical compounds, including disinfectants and microbial cells, can create a serious threat to public health and sanitary-hygienic security. This phenomenon is connected with factor risk that intensify the probability of selection and dissemination of multidrug resistance among pathogenic bacteria.

  1. [Disinfectants - bacterial cells interactions in the view of hygiene and public health].

    PubMed

    Książczyk, Marta; Krzyżewska, Eva; Futoma-Kołoch, Bożena; Bugla-Płoskońska, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the use of biocides has increased rapidly. One common example is triclosan, with wide application in households as well as medical and industrial fields, especially food industry and animal husbandry. Chemical disinfection is a major mean to control and eliminate pathogenic bacteria, particularly those with multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. However, exposition to biocides results in an adaptive response in microorganisms, causing them to display a wide range of resistance mechanisms. Numerous microorganisms are characterized by either natural resistance to chemical compounds or an ability to adapt to biocides using various strategies, such as: modification of cell surface structures (lipopolisaccharide), membrane fatty acids), over-expression of efflux pumps (a system for active transport of toxic compounds out of bacterial cell), enzymatic inactivation of biocides or altering biocide targets. For instance, it was shown that in vitro exposition of Salmonella Typhimurium to subinhibitory concentration of biocides (triclosan, quaternary ammonium compounds [QACs]) resulted in selection of variants resistant to tested biocides and, additionally, to acridine dyes and antibiotics. Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus strains isolated from chlorine dioxide containing disinfection devices were found to be resistant to chlorine dioxide and also to other oxidizing compounds, such as peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Interaction between chemical compounds, including disinfectants and microbial cells, can create a serious threat to public health and sanitary-hygienic security. This phenomenon is connected with factor risk that intensify the probability of selection and dissemination of multidrug resistance among pathogenic bacteria. PMID:26400890

  2. Oral hygiene status of Kuwaiti schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Al-Mutawa, S A; Shyama, M; Al-Duwairi, Y; Soparkar, P

    2011-05-01

    A national epidemiological survey of children aged 5-14 years was conducted in all 5 governorates of Kuwait in 2001 to determine the oral hygiene status of Kuwait in schoolchildren. Clinical examinations were carried out by calibrated dentists according to World Health Organization criteria. The debris index simplified (DI-S) score was used to assess oral hygiene status. Of the 3294 children, 3.9% were judged to have good oral hygiene (DI-S score: 0.3-0.6), 67% fair (score 0.7-1.8) and 29.1% poor (score 1.9-3.0). The overall level of oral hygiene in the schoolchildren surveyed was fair (mean score 1.5). DI-S scores were significantly higher for boys than girls (mean score 1.6 versus 1.5) but DI-S did not vary much by age. There were variations in DI-S scores across different governorates. Oral hygiene measures need to be reinforced for the schoolchildren in Kuwait and should form part of the school curriculum.

  3. Back to basics: hand hygiene and isolation

    PubMed Central

    Lin Huang, G. Khai; Stewardson, Andrew J.; Lindsay Grayson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Hand hygiene and isolation are basic, but very effective, means of preventing the spread of pathogens in healthcare. Although the principle may be straightforward, this review highlights some of the controversies regarding the implementation and efficacy of these interventions. Recent findings Hand hygiene compliance is an accepted measure of quality and safety in many countries. The evidence for the efficacy of hand hygiene in directly reducing rates of hospital-acquired infections has strengthened in recent years, particularly in terms of reduced rates of staphylococcal sepsis. Defining the key components of effective implementation strategies and the ideal method(s) of assessing hand hygiene compliance are dependent on a range of factors associated with the healthcare system. Although patient isolation continues to be an important strategy, particularly in outbreaks, it also has some limitations and can be associated with negative effects. Recent detailed molecular epidemiology studies of key healthcare-acquired pathogens have questioned the true efficacy of isolation, alone as an effective method for the routine prevention of disease transmission. Summary Hand hygiene and isolation are key components of basic infection control. Recent insights into the benefits, limitations and even adverse effects of these interventions are important for their optimal implementation. PMID:24945613

  4. Hand hygiene compliance monitoring: the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Jarrin Tejada, Claudia; Bearman, Gonzalo

    2015-04-01

    Hand hygiene is crucial to prevent transmission of hospital-acquired infections. The WHO recommends five moments for hand hygiene: (1) before patient contact, (2) before performing an aseptic task, (3) after exposure with body fluids, (4) after patient contact, and (5) after contact with patient's surroundings. Nevertheless, hand hygiene compliance rates remain low among healthcare workers. Direct observation is the gold standard method for hand hygiene monitoring; however, it is time consuming and observer dependent. Technology has allowed the development of several other hand hygiene surveillance methods. In this article, we review the different modalities for hand hygiene compliance monitoring.

  5. Unmanned Aerial Systems in Occupational Hygiene-Learning from Allied Disciplines.

    PubMed

    Eninger, Robert M; Johnson, Robert L

    2015-10-01

    Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technologies are rapidly developing, lowering cost, and technology barriers for their use in numerous applications. This review and commentary summarizes relevant literature in allied fields and evaluates potential application and utility of UAS technology in the discipline of occupational hygiene. Disciplines closely related to occupational hygiene are moving to investigate potential uses--and in some cases--already employing this technology for research or commercial purposes. The literature was reviewed to formulate a cross-sectional picture of how UAS technology is being used in these closely allied disciplines which could inform or guide potential use in occupational hygiene. Discussed are UAS applications in environmental monitoring, emergency response, epidemiology, safety, and process optimization. A rapidly developing state of the art indicates that there is potential utility for this technology in occupational hygiene. Benefits may include cost savings, time savings, and averting hazardous environments via remote sensing. The occupational hygiene community can look to allied fields to garner lessons and possible applications to their own practice. PMID:26180263

  6. Unmanned Aerial Systems in Occupational Hygiene-Learning from Allied Disciplines.

    PubMed

    Eninger, Robert M; Johnson, Robert L

    2015-10-01

    Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technologies are rapidly developing, lowering cost, and technology barriers for their use in numerous applications. This review and commentary summarizes relevant literature in allied fields and evaluates potential application and utility of UAS technology in the discipline of occupational hygiene. Disciplines closely related to occupational hygiene are moving to investigate potential uses--and in some cases--already employing this technology for research or commercial purposes. The literature was reviewed to formulate a cross-sectional picture of how UAS technology is being used in these closely allied disciplines which could inform or guide potential use in occupational hygiene. Discussed are UAS applications in environmental monitoring, emergency response, epidemiology, safety, and process optimization. A rapidly developing state of the art indicates that there is potential utility for this technology in occupational hygiene. Benefits may include cost savings, time savings, and averting hazardous environments via remote sensing. The occupational hygiene community can look to allied fields to garner lessons and possible applications to their own practice.

  7. [Field investigations of the air pollution level of populated territories].

    PubMed

    Vinokurov, M V

    2014-01-01

    The assessment and management of air quality of settlements is one of the priorities in the field of environmental protection. In the management of air quality the backbone factor is the methodology of the organization, performance and interpretation of data of field investigations. The present article is devoted to the analysis of the existing methodological approaches and practical aspects of their application in the organization and performance of field investigations with the aim to confirm the adequacy of the boundaries of the sanitary protection zone in the old industrial regions, hygienic evaluation of the data of field investigations of the air pollution level.

  8. Fields of Coal: An analysis of industry and sedimentology in Dolores, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oaden, A.; Besonen, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Research was conducted on a historically significant pond located in the former mining town of Dolores, located north of Laredo, Texas. The intention of this work was, to determine the influence of local mining operations on the environment and determine the extent of coal production from the sedimentary record. The pond is located ~160 m downslope from a former coal mine and waste pile, and was therefore a likely site of coal accumulations, as well as other debris. Additionally, this pond was created only 130 years ago, in 1882, giving a distinct time frame for any sedimentary records. Field work was conducted to obtain sediment core samples from the pond, and corroborating evidence was gathered using historical documents from archives in Laredo, online resources, as well as library records and inter library loan. Sedimentary cores obtained were shorter than desired as a result of the densely packed clay, which reduceding the penetration of coring equipment, leaving the historical extent of the cores limited. The limited sedimentary record also gives little indication as to the extent of production in the nearby mine and how it may have varied over time. The split cores were scanned with a Minolta CM-2600d spectrophotometer, and the results were transformed into first derivative spectrum equivalent data to identify common sedimentary minerals according to their first derivative signatures. The spectral analysis on the cores determined a large amount of clay minerals, and also limonite/goethite according to prominent first derivative peaks centered on ~440 and 540 nm. This agrees with visual observations given the all minerals showing spectra most intense in the 625 -725 nm portion of the visible spectrum, giving the cores their largely yellowish-reddish/brown hue of the cores. Magnetic susceptibility analysis indicated great changes in mineral contentmagnetism, some possibly associated with ash from fires. Bulk density and loss-on-ignition analysis to further

  9. Improving hand hygiene after neurological injury.

    PubMed

    Duke, Lynsay; Gibbison, Lucy; McMahon, Victoria

    Caring for hands tightened by spasticity after stroke, brain injury or other neurological conditions can be challenging for care staff. Opening and cleaning the hand, managing pressure areas, cutting nails and reducing pain becomes more complex if muscles are tight and short. Hand hygiene is key for staff but literature on patients' hand and nail care is lacking, so specialist education and care planning may be needed to help staff ensure these activities are done well. This article outlines the importance of maintaining patients' hand hygiene, explores the barriers to providing effective care and discusses how they might be overcome.

  10. A Case Study of an Academia-Industry Partnership to Meet the Education and Training Needs in a Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics (STEM) Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joseph Carl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to provide a description of the characteristics of an academia-industry partnership that works together with industry to meet the education and training needs in a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) field. After the launch of Sputnik in 1957, U.S. pursued efforts to compete in STEM fields on…

  11. [Synopsis of Chinese food hygiene situation from 1912 to 1927].

    PubMed

    Li, X; Wang, X

    1994-01-01

    The primary food hygiene work had been conducted from 1912-1927 in China. Some scholars advocated learning from the West to pay attention to food hygiene. There were a few administrative agencies and regulations of food hygiene in China. Due to the restriction of politics, economy, culture and science, the work of food hygiene was in its young stage. The food born-diseases were one of the main causes of death. Guangzhou's work of food hygiene was better, because of its superior geographical position. Most areas of China were worse on food hygiene. Scholars appealed to society to pay more attention to food hygiene, make regulations which were in conformity with Chinese conditions and train more public hygiene specialists.

  12. Hygiene-Related Diseases: Athlete's Foot (Tinea Pedis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Water, Sanitation & Environmentally-related Hygiene Note: Javascript is disabled or ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene Handwashing Keeping Hands Clean Handwashing: ...

  13. [Hygienic requirements for transportation of industrial waste and consumption residues].

    PubMed

    Metel'skiĭ, S V; Sin'kova, N V

    2009-01-01

    All wishing legal persons and individual entrepreneurs are presently engaged in garbage disposal Sanitary-and-epidemiological examination of activities in transportation of waste is complicated by that the existing sanitary regulations lack no requirements for storage, repair, washing, sanitization of waste-carrying transport, particularly epidemiologically dangerous (domestic, food, and biological waste, animal excreta, cut hair, etc.). PMID:20143485

  14. Industrial Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demain, Arnold L.; Solomon, Nadine A.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of the field of industrial microbiology, providing historical backgrounds of scientific discoveries in the field and descriptions of industrially important microorganisms. Applied research in industry is also detailed, with mention of gene amplification, DNA recombination, pharmaceutical approaches, and detoxification and…

  15. Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…

  16. Initiating Tobacco Curricula in Dental Hygiene Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Linda D.; Fun, Kay; Madden, Theresa E.

    2006-01-01

    Two hours of tobacco instructions were incorporated into the baccalaureate dental hygiene curricula in a university in the Northwestern United States. Prior to graduation, all senior students were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire surveying attitudes and clinical skills in providing tobacco services to their clinic patients. Twenty…

  17. 9 CFR 416.5 - Employee hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... product-packaging materials must adhere to hygienic practices while on duty to prevent adulteration of... as necessary to prevent adulteration of product and the creation of insanitary conditions. (c... from any operations which could result in product adulteration and the creation of...

  18. Health Instruction Packages: Consumer--Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Floyd R.; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of five learning modules to instruct dental patients and the general public in the fundamental principles of dental hygiene. The first module, "Identify the Responsibilities for Your Oral Health" by Floyd R. Tanner, discusses the respective roles of the dentist and the patient in…

  19. Medical Emergency Education in Dental Hygiene Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stach, Donna J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 169 dental hygiene training programs investigated the curriculum content and instruction concerning medical emergency treatment, related clinical practice, and program policy. Several trends are noted: increased curriculum hours devoted to emergency care; shift in course content to more than life-support care; and increased emergency…

  20. North Seattle Community College Chemical Hygiene Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Seattle Community Coll., WA.

    The goal of the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP), created by North Seattle Community College, is to provide an environment that protects and promotes health and safety and complies with health and safety laws. The CHP focuses especially on the laboratory workplace (biology and chemistry), as many hazardous materials can be found there. Employee…

  1. Community Living Skills Guide: Looking Good: Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreps, Alice Roelofs; Dreith, Rita Vallero

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Looking Good: Hygiene. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized…

  2. Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook. 1988 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules and regulations of the New York State Education Department governing dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state are presented. In addition, the requirements and procedures for obtaining licensure and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist in New York are discussed. The following chapters are provided: (1)…

  3. Outcomes Assessment in Dental Hygiene Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Ellen B.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 22 dental-hygiene-program directors found that programs routinely and effectively assess student outcomes and use the information for program improvements and to demonstrate accountability. Both policy and faculty/administrative support were deemed important to implementation. Time constraints were a major barrier. Outcomes-assessment…

  4. Monitoring hand hygiene: meaningless, harmful, or helpful?

    PubMed

    Larson, Elaine

    2013-05-01

    Whereas monitoring adherence to hand hygiene (HH) guidelines is standard practice in most acute care facilities, practice improvement has been slow. In hospitals primarily concerned with reputation, incentives to report high HH rates may create negative consequences. Practice change will require increased staff engagement and more sustainable methods to monitor HH and provide feedback.

  5. Relationship of sleep hygiene awareness, sleep hygiene practices, and sleep quality in university students.

    PubMed

    Brown, Franklin C; Buboltz, Walter C; Soper, Barlow

    2002-01-01

    College students are known for their variable sleep schedules. Such schedules, along with other common student practices (e.g., alcohol and caffeine consumption), are associated with poor sleep hygiene. Researchers have demonstrated in clinical populations that improving sleep hygiene knowledge and practices is an effective treatment for insomnia. However, researchers who have examined relationships between sleep hygiene and practices in nonclinical samples and overall sleep quality have produced inconsistent findings, perhaps because of questionable measures. In this study, the authors used psychometrically sound instruments to examine these variables and to counter the shortcomings in previous investigations. Their findings suggest that knowledge of sleep hygiene is related to sleep practices, which, in turn, is related to overall sleep quality. The data from their regression modeling indicated that variable sleep schedules, going to bed thirsty, environmental noise, and worrying while falling asleep contribute to poor sleep quality. PMID:12244643

  6. Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-10-01

    Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was <100,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the period. Less frequent scraping of the barn alleys was associated with cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was

  7. Promoting Critical Thinking among Dental Hygiene Students: Strategies for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan D'Ambrisi, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Dental hygiene education has evolved over the years from dental hygiene professions who provide patient education on oral health care to assuming the responsibility for the assimilation of knowledge that requires judgment, decision making and critical thinking skills. Given that the dental hygiene professions has moved toward evidence-based,…

  8. Fabrication of new restorations with a consideration of oral hygiene.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Swati; Wicks, Russell; Selecman, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of adequate and effective oral hygiene is crucial for the long-term success of any dental therapy. This article discusses a case that failed due to the poor oral hygiene of the patient. Fabrication of uncomplicated restorations, patient education, motivation, maintenance and recall are important factors to be considered when treatment planning patients with poor oral hygiene. PMID:27621554

  9. Ten years of industrial and municipal membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems - lessons from the field.

    PubMed

    Larrea, Asun; Rambor, Andre; Fabiyi, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    The use of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) in activated sludge wastewater treatment has grown significantly in the last decade. While there is growing awareness and knowledge about the application of MBR technology in municipal wastewater treatment, not much information is available on the application of MBRs in industrial wastewater treatment. A comparative study of design data, operating conditions and the major challenges associated with MBR operations in 24 MBR plants treating both municipal and industrial wastewater, built by and/or operated by Praxair, Inc., is presented. Of the 24 MBR systems described, 12 of the plants used high purity oxygen (HPO). By enabling a wide range of food/microorganism ratios and loading conditions in the same system, HPO MBR systems can extend the options available to industrial plant operators to meet the challenges of wide fluctuations in organic loading and footprint limitations. While fouling in industrial MBR systems can be an issue, adequate flux and permeability values can be reliably maintained by the use of good maintenance strategies and effective process controls (pretreatment, cleaning and membrane autopsies).

  10. Brief history of fiber optic sensing in the oil field industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Christopher S.

    2014-06-01

    The use of fiber optic sensing in the oil and gas industry has greatly expanded over the past two decades. Since the first optical fiber-based pressure sensor was installed in a well in 1993, the industry has sought to use fiber sensing technology to monitor in-well parameters. Through the years, optical fiber sensing has been used in an increasing number of applications as technical advances have opened the door for new measurements. Today, fiber optic sensors are used routinely to measure temperature throughout the wellbore. Optical sensors also provide pressure measurements at key locations within the well. These measurements are used to verify the integrity of the well, provide feedback during well completion operations, including the actuation of downhole valves, and to monitor the production or injection process. Other sensors, such as seismic monitors and flowmeters, use fiber sensing technology to make in-well measurements. Various optical sensing techniques are used to make these measurements, including Bragg grating, Raman scattering, and coherent Rayleigh scattering. These measurements are made in harsh environments, which require rugged designs for optical cable systems and instrumentation systems. Some of these applications have operating temperatures of 572°F (300°C), and other applications can have pressures in excess of 20,000 psi (1,379 bar). This paper provides a historical perspective on the use of fiber optic sensing in the oil and gas industry from industry firsts to current applications.

  11. Too clean, or not too clean: the Hygiene Hypothesis and home hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, SF; Stanwell-Smith, R; Crevel, RWR; Pickup, J

    2006-01-01

    Summary The ‘hygiene hypothesis’ as originally formulated by Strachan, proposes that a cause of the recent rapid rise in atopic disorders could be a lower incidence of infection in early childhood, transmitted by unhygienic contact with older siblings. Use of the term ‘hygiene hypothesis’ has led to several interpretations, some of which are not supported by a broader survey of the evidence. The increase in allergic disorders does not correlate with the decrease in infection with pathogenic organisms, nor can it be explained by changes in domestic hygiene. A consensus is beginning to develop round the view that more fundamental changes in lifestyle have led to decreased exposure to certain microbial or other species, such as helminths, that are important for the development of immunoregulatory mechanisms. Although this review concludes that the relationship of the hypothesis to hygiene practice is not proven, it lends strong support to initiatives seeking to improve hygiene practice. It would however be helpful if the hypothesis were renamed, e.g. as the ‘microbial exposure’ hypothesis, or ‘microbial deprivation’ hypothesis, as proposed for instance by Bjorksten. Avoiding the term ‘hygiene’ would help focus attention on determining the true impact of microbes on atopic diseases, while minimizing risks of discouraging good hygiene practice. PMID:16630145

  12. [Procedures for hand hygiene in German-speaking countries].

    PubMed

    Rotter, M

    1996-12-01

    According to the field of application, strategies for the prevention of the transfer of microbial skin flora from the hands must consider the various categories of flora: transient, resident or stemming from infected lesions on the hands (infection flora). Depending on the species and virulence of the microorganism and of the susceptibility of the infection target, transient flora may or may not be of pathogenic importance. In contrast, resident skin flora is usually regarded as pathogenic only under certain circumstances such as in surgery, especially with transplantation of foreign bodies and in highly susceptible hosts. Microorganisms stemming from infected lesions are of proven pathogenicity. In the non-surgical field, only the transient and infection flora from the hands play a role. Such lesions are an absolute contraindication for patient-care, preparation of pharmaceuticals or foodstuff. In some procedures, the transmission of transient flora can be prevented by use of the non-touch technique ("instruments instead of fingers") or by the intelligent use of protective gloves. Hands already contaminated may be rendered safe by procedures for the elimination of transients such as handwashing, hygienic handwash and hygienic hand rub (in the order of increasing efficacy). Among all useable chemicals, ethanol, isopropanol and n-propanol (in the order of increasing efficacy) are the strongest and fastest agents. Furthermore, the duration of treatment (between 30 and 60 s) significantly influences the achievable reduction of microbial release. According to the new European standards (CEN) for testing chemical disinfectants and antiseptics, products for hygienic handwash must be significantly more efficacious than unmedicated soap, on artificially contaminated hands. In contrast, products for the hygienic hand rub must not be significantly less efficacious than a reference disinfection including isopropanol 60% vol rubbed onto the hands of the same volunteers during

  13. Performance of a PADC personal neutron dosemeter at simulated and real workplace fields of the nuclear industry.

    PubMed

    Fiechtner, A; Boschung, M; Wernli, C

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the EVIDOS (Evaluation of Individual Dosimetry in Mixed Neutron and Photon Radiation Fields) project, funded by the EC, measurements with PADC personal neutron dosemeters were carried out at several workplace fields of the nuclear industry and at simulated workplace fields. The measured personal neutron dose equivalents of the PADC personal neutron dosemeter are compared with values that were assessed within the EVIDOS project by other partners. The detection limits for different spectra types are given. In cases were the neutron dose was too low to be measured by the PADC personal neutron dosemeter, the response is estimated by convoluting the responses to monoenergetic neutrons with the dose energy distribution measured within EVIDOS. The advantages and limitations of the PADC personal neutron dosemeter are discussed. PMID:17578876

  14. Water disinfection and hygiene behaviour in an urban slum in Kenya: impact on childhood diarrhoea and influence of beliefs.

    PubMed

    Graf, Jürg; Meierhofer, Regula; Wegelin, Martin; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2008-10-01

    In this research project, we studied factors that presumably affect the incidence of diarrhoea among young children in urban slums in developing countries: consumption of safe drinks, hygiene behaviour, cleanliness of household surroundings and the quality of raw water. Beliefs concerning the causes of diarrhoea were also related to health-improving behaviour, namely the application of the water-treatment method SODIS (solar water disinfection) and hygiene behaviour. We conducted a survey in a shanty town in Nairobi, Kenya. Field workers interviewed 500 households. Analysis with regression models revealed that two out of the four postulated factors were significant: children have a lower risk of contracting diarrhoea when they consume high percentages of safe drinks and live in households with good hygiene. As regards beliefs, we found that biomedical knowledge of children's diarrhoea as well as the perceived social norm for treating water was associated with the use of SODIS and good hygiene. PMID:18821373

  15. Water disinfection and hygiene behaviour in an urban slum in Kenya: impact on childhood diarrhoea and influence of beliefs.

    PubMed

    Graf, Jürg; Meierhofer, Regula; Wegelin, Martin; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2008-10-01

    In this research project, we studied factors that presumably affect the incidence of diarrhoea among young children in urban slums in developing countries: consumption of safe drinks, hygiene behaviour, cleanliness of household surroundings and the quality of raw water. Beliefs concerning the causes of diarrhoea were also related to health-improving behaviour, namely the application of the water-treatment method SODIS (solar water disinfection) and hygiene behaviour. We conducted a survey in a shanty town in Nairobi, Kenya. Field workers interviewed 500 households. Analysis with regression models revealed that two out of the four postulated factors were significant: children have a lower risk of contracting diarrhoea when they consume high percentages of safe drinks and live in households with good hygiene. As regards beliefs, we found that biomedical knowledge of children's diarrhoea as well as the perceived social norm for treating water was associated with the use of SODIS and good hygiene.

  16. Industrial Sewing Classroom Delivery System. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This teacher's guide, consisting of a series of 12 lesson plans for use in teaching 20 self-paced learning modules, deals with industrial sewing. Covered in the individual lesson plans are the following topics: an orientation to industrial sewing; the history of industrial sewing; safety and hygiene in the laboratory and in the factory; machine…

  17. Effect of guideline implementation on costs of hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Stone, Patricia W; Hasan, Sumya; Quiros, Dave; Larson, Elaine L

    2007-01-01

    Hands of health care personnel frequently serve as vectors for the transmission of organisms between patients and are also a major reservoir for pathogens with antimicrobial resistance. Hand hygiene is one effective strategy to reduce health care associated infections. The purposes of this study were to (a) compare the costs of hand hygiene in hospitals with high and low hand hygiene compliance as well as high and low frequency of alcohol hand rub use; and (b) examine associations between hospital characteristics and hand hygiene compliance as well as frequency of alcohol hand rub use. Nursing and health care policy leaders should look for ways to promote sustained adherence to hand hygiene recommendations.

  18. Improving adherence to hand hygiene practice: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed Central

    Pittet, D.

    2001-01-01

    Hand hygiene prevents cross-infection in hospitals, but health-care workers' adherence to guidelines is poor. Easy, timely access to both hand hygiene and skin protection is necessary for satisfactory hand hygiene behavior. Alcohol- based hand rubs may be better than traditional handwashing as they require less time, act faster, are less irritating, and contribute to sustained improvement in compliance associated with decreased infection rates. This article reviews barriers to appropriate hand hygiene and risk factors for noncompliance and proposes strategies for promoting hand hygiene. PMID:11294714

  19. Contributions regarding increasing reliability of beer industry installations using weld cladding in ultrasonic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amza, Gh; Petrescu, V.; Niţoi, D.; Mateiu, A.; Dimitrescu, A.; Apostolescu, Z.

    2016-08-01

    Paper presents a new technology for availability increasing of different installation parts used in beer industry - ultrasonic activation of metal deposition by welding. The dilution phenomenon is studied linked on its influence upon material technological and functional properties in the three distinct zones of resulted couple (filler material, influenced thermal zone, base material). Experimental results performed on unidirectional valve are presented regarding variation of chemical composition concentration and dilution variation in three zones influenced by ultrasonic wave.

  20. Spot-checks to measure general hygiene practice.

    PubMed

    Sonego, Ina L; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    A variety of hygiene behaviors are fundamental to the prevention of diarrhea. We used spot-checks in a survey of 761 households in Burundi to examine whether something we could call general hygiene practice is responsible for more specific hygiene behaviors, ranging from handwashing to sweeping the floor. Using structural equation modeling, we showed that clusters of hygiene behavior, such as primary caregivers' cleanliness and household cleanliness, explained the spot-check findings well. Within our model, general hygiene practice as overall concept explained the more specific clusters of hygiene behavior well. Furthermore, the higher general hygiene practice, the more likely children were to be categorized healthy (r = 0.46). General hygiene practice was correlated with commitment to hygiene (r = 0.52), indicating a strong association to psychosocial determinants. The results show that different hygiene behaviors co-occur regularly. Using spot-checks, the general hygiene practice of a household can be rated quickly and easily. PMID:27666296

  1. Sleep Hygiene and Sleep Quality in Italian and American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    LeBOURGEOIS, MONIQUE K.; GIANNOTTI, FLAVIA; CORTESI, FLAVIA; WOLFSON, AMY; HARSH, JOHN

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in adolescent sleep hygiene and sleep quality. Participants were 1348 students (655 males; 693 females) aged 12–17 years from public school systems in Rome, Italy (n = 776) and Southern Mississippi (n = 572). Participants completed the Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale and the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale. Reported sleep hygiene and sleep quality were significantly better for Italian than American adolescents. A moderate linear relationship was observed between sleep hygiene and sleep quality in both samples (Italians: R = .40; Americans: R = .46). Separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that sleep hygiene accounted for significant variance in sleep quality, even after controlling for demographic and health variables (Italians: R2 = .38; Americans: R2 = .44). The results of this study suggest that there are cultural differences in sleep quality and sleep hygiene practices, and that sleep hygiene practices are importantly related to adolescent sleep quality. PMID:15251909

  2. Construction of Specialty Guide Field Coils Using an Industrial Robotic Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, William; Crawford, Christopher; Fugal, Mario; Martin, Elise; Wagner, Daniel; Milburn, Robert

    2011-10-01

    Many contemporary nuclear physics experiments require precise control of the magnetic field within key regions of the experimental apparatus. The nEDM experiment, for instance, requires uniform guide fields (produced by guide field coils) to transport neutron spin polarization from the polarizer to the measurement cell. Guide field coils in general are subject to tight geometrical constraints, and must not produce any external fields which would affect the results of the experiment. In order to produce a satisfactory coil in light of these constraints, a systematic design technique is needed. We introduce the magnetic scalar potential technique, which calculates the exact coil windings required on a specified boundary to produce any desired field distribution inside that satisfies Maxwell's equations. Realizing the designs produced by this technique introduces an additional difficulty: winding many turns according to the exact calculated paths. This is addressed by ``printing'' our coils onto a copper-plated G10 form using a calibrated robot arm and spindle, resulting in a 3-d printed circuit board. To correct for deviations in the actual shape of the form, we use a laser displacement sensor to capture the actual geometry as input into the calculation of the windings. Supported in part by NSF grant PHY-0855584.

  3. Liquid wastes and industrial sludge. New investigation fields to recycle metals

    SciTech Connect

    Meux, E.; Leclerc, N.; Peneliau, F.; Muller, P.

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this work is to propose some alternatives to the landfilling of metallic hydroxide sludge coming from the classical physico-chemical treatment of liquid wastes containing metallic cations. A downstream treatment was investigated. It consists of a selective leaching of filter-press cakes. This chemical treatment allows the elimination of toxic metals from the sludge and produces an inertized residue. An upstream treatment was studied: the selective precipitation of metallic cations. In this case, it is possible to obtain zinc sulfide and iron oxide. These products meet the acceptance conditions for the zinc and steel industry.

  4. Addressing the needs for international training, qualifications, and career development in occupational hygiene.

    PubMed

    Alesbury, Roger J; Bailey, Stephen R

    2014-03-01

    Thirteen member societies of the International Occupational Hygiene Association (IOHA), all 11 national certification bodies, and IOHA itself are now cooperating in a new international training and qualification system. The structure broadens access to occupational hygiene education and training worldwide and complements existing professional accreditation schemes. There are currently 46 Approved Training Providers in the scheme and up to the end of June 2013, approaching 200 courses had been delivered in more than 32 countries, with nearly 2400 examinations taken in 7 languages. This influx of students, particularly in developing countries, is helping to address the worldwide need to combat occupational illness and is creating the foundation for sustainable growth in provision of occupational hygiene globally. The scheme originated in 2006, when the authors were instrumental in bringing together a group of senior hygienists to review the needs of industry. The resulting position paper, reflecting the perspective of major multi-national companies, was subject to widespread consultation with a diverse group of stakeholders from across the world. This led to the formation of the Occupational Hygiene Training Association (OHTA), as a not-for-profit organization, to operate the system. It is accessible through the OHlearning website that provides free downloads of educational materials and details of training events. In this commentary, we outline the needs that brought this about, identify the key stakeholders involved, review what has been done so far, and discuss some plans for the future.

  5. Bygiene: The New Paradigm of Bidirectional Hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A.; Knights, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The pervasive dogma surrounding the evolution of virulence — namely, that a pathogen’s virulence decreases over time to prevent threatening its host — is an archaic assertion that is more appropriately cast as an optimization of virulence cost and benefit. However, the prevailing attitudes underlying practices of medical hygiene and sanitization remain entrenched in these passé ideas. This is true despite the emergence of evidence linking those practices to mounting virulence and antimicrobial resistance in the hospital. It is, therefore, our position that just as the microbe has sought an optimized balance in virulence, so should we seek such an optimized balance in vigilance, complementing warfare with restoration. We call this approach “bygiene,” or bidirectional hygiene. PMID:26604859

  6. Bygiene: The New Paradigm of Bidirectional Hygiene.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A; Knights, Dan

    2015-12-01

    The pervasive dogma surrounding the evolution of virulence - -namely, that a pathogen's virulence decreases over time to prevent threatening its host -- is an archaic assertion that is more appropriately cast as an optimization of virulence cost and benefit. However, the prevailing attitudes underlying practices of medical hygiene and sanitization remain entrenched in these passé ideas. This is true despite the emergence of evidence linking those practices to mounting virulence and antimicrobial resistance in the hospital. It is, therefore, our position that just as the microbe has sought an optimized balance in virulence, so should we seek such an optimized balance in vigilance, complementing warfare with restoration. We call this approach "bygiene," or bidirectional hygiene. PMID:26604859

  7. [Substantiation of a complex of radiation-hygienic approaches to the management of very low-level waste].

    PubMed

    Korenkov, I P; Lashchenova, T N; Shandala, N K

    2015-01-01

    In the article there are presented materials on radiation-hygienic approaches to the treatment of very low level radioactive waste (VLLW) and industrial waste containing radionuclides. There is done detailed information on radiation-hygienic principles and criteria for the assurance ofradiation safety in the collection, transportation, storage and processing of VLLW as a category of radioactive waste.. Particular attention is paid to the problem of designing VLLW landfill site choice, system of radiation monitoring in operation and decommissioning of the landfill. There are presented data about the criteria for the release of VLLW buried at the site, from regulatory control. Also there are considered in detail the radiation-hygienic requirements for radiation safety of industrial waste containing radionuclides for which there is assumed unlimited and limited use of solid materials in economic activity, based on the requirements ofthe revised Basic Sanitary Rules for Radiation Safety - 99/2010. There are considered basic requirements for the organization of industrial waste landfill. As an example, there-are presented the hygiene requirements for industrial waste management and results of waste categorization in Northern Federal Enterprise for Radioactive Waste Management. PMID:26031036

  8. Field-based supercritical fluid extraction of hydrocarbons at industrially contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Rigou, Peggy; Setford, Steven John; Saini, Selwayan

    2002-04-19

    Examination of organic pollutants in groundwaters should also consider the source of the pollution, which is often a solid matrix such as soil, landfill waste, or sediment. This premise should be viewed alongside the growing trend towards field-based characterisation of contaminated sites for reasons of speed and cost. Field-based methods for the extraction of organic compounds from solid samples are generally cumbersome, time consuming, or inefficient. This paper describes the development of a field-based supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) system for the recovery of organic contaminants (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) from soils. A simple, compact, and robust SFE system has been constructed and was found to offer the same extraction efficiency as a well-established laboratory SFE system. Extraction optimisation was statistically evaluated using a factorial analysis procedure. Under optimised conditions, the device yielded recovery efficiencies of >70% with RSD values of 4% against the standard EPA Soxhlet method, compared with a mean recovery efficiency of 48% for a commercially available field-extraction kit. The device will next be evaluated with real samples prior to field deployment.

  9. [Hygienic characteristics of children's educational establishments].

    PubMed

    Ponomarenko, I I; Cherkashin, O G

    2009-01-01

    The improved procedure for an integrated assessment of the state-of-the-art of preschool educational establishments was appraised. This procedure provides the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of each factor, the degree of its incompliance to the hygienic standards, reveals risk factors, and allows one to take operative decisions to manage a risk, which are aimed at promoting the health status in infants, and expands a sociohygienic monitoring methodology, by increasing the number of accountable objects of the vital activity medium.

  10. [All-Russian hygienic exhibitions and museums].

    PubMed

    Kuzybaeva, M P

    2011-01-01

    The material about the popularization of hygiene and health education in Russia in the second half of the 19th century to early 20th century through exhibition and museum activities has been collected for the first time and analyzed in the paper. The role of scientists and scientific medical societies in this process is noted. The significance of museum and exhibition activities in this area for the development of medical science is defined.

  11. [An analysis of industrial accidents in the working field with a particular emphasis on repeated accidents].

    PubMed

    Wakisaka, I; Yanagihashi, T; Tomari, T; Sato, M

    1990-03-01

    The present study is based on an analysis of routinely submitted reports of occupational accidents experienced by the workers of industrial enterprises under the jurisdiction of Kagoshima Labor Standard Office during a 5-year period 1983 to 1987. Officially notified injuries serious enough to keep employees away from their job for work at least 4 days were utilized in this study. Data was classified so as to give an observed frequency distribution for workers having any specified number of accidents. Also, the accident rate which is an indicator of the risk of accident was compared among different occupations, between age groups and between the sexes. Results obtained are as follows; 1) For the combined total of 6,324 accident cases for 8 types of occupation (Construction, Transportation, Mining & Quarrying, Forestry, Food manufacture, Lumber & Woodcraft, Manufacturing industry and Other business), the number of those who had at least one accident was 6,098, of which 5,837 were injured only once, 208 twice, 21 three times and 2 four times. When occupation type was fixed, however, the number of workers having one, two, three and four times of accidents were 5,895, 182, 19 and 2, respectively. This suggests that some workers are likely to have experienced repeated accidents in more than one type of occupation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2131982

  12. [An analysis of industrial accidents in the working field with a particular emphasis on repeated accidents].

    PubMed

    Wakisaka, I; Yanagihashi, T; Tomari, T; Sato, M

    1990-03-01

    The present study is based on an analysis of routinely submitted reports of occupational accidents experienced by the workers of industrial enterprises under the jurisdiction of Kagoshima Labor Standard Office during a 5-year period 1983 to 1987. Officially notified injuries serious enough to keep employees away from their job for work at least 4 days were utilized in this study. Data was classified so as to give an observed frequency distribution for workers having any specified number of accidents. Also, the accident rate which is an indicator of the risk of accident was compared among different occupations, between age groups and between the sexes. Results obtained are as follows; 1) For the combined total of 6,324 accident cases for 8 types of occupation (Construction, Transportation, Mining & Quarrying, Forestry, Food manufacture, Lumber & Woodcraft, Manufacturing industry and Other business), the number of those who had at least one accident was 6,098, of which 5,837 were injured only once, 208 twice, 21 three times and 2 four times. When occupation type was fixed, however, the number of workers having one, two, three and four times of accidents were 5,895, 182, 19 and 2, respectively. This suggests that some workers are likely to have experienced repeated accidents in more than one type of occupation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Dental hygiene students' perceptions of older adults.

    PubMed

    Wiener, R Constance; Shockey, Alcinda Trickett; Long, D Leann

    2014-12-01

    Geriatric education is an important component of the dental hygiene curriculum because, in it, students acquire skills and attitudes to help provide quality care to older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if off-site exposure to nursing home residents with supervised oversight had the potential to improve dental hygiene students' attitudes toward older adults. Senior dental hygiene students at one school completed a pre-nursing home experience questionnaire. A series of geriatric lectures and discussions, which included discussions about students' anxieties of working with institutionalized older adults, were held prior to the nursing home experience. The students then participated in two supervised four-hour nursing home experiences, were debriefed after the experiences, and completed a second questionnaire. Of thirty-nine potential participants in the study, thirty-two took part in the pre-nursing home experience questionnaire (82.1 percent). They had a mean split Fabroni score of 34.2 (95 percent confidence interval: 32.2, 36.3). The thirty participants in the post-experience questionnaire (76.9 percent of total) had a mean split score of 32.7 (95 percent confidence interval: 30.1, 35.3). This study failed to reject the null hypothesis of no mean difference between the pre- and post-nursing home experience; however, the post-experience mean score was lower than the pre-nursing home experience mean score, indicating a more positive attitude toward older adults after the experience.

  14. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume III: Inspection Procedures for Specific Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume III, explains in detail the following: inspection procedures for specific sources, kraft pulp mills, animal rendering, steel mill furnaces, coking operations, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, non-ferrous smelting and refining, foundries, cement plants, aluminum…

  15. Double disordered YBCO coated conductors of industrial scale: high currents in high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraimov, D.; Ballarino, A.; Barth, C.; Bottura, L.; Dietrich, R.; Francis, A.; Jaroszynski, J.; Majkic, G. S.; McCallister, J.; Polyanskii, A.; Rossi, L.; Rutt, A.; Santos, M.; Schlenga, K.; Selvamanickam, V.; Senatore, C.; Usoskin, A.; Viouchkov, Y. L.

    2015-11-01

    A significant increase of critical current in high magnetic field, up to 31 T, was recorded in long tapes manufactured by employing a double-disorder route. In a double-disordered high-temperature superconductor (HTS), a superimposing of intrinsic and extrinsic disorder takes place in a way that (i) the intrinsic disorder is caused by local stoichiometry deviations that lead to defects of crystallinity that serve as pining centers in the YBa2Cu3O x-δ matrix and (ii) the extrinsic disorder is introduced via embedded atoms or particles of foreign material (e.g. barium zirconate), which create a set of lattice defects. We analyzed possible technological reasons for this current gain. The properties of these tapes over a wider field-temperature range as well as field anisotropy were also studied. Record values of critical current as high as 309 A at 31 T, 500 A at 18 Tm and 1200 A at 5 T were found in 4 mm wide tape at 4.2 K and B perpendicular to tape surface. HTS layers were processed in medium-scale equipment that allows a maximum batch length of 250 m while 22 m long batches were provided for investigation. Abnormally high ratios (up to 10) of critical current density measured at 4.2 K, 19 T to critical current density measured at 77 K, self-field were observed in tapes with the highest in-field critical current. Anisotropy of the critical current as well as angular dependences of n and α values were investigated. The temperature dependence of critical current is presented for temperatures between 4.2 and 40 K. Prospects for the suppression of the dog-bone effect by Cu plating and upscale of processing chain to >500 m piece length are discussed.

  16. Education and training of professional industrial hygienists for 2020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Four questions are addressed: (1) Are we giving sufficient attention to the professional education of industrial hygienists?; (2) Are we achieving an adequate measure of control of hazards at the workplace?; (3) What is our record of success in this field?; and (4) Do we have clear objectives, both as a profession and as individuals? I discuss some aspects of these but will not attempt to provide answers, hoping thereby to stimulate discussion and to conceal the fact that I do not know the answers myself. I will, however, follow this discussion with a review of the overall need for training in industrial hygiene, and will conclude with some comments about needed changes in the education of future professional industrial hygienists.

  17. Optic for industrial endoscope/borescope with narrow field of view and low distortion

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Gary F.; Trebes, James E.

    2005-08-16

    An optic for the imaging optics on the distal end of a flexible fiberoptic endoscope or rigid borescope inspection tool. The image coverage is over a narrow (<20 degrees) field of view with very low optical distortion (<5% pin cushion or barrel distortion), compared to the typical <20% distortion. The optic will permit non-contact surface roughness measurements using optical techniques. This optic will permit simultaneous collection of selected image plane data, which data can then be subsequently optically processed. The image analysis will yield non-contact surface topology data for inspection where access to the surface does not permit a mechanical styles profilometer verification of surface topology. The optic allows a very broad spectral band or range of optical inspection. It is capable of spectroscopic imaging and fluorescence induced imaging when a scanning illumination source is used. The total viewing angle for this optic is 10 degrees for the full field of view of 10 degrees, compared to 40-70 degrees full angle field of view of the conventional gradient index or GRIN's lens systems.

  18. Assessment of hand hygiene compliance after hand hygiene education among health care workers in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Sansam, Sim; Yamamoto, Eiko; Srun, Sok; Sinath, Yin; Moniborin, Mey; Bun Sim, Kheang; Reyer, Joshua A.; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Health care-associated infection (HCAI) is the most frequent adverse event for hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is a simple and effective solution to protect patients from HCAI. This study aimed to introduce hand hygiene to health care workers based on the World Health Organization guideline for reducing HCAI in Cambodia and to assess their behavioral patterns on hand hygiene. All health care workers at Kampong Cham provincial hospital had lectures and practice on hand hygiene in January 2012. The surveys for hand hygiene compliance (HHC) were performed after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years, respectively. The number of surgical site infections (SSI) was counted in 2011 and 2014. Our analysis used the data of 58 workers, who were observed at all three points, although 139 workers were observed during the study period. The average of HHC at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were 62.37%, 85.76% and 80.36%, respectively. The improved group (HHC 2 years/1 year≧1) had 32 workers, whereas the worsened group (HHC 2 years/1 year<1) had 26. There was a significant difference in departments of the two groups (P=0.011) but not in sex, age or occupations. The improved group had more workers of General (31.2% vs. 19.2%), Surgical (25.0% vs. 11.5%) and Infection (21.9% vs. 11.5%) categories compared to the worsened group. The incidence of SSI was improved from 32.26% in 2011 to 0.97% in 2014. Our results suggest that the education and the survey on hand hygiene are effective for reducing HCAI in Cambodia. PMID:27303102

  19. Assessment of hand hygiene compliance after hand hygiene education among health care workers in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Sansam, Sim; Yamamoto, Eiko; Srun, Sok; Sinath, Yin; Moniborin, Mey; Bun Sim, Kheang; Reyer, Joshua A; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-05-01

    Health care-associated infection (HCAI) is the most frequent adverse event for hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is a simple and effective solution to protect patients from HCAI. This study aimed to introduce hand hygiene to health care workers based on the World Health Organization guideline for reducing HCAI in Cambodia and to assess their behavioral patterns on hand hygiene. All health care workers at Kampong Cham provincial hospital had lectures and practice on hand hygiene in January 2012. The surveys for hand hygiene compliance (HHC) were performed after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years, respectively. The number of surgical site infections (SSI) was counted in 2011 and 2014. Our analysis used the data of 58 workers, who were observed at all three points, although 139 workers were observed during the study period. The average of HHC at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were 62.37%, 85.76% and 80.36%, respectively. The improved group (HHC 2 years/1 year≧1) had 32 workers, whereas the worsened group (HHC 2 years/1 year<1) had 26. There was a significant difference in departments of the two groups (P=0.011) but not in sex, age or occupations. The improved group had more workers of General (31.2% vs. 19.2%), Surgical (25.0% vs. 11.5%) and Infection (21.9% vs. 11.5%) categories compared to the worsened group. The incidence of SSI was improved from 32.26% in 2011 to 0.97% in 2014. Our results suggest that the education and the survey on hand hygiene are effective for reducing HCAI in Cambodia. PMID:27303102

  20. [Autoimmune processes after long-term low-level exposure to electromagnetic fields (the results of an experiment). Part 1. Mobile communications and changes in electromagnetic conditions for the population. Needs for additional substantiation of the existing hygienic standards].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu G; Grigor'ev, O A; Ivanov, A A; Liaginskaia, A M; Merkulov, A V; Stepanov, V S; Shagina, N B

    2010-01-01

    Mobile communications provides a new source of electromagnetic exposure for almost the whole population of the Russian Federation. For the first time in the history of civilization the brain of mobile phone users was exposed to localized radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). Population exposure from the base stations is also considered to be specific. However, existing standards for limiting the exposure do not account for this special EMF source and may not ensure the absence of health effects. There was a need for reliable information that would extend databases used for development of new standards. As recommended by the World Health Organization an additional experiment was performed under the supervision of foreign experts, which showed changes in autoimmune status in rats after long-term low-level RF EMF exposure with an incident power density of 500 microW/cm2.

  1. Camelina sativa: An ideal platform for the metabolic engineering and field production of industrial lipids.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sunil; Durrett, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAG) containing modified fatty acids with functionality beyond those found in commercially grown oil seed crops can be used as feedstocks for biofuels and bio-based materials. Over the years, advances have been made in transgenically engineering the production of various modified fatty acids in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the inability to produce large quantities of transgenic seed has limited the functional testing of the modified oil. In contrast, the emerging oil seed crop Camelina sativa possesses important agronomic traits that recommend it as an ideal production platform for biofuels and industrial feedstocks. Camelina possesses low water and fertilizer requirements and is capable of yields comparable to other oil seed crops, particularly under stress conditions. Importantly, its relatively short growing season enables it to be grown as part of a double cropping system. In addition to these valuable agronomic features, Camelina is amenable to rapid metabolic engineering. The development of a simple and effective transformation method, combined with the availability of abundant transcriptomic and genomic data, has allowed the generation of transgenic Camelina lines capable of synthesizing high levels of unusual lipids. In some cases these levels have surpassed what was achieved in Arabidopsis. Further, the ability to use Camelina as a crop production system has allowed for the large scale growth of transgenic oil seed crops, enabling subsequent physical property testing. The application of new techniques such as genome editing will further increase the suitability of Camelina as an ideal platform for the production of biofuels and bio-materials.

  2. Development and Field Trial of Dimpled-Tube Technology for Chemical Industry Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Yaroslav Chudnovsky; Aleksandr Kozlov

    2006-10-12

    Most approaches to increasing heat transfer rates in the convection sections of gas-fired process heaters involve the incorporation of fins, baffles, turbulizers, etc. to increase either the heat transfer surface area or turbulence or both. Although these approaches are effective in increasing the heat transfer rates, this increase is invariably accompanied by an associated increase in convection section pressure drop as well as, for heaters firing ‘dirty’ fuel mixtures, increased fouling of the tubes – both of which are highly undesirable. GTI has identified an approach that will increase heat transfer rates without a significant increase in pressure drop or fouling rate. Compared to other types of heat transfer enhancement approaches, the proposed dimpled tube approach achieves very high heat transfer rates at the lowest pressure drops. Incorporating this approach into convection sections of chemical industry fired process heaters may increase energy efficiency by 3-5%. The energy efficiency increase will allow reducing firing rates to provide the required heating duty while reducing the emissions of CO2 and NOx.

  3. Quantitative analysis by mid-infrared spectrometry in food and agro-industrial fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, Nathalie; Huvenne, J. P.; Sombret, B.; Legrand, P.

    1993-03-01

    Thanks to what has been achieved by the Fourier transform, infrared spectroscopy can now become a state of the art device in the quality control laboratories if we consider its precision and the gain in time it ensures compared to traditional analysis methods such as HPLC chromatography. Moreover, the increasing number of new mathematical regression methods such as Partial Least Square ( PLS) regression allows the multicomponent quantitative analysis in mixtures. Nevertheless, the efficiency of infrared spectrometry as a quantitative analysis method often depends on the choice of an adequate presentation for the sample. In this document, we shall demonstrate several techniques such as diffuse reflectance and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) which can be according to the various physical states of the mixtures. The quantitative analysis of real samples from the food industry enables us to estimate its precision. For instance, the analysis of the three main components (glucose, fructose and maltose) in the glucose syrups can be done (using ATR) with a precision in the region of 3% whereas the time required to obtain an analysis report is about 5 minutes. Finally multicomponent quantitative analysis is quite feasable by mid-IR spectroscopy.

  4. MAPPING INDUCED POLARIZATION WITH NATURAL ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS FOR EXPLORATION AND RESOURCES CHARACTERIZATION BY THE MINING INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Nichols

    2001-04-15

    In this first quarter we made an organizational change in the project that should allow us to more easily meet the project milestones. This change consists of designing a new systems that will allow to simplify field operation and reduce survey costs. The new system design has been completed and we are in the process of completing the manufacture and test of the first prototype. Production of the final system for the survey should be completed by end of July. The new acquisition and processing software is in progress and will be ready by the end of July. The new processing software will include the robust processing developed by Larsen and Egbert.

  5. Whole-field optical diagnostics for structural analysis in the automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckberry, C. H.; Towers, D. P.; Stockley, B. C.; Tavender, B.; Jones, M. P.; Jones, J. D. C.; Valera, J. D. R.

    1996-12-01

    This paper reviews the whole-field optical diagnostic methods developed by the Applied Optics Laboratory (AOL) of the Rover Group for structural analysis. The techniques discussed provide measurements of a range of parameters, specifically: deformation, vibration amplitude and phase, shear stress, surface form, and flow velocity. The paper describes the philosophy used to develop the techniques and the overall business issues and applications which have driven their development. Each measurement system is then discussed in turn with emphasis on the novelty of the optical device or data analysis procedure used, and their relevance to automotive engineering applications. Illustrative examples are presented for each technique.

  6. Two Years of Industrial Experience in the Use of a Small, Direct Field Acoustic Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saggini, Nicola; Di Pietro, Vincenzo; Poulain, Nicolas; Herzog, Philippe

    2012-07-01

    Within Thales Alenia Space - Italy small satellite Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) plant, the need to develop a suitable facility for spacecraft acoustic noise test has arisen, with additional constraints posed by the necessity of a low impact on the existing building layout, low cost of procurement and operations, while maintaining a high reliability of the system for a theoretical maximum throughput of one test per week over an extended period of time, e.g. six months. The needs have been answered by developing a small (~40 m3 test volume), direct field (DF A T) acoustic test chamber, christened “Alpha Cabin”, where noise generation is achieved by means of commercial audio drivers equipped with custom enclosures. The paper starts with a brief presentation of the main characteristics of the system, but then concentrates on the lessons learnt and return of experience from the tests conducted in more than two years of continuous use. Starting from test article structural responses and their comparison with reverberant chambers, properties of the acoustic field and their implications on the former are analyzed.

  7. Study of fifteen respirable aerosol samplers used in occupational hygiene.

    PubMed

    Görner, P; Wrobel, R; Micka, V; Skoda, V; Denis, J; Fabriès, J F

    2001-01-01

    European and international standards lay down criteria for the size-selective aerosol sampling in occupational hygiene. Aerosol samplers are supposed to match these target sampling criteria. This study focused on 15 aerosol samplers used to sample the conventional respirable fraction. An aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) method was used to measure the sampling efficiency of the samplers in a low-velocity wind tunnel. Polydisperse coal dust was generated as the test aerosol. The data were fitted by an appropriate mathematical model. For some instruments the results show serious deviations from the conventional target curve, whereas other devices meet the convention quite well. The flow rate of certain cyclone-separator-based instruments was optimized to adjust their sampling efficiency. The mass concentration bias and accuracy of the samplers were calculated for a number of ranges of particle size distributions of aerosols commonly found in industrial workplaces. Finally, the performance of each sampler was evaluated using bias and accuracy maps. Most of these samplers are suitable for sampling the CEN-ISO-ACGIH respirable fraction of aerosols, but several require modification of the flow rate. For real industrial situations, the rough knowledge of the aerosol size distribution can guide the choice of an appropriate sampling technique.

  8. Back to basics: hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a significant issue in the United States and throughout the world, but following proper hand hygiene practices is the most effective and least expensive way to prevent HAIs. Hand hygiene is inexpensive and protects patients and health care personnel alike. The four general types of hand hygiene that should be performed in the perioperative environment are washing hands that are visibly soiled, hand hygiene using alcohol-based products, surgical hand scrubs, and surgical hand scrubs using an alcohol-based surgical hand rub product. Barriers to proper hand hygiene may include not thinking about it, forgetting, skin irritation, a lack of role models, or a lack of a safety culture. One strategy for improving hand hygiene practices is monitoring hand hygiene as part of a quality improvement project, but the most important aspect for perioperative team members is to set an example for other team members by following proper hand hygiene practices and reminding each other to perform hand hygiene.

  9. Hand hygiene performance and beliefs among public university employees.

    PubMed

    Stedman-Smith, Maggie; DuBois, Cathy L Z; Grey, Scott F

    2015-10-01

    The workplace is an important location to access community members, and employers have a direct interest in employee well-being. A survey administered to a random sample of employees at a Midwestern US university tested the ability of a model informed by the theory of planned behavior to predict hand hygiene practices and beliefs using structural equation modeling. Questions demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. Constructs predicted self-reported hand hygiene behaviors, and hand hygiene behaviors reduced the odds of reporting sickness from respiratory tract and gastrointestinal infections. The findings support multi-modal hand hygiene improvement interventions.

  10. Sleep medicine content in dental hygiene education.

    PubMed

    Minichbauer, Brittany C; Sheats, Rose D; Wilder, Rebecca S; Phillips, Ceib L; Essick, Gregory K

    2015-05-01

    According to the National Research Council, 70 million Americans chronically suffer from approximately 60 medically recognized sleep disorders. With most clinicians unaware of these disorders, many individuals remain undiagnosed. To effectively address this issue, health care professionals must work collaboratively to educate, identify, and treat patients with sleep disorders. However, medical and dental clinicians do not receive adequate education in sleep medicine. On the frontline regarding prevention and counseling, dental hygienists play an important role in patient education, screening, and management of sleep disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the amount of sleep medicine content in U.S. dental hygiene programs. An electronic survey was emailed to all 334 accredited U.S. dental hygiene programs. The 18-question survey assessed the sleep medicine content presented during the 2012-13 academic year. A total of 35.3% (n=118) of the programs responded. The mean number of hours devoted to sleep medicine in their curricula was 1.55 hours (SD=1.37). Although 69% (n=79) of the responding programs reported spending time on sleep bruxism (mean=1.38 hours, SD=0.85), only 28% (n=32) reported spending time on other topics such as snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (mean=1.39 hours, SD=0.72). These results suggest that sleep medicine is included in the majority of U.S. dental hygiene programs, but the content is limited and focused on sleep bruxism. This level of training is inadequate to prepare dental hygienists for their potential role in patient education, screening, and management of sleep-related breathing disorders.

  11. Dental Hygiene Students’ Perceptions of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance; Shockey, Alcinda Trickett; Long, D. Leann

    2015-01-01

    Geriatric education is an important component of the dental hygiene curriculum because, in it, students acquire skills and attitudes to help provide quality care to older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if off-site exposure to nursing home residents with supervised oversight had the potential to improve dental hygiene students’ attitudes toward older adults. Senior dental hygiene students at one school completed a pre-nursing home experience questionnaire. A series of geriatric lectures and discussions, which included discussions about students’ anxieties of working with institutionalized older adults, were held prior to the nursing home experience. The students then participated in two supervised four-hour nursing home experiences, were debriefed after the experiences, and completed a second questionnaire. Of thirty-nine potential participants in the study, thirty-two took part in the pre-nursing home experience questionnaire (82.1 percent). They had a mean split Fabroni score of 34.2 (95 percent confidence interval: 32.2, 36.3). The thirty participants in the post-experience questionnaire (76.9 percent of total) had a mean split score of 32.7 (95 percent confidence interval: 30.1, 35.3). This study failed to reject the null hypothesis of no mean difference between the pre- and post-nursing home experience; however, the post-experience mean score was lower than the pre-nursing home experience mean score, indicating a more positive attitude toward older adults after the experience. PMID:25480277

  12. [THE FOUNDERS OF FIRST CHAIRS OF HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND SOCIAL HYGIENE IN THE USSR].

    PubMed

    Gorelova, L E; Kasimovskaia, N A

    2015-01-01

    The USSR academy of medical sciences was organized in 1944. At the same year, the institute of health care organization, medical statistics and social hygiene was included in its structure. Before the institute global tasks in area of research and pedagogic activities were stated. They were implemented in accordance with actual national demands. The institute became a leading research center of studying problems of population health, social hygiene, organization and management of health care and history of medicine. In 2003, the institute was renamed in the The RAMS national research institute of public health, and in 2013 was handed over the Federal agency of research organizations (FANO) of Russia. The directors of the institute were well-known scientists in the field of social hygiene health care organization and history of medicine. They made a significant input into development of medical education, combining scientific, managerial and pedagogic activities. The founders of the first chairs of history of medicine and social hygiene were the directors of the institute I.D. Strashun and N.A. Semashko. PMID:26411172

  13. Evaluation of disinfectants commonly used by the commercial poultry industry under simulated field conditions.

    PubMed

    Stringfellow, K; Anderson, P; Caldwell, D; Lee, J; Byrd, J; McReynolds, J; Carey, J; Nisbet, D; Farnell, M

    2009-06-01

    The correct usage of disinfectants is an important component of a successful biosecurity program. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of time, temperature, and organic matter (OM) on disinfectant efficacy. Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium were used to represent gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria commonly found in commercial poultry housing. The first study evaluated the effect of temperature (4, 20, 32, or 43 degrees C) and time (1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 30 wk) on the efficacy of disinfectants diluted to working concentrations. The second study determined the effect of OM on the efficacy of working concentrations of freshly prepared disinfectants against the bacteria. For the third study, we compared the bactericidal properties of freshly prepared disinfectants and 30-wk-old disinfectants in the presence of OM. Quaternary ammonium-, chlorhexidine-, phenolic-, and binary ammonium-based solutions represented disinfectants commonly used within the poultry industry. In the first study, all of the disinfectants were effective against S. aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium regardless of treatment. However, the phenolic compound had reduced (P

  14. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries--Study on the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitschke, Christoph; And Others

    A study focused on new occupational and qualification structures in the field of environmental protection in the metal and chemical industries in the Federal Republic of Germany. A total of 22 interviews were conducted with representatives of 11 firms. The public debate on occupational requirements in the field of environmental protection and on…

  15. Food hygiene training in the UK: time for a radical re-think?

    PubMed

    MacAuslan, E

    2001-12-01

    Training food handlers in the hospitality industry has been recommended by various organisations as a means of improving food handling practices and thus the safety of food for consumers. It is nearly 20 years since the first examinations for basic level food hygiene certificates were made available to food handlers in the UK. Since then little has changed in the syllabuses and in the way the questions are worded. However, the range of languages spoken by food handlers working in the UK has increased substantially since more employers are recruiting those who speak English as a second language. Training can be an unwelcome expense for managers where there is a high turnover of employees, especially amongst those for whom English is not a first language. To improve practical implementation of food hygiene theory it is time to develop a radical strategy concerning the way training is targeted and delivered in the UK, and perhaps Europe. PMID:11811090

  16. R&D priorities in the field of sustainable remediation and purification of agro-industrial and municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Miksch, Korneliusz; Cema, Grzegorz; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Felis, Ewa; Sochacki, Adam; Surmacz-Górska, Joanna; Wiszniowski, Jarosław; Zabczynski, Sebastian

    2015-01-25

    This article was presented as a position paper during the Environmental Biotechnology and Microbiology Conference in Bologna, Italy in April 2012. It indicates major and emerging environmental biotechnology research and development (R&D) priorities for EU members in the field of sustainable remediation and purification of agro-industrial and municipal wastewater. The identified priorities are: anaerobic/aerobic microbial treatment, combination of photochemical and biological treatment, phytoremediation and algae-based remediation, as well as innovative technologies currently investigated, such as enzyme-based treatment, bioelectrochemical treatment and recovery of nutrients and reuse of cleaned water. State of the art, research needs and prospective development in these domains are crucially discussed. As a result, goals of the future development of bioremediation and purification processes are defined and the way to achieve them is proposed.

  17. [The efficacy of the health and hygiene measures in the cleanup of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station].

    PubMed

    Zholus, B I; Novozhilov, G N; Greben'kov, S V; Romanovich, I K

    1993-04-01

    Sanitary-hygienic measures which were carried out in units during liquidation of the Chernobyl disaster consequences have assured favourable hygienic conditions and promote the accomplishing of their mission. Questions of accommodation, water supply and meals were efficiently resolved. Most complicated were the problems of territory clearing, personnel decontamination, as well as bath and laundry service in field conditions at radioactive contamination zones. Basic trends of prophylactic work were as following: hygienic normalization and regulations, sanitary-epidemiologic control and anti-epidemic measures.

  18. Using Consumer Electronics and Apps in Industrial Environments - Development of a Framework for Dynamic Feature Deployment and Extension by Using Apps on Field Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Mathias

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a preliminary insight regarding the current work in the field of mobile interaction in industrial environments by using established interaction technologies and metaphors from the consumer goods industry. The major objective is the development and implementation of a holistic app-framework, which enables dynamic feature deployment and extension by using mobile apps on industrial field devices. As a result, field device functionalities can be updated and adapted effectively in accordance with well-known appconcepts from consumer electronics to comply with the urgent requirements of more flexible and changeable factory systems of the future. In addition, a much more user-friendly and utilizable interaction with field devices can be realized. Proprietary software solutions and device-stationary user interfaces can be overcome and replaced by uniform, cross-vendor solutions

  19. Transfer of cadmium, lead, and zinc from industrially contaminated soil to crop plants: a field study.

    PubMed

    Dudka, S; Piotrowska, M; Terelak, H

    1996-01-01

    The documeneed adverse health effects of soil Cd and Pb have led to public concern over soil contamination with metals. A 4-year field experiment was conducted to study the transfer of Cd, Pb, and Zn from soil contaminated by smelter flue-dust to crop plants grown in a rotation. The soil was amended with Pb?Zn smelter flue-dust (2-66.8 kg per 10 m(2) plot) to simulate the long-term effect that the smelting of non-ferrous metal ore has on arable soils. The treated soil became strongly contaminated with metals (Cd 3.2-106 mg/kg, Pb 146-3452 mg/kg, Zn 465-11 375 mg/kg). Concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in barley grain, barley straw meadow bluegrass, red clover, and potatoes were generally low. The highest metal concentrations were found in potato tubers (intact), meadow bluegrass, and barley straw. The observed reduction in crop yield was probably the result of possible nutrient imbalances rather than of metal (Zn, Cu) phytotoxicities. Zn and Cd uptake by the plants can be described by the saturation (plateau) model (y = ax(b), b < 1). The relationship between Pb in the soil and plants was linear with an extremely low slope (0.0001-0.0003). No excessive dietary intake of Cd is expected when Cd concentrations in barley grain and potato tubers grown on the contaminated soil are not higher than 0.6 and 1.0 mg/kg, respectively. Based on the risk analysis and taking into account the saturation model of the soil-plant metal relationship, it was concluded that, under the conditions of this experiment (neutral soil pH), soil with Cd concentrations of up to 30 mg/kg is still safe for production of these crop plants.

  20. Surgical hand hygiene: scrub or rub?

    PubMed

    Widmer, A F

    2013-02-01

    Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to <90 s leads to significantly lower effectiveness of bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards.

  1. Veterinary urban hygiene: a challenge for India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Ghatak, S; Banga, H S; Gill, J P S; Singh, B

    2013-12-01

    India is confronted with many hygiene problems in urban areas that are related to animal populations. While some of these issues have been present for many years, others are only now emerging. A livestock census in 2003 and another in 2007 revealed that populations of crossbred cattle, goats and poultry are all increasing in urban areas, since this enables easy market access, which, in turn, reduces transportation costs and adds to profits. The canine population has increased along with the human population, largely due to a lack of control measures such as impounding stray animals and euthanasia. These increases in populations of both food-producing animals and stray animals in cities exacerbate such public health hazards as the transmission of zoonoses, vector-borne diseases, occcupational health hazards and environmental pollution, as well as compromising animal welfare. At present, public health hazards due to urban animal husbandry practices are considerably under-estimated. To improve veterinary-related urban hygiene and to facilitate livestock production operations in urban areas, there is an urgent need to develop sound, science-based strategies enforced through stringent regulations. The use of One Health teams may provide an answer to these highly integrated public health problems. PMID:24761721

  2. Hygiene and Sanitation in Biogas Plants.

    PubMed

    Fröschle, Bianca; Heiermann, Monika; Lebuhn, Michael; Messelhäusser, Ute; Plöchl, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of agricultural biogas plants and higher amounts of digestate spread on agricultural land arouse a considerable interest in the hygiene situation of digested products. This chapter reviews the current knowledge on sanitation during anaerobic digestion and the hygienic status of digestate concerning a multitude of pathogens potentially compromising the health of humans, animals and plants. Physical, chemical and biological parameters influencing the efficiency of sanitation in anaerobic digestion are considered. The degree of germ reduction depends particularly on the resistance of the pathogen of concern, the processing conditions, the feedstock composition and the diligence of the operation management. Most scientific studies facing sanitation in biogas plants have provided data ascertaining reduction of pathogens by the biogas process. Some pathogens, however, are able to persist virtually unaffected due to the ability to build resistant permanent forms. As compared to the feedstock, the sanitary status of the digestate is thus improved or in the worst case, the sanitary quality remains almost unchanged. According to this, the spreading of digestate on agricultural area in accordance to current rules and best practice recommendations is considered to impose no additional risk for the health of humans, animals and plants.

  3. [Guidelines for hygienic classification of learning technologies].

    PubMed

    Kuchma, V R; Teksheva, L M; Milushkina, O Iu

    2008-01-01

    Optimization of the educational environment under the present-day conditions has been in progress, by using learning techwares (LTW) without fail. To organize and regulate an academic process in terms of the safety of applied LTW, there is a need for their classification. The currently existing attempts to structure LTW disregard hygienically significant aspects. The task of the present study was to substantiate a LTW safety criterion ensuring a universal approach to working out regulations. This criterion may be the exposure intensity determined by the form of organization of education and its pattern, by the procedure of information presentation, and the age-related peculiarities of a pupil, i.e. by the actual load that is presented by the product of the intensity exposure and its time. The hygienic classification of LTW may be used to evaluate their negative effect in an educational process on the health status of children and adolescents, to regulate hazardous factors and training modes, to design and introduce new learning complexes. The structuring of a LTW system allows one to define possible deleterious actions and the possibilities of preventing this action on the basis of strictly established regulations.

  4. Surgical hand hygiene: scrub or rub?

    PubMed

    Widmer, A F

    2013-02-01

    Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to <90 s leads to significantly lower effectiveness of bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards. PMID:23453175

  5. Veterinary urban hygiene: a challenge for India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Ghatak, S; Banga, H S; Gill, J P S; Singh, B

    2013-12-01

    India is confronted with many hygiene problems in urban areas that are related to animal populations. While some of these issues have been present for many years, others are only now emerging. A livestock census in 2003 and another in 2007 revealed that populations of crossbred cattle, goats and poultry are all increasing in urban areas, since this enables easy market access, which, in turn, reduces transportation costs and adds to profits. The canine population has increased along with the human population, largely due to a lack of control measures such as impounding stray animals and euthanasia. These increases in populations of both food-producing animals and stray animals in cities exacerbate such public health hazards as the transmission of zoonoses, vector-borne diseases, occcupational health hazards and environmental pollution, as well as compromising animal welfare. At present, public health hazards due to urban animal husbandry practices are considerably under-estimated. To improve veterinary-related urban hygiene and to facilitate livestock production operations in urban areas, there is an urgent need to develop sound, science-based strategies enforced through stringent regulations. The use of One Health teams may provide an answer to these highly integrated public health problems.

  6. Hazard surveillance for workplace magnetic fields. 1: Walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient field magnitude; 2: Field characteristics from waveform measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Methner, M.M.; Bowman, J.D.

    1998-03-01

    Recent epidemiologic research has suggested that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) may be associated with leukemia, brain cancer, spontaneous abortions, and Alzheimer`s disease. A walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient ELF-MF levels was developed for use in conducting occupational hazard surveillance. This survey was designed to determine the range of MF levels at different industrial facilities so they could be categorized by MF levels and identified for possible subsequent personal exposure assessments. Industries were selected based on their annual electric power consumption in accordance with the hypothesis that large power consumers would have higher ambient MFs when compared with lower power consumers. Sixty-two facilities within thirteen 2-digit Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) were selected based on their willingness to participate. A traditional industrial hygiene walkaround survey was conducted to identify MF sources, with a special emphasis on work stations.

  7. Demonstration of high current carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors at industrially relevant voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Mitchell

    The display market is presently dominated by the active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD). However, the active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display is argued to become the successor to the LCD, and is already beginning its way into the market, mainly in small size displays. But, for AMOLED technology to become comparable in market share to LCD, larger size displays must become available at a competitive price with their LCD counterparts. A major issue preventing low-cost large AMOLED displays is the thin-film transistor (TFT) technology. Unlike the voltage driven LCD, the OLEDs in the AMOLED display are current driven. Because of this, the mature amorphous silicon TFT backplane technology used in the LCD must be upgraded to a material possessing a higher mobility. Polycrystalline silicon and transparent oxide TFT technologies are being considered to fill this need. But these technologies bring with them significant manufacturing complexity and cost concerns. Carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors (CN-VFETs) offer a unique solution to this problem (now known as the AMOLED backplane problem). The CN-VFET allows the use of organic semiconductors to be used for the semiconductor layer. Organics are known for their low-cost large area processing compatibility. Although the mobility of the best organics is only comparable to that of amorphous silicon, the CN-VFET makes up for this by orienting the channel vertically, as opposed to horizontally (like in conventional TFTs). This allows the CN-VFET to achieve sub-micron channel lengths without expensive high resolution patterning. Additionally, because the CN-VFET can be easily converted into a light emitting transistor (called the carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic light emitting transistor---CN-VOLET) by essentially stacking an OLED on top of the CN-VFET, more potential benefits can be realized. These potential benefits include, increased aperture ratio, increased OLED

  8. Improving Adherence to Hand Hygiene among Health Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maskerine, Courtney; Loeb, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Increased adherence to hand hygiene is widely acknowledged to be the most important way of reducing infections in health care facilities. Despite evidence of benefit, adherence to hand hygiene among health care professionals remains low. Several behavioral and organizational theories have been proposed to explain this. As a whole, the success of…

  9. Teaching Oral Hygiene Skills to Elementary Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Yeng-Hung; Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a program that taught oral hygiene skills to students with visual impairments using group instruction and individual coaching. The results showed that the program enhanced the oral hygiene skills of the three participants significantly, and its effectiveness lasted for at least two months after the…

  10. 9 CFR 590.560 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 590.560 Section 590.560 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.560 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) Personnel...

  11. 7 CFR 56.77 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 56.77 Section 56.77 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Facility Requirements § 56.77 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) No...

  12. 9 CFR 590.560 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 590.560 Section 590.560 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.560 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) Personnel...

  13. 7 CFR 56.77 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 56.77 Section 56.77 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Facility Requirements § 56.77 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) No...

  14. 7 CFR 56.77 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 56.77 Section 56.77 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Facility Requirements § 56.77 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) No...

  15. Multi-level selection for hygienic behaviour in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sato, J A; Châline, N; Martin, S J; Hughes, W O H; Ratnieks, F L W

    2009-06-01

    Disease is one of the main factors driving both natural and artificial selection. It is a particularly important and increasing threat to the managed honeybee colonies, which are vital in crop pollination. Artificial selection for disease-resistant honeybee genotypes has previously only been carried out at the colony-level, that is, by using queens or males reared from colonies that show resistance. However, honeybee queens mate with many males and so each colony consists of multiple patrilines that will vary in heritable traits, such as disease resistance. Here, we investigate whether response to artificial selection for a key resistance mechanism, hygienic behaviour, can be improved using multi-level selection, that is, by selecting not only among colonies as normal but also among patrilines within colonies. Highly hygienic colonies were identified (between-colony selection), and the specific patrilines within them responsible for most hygienic behaviour were determined using observation hives. Queens reared from these hygienic patrilines (within-colony selection) were identified using DNA microsatellite analysis of a wing-tip tissue sample and then mated to drones from a third highly hygienic colony. The resulting colonies headed by queens from hygienic patrilines showed approximately double the level of hygienic behaviour of colonies headed by sister queens from non-hygienic patrilines. The results show that multi-level selection can significantly improve the success of honeybee breeding programs.

  16. Occupational Safety. Hygiene Safety. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on hygiene safety is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to familiarize students with the different types of airborne contaminants--including noise--which may be health hazards and with the proper hygienic measures for dealing with them. The…

  17. Outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kanji, Zul; Sunell, Susanne; Boschma, Geertje; Imai, Pauline; Craig, Bonnie J

    2011-03-01

    There is little published literature about the outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education, particularly in Canada. Since there are various dental hygiene entry-to-practice educational models in Canada, exploring baccalaureate dental hygiene education is becoming an increasingly important subject. The purpose of this study was to explore the personal outcomes and dental hygiene practice outcomes of dental hygiene degree-completion education in Canada from the perspectives of diploma dental hygienists who have continued their education to the bachelor's degree level. This study employed a qualitative phenomenological design, using a maximum variation purposeful sampling strategy. Data generation occurred with sixteen dental hygienists across Canada through individual semistructured interviews. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded for data analysis, involving pattern recognition and thematic development. Themes that emerged included changes in self-perception, values, and knowledge base. Changes in self-perception were reflected in a reported increase in self-confidence and perceived credibility. Changes in values included a greater appreciation for lifelong learning. Advancements in knowledge strengthened the development of specific abilities that ultimately influenced participants' dental hygiene practice. These abilities included an increased ability to think critically, to make evidence-based decisions, and to provide more comprehensive care. Participants also commented on having more career opportunities available to them outside of the private clinical practice setting. These results reveal important insights into the impact of earning a dental hygiene baccalaureate degree on oneself and one's dental hygiene practice. PMID:21368255

  18. Personal hygienic concerns in long term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Data from numerous experiments and hardware inventories were scanned for Skylab personal hygiene use. A computer program was formulated for predicting the degree of man's involvement with personal hygiene needs. A tabulation was kept for such events as water intake, frequency of urination and defecation, accidents or events requiring clean-up, methods of clean-up, microbiological environment and shower water contamination.

  19. A Study of Radiographic Imaging Systems Used for Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Nancy S.

    Thirty-three two-year dental hygiene programs throughout the United States were surveyed to identify the radiographic imaging system most often used and the accompanying rationale for that decision. A literature review identified the three radiographic imaging systems most frequently used and indicated that all dental hygiene programs had the…

  20. [Ecological and hygienic evaluation of production waste of diagnostic preparations].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    For the first time eco-hygienic evaluation of waste materials of production of diagnostic products has been performed. The methodology of risk assessment included consideration of the technology for their delivery, assessment of potential hazards (biological, chemical, and toxicological) based on the study of physico-chemical properties and performance of toxicological, hygienic and ecological research.

  1. Family Disorganization, Sleep Hygiene, and Adolescent Sleep Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billows, Michael; Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Johnston, Anna; McCappin, Stephanie; Hudson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The link between sleep hygiene and adolescent sleep is well documented, though evidence suggests contributions from other factors, particularly the family environment. The present study examined whether sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between family disorganization and self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and daytime…

  2. The History of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    The historiography of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program (Program) presents a historical journey of health care, as it relates to oral health, in the United States, in Ohio, and in Lima. This study bridges the gap between the history of higher education and the history of an academic program, dental hygiene. Prior to this study, there…

  3. Maintenance of an Adequate Dental Hygiene Education System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ley, Eugene; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Administrative decisions about the future of dental hygiene programs are often based on inadequate information about employment trends and about the importance of the dental hygienist in dental practices. Studies indicate that demand for dental hygiene services will remain high in the 1980s. (Author/MLW)

  4. Requirements and Guidelines for Dental Hygiene Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Association, Chicago, IL. Council on Dental Education.

    The purpose of this report is to serve as a guide for dental hygiene education program development, and to serve as a stimulus for improving established programs. The first section of the report discusses the function of the Council on Dental Education and the trends in hygiene program development. In section II the requirements for an accredited…

  5. Importance of Oral Hygiene Habits in Mentally Disabled Children

    PubMed Central

    JP, Beena; Reddy, Divya

    2010-01-01

    Background The main factor related to gingival/periodontal problems in disabled individuals is the inadequacy of the plaque removal from the teeth. Motor coordination problems and muscular limitation in neuromuscularly disabled individuals along with the difficulty in understanding the importance of oral hygiene in mentally disabled individuals have resulted in the progression of inflammatory diseases. Case report This report describes a case of cerebral palsy child who developed gingival hyperplasia due to poor oral hygiene practices which remarkably improved by proper motivation and adaptation of oral hygiene measures. Conclusion It is important that the caretakers especially mother is informed about the importance of maintaining proper oral hygiene and the harmful effects of not doing so. It forms our duty to guide them towards maintaining good oral hygiene and thereby help in improving overall health of these children.

  6. Video observation of hand hygiene practices at a petting zoo and the impact of hand hygiene interventions.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M E C; Weese, J S

    2012-01-01

    Petting zoos are popular attractions, but can also be associated with zoonotic disease outbreaks. Hand hygiene is critical to reducing disease risks; however, compliance can be poor. Video observation of petting zoo visitors was used to assess animal and environmental contact and hand hygiene compliance. Compliance was also compared over five hand hygiene intervention periods. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression were used for analysis. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 58% (340/583). Two interventions had a significant positive association with hand hygiene compliance [improved signage with offering hand sanitizer, odds ratio (OR) 3·38, P<0·001; verbal hand hygiene reminders, OR 1·73, P=0·037]. There is clearly a need to improve hand hygiene compliance at this and other animal exhibits. This preliminary study was the first to demonstrate a positive impact of a hand hygiene intervention at a petting zoo. The findings suggest that active, rather than passive, interventions are more effective for increasing compliance. PMID:21371366

  7. Understanding the Determinants of Australian Hospital Nurses' Hand Hygiene Decisions Following the Implementation of a National Hand Hygiene Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine M.; Starfelt, Louise C.; Jimmieson, Nerina L.; Campbell, Megan; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian G.; Cockshaw, Wendell; Gee, Phillip; Page, Katie; Martin, Elizabeth; Brain, David; Paterson, David

    2015-01-01

    Hand hygiene is the primary measure in hospitals to reduce the spread of infections, with nurses experiencing the greatest frequency of patient contact. The "5 critical moments" of hand hygiene initiative has been implemented in hospitals across Australia, accompanied by awareness-raising, staff training and auditing. The aim of this…

  8. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 7): Strother Field Industrial Park, Operable Unit 1, Cowley County, Winfield, KS, March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This decision document presents the selected final remedial action for the ground water and soils at the Strother Field Industrial Park Site, Winfield, Kansas. This remedy will address the principal threat posed by the contaminants in the ground water by preventing the migration of contaminants off the Strother Field Industrial Site and by restoring the ground water to acceptable quality (Safe Drinking Water Act Maximum Contaminant Levels-MCLs) by the extraction and treatment of contaminated ground water. The remedy will further reduce the threat of continued contamination of the ground water through the treatment of the soil source areas.

  9. Educational technology for millennial dental hygiene students: a survey of U.S. dental hygiene programs.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Catherine R R; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Rogo, Ellen J

    2014-06-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that today's learners have changed and education must change as well since Millennial generation students expect technology to be used in their coursework. This study sought to determine what educational technology is being used in U.S. dental hygiene programs, what student and faculty perceptions are of the effectiveness of technology, and what barriers exist to implementing educational technology. A stratified random sample of 120 entry-level dental hygiene programs nationwide were invited to participate in a survey. Fourteen programs participated, yielding a pool of 415 potential individual participants; out of those, eighty-four student and thirty-eight faculty respondents were included in the analysis, a total of 122. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a Mann-Whitney U test (p<0.05). Faculty and student respondents agreed on the effectiveness of educational technology in all areas except clickers and wikis. The faculty members tended to rate the effectiveness of educational technology higher than did the students. The greatest perceived barrier to implementing technology was technical difficulties. This study suggests that support services should be available to faculty and students to ensure successful implementation of technology. Dental hygiene educators have adopted many types of educational technology, but more data are needed to determine best practices. PMID:24882769

  10. Educational technology for millennial dental hygiene students: a survey of U.S. dental hygiene programs.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Catherine R R; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Rogo, Ellen J

    2014-06-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that today's learners have changed and education must change as well since Millennial generation students expect technology to be used in their coursework. This study sought to determine what educational technology is being used in U.S. dental hygiene programs, what student and faculty perceptions are of the effectiveness of technology, and what barriers exist to implementing educational technology. A stratified random sample of 120 entry-level dental hygiene programs nationwide were invited to participate in a survey. Fourteen programs participated, yielding a pool of 415 potential individual participants; out of those, eighty-four student and thirty-eight faculty respondents were included in the analysis, a total of 122. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a Mann-Whitney U test (p<0.05). Faculty and student respondents agreed on the effectiveness of educational technology in all areas except clickers and wikis. The faculty members tended to rate the effectiveness of educational technology higher than did the students. The greatest perceived barrier to implementing technology was technical difficulties. This study suggests that support services should be available to faculty and students to ensure successful implementation of technology. Dental hygiene educators have adopted many types of educational technology, but more data are needed to determine best practices.

  11. Industrial Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Lawrence L.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses trends in and factors related to the production of industrial minerals during 1982, indicating that, as 1981 marked a downturn in production of industrial minerals, 1982 continued the trend with temporary and permanent cutbacks in mine and plant production. Includes highlights of several conferences/conference papers in this field.…

  12. Raising food hygiene standards--could customer power and the new laws hold the key?

    PubMed

    Leach, J C

    1996-12-01

    In September 1995 new general food hygiene regulations came into force. The new law, quite rightly, requires proprietors of food businesses to focus their thoughts and actions on risks to food safety. Proprietors are required to identify and assess risks and ensure that adequate management procedures are put into place to ensure food safety. This is a welcome move as contributing factors in most cases of food poisoning involve poor food hygiene practices. At the same time there has been a large increase in the amount of advice and guidance to local authority enforcement officers, particularly to assess risks to food safety when considering what action to take in any situation - the lower the risk the less appropriate it is to take legal action. However, there are many conditions found in food premises which present little or no risk to health, such as routine cleanliness in non-high risk areas, but lower standards on these might be viewed by the public as inappropriate for food businesses. With an increasing amount of choice available to customers, proprietors and managers of food businesses need to be more aware than ever of the complex pattern of consumer demands including that of supplying a clean and safe product in its broadest sense. The notion of consumer sovereignty is not a new concept. Combined with the new laws could it hold the key to genuine improved standards in food hygiene? This article reviews the subject and draws attention to a research programme being undertaken at the University of Brighton to identify, compare and contrast factors which the public perceive as important in terms of food hygiene in public eating places with those considered important by professionals with an interest in the subject. The results could bring benefits to the catering industry and customers.

  13. Raising food hygiene standards--could customer power and the new laws hold the key?

    PubMed

    Leach, J C

    1996-12-01

    In September 1995 new general food hygiene regulations came into force. The new law, quite rightly, requires proprietors of food businesses to focus their thoughts and actions on risks to food safety. Proprietors are required to identify and assess risks and ensure that adequate management procedures are put into place to ensure food safety. This is a welcome move as contributing factors in most cases of food poisoning involve poor food hygiene practices. At the same time there has been a large increase in the amount of advice and guidance to local authority enforcement officers, particularly to assess risks to food safety when considering what action to take in any situation - the lower the risk the less appropriate it is to take legal action. However, there are many conditions found in food premises which present little or no risk to health, such as routine cleanliness in non-high risk areas, but lower standards on these might be viewed by the public as inappropriate for food businesses. With an increasing amount of choice available to customers, proprietors and managers of food businesses need to be more aware than ever of the complex pattern of consumer demands including that of supplying a clean and safe product in its broadest sense. The notion of consumer sovereignty is not a new concept. Combined with the new laws could it hold the key to genuine improved standards in food hygiene? This article reviews the subject and draws attention to a research programme being undertaken at the University of Brighton to identify, compare and contrast factors which the public perceive as important in terms of food hygiene in public eating places with those considered important by professionals with an interest in the subject. The results could bring benefits to the catering industry and customers. PMID:8987337

  14. Evaluation of biotechnological potentials of some industrial fungi in economical lipid accumulation and biofuel production as a field of use.

    PubMed

    Karatay, Sevgi Ertuğrul; Dönmez, Gönül

    2014-01-01

    Considering the vast number of scientific reports on various potential uses of fungi, there was an attempt to select the best lipid producer of some fungi at optimized conditions (Aspergillus versicolor, Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus arrhizus, Tramates versicolor). The aim was to offer new fields of use to the industries already culturing and using such materials. Aspergillus versicolor mycelia were found to be accumulating the highest amount of lipids. Experiments to improve lipid accumulation and transesterification properties were performed in molasses medium; the first steps were testing the effects of different pH values and different nitrogen sources on lipid accumulation. Various concentrations of KNO(3) (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 gL(-1)) and molasses (6%, 8%, 10%) were tried in order to find the optimum carbon and nitrogen requirements. Maximum lipid content was 22.8% in the samples containing 6% molasses solution and 1.0 gL(-1) KNO(3) at pH 4 after 10 days of incubation. The highest fatty acid ethyl ester yield of these samples was 77% (5.0 ethanol:oil, 0.4 sulfuric acid:oil at 30°C for 6 hr). Since the crude lipids were rich in C16 and C18 fatty acids, this was considered as suitable feedstock for biodiesel production.

  15. [Some bioengineering and hygienic aspects of incorporating sodium light illuminators into space life support systems].

    PubMed

    Grishin, Iu I; Kalinin, Iu T; Karpov, A M

    1999-01-01

    Some bioengineering aspects of utilizating high-pressure sodium lamps (HPSL) in space plant growth chambers are reviewed. Comparative feasibility analysis of various lighting systems currently used in plant industry, and investigation of HPSL limitations and advantages allow the conclusion about their good prospect as a component of future plant growth facilities aboard long-term space bioengineering life support systems. High appraisal is given to the design of a board prototype of the DnaTSf-70 sodium lamp. Associated sanitary-hygienic regulations developed, HPSL are liable to be also used to lighten the spacecraft interior.

  16. Contact precautions and hand hygiene in veterinary clinics.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Maureen E C

    2015-03-01

    Hand hygiene, contact precautions, and other basic infection control measures are crucial in veterinary clinics, because these facilities can be community mixing pots of animals and people with a wide range of health and disease-carrier states. Veterinary staff must be knowledgeable and well trained regarding when and how to apply situation-appropriate contact precautions and to properly perform hand hygiene. The limited information on the use of contact precautions and hand hygiene practices among veterinary staff suggests that compliance is low. Improving the infection control culture in clinics and in veterinary medicine is critical to achieving better compliance with these practices.

  17. [Retrospection on Hygiene Congress organisation in Opatija 1950].

    PubMed

    Bakasun, Vjekoslav; Mićović, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    In years following to the second world war the convention organisator was faced with major technical difficulties due to universal shortage of resources. During the 50's, two conventions of health workers with topics related to preventive medicine were held in Opatija. On both occasion Sanitary Bureau of Rijeka (Institute of Hygiene) was the main organisator. Reviewing the correspondance in Institute of Hygiene archive, one can monitor the preparations for the congress. In order to meet the participant's expectation, director of Institute of Hygiene, requested from the local entrepreneur adequate supply of postcard and cigarettes. PMID:23607176

  18. Recovery of hygiene water by multifiltration. [in space shuttle orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, David F.; Jolly, Clifford D.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Price, Don

    1989-01-01

    A multifiltration hygiene water reclamation process that utilizes adsorption and particulate filtration techniques is described and evaluated. The applicability of the process is tested using a simulation of a 4-man subsystem operation for 240 days. It is proposed the process has a 10 year life, weighs 236 kg, and uses 88 kg of expendable filters and adsorption beds to process 8424 kg of water. The data reveal that the multifiltration is an efficient nonphase change technique for hygiene water recovery and that the chemical and microbiological purity of the product water is within the standards specified for the Space Station hygiene water.

  19. The Storey of college health hygiene. Thomas A. Storey, MD (1875-1943) and the promotion of hygiene.

    PubMed

    Christmas, W A; Dorman, J M

    1996-07-01

    The word hygiene originally defined a comprehensive plan for preserving individual and community health in all its dimensions. In the latter half of the 19th century, Dr Edward Hitchcock Jr established a system of hygiene at Amherst College that became the model for campus hygiene programs. Dr Thomas A. Storey of Stanford University, an advocate of teaching hygiene to college students, wrote articles and textbooks and was active on national committees that promoted college hygiene programs. Storey was one of the founders of the American Student Health Association, later renamed the American College Health Association, which in its early years chose promotion of hygiene as a major objective. As the 20th century progressed, the profession of health education emerged. With its emergence came the realization that health education, once viewed as primarily a matter of delivering health information to students, required an appreciation of human behavior as well. By 1950, the word hygiene had given way to health in most contexts in recognition of this new paradigm.

  20. Impact of the "Guidelines for infection prevention in dentistry" (2006) by the Commission of Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention at the Robert Koch-Institute (KRINKO) on hygiene management in dental practices – analysis of a survey from 2009

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Handrup, Stephan; Meyer, Georg; Kramer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess trends in hygiene management in dental practices in comparison to an earlier survey in 2002/2003 and to point out key aspects for future efforts. Method: The infection prevention management of all dental practices in Greifswald (n=35) was determined by a questionnaire in a personal interview in 2008/2009. Results: 26% of the dentists did not use sufficient personal protective equipment during the general examination of the patient. In conservative and prosthetic dentistry, 15% still did not use adequate measures and 9% did not even in surgical interventions. Vaccination coverage was clearly too low, as only 35% of dentists were vaccinated against influenza and coverage with other vaccinations was also quite low. 11% of the dentists did not perform a documented anamnesis and in 29% of the dental practices no appointment system for risk patients existed. There were significant deficiencies in the reprocessing of medical devices and in the equipment needed for reprocessing. The opportunity to participate in further training in this field was rejected by 23% of the dentists. In 10 dental practices, the colony count in the dental unit water-conducting system was five times higher than the limit. A contamination with P. aeruginosa was discovered in 4 practices. All units were renovated. Discussion: Overall, both the hygiene management and hygiene equipment in the practices have improved considerably compared to the previous survey in 2002/2003. This demonstrates the positive effect of the KRINKO guidelines from 2006. However, the survey again showed relevant deficiences in the hygiene management of dental practices, which agrees with a Germany-wide online survey from 2009. Conclusion: While the study revealed persistent deficiencies in hygiene management, especially in reprocessing, it confirms that the KRINKO guidelines for dental practices from 2006 led to significant improvements in hygiene management. Doubts about the impact of the guidelines are not

  1. Task Force on Innovation in Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, James; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The background, origins, functions, and recommendations of the American Association of Dental Schools' task force investigating improvement of access to dental hygiene training programs and of curriculum and program design are presented. (MSE)

  2. Pilot Overmyer completes hygiene activities / demostrates IVA foot restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    On middeck, Pilot Overmyer, drying his face with a towel from forward single tray personal item stowage locker, completes personal hygiene activities (shaving) and demostrates use of intravehicular activity (IVA) foot restraint on floor.

  3. [Hygienic assessment of innovation procedures for lesson scheduling at school].

    PubMed

    Stepanova, M I; Sazaniuk, Z I; Polenova, M A

    2012-01-01

    Hygienic assessment has established that education, by using innovation procedures for school lesson scheduling, diminishes the weariness of a schooling load and optimizes the pupils' psychosomatic status and school routine.

  4. [Hygienic assessment of innovation procedures for lesson scheduling at school].

    PubMed

    Stepanova, M I; Sazaniuk, Z I; Polenova, M A

    2012-01-01

    Hygienic assessment has established that education, by using innovation procedures for school lesson scheduling, diminishes the weariness of a schooling load and optimizes the pupils' psychosomatic status and school routine. PMID:22712330

  5. Online directed journaling in dental hygiene clinical education.

    PubMed

    Gwozdek, Anne E; Klausner, Christine P; Kerschbaum, Wendy E

    2009-01-01

    Reflecting upon and sharing of clinical experiences in dental hygiene education is a strategy used to support the application of didactic material to patient care. The promotion of interactive, clinically focused discussions creates opportunities for students to foster critical thinking and socialization skills in dental hygiene practice. Twenty-eight dental hygiene students in their first semester of patient care utilized online directed journaling via blogging software, as a reflection and sharing strategy. Journal entries found critical thinking and socialization themes including connection of didactic material to clinical experience, student-patient interaction, student-student collaboration, and a vision of the professional role of the dental hygienist. A 7 item evaluation instrument provided data that the online journaling strategy was perceived as effective and valuable by the students. Online directed journaling is a strategy that has the potential to enhance critical thinking and socialization skills in dental hygiene clinical education. PMID:19370811

  6. A Vocal Hygiene Program for School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Joy V.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-eight elementary grade school children with hoarse voices participated in a six-lesson, cartoon-illustrated vocal hygiene program that provided information concerning the human voice, voice quality, vocal abuse, and proper use of the voice. (Author)

  7. Effects of industrial noise on circumpulpar dentin--a field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Cavacas, Maria Alzira; Tavares, Vitor; Oliveira, Maria João; Oliveira, Pedro; Sezinando, Ana; Martins dos Santos, José

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to Industrial Noise (IN), rich in Low Frequency Noise (LFN), causes systemic fibrotic transformation and sustained stress. Dental wear, significantly increased with exposure to LFN, affects the teeth particularly through the circumpulpar dentin. Our goal is to understand the consequences of IN exposure on the circumpulpar dentin of Wistar rats. 10 Wistar rats were exposed to IN for 4 months, according to an occupationally simulated time schedule and 10 animals were used as age-matched controls. The first and the second upper and lower molars of each animal were processed for observation by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was performed. In exposed animals FESEM showed a 2.0 to 6.0 μm-dense mineral band between dentin and the pulp with no regular continuity with the tubules. This structure had a few tubules where the odontoblasts processes could be observed embedded within the band and collagen fibers were trapped inside. EDS analysis revealed that it was hydroxyapatite similar to dentin, with a higher carbon content. FESEM results show that the band may be tertiary reparative dentin formed by odontoblast-like cells, but the increased amount of carbon (EDS) could mean that it is sclerotic dentin. IN should be acknowledge as a strong stimulus, able to cause an injury to odontoblasts and to the formation of reparative tertiary dentin, in a process that may accelerate the aging of the teeth, either by direct impact of acoustic pressure pulsations or by increased stress and dental wear.

  8. Effects of industrial noise on circumpulpar dentin - a field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cavacas, Maria Alzira; Tavares, Vitor; Oliveira, Maria João; Oliveira, Pedro; Sezinando, Ana; Martins dos Santos, José

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to Industrial Noise (IN), rich in Low Frequency Noise (LFN), causes systemic fibrotic transformation and sustained stress. Dental wear, significantly increased with exposure to LFN, affects the teeth particularly through the circumpulpar dentin. Our goal is to understand the consequences of IN exposure on the circumpulpar dentin of Wistar rats. 10 Wistar rats were exposed to IN for 4 months, according to an occupationally simulated time schedule and 10 animals were used as age-matched controls. The first and the second upper and lower molars of each animal were processed for observation by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was performed. In exposed animals FESEM showed a 2.0 to 6.0 μm-dense mineral band between dentin and the pulp with no regular continuity with the tubules. This structure had a few tubules where the odontoblasts processes could be observed embedded within the band and collagen fibers were trapped inside. EDS analysis revealed that it was hydroxyapatite similar to dentin, with a higher carbon content. FESEM results show that the band may be tertiary reparative dentin formed by odontoblast-like cells, but the increased amount of carbon (EDS) could mean that it is sclerotic dentin. IN should be acknowledge as a strong stimulus, able to cause an injury to odontoblasts and to the formation of reparative tertiary dentin, in a process that may accelerate the aging of the teeth, either by direct impact of acoustic pressure pulsations or by increased stress and dental wear. PMID:24294356

  9. Hand hygiene deficiency citations in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Castle, Nicholas; Wagner, Laura; Ferguson, Jamie; Handler, Steven

    2014-02-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) is recognized as an effective way to decrease transmission of infections. Little research has been conducted surrounding HH in nursing homes (NHs). In this research, deficiency citations representing potential problems with HH practices by staff as identified in the certification process conducted at almost all US NHs were examined. The aims of the study were to identify potential relationships between these deficiency citations and characteristics of the NH and characteristics of the NH environment. We used a panel of 148,900 observations with information primarily coming from the 2000 through 2009 Online Survey, Certification, And Reporting data (OSCAR). An average of 9% of all NHs per year received a deficiency citation for HH. In the multivariate analyses, for all three caregivers examined (i.e., nurse aides, Licensed Practical Nurses, and Registered Nurses) low staffing levels were associated with receiving a deficiency citation for HH. Two measures of poor quality (i.e., [1] Quality of care deficiency citations and [2] J, K, or L deficiency citations, that is deficiency citations with a high extent of harm and/or more residents affected) were also associated with receiving a deficiency citation for HH. Given the percentage of NHs receiving deficiency citations for potential problems with HH identified in this research, more attention should be placed on this issue.

  10. Water, sanitation and hygiene for homeless people.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Walters, Vicky; Gaillard, J C; Hridi, Sanjida Marium; McSherry, Alice

    2016-02-01

    This short communication provides insights into water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for homeless people through a scoping study conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It investigates homeless access to WASH through the lens of a rights-based approach. It demonstrates that homeless people's denial of their right to WASH reflects their marginal position in society and an unequal distribution of power and opportunities. The study ultimately suggests a rights-based approach to work toward dealing with the root causes of discrimination and marginalisation rather than just the symptoms. For the homeless, who not only lack substantive rights, but also the means through which to claim their rights, an integrated rights-based approach to WASH offers the possibility for social inclusion and significant improvements in their life conditions. Given the unique deprivation of homelessness it is argued that in addressing the lack of access to adequate WASH for homeless people the immediate goal should be the fulfilment and protection of the right to adequate shelter. PMID:26837829

  11. Organising an awareness week to target hand hygiene practice.

    PubMed

    Dentith, Melanie; Shelmerdine, Tracey

    When an audit of hand hygiene practice in an NHS trust revealed room for improvement, a strategy was developed to address the issue. An awareness week has been organised to launch the strategy and to take the message about the importance of hand hygiene to all hospital staff, patients and visitors in innovative and engaging ways. This article reports on the organisation of the awareness week.

  12. The first step in infection control is hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Canham, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    A dental health care worker (DHCW) has an obligation to prevent the spread of health care associated infections. Adhering to proper hand hygiene procedures, selecting appropriate hand hygiene products and the use of gloves are all important elements of infection control. The CDC Guidelines for Hand Hygiene state that improved hand hygiene practices can reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in health care settings. DHCWs must also protect themselves by recognizing pitfalls such as irritants or allergies that may pose obstacles to proper hand hygiene. Occupational irritants and allergies can be caused by frequent hand washing, exposure to hand hygiene products, exposure to chemicals and shear forces associated with wearing or removing gloves. Since the primary defense against infection and transmission of pathogens is healthy, unbroken skin, DHCWs must take steps to ensure that their skin remains healthy and intact. These steps include evaluating different types of hand hygiene products, lotions and gloves for the best compatibility. If the DHCW sees a breakdown of his or her skin barrier, steps should be taken to determine the cause and remedy. Remedies can include the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers containing emollients and moisturizers and regular use of a medical grade hand lotion. The bottom line: healthy skin protects you at work and at home. Selection and use of appropriate hand hygiene products, including moisturizers, are an essential part ofa dental office infection control program. My coworker lost the use of her thumb for several months due to complications of a staph infection. She was unable to work and found even simple tasks such as closing a button hard to do. Think of how difficult your work would be if something happened to your hands. Injury, irritation or allergies could alter your ability to work or even perform routine tasks. Our hands provide us with the ability to work in clinical dentistry. It makes

  13. Hygiene of the skin: when is clean too clean?

    PubMed Central

    Larson, E.

    2001-01-01

    Skin hygiene, particularly of the hands, is a primary mechanism for reducing contact and fecal-oral transmission of infectious agents. Widespread use of antimicrobial products has prompted concern about emergence of resistance to antiseptics and damage to the skin barrier associated with frequent washing. This article reviews evidence for the relationship between skin hygiene and infection, the effects of washing on skin integrity, and recommendations for skin care practices. PMID:11294712

  14. [Current tasks of hygienic provisions of metro design and construction].

    PubMed

    Dubrovskaia, T A; Lebedev, S V

    2000-01-01

    A new part of the existing document on sanitary norms and metro design is proposed to present as a separate section "Hygienic and Ecological Requirements". Its structure should be determined by current views on the regulated environmental factors (physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic). Requirements should be systematized by hygienic criteria of the duration and rate of the human influence of these factors by taking into account of the functional purpose of premises and erections.

  15. Oral Hygiene Levels in Children of Tribal Population of Eastern Ghats: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Raju, P Krishnam; Vasanti, D; Kumar, J Raghavendra; Niranjani, K; Kumar, M S Saravana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene has been given due importance since ages. Different cultures have been using different methods for the maintenance of good oral hygiene. The study was done to find out the oral hygiene levels in children of tribal population and to correlate the brushing methods used and the oral hygiene levels. Methodology: A total of 5129 children of 5-12 years age (boys 2778, girls 2351) were checked for the simplified oral hygiene index in the study. Results: The overall oral hygiene status of 1267 girls and 1348 boys was fair, whereas 821 girls and 937 boys was good and 263 girls and 493 boys was poor. It has been shown that fair oral hygiene practices were being followed by the children. Conclusion: Children using twigs and other materials for oral hygiene had nearly equally good oral hygiene when compared to the tooth brush and tooth paste, though children using toothbrush and tooth paste had slightly better oral hygiene. PMID:26229382

  16. Accuracy of industry and occupation on death certificates of electric utility workers: implications for epidemiologic studies of magnetic fields and cancer.

    PubMed

    Andrews, K W; Savitz, D A

    1999-12-01

    A substantial epidemiologic literature has relied on occupation and industry information from death certificates to make inferences about the association of electric and magnetic field exposure with cancer, but the validity of the occupational data on death certificates is questionable. We compared occupation and industry information from death certificates to company work histories for 793 electric utility workers who died from brain cancer (n=143), leukemia (n=156), lung cancer (n=246, randomly sampled), and non-cancer causes (n=248, randomly sampled). Nearly 75% of death certificates correctly indicated utility industry employment and of those, 48% matched the longest held occupation derived from company work histories. Hence, only 36% matched on both industry and occupation. We computed odds ratios relating occupations involving magnetic field exposure to brain cancer and leukemia both for the occupation listed on the death certificate and for the longest-held occupation based on company records in order to examine the impact of exposure misclassification based on reliance on the death certificate information. For brain cancer, the odds ratio was 1.2 based on death certificates and 1.7 based on company work history, suggesting some attenuation due to misclassification. For leukemia, death certificate information yielded an odds ratio of 0.9, whereas company work histories yielded an odds ratio of 1.3. Although work histories are limited to the period of employment in a specific company, these data suggest that there is substantial misclassification in use of death certificate information on industry and occupation of utility workers, as found in other industries. The limited quality of occupation and industry information on death certificates argues against relying on such information to evaluate modest associations with mortality.

  17. The correlation between sustainable development and home hygiene.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, M J

    2001-08-01

    Hygiene refers to the science of the establishment and maintenance of (human) health. In everyday life, hygiene is closely associated with good housekeeping. This article will focus on home hygiene in relation to cleaning, on microorganisms, and on sustainable development of domestic technology. In domestic cleaning there are two beneficial effects: the aesthetic aspects of cleanness and the removal of microorganisms. In cleaning science substantial attention is paid to the interrelation between cleaning and removal of microorganisms. It appears that the parameters of the cleaning process and the detergent properties play a significant role in this interrelation. Changing technology to reduce the environmental impact of household cleaning not only influences the household activities and the functional performance of the cleaning processes but also has an impact on the level of hygiene. Results are presented of research in which the hygiene has been evaluated in relation to such changes. One option recently studied to reduce the environmental impact of households is the reduction of water consumption by water reuse. In such concepts water is used in successive steps for various processes before it is drained. The potential impact of such systems and of the use of rain water on the level of home hygiene is discussed.

  18. Balancing hygienization and anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Astals, S; Venegas, C; Peces, M; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2012-12-01

    The anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge was evaluated in terms of process efficiency and sludge hygienization. Four different scenarios were analyzed, i.e. mesophilic anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a 60 °C or by an 80 °C hygienization treatment. Digester performance (organic matter removal, process stability and biogas yield) and the hygienization efficiency (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA phages) were the main examined factors. Moreover, a preliminary economical feasibility study of each option was carried out throughout an energy balance (heat and electricity). The obtained results showed that both thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a hygienization step were able to produce an effluent sludge that fulfills the American and the European legislation for land application. However, higher removal efficiencies of indicators were obtained when a hygienization post-treatment was present. Regarding the energy balance, it should be noted that all scenarios have a significant energy surplus. Particularly, positive heat balances will be obtained for the thermophilic anaerobic digestion and for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by 60 °C hygienization post-treatment if an additional fresh-sludge/digested sludge heat exchanger is installed for energy recovery. PMID:23063441

  19. Origins and benefits of dental hygiene practice in Europe.

    PubMed

    Luciak-Donsberger, C

    2003-02-01

    Origins and benefits of the practice of dental hygiene were investigated in order to provide guidelines to countries where initiatives are being taken to introduce the profession. In Europe, so far the profession has been introduced in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Great Britain, Finland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain. Programmes in Ireland, Poland, and Romania are not presented in this article. Information for this study was obtained using questionnaires and followed up by e-mail correspondence with additional experts, supporting studies and reference literature. All experts consulted are involved in the professional and educational organisation of dental hygiene in their countries. Results show that dentists and dental hygienists who had been inspired by the delivery of preventive care in the US, initiated the European dental hygiene movement. In some countries, opposition of organised dentistry had to be overcome. In countries where the population has limited access to qualified dental hygiene care, such as in Austria, Belgium, Germany and France, a high prevalence of untreated periodontal disease has been reported. There, the lucrative practice of delegating dental hygiene tasks to dental assistants without qualifying education has slowed efforts to implement the profession and resulted in negative health and vocational outcomes. This leads to the conclusion that an implementation of legislation governing the practice and the educational process of dental hygiene in the EU and beyond would contribute to an equitable standard of health care as well as to equal opportunities in education and employment.

  20. Routine hand hygiene audit by direct observation: has nemesis arrived?

    PubMed

    Gould, D J; Drey, N S; Creedon, S

    2011-04-01

    Infection prevention and control experts have expended valuable health service time developing and implementing tools to audit health workers' hand hygiene compliance by direct observation. Although described as the 'gold standard' approach to hand hygiene audit, this method is labour intensive and may be inaccurate unless performed by trained personnel who are regularly monitored to ensure quality control. New technological devices have been developed to generate 'real time' data, but the cost of installing them and using them during routine patient care has not been evaluated. Moreover, they do not provide as much information about the hand hygiene episode or the context in which hand hygiene has been performed as direct observation. Uptake of hand hygiene products offers an inexpensive alternative to direct observation. Although product uptake would not provide detailed information about the hand hygiene episode or local barriers to compliance, it could be used as a continuous monitoring tool. Regular inspection of the data by infection prevention and control teams and clinical staff would indicate when and where direct investigation of practice by direct observation and questioning of staff should be targeted by highly trained personnel to identify local problems and improve practice.

  1. Menstrual Hygiene Practices in Context of Schooling: A Community Study Among Rural Adolescent Girls in Varanasi

    PubMed Central

    Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Sweta; Kumar, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Up until now, poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. The lack of attention to this issue is striking as we cannot achieve several Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that is, 2, 3 4,5, and 5B. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness about menarche and hygienic practices during menstruation in context of schooling. Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study using a mix method approach (qualitative and quantitative). It was conducted among 650 adolescent girls in the field practice area of Rural Health and Training Centre, Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi between January and June2011. Pretested, semistructured interview schedule was used. Data were analyzed statistically by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results: Out of the total 650 respondents, 590 (90.78%) had attained menarche at the time of interview and only one-third of the respondents (29.4%) were aware of menstruation before menarche and sisters (55%) played the key role in providing information to them. Only 31% respondents were using sanitary pads during menstruation. Self-reported reproductive tract infection (RTI) was observed more in respondents not maintaining hygienic practices (6.6%) as compared to those maintaining hygiene (2.6%). Conclusion and Recommendations: From the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) as well as quantitative survey it was observed that the awareness about menarche before its onset was still poor in rural areas. Significant association (P < 0.05) was observed between respondent education and their awareness about menarche before its onset. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers can play an influential role in informing them about changes during adolescence, especially about menarche and other issues related to menstruation. As per the present study, sisters and mothers were the major source of information. Therefore, there is a need for the

  2. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF NOISE FACTOR OF THE LARGE CITY].

    PubMed

    Chubirko, M L; Stepkin, Yu I; Seredenko, O V

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of the negative impact of traffic noise on the health and living conditions of the population in conditions of the large city. Every day on the streets there are appeared more and more different modes of transport, and to date almost all transportation network has reached his traffic performance. The increase in traffic noise certainly has an impact on the human body. The most common and intense noise is caused by the traffic of urban automobile and electric transport. This is explained by the existence of the heavy traffic (2-3 thousand crews/h) on almost all main roads in historically emerged parts of the city. In addition, sources of external noise in the city can be a railway running in residential zone, access roads, industrial enterprises, located in close proximity to residential areas and on the borders of residential zones, planes of military and civil aviation. For the evaluation of the different noises sound levels were measured with the use of sound level meters. The most common parameter for the assessment ofthe noise generatedfrom motor vehicles on residential areas and usedfor the noise characteristics of the traffic flows, is the equivalent sound level/A EQ dB. This parameter is used in the majority of normative-technical documentation as hygienic noise standard. With the aim of the assessment of noise exposure there were selected 122 control points at intersections of roads of different traffic performance where there were made instrumental measurements the equivalent sound level, followed by its comparison with permissible levels. PMID:27029166

  3. Understanding the determinants of Australian hospital nurses' hand hygiene decisions following the implementation of a national hand hygiene initiative.

    PubMed

    White, Katherine M; Starfelt, Louise C; Jimmieson, Nerina L; Campbell, Megan; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian G; Cockshaw, Wendell; Gee, Phillip; Page, Katie; Martin, Elizabeth; Brain, David; Paterson, David

    2015-12-01

    Hand hygiene is the primary measure in hospitals to reduce the spread of infections, with nurses experiencing the greatest frequency of patient contact. The '5 critical moments' of hand hygiene initiative has been implemented in hospitals across Australia, accompanied by awareness-raising, staff training and auditing. The aim of this study was to understand the determinants of nurses' hand hygiene decisions, using an extension of a common health decision-making model, the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), to inform future health education strategies to increase compliance. Nurses from 50 Australian hospitals (n = 2378) completed standard TPB measures (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control [PBC], intention) and the extended variables of group norm, risk perceptions (susceptibility, severity) and knowledge (subjective, objective) at Time 1, while a sub-sample (n = 797) reported their hand hygiene behaviour 2 weeks later. Regression analyses identified subjective norm, PBC, group norm, subjective knowledge and risk susceptibility as the significant predictors of nurses' hand hygiene intentions, with intention and PBC predicting their compliance behaviour. Rather than targeting attitudes which are already very favourable among nurses, health education strategies should focus on normative influences and perceptions of control and risk in efforts to encourage hand hygiene adherence. PMID:26590244

  4. Hand hygiene monitoring technology: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthcare worker hand hygiene is thought to be one of the most important strategies to prevent healthcare-associated infections, but compliance is generally poor. Hand hygiene improvement interventions must include audits of compliance (almost always with feedback), which are most often done by direct observation - a method that is expensive, subjective, and prone to bias. New technologies, including electronic and video hand hygiene monitoring systems, have the potential to provide continuous and objective monitoring of hand hygiene, regular feedback, and for some systems, real-time reminders. We propose a systematic review of the evidence supporting the effectiveness of these systems. The primary objective is to determine whether hand hygiene monitoring systems yield sustainable improvements in hand hygiene compliance when compared to usual care. Methods/Design MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and other relevant databases will be searched for randomized control studies and quasi-experimental studies evaluating a video or electronic hand hygiene monitoring system. A standard data collection form will be used to abstract relevant information from included studies. Bias will be assessed using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Studies will be reviewed independently by two reviewers, with disputes resolved by a third reviewer. The primary outcome is directly observed hand hygiene compliance. Secondary outcomes include healthcare-associated infection incidence and improvements in hand hygiene compliance as measured by alternative metrics. Results will be qualitatively summarized with comparisons made between study quality, the measured outcome, and study-specific factors that may be expected to affect outcome (for example, study duration, frequency of feedback, use of real-time reminders). Meta-analysis will be performed if there is more than one study of similar systems with comparable outcome definitions

  5. Home oral hygiene revisited. Options and evidence.

    PubMed

    Sicilia, Alberto; Arregui, Ignacio; Gallego, Montserrat; Cabezas, Blanca; Cuesta, Susana

    2003-01-01

    In regard to the limited literature on the subject, and the contradictions observed, we can not conclude that the types of manual brushes produce clinically important effects on the patients' gingival health, or that these effects can be detected consistently. However, the best results have been obtained with new brush designs, and future studies are necessary to clarify the existing contradictions. There is a clear need of long-term studies which comparatively evaluate the ability to reduce gingivitis and plaque with the newly designed brushes. On the other hand, there is evidence that supports the use of powered toothbrushes in the general population, especially those of the oscillating-rotating and counter-rotational type, as they have shown their ability to reduce gingival bleeding or inflammation, and dental plaque with greater efficacy than manual brushes. There is a clear need of long-term trials on the efficacy of powered brushes in orthodontic patients. With the existing studies we can conclude that there is limited evidence that orthodontic patients using a powered toothbrush show a slight, but significant, reduction of bleeding, compared with users of manual brushes. No conclusion can be made concerning the type of brush to be used. The techniques of interproximal oral hygiene, fundamentally the use of dental floss and interproximal brushes, appear to add additional benefits, in terms of plaque reduction, when they are associated with conventional manual brushes. Further long-term studies are necessary to confirm their efficacy in the reduction of gingival bleeding or inflammation. The choice of the type of technique must be made in relation to the characteristics of the patient: dental floss could be indicated in individuals with closed interdental spaces, and inter-proximal brushes in periodontal patients, or in those with open embrasures.

  6. Removal of trace metals by Sorghum bicolor and Helianthus annuus in a site polluted by industrial wastes: a field experience.

    PubMed

    Marchiol, L; Fellet, G; Perosa, D; Zerbi, G

    2007-05-01

    Using the perspective of full scale application of phytoremediation techniques, research is focusing on the optimization of agronomic practices. Two annual high biomass yield crops, Sorghum bicolor and Helianthus annuus, were grown in a polymetallic soil. The experimental site, polluted by pyrite cinders, is located in an industrial site that has been listed in the clean-up national priority list since 2001. Specific aims of this work were to observe the concentration of metals in plants during the crop cycle and to establish the amount of metal removed by the crops. The field trial, arranged in a randomized block design, started in 2005. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soil were: As 309, Cd 4.29, Co 50.9, Cu 1527 and Zn 980mg kg(-1). The crops grown on the polluted soil received mineral fertilization (Fert) and organic amendment (Org), while plants in control soil (Ctrl) did not receive anything. The plots were watered during the crop cycle during two drought periods, using a sprinkler irrigation system. The phytoextraction potential of crops was estimated during the whole growth cycle and the plant biomass that was collected in each sampling date was ICP-analyzed. Plant-biomass growth curves were obtained. The concentrations of the metals in the shoots and in the total plant biomass were recorded. Finally, the metal removal was calculated for the harvestable parts of the crops. The amelioration of the nutritive status of the substrate that resulted, was highly effective for the biomass yield. However, fertilization and soil amendment did not heighten the concentration of metals in the harvestable tissue of the plants during the crop cycle. In some cases, organic matter appeared to bind the elements making them less available for the plants. The evaluation of the potential of phytoremediation of our plants compared to other crops in terms of metal removal was positive. Our results of metal removal are consistent with the results from other in situ

  7. Field Test Report: NETL Portable Raman Gas Composition Monitor - Initial Industrial tests at NETL and General Electric (GE)

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, Buric; Jessica, Mullen; Steven, Woodruff; Ben, Chorpening

    2012-02-24

    NETL has developed new technology which enables the use of Raman spectroscopy in the real-time measurement of gas mixtures. This technology uses a hollow reflective metal-lined capillary waveguide as a gas sampling cell which contains the sample gas, and efficiently collects optical Raman scattering from the gas sample, for measurement with a miniature spectrometer. The result is an optical Raman “fingerprint” for each gas which is tens or hundreds of times larger than that which can be collected with conventional free-space optics. In this manner, the new technology exhibits a combination of measurement speed and accuracy which is unprecedented for spontaneous Raman measurements of gases. This makes the system especially well-suited to gas turbine engine control based on a-priori measurement of incoming fuel composition. The system has been developed to produce a measurement of all of the common components of natural gas, including the lesser nitrogen, oxygen, carbon-dioxide, and carbon monoxide diluents to better than 1% concentration accuracy each second. The objective of this task under CRADA 10-N100 was to evaluate the capability of a laser Raman capillary gas sensor for combustion fuels. A portable version of the Raman gas sensor, constructed at NETL, was used for field-trials conducted in a cooperative research effort at a GE facility. Testing under the CRADA was performed in 5 parts. Parts 1-4 were successful in testing of the Raman Gas Composition Monitor with bottled calibration gases, and in continuous monitoring of several gas streams at low pressure, in comparison with an online mass spectrometer. In part 5, the Raman Gas Composition Monitor was moved outdoors for testing with high pressure gas supplies. Some difficulties were encountered during industrial testing including the condensation of heavy hydrocarbons inside the sample cell (in part 5), communication with the GE data collection system, as well as some drift in the optical noise

  8. A Study to Develop an Industrial-Scale, Computer-Controlled High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) System to Assist in Commercializing the Novel, Enabling HMFP Manufacturing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz-; Chourey, Aashish

    2010-08-01

    As the original magnet designer and manufacturer of ORNL s 9T, 5-inch ID bore magnet, American Magnetics Inc. (AMI) has collaborated with ORNL s Materials Processing Group s and this partnership has been instrumental in the development of our unique thermo-magnetic facilities and expertise. Consequently, AMI and ORNL have realized that the commercial implementation of the High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) technology will require the evolution of robust, automated superconducting (SC) magnet systems that will be cost-effective and easy to operate in an industrial environment. The goal of this project and CRADA is to significantly expedite the timeline for implementing this revolutionary and pervasive cross-cutting technology for future US produced industrial components. The successful completion of this project is anticipated to significantly assist in the timely commercialization and licensing of our HMFP intellectual property for a broad spectrum of industries; and to open up a new market for AMI. One notable outcome of this project is that the ThermoMagnetic Processing Technology WON a prestigious 2009 R&D 100 Awards. This award acknowledges and recognizes our TMP Technology as one of the top 100 innovative US technologies in 2009. By successfully establishing the design requirements for a commercial scale magnetic processing system, this project effort has accomplished a key first step in facilitating the building and demonstration of a superconducting magnetic processing coil, enabling the transition of the High Magnetic Field Processing Technology beyond a laboratory novelty into a commercially viable and industrially scalable Manufacturing Technology.

  9. Usefulness of a large field of view sensor for physicochemical, textural, and yield predictions under industrial goat cheese (Murcia al Vino) manufacturing conditions.

    PubMed

    Rovira, S; García, V; Ferrandini, E; Carrión, J; Castillo, M; López, M B

    2012-11-01

    The applicability of a light backscatter sensor with a large field of view was tested for on-line monitoring of coagulation and syneresis in a goat cheese (Murcia al Vino) manufactured under industrial conditions. Cheesemaking was carried out concurrently in a 12-L pilot vat and a 10,000-L industrial vat following the normal cheesemaking protocol. Cheese moisture, whey fat content, hardness, springiness, and adhesiveness were measured during syneresis. The results obtained show that cutting time is best predicted by considering the coagulation ratio at the inflection point and the percentage increase in the ratio during coagulation, with no need for the first derivative. The large field of view reflectance ratio provided good results for the prediction of moisture content, yield, hardness, springiness, and adhesiveness of the final cheese.

  10. [Occupational risk and its prophylaxis for female workers engaged in radio-electronic instrument industry].

    PubMed

    Frolova, N M

    2003-01-01

    Hygienic evaluation of work conditions and health state of women engaged into radioelectronic instrument-making industry helped to define occupational hazards determining occupational risk that includes criteria for reproductive disorders.

  11. [A scientific providing for the system of hygienic optimization and anti-epidemic safety of rail ridership].

    PubMed

    Vil'k, M F; Korotich, L P; Polyakova, V

    2013-01-01

    The system of scientific and reasonable measures for hygienic and anti-epidemic providing of rail ridership is elaborated. The legal and methodical base for precautionary and current sanitary inspection in the field of hygiene and epidemiology of ridership has been created, standard and methodical documents have been introduced in practice of medical sanitary health services of the railroads and accepted to realization by the design, car-building and car-repair organizations. Sanitary and hygienic monitoring for rail ridership, including control for sanitary, hygienic and microbiological indices of the air environment of passenger and service premises of stations and passenger trains, and also control for indices of health of the workers providing ridership, with use of pre-nosological symptoms of pathology is organized. Features of a bacterial aero-plankton of passenger objects are revealed. The increase of indices of bacterial pollution of air in passenger objects during the summer-autumn periods of year in comparison with winter period is established. Direct relationship between levels of bacterial air pollution of passenger rooms of stations and integrated indices of anti-infectious stability of an organism of workers of the railway stations serving ridership, and also number of persons with the changed indices of the immune status is revealed.

  12. Issues in access to safe drinking water and basic hygiene for persons with physical disabilities in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Marin; Pann, Mala; Cantwell, Ray; Moore, Spencer

    2014-12-01

    An estimated 1.6 million people die from diarrheal diseases each year due to lack of access to safe water and sanitation, and persons with physical disabilities face additional barriers. In Cambodia, approximately 5% of the population is disabled, presenting substantial obstacles in accessing these basic services. The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to identify the challenges facing persons with physical disabilities in accessing safe household water and basic hygiene in rural Cambodia; and, second, to use these results to generate policy and practice recommendations for the water and sanitation hygiene sector implementing water treatment system interventions in rural settings. Fifteen field interviews were conducted with persons with physical disabilities. Thematic analysis was used to identify six main themes. The results indicated that environmental barriers to access were greater in the workplace than household settings and those persons with disabilities had greater awareness about safe drinking water compared to basic hygiene. Additionally, lack of physical strength, distance to water, and lack of financial means were noted as common access barriers. The findings support ongoing research and offer insight into the particular challenges facing persons with physical disabilities in rural areas in accessing safe drinking water and basic hygiene.

  13. How better availability of materials improved hand-hygiene compliance.

    PubMed

    Azlz, Ann-Marie

    Hand hygiene is one of the most effective measures for preventing infections. The annual NHS staff survey in England provides national and local data on how staff feel about working in the NHS. It also provides staff with the opportunity to give their views on the availability of hand-washing materials. The infection prevention and control team at an NHS trust decided a review was required on this issue. This review assessed the availability of hand-washing materials and alcohol handrub on wards and at ward entrances. Three community buildings and 31 wards were reviewed. The audit results showed the availability of hand-washing materials was good in 30 out of 34 areas. Staff on both wards and in the community buildings highlighted what other materials were required for hand hygiene, and steps were made to provide these. The audit allowed hand-hygiene practices to be benchmarked across the trust and increased staff awareness of improving hand hygiene. As a result of this audit, the hand-hygiene compliance score increased from 80% to 95%.

  14. Paralleling technique for frenectomy and oral hygiene evaluation after frenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Abullais, Shahabe Saquib; Dani, Nitin; Ningappa, Priyanka; Golvankar, Kapil; Chavan, Amit; Malgaonkar, Nikhil; Gore, Anup

    2016-01-01

    Background: High frenum attachment is a very common problem in the population. Various conventional techniques are available which has certain disadvantages; in addition to that high frenum also hinders oral hygiene maintenance. This study aims to evaluate patient's response to two different frenectomy technique, and oral hygiene maintenance before and after frenectomy. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with high labial frenum were randomly selected from the outpatient department. Patients were divided into two groups according to the technique used. Each group contained ten patients. One group was treated by “conventional scalpel technique” and other group by “new paralleling technique”. To evaluate patients response, visual analogue scale for pain and speech were taken at first postoperative day, 1-week and 1-month. In other part of the study the oral hygiene maintenance was evaluated by using plaque and gingival bleeding index at baseline before frenectomy, 1-week and 1-month after frenectomy. Results: Results showed that new paralleling technique for frenectomy causes less postoperative discomfort and also there was significant improvement in the oral hygiene maintenance by the patient after frenectomy. Conclusion: High maxillary frenum causes hindrance in oral hygiene maintenance. Paralleling technique for frenectomy causes less discomfort to the patient during healing phase when compared with the conventional technique. PMID:27041834

  15. A survey of degree completion programs in dental hygiene education.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Karen M; Rogo, Ellen J; Calley, Kristin H; Cellucci, Leigh W

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to identify specific information related to U.S. dental hygiene baccalaureate degree completion programs. Learning experiences, assessment methods, and baccalaureate institutional partnerships were assessed. Of the sixty dental hygiene programs that offer a degree completion program, the forty-two that met the inclusion criteria (including having operated for at least three years) were invited to participate in a thirty-eight item online survey. A 62 percent (n=26) response rate was obtained. Learning experiences in responding programs included core dental hygiene courses, general education courses, and elective dental hygiene courses. Emphasis areas offered by various programs were in the specialty areas of education, public or community health, and research. Respondents reported that their graduates were employed in multiple settings (65 percent; n=17), with 19 percent (n=5) reporting employment in the combined grouping of private practice, education, and public health. Institutional partnerships included articulation agreements (88 percent; n=21), community college baccalaureate (8 percent; n=2), and university extension (4 percent; n=1) models. The findings of this study provide a baseline for assessing the educational composition and design of U.S. dental hygiene degree completion programs. However, results of this study showed inconsistencies among learning experiences that might raise concerns when considering students' level of preparation for graduate education and future leadership roles in the profession.

  16. How better availability of materials improved hand-hygiene compliance.

    PubMed

    Azlz, Ann-Marie

    Hand hygiene is one of the most effective measures for preventing infections. The annual NHS staff survey in England provides national and local data on how staff feel about working in the NHS. It also provides staff with the opportunity to give their views on the availability of hand-washing materials. The infection prevention and control team at an NHS trust decided a review was required on this issue. This review assessed the availability of hand-washing materials and alcohol handrub on wards and at ward entrances. Three community buildings and 31 wards were reviewed. The audit results showed the availability of hand-washing materials was good in 30 out of 34 areas. Staff on both wards and in the community buildings highlighted what other materials were required for hand hygiene, and steps were made to provide these. The audit allowed hand-hygiene practices to be benchmarked across the trust and increased staff awareness of improving hand hygiene. As a result of this audit, the hand-hygiene compliance score increased from 80% to 95%. PMID:23905226

  17. [Hand hygiene in hospital environments: use of conformity indicators].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Thaíne Cristina Romualdo; Roseira, Camila Eugenia; Piai-Morais, Thaís Helena; de Figueiredo, Rosely Moralez

    2014-03-01

    An exploratory descriptive study with a quantitative approach whose objective was to use indicators to evaluate the frequency and infrastructure for hand hygiene, as well as the nursing team's knowledge about the subject. Systematized observation was carried out at hospital in the state of São Paulo, Brazil of the routine activities of 33 participating professionals (nurses and technicians) as well as the application of an individual questionnaire about the subject. 1206 opportunities for hand hygiene were identified, though it was effected in only 481 (39.9%) of them. Alcohol solution was not used at any opportunity. The infrastructure indicatorfor hand hygiene was close to the ideal value (83.30%). The professionals reported a high frequency of hand hygiene, demonstrating knowledge in relation to its importance, yet contradicting the findings of the observation. It was concluded that, despite the adequate infrastructure, hand hygiene was below that expected, requiring actions and strategies to overcomes these barrier and increase the use of alcohol solution.

  18. Menstrual hygiene among adolescent schoolgirls in Mansoura, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Badawi, Karima; El-Fedawy, Sanaa

    2005-11-01

    Learning about menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. This study among 664 schoolgirls aged 14-18 in Mansoura, Egypt, asked about type of sanitary protection used, frequency of changing pads or cloths, means of disposal and bathing during menstruation. Girls were selected by cluster sampling technique in public secondary schools in urban and rural areas. Data were collected through an anonymous, self-administered, open-ended questionnaire during class time. The significant predictors of use of sanitary pads were availability of mass media at home, high and middle social class and urban residence. Use of sanitary pads may be increasing, but not among girls from rural and poor families, and other aspects of personal hygiene were generally found to be poor, such as not changing pads regularly or at night, and not bathing during menstruation. Lack of privacy was an important problem. Mass media were the main source of information about menstrual hygiene, followed by mothers, but a large majority of girls said they needed more information. Instruction in menstrual hygiene should be linked to an expanded programme of health education in schools. A supportive environment for menstrual hygiene has to be provided both at home and in school and sanitary pads made more affordable.

  19. [Efficient hygiene precautions in the household today].

    PubMed

    Borneff, J

    1989-04-01

    The results of epidemiological investigations justifies the assumption that increasing health defects, especially enteritis infectiosa, are caused inter alia by inadequate hygienic conditions in households. The number of such diseases ranges between 100,000 and more than 1,000,000 cases per year in the FRG. Responsible for this development is a lack of information about the behaviour of microorganisms in the environment and its pathways of distribution. In addition risks are growing with the recommendation of cleansing methods, which had been adequate for the kitchen techniques in former centuries, but must fall under the conditions of the modern supply, processing and conservation. The described investigations are directed at the determination of the distribution of germs by working in normal household kitchens and at the effectiveness of surface-decontamination-cleansers (so-called FD-preparations). Test principle was the production of a complete dinner by each of 79 housewives with use of minced meat, which was contaminated with micrococcus luteus. After final cleaning of the kitchen we determined the degree of contamination of surfaces, machines and of the components of the meal with use of rodacplates, swabs and quantitative cultures respectively. The experiments are completed by interviews with the housewives. The results let conclude that the use of household cleansers with germicidal properties even in the hand of housewives will reduce the distribution of unwanted microorganisms in the kitchens. In this respect surfaces, on which components of the meal are prepared, and the machines, like cutting machines, waring blenders a.o., are of utmost importance. Disinfections of other parts of the flats including toilets are unnecessary (exception: severe infectious diseases). Therefore the use of FD-preparations outside of the kitchens is not required, but acceptable (it is not necessary to use a cleanser in the kitchen, another one in the toilet and a third one

  20. [Hygienic estimation of combined influence of noise and infrasound on the organism of military men].

    PubMed

    Akhmetzianov, I M; Zinkin, V N; Petreev, I V; Dragan, S P

    2011-11-01

    Hygienic estimation of combined influence of noise and infrasound on the organism of military men. Combined influence of noise and infrasound is accompanied by essential increase of risk of development neurosensory deafness and hypertensive illness. At combined influence of noise and infrasound with a maximum of a spectrum in the field of a sound range the probability of development neurosensory deafness will prevail. Thus probability of development of pathology of ear above the values established ISO 1999:1990. In a case if the spectrum maximum is necessary on an infrasonic range the probability of development of a hypertensive illness. PMID:22329172

  1. [OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT IN WORKERS IN IMPROVEMENT OF NATIONAL POLICY IN OCCUPATIONAL HYGIENE AND SAFETY].

    PubMed

    Shur, P Z; Zaĭtseva, N V; Alekseev, V B; Shliapnikov, D M

    2015-01-01

    In accordance with the international documents in the field of occupational safety and hygiene, the assessment and minimization of occupational risks is a key instrument for the health maintenance of workers. One of the main ways to achieve it is the minimization of occupational risks. Correspondingly, the instrument for the implementation of this method is the methodology of analysis of occupational risks. In Russian Federation there were the preconditions for the formation of the system for the assessment and management of occupational risks. As the target of the national (state) policy in the field of occupational safety in accordance with ILO Conventions it can be offered the prevention of accidents and injuries to health arising from work or related with it, minimizing the causes of hazards inherent in the working environment, as far as it is reasonably and practically feasible. Global trend ofusing the methodology of the assessment and management of occupational risks to life and health of citizens requires the improvement of national policies in the field of occupational hygiene and safety. Achieving an acceptable level of occupational risk in the formation of national policy in the field of occupational hygiene and safety can be considered as one of the main tasks. PMID:26155652

  2. Utilization of Women in Industrial Career Fields. Final Report for Period 14 March 1977-28 April 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polit, Denise; And Others

    To expand the use of women in nontraditional industrial careers, the U.S. Air Force examined the questions of recruiting, selecting, and training women for traditionally male blue collar work. An extensive review of the literature revealed that little empirical data on the effectiveness of various administrative policies had been collected. The…

  3. Strategic Coupling of Advanced Induction Heating with Magnetic Field Processing Technologies Provides Innovative Solutions for Elevated Industries Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Ludtka, Mackiewicz-Ludtka; Pfaffmann, George; Ludtka, Gerard Michael

    2013-01-01

    Industry s relentless pursuit of product performance improvements is now challenging the capability of available/existing Thermal processing technologies, i.e., Heat Treating. In fact, the EPA-mandated requirement for light-weighting vehicles underscores the urgent US need for achieving higher product strength improvements.

  4. Success Factors in Higher Education-Industry Collaboration: A Case Study of Collaboration in the Engineering Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thune, Taran

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of what potential success factors are relevant when developing and managing higher education-business partnerships. To shed light on this question, the paper presents a review of research literature on the possible success factors in university-industry relations. To shed further light on the factors identified in…

  5. [Specific features of oral hygiene education in preschool children].

    PubMed

    Skripkina, G I; Garifullina, A Zh; Tel'nova, Zh N

    2015-01-01

    Health education of children mostly covers children of preschool age. It is not always successful because sanitary training inkindergarten is a mere formality. The aim of the study was to increase the effectiveness of prevention of oral diseases inpreschool children by improving the system of hygiene training and education. Dental examination of 225 3 to 5 years oldsliving in the city of Omsk was performed. The level of hygienic habits/oral care formation was carried out by studyingquestionnaires and interviewing children, parents, caregivers and healthcare professionals. Authors method of oral hygieneeducation in preschool children was introduced and compared to different methods of hygienic training and education may. Itsimplementation resulted in 46.5% caries incidence growth reduction The developed technique of the gradual formation of oralhygiene habits proved to be both clinically and cost effective.

  6. Acceptability of a wearable hand hygiene device with monitoring capabilities.

    PubMed

    Boscart, V M; McGilton, K S; Levchenko, A; Hufton, G; Holliday, P; Fernie, G R

    2008-11-01

    Transmisssion of infection within healthcare institutions is a significant threat to patients and staff. One of the most effective means of prevention is good hand hygiene. A research team at Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, Ontario, Canada, developed a wearable hand disinfection system with monitoring capabilities to enhance hand wash frequency. We present the findingsof the first phase of a larger study addressing the hypothesis that an electronic hand hygiene system with monitoring and reminding propertieswill increase hand hygiene compliance. This first phase focused on the acceptability and usability of the wearable electronic hand wash device ina clinical environment. The feedback from healthcare staff to the first prototype has provided evidence for the research team to continue with the development of this technology.

  7. Family factors associated with children's handwashing hygiene behavior.

    PubMed

    Song, In Han; Kim, Sang-A; Park, Woong-Sub

    2013-06-01

    Despite the importance of children's hand hygiene and family influence on children's behaviors, few studies have been dedicated to identifying family factors affecting handwashing practice. This study investigated the entire group of sixth-grade students (N = 2323) and their parents (N = 2089) at 11 elementary schools randomly selected from the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea. The results show that parents' handwashing practice, parent and child bonding, and shared time have a significant correlation with children's hand hygiene practice. The thoroughness of hand cleansing is more likely to be associated with health education, parents' practice of proper handwashing, greater parent-child bonding, and a greater amount of shared time with parents. Parent-child bonding and shared time are crucial in promoting children's hand hygiene. These results imply that public health policies need to be targeted at not only providing health education but at increasing parent-child bonding and shared time in order to promote children's health more effectively.

  8. Hand Hygiene Practices Reported by Nurse Aides in Nursing Homes.

    PubMed

    Castle, Nicholas; Handler, Steven; Wagner, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Information from nurse aides describing their opinions of hand hygiene practices in nursing homes including perceived barriers to hand hygiene is presented. The information comes from a questionnaire developed for this investigation, with items addressing compliance, facility guidelines and protocols, training, hand washing facilities and materials, and hand washing barriers. Information from 4,211 nurse aides (response rate of 56%) working in a nationally representative sample of 767 nursing homes (participation rate = 51%) is used. We find that 57.4% of nurse aides comply with hand washing when caring for residents most of the time, while 21.7% always comply. With facilities, 43.3% sometimes check that hand washing is performed. In summary, self-reported compliance was poor, and facilities and materials were often lacking. These findings are useful in identifying issues and interventions, including the need for further initiatives to address hand hygiene practices.

  9. Safety, security, hygiene and privacy in migrant farmworker housing.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Weir, Maria M; Summers, Phillip; Chen, Haiying; Bailey, Melissa; Wiggins, Melinda F; Bischoff, Werner E; Quandt, Sara A

    2012-01-01

    Safety, security, hygiene, and privacy in migrant farmworker housing have not previously been documented, yet these attributes are important for farmworker quality of life and dignity. This analysis describes the safety, security, hygiene, and privacy of migrant farmworker housing and delineates camp characteristics that are associated with these attributes, using data collected in 183 eastern North Carolina migrant farmworker camps in 2010. Migrant farmworker housing is deficient. For example, 73.8 percent of housing had structural damage and 52.7 percent had indoor temperatures that were not safe. Farmworkers in 83.5 percent of the housing reported that they did not feel they or their possessions were secure. Bathing or toileting privacy was absent in 46.2 percent of the housing. Camps with residents having H-2A visas or North Carolina Department of Labor certificates of inspection posted had better safety, security, and hygiene. Regulations addressing the quality of migrant farmworker housing are needed.

  10. SAFETY, SECURITY, HYGIENE AND PRIVACY IN MIGRANT FARMWORKER HOUSING

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Weir, Maria M.; Summers, Phillip; Chen, Haiying; Bailey, Melissa; Wiggins, Melinda F.; Bischoff, Werner E.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Safety, security, hygiene, and privacy in migrant farmworker housing have not previously been documented, yet these attributes are important for farmworker quality of life and dignity. This analysis describes the safety, security, hygiene, and privacy of migrant farmworker housing and delineates camp characteristics that are associated with these attributes, using data collected in 183 eastern North Carolina migrant farmworker camps in 2010. Migrant farmworker housing is deficient. For example, 73.8 percent of housing had structural damage and 52.7 percent had indoor temperatures that were not safe. Farmworkers in 83.5 percent of the housing reported that they did not feel they or their possessions were secure. Bathing or toileting privacy was absent in 46.2 percent of the housing. Camps with residents having H-2A visas or North Carolina Department of Labor certificates of inspection posted had better safety, security, and hygiene. Regulations addressing the quality of migrant farmworker housing are needed. PMID:22776578

  11. Family factors associated with children's handwashing hygiene behavior.

    PubMed

    Song, In Han; Kim, Sang-A; Park, Woong-Sub

    2013-06-01

    Despite the importance of children's hand hygiene and family influence on children's behaviors, few studies have been dedicated to identifying family factors affecting handwashing practice. This study investigated the entire group of sixth-grade students (N = 2323) and their parents (N = 2089) at 11 elementary schools randomly selected from the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea. The results show that parents' handwashing practice, parent and child bonding, and shared time have a significant correlation with children's hand hygiene practice. The thoroughness of hand cleansing is more likely to be associated with health education, parents' practice of proper handwashing, greater parent-child bonding, and a greater amount of shared time with parents. Parent-child bonding and shared time are crucial in promoting children's hand hygiene. These results imply that public health policies need to be targeted at not only providing health education but at increasing parent-child bonding and shared time in order to promote children's health more effectively. PMID:23197385

  12. Mental hygiene of the special schools teachers in Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Alavi, S Hamid Reza; Benadeki, Maryam Dahgan

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research is to identify and study the mental hygiene and its related factors (individual, family, organizational) in the Kerman special schools teachers. 266 teachers of the special schools of the cities of the province Kerman were chosen as the research sample. The necessary data were obtained by "questionnaire" which its validity and reliability were determined. The statistical analysis of the research findings (by Spearman coefficient test) Man-Whithey and Kruskal wallis tests showed that there was a positive and meaningful relationship between "Level of education", "service of record" "the number of the members of teacher's family", "income", "dwelling-place", "economic power", "acceptance of the teacher's job in their family", "leadership style", "suitable educational possibilities", "suitable educational space", "job satisfaction" with the mental hygiene of the teachers. The results of the research also showed that the Kerman special schools teachers enjoyed a "relatively desirable" mental hygiene.

  13. Ernst Rüdin: Hitler's Racial Hygiene Mastermind.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jay; Wetzel, Norbert A

    2013-01-01

    Ernst Rüdin (1874-1952) was the founder of psychiatric genetics and was also a founder of the German racial hygiene movement. Throughout his long career he played a major role in promoting eugenic ideas and policies in Germany, including helping formulate the 1933 Nazi eugenic sterilization law and other governmental policies directed against the alleged carriers of genetic defects. In the 1940s Rüdin supported the killing of children and mental patients under a Nazi program euphemistically called "Euthanasia." The authors document these crimes and discuss their implications, and also present translations of two publications Rüdin co-authored in 1938 showing his strong support for Hitler and his policies. The authors also document what they see as revisionist historical accounts by leading psychiatric genetic authors. They outline three categories of contemporary psychiatric genetic accounts of Rüdin and his work: (A) those who write about German psychiatric genetics in the Nazi period, but either fail to mention Rüdin at all, or cast him in a favorable light; (B) those who acknowledge that Rüdin helped promote eugenic sterilization and/or may have worked with the Nazis, but generally paint a positive picture of Rüdin's research and fail to mention his participation in the "euthanasia" killing program; and (C) those who have written that Rüdin committed and supported unspeakable atrocities. The authors conclude by calling on the leaders of psychiatric genetics to produce a detailed and complete account of their field's history, including all of the documented crimes committed by Rüdin and his associates. PMID:23180223

  14. Tula industrial complex (Mexico) emissions of SO2 and NO2 during the MCMA 2006 field campaign using a mobile mini-DOAS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, C.; Sosa, G.; Wöhrnschimmel, H.; de Foy, B.; Johansson, M.; Galle, B.

    2009-09-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) has presented severe pollution problems for many years. There are several point and mobile emission sources inside and outside the MCMA which are known to affect air quality in the area. In particular, speculation has risen as to whether the Tula industrial complex, located 60 km northwest of the MCMA has any influence on high SO2 levels occurring on the northern part of the city, in the winter season mainly. As part of the MILAGRO Field Campaign, from 24 March to 17 April 2006, the differential vertical columns of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured during plume transects in the neighborhood of the Tula industrial complex using mobile mini-DOAS instruments. Vertical profiles of wind speed and direction obtained from pilot balloons and radiosondes were used to calculate SO2 and NO2 emissions. According to our measurements, calculated average emissions of SO2 and NO2 during the field campaign were 384±103 and 24±7 tons day-1, respectively. The standard deviation of these estimations is due to actual variations in the observed emissions from the refinery and power plant, as well as to the uncertainty in the wind fields at the exact time of the measurements. Reported values in recent inventories were found to be in good agreement with calculated emissions during the field campaign. Our measurements were also found to be in good agreement with simulated plumes.

  15. Hand hygiene monitoring technology: a systematic review of efficacy.

    PubMed

    Srigley, J A; Gardam, M; Fernie, G; Lightfoot, D; Lebovic, G; Muller, M P

    2015-01-01

    Electronic and video monitoring systems (EMS/VMS) may improve hand hygiene by providing feedback, real-time reminders or via the Hawthorne effect. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of EMS/VMS in improving hand hygiene or reducing the incidence of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). Experimental and quasi-experimental studies were included if they measured any hand hygiene outcome and/or HCAI incidence. Of the studies included, seven used system-defined compliance (SDC) (N = 6) or hand hygiene event rate (N = 1) as their outcome. SDC differed for all systems. Most (N = 6) were single ward studies. Two uncontrolled pretest‒post-test studies evaluating EMS that provided voice prompts showed increases in SDC, but risk of bias was high. Two uncontrolled time-series analyses of VMS that provided aggregate feedback demonstrated large, sustained improvement in SDC and were at moderate risk of bias. One non-randomized controlled trial of EMS with aggregate feedback found no difference in hand hygiene frequency but was at high risk of bias. Two studies evaluated EMS providing individual feedback and real-time reminders. A pretest‒post-test study at high risk of bias showed an increase in SDC. An RCT at low risk of bias showed 6.8% higher SDC in the intervention arm partially due to a fall in SDC in the control arm. In conclusion, the overall study quality was poor. The study at lowest risk of bias showed only a small increase in SDC. VMS studies at moderate risk of bias showed rapid and sustained increases in SDC. Data were insufficient to recommend EMS/VMS. Future studies should prioritize testing of VMS using stronger study designs including control arms and validated, system-independent measures of hand hygiene.

  16. Hand hygiene and aseptic technique in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Al-Damouk, M; Pudney, E; Bleetman, A

    2004-02-01

    Hand hygiene and simple aseptic measures before invasive procedures are effective in reducing rates of healthcare-associated infection. The perceived urgency of a clinical situation in the emergency department, however, may influence medical staff's compliance with good practice in infection control. The aims of this prospective, single-blinded, observational study were twofold. First, to assess doctors' compliance with good practice in hand hygiene between patient episodes and asepsis during invasive procedures in the emergency department. Second, to assess the effect of clinical urgency on compliance with good practice in hand hygiene and asepsis during invasive procedures. Good practice standards for asepsis in invasive procedures and hand hygiene between patient episodes were compiled from a literature search. Doctors' compliance with these standards was observed in two emergency departments (UK and New Zealand). Observed clinical cases were classified as immediate, urgent and non-urgent based on the triage system. There was poor compliance with good practice guidelines for asepsis in invasive procedures in both centres. Staff achieved high compliance with the guidelines in only 27% of cases in the UK and 58% of cases in New Zealand. Clinical urgency did not appear to adversely affect compliance with aseptic good practice. Hand hygiene between patient consultations was very low at 14% in the UK and 12% in New Zealand. Asepsis and hand hygiene was poor in both the UK and New Zealand emergency departments. There may be a need for some compromise in standards of asepsis in very sick patients due to the urgency of the clinical situation. Compliance in all situations especially non-urgent procedures needs to be improved.

  17. Assessment of tobacco dependence curricula in Italian dental hygiene schools.

    PubMed

    Pizzo, Giuseppe; Davis, Joan M; Licata, Maria E; Giuliana, Giovanna

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the level of tobacco dependence education offered by Italian dental hygiene programs. A fifty-question survey was mailed to the thirty-one active public and private dental hygiene programs in Italy during the 2008-09 academic year. The survey assessed faculty confidence in teaching tobacco treatment, which courses contained tobacco dependence content, the number of minutes spent on specific content areas, and the level of clinical competence that dental hygiene graduates should be able to demonstrate. Surveys were returned by sixteen programs for a response rate of 52 percent. Respondents indicated tobacco dependence education was included in clinic or clinic seminar (56 percent), periodontics (44 percent), oral pathology (31 percent), and prevention (19 percent). All programs reported including the effects of tobacco on general and oral diseases in courses. However, more in-depth topics received less curriculum time; these included tobacco treatment strategies (63 percent) and discussion of cessation medications (31 percent). Interestingly, 62 percent of the respondents indicated they expected dental hygiene graduates to demonstrate a tobacco treatment competency level of a moderate intervention or higher (counseling, discussion of medications, follow-up) rather than a brief intervention in which patients are advised to quit then referred to a quitline. The results of this study indicated that Italian dental hygiene students are not currently receiving adequate instruction in tobacco treatment techniques nor are they being adequately assessed. This unique overview of Italian dental hygiene tobacco dependence education provides a basis for further discussion towards a national competency-based curriculum.

  18. Hand hygiene monitoring technology: a systematic review of efficacy.

    PubMed

    Srigley, J A; Gardam, M; Fernie, G; Lightfoot, D; Lebovic, G; Muller, M P

    2015-01-01

    Electronic and video monitoring systems (EMS/VMS) may improve hand hygiene by providing feedback, real-time reminders or via the Hawthorne effect. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of EMS/VMS in improving hand hygiene or reducing the incidence of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). Experimental and quasi-experimental studies were included if they measured any hand hygiene outcome and/or HCAI incidence. Of the studies included, seven used system-defined compliance (SDC) (N = 6) or hand hygiene event rate (N = 1) as their outcome. SDC differed for all systems. Most (N = 6) were single ward studies. Two uncontrolled pretest‒post-test studies evaluating EMS that provided voice prompts showed increases in SDC, but risk of bias was high. Two uncontrolled time-series analyses of VMS that provided aggregate feedback demonstrated large, sustained improvement in SDC and were at moderate risk of bias. One non-randomized controlled trial of EMS with aggregate feedback found no difference in hand hygiene frequency but was at high risk of bias. Two studies evaluated EMS providing individual feedback and real-time reminders. A pretest‒post-test study at high risk of bias showed an increase in SDC. An RCT at low risk of bias showed 6.8% higher SDC in the intervention arm partially due to a fall in SDC in the control arm. In conclusion, the overall study quality was poor. The study at lowest risk of bias showed only a small increase in SDC. VMS studies at moderate risk of bias showed rapid and sustained increases in SDC. Data were insufficient to recommend EMS/VMS. Future studies should prioritize testing of VMS using stronger study designs including control arms and validated, system-independent measures of hand hygiene. PMID:25480021

  19. The effect of automated monitoring and real-time prompting on nurses' hand hygiene performance.

    PubMed

    Levchenko, Alexander I; Boscart, Veronique M; Fernie, Geoff R

    2013-10-01

    Adequate hand hygiene compliance by healthcare staff is considered an effective method to reduce hospital-acquired infections. The electronic system developed at Toronto Rehabilitation Institute automatically detects hand hygiene opportunities and records hand hygiene actions. It includes an optional visual hand hygiene status indication, generates real-time hand hygiene prompting signals, and enables automated monitoring of individual and aggregated hand hygiene performance. The system was installed on a complex continuous care unit at the entrance to 17 patient rooms and a utility room. A total of 93 alcohol gel and soap dispensers were instrumented and 14 nurses were provided with the personal wearable electronic monitors. The study included three phases with the system operating in three different modes: (1) an inactive mode during the first phase when hand hygiene opportunities and hand hygiene actions were recorded but prompting and visual indication functions were disabled, (2) only hand hygiene status indicators were enabled during the second phase, and (3) both hand hygiene status and real-time hand hygiene prompting signals were enabled during the third phase. Data collection was performed automatically during all of the three phases. The system indicated significantly higher hand hygiene activity rates and compliance during the third phase, with both hand hygiene indication and real-time prompting functions enabled. To increase the efficacy of the technology, its use was supplemented with individual performance reviews of the automatically collected data.

  20. [HYGIENE: STRUCTURE OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH STUDIES IN RUSSIA (2000-2014)].

    PubMed

    Evdokimov, V I; Popov, V I; Rut, A N

    2015-01-01

    There was analyzed the array of 1548 dissertations on the scientific specialty 14.02.01 (former specification 14.00.07) "Hygiene". Over period of 2000-2014 to the Dissertation Committee in Russia there were annually submitted (103 ± 10) theses, which include (21 ± 3) doctoral dissertations and (83 ± 8) candidate dissertations. Doctoral dissertations accounted for 20,1%, dissertations in medicine--89.3%. There was established not only the decline in the number of theses in hygiene, but the reduction of their proportion in the total array of all medical and biological dissertations in Russia. The conjugacy of the trend curves of the total stream of dissertations in medicine and biology in Russia and in hygiene is considered to be not very high (r = 0.54). In the total structure of dissertation works on General Hygiene accounted for 22.7%, Community Hygiene--15.45%, Occupational Hygiene--19.6%, Children's and Adolescents' Hygiene--24.7%, Nutrition Hygiene--8.2%, Radiation Hygiene--2.3%, in Rural Hygiene--1.2%, Hospital Hygiene-- 3.4%, Military Hygiene--2.3% correspondingly. There is pointed the development gap between the research studies in hygiene and tendency in training of high class health care professionals' in Russia.

  1. Quantitative impact of direct, personal feedback on hand hygiene technique.

    PubMed

    Lehotsky, Á; Szilágyi, L; Ferenci, T; Kovács, L; Pethes, R; Wéber, G; Haidegger, T

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of targeting hand hygiene technique using a new training device that provides objective, personal and quantitative feedback. One hundred and thirty-six healthcare workers in three Hungarian hospitals participated in a repetitive hand hygiene technique assessment study. Ultraviolet (UV)-labelled hand rub was used at each event, and digital images of the hands were subsequently taken under UV light. Immediate objective visual feedback was given to participants, showing missed areas on their hands. The rate of inadequate hand rubbing reduced from 50% to 15% (P < 0.001). However, maintenance of this reduced rate is likely to require continuous use of the electronic equipment.

  2. [A photographic competition on hand hygiene in a nursing home].

    PubMed

    Guerre, Graziella; Aho-Glele, Ludwig-Serge; Astruc, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene is often considered as the attribute of caregivers. However, it is the patient who is increasingly targeted by improved communication around hygiene in care notably in the framework of the "Clean Hands Mission". In this sense, the French regional centres for the fight against nosocomial infections in Burgundy has proved itself innovative on two levels by organising a photo competition in nursing homes. The aim was to show residents how to prevent care-related infections through the simple act of handwashing.

  3. Enhanced hygiene measures and norovirus transmission during an outbreak.

    PubMed

    Heijne, Janneke C M; Teunis, Peter; Morroy, Gabriella; Wijkmans, Clementine; Oostveen, Sandy; Duizer, Erwin; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Wallinga, Jacco

    2009-01-01

    Control of norovirus outbreaks relies on enhanced hygiene measures, such as handwashing, surface cleaning, using disposable paper towels, and using separate toilets for sick and well persons. However, little is known about their effectiveness in limiting further spread of norovirus infections. We analyzed norovirus outbreaks in 7 camps at an international scouting jamboree in the Netherlands during 2004. Implementation of hygiene measures coincided with an 84.8% (95% predictive interval 81.2%-86.6%) reduction in reproduction number. This reduction was unexpectedly large but still below the reduction needed to contain a norovirus outbreak. Even more stringent control measures are required to break the chain of transmission of norovirus. PMID:19116045

  4. Electro-mechanical properties of REBCO coated conductors from various industrial manufacturers at 77 K, self-field and 4.2 K, 19 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, C.; Mondonico, G.; Senatore, C.

    2015-04-01

    Rare-Earth-barium-copper-oxide tapes are now available from several industrial manufacturers and are very promising conductors in high field applications. Due to diverging materials and deposition processes, these manufacturers’ tapes can be expected to differ in their electro-mechanical and mechanical properties. For magnets designers, these are together with the conductors’ in-field critical current performance of the highest importance in choosing a suitable conductor. In this work, the strain and stress dependence of the current carrying capabilities as well as the stress and strain correlation are investigated for commercial coated conductors from Bruker HTS, Fujikura, SuNAM, SuperOx and SuperPower at 77 K, self-field and 4.2 K, 19 T.

  5. Characteristics of full-time faculty in baccalaureate dental hygiene programs and their perceptions of the academic work environment.

    PubMed

    Collins, Marie A; Zinskie, Cordelia D; Keskula, Douglas R; Thompson, Ana Luz

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current characteristics of full-time faculty in baccalaureate dental hygiene programs in the United States. A mail questionnaire was sent to program administrators for distribution to faculty. Program response rate was 89.7 percent (26/29), and full-time faculty response rate was 68.3 percent (114/167). The percentage of dental hygiene faculty who are at the associate or assistant professor ranks was similar at 35.1 percent and 34.2 percent, respectively. Forty percent of faculty are not on a tenure track, and 38.6 percent are tenured. The faculty who responded to this survey were almost exclusively white (93.9 percent) and female (95.6 percent), and their average age was 50.2 years. Faculty reported several areas of dissatisfaction with the academic work environment, including lack of time available for student advisement, class preparation, and keeping current in field, as well as concerns about heavy workload and inadequate compensation. A majority of the respondents (56 percent [39/70]) indicated that they plan to retire from the labor force in ten years or less. Three conclusions may be drawn from the findings of this study: 1) there is a lack of diversity within the dental hygiene faculty, which currently consists primarily of white females with few underrepresented minorities and males; 2) if trends persist, there will be a noticeable shortage of dental hygiene educators in the future as faculty move toward retirement without equivalent numbers of younger individuals joining the ranks of the faculty; and 3) there is a lack of published information regarding dental hygiene faculty characteristics. To address the potential academic workforce shortage, we make two recommendations based indirectly on the findings of this study: 1) the American Dental Association should include more information on dental hygiene faculty characteristics in its existing annual survey of all accredited programs; and 2) the number of

  6. Characteristics of full-time faculty in baccalaureate dental hygiene programs and their perceptions of the academic work environment.

    PubMed

    Collins, Marie A; Zinskie, Cordelia D; Keskula, Douglas R; Thompson, Ana Luz

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current characteristics of full-time faculty in baccalaureate dental hygiene programs in the United States. A mail questionnaire was sent to program administrators for distribution to faculty. Program response rate was 89.7 percent (26/29), and full-time faculty response rate was 68.3 percent (114/167). The percentage of dental hygiene faculty who are at the associate or assistant professor ranks was similar at 35.1 percent and 34.2 percent, respectively. Forty percent of faculty are not on a tenure track, and 38.6 percent are tenured. The faculty who responded to this survey were almost exclusively white (93.9 percent) and female (95.6 percent), and their average age was 50.2 years. Faculty reported several areas of dissatisfaction with the academic work environment, including lack of time available for student advisement, class preparation, and keeping current in field, as well as concerns about heavy workload and inadequate compensation. A majority of the respondents (56 percent [39/70]) indicated that they plan to retire from the labor force in ten years or less. Three conclusions may be drawn from the findings of this study: 1) there is a lack of diversity within the dental hygiene faculty, which currently consists primarily of white females with few underrepresented minorities and males; 2) if trends persist, there will be a noticeable shortage of dental hygiene educators in the future as faculty move toward retirement without equivalent numbers of younger individuals joining the ranks of the faculty; and 3) there is a lack of published information regarding dental hygiene faculty characteristics. To address the potential academic workforce shortage, we make two recommendations based indirectly on the findings of this study: 1) the American Dental Association should include more information on dental hygiene faculty characteristics in its existing annual survey of all accredited programs; and 2) the number of

  7. Paradise lost: A study of the decline of institutions and the restructuring of organizational fields in the United States power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sine, Wesley David

    Institutional theorists have a long tradition of examining the persistence organizational forms and practices. Most institutional analysis, however, fails to discuss change in organizational forms and practices that at one time were highly taken for granted. This dissertation presents three papers that explore questions of institutional change in the context of the evolving power industry. The first paper, Dimensions of Institutional Resistance to Change, examines the qualities that make institutions more or less resistant to change. This paper surveys the literature on institutional change and suggests four institutional qualities for indexing institutional change: taken for grantedness, diffuseness, symbolic value, and integrativeness. I argue that these qualities can be used to measure the extent to which an institution is resistant to change, thus providing a means for studying and predicting the life spans of institutions. The second paper, From Hierarchies to Markets: The Deregulation of the Electric Generating Industry, uses the dimensions proposed in the first paper to understand the structural changes in the electric utility industry between 1935 and 1978. It theorizes that crisis catalyzes both organizational scrutiny, which erodes institutional symbolic value and taken-for-grantedness, and search processes for solutions, which redefine fringe alternatives within an institutional field as possible solutions. The net result is the delegitimation of incumbent institutions and the recognition of alternative solutions, creating a solution bazaar, where solutions compete to solve organizational inefficiencies made relevant by the crisis. The third paper, The Institutional Context of Founding Variation in the Emerging Independent Power Industry, presents and tests a theory of the effects of institutional structures on the genesis, development, and variation of organizational forms in a newborn industry created by radical regulatory change. Nascent industries

  8. Helping hands: A cluster randomised trial to evaluate the effectiveness of two different strategies for promoting hand hygiene in hospital nurses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene prescriptions are the most important measure in the prevention of hospital-acquired infections. Yet, compliance rates are generally below 50% of all opportunities for hand hygiene. This study aims at evaluating the short- and long-term effects of two different strategies for promoting hand hygiene in hospital nurses. Methods/design This study is a cluster randomised controlled trial with inpatient wards as the unit of randomisation. Guidelines for hand hygiene will be implemented in this study. Two strategies will be used to improve the adherence to guidelines for hand hygiene. The state-of-the-art strategy is derived from the literature and includes education, reminders, feedback, and targeting adequate products and facilities. The extended strategy also contains activities aimed at influencing social influence in groups and enhancing leadership. The unique contribution of the extended strategy is built upon relevant behavioural science theories. The extended strategy includes all elements of the state-of-the-art strategy supplemented with gaining active commitment and initiative of ward management, modelling by informal leaders at the ward, and setting norms and targets within the team. Data will be collected at four points in time, with six-month intervals. An average of 3,000 opportunities for hand hygiene in approximately 900 nurses will be observed at each time point. Discussion Performing and evaluating an implementation strategy that also targets the social context of teams may considerably add to the general body of knowledge in this field. Results from our study will allow us to draw conclusions on the effects of different strategies for the implementation of hand hygiene guidelines, and based on these results we will be able to define a preferred implementation strategy for hospital based nursing. Trial registration The study is registered as a Clinical Trial in ClinicalTrials.gov, dossier number: NCT00548015. PMID:21888660

  9. [Adherence to oral hygiene and dental self-care].

    PubMed

    Poplinger, A

    2010-04-01

    illustrates, through a comprehensive literature review of theories, models and researches, the contemporary methods for promoting adherence to oral hygiene, dental Self-Care and treatment. Using the combination of a survey from a select sample of specialists in the field of Dentistry, and the conclusions inferred from studies reviewed, I was able to determine how investment in the Bio-Psycho-Social approach would improve patient satisfaction from their doctors and outcomes of the treatment, shorten the duration of treatment, consume only little resources, improve dental health of patients and prevent repetitive visits to the dentists clinics. At the same time, despite the fact that dentistry practitioners acknowledge the importance of patient's adherence and take active measures such as talks, praises, guidance and providing information, most of them don't seem to comprehend interfusion of family members or friends as an integral part of the treatment. Moreover, their overall feeling is of incompetence when regarding dealing with un-adherent patients. Therefore, maybe there is room for providing dentists and staff with seminars, conventions etc. about the latest novelties on the subject. In conclusion, enhancing dental patient's adherence to health behavior is a domain mainly under the responsibility of the dentist, but also of his staff. As elaborated in the article, the measures for doing so are: 1. Information- the dentist should guide patients about the different methods for maintaining oral hygiene, explain how proper adherence benefits positive treatment outcome, and provide a broad and informative picture of the patient's specific problem. 2. Positive rapport - the need for establishing a good relationship between the doctor and his patients is crucial for attaining effective and satisfactory treatment outcomes. No doubt that this matter depends upon the personality and character of both the doctor and the patient, but using positive verbal reinforcements, symbolic

  10. A comparison of the OHI-S and the PHP in an oral hygiene program.

    PubMed

    Blount, R L; Stokes, T F

    1986-01-01

    This study examined two critical measurement properties of the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and the Patient Hygiene Performance method (PHP). Both scales proved to be sufficiently sensitive to decreases in plaque.

  11. A Study to Develop an Industrial-Scale, Computer-Controlled High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) System to Assist in Commercializing the Novel, Enabling HMFP Manufacturing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lutdka, G. M.; Chourey, A.

    2010-05-12

    As the original magnet designer and manufacturer of ORNL’s 9T, 5-inch ID bore magnet, American Magnetics Inc. (AMI) has collaborated with ORNL’s Materials Processing Group’s and this partnership has been instrumental in the development of our unique thermo-magnetic facilities and expertise. Consequently, AMI and ORNL have realized that the commercial implementation of the High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) technology will require the evolution of robust, automated superconducting (SC) magnet systems that will be cost-effective and easy to operate in an industrial environment. The goal of this project and CRADA is to significantly expedite the timeline for implementing this revolutionary and pervasive cross-cutting technology for future US produced industrial components. The successful completion of this project is anticipated to significantly assist in the timely commercialization and licensing of our HMFP intellectual property for a broad spectrum of industries; and to open up a new market for AMI. One notable outcome of this project is that the ThermoMagnetic Processing Technology WON a prestigious 2009 R&D 100 Awards. This award acknowledges and recognizes our TMP Technology as one of the top 100 innovative US technologies in 2009. By successfully establishing the design requirements for a commercial scale magnetic processing system, this project effort has accomplished a key first step in facilitating the building and demonstration of a superconducting magnetic processing coil, enabling the transition of the High Magnetic Field Processing Technology beyond a laboratory novelty into a commercially viable and industrially scalable Manufacturing Technology.

  12. Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. Methods This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care worker (HCW) adherence with WHO hand hygiene guidelines. It was implemented in three phases: 1) baseline evaluation of hand hygiene adherence and hospital infrastructure; 2) intervention (distribution of commercial hand sanitizer and implementation of an abbreviated WHO-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign); and 3) post-intervention evaluation of HCW hand hygiene adherence. HCWs’ perceptions of the campaign and hand sanitizer tolerability were assessed through a survey performed in the post-intervention period. Results At baseline, hand washing materials were infrequently available, with only 20% of sinks having hand-washing materials. There was a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence among HCWs following implementation of a WHO multimodal hand hygiene program. Adherence increased from 2.1% at baseline (21 hand hygiene actions/1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) to 12.7% (127 hand hygiene actions /1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) after the implementation of the hand hygiene campaign (OR = 6.8, 95% CI 4.2-10.9). Hand hygiene rates significantly increased among all HCW types except attending physicians. Independent predictors of HCW hand hygiene compliance included performing hand hygiene in the post-intervention period (aOR = 5.7, 95% CI 3.5-9.3), in the emergency department (aOR = 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.6), during patient care that did not involve Attending Physician Rounds (aOR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.5), and after patient contact (aOR = 2

  13. Hazard zoning around electric substations of petrochemical industries by stimulation of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Monireh; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Farhang Matin, Laleh; Khosroabadi, Hossein

    2015-05-01

    Electromagnetic fields in recent years have been discussed as one of the occupational hazards at workplaces. Hence, control and assessment of these physical factors is very important to protect and promote the health of employees. The present study was conducted to determine hazard zones based on assessment of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields at electric substations of a petrochemical complex in southern Iran, using the single-axis HI-3604 device. In measurement of electromagnetic fields by the single-axis HI-3604 device, the sensor screen should be oriented in a way to be perpendicular to the field lines. Therefore, in places where power lines are located in different directions, it is required to keep the device towards three axes of x, y, and z. For further precision, the measurements should be repeated along each of the three axes. In this research, magnetic field was measured, for the first time, in three axes of x, y, and z whose resultant value was considered as the value of magnetic field. Measurements were done based on IEEE std 644-1994. Further, the spatial changes of the magnetic field surrounding electric substations were stimulated using MATLAB software. The obtained results indicated that the maximum magnetic flux density was 49.90 μT recorded from boiler substation, while the minimum magnetic flux density of 0.02 μT was measured at the control room of the complex. As the stimulation results suggest, the spaces around incoming panels, transformers, and cables were recognized as hazardous zones of indoor electric substations. Considering the health effects of chronic exposure to magnetic fields, it would be possible to minimize exposure to these contaminants at workplaces by identification of risky zones and observation of protective considerations. PMID:25877640

  14. Hazard zoning around electric substations of petrochemical industries by stimulation of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Monireh; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Farhang Matin, Laleh; Khosroabadi, Hossein

    2015-05-01

    Electromagnetic fields in recent years have been discussed as one of the occupational hazards at workplaces. Hence, control and assessment of these physical factors is very important to protect and promote the health of employees. The present study was conducted to determine hazard zones based on assessment of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields at electric substations of a petrochemical complex in southern Iran, using the single-axis HI-3604 device. In measurement of electromagnetic fields by the single-axis HI-3604 device, the sensor screen should be oriented in a way to be perpendicular to the field lines. Therefore, in places where power lines are located in different directions, it is required to keep the device towards three axes of x, y, and z. For further precision, the measurements should be repeated along each of the three axes. In this research, magnetic field was measured, for the first time, in three axes of x, y, and z whose resultant value was considered as the value of magnetic field. Measurements were done based on IEEE std 644-1994. Further, the spatial changes of the magnetic field surrounding electric substations were stimulated using MATLAB software. The obtained results indicated that the maximum magnetic flux density was 49.90 μT recorded from boiler substation, while the minimum magnetic flux density of 0.02 μT was measured at the control room of the complex. As the stimulation results suggest, the spaces around incoming panels, transformers, and cables were recognized as hazardous zones of indoor electric substations. Considering the health effects of chronic exposure to magnetic fields, it would be possible to minimize exposure to these contaminants at workplaces by identification of risky zones and observation of protective considerations.

  15. Evaluating a Hygiene Education Program for Child Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petri, Cynthia J.; Winnail, Scott D.; Geiger, Brian F.; Artz, Lynn M.; Mason, J. W.

    Children, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to several infectious diseases as a result of contact with child care centers. This pilot program, implemented in a rural county in a southeastern state, was designed to enhance knowledge and skills related to improved hygiene practices in a child care setting. The target audience for the…

  16. Rhizopus Keratitis Associated with Poor Contact Lens Hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Warner, David B.; WrightIII, Hugh E.; Rosenbaum, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of Rhizopus keratitis in a young woman with poor contact lens hygiene. The mold was highly sensitive to treatment with amphotericin 0.15% drops, after a relatively prompt diagnosis. Obtaining cultures of both corneal infiltrates and presumably infected contact lenses may help to avoid a delay in proper treatment. PMID:26889155

  17. 10 CFR 850.27 - Hygiene facilities and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hygiene facilities and practices. 850.27 Section 850.27 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements... handwashing facilities, and lunchroom facilities must comply with 29 CFR 1910.141, Sanitation....

  18. 10 CFR 850.27 - Hygiene facilities and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hygiene facilities and practices. 850.27 Section 850.27 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements... handwashing facilities, and lunchroom facilities must comply with 29 CFR 1910.141, Sanitation....

  19. 10 CFR 850.27 - Hygiene facilities and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hygiene facilities and practices. 850.27 Section 850.27 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements... handwashing facilities, and lunchroom facilities must comply with 29 CFR 1910.141, Sanitation....

  20. 10 CFR 850.27 - Hygiene facilities and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hygiene facilities and practices. 850.27 Section 850.27 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements... handwashing facilities, and lunchroom facilities must comply with 29 CFR 1910.141, Sanitation....

  1. Attitudes of Dental Hygiene Students toward Individuals with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haring, Joen Iannucci; Lind, Laura J.

    1992-01-01

    At Ohio State University, 81 dental hygiene students' attitudes toward homosexual and heterosexual patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia were assessed using ratings of prejudice, social interaction, and interpersonal interaction. Negative bias toward individuals with AIDS and unwillingness to engage in everyday…

  2. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Hygiene Care for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for dental hygiene curriculum cover the scope and definitions of care for the handicapped, interrelationships between disciplines and courses, a curriculum overview, primary educational goals, prerequisites, a core content outline, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, faculty, and…

  3. 10 CFR 850.27 - Hygiene facilities and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hygiene facilities and practices. 850.27 Section 850.27 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements... or their personal clothing. (b) Change rooms or areas. The responsible employer must provide...

  4. Expanding the Oral Hygiene Curriculum in a Nursing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Susan; Griego, Elizabeth

    A program was implemented to expand the curriculum materials within the Licensed Practical Nursing (LPN) Program at Clark County Community College (CCCC) which relate to oral hygiene care for the hospital patient. The instructional materials included a video tape and a written instructional packet which were researched, prepared, and presented by…

  5. Correlates of Performance in the Dental Hygiene Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesler, Jon S.; Armstrong, Roberta A.

    1981-01-01

    The effectiveness of measures used in the admissions process to predict performance in and/or graduation from a University of Minnesota dental hygiene program is examined. Students in classes entering from Fall 1977 through Winter 1979 were studied, and predictor and performance measures to be studied were identified by the program. Predictor…

  6. Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa in Dental and Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Karen B. W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Dentists and dental hygienists are in a unique position to identify an eating disorder patient from observed oral manifestations and to refer the patient for psychological therapy. The inclusion of information on general and oral complications of bulimia and anorexia nervosa in dental and dental hygiene curriculum was examined. (MLW)

  7. Dental Hygiene Program Clinic Manual, Fall 1997. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Errico, Mary; Cama, Christine; Pastoriza-Maldonado, Alida

    This is the fourth edition of the Clinic Manual for the Dental Hygiene Program at Eugenio Maria de Hostos Community College in the Bronx (New York). It contains general information, grading procedures, performance guides, and clinical forms related to the program. Section 1 provides an introduction to clinic philosophy, policies, goals and…

  8. Sustainability of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Medlin, Elizabeth; Aquino, Gonzalo; Gelting, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The American Red Cross and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated on a sustainability evaluation of post-hurricane water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions in Central America. In 2006 and 2009, we revisited six study areas in rural El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua to assess sustainability of WASH interventions finalized in 2002, after 1998’s Hurricane Mitch. We used surveys to collect data, calculate indicators and identify factors that influence sustainability. Regional sustainability indicator results showed there was a statistically significant decline in access to water. The presence of sanitation facilities had not changed since the beginning of the project; however, maintenance and use of latrines declined but continued to meet the goal of 75% use after 7 years. The hygiene indicator, hand washing, initially declined and then increased. Declines in water access were due to operational problems related to storm events and population changes. Sanitation facilities were still present and sometimes used even though they reached or surpassed their original design life. Changes in hygiene practices appeared related to ongoing hygiene promotion from outside organizations. These results provide useful input for making WASH programs more sustainable and informing future, more in-depth research into factors influencing sustainability. PMID:26413262

  9. Modern aspects of hygienic standardization of ship noise.

    PubMed

    Sten'ko, Y M; Varenikov, I I; Volkov, A A; Radzievsky, S A

    1983-01-01

    The basic aims of hygienic standardization of the long-term round-the-clock action of ship noise on the sailors include protection of health, prolonged professional activity, prevention of interference and provision of comfort conditions of rest. Neuro-emotional stress in the work of sailors aboard a ship has been another reason for starting the ship noise standardization. As a result of long-term hygienic, clinical, physiological, experimental and natural studies, there were established the hygienic significance of noise and vibration parameters, a combined increased effect of noise and work strain, as well as that of pitching and rolling, and also the potent combined effect of vibration and noise. During a 3-month voyage the cumulative effect of noise was identified and the physiological significance of acoustic comfort of post-watch rest was ascertained. The relation of sailors' health to ship acoustic conditions was determined. The obtained results served as a scientific motivation for a number of Soviet legislative documents. Unification of physiological and hygienic criteria and methods of assessment of noise and vibration effects meets the interests of protection of seamen's health in CMEA countries.

  10. An assessment of food hygiene and safety at farmers' markets.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, D; Worsfold, P M; Griffith, C J

    2004-04-01

    Farmers' markets are becoming a more significant part of the food-retailing sector. A survey of farmers' markets was conducted to assess aspects of food hygiene and safety. The views of the public using the markets were also examined. The range of farm products was wide and the methods utilised varied. The markets were usually temporary outdoor events with few facilities. Traders had received elementary food hygiene training and rated their hygiene standards highly. Less than half had risk management procedures in place, most did not perceive their produce as high-risk. They believed consumers to be mainly interested in food quality and to regard food safety issues highly. Consumers shopped at the markets because of the quality of the products sold. Their overall satisfaction with the markets was high and they raised no concerns about food safety. Given the restricted facilities at farmers' markets and the early phase of implementation of hygiene management systems by market traders, it may be precautionary to restrict the sale of farm products at farmers markets to those that are regarded as low-risk. PMID:15203456

  11. [Hygienic evaluation of risk factors on powder metallurgy production].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Complex hygienic, clinical, sociologic and epidemiologic studies revealed reliable relationship between work conditions and arterial hypertension, locomotory system disorders, monocytosis in powder metallurgy production workers. Findings are more probable cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, digestive tract diseases due to influence of lifestyle factors.

  12. Assessment of Dental Hygiene Students' Knowledge of HIV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittleson, Mark J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A 1990 survey of 196 first- and second-year dental hygiene students at 5 colleges and universities investigated their knowledge of transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Incomplete knowledge and some confusion was found, but little difference was found between first- and second-year students. (MSE)

  13. Periodontal Disease and Oral Hygiene Among Children. United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Statistical data presented on periodontal disease and oral hygiene among noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States are based on a probability sample of approximately 7,400 children involved in a national health survey during 1963-65. The report contains estimates of the Periodontal Index (PI) and the Simplified Oral Hygiene…

  14. Critical Thinking Skills of United States Dental Hygiene Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notgarnie, Howard M.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of decision-making in dental hygienists' practice requires critical thinking skills. Interest in raising educational standards for entry into the dental hygiene profession is a response to the demand for enhanced professional skills, including critical thinking skills. No studies found in the course of literature review compared…

  15. External Evaluation of CDC Homestudy Course 3010-G, "Community Hygiene."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantt, Judy M.; Terrell, Edward L.

    A study examined the impact of the Centers for Disease Control's home study course in community hygiene on the job performance of 45 sanitarians in 30 districts throughout North Carolina. Data were collected from: (1) pre- and post-tests that evaluated the sanitarians' mastery of knowledge in such areas as water supply, sewage disposal, solid…

  16. Desalinated water hygiene and scientific bases for its investigation.

    PubMed

    Sidorenko, G I; Rakhmanin YuA

    1978-01-01

    In view of the increasing scarcity of fresh water reserves in many countries of the world, a thorough hygienic evaluation of the different methods of desalinating highly mineralized underground and sea waters for economic and drinking purpose becomes indispensable. In addition to generally accepted hygienic criteria (favourable organoleptic properties, innocuous chemical composition and epidemiological safety), introduction of supplementary criteria for the assessment of the characteristic of the quality of freshened drinking water is necessary, i.e., its full value in the physiological sense and stability of drinking properties. The necessity of hygienic tests concerned with the study and regulation of the mineral and microelement composition of desalinated drinking water as well as of its microbial composition, structural peculiarities, the so-called "deuterium number" and the presence of various organic substances in desalinated water was pointed out. A certain degree of priority should be given to the study of the mentioned indices in hygienic assessment of the different methods of water desalination (distillation, freezing out, ion exchange, electrodialysis, inverse osmosis and others).

  17. [Quality standards and hygienic problems of bottled drinking-water].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Shu, Weiqun; Gao, Jingsheng

    2004-05-01

    The consumption of bottled drinking-water increases worldwide and relevant regulation for inspection and supervision work of bottled drinking-water were established in many countries. However, regulation mentioned above is lower than that for tap water. The hygienic problems of bottled drinking-water is emphasized, especially on microbial contamination. In this paper, some issues in regards were reviewed and discussed.

  18. Can theoretical intervention improve hand hygiene behavior among nurses?

    PubMed Central

    Baghaei, Rahim; Sharifian, Elham; Kamran, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand washing is the best strategy to prevent known nosocomial infections but the nurses’ hand hygiene is estimated to be poor in Iran. Objective This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of BASNEF (Behavior, Attitude, Subjective Norms, and Enabling Factors) model on hand hygiene adherence education. Methods This controlled quasi-experimental study was conducted on 70 hemodialysis unit nurses (35 case and 35 control) in the health and educational centers of the University of Medical Sciences of Urmia, Iran. To collect the data, a six-part validated and reliable questionnaire was used. The data were analyzed using SPSS version18, using Wilcoxon, Mann–Whitney, chi-square, and Fisher’s exact tests. The significance level was considered P<0.05. Results The mean age was 38.4±8.1 years for the intervention group and 40.2±8.0 years for the control group. There was no significant difference between the two groups for any demographic variables. Also, before the intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups for any components of the BASNEF model. Post-intervention, the attitude, subjective norms, enabling factors, and intention improved significantly in the intervention group (P<0.001), but hand hygiene behavior did not show any significant change in the intervention group (P=0.16). Conclusion Despite the improving attitudes and intention, the intervention had no significant effect on hand hygiene behavior among the studied nurses. PMID:27366106

  19. State of R&D in photonics-related fields in Japan's industry and academia: leading the green digital economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsuno, Kimio

    2010-06-01

    Photonics product statistics in Japan provided by OITDA is shown and analyzed from the aspect of three basic issues those the Japanese R & D state is facing. They are (1) off-shoring due to the deep integration in east Asia, (2) industry-academia collaboration and (3) global warming issue. The challengeable photonics R&D will come by aiming the volume zone market to get rid of the Galapagos problem and by opening innovation through the international collaboration. The connecting of the photonics products to the broadband systems are prospective to lead the "Green Digital Economy.

  20. 21 CFR 872.6650 - Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6650 Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed device...

  1. 21 CFR 872.6650 - Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6650 Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed device...

  2. 21 CFR 872.6650 - Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6650 Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed device...

  3. 21 CFR 872.6650 - Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6650 Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed device...

  4. 21 CFR 872.6650 - Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6650 Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed device...

  5. Follow-Up Study of 1993 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XXII, Number 17, June 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

    In an effort to evaluate the effectiveness of its dental hygiene program, William Rainey Harper College (WRHC), in Palatine, Illinois, conducted a follow-up study of its dental hygiene students. The survey instrument was mailed to all 31 1993 dental hygiene associate degree graduates, and a response rate of 97% (n=30) was attained. Results of the…

  6. The Effect of Teaching Experience on Service-Learning Beliefs of Dental Hygiene Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Sharlee Shirley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental causal-comparative study was to determine if service-learning teaching experience affects dental hygiene faculty perceptions of service-learning benefits and barriers in the United States. Dental hygiene educators from entry-level dental hygiene education programs in the United States completed the Web-based…

  7. Hygiene inspections on passenger ships in Europe - an overview

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hygiene inspections on passenger ships are important for the prevention of communicable diseases. The European Union (EU) countries conduct hygiene inspections on passenger ships in order to ensure that appropriate measures have been taken to eliminate potential sources of contamination which could lead to the spread of communicable diseases. This study was implemented within the framework of the EU SHIPSAN project and it investigates the legislation applied and practices of hygiene inspections of passenger ships in the EU Member States (MS) and European Free Trade Association countries. Methods Two questionnaires were composed and disseminated to 28 countries. A total of 92 questionnaires were completed by competent authorities responsible for hygiene inspections (n = 48) and the creation of legislation (n = 44); response rates were 96%, and 75.9%, respectively. Results Out of the 48 responding authorities responsible for hygiene inspections, a routine programme was used by 19 (39.6%) of these to conduct inspections of ships on national voyages and by 26 (54.2%) for ships on international voyages. Standardised inspection forms are used by 59.1% of the authorities. A scoring inspection system is applied by five (11.6%) of the 43 responding authorities. Environmental sampling is conducted by 84.1% of the authorities (37 out of 44). The inspection results are collected and analysed by 54.5% (24 out of 44) of the authorities, while 9 authorities (20.5%) declared that they publish the results. Inspections are conducted during outbreak investigations by 75% and 70.8% of the authorities, on ships on national and international voyages, respectively. A total of 31 (64.6%) and 39 (81.3%) authorities conducted inspections during complaint investigations on ships on international and on national voyages, respectively. Port-to-port communication between the national port authorities was reported by 35.4% (17 out of 48) of the responding authorities and 20.8% (10 out

  8. Marketing hand hygiene in hospitals--a case study.

    PubMed

    Gopal Rao, G; Jeanes, A; Osman, M; Aylott, C; Green, J

    2002-01-01

    Hand hygiene of healthcare workers is frequently poor despite the efforts of infection control teams to promote hand decontamination as the most important method to prevent transmission of hospital-acquired infections. In this case study, we describe how principles of societal marketing were applied to improve hand hygiene. Pre-marketing analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to implementation; attention to product, price, promotion and placement; and post-marketing 'customer' surveys were the essential components of the marketing strategy and its implementation. Placement of an alcohol-based gel decontaminant (Spirigel) at the bedside of every patient was widely welcomed in the hospital, and has played a major role in improving hand hygiene of healthcare workers. In the twelve months following the implementation, the decontaminant was used at least 440,000 times. The cost of purchasing the decontaminant was approximately 5000 pounds sterling. Following the introduction of Spirigel, there was a consistent reduction in the proportion of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in each of the quarters of 2000-2001 compared with 1999-2000. In the period 1999-2000, nearly 50% of the MRSA were hospital acquired compared with 39% in 2000-2001. Similarly, the average incidence of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea (CDAD) decreased in each of the quarters in 2000-2001 following the introduction of Spirigel. During this period, there was an average incidence of 9.5 cases of CDAD/1000 admissions compared with 11.5 cases of CDAD/1000 admissions in 1999-2000. This represents a 17.4% reduction in the incidence of CDAD. However, this reduction was not statistically significant (P=0.2). Our case study demonstrates that principles of societal marketing methods can be used effectively to promote and sustain hand hygiene in hospitals. Improvement in hand hygiene will lead to considerable reduction in hospital

  9. Poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections: any relationship?

    PubMed

    Esra, Eryaman; Banu, Oter Ilhan; Erdinc, Aydin

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections. 59 children between 3-12 age intervals were included in this study. The ears were examined by microscope. The findings were marked according to Kempthorne clinical scale and tympanograms were performed. For data analysis of dental caries, dft and DMFT indexes were used in accordance with WHO (World Health Organization) criteria for oral health surveys. The oral hygiene status was determined by using Simplified Oral Hygiene Index of Greene and Vermillion. The scores of 0-1 were classified as low, and of 2-3 as high oral hygiene index (OHI-S). The low OHI-S was taken as the control group (30 patients). The high OHI-S was taken as the study group (29 patients). The effusion scores, the compliance values and the middle ear pressure values in the two groups were compared. The difference between the effusion score values of the control and study groups was found to be statistically meaningful (p = 0.338, and the χ(2) = 2.167). The compliance values of the control and study groups did not differ meaningfully statistically (p = 0.671). However, there was a statistically meaningful low middle ear pressure (p = 0.044, χ(2) = 4.069) in the control group. Since this finding is expected in the study group, instead of the control group, we did not make an issue of this result. We conclude from these clinical results that there is no statistically meaningful relation between the oral hygiene index and the middle ear.

  10. State-of-the-art hand hygiene in community medicine.

    PubMed

    Kampf, Günter

    2003-10-01

    Hand hygiene becomes more important in community medicine not only since antibiotic resistant bacteria such as MRSA spread within the community. Hands may be colonized with transient microorganism in up to 75%. Among those transient pathogens S. aureus, C. difficile or the hepatitis C virus may be found. During patient care the number of microorganisms on the hands steadily increases. In addition hands may be contaminated with different kinds of germs even if only "clean" activities are carried out. Gloves may be worn but do not provide complete protection from contamination due to leaks. Therefore hands should always be treated after gloves are taken off. State-of-the-art treatment of hands is the hygienic hand disinfection with alcohol-based hand rubs. They are more effective, quicker to carry out, better tolerated by the skin, with a positive effect on compliance, and cost effective in comparison to antiseptic soaps based on chlorhexidine or triclosan and in comparison to normal non-medicated soaps. Healthy skin easily tolerates alcohol-based products from the beginning on. Only health care workers with an underlying irritative contact dermatitis which is often caused by bar or liquid antiseptic soaps may have difficulties to use alcohol-based products initially. In such a case treatment of the underlying skin condition is the way to go and not staying with a preparation which has caused the dermatitis. All this knowledge is now reflected in current guidelines on hand hygiene. Beside liquids alcohol-based gels can be used if they have an antimicrobial activity equal to alcohol-based liquid preparations. Hand hygiene remains the single most important tool to avoid cross transmission of microorganisms between patients. This state-of-the-art hand hygiene should also be emphasized more in community medicine. This review may help to go the first step into this direction. PMID:14626894

  11. WIND VELOCITIES AND SAND FLUXES IN MESQUITE DUNE-LANDS IN THE NORTHERN CHIHUAHUAN DESERT: A COMPARISON BETWEEN FIELD MEASUREMENTS AND THE QUIC (QUICK URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX) MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The poster shows comparisons of wind velocities and sand fluxes between field measurements and a computer model, called QUIC (Quick Urban & Industrial Complex). The comparisons were made for a small desert region in New Mexico.

  12. Dental Hygiene Education Workshop: Proceedings of Workshop on Dental Hygiene Education (Denver, Colorado, July 22-23, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Hygienists' Association, Chicago, IL.

    Proceedings from the first in a yearly series of conferences on dental hygiene education sponsored by the American Dental Hygienists' Association are presented. Three sessions are as follows: (1) "Society at Large: Economics, Cultural Trends, Work Trends, Demographics, and Technology" (Felix Kaufmann); (2) "The Health Care System: Changes and…

  13. Understanding and development of cost-effective industrial aluminum back surface field (Al-BSF) silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nian

    For the long-term strategy of gradual decarbonization of the world's energy supply, high penetration of PV electricity is critical in the future world energy landscape. In order to achieve this, solar electricity with competitive cost to fossil fuel energy is necessary. To be able to obtain high efficiency solar cells, many advanced cell architectures have been developed commercially by PV industry. However, the fabrication of these cells necessitates complex processing steps and high requirements on semiconductor materials, which make it not as cost-effective as the state-of-the-art conventional Al-BSF structure. In order to keep the cost of PV cell low and improve on the efficiency with fewer processing steps, this thesis work focuses on the understanding of the conventional Al-BSF solar cell structure. The research work therefore, focuses on the (i) design, and modeling of front metal electrodes including the use of multi-bus-bar capable of decreasing the gridline resistance, (ii) fine-line printing and (iii) metal contact co-firing using high belt speed that is not common to the solar industry to achieve ~20% efficient industrial Al-BSF silicon solar cells. In order to achieve the objectives of this thesis work, firstly, the appropriate Al paste was investigated for lowest back surface recombination velocity (BSRV), which gives high open circuit voltage (Voc). Secondly, the impact of emitter sheet resistance on solar cell performance was modeled to determine the optimal sheet resistance, and the uniformity of emitter was also investigated. Thirdly, modeling on the front metal electrodes was carried out to investigate the optimal number of busbars, and determine the optimum number of gridlines and gridline geometries that would result in low series resistance (Rs), high fill factor (FF) and hence high efficiency. Fourthly, the modeled results were experimentally validated through fine-line printing and optimized contact co-firing. By combining each layer to make

  14. Upscaling from benchtop processing to industrial scale production: More factors to be considered for pulsed electric field food processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing has been intensively studied with benchtop scale experiments. However, there is still limited information regarding critical factors to be considered for PEF efficacy in microbial reduction with PEF processing at a pilot or commercial scale production of juice....

  15. Field trials to assess the use of iron-bearing industrial by-products for stabilisation of chromated copper arsenate-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Lidelöw, Sofia; Ragnvaldsson, Daniel; Leffler, Per; Tesfalidet, Solomon; Maurice, Christian

    2007-11-15

    Two industrial by-products with high iron contents were tested for their effectiveness in the stabilisation of arsenic and trace metals in chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-contaminated soil. Steel abrasive (SA; 97% Fe(0)) and oxygen scarfing granulate (OSG; 69% Fe(3)O(4)) were applied at levels of 1% and 8% (w/w) respectively to two soils with different organic matter contents. Field lysimeter measurements indicated that SA and OSG treatments decreased the arsenic concentration in pore water by 68% and 92%, respectively, for the soil with low organic matter content, and by about 30% in pore water of soil with high organic matter content. At pH < or =6, the amended soil with low organic content contained elevated levels of manganese and nickel in their pore water, which were sufficient to induce cytotoxic effects in L-929 mouse fibroblast cells. The industrial by-products have significant potential for soil amendment at field-scale, but caution is required because of the potential release of their chemical contaminants and their reduced capacity for sorption of arsenic in organic-rich soils. PMID:17804040

  16. Applying remote sensing expertise to crop improvement: progress and challenges to scale up high throughput field phenotyping from research to industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouache, David; Beauchêne, Katia; Mini, Agathe; Fournier, Antoine; de Solan, Benoit; Baret, Fred; Comar, Alexis

    2016-05-01

    Digital and image analysis technologies in greenhouses have become commonplace in plant science research and started to move into the plant breeding industry. However, the core of plant breeding work takes place in fields. We will present successive technological developments that have allowed the migration and application of remote sensing approaches at large into the field of crop genetics and physiology research, with a number of projects that have taken place in France. These projects have allowed us to develop combined sensor plus vector systems, from tractor mounted and UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) mounted spectroradiometry to autonomous vehicle mounted spectroradiometry, RGB (red-green-blue) imagery and Lidar. We have tested these systems for deciphering the genetics of complex plant improvement targets such as the robustness to nitrogen and water deficiency of wheat and maize. Our results from wheat experiments indicate that these systems can be used both to screen genetic diversity for nitrogen stress tolerance and to decipher the genetics behind this diversity. We will present our view on the next critical steps in terms of technology and data analysis that will be required to reach cost effective implementation in industrial plant breeding programs. If this can be achieved, these technologies will largely contribute to resolving the equation of increasing food supply in the resource limited world that lies ahead.

  17. Tula industrial complex (Mexico) emissions of SO2 and NO2 during the MCMA 2006 field campaign using a Mini-DOAS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, C.; Sosa, G.; Wöhrnschimmel, H.; de Foy, B.; Johansson, M.; Galle, B.

    2009-02-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) has presented severe pollution problems for many years. There are several point and mobile emission sources inside and outside the MCMA which are known to affect air quality in the area. In particular, speculation has risen as to whether the Tula industrial complex, located 60 km northwest of the MCMA has any influence on high SO2 levels occurring on the northern part of the city, in the winter season mainly. As part of the MILAGRO Field Campaign, from 24 March to 17 April 2006, the total columns of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured during plume transects in the neighborhood of the Tula industrial complex using mini-DOAS instruments. Vertical profiles of wind speed and direction obtained from pilot balloons and radiosondes were used to calculate SO2 and NO2 fluxes in the plume. According to our measurements, calculated average flux emission for SO2 and NO2 were 155±120 and 9±8 ktons per year, respectively. The standard deviation of these estimations is due to actual variations in the observed emissions from the refinery and power plant, as well as to the uncertainty in the wind fields at the exact time of the measurements. These values are in good agreement with available datasets and with simulated plumes.

  18. Tula industrial complex (Mexico) emissions of SO2 and NO2 during the MCMA 2006 field campaign using a Mini-DOAS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, C.; Sosa-Iglesias, G.; Wöhrnschimmel, H.; de Foy, B.; Johansson, M.; Galle, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) has presented severe pollution problems for many years. There are several point and mobile emission sources inside and outside the MCMA which are known to affect air quality in the area. In particular, speculation has risen as to whether the Tula industrial complex, located 60 km northwest of the MCMA has any influence on high SO2 levels occurring on the northern part of the city, in the winter season mainly. As part of the MILAGRO Field Campaign, from 24 March to 17 April 2006, the total columns of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured during plume transects in the neighborhood of the Tula industrial complex using mini-DOAS instruments. Vertical profiles of wind speed and direction obtained from pilot balloons and radiosondes were used to calculate SO2 and NO2 fluxes in the plume. According to our measurements, calculated average flux emission for SO2 and NO2 were 155 ± 120 and 9 ± 8 ktons per year, respectively. The standard deviation of these estimations is due to actual variations in the observed emissions from the refinery and power plant, as well as to the uncertainty in the wind fields at the exact time of the measurements. These values are in good agreement with available datasets and with simulated plumes.

  19. Field trials to assess the use of iron-bearing industrial by-products for stabilisation of chromated copper arsenate-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Lidelöw, Sofia; Ragnvaldsson, Daniel; Leffler, Per; Tesfalidet, Solomon; Maurice, Christian

    2007-11-15

    Two industrial by-products with high iron contents were tested for their effectiveness in the stabilisation of arsenic and trace metals in chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-contaminated soil. Steel abrasive (SA; 97% Fe(0)) and oxygen scarfing granulate (OSG; 69% Fe(3)O(4)) were applied at levels of 1% and 8% (w/w) respectively to two soils with different organic matter contents. Field lysimeter measurements indicated that SA and OSG treatments decreased the arsenic concentration in pore water by 68% and 92%, respectively, for the soil with low organic matter content, and by about 30% in pore water of soil with high organic matter content. At pH < or =6, the amended soil with low organic content contained elevated levels of manganese and nickel in their pore water, which were sufficient to induce cytotoxic effects in L-929 mouse fibroblast cells. The industrial by-products have significant potential for soil amendment at field-scale, but caution is required because of the potential release of their chemical contaminants and their reduced capacity for sorption of arsenic in organic-rich soils.

  20. [Hygienic, chemical and ecotoxicological aspects of the disinfection of biologically treated waste water by ozone and UV light].

    PubMed

    Iske, U; Nelle, T; Oberg, C; Rudolph, K U; Zander-Hauck, S

    1996-02-01

    Biologically treated waste water from two different municipal treatment plants with mainly domestic waste water on the one hand and industrial influenced waste water on the other hand was disinfected by UV-irradiation and ozonation. Hygienic, chemical and eco-toxic effects of the disinfection step were examined. It was found that by ozonation as well as by UV-irradiation the required guide and imperative values for fecal and total coliform bacteria were fulfilled. The UV-irradiation induces no changes concerning chemical waste water quality and toxic effects. In contrast to these results ozonation can lead to alterations in chemistry and toxicity depending on the waste water composition.

  1. [Hygienic substantiation of maximum permissible concentrations of oil products in the soils of the Republic of Belarus].

    PubMed

    Rubin, V M; Il'yukova, I I; Kremko, L M; Prismotrov, Yu A; Samsonova, A S; Volod'ko, I K; Lukashev, O V

    2013-01-01

    Oil products are the one out of major pollutants in soil. For reduction of the technogenic load on human beings and performing preventive measures in the Republic of Belarus differentiated hygienic rate setting for oil products in the soil have been scientifically substantiated for follows different categories of Lands: agricultural lands, defense lands, lands for recreation, historical and cultural purpose, forest lands, lands of water fund, reserve lands--50 mg/kg; settlements sand, garden housing and dacha cooperatives,--100 mg/kg; industrial, transport, communication, energy, defense and other appointments lands--500 mg/kg.

  2. Prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene status among school going children: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, P L; Jayapalan, C S; Gondhalekar, Rajesh V; Krishna, B Jaya; Shaloob, K M Muhamed; Ummer, P Fajar

    2013-07-01

    Oral health is an important part of general health of body. Oral hygiene determines oral health status. Thus, oral hygiene is most important for good health in general. Poor oral hygiene can be source of many diseases. By maintaining the good oral hygiene, we can prevent occurrence of many disease. A survey was carried out to assess oral hygiene status and to find out caries prevalence rate among school going children of age 6 to 12 years. 957 healthy subjects including 567 boys and 390 girls from four different schools were examined in broad day light with the help of mouth mirror and explorer.

  3. Field evaluation of the effectiveness of three industrial by-products as organic amendments for phytostabilization of a Pb/Zn mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shengxiang; Cao, Jianbing; Li, Fengmei; Peng, Xizhu; Peng, Qingjing; Yang, Zhihui; Chai, Liyuan

    2016-01-01

    Although the potential of industrial by-products as organic amendments for phytostabilization has long been recognized, most of the previous studies addressing this issue have been laboratory-based. In this study, a field trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of three industrial by-products [sweet sorghum vinasse (SSV), medicinal herb residues (MHR) and spent mushroom compost (SMC)] as organic amendments for phytostabilization of abandoned Pb/Zn mine tailings. Our results showed the following: (i) when compared to the control tailings, the mean concentrations of diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments decreased by 20.8-28.0%, 41.6-49.1%, 17.7-22.7% and 9.5-14.7%, respectively; (ii) the mean values of organic C, ammonium-N and available P in SSV, MHR and SMC treatments increased by 1.7-2.8, 10.8-14.9 and 3.9-5.1 times as compared with the mine tailings; and (iii) the addition of SSV, MHR and SMC significantly enhanced soil respiration and microbial biomass being 1.5-1.8 and 1.3-1.6 fold higher than those in the control tailings. There were no significant differences in soil biochemical properties among the plots amended with these by-products, suggesting that they were almost equally effective in improving the biochemical conditions of the tailings. In addition, the application of these amendments promoted seed germination, seedling growth, and consequently increased the vegetation cover and its biomass. Moreover, concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in above-ground parts of the plants were below the toxicity limit levels for animals. The results obtained in this field study confirmed that the three organic-rich industrial by-products could be used as amendments for phytostabilization of some types of mine tailings. PMID:26611119

  4. [Evaluation of microbial contamination of linens in industrial laundry processes].

    PubMed

    Sanna, Adriana; Coroneo, Valentina; Dessì, Sandro; Brandas, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Laundering linens and protecting them from microbiological recontamination are critical issues for the hotel and food industries and especially for hospitals. This study was performed to evaluate a sample of industrial laundries in Sardinia (Italy), to assess their compliance with national hygienic and sanitary regulations, along the complete laundering process. Study results indicate that industrial laundering processes are effective and that better awareness of staff who handle laundered textiles is required to reduce the risk of recontamination.

  5. [Evaluation of microbial contamination of linens in industrial laundry processes].

    PubMed

    Sanna, Adriana; Coroneo, Valentina; Dessì, Sandro; Brandas, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Laundering linens and protecting them from microbiological recontamination are critical issues for the hotel and food industries and especially for hospitals. This study was performed to evaluate a sample of industrial laundries in Sardinia (Italy), to assess their compliance with national hygienic and sanitary regulations, along the complete laundering process. Study results indicate that industrial laundering processes are effective and that better awareness of staff who handle laundered textiles is required to reduce the risk of recontamination. PMID:23903035

  6. Impact of rural water projects on hygienic behaviour in Swaziland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Graciana

    In Swaziland, access to safe water supply and sanitation has improved significantly and was expected to result in improved health and, in particular, reduced infant mortality rates. On the contrary, mortality rates in the under 5 years age group are high and have doubled from 60 in 1996, to 120 deaths per 1000 in 2006. The main objective of the study was to assess whether the water projects permit, and are accompanied by, changes in hygienic behaviour to prevent transmission of diseases. The study area was Phonjwane, located in the dry Lowveld of Swaziland, where water projects play a significant role in meeting domestic water demands. Hygienic behaviour and sanitation facilities were analysed and compared before and after project. The results of the study show that domestic water supply projects have significantly reduced distances travelled and time taken to collect water, and that increased quantities of water are collected and used. While the majority of respondents (95.6%) used the domestic water project source, the quantities allowed per household (125 l which translates to an average of 20.8 l per person) were insufficient and therefore were supplemented with harvested rainwater (57.8%), water from a polluted river (17.8%), and water from a dam (2.2%). Increased water quantities have permitted more baths and washing of clothes and hands, but significant proportions of the population still skip hygienic practices such as keeping water for washing hands inside or near toilet facilities (40%) and washing hands (20%). The study concludes that the water supply project has permitted and improved hygienic practices but not sufficiently. The health benefits of safe domestic water supplies are hampered by insufficient quantities of water availed through the projects, possible contamination of the water in the house, poor hygienic behaviours and lack of appropriate sanitation measures by some households. There is a need to provide sufficient quantities of safe water

  7. Determinants of hand hygiene compliance in Egypt: building blocks for a communication strategy.

    PubMed

    Lohiniva, A-L; Bassim, H; Hafez, S; Kamel, E; Ahmed, E; Saeed, T; Talaat, M

    2015-10-02

    Hand hygiene of health-care staff is one of the most important interventions in reducing transmission of nosocomial infections. This qualitative study aimed to understand the behavioural determinants of hand hygiene in order to develop sustainable interventions to promote hand hygiene in hospitals. Fourteen focus group discussions were conducted with nurses in 2 university hospitals in Egypt. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 independent investigators. The findings highlighted that nurses did not perceive the benefits of hand hygiene, and that they linked the need to wash hands to a sense of dirtiness. Knowledge of hand hygiene and related products was limited and preference for water and soap was obvious. Environmental constraints, lack of role models and social control were identified as barriers for compliance with hand hygiene. A multi-faceted hand hygiene strategy was developed based on existing cultural concepts valued by the hospital staff.

  8. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process: health programs. Research and development report No. 53, Interim report No. 39. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 4: Industrial hygiene, clinical and toxicological programs. Final report of subcontract No. 10, June 1, 1976-June 9, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    This report summarizes the toxicological studies on SRC-I materials completed under Subcontract No. 10 as part of the Health Programs under the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Contract during the total period of the subcontract, June 1, 1976 through June 9, 1978. The studies were conducted by Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories (IBT) as the subcontractor. A number of acute studies were completed on the products and intermediate streams as well as several subchronic studies. In addition, preliminary dose-ranging, or pilot, studies were completed. None of the materials exhibited high toxicities when administered orally, dermally, or by the inhalation route. Three of the materials proved to be severely or extremely irritating to the eyes. The pilot dermal and teratogenesis studies revealed some evidence of decreased viability in offspring and reduced fetal body weights. The subcontract was terminated for convenience on June 9, 1978 when it became apparent that IBT could not satisfactorily continue the studies.

  9. A Prospective Controlled Trial of an Electronic Hand Hygiene Reminder System.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Richard T; Barysauskas, Constance M; Rundensteiner, Elke A; Wang, Di; Barton, Bruce

    2015-12-01

    Background.  The use of electronic hand hygiene reminder systems has been proposed as an approach to improve hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers, although information on efficacy is limited. We prospectively assessed whether hand hygiene activities among healthcare workers could be increased using an electronic hand hygiene monitoring and reminder system. Methods.  A prospective controlled clinical trial was conducted in 2 medical intensive care units (ICUs) at an academic medical center with comparable patient populations, healthcare staff, and physical layout. Hand hygiene activity was monitored concurrently in both ICUs, and the reminder system was installed in the test ICU. The reminder system was tested during 3 administered phases including: room entry/exit chimes, display of real-time hand hygiene activity, and a combination of the 2. Results.  In the test ICU, the mean number of hand hygiene events increased from 1538 per day at baseline to 1911 per day (24% increase) with the use of a combination of room entry/exit chimes, real-time displays of hand hygiene activity, and manager reports (P < .001); in addition, the ratio of hand hygiene to room entry/exit events also increased from 26.1% to 36.6% (40% increase, P < .001). The performance returned to baseline (1473 hand hygiene events per day) during the follow-up phase. There was no significant change in hand hygiene activity in the control ICU during the course of the trial. Conclusions.  In an ICU setting, an electronic hand hygiene reminder system that provided real-time feedback on overall unit-wide hand hygiene performance significantly increased hand hygiene activity.

  10. [Career history and perceptions of dental hygiene education programs--questionnaire mail-in survey of alumni of the School of Dental Hygiene in Tokyo Medical and Dental University].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Naomi; Endo, Keiko; Kondo, Keiko; Sugimoto, Kumiko; Shimoyama, Kazuhiro; Takagi, Yuzo

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the career history and perceptions about dental hygiene education programs among the alumni (1952-1999 graduates) of the School of Dental Hygiene in Tokyo Medical and Dental University. A questionnaire containing demographic, practice characteristics and views on the programs was mailed to 997 alumni in 1999, and 576 alumni (57.8%) responded. Three hundred and forty-one respondents worked as dental hygienists. The majority who responded were in clinical practice. One hundred and thirty-one of the respondents worked in private clinics, 76 in public health centers, and 72 in clinics in companies. The rate of them who worked in public health centers was much higher than the national average cited in the Statistical Report on Public Health Administration and Services. Two hundred and ninety-one respondents reported inadequate programs. The rate of them who reported inadequate programs was significantly higher in alumni who were working than in alumni who were not. The items cited as insufficiently taught at the school were clinical practice, instrumentation, foreign language, psychology, counseling, and nursing related subjects. Thus, many alumni suggested the need for better programs and continuing education. From these results, it was suggested that dental hygienists need to change their education programs in order to meet the present and future needs of more diversified society. This view was particularly prevalent among alumni who were working. The result showed that dental hygiene educators and dental hygienists urgently need to reconsider the professionalism of their field.

  11. [Health status hygienic assessment of primary military education establishment pupils].

    PubMed

    Avshits, I V; Shirinskiĭ, V A

    2010-01-01

    During a comprehensive study, the investigators have made a hygienic assessment of an academic process and the actual nutrition of military school pupils, revealed the specific features of functioning of the body's major systems in adolescents at a closed primary military education establishment, studied the body's adaptive reactions to a combination of factors during study, and hygienically evaluated the pupils' health. Their health has been shown to improve at a closed education establishment according to the basic parameters of the body's functional status and nonspecific resistance, physical development. Specific recommendations are proposed to correct daily diets for pupils of primary military education establishments in order to bring the actual nutrition of cadets in compliance with the standard physiological requirements for this group of pupils.

  12. The use of microbiology in the study of hygiene behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kaltenthaler, E C; Drasar, B S; Potter, C W

    1996-01-01

    Faecal indicator bacteria have been used to measure levels of hygiene in a variety of settings. This paper describes a study in northern Botswana which used the isolation of faecal indicator bacteria in combination with other quantitative and qualitative techniques to gain information regarding hygiene behaviour. The microbiological samples included, samples from stored drinking water and water sources; eating plates; infant feeding bottles; dishcloths and the fingertips of carers and children. Water was usually clean at source but contaminated after storage. Presumptive faecal coliforms contaminated 31% of the eating plates, 29% of the dishcloths and 40% of the infant feeding bottles. Many of the presumptive faecal coliform isolates were not identified as Escherichia coli, indicating the need for further research into methodologies appropriate for isolating E. coli in tropical climates. PMID:9121378

  13. Enhanced Hygiene Measures and Norovirus Transmission during an Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Teunis, Peter; Morroy, Gabriella; Wijkmans, Clementine; Oostveen, Sandy; Duizer, Erwin; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Wallinga, Jacco

    2009-01-01

    Control of norovirus outbreaks relies on enhanced hygiene measures, such as handwashing, surface cleaning, using disposable paper towels, and using separate toilets for sick and well persons. However, little is known about their effectiveness in limiting further spread of norovirus infections. We analyzed norovirus outbreaks in 7 camps at an international scouting jamboree in the Netherlands during 2004. Implementation of hygiene measures coincided with an 84.8% (95% predictive interval 81.2%–86.6%) reduction in reproduction number. This reduction was unexpectedly large but still below the reduction needed to contain a norovirus outbreak. Even more stringent control measures are required to break the chain of transmission of norovirus. PMID:19116045

  14. [Toxicological and hygienic assessment of nitrates in food products].

    PubMed

    Tulupov, V P; Prikhod'ko, E I; Fomichenko, E I

    2001-01-01

    The toxicological and hygienic estimation of the contents of nitrates in the basic vegetable cultures (beet, carrots, potato etc.) is given. Is shown, that nitrates, contained in the increased amounts in the aforesaid cultures are not indifferent for human and animals organism. At a unbalanced diet of cattle use of forages with the increased contents of nitrates can result in occurrence them in livestock products. The hygienic regulation of permissible concentrations nitrates in some products should be carried out with an allowance fo structure of nutrition of the population, contents nitrates in drinking water, and also other factors capable to influence on formation of nitrate body burden on the population and to aggravate effect of nitrates action.

  15. [Food hygiene training of members of corporate public catering committees].

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Gianluigi; Laurenti, Patrizia; Gerardo Cairo, Antonio; Ricciardi, Gualtiero

    2007-01-01

    A food hygiene training course was offered to 25 members of the public catering committees of seven corporate restaurants. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the course and identify critical topics, participants were asked to complete a questionnaire before and after completing the training course. Results are presented in this article and underscore the importance of training members of public catering committees in addition to food handlers. PMID:17912276

  16. [Hygienic education in pupils from general educational establishments].

    PubMed

    Mirskaia, N B

    2009-01-01

    The high prevalence of the major behavioral factors of a risk to health: violation of the study leisure regimen, violation of dietary pattern and quality, low motor activity, smoking, frequent alcohol abuse, drug taste, and deteriorated family microclimate, was revealed in middle and senior schoolchildren from Moscow, Kaliningrad, and Murmansk. Proposals are given to mold healthy lifestyle in adolescents and to optimize their hygienic education at general educational establishments.

  17. [Improving public health and hygiene surveillance activity: the Lombardy experience].

    PubMed

    Poloni, M

    2012-01-01

    In light of changing health needs, it has become a necessity to modify the instruments used in prevention, and this is thanks also to all the new preventive health professions that have been added to the existing ones. This presentation describes the results of the activities of prevention and control of occupational injuries, environmental hygiene and food and nutrition security in the Lombardy Region. PMID:22880384

  18. U.S. Dental Hygiene Students' Perceptions of Interprofessional Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Navickis, Marie A; Mathieson, Kathleen

    2016-09-01

    Patients with complex medical conditions require collaboration among multiple health care providers, and dental hygienists must be prepared to communicate effectively with medical providers to provide comprehensive quality patient care. The aim of this study was to assess U.S. dental hygiene students' attitudes about interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and identify any differences based on age, year in program, and program location. Participants were limited to students enrolled in dental hygiene associate degree programs across the United States. In response to an email soliciting participation sent to all dental hygiene program directors, 504 students completed the Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) online (response rate could not be calculated). The IEPS is a validated survey that measures attitudes about interprofessional collaboration. The majority of the respondents were female (97%) and under 30 years of age (74.6%). Their mean scores indicated positive attitudes about IPC. There were no statistically significant differences in scores by age (p=0.700) or program location (p=0.527). There were also no statistically significant differences between first- and second-year students for total mean scores (p=0.106); for the competency and autonomy subscale (p=0.125); and for the perception of actual cooperation subscale (p=0.890). There was a statistically significant difference between first- and second-year students on the perception of actual cooperation subscale, with first-year students scoring higher than second-year students (p=0.016). This study's findings of positive attitudes about IPC and that age and program location had little bearing on the responses suggest that associate degree dental hygiene students may welcome the interprofessional education that will prepare them for practice in the future. PMID:27587571

  19. [Knowledge of oral hygiene amongst adolescents in Lombardy, Italy].

    PubMed

    Camoni, Nicole; Arpesella, Marisa; Cutti, Sara; Livieri, Monica; Lanati, Niccolò; Tenconi, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated oral hygiene knowledge among a group of 12-year-old students in Lombardy, Italy (n=182). Two different questionnaires were administered, respectively to adolescents and to their parents. Results indicate a low level of general knowledge on this topic. Factors influencing knowledge include the number of learning sources and yearly access to a dental clinic. The described situation highlights the need to implement school-based educational interventions. PMID:26722825

  20. [Sanitary and hygienic expert examination of consumer goods: toxicological aspects].

    PubMed

    Zav'ialov, N V; Skvortsova, E L; Chemechev, A P

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the results of toxicological and sanitary-chemical studies of domestic and imported products subject to sanitary-and-epidemiological assessment. It shows the groups of products that are currently the greatest potential danger to health in terms of toxicological and hygienic parameters. Recommendations are given on programs for manufacturing control over the observance of sanitary rules and the antiepidemic (preventive) actions at the enterprises engaged in the production and turnover of social consumer goods. PMID:20135874

  1. The Hygiene Hypothesis and Its Inconvenient Truths about Helminth Infections.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Neima; Weatherhead, Jill; Sastry, K Jagannadha; Hotez, Peter J

    2016-09-01

    Current iterations of the hygiene hypothesis suggest an adaptive role for helminth parasites in shaping the proper maturation of the immune system. However, aspects of this hypothesis are based on assumptions that may not fully account for realities about human helminth infections. Such realities include evidence of causal associations between helminth infections and asthma or inflammatory bowel disease as well as the fact that helminth infections remain widespread in the United States, especially among populations at greatest risk for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  2. [Hygienic evaluation of experimental samples of antimicrobial underwear containing hexachlorophene].

    PubMed

    Borshchenko, V V; Savinich, F K; Gorshkov, V P; Rogatovskaia, A P

    1976-01-01

    The hygienic examination of 12 samples of knitted underwear which contained hexachlorophene added during fiber formation allowed the selection of four types that can be used under poor sanitation conditions. Taking into consideration possible changes in the proportion of various micoorganisms during prolonged space flights, it is recommended to carry out a complex investigation in order to allow the use of the antimicrobial underwear by specific crewmembers during a certain period of time. PMID:13247

  3. Vaginal Hygiene and Douching: Perspectives of Hispanic Men

    PubMed Central

    Mckee, M Diane; Baquero, María; Anderson, Matthew; Karasz, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Vaginal douching is widely practiced by women in the USA, particularly among minority ethnic groups, and is associated with increased risk of pelvic and vaginal infections. Douching practices are shaped by social and cultural norms regarding female hygiene, reproduction, and sexuality. Little previous research has addressed the beliefs and practices of Latina women, and none has included the perspective of men, though limited data suggests that women may douche to please male partners. The present study seeks to identify the socially and culturally shaped beliefs and attitudes that influence douching practices from the perspective of Latino men. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews in English or Spanish with adult Latino men seeking primary care at a community health centre in New York City (USA). Results indicate that these Latino men (mostly of Caribbean descent) are emphatic about the role of cleanliness in vaginal health, reporting that it substantially influences their choice of partner. Most are very supportive of douching, which they consider a necessary hygiene activity. Vaginal health is perceived as a state that must be attained and maintained through proactive hygiene measures that remove seminal residue, menstrual blood, sweat and bacteria that contaminate the vagina. The implications of these findings for interventions with Latina women are discussed. PMID:19247860

  4. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Kavitha Sankar, P C; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M J

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product. PMID:26838891

  5. Vaginal hygiene and douching: perspectives of Hispanic men.

    PubMed

    McKee, Diane; Baquero, Maria; Anderson, Matthew; Karasz, Alison

    2009-02-01

    Vaginal douching is widely practised by women in the USA, particularly among minority ethnic groups, and is associated with increased risk of pelvic and vaginal infections. Douching practices are shaped by social and cultural norms regarding female hygiene, reproduction and sexuality. Little previous research has addressed the beliefs and practices of Latina women and none has included the perspective of men, though limited data suggests that women may douche to please male partners. The present study seeks to identify the socially and culturally shaped beliefs and attitudes that influence douching practices from the perspective of Latino men. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews in English or Spanish with adult Latino men seeking primary care at a community health centre in New York City. Results indicate that these Latino men (mostly of Caribbean descent) are emphatic about the role of cleanliness in vaginal health, reporting that it substantially influences their choice of partner. Most are very supportive of douching, which they consider a necessary hygiene activity. Vaginal health is perceived as a state that must be attained and maintained through proactive hygiene measures that remove seminal residue, menstrual blood, sweat and bacteria that contaminate the vagina. The implications of these findings for interventions with Latina women are discussed.

  6. Comparison of hand hygiene procedures for removing Bacillus cereus spores.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hosoda, Kouichi; Morisawa, Yuji; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occasionally causes nosocomial infections, in which hand contamination with the spores plays an important role. Therefore, hand hygiene is the most important practice for controlling nosocomial B. cereus infections. This study aimed to determine the appropriate hand hygiene procedure for removing B. cereus spores. Thirty volunteers' hands were experimentally contaminated with B. cereus spores, after which they performed 6 different hand hygiene procedures. We compared the efficacy of the procedures in removing the spores from hands. The alcohol-based hand-rubbing procedures scarcely removed them. The soap washing procedures reduced the number of spores by more than 2 log10. Extending the washing time increased the spore-removing efficacy of the washing procedures. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the use of plain soap and antiseptic soap. Handwashing with soap is appropriate for removing B. cereus spores from hands. Alcohol-based hand-rubbing is not effective. PMID:25252644

  7. Technical and environmental long-term properties of industrial residues--summary of field and laboratory investigations.

    PubMed

    Arm, Maria; Suer, Pascal; Arvidsson, Håkan; Lindqvist, Jan-Erik

    2011-01-01

    In Sweden, use of industrial residues is still hindered by concern for their long-term properties. A three-year research project was therefore initiated aiming to (1) identify the crucial processes of ageing related to the usefulness of residues in roads; (2) investigate the consequences of these processes for technical and environmental properties of the residues, and (3) propose a method for accelerated ageing to predict the long-term properties. This paper gives an overview of the project methodology, a summary of the test results and references to papers where further details are given. The project, running through 2006-2008, compared naturally aged samples of two residues used as sub-bases in existing asphalt paved roads with samples of fresh residues from producers' piles. Steel slag of electric arc furnace (EAF) type and municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash were chosen. The samples were thoroughly characterised in order to identify which ageing processes had been crucial. The results showed that: - Bottom ash from the pavement edge was more aged than bottom ash from the road centre. However, no difference in pH was found, instead the differences were caused by differences in water exposure. - Steel slag from the pavement edge showed traces of carbonation and leaching processes, whereas slag from the road centre was identical to fresh slag. - Water exposure to the subbase materials after ten years in an asphalt paved road was calculated to less than 0.1–0.5 litres per kg. - Ageing reactions in steel slag and MSWI bottom ash, ready for use, were too small to be verified by laboratory measurement of deformation properties under loaded conditions. An accelerated ageing test for steel slag was set up to achieve the carbonation (decrease in pH) and leaching that was observed in the pavement edge material. An accelerated ageing test for bottom ash was set up to achieve the pozzolan reactions that were observed in SEM analyses of in situ specimens

  8. Effects of hand hygiene education and individual feedback on hand hygiene behaviour, MRSA acquisition rate and MRSA colonization pressure among intensive care unit nurses.

    PubMed

    Chun, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Park, Ho-Ran

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to increase the frequency and level of thoroughness of hand hygiene practice by nurses, and to assess the influence of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) acquired incidence rate and the MRSA colonization pressure in a medical intensive care unit (MICU). A total of 24 MICU nurses received hand hygiene education and individual feedback of hand hygiene frequency and method after a session of education, and two posteducation evaluations were followed. The frequency of hand hygiene (P = 0.001) and the methodology score of hand hygiene increased significantly (P = 0.001). The MRSA acquisition rate decreased significantly, from 11.1% before the education to 0% after (P = 0.014). The MRSA colonization pressure decreased significantly from 39.5% to 8.6% after the education sessions (P = 0.001). This indicates that providing individual feedback after hand hygiene education was very effective in increasing nurses' hand hygiene frequency and improving hand hygiene method; furthermore, it was expected to decrease health care-associated infections.

  9. Sulphur migration in the soil-plant system contaminated by deposits from nickel industry: a field manipulation.

    PubMed

    Ruth-Balaganskaya, Ekaterina; Kudrjavtseva, Olga

    2002-01-01

    Sulphur migration in the soil-plant system was studied in a field experiment carried out in the spruce-pine forest 70 km SE from the 'Severonickel' smelting plant on the Kola Peninsula. In the experiment, dry particle deposits collected from filters of smokestacks in different departments of 'Severonickel' were applied on the study plots and on gravity lysimeters in quantities simulating estimated actual annual emissions in the area within 2-5 km from the smelter. In the present paper, the effects of two types of deposits consisting mostly of water-soluble sulphates of copper and nickel are described ("Cu-contaminant": Cu-55%, Ni-3.8%, SO4-25%; "Ni-contaminant": Ni-20%, Cu-5%, SO4--65%). Soil, plant tissue and penetration water were analysed during 3 years after the treatment. Extractable sulphur distribution in the soil-plant system showed downward movement after 1 year and upward movement after 3 years. The trend was more pronounced in the site treated with Ni-contaminant. PMID:11916043

  10. Sulphur migration in the soil-plant system contaminated by deposits from nickel industry: a field manipulation.

    PubMed

    Ruth-Balaganskaya, Ekaterina; Kudrjavtseva, Olga

    2002-01-01

    Sulphur migration in the soil-plant system was studied in a field experiment carried out in the spruce-pine forest 70 km SE from the 'Severonickel' smelting plant on the Kola Peninsula. In the experiment, dry particle deposits collected from filters of smokestacks in different departments of 'Severonickel' were applied on the study plots and on gravity lysimeters in quantities simulating estimated actual annual emissions in the area within 2-5 km from the smelter. In the present paper, the effects of two types of deposits consisting mostly of water-soluble sulphates of copper and nickel are described ("Cu-contaminant": Cu-55%, Ni-3.8%, SO4-25%; "Ni-contaminant": Ni-20%, Cu-5%, SO4--65%). Soil, plant tissue and penetration water were analysed during 3 years after the treatment. Extractable sulphur distribution in the soil-plant system showed downward movement after 1 year and upward movement after 3 years. The trend was more pronounced in the site treated with Ni-contaminant.

  11. Hand hygiene-related clinical trials reported since 2010: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kingston, L; O'Connell, N H; Dunne, C P

    2016-04-01

    Considerable emphasis is currently placed on reducing healthcare-associated infection through improving hand hygiene compliance among healthcare professionals. There is also increasing discussion in the lay media of perceived poor hand hygiene compliance among healthcare staff. Our aim was to report the outcomes of a systematic search for peer-reviewed, published studies - especially clinical trials - that focused on hand hygiene compliance among healthcare professionals. Literature published between December 2009, after publication of the World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene guidelines, and February 2014, which was indexed in PubMed and CINAHL on the topic of hand hygiene compliance, was searched. Following examination of relevance and methodology of the 57 publications initially retrieved, 16 clinical trials were finally included in the review. The majority of studies were conducted in the USA and Europe. The intensive care unit emerged as the predominant focus of studies followed by facilities for care of the elderly. The category of healthcare worker most often the focus of the research was the nurse, followed by the healthcare assistant and the doctor. The unit of analysis reported for hand hygiene compliance was 'hand hygiene opportunity'; four studies adopted the 'my five moments for hand hygiene' framework, as set out in the WHO guidelines, whereas other papers focused on unique multimodal strategies of varying design. We concluded that adopting a multimodal approach to hand hygiene improvement intervention strategies, whether guided by the WHO framework or by another tested multimodal framework, results in moderate improvements in hand hygiene compliance. PMID:26853369

  12. Interventions to improve patient hand hygiene: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Srigley, J A; Furness, C D; Gardam, M

    2016-09-01

    Nosocomial pathogens may be acquired by patients via their own unclean hands, but there has been relatively little emphasis on patient hand hygiene as a tool for preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). The aim of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of patient hand hygiene interventions in reducing HCAIs and improving patient hand hygiene rates compared to usual care. Electronic databases and grey literature were searched to August 2014. Experimental and quasi-experimental studies were included if they evaluated a patient hand hygiene intervention conducted in an acute or chronic healthcare facility and included HCAI incidence and/or patient hand hygiene rates as an outcome. All steps were performed independently by two investigators. Ten studies were included, most of which were uncontrolled before-after studies (N=8). The majority of interventions (N=7) were multi-modal, with components similar to healthcare worker hand hygiene programmes, including education, reminders, audit and feedback, and provision of hand hygiene products. Six studies reported HCAI outcomes and four studies assessed patient hand hygiene rates; all demonstrated improvements but were at moderate to high risk of bias. In conclusion, interventions to improve patient hand hygiene may reduce the incidence of HCAIs and improve hand hygiene rates, but the quality of evidence is low. Future studies should use stronger designs and be more selective in their choice of outcomes. PMID:27262906

  13. Interventions to improve patient hand hygiene: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Srigley, J A; Furness, C D; Gardam, M

    2016-09-01

    Nosocomial pathogens may be acquired by patients via their own unclean hands, but there has been relatively little emphasis on patient hand hygiene as a tool for preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). The aim of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of patient hand hygiene interventions in reducing HCAIs and improving patient hand hygiene rates compared to usual care. Electronic databases and grey literature were searched to August 2014. Experimental and quasi-experimental studies were included if they evaluated a patient hand hygiene intervention conducted in an acute or chronic healthcare facility and included HCAI incidence and/or patient hand hygiene rates as an outcome. All steps were performed independently by two investigators. Ten studies were included, most of which were uncontrolled before-after studies (N=8). The majority of interventions (N=7) were multi-modal, with components similar to healthcare worker hand hygiene programmes, including education, reminders, audit and feedback, and provision of hand hygiene products. Six studies reported HCAI outcomes and four studies assessed patient hand hygiene rates; all demonstrated improvements but were at moderate to high risk of bias. In conclusion, interventions to improve patient hand hygiene may reduce the incidence of HCAIs and improve hand hygiene rates, but the quality of evidence is low. Future studies should use stronger designs and be more selective in their choice of outcomes.

  14. Hand hygiene-related clinical trials reported since 2010: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kingston, L; O'Connell, N H; Dunne, C P

    2016-04-01

    Considerable emphasis is currently placed on reducing healthcare-associated infection through improving hand hygiene compliance among healthcare professionals. There is also increasing discussion in the lay media of perceived poor hand hygiene compliance among healthcare staff. Our aim was to report the outcomes of a systematic search for peer-reviewed, published studies - especially clinical trials - that focused on hand hygiene compliance among healthcare professionals. Literature published between December 2009, after publication of the World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene guidelines, and February 2014, which was indexed in PubMed and CINAHL on the topic of hand hygiene compliance, was searched. Following examination of relevance and methodology of the 57 publications initially retrieved, 16 clinical trials were finally included in the review. The majority of studies were conducted in the USA and Europe. The intensive care unit emerged as the predominant focus of studies followed by facilities for care of the elderly. The category of healthcare worker most often the focus of the research was the nurse, followed by the healthcare assistant and the doctor. The unit of analysis reported for hand hygiene compliance was 'hand hygiene opportunity'; four studies adopted the 'my five moments for hand hygiene' framework, as set out in the WHO guidelines, whereas other papers focused on unique multimodal strategies of varying design. We concluded that adopting a multimodal approach to hand hygiene improvement intervention strategies, whether guided by the WHO framework or by another tested multimodal framework, results in moderate improvements in hand hygiene compliance.

  15. Cause and control: education and training of professional industrial hygienists for 2020.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, R J

    1992-06-01

    By the year 2020, the environmental movement will have established a recognized profession, expert at studying deleterious effects in the working and public domains. Environmental science practitioners will be better able to identify and relate ill effects to the presence of adverse agents in the environment; they will not, however, necessarily be skilled at developing systems for control. Industrial hygienists should provide the unique and special skills required to establish economically optimum control systems. Industrial hygiene should by then have been redefined to emphasize this critical role of its professional members. A new orientation for education is therefore proposed to provide a sound basis for the professional needs of industrial hygienists who should be at the peak of their careers in 2020. Members of the profession should then be the leaders in research on, and practice of, the science and engineering of design, installation, and monitoring of control systems for occupational and environmental hazards. The preferred educational background for entry to the profession should be some branch of engineering, which by then must have recovered its lost status and be divided into fewer specialized compartments than it is today. Engineering should provide a broader base for students entering professional education in this field, who will be more concerned with prevention and engineering control of both occupational and environmental hazards, rather than with measurement and epidemiology of the biological and toxicologic sciences. Preparation for professional work in industrial hygiene will call for the specialized education of engineers required to design and maintain processes that minimize the use, production, or generation of hazardous substances.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Impact of a hygiene curriculum and the installation of simple handwashing and drinking water stations in rural Kenyan primary schools on student health and hygiene practices.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minal K; Harris, Julie R; Juliao, Patricia; Nygren, Benjamin; Were, Vincent; Kola, Steve; Sadumah, Ibrahim; Faith, Sitnah Hamidah; Otieno, Ronald; Obure, Alfredo; Hoekstra, Robert M; Quick, Robert

    2012-10-01

    School-based hygiene and water treatment programs increase student knowledge, improve hygiene, and decrease absenteeism, however health impact studies of these programs are lacking. We collected baseline information from students in 42 schools in Kenya. We then instituted a curriculum on safe water and hand hygiene and installed water stations in half ("intervention schools"). One year later, we implemented the intervention in remaining schools. Through biweekly student household visits and two annual surveys, we compared the effect of the intervention on hygiene practices and reported student illness. We saw improvement in proper handwashing techniques after the school program was introduced. We observed a decrease in the median percentage of students with acute respiratory illness among those exposed to the program; no decrease in acute diarrhea was seen. Students in this school program exhibited sustained improvement in hygiene knowledge and a decreased risk of respiratory infections after the intervention.

  17. The properties of human body phantoms used in calculations of electromagnetic fields exposure by wireless communication handsets or hand-operated industrial devices.

    PubMed

    Zradziński, Patryk

    2013-06-01

    According to international guidelines, the assessment of biophysical effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) generated by hand-operated sources needs the evaluation of induced electric field (E(in)) or specific energy absorption rate (SAR) caused by EMF inside a worker's body and is usually done by the numerical simulations with different protocols applied to these two exposure cases. The crucial element of these simulations is the numerical phantom of the human body. Procedures of E(in) and SAR evaluation due to compliance analysis with exposure limits have been defined in Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers standards and International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines, but a detailed specification of human body phantoms has not been described. An analysis of the properties of over 30 human body numerical phantoms was performed which has been used in recently published investigations related to the assessment of EMF exposure by various sources. The differences in applicability of these phantoms in the evaluation of E(in) and SAR while operating industrial devices and SAR while using mobile communication handsets are discussed. The whole human body numerical phantom dimensions, posture, spatial resolution and electric contact with the ground constitute the key parameters in modeling the exposure related to industrial devices, while modeling the exposure from mobile communication handsets, which needs only to represent the exposed part of the human body nearest to the handset, mainly depends on spatial resolution of the phantom. The specification and standardization of these parameters of numerical human body phantoms are key requirements to achieve comparable and reliable results from numerical simulations carried out for compliance analysis against exposure limits or within the exposure assessment in EMF-related epidemiological studies.

  18. Typing of Listeria monocytogenes isolates originating from the food processing industry with automated ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Aarnisalo, Kaarina; Autio, Tiina; Sjöberg, Anna-Maija; Lundén, Janne; Korkeala, Hannu; Suihko, Maija-Liisa

    2003-02-01

    A total of 486 Listeria monocytogenes isolates originating from 17 Finnish food processing plants (representing meat, poultry, fish, and dairy production) were collected and typed by automated ribotyping using EcoRI as the restriction enzyme. The isolates were divided into 16 different ribotypes (RTs). Some of these isolates (121), representing all EcoRI types and 16 food plants, were subjected to ribotyping with the PvuII enzyme, to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing with AscI and SmaI restriction enzymes, and to serotyping with O-antigen antisera. Nineteen ribotypes were generated with PvuII, 42 macrorestriction patterns were generated with AscI and 24 with SmaI, and three serotypes were generated with antisera. When the results were combined, the overall number of RTs was 23, and that of the PFGE types was 46. Thus, the overall discrimination power of PFGE was higher (discrimination index [DI] 0.966) than that of ribotyping (DI 0.906). The most common serotype (90.1% of the isolates) was 1/2, and isolates of serotype 4 (3.3%) were rare. There was no connection between food sectors and RTs or PFGE types, but PFGE indicated the single plants (78.3% of the types) better than ribotyping (56.5%). On the basis of its automation and on the availability of identification databases, automated ribotyping had some advantages over PFGE. Overall, automated ribotyping can be considered a practical and rapid tool when Listeria contamination is suspected and when screening a large number of isolates is necessary, e.g., when tracing contamination sources. However, in cases of outbreaks, the identical patterns must be confirmed by PFGE, which is a more discriminatory method.

  19. [Adherence to oral hygiene and dental self-care].

    PubMed

    Poplinger, A

    2010-04-01

    illustrates, through a comprehensive literature review of theories, models and researches, the contemporary methods for promoting adherence to oral hygiene, dental Self-Care and treatment. Using the combination of a survey from a select sample of specialists in the field of Dentistry, and the conclusions inferred from studies reviewed, I was able to determine how investment in the Bio-Psycho-Social approach would improve patient satisfaction from their doctors and outcomes of the treatment, shorten the duration of treatment, consume only little resources, improve dental health of patients and prevent repetitive visits to the dentists clinics. At the same time, despite the fact that dentistry practitioners acknowledge the importance of patient's adherence and take active measures such as talks, praises, guidance and providing information, most of them don't seem to comprehend interfusion of family members or friends as an integral part of the treatment. Moreover, their overall feeling is of incompetence when regarding dealing with un-adherent patients. Therefore, maybe there is room for providing dentists and staff with seminars, conventions etc. about the latest novelties on the subject. In conclusion, enhancing dental patient's adherence to health behavior is a domain mainly under the responsibility of the dentist, but also of his staff. As elaborated in the article, the measures for doing so are: 1. Information- the dentist should guide patients about the different methods for maintaining oral hygiene, explain how proper adherence benefits positive treatment outcome, and provide a broad and informative picture of the patient's specific problem. 2. Positive rapport - the need for establishing a good relationship between the doctor and his patients is crucial for attaining effective and satisfactory treatment outcomes. No doubt that this matter depends upon the personality and character of both the doctor and the patient, but using positive verbal reinforcements, symbolic

  20. [Ecological and hygienic condition urbanized area in the geographical center of New Moscow].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, N A

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of ecological and hygienic condition of the environment was performed by ourselves in the geographical center of New Moscow--in the city of Troitsk. There was made an analysis as the published results of similar assessments in the times of the 1990s, data of Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare concerning the control for soils quality (at a single point of the city) and drinking water for 2010-2011, and the author's materials on the chemical contamination of soils and grounds in July 2013. Local foci of moderately dangerous pollution of soil were found at lots close to the motorway and in the Worsted factory: Zc (SrBaCrVNiCoCuAgZnPbBeMoWB) = 17-20, benzo (a) pyrene to 218 mcg/kg and Zn up to 233.4 mg/kg. At the point of monitoring soils complied with the requirements according to toxicological, microbiological and parasitological characteristics.. In the drinking tap water there was observed, along with the increased total hardness, the presence up to 1.6 MAC of such natural pollutants as F and Li. In the undergrounds potable water the situation is worsening according to the content of Si, As, B, Br, U. There was no monitoring of surface water and air. However, pockets of soil contamination trace the possible occurrence in the air near the ground of hygienically dangerous anomalies of heavy metals and hydrocarbons. Modern ecological and sanitary situation in Troitsk, in general, can be considered to be quite safe if compared to the quality of the environment in industrialized cities. The thing that does cause concern is the quality of drinking water. PMID:26031042

  1. [The location of wind-mill electric generating plants: hygienic aspects].

    PubMed

    Kireeva, I S; Dumanskiĭ, Iu D; Semashko, P V

    2009-01-01

    The hygienic aspects of the location of wind-mill electric generating plants become more pressing due to the intensive development of wind-power engineering. Possible risk factors from wind-mill electric generating plants that can influence the environment and the population are considered. A 400-m control area is recommended on the basis of the made calculations of an acoustic and electromagnetic pollution area, an exposure area during emergency situations, as well the field measuring data on noise from wind-mill electric generating plants with a capacity of 20 MW, by applying 100-kW wind-mill electric generating units. Further studies are proposed to improve the differentiated sizes of control areas for wind-mill electric generating plants with wind-mill electric generating units of varying capacity.

  2. [The location of wind-mill electric generating plants: hygienic aspects].

    PubMed

    Kireeva, I S; Dumanskiĭ, Iu D; Semashko, P V

    2009-01-01

    The hygienic aspects of the location of wind-mill electric generating plants become more pressing due to the intensive development of wind-power engineering. Possible risk factors from wind-mill electric generating plants that can influence the environment and the population are considered. A 400-m control area is recommended on the basis of the made calculations of an acoustic and electromagnetic pollution area, an exposure area during emergency situations, as well the field measuring data on noise from wind-mill electric generating plants with a capacity of 20 MW, by applying 100-kW wind-mill electric generating units. Further studies are proposed to improve the differentiated sizes of control areas for wind-mill electric generating plants with wind-mill electric generating units of varying capacity. PMID:20000087

  3. [Main results of scientific researches in oil industry].

    PubMed

    Bakirov, A B; Gimranova, G G

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and hygienic research was carried out in major oil extracting, oil processing and petrochemical enterpirses. Complex of industrial hazards results in occupational diseases of mild and medium severity, in increase of occupationally mediated diseases. The article covers sanitary and epidemiologic evaluation of oil processing and petrochemical products, technical documentation certificates for these products are obtained. PMID:20099388

  4. Video observation of hand hygiene practices during routine companion animal appointments and the effect of a poster intervention on hand hygiene compliance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures in human healthcare settings, but there is little information available regarding hand hygiene frequency and technique used in veterinary clinics. The objectives of this study were to describe hand hygiene practices associated with routine appointments in companion animal clinics in Ontario, and the effectiveness of a poster campaign to improve hand hygiene compliance. Results Observation of hand hygiene practices was performed in 51 clinics for approximately 3 weeks each using 2 small wireless surveillance cameras: one in an exam room, and one in the most likely location for hand hygiene to be performed outside the exam room following an appointment. Data from 38 clinics were included in the final analysis, including 449 individuals, 1139 appointments before and after the poster intervention, and 10894 hand hygiene opportunities. Overall hand hygiene compliance was 14% (1473/10894), while before and after patient contact compliance was 3% (123/4377) and 26% (1145/4377), respectively. Soap and water was used for 87% (1182/1353) of observed hand hygiene attempts with a mean contact time of 4 s (median 2 s, range 1-49 s), while alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) was used for 7% (98/1353) of attempts with a mean contact time of 8 s (median 7 s, range 1-30 s). The presence of the posters had no significant effect on compliance, although some staff reported that they felt the posters did increase their personal awareness of the need to perform hand hygiene, and the posters had some effect on product contact times. Conclusions Overall hand hygiene compliance in veterinary clinics in this study was low, and contact time with hand hygiene products was frequently below current recommendations. Use of ABHR was low despite its advantages over hand washing and availability in the majority of clinics. The poster campaign had a limited effect on its own, but could still be used as a

  5. Oral Hygiene Status of Institutionalised Dependent Elderly in India – a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Khanagar, Sanjeev; Naganandini, S.; Rajanna, Vasuda; Naik, Sachin; Rao, Rekha; Madhuniranjanswamy, M S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Introduction For various reasons, the care demand from elderly people is low and difficult to determine, whereas their oral hygiene status would need urgent care. Objective To assess the oral hygiene status of institutionalized dependent elderly in Bangalore City, India. Methods A cross-sectional study of 322 dependent elderly patients was conducted at seven elderly homes of Bangalore City, India. The oral hygiene status recorded includes dental and prosthetic hygiene. Results The mean Debris Index and Plaque Index scores of dentate elderly were 2.87±0.22 and 3.17±0.40, respectively, the mean Denture Plaque and Denture Stomatitis scores were 3.15±0.47 and 1.43±0.68, respectively. Conclusion The dental hygiene was inadequate. This study emphasizes the care demand and the need for help in oral hygiene procedures for the dependent institutionalized elderly. PMID:26180560

  6. Promoting the role of patients in improving hand hygiene compliance amongst health care workers

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed Awaji, Maryam; Al-Surimi, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the fundamental measures necessary for reducing healthcare-associated infections. The adherence of health care workers to safe hand hygiene practices is low worldwide, despite evidence showing compliance with hand hygiene guidelines decreases infection rate. This project focuses on the role of patients in promoting healthcare workers' compliance with hand hygiene practices. Several plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles were conducted to test interventions which aimed to empower patients and increase staff members' adherence to hand hygiene practices. The initial findings presented on the run chart demonstrate that compliance among healthcare workers increased with the interventions; there was an increase of 15% compliance during the 10 days of project testing. We will need to collect more data to show continued and sustained improvement. Patients can play an important role in promoting safe care and hand hygiene practices. PMID:27493752

  7. Effect of Hand Hygiene on Infectious Disease Risk in the Community Setting: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aiello, Allison E.; Coulborn, Rebecca M.; Perez, Vanessa; Larson, Elaine L.

    2008-01-01

    To quantify the effect of hand-hygiene interventions on rates of gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses and to identify interventions that provide the greatest efficacy, we searched 4 electronic databases for hand-hygiene trials published from January 1960 through May 2007 and conducted meta-analyses to generate pooled rate ratios across interventions (N=30 studies). Improvements in hand hygiene resulted in reductions in gastrointestinal illness of 31% (95% confidence intervals [CI]=19%, 42%) and reductions in respiratory illness of 21% (95% CI=5%, 34%). The most beneficial intervention was hand-hygiene education with use of nonantibacterial soap. Use of antibacterial soap showed little added benefit compared with use of nonantibacterial soap. Hand hygiene is clearly effective against gastrointestinal and, to a lesser extent, respiratory infections. Studies examining hygiene practices during respiratory illness and interventions targeting aerosol transmission are needed. PMID:18556606

  8. Hygiene improvement: essential to improving child health in remote Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Bailie, Ross

    2010-09-01

    It is generally recognised that poor living conditions and poor hygiene underlie the high burden of infection experienced by Indigenous (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander) children living in remote communities. There has been little research on this topic. Taking an ecological approach, our study aimed to identify the key factors contributing to poor hygiene in one remote Aboriginal community and to determine appropriate approaches for improving hygiene and reducing the burden of infection among children. Key findings include that multifaceted interventions are required to ensure that household water and sanitation technology are functional, hygiene behaviour change is achieved and environments that enable good hygiene behaviour are created. Many of the factors contributing to the problem of poor living conditions and poor hygiene in these communities are outside the control of the health system. Intersectoral collaboration and action is required to identify acceptable, effective and sustainable solutions. PMID:20854319

  9. Hygiene improvement: essential to improving child health in remote Aboriginal communities.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Bailie, Ross

    2010-09-01

    It is generally recognised that poor living conditions and poor hygiene underlie the high burden of infection experienced by Indigenous (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander) children living in remote communities. There has been little research on this topic. Taking an ecological approach, our study aimed to identify the key factors contributing to poor hygiene in one remote Aboriginal community and to determine appropriate approaches for improving hygiene and reducing the burden of infection among children. Key findings include that multifaceted interventions are required to ensure that household water and sanitation technology are functional, hygiene behaviour change is achieved and environments that enable good hygiene behaviour are created. Many of the factors contributing to the problem of poor living conditions and poor hygiene in these communities are outside the control of the health system. Intersectoral collaboration and action is required to identify acceptable, effective and sustainable solutions.

  10. Promoting the role of patients in improving hand hygiene compliance amongst health care workers.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Awaji, Maryam; Al-Surimi, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the fundamental measures necessary for reducing healthcare-associated infections. The adherence of health care workers to safe hand hygiene practices is low worldwide, despite evidence showing compliance with hand hygiene guidelines decreases infection rate. This project focuses on the role of patients in promoting healthcare workers' compliance with hand hygiene practices. Several plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles were conducted to test interventions which aimed to empower patients and increase staff members' adherence to hand hygiene practices. The initial findings presented on the run chart demonstrate that compliance among healthcare workers increased with the interventions; there was an increase of 15% compliance during the 10 days of project testing. We will need to collect more data to show continued and sustained improvement. Patients can play an important role in promoting safe care and hand hygiene practices. PMID:27493752

  11. Hygiene and sanitation among ethnic minorities in Northern Vietnam: does government promotion match community priorities?

    PubMed

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2010-09-01

    Improving sanitation and hygiene to prevent infectious diseases is of high priority in developing countries. This study attempts to gain in-depth understanding of hygiene and sanitation perceptions and practices among four Ethnic Minority Groups (EMGs) in a rural area of northern Vietnam. It is based on extensive participatory observations in 4 villages and 20 case households over a period of six months (May-October 2008). In addition, 10 key informants and 60 household-members were interviewed and 4 focus group discussions conducted. The study found that among the four selected EMGs the cultural perceptions of hygiene and sanitation which inform everyday hygiene practices did not differ substantially and were similar to hygiene explanations found in the rural majority population elsewhere in Vietnam. However, the difficult living conditions, particularly in highland communities, reinforce a sense of marginalization among the EMGs, which had great impact on how they perceive and respond to government sanitation interventions. The enclosed latrines promoted by authorities are met with reluctance by the EMGs due to cultural perceptions of the body as permeable and therefore, vulnerable to 'dirty air' such as bad smells from human faeces. In addition, the prioritization of specific sanitation hardware solutions by the central government aimed at increasing coverage creates expectations and dependency among the EMGs that hygiene 'comes from the outside society', resulting in low levels of community initiated actions. Based on these findings, we suggest that future hygiene promotion strategies aim for a closer match between community priorities and government hygiene policies, e.g. by allowing for a larger diversity of low-cost sanitation solutions. Scaling up participatory community-based hygiene promotion is also recommended to curb dependency and spark initiatives in ethnic minority communities. Finally, interventions should focus on hygiene "software

  12. Saving time and resources: observational research to support adoption of a hand hygiene promotion campaign.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Liang, Ming-Ching; Mabry, Amanda; Champlin, Sara; Stroever, Stephanie

    2015-06-01

    Hand hygiene is the most effective way to prevent the spread of health care-associated infections, but many facilities may not have the resources or expertise to develop their own hand hygiene promotion campaign. This observational study demonstrated that a campaign developed for 1 facility could successfully contribute to behavior change at another, unrelated facility. It serves as a model and evidence that health care facilities can successfully adopt hand hygiene promotion campaigns developed and validated at other facilities. PMID:25841650

  13. Chewing xylitol gum improves self-rated and objective indicators of oral health status under conditions interrupting regular oral hygiene.

    PubMed

    Hashiba, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Kenji; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Takeshita, Toru; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Chewing xylitol gum provides oral health benefits including inhibiting Streptococcus mutans plaque. It is thought to be especially effective in conditions where it is difficult to perform daily oral cleaning. Our study aim was to determine the effects of chewing xylitol gum on self-rated and objective oral health status under a condition interfering with oral hygiene maintenance. A randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted on 55 healthy ≥ 20-year-old men recruited from the Japan Ground Self Defense Force who were undergoing field training. Participants were randomly assigned to a test group (chewing gum; n = 27) or a control group (no gum; n = 28) and the researchers were blinded to the group assignments. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores of oral conditions subjectively evaluated oral health, and the stimulated salivary bacteria quantity objectively evaluated oral health 1 day before field training (baseline) and 4 days after the beginning of field training (follow-up). VAS scores of all three oral conditions significantly increased in the control group (malodor: p < 0.001; discomfort: p < 0.001; dryness: p < 0.001), but only two VAS scores increased in the test group (malodor: p = 0.021; discomfort: p = 0.002). The number of salivary total bacteria significantly increased in the control group (p < 0.01), while no significant change was observed in the test group (p = 0.668). Chewing xylitol gum positively affects self-rated and objective oral health status by controlling oral hygiene under conditions that interfere with oral hygiene maintenance. PMID:25744362

  14. Problems of equipment creation for hygienic treatment of textiles (underwear, garments, hygienic towels and napkins) for long-term space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumilina, I.

    Impossibility of just in time stocks delivery to the International Space Station ISS because of Shuttle space flights absence has led to forced changing of standards of underwear garments and personal hygiene means using Therefore hygienic treatment of textiles underwear garments towels and napkins are necessary for long-term space flight missions Investigations into the ways of cosmonauts sanitary -- hygienic supply are prepared The resent equipment means and methods of cosmonauts sanitary -- hygienic supply were created for space flight conditions with an opportunity of stocks updating This investigations are confirm necessity of new generation system creation for cosmonauts sanitary -- hygienic supply and special designing of hygienic treatment laundry drying equipment and technologies for long-term space flights without an opportunity of stocks updating in particular for martian mission One from main requirements for equipment means and methods of cosmonauts sanitary -- hygienic supply is full safety for human organisms under systematic and long-term application in space flight conditions small energy consumption and combining with space Life-Support Systems Method and program of experimental investigations of textiles laundry with application of washing means for long-term space flight conditions are prepared It is necessary to estimate opportunity and efficiency of washing means application for textiles laundry for space flight missions also to estimate compatibility of washing means for textiles laundry and for washing

  15. The Role of Sleep Hygiene in Promoting Public Health: A Review of Empirical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Irish, Leah A.; Kline, Christopher E.; Gunn, Heather E.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Hall, Martica H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The ineffectiveness of sleep hygiene as a treatment in clinical sleep medicine has raised some interesting questions. If it is known that, individually, each specific component of sleep hygiene is related to sleep, why wouldn't addressing multiple individual components (i.e., sleep hygiene education) result in improved sleep? Is there still a use for sleep hygiene? Global public health concern over poor sleep has increased the demand for effective sleep promotion strategies that are easily accessible to the general population. However, the extent to which sleep hygiene principles and strategies apply outside of clinical settings is not well known. The present review sought to evaluate the empirical evidence for several common sleep hygiene recommendations, including regular exercise, stress management, noise reduction, sleep timing regularity, and avoidance of caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, and daytime napping, with a particular emphasis on their public health utility. Thus, our review is not intended to be exhaustive regarding the clinical application of these techniques, but rather to focus on broader applications. Overall, though epidemiologic and experimental research generally supported an association between individual sleep hygiene recommendations and nocturnal sleep, the direct effects of individual recommendations on sleep remains largely untested in the general population. Suggestions for further clarification of sleep hygiene recommendations and considerations for the use of sleep hygiene in nonclinical populations are discussed. PMID:25454674

  16. Behaviour change for better health: nutrition, hygiene and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Newson, Rachel S; Lion, Rene; Crawford, Robert J; Curtis, Valerie; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Feunekes, Gerda I J; Hicks, Cheryl; van Liere, Marti; Lowe, C Fergus; Meijer, Gert W; Pradeep, B V; Reddy, K Srinath; Sidibe, Myriam; Uauy, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    As the global population grows there is a clear challenge to address the needs of consumers, without depleting natural resources and whilst helping to improve nutrition and hygiene to reduce the growth of noncommunicable diseases. For fast-moving consumer goods companies, like Unilever, this challenge provides a clear opportunity to reshape its business to a model that decouples growth from a negative impact on natural resources and health. However, this change in the business model also requires a change in consumer behaviour. In acknowledgement of this challenge Unilever organised a symposium entitled 'Behaviour Change for Better Health: Nutrition, Hygiene and Sustainability'. The intention was to discuss how consumers can be motivated to live a more healthy and sustainable lifestlye in today's environment. This article summarises the main conclusions of the presentations given at the symposium. Three main topics were discussed. In the first session, key experts discussed how demographic changes - particularly in developing and emerging countries - imply the need for consumer behaviour change. The second session focused on the use of behaviour change theory to design, implement and evaluate interventions, and the potential role of (new or reformulated) products as agents of change. In the final session, key issues were discussed regarding the use of collaborations to increase the impact and reach, and to decrease the costs, of interventions. The symposium highlighted a number of key scientific challenges for Unilever and other parties that have set nutrition, hygiene and sustainability as key priorities. The key challenges include: adapting behaviour change approaches to cultures in developing and emerging economies; designing evidence-based behaviour change interventions, in which products can play a key role as agents of change; and scaling up behaviour change activities in cost-effective ways, which requires a new mindset involving public-private partnerships.

  17. Sleep Hygiene and Recovery Strategies in Elite Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Nédélec, Mathieu; Halson, Shona; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset; Ahmaidi, Said; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    In elite soccer, players are frequently exposed to various situations and conditions that can interfere with sleep (e.g., playing night matches interspersed with 3 days; performing activities demanding high levels of concentration close to bedtime; use of products containing caffeine or alcohol in the period preceding bedtime; regular daytime napping throughout the week; variable wake-up times or bedtime), potentially leading to sleep deprivation. We outline simple, practical, and pharmaceutical-free sleep strategies that are coordinated to the constraints of elite soccer in order to promote sleep. Sleep deprivation is best alleviated by sleep extension; however, sleep hygiene strategies (i.e., consistent sleep pattern, appropriate napping, and active daytime behaviors) can be utilized to promote restorative sleep. Light has a profound impact on sleep, and sleep hygiene strategies that support the natural environmental light-dark cycle (i.e., red-light treatment prior to sleep, dawn-simulation therapy prior to waking) and prevent cycle disruption (i.e., filtering short wavelengths prior to sleep) may be beneficial to elite soccer players. Under conditions of inordinate stress, techniques such as brainwave entrainment and meditation are promising sleep-promoting strategies, but future studies are required to ascertain the applicability of these techniques to elite soccer players. Consuming high-electrolyte fluids such as milk, high-glycemic index carbohydrates, some forms of protein immediately prior to sleep, as well as tart cherry juice concentrate and tryptophan may promote rehydration, substrate stores replenishment, muscle-damage repair and/or restorative sleep. The influence of cold water immersion performed close to bedtime on subsequent sleep is still debated. Conversely, the potential detrimental effects of sleeping medication must be recognized. Sleep initiation is influenced by numerous factors, reinforcing the need for future research to identify such

  18. Behaviour change for better health: nutrition, hygiene and sustainability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    As the global population grows there is a clear challenge to address the needs of consumers, without depleting natural resources and whilst helping to improve nutrition and hygiene to reduce the growth of noncommunicable diseases. For fast-moving consumer goods companies, like Unilever, this challenge provides a clear opportunity to reshape its business to a model that decouples growth from a negative impact on natural resources and health. However, this change in the business model also requires a change in consumer behaviour. In acknowledgement of this challenge Unilever organised a symposium entitled ‘Behaviour Change for Better Health: Nutrition, Hygiene and Sustainability’. The intention was to discuss how consumers can be motivated to live a more healthy and sustainable lifestlye in today’s environment. This article summarises the main conclusions of the presentations given at the symposium. Three main topics were discussed. In the first session, key experts discussed how demographic changes – particularly in developing and emerging countries – imply the need for consumer behaviour change. The second session focused on the use of behaviour change theory to design, implement and evaluate interventions, and the potential role of (new or reformulated) products as agents of change. In the final session, key issues were discussed regarding the use of collaborations to increase the impact and reach, and to decrease the costs, of interventions. The symposium highlighted a number of key scientific challenges for Unilever and other parties that have set nutrition, hygiene and sustainability as key priorities. The key challenges include: adapting behaviour change approaches to cultures in developing and emerging economies; designing evidence-based behaviour change interventions, in which products can play a key role as agents of change; and scaling up behaviour change activities in cost-effective ways, which requires a new mindset involving public

  19. Hygiene factors associated with childhood food allergy and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anne Marie; Walkner, Madeline; Caruso, Deanna; Bryce, Paul J.; Wang, Xiaobin; Pongracic, Jacqueline A.; Smith, Bridget M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood food allergy and asthma rates are increasing. The hygiene hypothesis has been proposed as an explanation for the increased incidence of allergic disease. Objective: To describe the association of childhood food allergy and asthma with hygiene factors, such as the number of siblings, antibiotic use, infection history, pet exposure, child care exposure, and maternal–child factors. Methods: Children ages 0–21 years old (N = 1359) were recruited for a cross-sectional family-based study, including children with food allergy and children without food allergy, and their siblings. We assessed the associations between childhood food allergy and asthma with hygiene factors. Results: Of the 1359 children, 832 (61.2%) had food allergy, and 406 (30%) had asthma. In the adjusted analysis, the prevalence of food allergy was increased if there was a history of skin infection (prevalence ratio [RRR] 1.12 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01–1.24]) or eczema (RRR 1.89 [95% CI, 1.70–2.10]). The prevalence of asthma was increased with a history of respiratory syncytial virus infection (RRR 1.60 [95% CI, 1.34–1.90]) or eczema (RRR 1.54 [95% CI, 1.27–1.86]). A greater number of siblings were associated with a decreased prevalence of food allergy (RRR 0.79 [95% CI, 0.75–0.84]) and asthma (RRR 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74–0.91]). Conclusion: Our findings supported the accumulating evidence of an association between skin infections and eczema with food allergy. Because these results could be subject to recall bias, additional prospective studies are needed to substantiate these findings.

  20. Sleep Hygiene and Recovery Strategies in Elite Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Nédélec, Mathieu; Halson, Shona; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset; Ahmaidi, Said; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    In elite soccer, players are frequently exposed to various situations and conditions that can interfere with sleep (e.g., playing night matches interspersed with 3 days; performing activities demanding high levels of concentration close to bedtime; use of products containing caffeine or alcohol in the period preceding bedtime; regular daytime napping throughout the week; variable wake-up times or bedtime), potentially leading to sleep deprivation. We outline simple, practical, and pharmaceutical-free sleep strategies that are coordinated to the constraints of elite soccer in order to promote sleep. Sleep deprivation is best alleviated by sleep extension; however, sleep hygiene strategies (i.e., consistent sleep pattern, appropriate napping, and active daytime behaviors) can be utilized to promote restorative sleep. Light has a profound impact on sleep, and sleep hygiene strategies that support the natural environmental light-dark cycle (i.e., red-light treatment prior to sleep, dawn-simulation therapy prior to waking) and prevent cycle disruption (i.e., filtering short wavelengths prior to sleep) may be beneficial to elite soccer players. Under conditions of inordinate stress, techniques such as brainwave entrainment and meditation are promising sleep-promoting strategies, but future studies are required to ascertain the applicability of these techniques to elite soccer players. Consuming high-electrolyte fluids such as milk, high-glycemic index carbohydrates, some forms of protein immediately prior to sleep, as well as tart cherry juice concentrate and tryptophan may promote rehydration, substrate stores replenishment, muscle-damage repair and/or restorative sleep. The influence of cold water immersion performed close to bedtime on subsequent sleep is still debated. Conversely, the potential detrimental effects of sleeping medication must be recognized. Sleep initiation is influenced by numerous factors, reinforcing the need for future research to identify such

  1. Contact lens hygiene compliance and lens case contamination: A review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yvonne Tzu-Ying; Willcox, Mark; Zhu, Hua; Stapleton, Fiona

    2015-10-01

    A contaminated contact lens case can act as a reservoir for microorganisms that could potentially compromise contact lens wear and lead to sight threatening adverse events. The rate, level and profile of microbial contamination in lens cases, compliance and other risk factors associated with lens case contamination, and the challenges currently faced in this field are discussed. The rate of lens case contamination is commonly over 50%. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens are frequently recovered from lens cases. In addition, we provide suggestions regarding how to clean contact lens cases and improve lens wearers' compliance as well as future lens case design for reducing lens case contamination. This review highlights the challenges in reducing the level of microbial contamination which require an industry wide approach.

  2. [Visual hygiene in LED lighting. Modern scientific imaginations].

    PubMed

    Deynego, V N; Kaptsov, V A

    2014-01-01

    There are considered a classic and modern paradigm of perception of light and its impact on human health. To consider the perception of light as a complex self-organizing synergistic system of compression of information in the process of its sequencing was supposed. This allowed to develop a complex of interrelated measures, which may become the basis for modern hygiene, and determine requirements for the led lamp with biologically adequate spectrum of the light, for which there were obtained patents in Russia, Europe and USA.

  3. The Hygiene Hypothesis and Its Inconvenient Truths about Helminth Infections.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Neima; Weatherhead, Jill; Sastry, K Jagannadha; Hotez, Peter J

    2016-09-01

    Current iterations of the hygiene hypothesis suggest an adaptive role for helminth parasites in shaping the proper maturation of the immune system. However, aspects of this hypothesis are based on assumptions that may not fully account for realities about human helminth infections. Such realities include evidence of causal associations between helminth infections and asthma or inflammatory bowel disease as well as the fact that helminth infections remain widespread in the United States, especially among populations at greatest risk for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. PMID:27632204

  4. [The organic carbon--issues of hygienic regulation and harmonization].

    PubMed

    Kuz'mina, E A; Kuznetsov, E O; Smagina, N V; Slyshkina, T V; Akramov, R L; Brusnitsina, L A; Nitsak, G B; Nikonova, S V

    2013-01-01

    This study is devoted to the investigation of possibility to use the total organic carbon as regulated index in drinking water as well as to the issues of hygienic regulation and harmonizing this index with the standards of other countries. Basing on the results of 3 years lasting investigation carried out by Municipal Unitary Enterprise "Vodokanal" of Yekaterinburg city permits to propose as the most informative and reliable index of the presence of organic substances in drinking water the content of total organic carbon in comparison with currently regulated permanganate oxidability, chemical and biochemical oxygen consumption.

  5. [Fungal contamination of dwelling and public buildings: hygienic aspects].

    PubMed

    Gubernskiĭ, Iu D; Nel'nikova, A I; Kalinina, N V; Chuprina, O V

    2010-01-01

    Dwelling and public buildings underwent comprehensive hygienic studies for fungal contamination. Human allergization associated with fungal contamination within the building envelopes and with the viable fungal spores in the air of enclosed spaces was found to be prevalent. The leading factors determining the extent to which the internal environment of premises was exposed to fungal contamination: their increased air humidity due to leakages and inlets, the affected area of building envelopes, and a temperature factor were revealed. The criteria showing it necessary to undertake specific measures to optimize the living conditions of the population were defined.

  6. [Bacteriological control of various methods of sewage sludge hygienization].

    PubMed

    Breer, C

    1983-09-01

    As a result of extensive parallel investigations in a water treatment plant it was found that the fresh sludge pasteurization or prepasteurization with ensuing sludge digestion gives a product which is unobjectionable from an epidemiological hygienic point of view. The result were confirmed by investigations in a second plant. Similarly satisfactory results were obtained with the composting of previously desiccated sludge, with the aerobic-thermophilic fermentation of liquid sludge or with the drying of sewage sludge. An alternative to these thermal processes is the application of gamma rays or accelerated electrons. PMID:6649990

  7. Hand hygiene is crucial to combat Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    Patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) can contaminate the environment with spores that are able to survive for months. A previous room occupant with CDI is a significant risk factor for developing the infection. Room cleaning with commonly used disinfectants will not kill spores. Sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide are effective but correct concentration and contact time are important. Hand hygiene is a crucial element in preventing infection. In the UK, there is a clear recommendation for handwashing, rather than alcohol-based hand rub, when caring for patients with CDI. PMID:25258234

  8. [HYGIENIC DIAGNOSIS--A KEY ELEMENT IN THE HEALTH-PREVENTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE POPULATION RESIDING IN CONDITIONS OF HIGHER CHEMICAL LOAD].

    PubMed

    Kuz'mina, E A

    2015-01-01

    This article is devoted to the review of methods and technologies of hygienic diagnostics implemented in the frameworks of the regional system of socio-hygienic monitoring for the Sverdlovsk Region for the purposes of the management ofthe quality ofenvironment and the state ofthe population's health. Under conditions of impossibility to take immediate performance of radical technological and technical measures mitigating adverse effects of industries and road transport on the living environment and due to limitation of financial expenses, the proposed algorithm of actions helps to establish priority factors, environmental objects, and routes ofexposure, evaluate predicted values of a multiple environmental assessment of health risk, specify dose-response relations in environmental epidemiological studies, substantiate the choice of the most susceptible groups of population, for which the implementation of targeted rehabilitation gives the significant medical and economic efficiency.

  9. Microbial Contamination and Hygiene of Fresh Cow's Milk Produced by Smallholders in Western Zambia.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, Theodore J D; Hang'ombe, M Bernard; Songe, Mwansa M; Sinkala, Yona; Grace, Delia

    2016-01-01

    A field study was performed to assess safety of smallholder fresh cow's milk around Mongu, Western Province, Zambia. This involved observation and sampling of milk along the value chain from milking to point-of-sale and storage. Samples were collected from 86 cows, from 9 farmers, selling through two dairy cooperatives, with additional samples from informal markets. Production was very low; around one litre/day/cow and 10 L/day/herd. The milk was typically transported by bicycle in high ambient temperatures without refrigeration until reaching the point-of-sale (journey times of 30-120 min), where it was sold without pasteurisation despite milk-borne zoonoses being endemic (bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and Brucellosis). Although microbiological contamination was initially low, with geometric mean total bacterial count (TBC) of 425 cfu/mL (cfu = colony forming units) upon arrival at point-of-sale, poor hygiene led to high bacterial loads later on (geometric mean TBC > 600,000 cfu/mL after two days refrigeration), with almost all samples culture positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After milking, milk was kept for 100-223 min at temperatures favouring microbial growth (median 34 °C) and sold without a microbial kill step. In this situation limited variation in observed standards of milk hygiene had no significant effect on milk end-product bacterial counts. Options for refrigerated transport are limited. Pasteurisation at the cooperative should be investigated, as this would largely remove pathogenic microbes present in the milk whether resulting from cattle infection or poor hygiene during milking and transportation. As milk is also purchased directly from producers, on-farm milk heating options should also be assessed. Smallholders may benefit from access to national markets by providing milk to large dairies, which have systems for ensuring safety. However, this requires significant investment and an increased and more consistent supply of milk

  10. Microbial Contamination and Hygiene of Fresh Cow’s Milk Produced by Smallholders in Western Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Jones, Theodore J.D.; Hang’ombe, M. Bernard; Songe, Mwansa M.; Sinkala, Yona; Grace, Delia

    2016-01-01

    A field study was performed to assess safety of smallholder fresh cow’s milk around Mongu, Western Province, Zambia. This involved observation and sampling of milk along the value chain from milking to point-of-sale and storage. Samples were collected from 86 cows, from 9 farmers, selling through two dairy cooperatives, with additional samples from informal markets. Production was very low; around one litre/day/cow and 10 L/day/herd. The milk was typically transported by bicycle in high ambient temperatures without refrigeration until reaching the point-of-sale (journey times of 30–120 min), where it was sold without pasteurisation despite milk-borne zoonoses being endemic (bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and Brucellosis). Although microbiological contamination was initially low, with geometric mean total bacterial count (TBC) of 425 cfu/mL (cfu = colony forming units) upon arrival at point-of-sale, poor hygiene led to high bacterial loads later on (geometric mean TBC > 600,000 cfu/mL after two days refrigeration), with almost all samples culture positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After milking, milk was kept for 100–223 min at temperatures favouring microbial growth (median 34 °C) and sold without a microbial kill step. In this situation limited variation in observed standards of milk hygiene had no significant effect on milk end-product bacterial counts. Options for refrigerated transport are limited. Pasteurisation at the cooperative should be investigated, as this would largely remove pathogenic microbes present in the milk whether resulting from cattle infection or poor hygiene during milking and transportation. As milk is also purchased directly from producers, on-farm milk heating options should also be assessed. Smallholders may benefit from access to national markets by providing milk to large dairies, which have systems for ensuring safety. However, this requires significant investment and an increased and more consistent supply of

  11. Recruitment of Dental Hygiene Students from Underrepresented Minority Groups: A National Survey of U.S. Dental Hygiene Programs.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jennifer M; Kinney, Janet S; Inglehart, Marita R

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how U.S. undergraduate dental hygiene programs recruit students, especially students from underrepresented minority (URM) groups, and how the program directors value recruiting those students, how satisfied they are with their efforts, which practices they use, and which challenges they encounter. Relationships between diversity-related recruitment motivation and satisfaction and the program and recruitment characteristics were also explored. Survey data were collected from 56 of the 287 programs that could be successfully contacted with individual emails to their directors (response rate: 20%). The majority of responding programs recruited students into their programs by using written materials (91%), websites (91%), on-campus events (77%), and high school visits (52%). However, only 20% had written materials and 13% special events for recruiting students from URM groups. While 75% of the responding program directors considered high grade point averages (GPAs) to be a priority and 85% thought high GPAs were important/very important when recruiting students, only 17% considered it a priority to recruit URM students, and only 35% reported thinking it was important/very important to do so. The more of a priority it was to have a diverse student body and the more important the respondents considered it, the more likely they were to have written URM-specific recruitment materials (r=0.34; p<0.05/r=0.39; p<0.01). The more the respondents valued ACT scores, the less likely they were to engage in URM-specific recruitment efforts (r=-0.38; p<0.05/r=-0.34; p<0.05). If the dental hygiene profession is to better reflect the racial/ethnic makeup of the U.S. population, dental hygiene programs' considerations and efforts related to the recruitment of URM students need to be reconsidered. PMID:26427776

  12. Recruitment of Dental Hygiene Students from Underrepresented Minority Groups: A National Survey of U.S. Dental Hygiene Programs.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jennifer M; Kinney, Janet S; Inglehart, Marita R

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how U.S. undergraduate dental hygiene programs recruit students, especially students from underrepresented minority (URM) groups, and how the program directors value recruiting those students, how satisfied they are with their efforts, which practices they use, and which challenges they encounter. Relationships between diversity-related recruitment motivation and satisfaction and the program and recruitment characteristics were also explored. Survey data were collected from 56 of the 287 programs that could be successfully contacted with individual emails to their directors (response rate: 20%). The majority of responding programs recruited students into their programs by using written materials (91%), websites (91%), on-campus events (77%), and high school visits (52%). However, only 20% had written materials and 13% special events for recruiting students from URM groups. While 75% of the responding program directors considered high grade point averages (GPAs) to be a priority and 85% thought high GPAs were important/very important when recruiting students, only 17% considered it a priority to recruit URM students, and only 35% reported thinking it was important/very important to do so. The more of a priority it was to have a diverse student body and the more important the respondents considered it, the more likely they were to have written URM-specific recruitment materials (r=0.34; p<0.05/r=0.39; p<0.01). The more the respondents valued ACT scores, the less likely they were to engage in URM-specific recruitment efforts (r=-0.38; p<0.05/r=-0.34; p<0.05). If the dental hygiene profession is to better reflect the racial/ethnic makeup of the U.S. population, dental hygiene programs' considerations and efforts related to the recruitment of URM students need to be reconsidered.

  13. Hygienic behavior in honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae): effects of brood, food, and time of the year.

    PubMed

    Bigio, Gianluigi; Schürch, Roger; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2013-12-01

    Hygienic behavior in honey bees is a heritable trait of individual workers that confers colony-level resistance against various brood diseases. Hygienic workers detect and remove dead or diseased brood from sealed cells. However, this behavior is quite rare, with only c.10% of unselected colonies showing high levels of hygiene. Beekeepers can potentially increase this by screening colonies for hygiene and breeding from the best. However, the level of hygiene expressed by a colony is variable, which poses a challenge to colony selection. In this study, we systematically varied two factors thought to be of importance in influencing hygiene levels, "nectar" availability, by feeding or not feeding sucrose syrup, and brood amount, by adding or removing brood, to determine what effect they had on hygienic behavior. We tested 19 colonies repeatedly over a 4-mo period using the freeze-killed brood assay, a standard technique to quantify hygienic behavior. Two days after freeze-killed brood treatment, our colonies showed a wide range of brood removal levels, with colony means ranging from 31.7 +/- 22.5 to 93 +/- 6.9 (mean % +/- SD). Neither the food nor the brood manipulation had an effect on hygiene levels. Colony size and time of year were also nonsignificant. The only significant effect was a three-way interaction between syrup availability, amount of brood, and time of the year, resulting in reduced hygienic behavior early in the season (spring), in colonies with added brood that were not fed sucrose syrup. Overall, these results suggest that hygienic behavior is not greatly affected by environmental conditions typical of a real-life beekeeping, and that screening of colonies can be done anytime without special regard to nectar conditions or brood levels. PMID:24498725

  14. [Oral hygiene behaviour of a group of healthy students].

    PubMed

    Al-Maliky, S; Hennequin-Hoenderdos, N L; Slot, D E; van der Sluijs, E; Keijser, B J F; van der Weijden, G A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to get a picture of the daily oral hygiene behaviour of a group of healthy Dutch students in the age range of 18 to 30 years and its relation to oral health. On the basis of a questionnaire, the students were interviewed concerning their oral hygiene behaviour. The level of gingivitis and the level of tongue coating were analysed in relation to the results of the questionnaire. The study revealed that the majority brushed their teeth twice a day. The different methods of tooth brushing and the use of a manual or electric toothbrush had no significant effect on the clinical parameters in this study population. A small group used an interdental cleaning method daily. The toothpick was the aid most often used and its use resulted in a significant reduction of the tendency to interdental bleeding. The use of a tongue cleaner had no statistically significant effect on the level of tongue coating. PMID:27275660

  15. International Space Station USOS Waste and Hygiene Compartment Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Gelmis, Karen; Philistine, Cynthia; Balistreri, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides human waste collection and hygiene facilities in the Russian Segment Service Module (SM) which supports a three person crew. Additional hardware is planned for the United States Operational Segment (USOS) to support expansion of the crew to six person capability. The additional hardware will be integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure that was planned to be installed in the Node 3 element; however, the ISS Program Office recently directed implementation of the rack, or Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), into the U.S. Laboratory element to provide early operational capability. In this configuration, preserved urine from the WHC waste collection system can be processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) in either the U.S. Lab or Node 3 to recover water for crew consumption or oxygen production. The human waste collection hardware is derived from the Service Module system and is provided by RSC-Energia. This paper describes the concepts, design, and integration of the WHC waste collection hardware into the USOS including integration with U.S. Lab and Node 3 systems.

  16. Status of the International Space Station Waste and Hygiene Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Stephanie; Zahner, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) serves as the primary system for removal and containment of metabolic waste and hygiene activities on board the United States segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The WHC was launched on ULF 2 and is currently in the U.S. Laboratory and is integrated into the Water Recovery System (WRS) where pretreated urine is processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The waste collection part of the WHC system is derived from the Service Module system and was provided by RSC-Energia along with additional hardware to allow for urine delivery to the UPA. The System has been integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure for use on the U.S. segment of the ISS. The system has experienced several events of interest during the deployment, checkout, and operation of the system during its first year of use and these will be covered in this paper. Design and on-orbit performance will also be discussed.

  17. CFD Model of Water Droplet Transport for ISS Hygiene Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Chang H.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the study is to assess the impacts of free water propagation in the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). Free water can be generated inside the WHC in small quantities due to crew hygiene activity. To mitigate potential impact of free water in Node 3 cabin the WHC doorway is enclosed by a waterproof bump-out, Kabin, with openings at the top and bottom. At the overhead side of the rack, there is a screen that prevents large drops of water from exiting. However, as the avionics fan in the WHC causes airflow toward the deck side of the rack, small quantities of free water may exit at the bottom of the Kabin. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of Node 3 cabin airflow made possible to identify the paths of water transport. The Node 3 airflow was computed for several ventilation scenarios. To simulate the droplet transport the Lagrangian discrete phase approach was used. Various initial droplet distributions were considered in the study. The droplet diameter was varied in the range of 2-20 mm. The results of the computations showed that most of the drops fall to the rack surface not far from the WHC curtain. The probability of the droplet transport to the adjacent rack surface with electronic equipment was predicted.

  18. [Hygienic requirements for work organization of full-day schools].

    PubMed

    Stepanova, M I; Sazaniuk, Z I; Voronova, B Z; Aleksandrova, I E; Berezina, N O; Laponova, E D; Lashneva, I P; Polenova, M A; Sedova, A S; Shumkova, T V

    2009-01-01

    Physiological and hygienic studies under the conditions of a natural hygienic experiment were conducted to examine different variants of the organization of work of new types of general educational establishments--full-day schools. Over 580 pupils from 5 full-day schools were followed up. Organization of teaching children at full-day schools was found to mainly correspond to the age-related capabilities of pupils from primary and secondary classes. Of vital importance for maintenance of mental performance, good emotional and psychosomatic states are the organization of the intraschool environment, including a school plot, as well as the conditions for realization of additional education, motor activity of children, and recess. Health keeping in pupils from full-day schools is favored by the reduction in the duration of lessons to 35 minutes and day sleep for first-form children, the decrease in the number of pupils in a class, outdoor physical exercises in the middle of a school day (a primary school) and strolls after lessons, three meals a day, balanced additional education, medicopsychological accompaniment, optimization of studies and rest in children during a school year. PMID:19514287

  19. Is the Hygiene Hypothesis an Example of Hormesis?

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, John A.; Lewis, R. Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    The “hygiene hypothesis” has been suggested to explain the rising incidence of allergic disorders in developed countries. The postulated mechanism is that infectious and/or microbial agents stimulate the immune system toward Th1 (allergy fighting) rather than Th2 (allergy promoting) response. This paper reviews the evidence related to early life infectious/microbial exposures and subsequent atopic disorders and evaluates whether these data suggest a hormetic effect. Our review indicates an insufficient and contradictory association for bacterial/viral infections, with protective effects being either absent or specific to certain infections and/or populations. Chronic, heavy parasitic burdens appear to confer protection against atopic disorders, but are associated with considerable pathology. Moreover, light parasitic burden may increase allergic responses (i.e., no “low dose” beneficial effect). In contrast, there is consistent evidence that general microbial exposures, particularly gut commensals, may be protective against allergy development, which is consistent with a hormetic effect (i.e., potentially beneficial effects at low doses and detrimental effects at high levels). Conclusion: General microbial exposures in relation to the “hygiene hypothesis” may represent a hormetic effect, although further research with more rigorous study methods (i.e., prospective designs and measurement of exposure timing, dose, route, etc.) are needed. PMID:19330119

  20. Dental visits, oral hygiene behaviour, and orthodontic treatment in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Stadelmann, Pascale; Zemp, Elisabeth; Weiss, Carine; Weiger, Roland; Menghini, Giorgio; Zitzmann, Nicola U

    2012-01-01

    Since the first survey in 1992/93, the Swiss Health Survey (SHS) has been repeated every 5 years (1997, 2002 and 2007). In the present study, dental visits (dental care utilisation within the last 12 months), oral hygiene measures and the frequency of orthodontic treatments in the Swiss population in 2002 were examined and dental visits were compared with the years 1992/93, 1997 and 2007. Weighted data were analysed regarding different sociodemographic factors. From 1992 to 2002, dental visits among the 15-74-year-old declined continuously (1992/93: 70%, 1997: 66%, 2002: 63%), whereas in 2007 a slight increase (66%) was documented. In the survey from 2002, a large proportion (74%) of the population stated to clean their teeth or prostheses several times a day, predominantly with a manual toothbrush, whereas 28% applied an electric toothbrush and almost half of the respondents also used dental floss or toothpicks. Fewer visits and less intensive oral hygiene measures were observed among the elderly, men, weak social strata, smokers, persons with more than 8 missing teeth and in the group with removable dentures. Almost a quarter of the population had orthodontic treatment with the highest proportion among the 15-24-year-old (56%).