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Sample records for industrial hygiene field

  1. Industrial Hygiene Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brisbin, Steven G.

    1999-01-01

    This breakout session is a traditional conference instrument used by the NASA industrial hygiene personnel as a method to convene personnel across the Agency with common interests. This particular session focused on two key topics, training systems and automation of industrial hygiene data. During the FY 98 NASA Occupational Health Benchmarking study, the training system under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was deemed to represent a "best business practice." The EPA has invested extensively in the development of computer based training covering a broad range of safety, health and environmental topics. Currently, five compact disks have been developed covering the topics listed: Safety, Health and Environmental Management Training for Field Inspection Activities; EPA Basic Radiation Training Safety Course; The OSHA 600 Collateral Duty Safety and Health Course; and Key program topics in environmental compliance, health and safety. Mr. Chris Johnson presented an overview of the EPA compact disk-based training system and answered questions on its deployment and use across the EPA. This training system has also recently been broadly distributed across other Federal Agencies. The EPA training system is considered "public domain" and, as such, is available to NASA at no cost in its current form. Copies of the five CD set of training programs were distributed to each NASA Center represented in the breakout session. Mr. Brisbin requested that each NASA Center review the training materials and determine whether there is interest in using the materials as it is or requesting that EPA tailor the training modules to suit NASA's training program needs. The Safety, Health and Medical Services organization at Ames Research Center has completed automation of several key program areas. Mr. Patrick Hogan, Safety Program Manager for Ames Research Center, presented a demonstration of the automated systems, which are described by the following: (1) Safety

  2. Industrial hygiene forum

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, O.M.; Hoiem, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    On routine blood tests, two employees of a hospital Dental Service unit had elevated mercury levels. On 23 June 1986, an industrial hygienist made a mercury vapor survey of the area with the use of Jerome direct reading mercury vapor meter and collection on mercury vapor sampling tubes for laboratory analysis by flameless atomic absorption. No work practices were observed that would account for the elevated mercury levels in the blood. All airborne mercury levels were well below detectable limits. A box of Monoject purple top blood collection tubes used for collection of blood for mercury determination was examined. The box listed sodium ethylmercurithiosalicylate as the antimicrobial agent additive. The use of a mercurial preservative on samples for mercury determinations seemed totally inappropriate. Mercury vapor measurements that were made inside these tubes clearly indicated the presence of mercury.

  3. Industrial Hygiene Laboratory accreditation: The JSC experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadner, Dawn E.

    1993-01-01

    The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) is a society of professionals dedicated to the health and safety of workers and community. With more than 10,000 members, the AIHA is the largest international association serving occupational and environmental health professionals practicing industrial hygiene in private industry, academia, government, labor, and independent organizations. In 1973, AIHA developed a National Industrial Hygiene Laboratory Accreditation Program. The purposes of this program are shown.

  4. Industrial hygiene of selected heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, J.L.

    1993-08-01

    The industrial hygiene of heavy metals consists of recognition, evaluation, and control of exposures in the occupational environment. Several of these metals have been in use since ancient times. Reports of health effects and poisonings from overexposures also have a long history. This report discusses the industrial hygiene of the heavy metals, lead, cadmium, mercury, and manganese.

  5. Application of industrial hygiene techniques for work-place exposure assessment protocols related to petro-chemical exploration and production field activities

    SciTech Connect

    Koehn, J.

    1995-12-31

    Standard industrial hygiene techniques for recognition, evaluation, and control can be directly applied to development of technical protocols for workplace exposure assessment activities for a variety of field site locations. Categories of occupational hazards include chemical and physical agents. Examples of these types of hazards directly related to oil and gas exploration and production workplaces include hydrocarbons, benzene, oil mist, hydrogen sulfide, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), asbestos-containing materials, and noise. Specific components of well process chemicals include potential hazardous chemical substances such as methanol, acrolein, chlorine dioxide, and hydrochloric acid. Other types of exposure hazards may result from non-routine conduct of sandblasting and painting operations.

  6. Assessing outcomes of industrial hygiene graduate education.

    PubMed

    Brosseau, Lisa; Fredrickson, Ann

    2009-05-01

    To ensure that industrial hygiene professionals continue to be prepared for current and future trends, it is important to regularly assess the value of their education. Described here are the results of discussions with employers and a mailed survey of graduates. Comparisons are made with past mailed surveys of both groups. Two sets of discussions were held in late 2005 with employers of industrial hygienists and other health and safety professionals. Twenty-eight participants were asked to discuss current and future needs for professionals in their organization and economic sector, their expectations for knowledge and skills when hiring professionals, methods for finding and hiring, and the importance of ABET accreditation. At the same time, a survey was mailed to 71 industrial hygiene students graduating in the last 15 years. Respondents were asked to rank the value of and their proficiency in 42 competencies. Questions also assessed employment experience, certification, the importance of ABET accreditation, and demographic characteristics. There was a lot of agreement between the two stakeholder groups (employers and graduates) about the most important skill and knowledge areas. Most employers identified communicating effectively and exposure assessment among the most important skills, with designing and initiating research as among the least. Hazard recognition, exposure measurement principles, and personal protective equipment were the most highly ranked knowledge areas. Employers discussed the need for good "business skills" such as teamwork, communication, and project management, and the importance of problem-solving skills. Graduates reported that skills in the areas of recognition, evaluation, and control were most valuable in their first jobs and generally reported high levels of proficiency in these skill areas. There was a similar dichotomy in opinions about accreditation within each stakeholder group. The reputation of the academic program was

  7. Industrial Hygiene Group annual research report, FY 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.O.; Ettinger, H.J.

    1982-10-01

    Field studies have been performed at several oil shale facilities to identify unique industrial hygiene problems and provide input to inhalation toxicology studies aimed at evaluating the hazards of materials associated with this developing technology. Aerosol physics support has also been provided to develop aerosol generation and animal exposure techniques for evaluating the toxicity of oil shale materials and manmade mineral fibers. As part of the effort to assure a safe, orderly, and timely development of various synfuels, field evaluation of indicator-sampling procedures was perfomed, and industrial hygiene work practices for two synfuel technologies are being prepared. Respirator studies are used to evaluate the performances of special devices (some of which are not in the existing government approval schedules) and of a proposed test procedures for self-contained breathing apparatus. An approval procedure is being developed for air-purifying respirators required for protection against radioiodine, evaluating the adequacy of respirator programs at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensee facilities, and developing a program for respirator use under emergency situations. A new aerosol size-characterization stack sampler has been designed, and potential instrument changes to aerosol size monitoring for filter testing are being evaluated. Material permeability tests have identified the protection afforded by protective clothing materials, and improved analytical procedures have been developed for pentachlorophenol and plutonium.

  8. Hygienic behaviour in chromium plating industries.

    PubMed

    Lumens, M E; Ulenbelt, P; Géron, H M; Herber, R F

    1993-01-01

    The impact of hygienic behaviour on the uptake of chromium has been studied in two small chromium plating factories. The correlation between the environmental monitoring measure (Cr-A) and the biological monitoring measure (Cr-U) varied between the two factories. In one factory (I) the correlation between Cr-U and Cr-A was 0.68 (P < 0.001), while in the other factory (II) it was negative (r = -0.64, P = 0.03). However, in both populations a significant impact of hygienic behaviour on the variance in Cr-U levels could be detected. In factory I, explained variance could be enhanced to R2 = 0.94 (P < 0.001) when considering expressions of hygienic behaviour. In factory II, a strong relation proved to exist between Cr-U and dermal uptake. For the various questions referring to skin problems and possible dermal uptake, the correlation with Cr-U is up to 0.70 (P = 0.03). When comparing the results for the two factories, it is shown that in addition to individual differences in hygienic behaviour, general hygienic conditions also have an impact on uptake of chromium. In factory II, where many efforts were made to prevent exposure to chromium, Cr-U was significantly lower than in factory I (P < 0.001).

  9. [Industrial hygiene problems in reclamation constriction operations].

    PubMed

    Broĭtman, V I

    1992-01-01

    Workers engaged in reclamation construction are exposed to dust and chemical agents, appearing in the air during the work. Vibration, noise, meteorologic conditions overmatch the normal parameters. Immunologic status is changed, transitory disablement incidence is high, occupational diseases occur. Hygienic measures for this population are recommended and put into practice.

  10. Manual of analytical methods for the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Greulich, K.A.; Gray, C.E.

    1991-08-01

    This Manual is compiled from techniques used in the Industrial Hygiene Chemistry Laboratory of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The procedures are similar to those used in other laboratories devoted to industrial hygiene practices. Some of the methods are standard; some, modified to suit our needs; and still others, developed at Sandia. The authors have attempted to present all methods in a simple and concise manner but in sufficient detail to make them readily usable. It is not to be inferred that these methods are universal for any type of sample, but they have been found very reliable for the types of samples mentioned.

  11. [Hygienic assessment of the environment of a territorial industrial complex].

    PubMed

    Tsunina, N M

    2002-01-01

    Hygienic assessment of the time course of changes in environmental pollution has determined Novokuibyshevsk, Samara Region, as an ecologically poor area. Its findings are a primary basis for: 1) systemic stepwise study of an environment-health relationship; 2) elucidation of priority and early undetermined risk factors; 3) development of current measures for environmental sanitation and human health promotion in the specifically studied area; 4) definition of new tasks in the field of hygienic studies.

  12. [Industrial hygiene for subway train operators].

    PubMed

    Elizarov, B B; Sin'kov, A V

    1995-01-01

    Subway train drivers work in specific conditions of underground surroundings, face psychoemotional stress due to high intensity of signals analyzed in short time for the decision, prominent responsibility for passengers' lives. The work is also associated with significant levels of noise, minor artificial illumination, air pollution with dust and unfavorable microclimate. By the end of working shift the drivers demonstrate marked changes in blood pressure, prolonged oculomotor reactions, depressed visual function. Morbidity with transitory disablement is high among the drivers, presenting especially cardiovascular and gastrointestinal diseases. Unfavorable changes of ageing process are seen in the drivers over 35, in age group of 40-49 years (with length of service at least 20 years). The complex investigations helped to elaborate hygienic norms for new subway cars, to base rational schedule ot work and rest for the drivers.

  13. [Emerging issues concerning hygiene in the Russian aluminum industry].

    PubMed

    Roslyĭ, O F; Gurvich, V B; Plotko, É G; Kuz'min, S V; Fedoruk, A A; Roslaia, N A; Iarushin, S V; Kuz'min, D V

    2012-01-01

    In this study the data of multiyear investigations of occupational and environmental hazards at different enterprises of the Russian aluminum industry are presented. Basing on these data, we have been elaborated the algorithm and methodological approaches on management of the occupational and ecology-related risks using hygienic safety criteria, risk evaluation technique, epidemiological and economic analysis.

  14. Influence of legal standards on the practice of industrial hygiene.

    PubMed

    Corn, M

    1976-06-01

    Prescriptive standards for the work environment affect the professional practice of industrial hygiene. Among the advantages are: legal requirements reinforce professional recommendations; penalties encourage abatement of hazards; compliance should ensure a safe and healthful environment; recordkeeping requirements will provide a basis for future action. Among the disadvantages are: rigid evaluation procedures, reporting format, etc., discourage professional judgment and development of new methods; professional reports become legal documents; single standards do not focus on the total environment.

  15. Industrial hygiene programs for workers' health protection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cecchetti, G; Peruzzo, G F; Sordelli, D

    1988-06-01

    The recent Health and Safety Act devolves the management of workers' health protection to new local authorities named "Local Sanitary Units." The specific program is framed in the existing state regulations and is in agreement with European community politics regarding health risks arising from the industrial use of particular substances like lead, asbestos, benzene, PCBs and others. The rapid industrial growth during recent years put into evidence completely new and numerous risks with the result of both qualitative and quantitative modifications of occupational diseases which existed in the years preceding the second world war. This rapid and remarkable change required a general adjustment in the country, which involved universities, government and industry. At the same time, the need of new relationships between occupational risks and insurance management rose. Beginning in the seventies, the Italian Industrial Hygiene Association [Associazione Italiana Degli Igienisti Industriali (A.I.D.I.I.)] promoted the progress of industrial hygiene in Italy through national and international conferences, continuous educational activities and participation with government standard-setting committees. The trend in A.I.D.I.I. future activities embraces the development of standard evaluation and control procedures and the improvement of research following European guidelines in strict cooperation with correlated European and American organizations.

  16. Industrial Hygiene Group: 1986 Annual report on research and special activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ettinger, H.J.

    1987-11-01

    This report details all the 1986 research activities and some selected operational programs of the Industrial Hygiene Group. During 1986, research studies were directed at: respiratory protection, personal protective clothing, applied industrial hygiene, and aerosols and air cleaning. In several instances, the transfer of technology, previously developed by the Industrial Hygiene Group, is described together with the application of research developments to operational health protection programs.

  17. [Control of industrial waste consumption residues: ecological and hygienic aspects].

    PubMed

    Rusakov, N V; Korotkova, G I; Orlov, A Iu; Solov'eva, A V; Shemiakina, Iu V

    2007-01-01

    The problem in the provision of safe handling of industrial waste and consumption residues is relatively current. According with the United Nations Organization's data, 25 to 33% of the world's notified diseases are directly associated with the low quality of the human environment. Up to now, a list of chemicals encountered in the waste and residues is unavailable in Russia and foreign countries. By keeping in mind the ubiquitous spread of industrial waste and consumption resides due to human vital activity, their huge formations and their very wide diversity in composition, type, and pattern of a possible dangerous effect, it is important to consider the problem associated with waste handling, by evaluating their environmental and hygienic hazard.

  18. Industrial hygiene support of underground operations at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, P.F.

    1992-07-23

    The Industrial Hygiene Section of the Health Protection Department provides industrial hygiene support of underground operations at the Nevada Test Site. This report describes support operations and summarizes the industrial hygiene data collected from July 31, 1989 through June 30, 1991. Air quality data were collected by means of personnel sampling by active and passive techniques using various kinds of industrial hygiene instrumentation and through localized and general area monitoring. The data collected were used to evaluate underground air quality and quantity requirements; evaluate worker exposures to a variety of air contaminants; determine the applicability and effectiveness of personal protective equipment.

  19. Industrial Hygiene Concerns during the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    M.E. Lumia; C.A. Gentile

    2002-01-18

    A significant industrial hygiene concern during the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was the oxidation of the lead bricks' surface, which were utilized for radiation shielding. This presented both airborne exposure and surface contamination issues for the workers in the field removing this material. This paper will detail the various protection and control methods tested and implemented to protect the workers, including those technologies deployed to decontaminate the work surfaces. In addition, those techniques employed to recycle the lead for additional use at the site will be discussed.

  20. Industrial hygiene aspects of underground oil shale mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, K.M.; Jackson, J.O.

    1982-01-01

    Health hazards associated with underground oil shale mining are summarized in this report. Commercial oil shale mining will be conducted on a very large scale. Conventional mining techniques of drilling, blasting, mucking, loading, scaling, and roof bolting will be employed. Room-and-pillar mining will be utilized in most mines, but mining in support of MIS retorting may also be conducted. Potential health hazards to miners may include exposure to oil shale dusts, diesel exhaust, blasting products, gases released from the oil shale or mine water, noise and vibration, and poor environmental conditions. Mining in support of MIS retorting may in addition include potential exposure to oil shale retort offgases and retort liquid products. Based upon the very limited industrial hygiene surveys and sampling in experimental oil shale mines, it does not appear that oil shale mining will result in special or unique health hazards. Further animal toxicity testing data could result in reassessment if findings are unusual. Sufficient information is available to indicate that controls for dust will be required in most mining activities, ventilation will be necessary to carry away gases and vapors from blasting and diesel equipment, and a combination of engineering controls and personal protection will likely be required for control of noise. Recommendations for future research are included.

  1. Industrial hygiene sampling at Rio Blanco oil shale facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, M.; Garcia, L.L.; Vigil, E.A.; Royer, G.W.; Tillery, M.I.; Ettinger, H.J.

    1982-02-01

    The Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company (RBOSC) facility, in its early stages of development, provided the unique opportunity to sample a Modified In-Situ (MIS) operation during the preparation phase of the first retort, during pyrolysis, and during preparation of a subsequent retort. Industrial hygiene measurements were made in the lowest (G) level (835 feet) of the mine, prior to and during the first 30 days of the Retort Zero burn. These measurements were designed to define and characterize potential inhalation exposures associated with the MIS shale oil recovery process. This information, along with bulk samples of oil shale materials and products, was provided for use in laboratory toxicological studies. Gas and vapor samples of the compounds of interest were all much below threshold limit values (TLV) both before and after retort zero ignition although slightly elevated after ignition. Airborne dust concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 2.9 mg/m/sup 3/ at sizes of 0.3- to 5.2-..mu..m mass median aerodynamic diameter and alpha quartz content ranged from 1.1 to 4.4 percent. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons were found in relatively low concentrations with the anthracene/phenanthrene mixture at the highest level of 0.6 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. The wetness and ventilation in this mine apparently helped control airborne contaminant concentrations below their TLV values.

  2. Medical surveillance and programs on industrial hygiene at RCRA facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.E.

    1994-12-31

    Some special areas where much progress in industrial hygiene and safety has been made in the past few years are; training, personal protective equipment, uniforms, personal monitoring, area monitoring, and medical surveillance. Before one can begin to construct programs for worker protection, some knowledge of potential exposures must be gained. The best place to start is the Waste Analysis Plan, and the list of wastes that a particular site is authorized to receive. Waste Codes are listed within a facility`s Part A and Part B permits. Actual facility receipt of wastes are well documented within Load Records and other documentation. A facility`s training program forms the heart of a health and safety program. Every TSD facility should have developed a matrix of job titles and required training. Every facility must also make a commitment to providing a wide range of personal protective equipment, including a wide array of disposables. Some facilities will benefit from the occasional use of the newer respirator quantitative fit-testing devices. All facilities are urged to rent or borrow this type of equipment periodically. Quantitative respirator fit-testers are capable of revealing important deficiencies in a respirator program. Providing uniforms is a newer means of protecting workers. The use of uniforms is an effective means for addressing the idea of carry-home-waste. The use of disposables including boots, must be integrated into a Uniform Program if the program is to be effective. In addition, employees must strictly understand that uniforms must not leave the facility at any time, including lunch time.

  3. Can Control Banding be better than traditional Industrial Hygiene?

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D

    2009-01-27

    The answer to this question should be 'no' if you can afford it and 'yes' if you cannot. However, Control Banding (CB) is proving itself in areas with uncertainties. This could be either a lack of knowledge--as with nanomaterials or when lacking an OEL--or with the lack or expertise, as can be seen with SMEs and in Economically Developing Countries (EDCs). Over 90% of the world's workers do not have access to occupational safety, health, and hygiene (OSHH) professionals and traditional quantitative risk assessment methods to achieve prevention from acquiring work-related illness and injury. Although risk factors for work-related illness and disease are well known, until the recent growth of CB there had yet to be designed and implemented a comprehensive OSHH process that focuses on achieving minimization of these occupational risk factors for the vast majority of the global workforce. This problem exists for three primary reasons: (1) There are not a sufficient number of trained and qualified OSHH professionals worldwide to attempt to offer comparable levels of traditional services necessary to achieve prevention; (2) The vast majority of OSHH professionals, and the funds to afford their conventional approaches, are concentrated in Developed Countries, such as those in the EU and the US, whereas the greatest need for work-related disease, illness, and injury prevention lies within EDCs; and (3) Even within Developed Countries, the funding to acquire the services of OSHH professionals sits primarily within the largest of industries and governmental institutions. This problem renders a void of occupational risk management for the professions and trades within EDCs and similarly the SMEs within even the richest of Developed Countries. Further, conventional means to achieve such prevention rely heavily on exposure assessment sampling strategies that, although proven successful, are cost-prohibitive in these arenas.

  4. Industrial hygiene support of underground operations at the Nevada Test Site. Progress report, July 1, 1989--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, P.F.

    1992-07-23

    The Industrial Hygiene Section of the Health Protection Department provides industrial hygiene support of underground operations at the Nevada Test Site. This report describes support operations and summarizes the industrial hygiene data collected from July 31, 1989 through June 30, 1991. Air quality data were collected by means of personnel sampling by active and passive techniques using various kinds of industrial hygiene instrumentation and through localized and general area monitoring. The data collected were used to evaluate underground air quality and quantity requirements; evaluate worker exposures to a variety of air contaminants; determine the applicability and effectiveness of personal protective equipment.

  5. [Industrial hygiene in the modern manufacture of synthetic detergents].

    PubMed

    Akinfieva, T A; Kuchma, V R; Lashnev, M P; Moiseev, Iu V; Strongina, O M

    1992-01-01

    Work conditions in the synthetic detergents production according to the new technology created by Sumitomo (Japan) were evaluated from hygienic point of view. The main unfavourable factor is the contamination of air by initial products (aerosols of sodium tripoli phosphate, carboxy methylcellulose, optic bleacher, enzymes et al.) and dust of the final product. Sulphur oxides appear in the air of the sulphating unit. Levels of noise and vibration are surpassed. At the same time the studied technology is more profitable than the current ones. Parameters of the cardiovascular, central nervous and neuromuscular systems do not indicate the physical and neuropsychic fatigue.

  6. [IMPLEMENTATION OF MEASURES FOR OCCUPATIONAL HYGIENE AT ENTERPRISES OF BREWING INDUSTRY].

    PubMed

    Agafonov, G V; Novikova, L V; Chusova, A E

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there are considered the legal basics of the occupational hygiene of brewing production: acts, bylaws and normative legal acts. There are characterized types of supervision and control (state, departmental, public) implementing the abidance of the sanitary legislation at the enterprises of the brewing industry. There are presented sanitary and hygienic requirements to the enterprises of the brewing industry. There are designated measures of occupational hygiene of brewing production: a sink, cleaning--removal of various pollutions, and also disinfection--process of the decline in quantity of microorganisms to safe level. There are considered some characteristics of pollutions which are subject to removal at various stages ofproduction of beer and stages of sanitary processing of brewing systems according to chemical properties of substances.

  7. Resolving the ambiguities: An industrial hygiene Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Gammage, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    Resolving the Ambiguities: An Industrial Hygiene (IAQ) Symposium was a one-day event designed to inform practicing industrial hygienists about highlight presentations made at Indoor Air `93. A broad range of topics was presented by invited speakers. Topics included were attempts to deal with guidelines and standards, questionnaires, odors and sensory irritation, respiratory allergies, neuroses, sick building syndrome (SBS), and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS).

  8. Portable data-logging system for industrial hygiene personal chlorine monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Langhorst, M.L.; Illes, S.P. Jr.

    1986-02-01

    The combination of suitable portable sensors or instruments with small microprocessor-based data-logger units has made it possible to obtain detailed monitoring data for many health and environmental applications. Following data acquisition in field use, the logged data may be transferred to a desk-top personal computer for complete flexibility in manipulation of data and formating of results. A system has been assembled from commercial components and demonstrated for chlorine personal monitoring applications. The system consists of personal chlorine sensors, a Metrosonics data-logger and reader unit, and an Apple II Plus personal computer. The computer software was developed to handle sensor calibration, data evaluation and reduction, report formating and long-term storage of raw data on a disk. This system makes it possible to generate time-concentration profiles, evaluate dose above a threshold, quantitate short-term excursions and summarize time-weighted average (TWA) results. Field data from plant trials demonstrated feasibility of use, ruggedness and reliability. No significant differences were found between the time-weighted average chlorine concentrations determined by the sensor/logger system and two other methods: the sulfamic acid bubbler reference method and the 3M Poroplastic diffusional dosimeter. The sensor/data-logger system, however, provided far more information than the other two methods in terms of peak excursions, TWAs and exposure doses. For industrial hygiene applications, the system allows better definition of employee exposures, particularly for chemicals with acute as well as chronic health effects.

  9. Database system for management of health physics and industrial hygiene records.

    SciTech Connect

    Murdoch, B. T.; Blomquist, J. A.; Cooke, R. H.; Davis, J. T.; Davis, T. M.; Dolecek, E. H.; Halka-Peel, L.; Johnson, D.; Keto, D. N.; Reyes, L. R.; Schlenker, R. A.; Woodring; J. L.

    1999-10-05

    This paper provides an overview of the Worker Protection System (WPS), a client/server, Windows-based database management system for essential radiological protection and industrial hygiene. Seven operational modules handle records for external dosimetry, bioassay/internal dosimetry, sealed sources, routine radiological surveys, lasers, workplace exposure, and respirators. WPS utilizes the latest hardware and software technologies to provide ready electronic access to a consolidated source of worker protection.

  10. Performance Evaluation of Industrial Hygiene Air Monitoring Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Maughan, A D.; Glissmeyer, John A.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.

    2004-12-10

    Tests were performed to evaluate the accuracy, precision and response time of certain commercially available handheld toxic gas monitors. The tests were conducted by PNNL in the Chemical Chamber Test Facility for CH2MHill Hanford Company. The instruments were tested with a set of dilute test gases including ammonia, nitrous oxide, and a mixture of organic vapors (acetone, benzene, ethanol, hexane, toluene and xylene). The certified gases were diluted to concentrations that may be encountered in the outdoor environment above the underground tank farms containing radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site, near Richland, Washington. The challenge concentrations are near the lower limits of instrument sensitivity and response time. The performance test simulations were designed to look at how the instruments respond to changes in test gas concentrations that are similar to field conditions.

  11. Performance Evaluation of Industrial Hygiene Air Monitoring Sensors, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Maughan, A D.; Glissmeyer, John A.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.

    2005-01-24

    Tests were performed to evaluate the accuracy, precision and response time of certain commercially available handheld toxic gas monitors. The tests were conducted by PNNL in the Chemical Chamber Test Facility for CH2MHill Hanford Company. The instruments were tested with a set of dilute test gases including ammonia, nitrous oxide, and a mixture of organic vapors (acetone, benzene, ethanol, hexane, toluene and xylene). The certified gases were diluted to concentrations that may be encountered in the outdoor environment above the underground tank farms containing radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site, near Richland, Washington. The challenge concentrations are near the lower limits of instrument sensitivity and response time. The performance test simulations were designed to look at how the instruments respond to changes in test gas concentrations that are similar to field conditions.

  12. Industrial Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhorst, Marsha L.; Coyne, Linda B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review focusing on some of the most widely used analytical techniques in monitoring personal exposures in the workplace for assessing human health risk. Discusses several basic techniques: solid sorbents, calibration standards, derivatizations, dosimeters, biomonitoring, gas monitoring, particulates, isocyanates, formaldehyde, and…

  13. Insights from two industrial hygiene pilot e-cigarette passive vaping studies.

    PubMed

    Maloney, John C; Thompson, Michael K; Oldham, Michael J; Stiff, Charles L; Lilly, Patrick D; Patskan, George J; Shafer, Kenneth H; Sarkar, Mohamadi A

    2016-01-01

    While several reports have been published using research methods of estimating exposure risk to e-cigarette vapors in nonusers, only two have directly measured indoor air concentrations from vaping using validated industrial hygiene sampling methodology. Our first study was designed to measure indoor air concentrations of nicotine, menthol, propylene glycol, glycerol, and total particulates during the use of multiple e-cigarettes in a well-characterized room over a period of time. Our second study was a repeat of the first study, and it also evaluated levels of formaldehyde. Measurements were collected using active sampling, near real-time and direct measurement techniques. Air sampling incorporated industrial hygiene sampling methodology using analytical methods established by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Active samples were collected over a 12-hr period, for 4 days. Background measurements were taken in the same room the day before and the day after vaping. Panelists (n = 185 Study 1; n = 145 Study 2) used menthol and non-menthol MarkTen prototype e-cigarettes. Vaping sessions (six, 1-hr) included 3 prototypes, with total number of puffs ranging from 36-216 per session. Results of the active samples were below the limit of quantitation of the analytical methods. Near real-time data were below the lowest concentration on the established calibration curves. Data from this study indicate that the majority of chemical constituents sampled were below quantifiable levels. Formaldehyde was detected at consistent levels during all sampling periods. These two studies found that indoor vaping of MarkTen prototype e-cigarette does not produce chemical constituents at quantifiable levels or background levels using standard industrial hygiene collection techniques and analytical methods.

  14. Chemical process based reconstruction of exposures for an epidemiological study. III. Analysis of industrial hygiene samples.

    PubMed

    Hall, Thomas A; Esmen, Nurtan A; Jones, Elizabeth P; Basara, Heather; Phillips, Margaret L; Marsh, Gary M; Youk, Ada O; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Leonard, Robin C

    2007-03-20

    As part of an historical cohort study to investigate the mortality experience of industrial workers exposed to chloroprene (beta-CD) and other substances, all available industrial hygiene exposure monitoring data were collected and summarized. From discussions with on-site industrial hygiene personnel, it was apparent that these data were not collected for epidemiological purposes and, therefore, their use in characterization of exposures was problematic as the data mostly pertained to samples collected to investigate the performance of specific tasks. These data were, however, informative for validating the exposure modeling process used to estimate historical exposures. The data summarized below clearly indicate that exposures to beta-CD were lowered across the time period of this study. Typically, the exposures recorded were less than the occupational exposure limits of the periods in which the exposures were recorded. Additionally, exposure measurements recorded in the recent past do not represent the exposure actually experienced by the worker as a strict personal protective equipment use program has been in place for the facilities studied since the mid-1980s.

  15. Industrial-hygiene survey report of Borg Warner Chemicals, Inc. , Woodmar Plant, Washington, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.

    1986-08-01

    Due to possible worker exposure to 1,3-butadiene, a walk-through industrial-hygiene survey was conducted at Borg Warner Chemicals Woodmar Facility, Washington, West Virginia. The primary products of the facility are ABS plastics, polybutadiene latex and styrene butadiene rubber latex. In September 1981, a butadiene recovery system was added to the process vent streams. Of the total work force, 54 employees have potential for exposure to 1,3-butadiene. The mean 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) of 23 personal samples collected during several periods in 1983 and 1985 was 4.5 parts per million (ppm). Analysis of a bulk sample showed traces of 1,3-butadiene, in the 0.04 to 0.2 nanograms/milligram range. The exposures to 1,3-butadiene were greater than 10ppm for two job classifications, control room and high heat operators. The company has accurate records on terminated and current employees. The author concludes that the facility is a candidate for inclusion in an in-depth industrial hygiene survey regarding 1,3-butadiene. Recommendations were given.

  16. Industrial hygiene evaluation of thermal degradation products from PVC film in meat-wrapping operations.

    PubMed

    Cook, W A

    1980-07-01

    An industrial hygiene evaluation is presented concerning experimental data included in the preceding paper on thermal degradation products from hot-wire and "cool"-rod cutting of PVC film but, in this paper, limited to film used in meat-wrapping operations. Room air concentrations of less than 0.2 ppm HCl and less than 0.05 ppm benzene can be maintained by a number of factors, including minimal dilution ventilation. Estimates of room air concentrations of degradation products are presented using average values of amounts produced per cut. The relation of these concentrations to TLV's is given, together with methods of suggesting TLV's for substances not listed by ACGIH or OSHA. Room air concentrations for the 12 degradation products for which TLV's are assigned, based on average values per cut, were no greater than 0.3% of accepted limits. Room air concentrations of DOA are not determinable from available data but present information does not indicate that exposure to DOA causes airway hyperreactivity. The cool rod, rather than the hot wire, is recommended as good industrial hygiene practice, producing no apparent PVC degradation products, even though similar amounts of DOA are volatilized.

  17. Industrial-hygiene characterization of ethylene oxide exposures of hospital and nursing-home workers

    SciTech Connect

    Ringenburg, V.L.; Elliott, L.J.; Morelli-Schroth, P.; Molina, D.

    1986-12-01

    Industrial-hygiene surveys were conducted at 12 hospitals and one nursing home to determine possible employee exposure to ethylene oxide (EtO). Different types of exposure situations existed at each of the facilities as a result of various engineering controls, administrative controls and work practices. Sampling indicated that the time-weighted averages (TWAs) of exposure over periods of 36 to 724 minutes ranged from below the limit of detection to 6.7 parts per million (ppm). Personal short-term exposure levels covering 2 to 30 minutes ranged from less than the limit of detection to 103.2ppm. Factors found to be responsible for these higher-than-permissible levels of EtO exposure included improper installation or lack of engineering controls (such as improper placement of the sterilizing operations), unbalanced ventilation systems, and lack of administrative controls resulting in inappropriate work practices.

  18. Tracking Listeria monocytogenes contamination and virulence-associated characteristics in the ready-to-eat meat-based food products industry according to the hygiene level.

    PubMed

    Henriques, A R; Gama, L T; Fraqueza, M J

    2017-02-02

    Listeria monocytogenes isolates collected from final products and food contact surfaces of 10 ready-to-eat meat-based food products (RTEMP) producing industries were analyzed to relate their virulence-associated characteristics and genetic profiles with the hygiene assessment of those industries. Together with sample collection, an audit was performed to evaluate the implemented food safety management system and to investigate the specific audit requisites more associated to the occurrence of those L. monocytogenes serogroups frequently related with human disease. L. monocytogenes was present in 18% of the samples. The isolates (n=62) were serogrouped and detection of virulence-associated genes inlA, inlB, inlC and inlJ, and also plcA, hlyA, actA and iap was done by multiplex PCR. After this initial characterization, selected isolates (n=31) were submitted to antibiotic resistance testing by the disk diffusion method for the currently most used human and veterinary antibiotics and resistance was low. These isolates were also subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Genotyping and serogrouping of L. monocytogenes isolates revealed a genetically diverse population. Our data indicate that contamination of final products does not seem to be uniquely related to the sampled food surfaces. The occurrence of those L. monocytogenes serogroups more commonly associated with human disease in industries with a high hygienic audit classification could be the result of a previous identification of the pathogen, with an enforcement of the hygiene program without recognizing the real source of contamination. This reinforces the importance of a conjoined diagnosis using audit data and microbiological testing. Food safety management systems of those industries need improvement, particularly in cleaning and sanitizing operations, analytical control, preventive maintenance, personal hygiene and root cause analysis.

  19. A discussion paper on challenges and limitations to water reuse and hygiene in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Casani, Sandra; Rouhany, Mahbod; Knøchel, Susanne

    2005-03-01

    Drinking water is becoming a scarce resource in many areas and both use of water and wastewater outlet are of major ecological and economical importance in many countries. Consumption and discharge may be considerably minimized by means of water reuse. The food industry has a large consumption of water, but until now very limited reuse has taken place due to legislations constraints and hygienic concerns. Legal space for use of water of qualities other than drinking water has been opened with the current legislation. This will, however, in many cases require careful analyses of individual cases based on a thorough understanding of the hazards involved in order to avoid compromising the safety of the food product and thereby the health of consumers. Implementation of water reuse practices in the food industry presents a great challenge for both companies and public health authorities regarding knowledge, technical expertise and documentation. Regulatory, technological, monitoring, verification and ethical aspects associated with microbiologically safe reuse of water in the food industry are discussed and some examples of the challenges ahead and possible approaches are given.

  20. Industrial hygiene, occupational safety and respiratory symptoms in the Pakistani cotton industry

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Wali; Moshammer, Hanns Michael; Kundi, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the cotton industry of Pakistan, 15 million people are employed and exposed to cotton dust, toxic chemicals, noise and physical hazards. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of health symptoms, particularly respiratory symptoms, and to measure cotton dust and endotoxin levels in different textile factories of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional investigation was performed in a representative sample of 47 cotton factories in the Faisalabad region in Punjab, Pakistan. Respiratory symptoms of 800 workers were documented by questionnaire. Occupational safety in the factories was assessed by a trained expert following a checklist, and dust and endotoxin levels in different work areas were measured. Results Prevalence of respiratory disease symptoms (fever, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough) was generally high and highest in the weaving section of the cotton industry (20–40% depending on symptoms). This section also displayed the poorest occupational safety ratings and the highest levels of inhalable cotton dust (mean±SD 4.6±2.5 vs 0.95±0.65 mg/m3 in compact units). In contrast, endotoxin levels were highest in the spinning section (median 1521 EU/m3), where high humidity is maintained. Conclusions There are still poor working conditions in the cotton industry in Pakistan where workers are exposed to different occupational hazards. More health symptoms were reported from small weaving factories (power looms). There is a dire need for improvements in occupational health and safety in this industrial sector with particular focus on power looms. PMID:25838509

  1. Industrial hygiene walk-through survey report of General Motors Corporation, Fisher Guide Division, Monroe, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    McCammon, C.S.; Krishnan, E.R.; Goodman, R.J.

    1987-08-17

    A walk-through industrial-hygiene survey was conducted at the General Motors Corporation Fisher Guide manufacturing facility located in Monroe, Louisiana. The investigation centered on possible exposure to acrylates or methacrylates during the manufacture of adhesive-sealed, flame-sealed, or composite headlamps. Methacrylate-based adhesives and acrylated coatings have been used at the facility since 1981. Both the adhesives and coatings were cured by ultraviolet radiation. Ninety-four employees had potential contact with acrylates or methacrylates during the application of adhesives and coatings. Adhesives were used for sealing the lens/reflector area and the bulb location of the terminal area. Base coats were applied to the composite headlamps to provide an adhering surface for the aluminized coating. Top coats were applied as a protective coating for the aluminum coating. Two cases of chemical dermatitis have been reported at the facility since 1981 due to skin contact with acrylates/methacrylates. When an automated system was used to apply adhesive materials during headlamp assembly, there was a lower potential for employee exposure to the hazardous chemicals. The authors recommend that the company move toward complete automation of this part of the production process. Levels of butyl-acetate should be checked as there was a strong smell of this chemical in part of the production line.

  2. Industrial-hygiene survey report of Defense Fuel Support Point, Cincinnati, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Piacitelli, G.; Krishnan, R.

    1989-03-09

    As part of a study of worker exposure, personal protective equipment, and engineering controls in use in work areas where exposure to ethylene glycol ethers is possible, an industrial hygiene survey was conducted at the Defense Fuel Support Point, Cincinnati, Ohio. The activities include receiving, storing, and distributing of jet fuel for military use. At the site, 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME) was added as an icing inhibitor to one of the jet fuels. JP-4 contained 0.10 to 0.15 wt.% of 2-ME and JP-5 contained diethylene-glycol-monomethyl-ether (DEGME) at a concentration of 0.15 to 0.20 wt.% received at the location for shipment elsewhere. The potential existed for inhalation and dermal exposure to 2-ME. Exposure controls included the use of engineering controls at the truck-loading operation and quality control analysis divisions and the wearing of personal protective equipment. Monitoring indicated that full-shift inhalation exposures to 2-ME were low, less than 0.34 part per million (ppm). Short-term exposures occasionally reached 6.86 ppm. Due to the small number of workers with a potential of exposure to glygol ethers, the facility should not be included in additional health studies. Specific recommendations are made for work practices, ventilation and personal protective equipment.

  3. Indicator methods to evaluate the hygienic performance of industrial scale operating Biowaste Composting Plants.

    PubMed

    Martens, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    The hygienic performance of biowaste composting plants to ensure the quality of compost is of high importance. Existing compost quality assurance systems reflect this importance through intensive testing of hygienic parameters. In many countries, compost quality assurance systems are under construction and it is necessary to check and to optimize the methods to state the hygienic performance of composting plants. A set of indicator methods to evaluate the hygienic performance of normal operating biowaste composting plants was developed. The indicator methods were developed by investigating temperature measurements from indirect process tests from 23 composting plants belonging to 11 design types of the Hygiene Design Type Testing System of the German Compost Quality Association (BGK e.V.). The presented indicator methods are the grade of hygienization, the basic curve shape, and the hygienic risk area. The temperature courses of single plants are not distributed normally, but they were grouped by cluster analysis in normal distributed subgroups. That was a precondition to develop the mentioned indicator methods. For each plant the grade of hygienization was calculated through transformation into the standard normal distribution. It shows the part in percent of the entire data set which meet the legal temperature requirements. The hygienization grade differs widely within the design types and falls below 50% for about one fourth of the plants. The subgroups are divided visually into basic curve shapes which stand for different process courses. For each plant the composition of the entire data set out of the various basic curve shapes can be used as an indicator for the basic process conditions. Some basic curve shapes indicate abnormal process courses which can be emended through process optimization. A hygienic risk area concept using the 90% range of variation of the normal temperature courses was introduced. Comparing the design type range of variation with the

  4. [Toxicological and hygienic evaluation of waste of the leading industrial branches of the Krasnoyarsk Territory].

    PubMed

    Kurkatov, S V; Andreeva, S G

    2004-01-01

    Toxicological and hygienic evaluations were made of the wastes produced by aluminum-making plants and thermal power stations in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, which confirmed for the first time the environmental toxicity of ash-dump waste, derived from slicing and dusty burning of brown coals from the Kansk-Achinsk field, and nepheline slurries resulted from the processing of urthites from the Kiy-Shaltyr deposit to prepare alumina. They were found to exert a toxic effect on warm-blooded animals, to have cyto- and phytotoxicity and mutagenic activity in the Ames test. Class III hazard was established for slurries of aluminum making (nepheline and gas purifications) and Class IV hazard for ash-dump waste and coal foam flotation tailings. The study has yielded data on the high level of natural radionuclides (as high as 2 kBq/kg) in the ash slurries from in the Berezovsk brown coal field, which requires that the procedure for their controlling and handling should be determined.

  5. Industrial-hygiene walk-through survey report of Dow Chemical, USA Allyn's Point Plant, Gales Ferry, Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.R.; Krishnan, E.R.

    1986-05-01

    The purpose of the survey was to obtain information on the SB latex production process and assess the potential for occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene. The information will be used in determining the suitability of inclusion of the facility in an in-depth survey regarding the substance. The Allyn's Point Plant employs 164 people; 33 work in the SB latex area where 1,3-butadiene is used. The weighted mean 8-hour time-weighted average for 93 samples was 0.25 ppm. The results of the NIOSH analysis of bulk samples of SB latex were nondetectable. The level of detection was 0.04 ng/mg by weight. Based on a review of historical industrial-hygiene data provided by Dow showing detectable 1,3-butadiene exposures for two job classifications, it is the decision of NIOSH to include Dow as a candidate for an in-depth industrial hygiene survey.

  6. [Contemporary hygienic regulation of industrial vibration: harmonizing national and foreign approaches].

    PubMed

    Prokopenko, L V; Kravchenko, O K; Kur'erov, N N

    2009-01-01

    The authors compared approaches to vibration safety regulations, presented by new Russian Federal governmental standards, international standards and rules from one hand, and by Russian Federal Sanitary Regulation documents from the other hand. Main directions to improve hygienic regulation of occupational vibration in new technical regulation system are determined.

  7. [To 70th anniversary of the Victory: activities of V.A. Obukh Central Institute for Industrial hygiene and Occupational diseases with USSR Narkomzdrav during Great Patriotic War].

    PubMed

    Izmerov, N F; Bukhtiiarov, I V; Prokopenko, L V; Shigan, E E

    2015-01-01

    The article covers data on activities of scientists and staffers of VA. Obukh Central Institute for Industrial hygiene and Occupational diseases with USSR Narkomzdrav during Great Patriotic War, on role of occupational therapists and hygienists in solving problems of better medical and sanitary care for workers engaged into defence industry.

  8. Mycobacteria in water used for personal hygiene in heavy industry and collieries: a potential risk for employees.

    PubMed

    Ulmann, Vit; Kracalikova, Anna; Dziedzinska, Radka

    2015-03-04

    Environmental mycobacteria (EM) constitute a health risk, particularly for immunocompromised people. Workers in heavy industry and in collieries represent an at-risk group of people as their immunity is often weakened by long-term employment in dusty environments, frequent smoking and an increased occurrence of pulmonary diseases. This study was concerned with the presence of EM in non-drinking water used for the hygiene of employees in six large industrial companies and collieries. Over a period of ten years, 1096 samples of surface water treated for hygiene purposes (treated surface water) and treated surface water diluted with mining water were examined. EM were detected in 63.4 and 41.5% samples of treated surface water and treated surface water diluted with mining water, respectively. Mycobacterium gordonae, M. avium-intracellulare and M. kansasii were the most frequently detected species. Adoption of suitable precautions should be enforced to reduce the incidence of mycobacteria in shower water and to decrease the infectious pressure on employees belonging to an at-risk group of people.

  9. [An investigation of the application of hygienic standards for the design of industrial enterprises (GBZ 1-2010)].

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Zhang, M

    2016-08-20

    Objective: To study the applicability, the high frequency used content, the feasibility, and issues needed to be solved of the standard of GBZ 1-2010, aiming to provide technical evidence for the revision of GBZ1. Methods: In the study, the data were collected by referring to the literature database and the questionnaire from June 2013 to June 2015. There were 2 surveys carried out in the study, with methods including questionnaire survey and specific interview. The investigation methods include the paper version of the questionnaire by mail, the electronic version of the questionnaire by e-mail, and the online survey. And 111 questionnaires were collected. Results: In total, the applicability survey (the first survey) received 156 suggestions covering 76 items from 23 facilities, and 13 key technical issues were summarized to be solved as priorities. In the application survey (the second survey) , the leading three jobs using GBZ 1-2010 were the occupational hazards evaluation for constructive project (82.0%) , lecturing/training (65.8%) , occupational hazards monitoring (64.9%) , respectively. The high frequency used contents of GBZ 1-2010 were the sixth part "the basic hygienic requirements for workplace" (90.1%) , the fifth part "site selection, overall layout and workshop design" (87.4%) , the seventh part "the basic hygienic requirements for welfare room" (85.6%) , respectively. In the results of feasibility, scores of the fourth part "the general rules" , the fifth part "site selection, overall layout and workshop design" , the sixth part "the basic hygienic requirements for workplace" , the seventh part "the basic hygienic requirements for welfare room" , the eighth "emergency rescue" , annex A "the correct use instructions" , annex B "buffer zone standards for industrial enterprises" were 2.6, 3.1, 3.5, 3.8, 3.2, 3.3, 2.6, respectively. Among 111 questionnaires, the parts needed to be modified as priories were the fifth part "site selection, overall layout

  10. Hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Bolon, Maureen

    2011-03-01

    The toll of health care-associated infections on patients and the seeming ease of the procedure thought best able to prevent them have focused a spotlight onto hand hygiene performance. Poor performance of hand hygiene by health care workers inspires outrage in the general public. Much is understood regarding barriers to and motivators of hand hygiene performance. Guidelines encouraging use of alcohol-based hand hygiene agents have facilitated hand hygiene improvement efforts. These efforts and evidence that improved hand hygiene performance is associated with a reduction in health care-associated infections should encourage those in the hand hygiene campaigns.

  11. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 11. Use of antiseptics and sanitizers in community settings and issues of hand hygiene compliance in health care and food industries.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Michaels, Barry S; Bartleson, Charles A; Smith, Debra; Holah, John

    2010-12-01

    Hand washing with soap is a practice that has long been recognized as a major barrier to the spread of disease in food production, preparation, and service and in health care settings, including hospitals, child care centers, and elder care facilities. Many of these settings present multiple opportunities for spread of pathogens within at-risk populations, and extra vigilance must be applied. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is not always carried out effectively, and both enteric and respiratory diseases are easily spread in these environments. Where water is limited or frequent hand hygiene is required on a daily basis, such as for many patients in hospitals and astronauts in space travel, instant sanitizers or sanitary wipes are thought to be an effective way of preventing contamination and spread of organisms among coworkers and others. Most concerns regarding compliance are associated with the health care field, but the food industry also must be considered. Specific reasons for not washing hands at appropriate times are laziness, time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, and lack of involvement by companies, managers, and workers in supporting proper hand washing. To facilitate improvements in hand hygiene, measurement of compliant and noncompliant actions is necessary before implementing any procedural changes. Training alone is not sufficient for long-lasting improvement. Multiactivity strategies also must include modification of the organization culture to encourage safe hygienic practices, motivation of employees willing to use peer pressure on noncompliant coworkers, a reward and/or penalty system, and an operational design that facilitates regular hand hygiene.

  12. [Operative guidelines for the shoe industry: risk assessment and environmental hygiene].

    PubMed

    Paraluppi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Considering the most relevant factors for occupational safety and health, the Safety Check application in the footwear industry makes little and medium size factories employers able to carry out risk assessment. However, in specific cases, it is necessary to achieve an in-depth evaluation.

  13. [Protection of working mothers: operational guide document. The Marche Regional Section of the Italian Society of Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene (SIMLII) ].

    PubMed

    Alessandroni, Morena; Balzani, Barbara; Cancellieri, Francesca; Colao, Annamaria; Comai, M; Elezi, Lindita; Mengucci, Rosella; Montesi, Simona; Olivi, Cinzia; Perticaroli, Patrizia; Pettinari, A; Ruschioni, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Protection of working mothers: operational guide document. The aim of this operational guide document is to protect the health of working mothers and their babies during pregnancy, puerperium and breastfeeding. The project was developed by a technical working group which included professionals in the pertinent fields from the Workplace Prevention and Safety Services of the local Vasta-2 Area of the Marche Regional Health Service:physicians, health assistants, and nurses. It is considered to be a useful tool for risk assessment at the workplace aimed at professionals who are involved, with various duties and responsibilities, in the health care of the working mother. This paper consists of two functionally related sections, "Table of risks" and "Technical specifications". In the "Table of Risks" section, the occupational hazards for women during pregnancy or postpartum were analyzed with the highest possible degree of care. To this end the technical group provided, for each occupational hazard, its own operational suggestions, in relation to legislation, current scientific knowledge and Guidelines of other Italian Regions. The Marche Regional Section of the Italian Society of Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene (SIMLII) participated in the final draft of the entire document. The second section, "Technical Specifications", illustrates the main tasks and any risks involved in the 34 manufacturing sectors most prevalent in this area. This operational guide document is intended to be the beginning of a common strategy in public health to achieve a wider field of action in promotion and information aimed at protecting the reproductive health of working mothers.

  14. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Task III, Demonstration plant safety, industrial hygiene, and major disaster plan (Deliverable No. 35)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-03-01

    This Health and Safety Plan has been adopted by the IFG Demonstration Plant managed by Memphis Light, Gas and Water at Memphis, Tennessee. The plan encompasses the following areas of concern: Safety Plan Administration, Industrial Health, Industrial Safety, First Aid, Fire Protection (including fire prevention and control), and Control of Safety Related Losses. The primary objective of this plan is to achieve adequate control of all potentially hazardous activities to assure the health and safety of all employees and eliminate lost work time to both the employees and the company. The second objective is to achieve compliance with all Federal, state and local laws, regulations and codes. Some thirty specific safe practice instruction items are included.

  15. [Clinical hygienic substantiation for the individual biocorrection of ecologically dependent conditions in the critical population groups industrial areas of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Beletskaya, E N; Onul, N M; Glavatskaya, V I; Antonova, E V; Golovkova, T A

    2014-01-01

    In the article there is considered the problem of environmental and human body pollution with heavy metals, the effectiveness of individual biocorrection in critical population groups--pregnant females and children residing in technologically contaminated areas. It was established that, in spite of the correspondence of the content of abiotic heavy metals to their MACs in the environment, the concentration of lead and cadmium in the internal environment of the organism is 1,6-15,4 times larger than physiological norms and accompanied by substantial deficiency of essential trace elements. The similar situation in children was proved to cause the fall in mental capacity and learning ability, in pregnant females--to various complications. The obtained results were the scientific substantiation for the feasibility of performing of biocorrection for trace elements imbalance and ecologically dependent conditions in the population of the industrial region, proved its high clinical and hygienic efficiency, which is the basis for the wide introduction of pectin containing preparations with the aim to enforce the health, prevent ecologically dependent conditions and increasing the adaptive capacity of the organism.

  16. Industrial-hygiene walk-through survey report of Dow Chemical, U. S. A. Allyn's Point Plant, Gales Ferry, Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.R.; Krishnan, E.R.

    1986-05-01

    A walkthrough industrial hygiene survey of the Dow Chemical Compay Allyn's Point styrene butadiene (SB) latex-producing facility in Gales Ferry, Connecticut, was performed. Bulk polymer samples were analyzed for free-monomer emanation at ambient, highest polymer process, and highest estimated end use temperatures. Quality-control testing included purity and dimer content of incoming 1,3-butadiene and residual 1,3-butadiene content of the latex. Of 164 workers, 20 production and 13 administrative personnel worked in the SB area where 1,3-butadiene was used. Personal monitoring conducted from 1975 to 1985 showed the mean 8-hour time-weighted average exposure was 0.25 parts per million (ppm). Area monitoring showed the highest concentration, 0.56 ppm, in a reactor and a stripper area. SB latex at ambient, process, and end-use temperatures showed free monomer to be below the 0.04 nanograms per milligram limit of detection. The authors conclude that this production facility is a candidate for inclusion in an in-depth exposure survey regarding 1.3-butadiene.

  17. Industrial-hygiene report: comprehensive survey of wood-preservative treatment facility at International Paper Company, Wiggins, Mississippi. [Pentachlorophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, A.

    1980-01-05

    Workers exposures to creosote, and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were determined at the International Paper Company in Wiggins, Mississippi on August 26 and 27, 1980. The survey was part of a NIOSH study of the health effects of occupational exposure to wood preservatives. Approximately 69 of the employees at the facility were assigned to the wood production and treating process areas that were surveyed. The facility maintained an industrial hygiene and safety program. Medical services were provided by an on call physician, a full time facility nurse, and employees trained in first aid. Average PCP concentrations over the full shift ranged from 10.1 to about 25 micrograms per cubic meter, below the current occupational limit of 500 micrograms per cubic meter. Creosote air concentrations ranged from 0.045 to 0.352 micrograms per cubic meter, also below the OSHA standard of 0.2 milligrams per cubic meter. The author concludes that while exposures were below environmental criteria, they could be further reduced by shorting the work operations at the Cellon process. He also recommends minimizing skin contact and absorption from contaminated clothing.

  18. Preliminary industrial-hygiene survey report of Conley Corporation, Tulsa, Oklahoma. [4,4'-methlene-dianiline as hardening agent

    SciTech Connect

    Boeniger, M.

    1986-06-01

    In July, 1984, a preliminary industrial-hygiene survey was performed at Conley Corporation, Tulsa, Oklahoma, where 4,4'-methylene-dianiline (4,4'-MDA) is used as a hardening agent in manufacturing fiberglass epoxy pipe and pipe fittings. Air and hand contact samples from 2 of 6 workers tested showed 4,4'-MDA contamination. Workers with potential exposure wore neoprene rubber gloves. Workers with direct contact with uncured resin wore a medium-weight flock-lined neoprene glove and a heavy rubber glove over the inner glove when handling the resin. Half-face respirators were available for mixing-room workers. These respirators use combination dust/organic vapor replaceable cartridges. Detectable exposure to airborne 4,4'-MDA was noted for two individuals, the extrusion resin mixer and a winding operator at the extrusion fittings machine, 0.011 and 0.0005 mg/m/sup 3/, respectively, each below the present voluntary guideline of 0.8 mg/m/sup 3/.

  19. Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene Compared with Handwashing with Soap: A Field Study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Amy J.; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Mwanjali, Mathew; Davis, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Effective handwashing with soap requires reliable access to water supplies. However, more than three billion persons do not have household-level access to piped water. This research addresses the challenge of improving hand hygiene within water-constrained environments. The antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer, a waterless hand hygiene product, was evaluated and compared with handwashing with soap and water in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Hand sanitizer use by mothers resulted in 0.66 and 0.64 log reductions per hand of Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. In comparison, handwashing with soap resulted in 0.50 and 0.25 log reductions per hand of E. coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. Hand sanitizer was significantly better than handwashing with respect to reduction in levels of fecal streptococci (P = 0.01). The feasibility and health impacts of promoting hand sanitizer as an alternative hand hygiene option for water-constrained environments should be assessed. PMID:20134005

  20. [New methodic approach to hygienic evaluation of electromagnetic energy absorption in near-field zone of irradiation source].

    PubMed

    Perov, S Yu; Bogachova, E V; Belaya, O V

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, essential objective of hygienic evaluation of electromagnetic energy absorption of mobile radio-frequency devices is specification of new approach with consideration of russian and international regulation principles. This approach enables to ealuate correctly users' actual exposure conditions and consider energy absorption by human in near-field zone of the irradiation source. The work is aimed to study applicability of hypothesis on possible relations between magnetic part of electromagnetic field and specific absorbed capacity. This hypothesis is considered a basis for designing a new methodic approach to hygienic evaluation of individual mobile communication devices in near-field zone of the source. Analysis of the data obtained demonstrates that visible difference between suggested and classic methods decreases with higher frequency. Every studied source in its near-field zone can be characterized by optimal conditions for the suggested method usage with error less than 2 dB. The study results on relations between decreasing electromagnetic energy and specific absorbed capacity value make possible further improvement of methods controlling electromagnetic field levels in assessment of personal mobile radio communication devices.

  1. Co-digestion of dairy cattle slurry and industrial meat-processing by-products--effect of ultrasound and hygienization pre-treatments.

    PubMed

    Luste, Sami; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Luostarinen, Sari

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of a mixture of industrial animal by-products (ABP) from meat-processing in conjunction with dairy cattle slurry (mixed in a ratio of 1:3; w.w.) was evaluated at 35 °C focusing on methane production and stabilization. Three pre-treatments were applied (1) digestion with no pre-treatment (control), (2) ultrasound, and (3) thermal hygienization (70 °C, 60 min). Methane production potentials (MPP) of the untreated, ultrasound pre-treated and hygienized feed mixtures were 300, 340, and 360 m(3) CH(4)/t volatile solids (VS) added, as determined in the batch experiments. However, the specific methane productions (SMP) achieved in reactor experiments (hydraulic retention time HRT 21 d, organic loading rate OLR 3.0±0.1 kg VS/m(3) d) were 11±2% (untreated and ultrasound pre-treated) and 22±3% (hygienized) lower than the potentials. Ultrasound with the energy input of 1000 kJ/kg total solids (TS) and hygienization of the ready-made feed were the most suitable pre-treatment modes studied.

  2. Cumulative Retrospective Exposure Assessment (REA) as a predictor of amphibole asbestos lung burden: validation procedures and results for industrial hygiene and pathology estimates

    PubMed Central

    Roggli, Victor L.; Boelter, Fred W.; Rasmuson, Eric J.; Redinger, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Context A detailed evaluation of the correlation and linearity of industrial hygiene retrospective exposure assessment (REA) for cumulative asbestos exposure with asbestos lung burden analysis (LBA) has not been previously performed, but both methods are utilized for case-control and cohort studies and other applications such as setting occupational exposure limits. Objective (a) To correlate REA with asbestos LBA for a large number of cases from varied industries and exposure scenarios; (b) to evaluate the linearity, precision, and applicability of both industrial hygiene exposure reconstruction and LBA; and (c) to demonstrate validation methods for REA. Methods A panel of four experienced industrial hygiene raters independently estimated the cumulative asbestos exposure for 363 cases with limited exposure details in which asbestos LBA had been independently determined. LBA for asbestos bodies was performed by a pathologist by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and free asbestos fibers by SEM. Precision, reliability, correlation and linearity were evaluated via intraclass correlation, regression analysis and analysis of covariance. Plaintiff’s answers to interrogatories, work history sheets, work summaries or plaintiff’s discovery depositions that were obtained in court cases involving asbestos were utilized by the pathologist to provide a summarized brief asbestos exposure and work history for each of the 363 cases. Results Linear relationships between REA and LBA were found when adjustment was made for asbestos fiber-type exposure differences. Significant correlation between REA and LBA was found with amphibole asbestos lung burden and mixed fiber-types, but not with chrysotile. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for the precision of the industrial hygiene rater cumulative asbestos exposure estimates and the precision of repeated laboratory analysis were found to be in the excellent range. The ICC estimates were performed

  3. [Hygienic characteristics of the air and air microflora in the weaving mill of the wool textile industry].

    PubMed

    Garas'ko, E V; Zhuravleva, L T; Sedova, E A; Milovanova, M A

    1990-01-01

    Modern wool textile factories are characterized by hygienically inadequate labour conditions which include exceeding dust and microbe contamination of the air in the working zone and poor microclimate conditions in some shops. Basing on the studies of the air contamination sources, the contributors propose recommendations for health-related improvement of the air conditions.

  4. Body Hygiene

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Fluoridation Leadership Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Home Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / ... Care: Protect Your Eyes Hygiene-related Diseases Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Home Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / ...

  5. Collaboration of academia and industry for high field science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Y.

    2014-05-01

    Close collaboration between academia and industry is essential for opening frontiers of both science and industry. High performance photon detectors developed at industry are playing vital roles in science such as astronomy and high energy physics. Alternatively many advanced industrial and medical products came out of research in basic science. For advancement of high field science, closer collaboration between academia and industry is necessary to develop next generation high power lasers, which will also meet the needs in industry, medicine and energy.

  6. [The new methodology to produce instruments for updating occupational physician proposed by Italian Society of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene (SIMLII)].

    PubMed

    Apostoli, Pietro; Cortesi, Ilenia; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Cristaudo, Alfonso; Imbriani, Marcello; Magrini, Andrea; Mutti, Antonio; Candiani, Giulia; Daghini, Raffaella; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Isolani, Lucia; Manno, Maurizio; Mosconi, Giovanni; Ossicini, Adriano; Romano, Canzio; Dri, Pietro; Abbritti, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    Starting from the experience of last five years, during which 24 guide liens about the most important aspects of Occupational Physician activity have been produced, the Italian Society of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene (SIMLII) delegated a specific working group for updating the methodology to be adopted for guide lines and other instruments for improving and standardizing the current activity in our professional field. SIMLII produced in the context of the specific Education and Accreditation Programme for occupational physicians prepared from 2002 25 guide lines or other informative instruments on the most important and controversial themes in which our discipline is involved. They were considered and treated to meet the need to improve and standardise activities and to modify the current approach of occupational physicians and aimed not only at improving the effectiveness of preventive actions but also at constantly adopting rigorous methodologies based where possible on evidence based or on consensus procedures. The Directive of SIMLII was firmly convinced about the opportunity-necessity to critically evaluate the experience carried out during the last years, at the light of the National Program for Guide Lines edited By Italian National Health Institute since 2002 and which concerns preparation, dissemination, updating, implementation of guide lines in Medicine. The guide lines were defined as rational critical effective aid addressed to professionals and patients for health services organization. Relevant was the new Framework Act for the occupational safety and health (Decreto legislativo 81/08) too signed by the President of the Italian Republic on April 9, 2008, which for the first time includes and defines in a legislative act the different possible instruments (technical normative, good practices, guide lines). In this paper we present the new methodology defined by our Society for producing the different kind of instruments such as guide

  7. [Hygienic evaluation of the combined effect of electromagnetic fields and pesticides in experimental conditions].

    PubMed

    Chernykh, A M

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation of combined effects of some natural and anthropogenic factors that are typical of the Kursk magnetic anomaly region by means of dispersion analysis in the experiments on albino rats and mice. The resultant signs were the indices of animal deaths, nonspecific protective factors, immune responses, changes in body weight, etc. A higher geomagnetic field can modify the biological effects of exposure to agricultural chemicals. The combined effects of a static electromagnetic field with induction of 300 microT to 0.3 T and of chlorpyrifos at various concentrations (0.1, 1, 50, and 100 mg/kg) were found to potentiate the toxic properties of the pesticide. The proportion of the potentiation effects increased as the intensity of the studied factors rose. The dispersion analysis established a predominant role of chlorpyrifos in the combined effects of the factors on the death of animals, serum complementary activity, antibody- and rosette-forming cells of the spleen and other lymphoid organs. The role of a static electromagnetic field is prevalent in the formation of effects of the intensity and completeness of phagocytosis.

  8. Norwegian Field Research Projects in Industrial Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qvale, Thoralf Ulrik

    The Industrial Democracy Programme (IDP) of Norway seeks to create conditions for a self-supporting change process in industry, rather than implementing a ready-made model, believing that it is more valuable for employees to learn to change their organization than for the specific solution to be found. The central problems, therefore, have been to…

  9. [Clinical and hygienic substantiation of individual biocorrection for ecologically dependent conditions in the critical groups of the population of Ukrainian industrial areas].

    PubMed

    Beletskaya, E N; Onul, N M; Glavatskaya, V I; Antonova, E V; Golovkova, T A

    2014-01-01

    In the article there is considered the problem of pollution of the environment and human body with heavy metals, the effectiveness of individual biocorrection in critical groups of the population--pregnant women and children residing in technologically contaminated areas. In spite of the correspondence of the content of abiotic heavy metals to their MACs in the environment, the concentration of lead and cadmium in the internal environment of the organism in 1,6-15,4 times was found to exceed physiological norms that accompanied by a significant deficiency of essential trace elements. Similar situation has been proved to lead to a reduction in mental health and ability to learn in children, as well as to the various complications in pregnancy. The obtained results served as the scientific substantiation of the feasibility of biocorrection of the trace element imbalance ecological dependent states in the population of the industrial region. The proved high clinical effectiveness of this hygienic biocorrection is a scientific justification for widespread introduction of pectin preparations for health promotion, prevention of ecologically dependent states and increasing the adaptive capacity of the organism.

  10. Industrial-hygiene report: preliminary plant visit of formaldehyde-production facility at Reichhold Chemicals, Inc. , Moncure, North Carolina, September 22, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-12

    An on-site visit was made to Reichhold Chemicals, located in Moncure, North Carolina to evaluate the effectiveness of methods used to control employee exposures to formaldehyde and other hazardous chemicals. Fourteen of the 29 employees of this company were involved in the production of formaldehyde and resin. Formaldehyde was manufactured by the patented Formox process, using a metal oxide catalyst. Harmful exposures could occur during methanol unloading and handling, and during the vaporizing and converting of methanol, during cooling of formaldehyde gases in the aftercooler, during entrance of the cooled formaldehyde gases to the absorber during transfer for storage, and during truck-loading operations. Each of these hazardous times was effectively controlled by the carefully engineered safety programs in place at this site. All leaks which were detected appeared to be minor. The industrial-hygiene program demonstrated a good awareness at the corporate level of the procedures needed to protect employees. Some problems did exist with worker cooperation with health and safety requirements. It was suggested that proper ventilation be installed in the quality-control laboratory and that eyewash and shower stations be added within the facility.

  11. Industrial-hygiene report, walk-through survey, papaya packing/shipping facilities, Hilo, Hawaii, July 1983. [Ethylene dibromide exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Clapp, D.

    1983-07-01

    Worker exposure to ethylene dibromide (EDB) was investigated at three papaya packing and shipping facilities in Hilo, Hawaii. Breathing-zone samples were collected in the three facilities over a three day period. Blind spikes were submitted as a control on time and temperature effects. Blank samples were also prepared. Spike results reflected the effects of time and temperature in shipment from Hawaii to Massachusetts. All spikes were roughly comparable and showed a recovery of about 68%. Overnight laboratory results were adjusted upward by 72% and NIOSH laboratory results by 68%. Six out of 38 samples exceeded the NIOSH recommended amount of 130 ppb. The author concludes that there is a chronic, low-concentration exposure to EDB for all workers in the papaya industry in Hilo. An epidemiological study of reproductive and cytogenetic effects of EDB exposure on these workers is recommended.

  12. Bronchial hygiene therapy.

    PubMed

    Peruzzi, W T; Smith, B

    1995-01-01

    Bronchial hygiene therapy is useful and effective in the presence of careful patient evaluation, clear definition of therapeutic goals, and application of appropriate modalities. This article defines the variable bronchial hygiene modalities and discusses their indications, contraindications, and applications. Prophylactic and therapeutic bronchial hygiene modalities, diagnostic methods associated with bronchial hygiene therapy, inhaled antibiotic therapy, and therapist driven protocols are also addressed.

  13. [Peculiarities of regulation of legal relations in the field of environmental and hygiene safety of the population in The Russian Federation at the present stage].

    PubMed

    Karelin, A O; Eremin, G B; Lomtev, A Iu

    2012-01-01

    The results of the comparative legal analysis of the legislation of the Russian Federation in the field of environmental security have been presented, theoretical and legal basis for the subsequent development of recommendations for the development and harmonization of legislation in the field of providing environmental security and environmental protection has been defined. The formation of ecological civil law and conceptual questions of territory development guaranteeing ecological safety have been considered. Objects of the study were international treaties, Constitution of Russian Federation, Law on Environmental Protection, Land Code and other laws containing positions concerning ecological safety and environmental protection. Identified as a result of the present study the contradictions in the area of law allow to develop and submit proposals for the improvement of legal regulation in the field of environmental and hygienic safety.

  14. Adaptation of two commercially available DNA probes for the detection of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus to selected fields of dairy hygiene--an exemplary study.

    PubMed

    Kneifel, W; Manafi, M; Breit, A

    1992-03-01

    The application of two commercially available colorimetric DNA hybridization tests (GENE-TRAK E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus) to selected aspects of dairy hygiene was investigated. Bacterial isolates of different origin, naturally contaminated cheese varieties, nonfat dry milk, milk concentrates, artificially contaminated milk and raw milks from udder quarters were examined. Based on the observation that the sensitivity of the E. coli DNA probe was comparable to that of the beta-D-glucuronidase-based fluorescence reaction (with 4-methyl-umbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide) of E. coli strains in Fluorocult lauryl sulfate broth, a Most Probable Number technique for enumerating E. coli in cheese using the DNA probe was developed. Another specific DNA probe was applied for the detection of S. aureus as a mastitis agent. By using a modified sample preparation, specific diagnosis of this microorganism in milk from udder quarters was enabled within 6 hours. This procedure is recommended to be used in screening tests. Based on the examples presented the potential of these tests in several fields of hygiene was illustrated.

  15. Industry-wide studies report of an in-depth industrial-hygiene survey of the Dow Chemical, Michigan Division, Midland, Michigan, September 11-13, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Greife, A.

    1985-08-01

    An indepth survey was conducted at Dow Chemical Company. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the acrylamide and polyacrylamide production facilities as part of an industry-wide assessment of acrylamide exposures. Three production facilities were involved in the production of acrylamide monomer or polymer. Breathing-zone, general-area, and wipe samples were collected in all three facilities for a single day shift and analyzed for acrylamide. The highest airborne acrylamide concentrations (breathing zone, 0.119 cu m and general area, 0.054mg/cu m, were found in the monomer facility. Most of the general air samples were below the limit of detection, 0.002mg/cu m. All but two of the wipe samples were below the limit of detection, 0.5 microgram (microg) per sample. The author concludes that all samples collected during the survey were below any standard or recommended evaluation criteria for acrylamide. Evaluating work practices to reduce potential dermal exposure is recommended.

  16. Clothing and personal hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finogenov, A. M.; Azhayev, A. N.; Kaliberdin, G. V.

    1975-01-01

    The biomedical maintenance of astronauts is discussed in terms of personal hygiene. Principal characteristics and general requirements are described which must be followed in perfecting a system of hygienic practices and in devising means to maintain personal hygiene, flight clothing, underwear, bedding, and medical-domestic equipment for manned space flights of varying durations. Factors discussed include: disposable clothing, thermal protection, oral hygiene, cleansing of the skin, and grooming of the hair.

  17. Update on hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M

    2013-05-01

    Recent developments related to hand hygiene include new test methods for evaluating hand hygiene products, improvements in alcohol-based hand rubs, novel methods of hand antisepsis, and new strategies and technologies for monitoring hand hygiene practices among health care personnel.

  18. Operation and design of selected industrial process heat field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, D. W.

    1981-02-01

    The DOE program of solar industrial process heat field tests has shown solar energy to be compatible with numerous industrial needs. Both the operational projects and the detailed designs of systems that are not yet operational have resulted in valuable insights into design and hardware practice. Typical of these insights are the experiences discussed for the four projects reviewed. Future solar IPH systems should benefit greatly not only from the availability of present information, but also from the wealth of operating experience from projects due to start up in 1981.

  19. [Psychology of everyday hygiene].

    PubMed

    Bergler, R

    2008-11-01

    The present publication discusses the following hypotheses: 1) With a continual increase in the state of scientific knowledge and the hygienic risk factors (infectious diseases, multi-resistant pathogens, age structure of the population with increasing risk of infection, etc.) a hygiene behaviour with increasing deficits develops. 2) Essential hygiene behaviour is blocked by irrational psychological defensive strategies: (a) hygiene biases (childhood illnesses as stabilisers for health development; hygiene as a health risk; overrating chemical-physical environmental risks as e.g. triggers for causing illness), (b) one's own personal risk balance: objective risks are minimised in the likelihood of their occurrence. 3) Hygiene education: the development of a prophylaxis-oriented lifestyle lies (a) in the model behaviour of parents, (b) in conveying the reasons for sensible behaviour, (c) in continually checking behaviour and (d) in appropriate sanctioning when deficits are perceived. 4) Conveying hygiene knowledge is an essential but inadequate prerequisite for corresponding hygiene behaviour. Motivators for hygiene behaviour are the following: (a) parental model behaviour and development of personal responsibility, (b) establishing simple, short, understandable and--for specific risk areas--specific rules of behaviour, (c) conveying hygiene information in the language of the target group, (d) integrating hygiene behaviour in a preventive lifestyle which must be inspired by the quality of life and well-being occurring and being experienced.

  20. Guideline Implementation: Hand Hygiene.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Judith L

    2017-02-01

    Performing proper hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis is essential to reducing the rates of health care-associated infections, including surgical site infections. The updated AORN "Guideline for hand hygiene" provides guidance on hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, the wearing of fingernail polish and artificial nails, proper skin care to prevent dermatitis, the wearing of jewelry, hand hygiene product selection, and quality assurance and performance improvement considerations. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel make informed decisions about hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis. The key points address the necessity of keeping fingernails and skin healthy, not wearing jewelry on the hands or wrists in the perioperative area, properly performing hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, and involving patients and visitors in hand hygiene initiatives. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  1. Dental hygiene in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Luciak-Donsberger, C; Krizanová, M

    2004-08-01

    This article reports on the development of the dental hygiene profession in Slovakia from a global perspective. The aim is to inform about current developments and to examine, how access to qualified dental hygiene care might be improved and how professional challenges might be met. For an international study on dental hygiene, secondary source data were obtained from members of the House of Delegates of the International Federation of Dental Hygienists (IFDH) or by fax and e-mail from experts involved in the national professional and educational organization of dental hygiene in non-IFDH member countries, such as Slovakia. Responses were followed-up by interviews, e-mail correspondence, visits to international universities, and a review of supporting studies and reference literature. Results show that the introduction of dental hygiene in Slovakia in 1992 was inspired by the delivery of preventive care in Switzerland. Initiating local dentists and dental hygienists strive to attain a high educational level, equitable to that of countries in which dental hygiene has an established tradition of high quality care. Low access to qualified dental hygiene care may be a result of insufficient funding for preventive services, social and cultural lack of awareness of the benefits of preventive care, and of limitations inherent in the legal constraints preventing unsupervised dental hygiene practice. These may be a result of gender politics affecting a female-dominated profession and of a perception that dental hygiene is auxiliary to dental care. International comparison show that of all Eastern European countries, the dental hygiene profession appears most advanced in Slovakia. This is expressed in high evidence-based academic goals, in extensive work with international consultants from the Netherlands and Switzerland, in annual congresses of high professional quality, and in the establishment of a profession, which has not been introduced in all Western EU countries.

  2. Applied fields for energy conservation, water treatment, and industrial applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reimers, R.S.; Bock, S.F.; White, L.E.

    1986-06-01

    A detailed evaluation was performed on the use of applied fields (nonionizing radiations, ultrasound, magnetic fields, etc.) for industrial waste treatment, wastewater treatment, and disinfection. Other industrial uses of applied fields and biological considerations were also studied. The evaluation was conducted in the following phases: literature review and personal contacts, papers from field and laboratory professionals, and a workshop with contributed papers. (DLC)

  3. Personal hygiene and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    PubMed

    Turabelidze, George; Lin, Mei; Wolkoff, Barbara; Dodson, Douglas; Gladbach, Stephen; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2006-03-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections outside the healthcare setting are an increasing concern. We conducted a case-control study to investigate an MRSA outbreak during 2002-2003 in a Missouri prison and focused on hygiene factors. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, and hygiene practices of study participants was collected by interview and medical record review. Logistic regression was used to evaluate MRSA infection in relation to hygiene factors individually and as a composite hygiene score; potential confounding factors were controlled. Selected MRSA isolates were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). MRSA infection was significantly associated with a low composite hygiene score. Transmission among prison inmates appeared to be responsible for this outbreak. PFGE analysis showed that isolates were indistinguishable and associated with community-onset MRSA infections in other US prisons. Improving hygiene practices and environmental conditions may help prevent and interrupt future MRSA outbreaks in prison settings.

  4. Adult feminine hygiene practices.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, B S

    1996-08-01

    Adult feminine hygiene practices are the focus of this exploratory descriptive study. In a sample of 193 women, the typical respondent lived in the Southeast and was a single student who was 23 years of age, and White. Body cleansing, feminine hygiene, and menses management practices were examined. It was found that handwashing varied according to bodily involvement or specific feminine hygiene practices. Assorted menses management products were used for menses management and were used when the woman was not menstruating. The results of this study suggest that it might be possible for health care providers to teach women safe and economical health care practices, such as not douching and handwashing before and after use of menses management products to prevent infections.

  5. Accreditation in Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Accrediting, Washington, DC.

    The Council on Dental Education cooperates with the American Dental Hygienists' Association in developing educational requirements for schools of dental hygiene. To be eligible for accreditation, schools must operate on a non-profit basis. A school applying for accreditation completes a previsitation questionnaire concerning its program. The…

  6. Hygienic drainage for healthcare.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Peter Jennings, technical director for ACO Building Drainage, which specialises in the development of corrosion-resistant drainage systems and building products, looks at the key issues to consider when specifying and installing pipework and drainage for hygiene-critical environments such as hospitals and other healthcare facilities.

  7. Chemical hygiene plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This plan was written to administer and monitor safety measures and chemical hygiene principles in the TAC Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action Project sample preparation facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It applies to toxic and/or hazardous materials to radioactive materials.

  8. Prospectus for Dental Hygiene. April 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Hygienists' Association, Chicago, IL.

    A prospectus providing a rational basis for decision and action in the field of dental hygiene is presented, noting that all occupations are obliged to assess their value to society and take whatever actions are indicated to fulfill their social contract. A philosophical and conceptual foundation for change is examined. Three chapters focus on the…

  9. FIELD STUDY IN INDUSTRY FOR THE PREPARATION OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS TEACHERS. FINAL REPORT, VOLUME 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HASTINGS, JAMES R.; AND OTHERS

    THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS PROJECT WERE TO DEVELOP A COURSE MODEL AND THE ACCOMPANYING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR AN INDUCTIVE STUDY OF THE NATURE AND ORGANIZATION OF INDUSTRY IN AN UNDERGRADUATE INDUSTRIAL ARTS TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM. A STRUCTURE FOR A MODEL CURRICULAR COMPONENT WAS CREATED AND TESTED ON FOUR STUDENT GROUPS DURING 2 YEARS. PHASE…

  10. History of dental hygiene research.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Denise M

    2013-01-01

    Dental hygiene is defined as the science and practice of the recognition, treatment and prevention of oral diseases. The history of dental hygiene research is considered in the context of the development of the discipline and an emerging infrastructure. Research-related events supporting the growth and maturation of the profession are considered from the early years to the most recent. The benefits of preventive oral health services provided by dental hygienists have been supported by research, and the practice of dental hygiene has expanded as a result of research findings since its inception 100 years ago. Dental hygienists' engagement in research, however, did not begin until the 1960s as research associates or administrators, primarily with dental researchers as primary investigators. The Journal of Dental Hygiene (JDH) has provided information for dental hygiene practice since 1927, and has been the primary venue for dissemination of dental hygiene research since 1945. Graduate education in dental hygiene at the master's degree level and the work of early dental hygiene researchers led to the first conference on dental hygiene research in 1982. Over 30 years later, dental hygiene has established a meta-paradigm and defined conceptual models, built an initial infrastructure to support research endeavors and contributed much to the development of dental hygiene as a unique discipline. A doctoral degree in the discipline, continued theory-based research, initiatives to foster collaborations between dental hygiene and other researchers and enhanced capabilities to attract funding to support large scale studies are goals that must be attained through the efforts of future researchers to address the needs for additional development in the discipline of dental hygiene. Dental hygiene research supports the growing discipline and its value to society.

  11. Field survey analysis of the public's cognition on the new energy industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Q. F.; Song, Y.

    2016-08-01

    The public enjoy an important role in the development of China's new energy industry. However, the role has not attracted sufficient attention. By the way of field investigation, the paper acquired the first hand data of the public cognition on the China's new energy industry. Survey data showed that the public enjoyed awareness of China's new energy industry to some extent. And the public had optimistic expectations on the future development of new energy industry. Moreover, there were obvious differences in the degree of public's familiarity with different new energy varieties. The education level and age of the individual public had a significant impact on his awareness of China's new energy industry. To raise public participation in China's new energy industry, it entailed highlighting the status of the public in China's new energy industry, increasing the publicity of the new energy industry with different measures for different types of public group.

  12. [Current state and prospects of development of railway hygiene].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A; Suvorov, S V

    1999-01-01

    Current planning in railway hygiene is conducted according to the special requirements of railway industry. Specific medical and prophylactic programs specified are on safety arrangements of railway workers, environmental protection in connection with intensive functioning of railways. The authors represent major prospective trends of research in occupational medicine and industrial ecology for railway transport.

  13. Chemical Hygiene Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayor, Antoinette C.

    1999-01-01

    The Chemical Management Team is responsible for ensuring compliance with the OSHA Laboratory Standard. The program at Lewis Research Center (LeRC) evolved over many years to include training, developing Standard Operating Procedures (SOPS) for each laboratory process, coordinating with other safety and health organizations and teams at the Center, and issuing an SOP binder. The Chemical Hygiene Policy was first established for the Center. The Chemical Hygiene Plan was established and reviewed by technical, laboratory and management for viability and applicability to the Center. A risk assessment was conducted for each laboratory. The laboratories were prioritized by order of risk, higher risk taking priority. A Chemical Management Team staff member interviewed the lead researcher for each laboratory process to gather the information needed to develop the SOP for the process. A binder containing the Chemical Hygiene Plan, the SOP, a map of the laboratory identifying the personal protective equipment and best egress, and glove guides, as well as other guides for safety and health. Each laboratory process has been captured in the form of an SOP. The chemicals used in the procedure have been identified and the information is used to reduce the number of chemicals in the lab. The Chemical Hygiene Plan binder is used as a training tool for new employees. LeRC is in compliance with the OSHA Standard. The program was designed to comply with the OSHA standard. In the process, we have been able to assess the usage of chemicals in the laboratories, as well as reduce or relocate the chemicals being stored in the laboratory. Our researchers are trained on the hazards of the materials they work with and have a better understanding of the hazards of the process and what is needed to prevent any incident. From the SOP process, we have been able to reduce our chemical inventory, determine and implement better hygiene procedures and equipment in the laboratories, and provide

  14. [Scientific approaches to modernization of the regulatory framework in the field of hygiene of planning and building of settlements in Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Makhnyuk, V M

    2014-01-01

    In the paper there are investigated and analyzed the new laws and regulations of sanitary and town planning legislation, introduced in 2011-2012 which concern issues of planning and building of settlements. It is established that the functions of the State for Sanitary and Epidemiological Oversight have been given up and the necessity of incorporation in the Law of Ukraine "On ensuring sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population" alterations which touch upon the implementation of a new approach to the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Oversight of the objects, namely for the placement of objects with low and moderate epidemic risk accordingly to hygienic declarations, objects with high risk--using an approach directed to the risk assessment of the impact of such facilities on public health.

  15. Hygiene and cleanability: a focus on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Detry, Jean G; Sindic, Marianne; Deroanne, Claude

    2010-08-01

    Hygiene is a permanent concern for food industries since they must commercialize high quality products in order to comply with the legislation and the expectations of the consumers. The hygienic state of a surface is thus a critical parameter with respect to the performances of the production process and to the final quality of the product. For this reason, cleaning and disinfection are essential. However, the efficiency of the cleaning process will not only depend on the optimization of the process by itself and on the equipment design but also on the characteristics of the soiled surface i.e. mainly its roughness, surface chemical composition, and surface energy. The relation between these parameters and the cleanability are presented here, mainly for food applications. Some examples of existing easy-to-clean and self-cleaning surfaces based on the modification of these surface parameters are also presented.

  16. Improving oral hygiene for patients.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Debbie; Hampson, Victoria; Queen, Kerry; Kirk, Donna; Clarkson, Jan; Young, Linda

    2015-01-13

    Systematic reviews and patient safety initiatives recommend that oral hygiene should be part of routine patient care. However, evidence suggests it is often neglected in hospitals and care homes. Research recommends encouraging beliefs that support oral hygiene, and teaching nurses appropriate skills, as necessary prerequisites to implementing best practice in hospital wards. This article describes a pilot study of an educational workshop on oral hygiene. Results from the pilot study suggest that this workshop is a feasible intervention for a service-wide trial. The literature suggests that other interventions are required to complement this approach if nurses are to make oral hygiene a priority in daily patient care.

  17. Metric Conversion Costs in Industrial Education Career Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Andrew; Preitz, Clarence

    1976-01-01

    The study investigated metric conversion costs using two mailed instruments to obtain frequency and cost data on equipment and textbook holdings from 39 schools in Alberta. Detailed results indicated an overall conversion cost of $1,000,000 with mechanics and construction-fabrication career fields accounting for most of the total. (Author/MS)

  18. Clinical Guidelines. Dental Hygiene Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Bonnie

    This manual contains information concerning the policies and procedures of the Southern Illinois University-Carbondale Dental Hygiene Clinic. The manual is presented in a question/answer format for the information and convenience of dental hygiene students in the program, and is intended to answer their questions concerning clinical policies and…

  19. [Cell phone communication: hygienic characteristics, biological action, standardization (a review)].

    PubMed

    Gudina, M V; Volkotrub, L P

    2010-01-01

    The paper considers the topical issues concerning the functioning of the cellular communication system. It provides the hygienic characteristics of its individual elements. The factors influencing the size of an electromagnetic field generated by mobile phones are stated. Research data on the impact of electromagnetic radiation from a mobile phone on users' health are reviewed. The pivots of present-day Russian hygienic rating regarding the permissible exposures to nonionizing electromagnetic energy generated by the elements of the cellular communication system are identified.

  20. Reading Teacher's Text Selection for Industrial Arts and Other Technical Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matt, Stephen R.

    To provide learners with the most reliable information, individuals and committees responsible for text selection examine texts for classroom use in steps. Since very few people have the specialized knowledge of all the technical fields like drafting, electronics, or graphics that make up the field of Industrial Arts, a committee is required to…

  1. An industrial light-field camera applied for 3D velocity measurements in a slot jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredkin, A. V.; Shestakov, M. V.; Tokarev, M. P.

    2016-10-01

    Modern light-field cameras have found their application in different areas like photography, surveillance and quality control in industry. A number of studies have been reported relatively low spatial resolution of 3D profiles of registered objects along the optical axis of the camera. This article describes a method for 3D velocity measurements in fluid flows using an industrial light-field camera and an alternative reconstruction algorithm based on a statistical approach. This method is more accurate than triangulation when applied for tracking small registered objects like tracer particles in images. The technique was used to measure 3D velocity fields in a turbulent slot jet.

  2. Remote detection of carbon monoxide by FTIR for simulating field detection in industrial process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qiankun; Liu, Wenqing; Zhang, Yujun; Gao, Mingguang; Xu, Liang; Li, Xiangxian; Jin, Ling

    2016-10-01

    In order to monitor carbon monoxide in industrial production, we developed a passive gas radiation measurement system based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and carried out infrared radiation measurement experiment of carbon monoxide detection in simulated industrial production environment by this system. The principle, condition, device and data processing method of the experiment are introduced in this paper. In order to solve the problem of light path jitter in the actual industrial field, we simulated the noise in the industrial environment. We combine the advantages of MATHEMATICA software in the aspects of graph processing and symbolic computation to data processing to improve the signal noise ratio and noise suppression. Based on the HITRAN database, the nonlinear least square fitting method was used to calculate the concentration of the CO spectra before and after the data processing. By comparing the calculated concentration, the data processed by MATHEMATICA is reliable and necessary in the industrial production environment.

  3. Hygiene Fast Facts: Information on Water-Related Hygiene

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water Fluoridation Leadership Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Home Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Information on Water-related Hygiene Handwashing It is estimated that washing ...

  4. Space Station personal hygiene study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prejean, Stephen E.; Booher, Cletis R.

    1986-01-01

    A personal hygiene system is currently under development for Space Station application that will provide capabilities equivalent to those found on earth. This paper addresses the study approach for specifying both primary and contingency personal hygiene systems and provisions for specified growth. Topics covered are system definition and subsystem descriptions. Subsystem interfaces are explored to determine which concurrent NASA study efforts must be monitored during future design phases to stay up-to-date on critical Space Station parameters. A design concept for a three (3) compartment personal hygiene facility is included as a baseline for planned test and verification activities.

  5. [Hygiene as a behavior problem].

    PubMed

    Bergler, R; Borneff, M

    1987-03-01

    The subject of the study is a systematizing analysis of present research concerned with the barriers which prevent scientific findings about hygiene from being carried out and which hamper the obvious adoption of hygienically and psycho-hygienically relevant prophylactic measures. A general interpretive model with explanatory value for health- and hygiene-related behavior is being developed. Future studies will particularly have to clarify what significance and what interpretative relevance do the diverse influencing factors have for a particular person in a particular position and situation and how in the course of one's biography even something like lifestyles of hygienic behavior develop and change. For the necessity of improvement as regards the hygienic status in various realms of life the knowledge about existing barriers is a basic essential. The following quantities and constructs pass into the theoretic interpretive model which should also provide the basis for further evolvement of theories as well as the starting point for specific research hypotheses but not least for the development of specific research and evaluation designs: Standard of information, informational behavior and quality of information. The individual risk assessment: A function of the subjective importance and probability that benefit and cost factors of prophylactic behavior will occur. Additional influencing factors essential to the development of a desirable health- and hygiene-related behavior are: Objective shortcomings with regard to prophylaxis: deficits of the hygienic research including the deficits concerning the development of feasible and universally applicable disinfection methods. Hazards connected to prophylaxis: Objective risks with regard to prophylaxis (disinfection methods which may cause allergies, which involve problems with the compatibility of materials and so forth) and psychological risks (impaired relations between physician and patient due to the wearing of a

  6. [Hygienic assessment of waste of soda production].

    PubMed

    Samutin, N M; Vaisman, Y I; Rudakova, L V; Kalinina, E V; Glushankova, I S; Batrakova, G M

    2013-01-01

    The object of investigations was soda industry waste. Slimes are formed at slimes storage which occupy considerable areas and are considered to be the source of permanent impact on the hydrosphere objects. Slimes storage placement within settlement boundaries and water protection zone of large watercourses leads to the deterioration of sanitary, hygienic and environmental situation and to the rising of risks to health of communities. Waste processing with getting new materials on the base of soda industry waste with wide application is seems to be one of the way for problem solving. It is essential to take into account sanitary and hygienic characteristics of slimes within justifying possible directions of its use. Thus, researches concerning assessment of physical, chemical and toxicological waste characteristics are considered to be actual. The aim of researches is to examine physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of soda production slimes for justifying directions of its use including delivery of new materials respondent to the all regulatory sanitary and hygienic requirements. Experimental investigations of assessment physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics of slimes were carried out according to standard methods. Within assessment of toxicological slimes characteristics the following test-objects were used: Ceriodaphnia affinis, Paramecium caudatum. As a result of investigations watered slime samples were determined to be referred to the 4th hazard level (low-hazard) waste; samples with preliminary mechanical dehydration are referred to the 5th hazard level (practically nonhazardous) waste for environment. These are correspond to the 3rd and 4th hazard level according to sanitary regulations, respectively.

  7. Inexpensive and Time-Efficient Hand Hygiene Interventions Increase Elementary School Children's Hand Hygiene Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Michelle; White, George L.; Kim, Han S.

    2008-01-01

    Routine hand hygiene has been cited by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a cost-effective and important hygiene measure in preventing the spread of infectious diseases. Several studies have explored children's hand hygiene habits, effects of scheduled hand hygiene, hand hygiene environmental…

  8. Field Testing: Independent, Accredited Testing and Validation for the Wind Industry (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    This fact sheet describes the field testing capabilities at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). NREL's specialized facilities and personnel at the NWTC provide the U.S. wind industry with scientific and engineering support that has proven critical to the development of wind energy for U.S. energy needs. The NWTC's specialized field-testing capabilities have evolved over 30 years of continuous support by the U.S. Department of Energy Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program and long standing industry partnerships. The NWTC provides wind industry manufacturers, developers, and operators with turbine and component testing all in one convenient location. Although industry utilizes sophisticated modeling tools to design and optimize turbine configurations, there are always limitations in modeling capabilities, and testing is a necessity to ensure performance and reliability. Designs require validation and testing is the only way to determine if there are flaws. Prototype testing is especially important in capturing manufacturing flaws that might require fleet-wide retrofits. The NWTC works with its industry partners to verify the performance and reliability of wind turbines that range in size from 400 Watts to 3 megawatts. Engineers conduct tests on components and full-scale turbines in laboratory environments and in the field. Test data produced from these tests can be used to validate turbine design codes and simulations that further advance turbine designs.

  9. Engineering and Industrial Fields. Revised Summary Report: Technical Employment in Northeast Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William E.; And Others

    The document is one of five summary reports, all part of a Pre-Technical Curriculum Planning Project for secondary students who aspire to technical employment or post secondary technical education. This report represents the results of an assessment of the northeast Florida area's technical occupations in engineering and industrial fields. A…

  10. Field Heat Treatment Technician: Competency Profile. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 20908.1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The graduate of the Field Heat Treatment Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able: (1) use heat treatment equipment to apply heat to materials in order to change a material's properties; (2) Use their knowledge of the properties of heat, industry codes and specifications to determine how heat treatment will…

  11. Curriculum Guidelines for Periodontics for Dental Hygiene Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    American Association of Dental Schools guidelines consist of an introduction to the field and its interrelationships with other fields of dental hygiene; an overview of the curriculum; outlines of primary educational goals, prerequisites, and specific content-related and clinical behavioral objectives; and recommendations concerning sequencing,…

  12. Systemic mistakes in hand hygiene practice in Ukraine: detection, consequences and ways of elimination

    PubMed Central

    Klymenko, Iryna; Kampf, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Every year, millions of people around the world suffer from different infectious diseases, considerable part of which are hospital-acquired infections. WHO considers hand hygiene as a priority measure aimed to reduce the level of infection. We evaluated various aspects related to the situational behavior and prioritization regarding hand hygiene measures among the healthcare workers of Ukraine. Method: Identification of system mistakes in hand hygiene was carried out first of all by direct and indirect observation of the activities of medical and pharmaceutical personnel in their everyday practice as well as during their participation in trainings on routine hand hygiene. Questionnaires also were used to estimate the level of hand hygiene compliance of participants of the study. During this period 112 training courses, 315 master-classes and presentations on proper hand hygiene were realized. The target audience included health care workers of medical centers, clinics, maternity hospitals, health care organizations and staff of pharmacies and pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises in all regions of Ukraine. 638 respondents took part in anonymous survey on hand hygiene practice. Results: The most common mistakes were to regard hand washing and hand disinfection equally, to wash hands before doing a hand disinfection, to neglect the five moments for hand hygiene and to ignore hand hygiene before and after wearing protective gloves. Practitioners, medical attendants, pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry workers highlighted the need for practical and understandable instructions of various hand hygiene procedures, including the clarification of the possible technical mistakes. This became a ground for us to create individual master classes on hand hygiene for each cluster of healthcare workers. Conclusions: Changing hand hygiene behavior and attitude is possible by beginning to observe clinical practice and by involving healthcare workers in teaching and training

  13. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  14. Industrial hazardous waste management in Turkey: current state of the field and primary challenges.

    PubMed

    Salihoglu, Güray

    2010-05-15

    A holistic evaluation of a country's hazardous waste management (HWM) practices is useful in identifying the necessary actions to focus on. Based on an analysis of industrial hazardous waste (HW) generation in Turkey, this paper attempts to critically evaluate and report current Turkish HWM practices and discuss the primary challenges to be addressed. The generation of industrial HW for Turkey reported in 2004 was 1.195 million tons, which accounted for 7% of the total industrial solid waste (ISW) generated by the manufacturing industry, and for nearly 4.9% of the total solid waste generated in the country. The HW generated by the top five manufacturing product categories--basic metals, chemicals and chemical products, food and beverages, coke and refined petroleum, motor vehicles and trailers--accounted for 89.0% of total industrial HW. 21% of the HW generated in 2004 was recycled or reused, and 6% was sold or donated, whereas 73% was sent to ultimate disposal. 67% of the HW sent to ultimate disposal was disposed of at municipal landfills. The total capacity of the existing regional HW facilities is 212,500 tons/year, which accounts for about 24% of the HW to be disposed. Turkey has identified the HW problem in the country and enacted legislation, designated a lead agency, and promulgated rules and regulations. Several new initiatives are planned for improving HW management nationally; however, some HWM problems will be persistent due to previous and existing industrial development plans. These development policies led to the concentration of industry in regions marked by precious agricultural fields and high population density. This occurred because the government previously exhibited a default prioritization towards industrial development, leading to insufficient implementation of regulations on HW generators. Some of the problems may also be rooted in other countries that allow illegal trans boundary HW movements despite international regulations.

  15. Dental hygiene's heritage: 1927-1970.

    PubMed

    Sisty-LePeau, N; Nielsen-Thompson, N

    1989-10-01

    Original manuscripts published in the Journal of the American Dental Hygienists' Association (JADHA), (now JDH) from 1927-1970 provide a historical perspective on dental hygiene's professional development. While many of the problems facing hygiene today are not new, there is evidence of progress in addressing them. The problems considered are: (1) hygiene's unique occupational role, (2) independent practice, (3) baccalaureate education, and (4) responsibility for licensure and practice. Support is provided regarding hygiene's unique contribution to society's oral health needs. Further, the article documents progress toward assuming professional responsibility as expressed in hygiene's relationship with dentistry, and in the expansion of hygiene's educational base and research efforts.

  16. Role of veterinarians in modern food hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Matyáš, Z.

    1978-01-01

    Veterinary services and veterinary education and training must keep pace with the constantly changing patterns of agriculture and food processing. Changes in methods of animal production are associated with many problems of food processing and food quality. Veterinary supervision of the animal feed industry and of meat and distribution is essential. Quality testing of meat, milk, and eggs requires the introduction of suitable routine sampling systems, laboratory procedures, and complex evaluation procedures. Food hygiene problems have changed in recent years not only as a result of new methods of animal production, but also because of changes in food processing technology and in the presentation of food to the consumer, increased environmental pollution, increased international trade, and increased tourist travel. Food hygienists must adopt an active and progressive policy and change the scope of food control from a purely negative measure into a positive force working towards improved food quality and the avoidance of losses during production. A modern food hygiene programme should cover all stages of production, processing, and distribution of food and also other ingredients, additives and the water used for production and processing. Veterinarians should also be involved in the registration and licensing of enterprises and this should take into account the premises, the procedures to be used, new techniques in animal husbandry, machines and equipment, etc. In order to facilitate the microbiological analysis of foodstuffs, new mechanized or automated laboratory methods are required, and consideration must be given to adequate sampling techniques. PMID:310716

  17. Significance of the Hygiene Charter towards different sectors in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lee, A; Cheng, F F K; Yuen, H S K; Ho, M; Ngan, W P; Suen, Y P; Au, S M Y; Li, S N; Tso, C Y; Ng, P P Y; Wong, Y P; Keung, M W; Lo, A S C; Wong, W S; Siu, D C H; Yuen, W K; Mok, K K; Fung, W Y; Wong, K K

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of SARS in March 2003 has resulted in an increased interest, worldwide in emerging infectious diseases. The SARS experience provided us a lesson on the importance of promoting hygienic practices among individuals and different working sectors. In Hong Kong, a voluntary organization called the UNITE proposed a Hygiene Charter which aimed at taking hygiene to new levels. This action has been supported by individuals and different sectors including the Personal and Family, Management, Buildings, Catering, Education, Finance and Commercial, Industrial, Medical and Health, Public Transportation, Social Welfare, Sports and Culture and Tourism. As promotion and maintenance of environmental health requires input from different sectors, the signing of the Hygiene Charter provides an opportunity for individuals and the public to show their pledge and commitment to good hygiene practices. As a result, with environment improvement and good infectious disease control measures, prevention of epidemics of infectious diseases is deemed to be possible.

  18. Low-field permanent magnets for industrial process and quality control.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J; Gladden, L F; Chandrasekera, T C; Fordham, E J

    2014-01-01

    In this review we focus on the technology associated with low-field NMR. We present the current state-of-the-art in low-field NMR hardware and experiments, considering general magnet designs, rf performance, data processing and interpretation. We provide guidance on obtaining the optimum results from these instruments, along with an introduction for those new to low-field NMR. The applications of lowfield NMR are now many and diverse. Furthermore, niche applications have spawned unique magnet designs to accommodate the extremes of operating environment or sample geometry. Trying to capture all the applications, methods, and hardware encompassed by low-field NMR would be a daunting task and likely of little interest to researchers or industrialists working in specific subject areas. Instead we discuss only a few applications to highlight uses of the hardware and experiments in an industrial environment. For details on more particular methods and applications, we provide citations to specialized review articles.

  19. Thermodynamic properties for applications in chemical industry via classical force fields.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Carrion, Gabriela; Hasse, Hans; Vrabec, Jadran

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties of fluids are of key importance for the chemical industry. Presently, the fluid property models used in process design and optimization are mostly equations of state or G (E) models, which are parameterized using experimental data. Molecular modeling and simulation based on classical force fields is a promising alternative route, which in many cases reasonably complements the well established methods. This chapter gives an introduction to the state-of-the-art in this field regarding molecular models, simulation methods, and tools. Attention is given to the way modeling and simulation on the scale of molecular force fields interact with other scales, which is mainly by parameter inheritance. Parameters for molecular force fields are determined both bottom-up from quantum chemistry and top-down from experimental data. Commonly used functional forms for describing the intra- and intermolecular interactions are presented. Several approaches for ab initio to empirical force field parameterization are discussed. Some transferable force field families, which are frequently used in chemical engineering applications, are described. Furthermore, some examples of force fields that were parameterized for specific molecules are given. Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods for the calculation of transport properties and vapor-liquid equilibria are introduced. Two case studies are presented. First, using liquid ammonia as an example, the capabilities of semi-empirical force fields, parameterized on the basis of quantum chemical information and experimental data, are discussed with respect to thermodynamic properties that are relevant for the chemical industry. Second, the ability of molecular simulation methods to describe accurately vapor-liquid equilibrium properties of binary mixtures containing CO(2) is shown.

  20. Magnetic field orientation dependence of critical current in industrial Nb 3Sn strands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, T.; Cloez, H.

    In usual superconducting devices such as magnets for NMR, the magnetic field is perpendicular to the superconducting strand axis. But in some special devices, such as magnets for the toroidal field system of fusion machines, the strands can experience any field orientation. For NbTi strands, the pinning force is dependent on the field orientation because of the drawing process (Takacs, S., Polak, M. and Krempasky, L., Critical currents of NbTi tapes with differently oriented anisotropic defects, Cryogenics, 1983, 23, 153-159). In the case of Nb 3Sn strands, the draw and react process suggests that the pinning force is isotropic. In fact, preliminary experiments have shown the contrary, which is why the magnetic field orientation dependence of the critical current for two types of industrial Nb 3Sn strands has been measured. These measurements have been performed for seven field orientations at field strengths up to 20 T. A clear anisotropic effect has been observed, which cannot be explained by Kramer's pinning law. The results are in very good agreement with an empirical law proposed in a recent study by Takayasu et al. (Takayasu, M., Montgomery, D.B. and Minervini, J.V., Effect of magnetic field direction on the critical current of twisted multifilamentary superconducting wires, Inst. of Phys. Conf. Ser., 1997, 158, 917-920). The parameters to be used in this law could be specific to the manufacturing process.

  1. Parenting Education - Health and Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.

    The second in a series on parenting education for American Indians, the booklet offers information on health and hygiene for the mother-to-be and the newborn baby. Chapters include care during pregnancy, mother's weight, mother's health, feeding newborns, washing the baby, baby's early diet, and baby's health care. (ERB)

  2. Health & Hygiene in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snapp, Mary

    Developed by educators from the Emily Griffith Opportunity School with input from employees--both workplace literacy students and nonstudents--this guide contains activities for teaching health and hygiene on the job. Flowing from a perspective of respecting cultural diversity and guided by a common thread of good work practices, the activities…

  3. Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    A reference guide to laws, rules, and regulations that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in New York State is presented. In addition to identifying licensing requirements/procedures for dentists and dental hygienists, general provisions of Title VIII of the Education Law are covered, along with state management, professional misconduct,…

  4. Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    This handbook, developed as a reference guide, contains the texts of laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department governing dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state. It also describes licensure requirements and includes complete application forms and instructions for obtaining a license and first registration…

  5. Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The handbook contains laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state. It describes licensure requirements and includes complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist. Applicants are…

  6. Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

  7. Occupational Medicine and Hygiene: applied research in Italy.

    PubMed

    Copello, F; Garbarino, S; Messineo, A; Campagna, M; Durando, P

    2015-08-05

    The goal of Occupational Medicine and Hygiene is that of ensuring safety, health and well-being at workplaces, mainly assessing and preventing existing occupational risks. Scientific research in this field can provide useful arguments and further evidence upon which effective, efficient and sustainable policies and preventive measures have to be chosen and applied by the occupational physician in work-life. This paper summarizes four original studies, conducted in different professional settings across Italy, focusing on critical items, such as stress and violence, biological risks and sleep hygiene. The knowledge obtained can be useful to orientate proper preventive programs aimed at improving workplace health.

  8. [Hygiene and Public Health - Significance in Medicine and Society].

    PubMed

    Exner, M; Wiesmüller, G A

    2015-07-01

    The presented review attempts an historical overview on the development of Public Health in Germany with special reference to the medical specialty of Hygiene. This development is put in perspective to current international developments with a special emphasis on the programmatic work in the field of Public Health of the European Union.

  9. Educational Hygiene. Bulletin, 1923, No. 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Willard S.

    1923-01-01

    The early history of educational hygiene was largely the history of "school hygiene." The name was accurately indicative of character--the hygiene of the school as an environment rather than as a "community of children" learning under the leadership of teachers to know and live health. Environment bulked large; the education of individuals for…

  10. 28 CFR 551.6 - Personal hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Personal hygiene. 551.6 Section 551.6... Grooming § 551.6 Personal hygiene. The Warden shall make available to an inmate those articles necessary for maintaining personal hygiene....

  11. 28 CFR 551.6 - Personal hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Personal hygiene. 551.6 Section 551.6... Grooming § 551.6 Personal hygiene. The Warden shall make available to an inmate those articles necessary for maintaining personal hygiene....

  12. 28 CFR 551.6 - Personal hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal hygiene. 551.6 Section 551.6... Grooming § 551.6 Personal hygiene. The Warden shall make available to an inmate those articles necessary for maintaining personal hygiene....

  13. 28 CFR 551.6 - Personal hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Personal hygiene. 551.6 Section 551.6... Grooming § 551.6 Personal hygiene. The Warden shall make available to an inmate those articles necessary for maintaining personal hygiene....

  14. 28 CFR 551.6 - Personal hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Personal hygiene. 551.6 Section 551.6... Grooming § 551.6 Personal hygiene. The Warden shall make available to an inmate those articles necessary for maintaining personal hygiene....

  15. A Cognitive Task Analysis for Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Cheryl A.; Beemsterboer, Phyllis L.; Johnson, Lynn A.; Mislevy, Robert J.; Steinberg, Linda S.; Breyer, F. Jay

    2000-01-01

    As part of the development of a scoring algorithm for a simulation-based dental hygiene initial licensure examination, this effort conducted a task analysis of the dental hygiene domain. Broad classes of behaviors that distinguish along the dental hygiene expert-novice continuum were identified and applied to the design of nine paper-based cases…

  16. Assessing Oral Hygiene in Hospitalized Older Veterans.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Poor oral health for all older adults can result in higher risk for heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and oral cancer. Findings from this study indicated older veterans needed to improve their oral hygiene habits but barriers to oral hygiene performance prevented them from receiving and performing oral hygiene measures.

  17. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of professional oral hygiene].

    PubMed

    Olesov, E E; Shaĭmieva, N I; Kononenko, V I; Bersanov, R U; Monakova, N E

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal status and oral hygiene indexes were studied in 125 young employee of Kurchatov Institute. Oral hygiene values dynamic was assessed after professional oral hygiene in persons with unsatisfactory oral hygiene at baseline examination. When compared with the same values in the absence of professional oral hygiene procedures the results allowed calculating cost-effectiveness rate for biannual professional oral hygiene.

  18. Service robotics: an emergent technology field at the interface between industry and services.

    PubMed

    Ott, Ingrid

    2012-12-01

    The paper at hand analyzes the economic implications of service robots as expected important future technology. The considerations are embedded into global trends, focusing on the interdependencies between services and industry not only in the context of the provision of services but already starting at the level of the innovation process. It is argued that due to the various interdependencies combined with heterogenous application fields, the resulting implications need to be contextualized. Concerning the net labor market effects, it is reasonable to assume that the field of service robotics will generate overall job creation that goes along with increasing skill requirements demanded from involved employees. It is analyzed which challenges arise in evaluating and further developing the new technology field and some policy recommendations are given.

  19. Radiation Field Forming for Industrial Electron Accelerators Using Rare-Earth Magnetic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, A. N.; Khankin, V. V.; Shvedunov, N. V.; Shvedunov, V. I.; Yurov, D. S.

    2016-09-01

    The article describes the radiation field forming system for industrial electron accelerators, which would have uniform distribution of linear charge density at the surface of an item being irradiated perpendicular to the direction of its motion. Its main element is non-linear quadrupole lens made with the use of rare-earth magnetic materials. The proposed system has a number of advantages over traditional beam scanning systems that use electromagnets, including easier product irradiation planning, lower instantaneous local dose rate, smaller size, lower cost. Provided are the calculation results for a 10 MeV industrial electron accelerator, as well as measurement results for current distribution in the prototype build based on calculations.

  20. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields of uninterruptible power supply industry workers.

    PubMed

    Teşneli, N Berna; Teşneli, Ahmet Y

    2014-12-01

    There is an increasing concern that exposure to extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may cause or contribute to adverse health effects. To assess exposure to ELF EMFs, electric and magnetic field spot measurements were performed extensively at the workplace of a worldwide uninterruptible power supply (UPS) factory. The measurements were carried out in order to get the electric and magnetic field exposure results in real working situations in test areas, production lines and power substations. The electric and magnetic fields reached up to 992.0 V m(-1) and 215.6 μT in the test areas, respectively. The fields existed up to 26.7 V m(-1) and 7.6 μT in the production lines. The field levels in the vicinity of the power substations did not exceed 165.5 V m(-1) and 65 μT. The data presented are useful in determining the occupational exposure levels of UPS industry workers. The measurements are below the reference levels recommended by the guideline published in 2010 by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and action levels of the directive adopted in 2013 by European Parliament and Council.

  1. [Complex hygienic evaluation of working conditions and environmental protection at glass works].

    PubMed

    Bakhritdinov, Sh S; Akhmadaliev, R U

    2011-01-01

    The working conditions and sanitary-and-hygienic state of the Kvarts glass works in the town of Kuvasai were studied. Harmful industrial factors were shown to influence on the incidence of disease with temporary disability; atmospheric emission of pollutants and discharge of sewage were calculated. The results of the analysis were assessed in the hygienic point and necessary recommendations to improve working conditions and the environment.

  2. Hand hygiene--comparison of international recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wendt, C

    2001-08-01

    The value of hand hygiene for the prevention of cross-infection was first observed in the middle of the 19th century. Since then, which procedure is the most suitable for hand hygiene has been repeatedly discussed and several different guidelines and recommendations have been published. The aim of this review is to compare different recommendations for hand hygiene regarding technique and indication. Medline, the internet and a personal library were searched to obtain as many written recommendations as possible. In addition, a small questionnaire was sent by e-mail to 20 international colleagues. As a result, written recommendations from 10 countries could be compared. Recommended methods of hand hygiene include handwashing (washing hands with plain soap), hygienic handwash (washing hands with medicated soap) and hygienic hand-rub (use of antiseptic rubs). In most countries handwashing and hygienic handwash are the methods of choice and only in central European countries is hygienic hand-rub the preferred technique. Situations in which performance of hand hygiene is recommended are comparable. However, no single indication is recommended in all guidelines. Hand hygiene is most often recommended before performing invasive procedures and after microbial contamination. Guidelines should be clear and easy to follow for them to become standard of care. Thus, guidelines are needed that do not leave to the health care worker a decision as to whether hand hygiene is indicated.

  3. [Clothing and protective gear for nursing occupations from the hygienic viewpoint: consensus of the DGKH section "Hygiene in Inpatient and Outpatient Care and Rehabilitation", May 2nd 2005].

    PubMed

    2005-09-01

    Both in inpatient and outpatient care institutions often questions arise what kind of working clothes and additional protective equipment nurses have to wear in specific situations. To overcome these uncertainties, the section "Hygiene in inpatient and outpatient care and rehabilitation" of the German society for hospital hygiene (DGKH) has developed an overview, that shows which elements of working clothes and protective devices, especially gloves, should be used in the different fields of nursing practice. The comprehensive and well structured information should be considered as minimum standard for hygienic purposes.

  4. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanzani, Claudio

    This report provides an initial analysis of the occupational and qualification structures in the field of environmental protection in the Italian metal and chemical industries. The first two chapters review the legislative background, situation in industry, and provision of environmental education and training. The third chapter presents results…

  5. [DEONTOLOGICAL ISSUES IN RAILWAY HYGIENE].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A

    2015-01-01

    There are presented the main ethical and deontological problems encountered in practice and research activities of the hygienist in transport. There is shown the importance of strict compliance with hygienic standards, disregard for the principle of "technical attainability", the necessity of continuous training, improvement of skills of sanitary-educational activity and readiness to solve emerging ethical issues in connection with the development of scientific and technical progress.

  6. Dynamics of Industrial Forests in Southeast United States Assessed using Satellite and Field Inventory Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Tao, X.; Zhao, F. A.; Schleeweis, K.; Ling, P. Y.; Goward, S. N.; Masek, J. G.; Michaelis, A.

    2015-12-01

    The southeast United States (SE-US) is dominated by tree plantations and other forms of industrial forests that provide vital socio-ecological services to the human society. Most of these forests are managed to maximize economic outcome, and hence are often subject to intensive management practices and have different harvest-regrowth cycles as compared with natural forest ecosystems. Through the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) study, we have mapped forest disturbances for the conterminous United States using dense time series Landsat observations. The derived map products revealed that more than 50% of the forests in SE-US were harvested or disturbed by other forms of human or natural disturbance events at least once between 1986 and 2010. These products are being analyzed together with ancillary GIS data sets and field inventory data to identify industrial forests and to quantify their logging intensity, timber output, recovery rate, and the harvest-regrowth cycle. The derived results will be summarized in this presentation, along with discussions of the underlying environmental and management factors that may drive the spatio-temporal dynamics of the industrial forests in SE-US.

  7. Control of predators in industrial scale microalgae cultures with Pulsed Electric Fields.

    PubMed

    Rego, D; Redondo, L M; Geraldes, V; Costa, L; Navalho, J; Pereira, M T

    2015-06-01

    This work describes the utilization of Pulsed Electric Fields to control the protozoan contamination of a microalgae culture, in an industrial 2.7 m(3) microalgae photobioreactor. The contaminated culture was treated with Pulsed Electric Fields, PEF, for 6h with an average of 900 V/cm, 65 μs pulses of 50 Hz. Working with recirculation, all the culture was uniformly exposed to the PEF throughout the assay. The development of the microalgae and protozoan populations was followed and the results showed that PEF is effective on the selective elimination of protozoa from microalgae cultures, inflicting on the protozoa growth halt, death or cell rupture, without affecting microalgae productivity. Specifically, the results show a reduction of the active protozoan population of 87% after 6h treatment and 100% after few days of normal cultivation regime. At the same time, microalgae growth rate remained unaffected.

  8. Variations in feminine hygiene practices of military women in deployed and noncombat environments.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, B S; Wardell, D W; Yoder, L H; Connelly, L M; Ternus, M; Pitts, K; Kouzekanani, K

    2001-02-01

    There is limited information on how military women manage feminine hygiene practices in combat and noncombat environments. The purpose of this study was to describe feminine hygiene practices of military women in deployed and noncombat (normal) environments. A nonexperimental descriptive research design was used. The study used a survey questionnaire, the Deployed Female Health Practice Questionnaire, which was developed specifically for military women to report their experiences with hygiene issues. Significant differences between deployed and normal environments were found in the areas of types of menses management products used and in douching and handwashing practices. Continuing education about safe feminine hygiene practices will help military women cope better in deployed (field) environments. Recommendations suggest further study on intervention strategies for hygiene management practices.

  9. Soil microbial respiration and PICT responses to an industrial and historic lead pollution: a field study.

    PubMed

    Bérard, Annette; Capowiez, Line; Mombo, Stéphane; Schreck, Eva; Dumat, Camille; Deola, Frédéric; Capowiez, Yvan

    2016-03-01

    We performed a field investigation to study the long-term impacts of Pb soil contamination on soil microbial communities and their catabolic structure in the context of an industrial site consisting of a plot of land surrounding a secondary lead smelter. Microbial biomass, catabolic profiles, and ecotoxicological responses (PICT) were monitored on soils sampled at selected locations along 110-m transects established on the site. We confirmed the high toxicity of Pb on respirations and microbial and fungal biomasses by measuring positive correlations with distance from the wall factory and negative correlation with total Pb concentrations. Pb contamination also induced changes in microbial and fungal catabolic structure (from carbohydrates to amino acids through carboxylic malic acid). Moreover, PICT measurement allowed to establish causal linkages between lead and its effect on biological communities taking into account the contamination history of the ecosystem at community level. The positive correlation between qCO2 (based on respiration and substrate use) and PICT suggested that the Pb stress-induced acquisition of tolerance came at a greater energy cost for microbial communities in order to cope with the toxicity of the metal. In this industrial context of long-term polymetallic contamination dominated by Pb in a field experiment, we confirmed impacts of this metal on soil functioning through microbial communities, as previously observed for earthworm communities.

  10. Hygienic Practices among Food Vendors in Educational Institutions in Ghana: The Case of Konongo.

    PubMed

    Monney, Isaac; Agyei, Dominic; Owusu, Wellington

    2013-07-09

    With the booming street food industry in the developing world there is an urgent need to ensure food vendors adhere to hygienic practices to protect public health. This study assessed the adherence to food hygiene practices by food vendors in educational institutions in Konongo, Ghana. Structured questionnaires, extensive observation and interviews were used for the study involving 60 food vendors from 20 basic schools. Attributable to the influence of school authorities and the level of in-training of food vendors, the study points out that food vendors in educational institutions generally adhered to good food hygiene practices, namely, regular medical examination (93%), protection of food from flies and dust (55%); proper serving of food (100%); good hand hygiene (63%); and the use of personal protective clothing (52%). The training of food vendors on food hygiene, instead of the level of education had a significant association (p < 0.05) with crucial food hygiene practices such as medical examination, hand hygiene and protection of food from flies and dust. Further, regulatory bodies legally mandated to efficiently monitor the activities of food vendors lacked the adequate capacity to do so. The study proposes that efforts should be geared towards developing training programmes for food vendors as well as capacity building of the stakeholders.

  11. [Ecological and hygienic problems of nanotech progress].

    PubMed

    Latyshevskaia, N I; Strekalova, A S

    2012-01-01

    In article necessity of development of new directions of researches--nanoecology (ecology of nanoindustry) and nanohygiene (hygiene of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials) is proved. On the basis of the spent review key ecological and hygienic problems of nanoindustrial development are systematized and also debatable questions are allocated. The conclusion is drawn on necessity of an intensification of studying of ecological and hygienic aspects of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials.

  12. [Hygienic aspects of animal carcass disposal].

    PubMed

    Bulling, E

    1983-09-01

    Summarising, it can be stated that the disposal of carcases primarily represents a problem of epidemic hygiene but it also concerns fodder and food hygiene as well as the hygiene of waste water and air purity. Factories under the obligation to satisfy the sanitary demands mentioned and ensure low-cost operation at the same time, are occasionally confronted with great difficulties. In view of the present upward trend of the energy costs, these problems will not become less.

  13. [Ergonomics, hygiene and rationality: the "electric house" of Monza (1930)].

    PubMed

    Colombo, A; Porro, A; Franchini, A F

    2012-01-01

    The "Electric House" of Monza is seen as one of the early example of rationalist architecture produced in Italy. Sponsored by the Italian Edison General Company for Electricity and produced by the Group 7, it was built for the "IV International Triennial Exhibition of Decorative and Modern Industry Arts", held in Monza in 1930. It was conceived as an environment in which the designers showed their interest towards new concepts of rationalist hygiene. Special care was taken to select the environments in relation to the surrounding nature and the needs of life of the house inhabitants: new materials more comfortable, hygienic and rational were inserted. In the kitchen, for example, the architect P. Bottoni, created a space in which the housewife's work was marked by lower energy expenditure, thanks to a careful study of the actions and movements according to the principles of taylorism, here applied to domestic work.

  14. Kaiser Permanente National Hand Hygiene Program

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Sue; Barron, Dana; Becker, Linda; Canola, Teresa; Salemi, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Hand hygiene has historically been identified as an important intervention for preventing infection acquired in health care settings. Recently, the advent of waterless, alcohol-based skin degermer and elimination of artificial nails have been recognized as other important interventions for preventing infection. Supplied with this information, the National Infection Control Peer Group convened a KP Hand Hygiene Work Group, which, in August 2001, launched a National Hand Hygiene Program initiative titled “Infection Control: It’s In Our Hands” to increase compliance with hand hygiene throughout the Kaiser Permanente (KP) organization. Design: The infection control initiative was designed to include employee and physician education as well as to implement standard hand hygiene products (eg, alcohol degermers), eliminate use of artificial nails, and monitor outcomes. Results: From 2001 through September 2003, the National KP Hand Hygiene Work Group coordinated implementation of the Hand Hygiene initiative throughout the KP organization. To date, outcome monitoring has shown a 26% increase in compliance with hand hygiene as well as a decrease in the number of bloodstream infections and methycillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. As of May 2003, use of artificial nails had been reduced by 97% nationwide. Conclusions: Endorsement of this Hand Hygiene Program initiative by KP leadership has led to implementation of the initiative at all medical centers throughout the KP organization. Outcome indicators to date suggest that the initiative has been successful; final outcome monitoring will be completed in December 2003. PMID:26704605

  15. Preliminary operational results of the low temperature solar industrial process heat field tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutscher, C. F.; Davenport, R. L.

    1980-06-01

    Six solar industrial process heat field tests have been in operation for a year or more, three are hot water systems and three are hot air systems. All are low temperature projects (process heat at temperatures below 212 F). Performance results gathered by each contractor's data acquisition system are presented and project costs and problems encountered are summarized. Flat plate, evaluated tube, and line focus collectors are all represented with collector array areas ranging from 2500 to 21,000 sq ft. Collector array efficiencies ranged form 12% to 36% with net system efficiencies from 8% to 33%. Low efficiencies are attributable in some cases to high thermal losses and, for the two projects using air collectors, are due in part to high parasitic power consumptions. Problems included industrial effluents on collectors, glazing and absorber surface failures, excessive thermal losses, freezing and overheating, control problems, and data acquisition system failure. With design and data acquisition costs excluded, costs of the projects ranged from $25/sq ft to $87/ sq ft and $499/(MBtu/yr) to $1537/(MBtu/yr).

  16. Issues in Dental Hygiene Education and Practice: Perceptions and Concerns of Dental Hygiene Program Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League for Innovation in the Community Coll., Los Angeles, CA.

    A survey was conducted by the League for Innovation in the Community College and Johnson County Community College to determine the state of the dental hygiene profession. The study sought the opinions of all dental hygiene program administrators in the United States and Canada regarding the principal concerns facing dental hygiene education and…

  17. Risk analysis and meat hygiene.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, S C

    1993-12-01

    Meat hygiene consists of three major activities: post-mortem inspection; monitoring and surveillance for chemical hazards; and maintenance of good hygienic practice throughout all stages between slaughter and consumption of meat. Risk analysis is an applied science of increasing importance to these activities in the following areas: facilitating the distribution of pre-harvest, harvest and post-harvest inspection resources, proportional to the likelihood of public health and animal health hazards; establishing internationally-harmonized standards and specifications which are consistent and science-based; and improving the safety and wholesomeness of meat and meat products in local and international trade. Risk analysis, in one form or another, is well developed with respect to establishing standards and specifications for chemical hazards; methods for risk analysis of post-mortem meat inspection programmes are beginning to emerge. However, risk analysis of microbiological hazards in meat and meat products presents particular difficulties. All areas of application currently suffer from a lack of international agreement on risk assessment and risk management methodology.

  18. Hand hygiene and skin health.

    PubMed

    Kownatzki, E

    2003-12-01

    The high rate of hand problems associated with the hand hygiene of medical professions is due to a combination of damaging factors: (1) the removal of barrier lipids by detergent cleaning and alcohol antisepsis followed by a loss of moisturizers and stratum corneum water and (2) the overhydration of the stratum corneum by sweat trapped within gloves. Together the facilitate the invasion of irritants and allergens which elicit inflammatory responses in the dermis. Among the lipids and water-soluble substances removed are natural antibacterials. Their loss leads to increased growth of transient and pathogenic micro-organisms which jeapordizes the very intention of skin hygiene. The kinetics of damage and its repair, and epidemiological evidence suggest that modern synthetic detergents as used in foaming liquid cleansers are the major offender. Conversely, the replacement of detergents with non-detergent emulsion cleansers has been shown to be effective in reducing the prevalence of hand problems among hospital staff. Presently recommended hand antisepsis reduces the risks to patients, but puts the burden on the health care provider. Rather than fighting micro-organisms at the expense of the skin's health, the skin and its own defences should be considered a collaborator in combating infectious diseases.

  19. Comparison of Standard Culture-Based Method to Culture-Independent Method for Evaluation of Hygiene Effects on the Hand Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Zapka, C; Leff, J; Henley, J; Tittl, J; De Nardo, E; Butler, M; Griggs, R; Fierer, N; Edmonds-Wilson, S

    2017-03-28

    Hands play a critical role in the transmission of microbiota on one's own body, between individuals, and on environmental surfaces. Effectively measuring the composition of the hand microbiome is important to hand hygiene science, which has implications for human health. Hand hygiene products are evaluated using standard culture-based methods, but standard test methods for culture-independent microbiome characterization are lacking. We sampled the hands of 50 participants using swab-based and glove-based methods prior to and following four hand hygiene treatments (using a nonantimicrobial hand wash, alcohol-based hand sanitizer [ABHS], a 70% ethanol solution, or tap water). We compared results among culture plate counts, 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted directly from hands, and sequencing of DNA extracted from culture plates. Glove-based sampling yielded higher numbers of unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but had less diversity in bacterial community composition than swab-based sampling. We detected treatment-induced changes in diversity only by using swab-based samples (P < 0.001); we were unable to detect changes with glove-based samples. Bacterial cell counts significantly decreased with use of the ABHS (P < 0.05) and ethanol control (P < 0.05). Skin hydration at baseline correlated with bacterial abundances, bacterial community composition, pH, and redness across subjects. The importance of the method choice was substantial. These findings are important to ensure improvement of hand hygiene industry methods and for future hand microbiome studies. On the basis of our results and previously published studies, we propose recommendations for best practices in hand microbiome research.IMPORTANCE The hand microbiome is a critical area of research for diverse fields, such as public health and forensics. The suitability of culture-independent methods for assessing effects of hygiene products on microbiota has not been demonstrated. This is the first

  20. 9 CFR 416.5 - Employee hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATORY... Employee hygiene. (a) Cleanliness. All persons working in contact with product, food-contact surfaces, and product-packaging materials must adhere to hygienic practices while on duty to prevent adulteration...

  1. 9 CFR 416.5 - Employee hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATORY... Employee hygiene. (a) Cleanliness. All persons working in contact with product, food-contact surfaces, and product-packaging materials must adhere to hygienic practices while on duty to prevent adulteration...

  2. 9 CFR 416.5 - Employee hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATORY... Employee hygiene. (a) Cleanliness. All persons working in contact with product, food-contact surfaces, and product-packaging materials must adhere to hygienic practices while on duty to prevent adulteration...

  3. 9 CFR 416.5 - Employee hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATORY... Employee hygiene. (a) Cleanliness. All persons working in contact with product, food-contact surfaces, and product-packaging materials must adhere to hygienic practices while on duty to prevent adulteration...

  4. 9 CFR 416.5 - Employee hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATORY... Employee hygiene. (a) Cleanliness. All persons working in contact with product, food-contact surfaces, and product-packaging materials must adhere to hygienic practices while on duty to prevent adulteration...

  5. Varroa Sensitive Hygiene and Drone Brood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bees have been bred to express high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH), which is the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped worker brood. This hygienic behavior is a complex interaction of bees and brood in which brood cells sometimes are inspected, and then brood is either removed (...

  6. [Problems of radiation hygiene in railway transport].

    PubMed

    Freĭman, E S

    1995-01-01

    Railway radiation hygiene is a modern trend of research. The main problems in this sphere are as follows: hygienic assessment of utilization of railway sources in railway objects; safe transportation of radioactive agents; prevention of accidents in railway transport; radiobiological examinations of workers, etc.

  7. Model Teacher - School Dental Hygiene Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lowell W.

    The purpose of this study, which was carried out during the 1972-73 school year at three parochial schools in the Houston area, was to determine the effectiveness of the Toothkeeper Program, a multimedia program of oral hygiene training carefully developed and packaged to establish effective long-term dental hygiene practice. The study population…

  8. [The last twenty years of hygiene in research and teaching].

    PubMed

    Fara, G M

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of the research topics in the last twenty years made it clear that Italian research in the field of hygiene and public health has moved from the traditional fields of infectious diseases and environmental pollution to include also chronic diseases, organization and evaluation of health services, genomics in epidemiology, health technology assessment and health impact evaluation. In the same period, teaching of hygiene and public health has been profoundly innovated. Degrees for non-medical health operators, many of whom strictly connected with the field of public health such as nurses, health visitors, public health laboratory technicians, are now granted by medical schools; the MD degree has also been innovated with strong addition of humanities and preventive disciplines; and the post-graduate School of Preventive Medicine has been brought to 5 years, transformed into a fully professional specialization and regulated by requisites and standards granted by both Ministries of University and Health and surveilled by National and Regional Control Bodies. Beginning 1999, a strong age renovation took place for hygiene professors, with the advancement of many young people. But this process has been interrupted after 2007, and the economic crisis now under way, together with the recent modification of the age limits for retirement of professors, now reduced from 75 to 70 years, will probably bring their number below a safety limit for many years to come. Only a revision of teaching procedures will allow the "survivors" to respond to the teaching needs of the future.

  9. [Aspects valued by nursing professionals in regard to personal body hygiene and the patient's body hygiene].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Eloíde André; Garcia, Telma Ribeiro; de Sá, Lenilde Duarte

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive survey aimed at identifying which aspects of body hygiene are valued by a nursing staff both in regard to personal body hygiene and to patients body hygiene. This survey has been conducted inside eight public health institutions, and the sample consisted of 126 nursing professionals, corresponding to 12.8% of a total of 986 people of the nursing personnel in such institutions. When considering personal body hygiene, the number of nail and hair care related quotes was higher than the number of answers concerning basic aspects such as hands hygiene, and this fact has called our attention. In patients body hygiene, a shower was the highest regarded aspect by the nursing staff; oral hygiene by registered nurses and nursing aids; and nail care by registered nurses and nursing technicians.

  10. It's not all about me: motivating hand hygiene among health care professionals by focusing on patients.

    PubMed

    Grant, Adam M; Hofmann, David A

    2011-12-01

    Diseases often spread in hospitals because health care professionals fail to wash their hands. Research suggests that to increase health and safety behaviors, it is important to highlight the personal consequences for the actor. However, because people (and health care professionals in particular) tend to be overconfident about personal immunity, the most effective messages about hand hygiene may be those that highlight its consequences for other people. In two field experiments in a hospital, we compared the effectiveness of signs about hand hygiene that emphasized personal safety ("Hand hygiene prevents you from catching diseases") or patient safety ("Hand hygiene prevents patients from catching diseases"). We assessed hand hygiene by measuring the amount of soap and hand-sanitizing gel used from dispensers (Experiment 1) and conducting covert, independent observations of health care professionals' hand-hygiene behaviors (Experiment 2). Results showed that changing a single word in messages motivated meaningful changes in behavior: The hand hygiene of health care professionals increased significantly when they were reminded of the implications for patients but not when they were reminded of the implications for themselves.

  11. Cancer incidence and magnetic field exposure in industries using resistance welding in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Hakansson, N; Floderus, B; Gustavsson, P; Johansen, C; Olsen, J

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate cancer incidence in workers exposed to high levels of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF). Methods: A cohort based on the engineering industry was established. Industries assumed to use resistance welding in production were chosen in order to increase the prevalence of high exposed subjects and to reduce the influence of confounding factors. All men and women employed in these branches during 1985–94 were selected, 537 692 men and 180 529 women. Occupation, based on census information from 1980, 1985, and 1990, was linked to a job exposure matrix on ELF-MF. Four exposure groups were used by stratifying on mean workday ELF-MF exposure, using the lowest exposure group as reference. Cancer incidence was obtained by linkage to the Swedish Cancer Registry. Results: Men in the very high exposure group showed an increased incidence of tumours of the kidney, pituitary gland, and biliary passages and liver; for these cancer sites an exposure–response relation was indicated. Women in the very high exposure group showed an increased incidence of astrocytoma I–IV, with a clear exposure–response pattern. An association was suggested in the high exposure group only, for cancer of the corpus uteri and multiple myeloma. Decreased risks in the very high exposure group among men were found for cancer of the colon and connective tissue/muscle. Conclusions: The results on cancer of the liver, kidney, and pituitary gland among men are in accordance with previous observations. Regarding brain tumours and leukaemia, the outcome for women provided further support of an association. The hypothesis of a biological mechanism involving the endocrine system was partly supported. PMID:12107298

  12. Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Berkner, K.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan (CHSP) is to provide specific guidance to all LBL employees and contractors who use hazardous chemicals. This Plan, when implemented, fulfills the requirements of both the Federal OSHA Laboratory Standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) for laboratory workers, and the Federal OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200) for non-laboratory operations (e.g., shops). It sets forth safety procedures and describes how LBL employees are informed about the potential chemical hazards in their work areas so they can avoid harmful exposures and safeguard their health. Generally, communication of this Plan will occur through training and the Plan will serve as a the framework and reference guide for that training.

  13. "Dictating the suitable way of life": mental hygiene for children and workers in socialist Mexico, 1934-1940.

    PubMed

    Molina, Andrés Ríos

    2013-01-01

    After the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920), an ambitious project of national reconstruction began in which education and health were two priorities in the consolidation of a new nation. In this context of social, cultural, and political transformation, mental hygiene was a field that made it possible to articulate the professional practice of psychiatrists with the project of the nation promoted by postrevolutionary governments. In Mexico, the mental hygiene movement was headed by the same doctors who professionalized the practice of psychiatry and made it a specialized field of knowledge. The first generation of psychiatrists managed to integrate mental hygiene into health and education policies during the socialist administration of president Lázaro Cárdenas; a phenomenon that made evident the articulation between mental hygiene, social medicine, and nationalist discourse. Discussion will focus on proposals made from the perspective of mental hygiene as a function of two social sectors regarded as priorities by the Cárdenas government: children and workers.

  14. [Urban industrial contaminated sites: a new issue in the field of environmental remediation in China].

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiao-Yong; Chong, Zhong-Yi; Yan, Xiu-Lan; Zhao, Dan

    2011-03-01

    Contamination of urban industrial lands is a new environmental problem in China during the process of upgrade of industrial structure and adjustment of urban layout. It restricts the safe re-use of urban land resources, and threatens the health of surrounding inhabitants. In the paper, the market potential of contaminated-site remediation was known through analysis of spatial distribution of urban industrial sites in China. Remediation technologies in the Occident which were suitable for urban industrial contaminated sites were discussed and compared to evaluate their superiority and inferiority. And then, some advices of remediation technologies for urban industrial contaminated sites in China were proposed.

  15. Occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in surface waters near industrial hog operation spray fields.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, S M; Myers, K W; Heaney, C D; Larsen, J; Hall, D; Miller, M B; Stewart, J R

    2016-09-15

    Industrial hog operations (IHOs) have been identified as a source of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). However, few studies have investigated the presence of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus in the environment near IHOs, specifically surface waters proximal to spray fields where IHO liquid lagoon waste is sprayed. Surface water samples (n=179) were collected over the course of approximately one year from nine locations in southeastern North Carolina and analyzed for the presence of presumptive MRSA using CHROMagar MRSA media. Culture-based, biochemical, and molecular tests, as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry were used to confirm that isolates that grew on CHROMagar MRSA media were S. aureus. Confirmed S. aureus isolates were then tested for susceptibility to 16 antibiotics and screened for molecular markers of MRSA (mecA, mecC) and livestock adaptation (absence of scn). A total of 12 confirmed MRSA were detected in 9 distinct water samples. Nine of 12 MRSA isolates were also multidrug-resistant (MDRSA [i.e., resistant to ≥3 antibiotic classes]). All MRSA were scn-positive and most (11/12) belonged to a staphylococcal protein A (spa) type t008, which is commonly associated with humans. Additionally, 12 confirmed S. aureus that were methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) were recovered, 7 of which belonged to spa type t021 and were scn-negative (a marker of livestock-adaptation). This study demonstrated the presence of MSSA, MRSA, and MDRSA in surface waters adjacent to IHO lagoon waste spray fields in southeastern North Carolina. To our knowledge, this is the first report of waterborne S. aureus from surface waters proximal to IHOs.

  16. Glyphosate degradation by immobilized bacteria: field studies with industrial wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Hallas, L E; Adams, W J; Heitkamp, M A

    1992-04-01

    Immobilized bacteria have been shown in the laboratory to effectively remove glyphosate from wastewater effluent discharged from an activated sludge treatment system. Bacterial consortia in lab columns maintained a 99% glyphosate-degrading activity (GDA) at a hydraulic residence time of less than 20 min. In this study, a pilot plant (capacity, 45 liters/min) was used for a field demonstration. Initially, activated sludge was enriched for microbes with GDA during a 3-week biocarrier activation period. Wastewater effluent was then spiked with glyphosate and NH4Cl and recycled through the pilot plant column during start-up. Microbes with GDA were enhanced by maintaining the pH at less than 8 and adding yeast extract (less than 10 mg/liter). Once the consortia were stabilized, the column capacity for glyphosate removal was determined in a 60-day continuous-flow study. Waste containing 50 mg of glyphosate per liter was pumped at increasing flow rates until a steady state was reached. A microbial GDA of greater than 90% was achieved at a 10-min hydraulic residence time (144 hydraulic turnovers per day). Additional studies showed that microbes with GDA were recoverable within (i) 5 days of an acid shock and (ii) 3 days after a 21-day dormancy (low-flow, low-maintenance) mode. These results suggest that full-scale use of immobilized bacteria can be a cost-effective and dependable technique for the biotreatment of industrial wastewater.

  17. Field study of age-differentiated strain for assembly line workers in the automotive industry.

    PubMed

    Börner, Kerstin; Scherf, Christian; Leitner-Mai, Bianca; Spanner-Ulmer, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    A field study in an automotive supply industry company was conducted to explore age-differentiated strain of assembly line workers. Subjective and objective data from 23 female workers aged between 27 and 57 years were collected at the workplace belt buckle assembly during morning shifts. Subjects with medication or chronic diseases affecting heart rate and breath rate were excluded. For subjective data generation different questionnaires were used. Before the Work Ability Index and the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire were completed by the subjects. Short questionnaires (strain-ratings, NASA-TLX) directly at begin and end of the work were used for obtaining shift-related data. During the whole shift (6 a.m. - 2.45 p.m.) bodily functions were logged with a wireless chest strap. In addition, the motion of the hand-arm-system was recorded for 30 times, 3 minutes each after a fixed time-schedule. First results show that younger subjects need significant less time for assembly (mean = 14.940 s) compared to older subjects (mean = 17.040 s; t(472.026) = -9.278 , p < 0.01).

  18. Motivational interviewing in dental hygiene education: curriculum modification and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bray, Kimberly Krust; Catley, Delwyn; Voelker, Marsha A; Liston, Robin; Williams, Karen B

    2013-12-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a person-centered, goal-directed method of communication for eliciting and strengthening intrinsic motivation for behavior change. Originally developed in the field of addiction therapy, MI has been increasing applied in the health professions with a growing body of successful outcomes for tobacco cessation and diabetic control, which can significantly impact oral health. MI has shown preliminary value for impacting oral behaviors that reduce early childhood caries, plaque, and gingival inflammation. While the training in and use of MI by oral health providers is emerging, full integration into dental and dental hygiene curricula has yet to be explored. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the full implementation of MI in the classroom and clinic of a dental hygiene curriculum.

  19. Examination of cross contamination risks between hospitals by external medical staff via cross-sectional intercept survey of hand hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Schiffers, Hank; Zaatreh, Sarah; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Work in hospitals is supported by contributions of life sciences industry representatives (IR) in various ways of fields. Close contact between them, caretakers and patients is unavoidable, even in situations where hygiene is critical. The present study investigates whether IR display comparable levels of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) contamination after being exposed to a shared environment for a minimum of 4 hours. Material and methods: An anonymous survey to sample a group of healthcare professionals for traces of fingertip contamination was performed. We used dip slides (S. aureus and MRSA) to evaluate 311 healthcare professionals at the medical exhibition MEDICA. After applying exclusion criteria 298 participants remained valid, they consisted of 208 industry representatives, 49 nurses and 41 physicians. Results: IR where engaged in hospitals, operating rooms and outpatient clinics (82%, 41.8%, 51.9% respectively). 65.9% of IR (vs. 48.8% physicians and 40.8% nurses) carried a microbiological burden ≥104 CFU (colony forming units). Neither S. aureus (≥104 CFU) in IR (40.9%) did show statistical differences in contamination patterns in comparison to physicians (43.9%, p=0.346) and nurses (36.7%, p=0.878) nor did MRSA (physicians p=0.579, nurses p=0.908). We were unable to differentiate transient from pre-existing permanent colonization. Conclusion: Exposure to the same environment may result in similar hand contamination patterns of IR when compared caregivers. This supports the concern that industry representatives can cause cross infection between hospitals and hygiene sensitive areas like operation room, intensive care unit and central sterilization units particularly. Further study is required to clarify whether pre-existing bacterial colonization is an influencing factor and how industry is taking care of this to create a safe working environment for their employees, the customers and

  20. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in the United Kingdom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    A study analyzed the occupational structure and qualifications associated with the field of environmental protection in the metal and chemical industries in the United Kingdom. The analysis included nine case studies based on interviews with firms in the chemicals and metals sectors. Information was gathered within an analytical framework that…

  1. Economic analysis of a self-propelled apple harvest and in-field sorting machine for the apple industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. apple industry, which generated more than $2.7 billion revenue at the farm gate in 2013, is facing critical challenges in decreased availability of labor and increased labor and production cost. To address these challenges, a self-propelled apple harvest and automated in-field sorting machi...

  2. Spanish activities (research and industrial applications) in the field of microwave material treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Catala Civera, J.M.; Reyes Davo, E.R. de los

    1996-12-31

    The GCM (Microwave Heating Group) within the Communications Department at the Technical University of Valencia is dedicated to the study of microwaves and their use in the current industrial processes in the Valencian Community and in Spain. To this end, a microwave heating laboratory has been developed and the benefits of incorporating microwave technologies into current industrial processes have been demonstrated. In this paper some of the industrial applications which are being investigated are presented.

  3. [Transducer hygiene -- an underrated topic?].

    PubMed

    Merz, E

    2005-02-01

    , whereby ample contact time must be allowed for the disinfecting agent. Coarse contamination of the transducer should be removed with disposable tissue. Above all, dried blood spots should be avoided. Intraoperatively used transducers (= critical medical products), which, for instance, come in contact with abdominal organs, are subject to applicable rules and regulation for cleaning and disinfection. Before each use, an adequately long sterile cover must be placed over the transducer and connecting cable. When the examination is completed, the cover is removed and discarded, and the transducer cleaned and disinfected. The applicability of a reusable medical product implies that each manufacturer is obligated to provide care instruction, including formulated instructions for cleaning and disinfection. This entails that each manufacturer of sonographic equipment must make available a detailed summary of the appropriate disinfectants suitable for the respective transducers. Customarily, recommendations for care and cleaning of the transducers can be found in the manual that comes with the sonographic unit. In the absence of such a manual, a written request should be sent to the manufacturer of the sonographic equipment. Sonographic equipment manufacturers and disinfectant producers prefer disinfecting agents for instruments that are based on glutaraldehyde, aldehydes and quaternary agents, mostly for reason of material compatibility rather than their anti-infective effectiveness. Most recommended disinfectants are not tested for antiviral properties, but this is obligatory when applied to transducers that enter a body cavity potentially harboring a virus load - regardless whether the work is done with protective cover . Further information about the topic "medical products" can be found in the guidelines for hospital hygiene and infection prevention published by the Robert Koch Institute (Section: Required Hygienic Standards for Medical Products ), the website of the Robert

  4. Establishing guidelines for employee dress and hygiene.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2003-01-01

    Can you tell your medical practice staff how you want them to look? Where in your office they can eat? Can they chew gum at work? Can they wear red nail polish or a charm bracelet? In the pages that follow, the author suggests not only that you can establish rules for employee dress and hygiene, but why you should. This article suggests several good ways to structure staff rules for wearing uniforms and street clothing. It also covers possible rules for wearing practice nametags, cosmetics, jewelry, hair styles, neatness, stowing of personal possessions, personal hygiene, drinking, eating, smoking, and gum chewing. Finally, this article offers practical suggestions for establishing your practice's dress and hygiene "first aid" kit as well as guidance for making your practice's dress and hygiene codes non-discriminatory.

  5. Older people, personal hygiene, and skin care.

    PubMed

    Cowdell, Fiona

    2011-01-01

    Skin health is essential for well being in older people. Personal hygiene is fundamental to skin health, but a lack of evidence exists about effective practices. An evidence base, disseminated through nursing education and patient health promotion, must be developed.

  6. Teething & Dental Hygiene for Young Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health & Hygiene for Young Children Page Content Article Body As you might guess, the number-one dental problem among preschoolers is tooth decay . One out of 10 two- year-olds already have one or more cavities ...

  7. Food hygiene and travel at sea

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Betty C.; Colbourne, M. J.; Mayner, P. E.

    1975-01-01

    The incidence of gastroenteritis on a passenger ship is reviewed and discussed in relation to the agents of infection from stool specimens, the bacteriological condition of food samples, and the practice of galley hygiene. PMID:1208291

  8. Curriculum Guidelines for Clinical Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools curriculum guidelines for clinical dental hygiene include definitions, notes on the interrelationship of courses, an overview of course objectives, and suggested primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific objectives, sequencing, faculty, and facilities. (MSE)

  9. Perceived effectiveness of messages promoting hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ronald E

    2017-03-01

    Eighty-six infection control specialists evaluated 24 messages promoting hand hygiene (HH). Brief, simple messages using appeals to social situations and to ego (self-efficacy) were rated as most likely to increase HH compliance.

  10. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: teacher's guide. Field test edition. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    An instructional aid is presented which integrates the subject of solar energy into the classroom study of industrial arts. This guide for teachers was produced in addition to the student activities book for industrial arts by the USDOE Solar Energy Education. A glossary of solar energy terms is included. (BCS)

  11. [Parmentier hygiene and public health].

    PubMed

    Lafont, O

    2014-05-01

    The legend about Parmentier is quite reductive when it limits his activity to the promotion of potato. This military pharmacist intended mainly to make science serve human being, whatever could be his various activities. Actor of the foundation of food chemistry, reorganizer of military pharmacy, he has always been highly concerned with hygiene and public health. He then studied the quality of water, particularly in the case of river Seine, or the purity of air, especially in hospitals. The affair of Dunkerque exhumations or that of cesspools, or the utilisation of human excrements in agriculture were parts of the occurrences for which he had the opportunity to find a scientific approach allowing to solve the difficult questions that were asked to him, for the best benefit of public health. The exhaustive study he published in "Bulletin de pharmacie" for the conservation of meat shows that he did not ignore anything about freezing of food in order to preserve it. It is necessary not to forget the important role he played, as soon as he were informed of Jenner's discovery, for the diffusion of vaccination in France. It is simply astounding to observe how modern were the questions he solved and how intense was his spirit of dedication to the public good, when exerting his functions in "Comité de Salubrité de la Seine" or "Conseil de Santé des Armées", as well as outside these prestigious institutions.

  12. [Achievements and prospects in railway transport hygiene].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A

    1997-01-01

    A unique Institute of Railway Hygiene was created 70 years ago in Russia, one of the major railway countries in the world. Since then the Institute's staffers have carried out huge work on improvement of railway workers' health, prevention of their exposure to noise, unfavorable microclimate, vibration and other occupational hazards. Significant contribution into the world occupational hygiene was made by such Institute's professionals as S.F. Kazansky, P.I. Nikitin, A.M. Volkov and others.

  13. Industrial Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demain, Arnold L.; Solomon, Nadine A.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of the field of industrial microbiology, providing historical backgrounds of scientific discoveries in the field and descriptions of industrially important microorganisms. Applied research in industry is also detailed, with mention of gene amplification, DNA recombination, pharmaceutical approaches, and detoxification and…

  14. Moving research knowledge into dental hygiene practice.

    PubMed

    Cobban, Sandra J; Edgington, Eunice M; Clovis, Joanne B

    2008-01-01

    Dental hygiene, as an emerging profession, needs to increase the number of intervention studies that identify improvements in oral health outcomes for clients. Historically, dental hygiene studies have typically been atheoretical, but the use of theoretical frameworks to guide these studies will increase their meaningfulness. Rogers' theory of diffusion of innovations has been used to study research utilization across many disciplines, and may offer insights to the study of research use in dental hygiene. Research use is an important component of evidence-based practice (EBP), and diffusion of research knowledge is an important process in implementing EBP. The purpose of this paper is to use diffusion of innovations theory to examine knowledge movement in dental hygiene, specifically through the example of the preventive practice of oral cancer screening by dental hygienists, considered as an innovation. Diffusion is considered to be the process by which an innovation moves through communication channels over time among a social network. We suggest diffusion theory holds promise for the study of knowledge movement in dental hygiene, but there are limitations including access to and understanding research studies as innovations. Nevertheless, using a theoretical framework such as Rogers' diffusion of innovations will strengthen the quality of intervention research in dental hygiene, and subsequently, health outcomes for clients.

  15. ISS Hygiene Activities - Issues and Resolutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokhorov, Kimberlee S.; Feldman, Brienne; Walker, Stephanie; Bruce, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    Hygiene is something that is usually taken for granted by those of us on the Earth. The ability to perform hygiene satisfactorily during long duration space flight is crucial for the crew's ability to function. Besides preserving the basic health of the crew, crew members have expressed that the ability to clean up on-orbit is vital for mental health. Providing this functionality involves more than supplying hygiene items such as soap and toothpaste. On the International Space Station (ISS), the details on where and how to perform hygiene were left to the crew discretion for the first seventeen increments. Without clear guidance, the methods implemented on-orbit have resulted in some unintended consequences to the ISS environment. This paper will outline the issues encountered regarding hygiene activities on-board the ISS, and the lessons that have been learned in addressing those issues. Additionally, the paper will address the resolutions that have been put into place to protect the ISS environment while providing the crew sufficient means to perform hygiene.

  16. Structure characteristics in industrially centrifugally cast 25Cr20Ni stainless steel tubes solidified under different electromagnetic field intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, X.Q.; Yang, Y.S.; Zhang, J.S.; Jia, G.L.; Hu, Z.Q.

    1999-10-01

    The influences of different electromagnetic field intensities on the solidification structures of industrially centrifugally cast 25Cr20Ni stainless steel tubes have been investigated in detail. The results reveal that the electromagnetic field exerted during the centrifugal solidification causes a marked variation in the structures of the cast tubes. With an increase of the electromagnetic field intensity, the area fraction of the equiaxed structures in transverse sections of the cast tubes increases, and the macrostructures are gradually refined. The distribution of the eutectic carbides changes from the dendrite boundaries to the grain boundaries. However, an excessive electromagnetic field intensity gives rise to many intergranular cast defects formed along the inner walls of the centrifugally cast tubes. The effects of fluid flow induced by the electromagnetic field on the solidification process of the centrifugally cast tubes are the primary reason for the previously mentioned structure variations.

  17. [Technology of sewage sludge hygienization].

    PubMed

    Keller, U

    1983-09-01

    That the use of modern technology against the laws of Nature must fail, has been clearly demonstrated again some years ago when sewage sludge postpasteurization was rashly introduced. Although many attempts were made to improve this procedure, it had to be abandoned because of unavoidable massive regrowth of pathogens which invaded the germ-free postpasteurized sludge. In contrast of postpasteurization, long-term large-scale tests with the pasteurization of fresh sludge (prepasteurization) have demonstrated that this procedure where methane digestion with its pathogen displacing effect constitutes the final stage, is basically able to function. With respect to the Swiss Sewage Sludge Decree which came into force in May 1981, and which imposes sludge hygienization for most applications throughout the year, various thermal prepasteurization methods have been offered on the market ready for application to meet the legally prescribed requirements. However, some of them still need selective improvements in order to ensure the desired hygienisation effect permanently. For some time now, attention has been focussed on a novel biological 2-stage procedure based on partial aerobic thermophilic fermentation followed by anaerobic sludge digestion which in addition to good hygienisation promises improved sludge thickening, reduced digestion time, more favourable energy consumption and added process stability etc. Although it has already been offered on the market, this interesting process is being thouroughly tested and optimized in parallel pilot tests plant at the WWTP Altenrhein. Finally, reference is made to further sludge treatment processes such as sludge drying and sludge composting which mostly comprise efficent sludge hygienisation although they may not entirely prevent pathogenic regrowth. Moreover, some unconventional and less popular processes such as liquid sludge irradiation and chemical methods are also mentioned.

  18. A Case Study of an Academia-Industry Partnership to Meet the Education and Training Needs in a Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics (STEM) Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joseph Carl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to provide a description of the characteristics of an academia-industry partnership that works together with industry to meet the education and training needs in a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) field. After the launch of Sputnik in 1957, U.S. pursued efforts to compete in STEM fields on…

  19. Fields of Coal: An analysis of industry and sedimentology in Dolores, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oaden, A.; Besonen, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Research was conducted on a historically significant pond located in the former mining town of Dolores, located north of Laredo, Texas. The intention of this work was, to determine the influence of local mining operations on the environment and determine the extent of coal production from the sedimentary record. The pond is located ~160 m downslope from a former coal mine and waste pile, and was therefore a likely site of coal accumulations, as well as other debris. Additionally, this pond was created only 130 years ago, in 1882, giving a distinct time frame for any sedimentary records. Field work was conducted to obtain sediment core samples from the pond, and corroborating evidence was gathered using historical documents from archives in Laredo, online resources, as well as library records and inter library loan. Sedimentary cores obtained were shorter than desired as a result of the densely packed clay, which reduceding the penetration of coring equipment, leaving the historical extent of the cores limited. The limited sedimentary record also gives little indication as to the extent of production in the nearby mine and how it may have varied over time. The split cores were scanned with a Minolta CM-2600d spectrophotometer, and the results were transformed into first derivative spectrum equivalent data to identify common sedimentary minerals according to their first derivative signatures. The spectral analysis on the cores determined a large amount of clay minerals, and also limonite/goethite according to prominent first derivative peaks centered on ~440 and 540 nm. This agrees with visual observations given the all minerals showing spectra most intense in the 625 -725 nm portion of the visible spectrum, giving the cores their largely yellowish-reddish/brown hue of the cores. Magnetic susceptibility analysis indicated great changes in mineral contentmagnetism, some possibly associated with ash from fires. Bulk density and loss-on-ignition analysis to further

  20. Cross-Cultural Competency Adaptability of Dental Hygiene Educators in Entry Level Dental Hygiene Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engeswick, Lynnette Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to discover the extent dental hygiene educators in 25 entry-level dental hygiene programs from the Upper Midwest demonstrate Emotional Resilience, Flexibility and Openness, Perceptual Acuity, and Personal Autonomy as they relate to their level of education and multicultural experiences. An additional purpose was to examine…

  1. Maturity and hygiene quality of composts and hygiene indicators in agricultural soil fertilised with municipal waste or manure compost.

    PubMed

    Tontti, Tiina; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Karinen, Päivi; Reinikainen, Olli; Halinen, Arja

    2011-02-01

    Composts produced from municipal source separated biowaste (Biowaste), a mixture of biowaste and anaerobically digested sewage sludge (Biosludge) and cattle manure (Manure) were examined for their maturity and hygiene quality. The composts were applied to a potato crop in 2004 and to a barley nurse crop of forage ley in 2005 in a field experiment. Numbers of faecal coliforms, enterococci, clostridia and Salmonella in field soil were determined 2 weeks and 16 weeks after compost applications. Municipal compost batches chosen based on successful processing showed variable maturity during field application, and the need to evaluate compost maturity with multiple variables was confirmed. The numbers of faecal coliform were similar in all compost types, averaging 4.7 and 2.3 log( 10) CFU g(-1) in the first and second years, respectively. The highest number of enterococci was 5.2 log(10) CFU g(-1), found in Manure compost in the first year, while the highest clostridia numbers were found in Biosludge compost, averaging 4.0 log(10) CFU g(-1) over both years. Except for one case, less than 2.4 log(10) CFU g(-1) of faecal coliforms or clostridia were found in compost-fertilised soil, while the numbers of enterococci were mostly higher than in unfertilised soil (<4.2 or <3.2 log(10) CFU g(-1), respectively). No hygiene indicator bacteria were present in compost-fertilised potato at harvest. Overall, compost fertilisations caused rather small changes in the counts of hygiene indicators in the field environment.

  2. Evaluation of two methods for monitoring surface cleanliness-ATP bioluminescence and traditional hygiene swabbing.

    PubMed

    Davidson, C A; Griffith, C J; Peters, A C; Fielding, L M

    1999-01-01

    The minimum bacterial detection limits and operator reproducibility of the Biotrace Clean-Tracetrade mark Rapid Cleanliness Test and traditional hygiene swabbing were determined. Areas (100 cm2) of food grade stainless steel were separately inoculated with known levels of Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 6571) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). Surfaces were sampled either immediately after inoculation while still wet, or after 60 min when completely dry. For both organisms the minimum detection limit of the ATP Clean-Tracetrade mark Rapid Cleanliness Test was 10(4) cfu/100 cm2 (p < 0.05) and was the same for wet and dry surfaces. Both organism type and surface status (i.e. wet or dry) influenced the minimum detection limits of hygiene swabbing, which ranged from 10(2) cfu/100 cm2 to >10(7) cfu/100 cm2. Hygiene swabbing percentage recovery rates for both organisms were less than 0.1% for dried surfaces but ranged from 0.33% to 8.8% for wet surfaces. When assessed by six technically qualified operators, the Biotrace Clean-Tracetrade mark Rapid Cleanliness Test gave superior reproducibility for both clean and inoculated surfaces, giving mean coefficients of variation of 24% and 32%, respectively. Hygiene swabbing of inoculated surfaces gave a mean CV of 130%. The results are discussed in the context of hygiene monitoring within the food industry.

  3. Improving quality and efficiency in oral hygiene.

    PubMed

    Meckstroth, R L

    1989-06-01

    A large percentage of the residents in long-term care facilities are unable to achieve an acceptable level of oral hygiene due to mental and physical incapacities and must thus rely on nursing staff for daily oral care. Significant morbidity is associated with chronic inadequate oral hygiene. In addition, a lack of self-esteem related to poor dental status has been observed in some nursing home patients, leading to withdrawal from social interaction and personal isolation. The Collis Curve toothbrush removed more plaque than the straight bristle toothbrush. The curved bristle toothbrush was well received by the residents and well accepted by the nursing staff. A clinically significant number of staff reported that the curved bristle toothbrush made their job easier. Monitoring of the nurses' aides' brushing techniques during the study caused them to provide more effective oral hygiene than prior to the study. The importance of proper oral hygiene must be monitored and supported by nursing supervisors, regardless of the type of brush, used to achieve acceptable levels of oral hygiene.

  4. [Field investigations of the air pollution level of populated territories].

    PubMed

    Vinokurov, M V

    2014-01-01

    The assessment and management of air quality of settlements is one of the priorities in the field of environmental protection. In the management of air quality the backbone factor is the methodology of the organization, performance and interpretation of data of field investigations. The present article is devoted to the analysis of the existing methodological approaches and practical aspects of their application in the organization and performance of field investigations with the aim to confirm the adequacy of the boundaries of the sanitary protection zone in the old industrial regions, hygienic evaluation of the data of field investigations of the air pollution level.

  5. Industrial Hygiene Air Sampling and Bulk Sampling Instructions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    registered trademark of Johns - Manville Products Corp., Denver, CO. "Cellosolve is a registered trademark of Union Carbide Corp., 270 Park Ave, New...registered trademark of Johns - Manville Products Corp., Denver, CO. 0 &Florisil is a registered trademark of Floridin Company, ITT System, Pittsburgh, PA. C...Thermosorb is a registered trademark of Johns - Manville Products Corp., Denver, CO. ®XAD-2 is a registered trademark of Rohm and Haas, Philadelphia, PA. C

  6. A Status Reporting System for the Army Industrial Hygiene Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    and Support Services Appendix B. An Example Pairwise Comparison Worksheet Appendix C. An Overview of the Access Database Application Appendix D...that exist defines a large portion of the hygienist’s workload. The distribution of operations across the RACs provides an excellent measure of the...operations in each RAC category that were evaluated and sampled is an excellent indicator of where the hygienists expended their efforts. Evaluation and

  7. Hand hygiene compliance monitoring: the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Jarrin Tejada, Claudia; Bearman, Gonzalo

    2015-04-01

    Hand hygiene is crucial to prevent transmission of hospital-acquired infections. The WHO recommends five moments for hand hygiene: (1) before patient contact, (2) before performing an aseptic task, (3) after exposure with body fluids, (4) after patient contact, and (5) after contact with patient's surroundings. Nevertheless, hand hygiene compliance rates remain low among healthcare workers. Direct observation is the gold standard method for hand hygiene monitoring; however, it is time consuming and observer dependent. Technology has allowed the development of several other hand hygiene surveillance methods. In this article, we review the different modalities for hand hygiene compliance monitoring.

  8. Ten years of industrial and municipal membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems - lessons from the field.

    PubMed

    Larrea, Asun; Rambor, Andre; Fabiyi, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    The use of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) in activated sludge wastewater treatment has grown significantly in the last decade. While there is growing awareness and knowledge about the application of MBR technology in municipal wastewater treatment, not much information is available on the application of MBRs in industrial wastewater treatment. A comparative study of design data, operating conditions and the major challenges associated with MBR operations in 24 MBR plants treating both municipal and industrial wastewater, built by and/or operated by Praxair, Inc., is presented. Of the 24 MBR systems described, 12 of the plants used high purity oxygen (HPO). By enabling a wide range of food/microorganism ratios and loading conditions in the same system, HPO MBR systems can extend the options available to industrial plant operators to meet the challenges of wide fluctuations in organic loading and footprint limitations. While fouling in industrial MBR systems can be an issue, adequate flux and permeability values can be reliably maintained by the use of good maintenance strategies and effective process controls (pretreatment, cleaning and membrane autopsies).

  9. On Retention of Secondary Trade and Industrial Education Teachers: Voices from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Mary Jo Crawford

    The high national attrition rate among vocational education teachers (50 percent within 6 years) prompted a study to determine trade and industrial teachers' reasons for leaving and to make recommendations to increase teacher retention. Following a literature review of teachers' motivation and reasons for attrition, interviews were conducted with…

  10. Personality characteristics and career choice among dental hygiene students enrolled in non-baccalaureate programs.

    PubMed

    Saline, L M

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the personality characteristics of dental hygiene students, and (2) to determine if dental hygiene students have personality characteristics similar to those of the general population. Students from three non-baccalaureate degree programs were requested to complete a demographic questionnaire and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Eighty-six percent of the 124 students responded. The MBTI data was analyzed using frequency distributions, electivity indices, and chi-square analyses. Individuals categorized as ESFJ (extraversion, sensing, feeling, and judging) and ISFJ (introversion, sensing, feeling, and judging), two of the possible 16 MBTI personality types, comprised 39% of the sample. These two personality types were found in significantly greater numbers in the study population than in a random sample of the general population. People with the ISTJ (introversion, sensing, thinking, and judging), INFP (introversion, intuition, feeling, and perception), and INFJ (introversion, intuition, feeling, and judging) MBTI personality types were found in significantly lesser numbers in the study population than in a random sample of the general population. This suggests that dental hygiene students are not drawn at random from the general population. Self-knowledge, as measured by the MBTI, could prove beneficial for prospective dental hygiene students, students currently enrolled in dental hygiene programs, and educators. Additionally, practicing dental hygienists might find that the MBTI personality assessment results could help them identify career paths in the field that would enhance career fulfillment, thereby increasing the retention of professionals in the field.

  11. Unmanned Aerial Systems in Occupational Hygiene-Learning from Allied Disciplines.

    PubMed

    Eninger, Robert M; Johnson, Robert L

    2015-10-01

    Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technologies are rapidly developing, lowering cost, and technology barriers for their use in numerous applications. This review and commentary summarizes relevant literature in allied fields and evaluates potential application and utility of UAS technology in the discipline of occupational hygiene. Disciplines closely related to occupational hygiene are moving to investigate potential uses--and in some cases--already employing this technology for research or commercial purposes. The literature was reviewed to formulate a cross-sectional picture of how UAS technology is being used in these closely allied disciplines which could inform or guide potential use in occupational hygiene. Discussed are UAS applications in environmental monitoring, emergency response, epidemiology, safety, and process optimization. A rapidly developing state of the art indicates that there is potential utility for this technology in occupational hygiene. Benefits may include cost savings, time savings, and averting hazardous environments via remote sensing. The occupational hygiene community can look to allied fields to garner lessons and possible applications to their own practice.

  12. [Hand hygiene: basic, but not trivial].

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, S; Schwanz, T; Lemmen, S

    2011-07-01

    Hand hygiene is considered as the pillar of infection control and prevention. Healthcare-associated infections have a great impact on morbidity, length of hospital stay, and treatment costs. Hand disinfection is considered to be the single most effective tool to prevent healthcare-associated infections and cross-transmission of multi-drug resistant bacteria. The WHO defined "5 moments" for hand hygiene and highlighted the need for new strategies to improve everyday hand hygiene practices on the basis of the current low compliance. Reasons for non-compliance are multifaceted and behavioural, religious, and sociocultural aspects have to be considered when designing intervention programs. Despite all these barriers it is worth the effort to aim at quality of care improvement.

  13. Industrial Sewing Classroom Delivery System. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This teacher's guide, consisting of a series of 12 lesson plans for use in teaching 20 self-paced learning modules, deals with industrial sewing. Covered in the individual lesson plans are the following topics: an orientation to industrial sewing; the history of industrial sewing; safety and hygiene in the laboratory and in the factory; machine…

  14. Improving hand hygiene after neurological injury.

    PubMed

    Duke, Lynsay; Gibbison, Lucy; McMahon, Victoria

    Caring for hands tightened by spasticity after stroke, brain injury or other neurological conditions can be challenging for care staff. Opening and cleaning the hand, managing pressure areas, cutting nails and reducing pain becomes more complex if muscles are tight and short. Hand hygiene is key for staff but literature on patients' hand and nail care is lacking, so specialist education and care planning may be needed to help staff ensure these activities are done well. This article outlines the importance of maintaining patients' hand hygiene, explores the barriers to providing effective care and discusses how they might be overcome.

  15. Contributions regarding increasing reliability of beer industry installations using weld cladding in ultrasonic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amza, Gh; Petrescu, V.; Niţoi, D.; Mateiu, A.; Dimitrescu, A.; Apostolescu, Z.

    2016-08-01

    Paper presents a new technology for availability increasing of different installation parts used in beer industry - ultrasonic activation of metal deposition by welding. The dilution phenomenon is studied linked on its influence upon material technological and functional properties in the three distinct zones of resulted couple (filler material, influenced thermal zone, base material). Experimental results performed on unidirectional valve are presented regarding variation of chemical composition concentration and dilution variation in three zones influenced by ultrasonic wave.

  16. The effects of gender disparities on dental hygiene education and practice in Europe.

    PubMed

    Luciak-Donsberger, C

    2003-11-01

    In Europe, over 96.5% of dental hygienists are women. The objective of this report was to examine the impact of gender role stereotyping on the image of the dental hygiene profession and on disparities in educational attainment and work regulations within Europe. Data pertaining to regulated or non-regulated dental hygiene practice in 22 European countries were analysed according to possible gender impact on access to education and on the structure of the delivery of care. It was examined whether there is a correlation between national differences found in the dental hygiene profession and gender related disparities found in other work-related areas. Results show that the gender bias in the dental hygiene profession has an effect on equal access to education, and on equal occupational opportunities for dental hygienists within the European Union (EU) and beyond. In northern Europe, higher educational attainment in the field of dental hygiene, more extensive professional responsibilities and greater opportunities for self-employment in autonomous practice tend to correlate with greater equality in the work force. In eastern Europe, lower educational and professional opportunities in dental hygiene correlate with greater gender disparities found in other work-related areas. In some western European countries, the profession has not been implemented because of the political impact of organised dentistry, which expects financial loss from autonomous dental hygiene practice. In order to fulfil mandates of the EU, initiatives must be taken to remove the gender bias in the delivery of preventive care and to promote equal access to educational attainment and to professional development in the whole of Europe for those who choose to do so.

  17. New technologies to monitor healthcare worker hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Marra, A R; Edmond, M B

    2014-01-01

    Compliance with hand hygiene is a good quality indicator for hospital patient safety programmes. Hand hygiene is a major infection control prevention intervention, but in many medical centres compliance rates are only c. 50%. Given the enormous number of hand hygiene opportunities in hospitals, direct observation to monitor compliance is very inefficient. However, technologies are emerging to obviate the need for direct observation. These new technologies for monitoring hand hygiene compliance are discussed in this article.

  18. Relationship between Systems-Level Factors and Hand Hygiene Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Dunn-Navarra, Ann-Margaret; Cohen, Bevin; Stone, Patricia W.; Pogorzelska, Monika; Jordan, Sarah; Larson, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This study was a cross sectional descriptive survey of acute care hospitals in California to describe staff hand hygiene compliance and related predictors, and explore the relationship between hand hygiene adherence to health care-associated infections. Although there was a relatively small sample size, institutions with morning huddles reported a significantly higher proportion of ≥95% hand hygiene compliance. Huddles are an organizational tool to improve teamwork and communication and may offer promise to influence hand hygiene adherence. PMID:20489659

  19. North Seattle Community College Chemical Hygiene Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Seattle Community Coll., WA.

    The goal of the Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP), created by North Seattle Community College, is to provide an environment that protects and promotes health and safety and complies with health and safety laws. The CHP focuses especially on the laboratory workplace (biology and chemistry), as many hazardous materials can be found there. Employee…

  20. Health Instruction Packages: Consumer--Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Floyd R.; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of five learning modules to instruct dental patients and the general public in the fundamental principles of dental hygiene. The first module, "Identify the Responsibilities for Your Oral Health" by Floyd R. Tanner, discusses the respective roles of the dentist and the patient…

  1. Hand hygiene among health care workers.

    PubMed

    Mani, Ameet; Shubangi, A M; Saini, Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients worldwide. Transmission of health care associated pathogens generally occurs via the contaminated hands of health care workers. Hand hygiene has long been considered one of the most important infection control measures to prevent health care-associated infections. For generations, hand washing with soap and water has been considered a measure of personal hygiene. As early as 1822, a French pharmacist demonstrated that solutions containing chlorides of lime or soda could eradicate the foul odor associated with human corpses and that such solutions could be used as disinfectants and antiseptics. This paper provides a comprehensive review of data regarding hand washing and hand antisepsis in healthcare settings. In addition, it provides specific recommendations to uphold improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in healthcare settings. This article also makes recommendations and suggests the significance of hand health hygiene in infection control.

  2. [Hygiene in otorhinolaryngology: Requirements and reality].

    PubMed

    Jager, E; Heudorf, U

    2015-12-01

    Considering the physiological contamination of skin and mucous membranes in the ear, nose, and throat region by facultative pathogen microorganisms, as well as the increase in multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO), it is mandatory that hygienic procedures be observed in ENT institutions, in order to prevent transmission of bacteria and infections in patients. General guidelines for hygiene in otorhinolaryngology are presented based on the recommendations published by the German Commission on Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO). These encompass hand hygiene, surface disinfection, and reprocessing of medical devices. The correct reprocessing of the various components of ENT treatment units (including endoscopes, water bearing systems) is reported. Although law requires and KRINKO recommends that manufacturers of medical devices publish instructions for reprocessing their products, these reprocessing recommendations are often insufficient. Manufacturers should thus be called upon to improve their recommendations. In this paper, the requirements for handling of ENT treatment units are compared with the observations made by the Public Health Department in 7 ENT clinics and 32 ENT practices in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, in 2014.

  3. Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook. 1988 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules and regulations of the New York State Education Department governing dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state are presented. In addition, the requirements and procedures for obtaining licensure and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist in New York are discussed. The following chapters are provided: (1)…

  4. Community Living Skills Guide: Looking Good: Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreps, Alice Roelofs; Dreith, Rita Vallero

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Looking Good: Hygiene. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized…

  5. Initiating Tobacco Curricula in Dental Hygiene Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Linda D.; Fun, Kay; Madden, Theresa E.

    2006-01-01

    Two hours of tobacco instructions were incorporated into the baccalaureate dental hygiene curricula in a university in the Northwestern United States. Prior to graduation, all senior students were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire surveying attitudes and clinical skills in providing tobacco services to their clinic patients. Twenty…

  6. Oral Hygiene. Instructor's Packet. Learning Activity Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hime, Kirsten

    This instructor's packet accompanies the learning activity package (LAP) on oral hygiene. Contents included in the packet are a time sheet, suggested uses for the LAP, an instruction sheet, final LAP reviews, a final LAP review answer key, suggested activities, additional resources (student handouts), student performance checklists for both…

  7. Compliance with hand hygiene: reference data from the national hand hygiene campaign in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wetzker, W; Bunte-Schönberger, K; Walter, J; Pilarski, G; Gastmeier, P; Reichardt, Ch

    2016-04-01

    Hand hygiene is a key measure to prevent healthcare-associated infection. To promote hand hygiene nationally the German campaign 'Aktion Saubere Hände' was launched in January 2008, based on the World Health Organization's 'Clean Care is Safer Care' initiative. We report the first results from a full year of data collection on hand hygiene compliance recorded with the help of a renewed observation tool. Data were based on submissions from 109 participating hospitals collected from 576 wards between January 1st and December 31st, 2014. The overall median compliance was 73%, ranging from 55% (10th percentile) to 89% (90th percentile). The results demonstrated only small differences between adult and non-adult intensive care units (ICUs) with neonatal ICUs and paediatric non-ICUs maintaining higher compliance than adult care units. Performance among nurses was better than physicians, and overall rates of hand hygiene performance were significantly higher after patient contact than before.

  8. Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-10-01

    Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was <100,000 cells/mL at the beginning of the period. Less frequent scraping of the barn alleys was associated with cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was

  9. Relationship of sleep hygiene awareness, sleep hygiene practices, and sleep quality in university students.

    PubMed

    Brown, Franklin C; Buboltz, Walter C; Soper, Barlow

    2002-01-01

    College students are known for their variable sleep schedules. Such schedules, along with other common student practices (e.g., alcohol and caffeine consumption), are associated with poor sleep hygiene. Researchers have demonstrated in clinical populations that improving sleep hygiene knowledge and practices is an effective treatment for insomnia. However, researchers who have examined relationships between sleep hygiene and practices in nonclinical samples and overall sleep quality have produced inconsistent findings, perhaps because of questionable measures. In this study, the authors used psychometrically sound instruments to examine these variables and to counter the shortcomings in previous investigations. Their findings suggest that knowledge of sleep hygiene is related to sleep practices, which, in turn, is related to overall sleep quality. The data from their regression modeling indicated that variable sleep schedules, going to bed thirsty, environmental noise, and worrying while falling asleep contribute to poor sleep quality.

  10. The effect of contact precautions on hand hygiene compliance.

    PubMed

    Franca, Sátiro Ribeiro; Marra, Alexandre R; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Rejane Augusta; Pavão dos Santos, Oscar Fernando; Teodoro Ramos, Júlio Cesar; Edmond, Michael B

    2013-06-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the most important interventions to prevent health care-associated infections. We compared hand hygiene compliance among health care workers when patients were in contact precautions to compliance when patients were not in contact precautions. Our study failed to show differences in adherence to hand hygiene practices in the care of contact isolation versus noncontact isolation patients.

  11. Hand hygiene--when and how should it be done?

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Claire; Hosie, Linda; Storr, Julie

    Practising hand hygiene at the right times to prevent healthcare-associated infections is one of the most important patient care practices health professionals can undertake. However, changing behaviour to ensure staff practise appropriate hand hygiene requires a multifaceted approach. This article highlights two important aspects of the message staff need--the when and the how of hand hygiene.

  12. Promoting Critical Thinking among Dental Hygiene Students: Strategies for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan D'Ambrisi, Kathleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Dental hygiene education has evolved over the years from dental hygiene professions who provide patient education on oral health care to assuming the responsibility for the assimilation of knowledge that requires judgment, decision making and critical thinking skills. Given that the dental hygiene professions has moved toward evidence-based,…

  13. Laundry hygiene-how to get more than clean.

    PubMed

    Bockmühl, D P

    2017-01-16

    Although laundering should mainly remove stains and dirt from used and worn textiles, the elimination of microbial contamination is an important aim of the laundry process as well. While industrial and institutional laundering employs standardized processes using high temperatures (i.e. 60°C and above) and bleaching agents to ensure a sufficient hygienic reconditioning of textiles, domestic laundering processes are less defined and not always led by purposeful aims. The strive for energy efficiency of household appliances has resulted in a decrease in washing temperatures in Europe during the last decades and convenience aspects led to an increased use of liquid detergents that do not contain bleach which in turn impacts the antimicrobial efficacy of domestic laundering. This review compiles the different factors that influence the input and removal of micro-organisms in the laundering process and discusses the possible adverse effects of microbial contaminants in the washing machine and on the textiles as well as suitable counteractions.

  14. Hygienic behaviour in Brazilian stingless bees.

    PubMed

    Al Toufailia, Hasan; Alves, Denise A; Bento, José M S; Marchini, Luis C; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2016-11-15

    Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula) in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony). These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001), and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008). This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because they lack diseases.

  15. Hygienic behaviour in Brazilian stingless bees

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Denise A.; Bento, José M. S.; Marchini, Luis C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula) in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony). These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001), and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008). This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because they lack

  16. [The control of food hygiene during the world's fair in Seville (EXPO'92)].

    PubMed

    Durán Moreno, A; Moreno Durán, A; Toledano Hidalgo, P

    1993-01-01

    EXPO'92 has been one of the most important mass events held in Spain during several decades. Given the size of the event and the very complex circumstances surrounding the fair, the public health services had to face a big challenge. Food-hygiene and food-safety services, in particular were organized so as to take advantage and put into practice a fully managerial approach. Relevant conclusions can be drawn from such an experience which may be valuable not only with regards to similar mass-events in the future, but also for improving food hygiene in the overall Spanish context. In this article, the positive results obtained in the field of food hygiene and food safety at EXPO'92 are directly related by the authors with the methodology which was applied, namely the hazard analysis and critical control points. It is concluded that the interinstitutional coordination achieved played a decisive role.

  17. [An analysis of industrial accidents in the working field with a particular emphasis on repeated accidents].

    PubMed

    Wakisaka, I; Yanagihashi, T; Tomari, T; Sato, M

    1990-03-01

    The present study is based on an analysis of routinely submitted reports of occupational accidents experienced by the workers of industrial enterprises under the jurisdiction of Kagoshima Labor Standard Office during a 5-year period 1983 to 1987. Officially notified injuries serious enough to keep employees away from their job for work at least 4 days were utilized in this study. Data was classified so as to give an observed frequency distribution for workers having any specified number of accidents. Also, the accident rate which is an indicator of the risk of accident was compared among different occupations, between age groups and between the sexes. Results obtained are as follows; 1) For the combined total of 6,324 accident cases for 8 types of occupation (Construction, Transportation, Mining & Quarrying, Forestry, Food manufacture, Lumber & Woodcraft, Manufacturing industry and Other business), the number of those who had at least one accident was 6,098, of which 5,837 were injured only once, 208 twice, 21 three times and 2 four times. When occupation type was fixed, however, the number of workers having one, two, three and four times of accidents were 5,895, 182, 19 and 2, respectively. This suggests that some workers are likely to have experienced repeated accidents in more than one type of occupation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. A field evaluation of a SO 2 passive sampler in tropical industrial and urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Lícia P. S.; Campos, Vânia P.; Silva, Adriana M. C.; Tavares, Tania M.

    Passive samplers have been widely used for over 30 years in the measurement of personal exposure to vapours and gases in the workplace. These samplers have just recently been applied in the monitoring of ambient air, which presents concentrations that are normally much smaller than those found in occupational environments. The locally constructed passive sampler was based on gas molecular diffusion through static air layer. The design used minimizes particle interference and turbulent diffusion. After exposure, the SO 2 trapped in impregnated filters with Na 2CO 3 was extracted by means of an ultrasonic bath, for 15 min, using 1.0×10 -2 mol L -1 H 2O 2. It was determined as SO 4-2 by ion chromatography. The performance of the passive sampler was evaluated at different exposure periods, being applied in industrial and urban areas. Method precision as relative standard deviation for three simultaneously applied passive samplers was within 10%. Passive sampling, when compared to active monitoring methods under real conditions, used in urban and industrial areas, showed an overall accuracy of 15%. A statistical comparison with an active method was performed to demonstrate the validity of the passive method. Sampler capacity varied between 98 and 421 μg SO 2 m -3 for exposure periods of one month and one week, respectively, which allows its use in highly polluted areas.

  19. Too clean, or not too clean: the Hygiene Hypothesis and home hygiene

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, SF; Stanwell-Smith, R; Crevel, RWR; Pickup, J

    2006-01-01

    Summary The ‘hygiene hypothesis’ as originally formulated by Strachan, proposes that a cause of the recent rapid rise in atopic disorders could be a lower incidence of infection in early childhood, transmitted by unhygienic contact with older siblings. Use of the term ‘hygiene hypothesis’ has led to several interpretations, some of which are not supported by a broader survey of the evidence. The increase in allergic disorders does not correlate with the decrease in infection with pathogenic organisms, nor can it be explained by changes in domestic hygiene. A consensus is beginning to develop round the view that more fundamental changes in lifestyle have led to decreased exposure to certain microbial or other species, such as helminths, that are important for the development of immunoregulatory mechanisms. Although this review concludes that the relationship of the hypothesis to hygiene practice is not proven, it lends strong support to initiatives seeking to improve hygiene practice. It would however be helpful if the hypothesis were renamed, e.g. as the ‘microbial exposure’ hypothesis, or ‘microbial deprivation’ hypothesis, as proposed for instance by Bjorksten. Avoiding the term ‘hygiene’ would help focus attention on determining the true impact of microbes on atopic diseases, while minimizing risks of discouraging good hygiene practice. PMID:16630145

  20. [Procedures for hand hygiene in German-speaking countries].

    PubMed

    Rotter, M

    1996-12-01

    According to the field of application, strategies for the prevention of the transfer of microbial skin flora from the hands must consider the various categories of flora: transient, resident or stemming from infected lesions on the hands (infection flora). Depending on the species and virulence of the microorganism and of the susceptibility of the infection target, transient flora may or may not be of pathogenic importance. In contrast, resident skin flora is usually regarded as pathogenic only under certain circumstances such as in surgery, especially with transplantation of foreign bodies and in highly susceptible hosts. Microorganisms stemming from infected lesions are of proven pathogenicity. In the non-surgical field, only the transient and infection flora from the hands play a role. Such lesions are an absolute contraindication for patient-care, preparation of pharmaceuticals or foodstuff. In some procedures, the transmission of transient flora can be prevented by use of the non-touch technique ("instruments instead of fingers") or by the intelligent use of protective gloves. Hands already contaminated may be rendered safe by procedures for the elimination of transients such as handwashing, hygienic handwash and hygienic hand rub (in the order of increasing efficacy). Among all useable chemicals, ethanol, isopropanol and n-propanol (in the order of increasing efficacy) are the strongest and fastest agents. Furthermore, the duration of treatment (between 30 and 60 s) significantly influences the achievable reduction of microbial release. According to the new European standards (CEN) for testing chemical disinfectants and antiseptics, products for hygienic handwash must be significantly more efficacious than unmedicated soap, on artificially contaminated hands. In contrast, products for the hygienic hand rub must not be significantly less efficacious than a reference disinfection including isopropanol 60% vol rubbed onto the hands of the same volunteers during

  1. Is the number of antennal plate organs (sensilla placodea) greater in hygienic than in non-hygienic Africanized honey bees?

    PubMed

    Gramacho, Kátia Peres; Gonçalves, Lionel Segui; Stort, Antônio Carlos; Noronha, Adriana Backx

    2003-09-30

    Hygienic behavior is a desirable trait in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), as hygienic bees quickly remove diseased brood, interrupting the infectious cycle. Hygienic lines of honey bees appear to be more sensitive to the odors of dead and diseased honey bee brood, and Africanized honey bees are generally more hygienic than are European honey bees. We compared the number of sensilla placodea, antennal sensory structures involved in the perception of odor, in 10 bees from each of six hygienic and four non-hygienic colonies of Africanized honey bees. The sensilla placodea of three of the terminal segments (flagellomeres) of the right antenna of each bee were counted with a scanning electron microscope. There were no significant differences in the mean numbers of sensilla placodea between the hygienic and non-hygienic bees, though the variance was higher in the hygienic group. Flagellomere 4 had significantly more sensilla placodea than flagellomeres 6 and 8. However, there was no significant difference between the other two flagellomeres. As hygienic bees are capable of identifying dead, injured, or infested brood inside a capped brood cell, sensilla placodea probably have an important role in enabling worker bees to sense sick brood. However, we did not find greater numbers of this sensory structure in the antennae of hygienic, compared to non-hygienic Africanized honey bees.

  2. Education and training of professional industrial hygienists for 2020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Four questions are addressed: (1) Are we giving sufficient attention to the professional education of industrial hygienists?; (2) Are we achieving an adequate measure of control of hazards at the workplace?; (3) What is our record of success in this field?; and (4) Do we have clear objectives, both as a profession and as individuals? I discuss some aspects of these but will not attempt to provide answers, hoping thereby to stimulate discussion and to conceal the fact that I do not know the answers myself. I will, however, follow this discussion with a review of the overall need for training in industrial hygiene, and will conclude with some comments about needed changes in the education of future professional industrial hygienists.

  3. Review series on helminths, immune modulation and the hygiene hypothesis: The broader implications of the hygiene hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Rook, Graham A W

    2009-01-01

    Man has moved rapidly from the hunter–gatherer environment to the living conditions of the rich industrialized countries. The hygiene hypothesis suggests that the resulting changed and reduced pattern of exposure to microorganisms has led to disordered regulation of the immune system, and hence to increases in certain inflammatory disorders. The concept began with the allergic disorders, but there are now good reasons for extending it to autoimmunity, inflammatory bowel disease, neuroinflammatory disorders, atherosclerosis, depression associated with raised inflammatory cytokines, and some cancers. This review discusses these possibilities in the context of Darwinian medicine, which uses knowledge of evolution to cast light on human diseases. The Darwinian approach enables one to correctly identify some of the organisms that are important for the ‘Hygiene’ or ‘Old Friends’ hypothesis, and to point to the potential exploitation of these organisms or their components in novel types of prophylaxis with applications in several branches of medicine. PMID:19120493

  4. Preliminary operational results of the low temperature-solar industrial-process-heat field tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutscher, C. F.; Davenport, R. L.

    1981-06-01

    Three hot water systems and four hot air systems are evaluated. All are low-temperature projects (process heat at temperatures below 212O F). Performance results, project costs, and problems encountered are summarized. Flat-plate, evacuated-tube, and line-focus collectors are all represented in the program, with collector array areas ranging from 2500 to 21,000 sq ft. Collector array efficiencies ranged from 12% to 36% with net system efficiences from 8% to 33%. Low efficiencies are attributable in some cases to high thermal losses and, for the two projects using air collectors, are due in part to high parasitic power consumption. Problems have included industrial effluents on collectors, glazing and absorber surface failures, excessive thermal losses, freezing and overheating, control problems, and data acquisition system failure. With design and data acquisition costs excluded costs of the projects ranged from $25/sq ft to $87/sq ft and $499/MBtu/yr to $1537/MBtu/yr.

  5. A study on "mobbing" in maritime field: a case study in the Turkish maritime industry.

    PubMed

    Kum, Serdar; Ertas, Yildiray

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, there are many reasons for people to be stressful and restless in their working environments. One of the reasons leading to this situation is known as "mobbing". The term "mobbing" means "bullying of an individual by a group". It usually happens among employees. The main effects of mobbing are the generation of stress and reduction of employee performance at work. In general, research shows that mobbing is particularly common in the public sector. The aim of this research is to understand the frequency of mobbing on employees in the Turkish maritime industry as a case study. In this study, a questionnaire survey on ship, shipyard, public and private company workers was applied to understand how often employees are exposed to mobbing. After analysing the results, it is also aimed to obtain information about the reasons and causes of mobbing, and then we can get some advice for this issue.

  6. An industry update: what is new in the field of therapeutic delivery this month?

    PubMed

    Harris, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    The present industry update covers the period of 1-30 November 2016, with information sourced primarily from company press releases, regulatory and patent agencies, scientific literature and various news websites. There was positive news on the clinical trials front for both EyeNovia and Glaxo SmithKline, but this month also saw Innocol release disappointing Phase IIb results for its Cogenzia product. In regulatory news, it was announced that the US FDA indicated that EyeGate may use the 510(k) De Novo Path for their device, the Ocular Bandage Gel. Also this month, Glaxo SmithKline announced that it filed a regulatory submission with the FDA for its novel triple-combination therapy product, utilizing its Ellipta(®) inhaler.

  7. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume III: Inspection Procedures for Specific Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume III, explains in detail the following: inspection procedures for specific sources, kraft pulp mills, animal rendering, steel mill furnaces, coking operations, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, non-ferrous smelting and refining, foundries, cement plants, aluminum…

  8. Water disinfection and hygiene behaviour in an urban slum in Kenya: impact on childhood diarrhoea and influence of beliefs.

    PubMed

    Graf, Jürg; Meierhofer, Regula; Wegelin, Martin; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2008-10-01

    In this research project, we studied factors that presumably affect the incidence of diarrhoea among young children in urban slums in developing countries: consumption of safe drinks, hygiene behaviour, cleanliness of household surroundings and the quality of raw water. Beliefs concerning the causes of diarrhoea were also related to health-improving behaviour, namely the application of the water-treatment method SODIS (solar water disinfection) and hygiene behaviour. We conducted a survey in a shanty town in Nairobi, Kenya. Field workers interviewed 500 households. Analysis with regression models revealed that two out of the four postulated factors were significant: children have a lower risk of contracting diarrhoea when they consume high percentages of safe drinks and live in households with good hygiene. As regards beliefs, we found that biomedical knowledge of children's diarrhoea as well as the perceived social norm for treating water was associated with the use of SODIS and good hygiene.

  9. Double disordered YBCO coated conductors of industrial scale: high currents in high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraimov, D.; Ballarino, A.; Barth, C.; Bottura, L.; Dietrich, R.; Francis, A.; Jaroszynski, J.; Majkic, G. S.; McCallister, J.; Polyanskii, A.; Rossi, L.; Rutt, A.; Santos, M.; Schlenga, K.; Selvamanickam, V.; Senatore, C.; Usoskin, A.; Viouchkov, Y. L.

    2015-11-01

    A significant increase of critical current in high magnetic field, up to 31 T, was recorded in long tapes manufactured by employing a double-disorder route. In a double-disordered high-temperature superconductor (HTS), a superimposing of intrinsic and extrinsic disorder takes place in a way that (i) the intrinsic disorder is caused by local stoichiometry deviations that lead to defects of crystallinity that serve as pining centers in the YBa2Cu3O x-δ matrix and (ii) the extrinsic disorder is introduced via embedded atoms or particles of foreign material (e.g. barium zirconate), which create a set of lattice defects. We analyzed possible technological reasons for this current gain. The properties of these tapes over a wider field-temperature range as well as field anisotropy were also studied. Record values of critical current as high as 309 A at 31 T, 500 A at 18 Tm and 1200 A at 5 T were found in 4 mm wide tape at 4.2 K and B perpendicular to tape surface. HTS layers were processed in medium-scale equipment that allows a maximum batch length of 250 m while 22 m long batches were provided for investigation. Abnormally high ratios (up to 10) of critical current density measured at 4.2 K, 19 T to critical current density measured at 77 K, self-field were observed in tapes with the highest in-field critical current. Anisotropy of the critical current as well as angular dependences of n and α values were investigated. The temperature dependence of critical current is presented for temperatures between 4.2 and 40 K. Prospects for the suppression of the dog-bone effect by Cu plating and upscale of processing chain to >500 m piece length are discussed.

  10. Improving adherence to hand hygiene practice: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed Central

    Pittet, D.

    2001-01-01

    Hand hygiene prevents cross-infection in hospitals, but health-care workers' adherence to guidelines is poor. Easy, timely access to both hand hygiene and skin protection is necessary for satisfactory hand hygiene behavior. Alcohol- based hand rubs may be better than traditional handwashing as they require less time, act faster, are less irritating, and contribute to sustained improvement in compliance associated with decreased infection rates. This article reviews barriers to appropriate hand hygiene and risk factors for noncompliance and proposes strategies for promoting hand hygiene. PMID:11294714

  11. Optic for industrial endoscope/borescope with narrow field of view and low distortion

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Gary F.; Trebes, James E.

    2005-08-16

    An optic for the imaging optics on the distal end of a flexible fiberoptic endoscope or rigid borescope inspection tool. The image coverage is over a narrow (<20 degrees) field of view with very low optical distortion (<5% pin cushion or barrel distortion), compared to the typical <20% distortion. The optic will permit non-contact surface roughness measurements using optical techniques. This optic will permit simultaneous collection of selected image plane data, which data can then be subsequently optically processed. The image analysis will yield non-contact surface topology data for inspection where access to the surface does not permit a mechanical styles profilometer verification of surface topology. The optic allows a very broad spectral band or range of optical inspection. It is capable of spectroscopic imaging and fluorescence induced imaging when a scanning illumination source is used. The total viewing angle for this optic is 10 degrees for the full field of view of 10 degrees, compared to 40-70 degrees full angle field of view of the conventional gradient index or GRIN's lens systems.

  12. [Substantiation of a complex of radiation-hygienic approaches to the management of very low-level waste].

    PubMed

    Korenkov, I P; Lashchenova, T N; Shandala, N K

    2015-01-01

    In the article there are presented materials on radiation-hygienic approaches to the treatment of very low level radioactive waste (VLLW) and industrial waste containing radionuclides. There is done detailed information on radiation-hygienic principles and criteria for the assurance ofradiation safety in the collection, transportation, storage and processing of VLLW as a category of radioactive waste.. Particular attention is paid to the problem of designing VLLW landfill site choice, system of radiation monitoring in operation and decommissioning of the landfill. There are presented data about the criteria for the release of VLLW buried at the site, from regulatory control. Also there are considered in detail the radiation-hygienic requirements for radiation safety of industrial waste containing radionuclides for which there is assumed unlimited and limited use of solid materials in economic activity, based on the requirements ofthe revised Basic Sanitary Rules for Radiation Safety - 99/2010. There are considered basic requirements for the organization of industrial waste landfill. As an example, there-are presented the hygiene requirements for industrial waste management and results of waste categorization in Northern Federal Enterprise for Radioactive Waste Management.

  13. Development and Field Trial of Dimpled-Tube Technology for Chemical Industry Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Yaroslav Chudnovsky; Aleksandr Kozlov

    2006-10-12

    Most approaches to increasing heat transfer rates in the convection sections of gas-fired process heaters involve the incorporation of fins, baffles, turbulizers, etc. to increase either the heat transfer surface area or turbulence or both. Although these approaches are effective in increasing the heat transfer rates, this increase is invariably accompanied by an associated increase in convection section pressure drop as well as, for heaters firing ‘dirty’ fuel mixtures, increased fouling of the tubes – both of which are highly undesirable. GTI has identified an approach that will increase heat transfer rates without a significant increase in pressure drop or fouling rate. Compared to other types of heat transfer enhancement approaches, the proposed dimpled tube approach achieves very high heat transfer rates at the lowest pressure drops. Incorporating this approach into convection sections of chemical industry fired process heaters may increase energy efficiency by 3-5%. The energy efficiency increase will allow reducing firing rates to provide the required heating duty while reducing the emissions of CO2 and NOx.

  14. Camelina sativa: An ideal platform for the metabolic engineering and field production of industrial lipids.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sunil; Durrett, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAG) containing modified fatty acids with functionality beyond those found in commercially grown oil seed crops can be used as feedstocks for biofuels and bio-based materials. Over the years, advances have been made in transgenically engineering the production of various modified fatty acids in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the inability to produce large quantities of transgenic seed has limited the functional testing of the modified oil. In contrast, the emerging oil seed crop Camelina sativa possesses important agronomic traits that recommend it as an ideal production platform for biofuels and industrial feedstocks. Camelina possesses low water and fertilizer requirements and is capable of yields comparable to other oil seed crops, particularly under stress conditions. Importantly, its relatively short growing season enables it to be grown as part of a double cropping system. In addition to these valuable agronomic features, Camelina is amenable to rapid metabolic engineering. The development of a simple and effective transformation method, combined with the availability of abundant transcriptomic and genomic data, has allowed the generation of transgenic Camelina lines capable of synthesizing high levels of unusual lipids. In some cases these levels have surpassed what was achieved in Arabidopsis. Further, the ability to use Camelina as a crop production system has allowed for the large scale growth of transgenic oil seed crops, enabling subsequent physical property testing. The application of new techniques such as genome editing will further increase the suitability of Camelina as an ideal platform for the production of biofuels and bio-materials.

  15. Oral Hygiene in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Batista, Leonardo M; Portela de Oliveira, Millena Teles; Magalhaes, Wilrama B; Bastos, Poliana Lima

    2015-11-02

    Parkinson's disease is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a multifactorial etiology. The symptoms are characterized by motor disorders - tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability, which hinder oral hygiene. Oral and dental health in Parkinson's disease has been under-documented and findings are conflicting. Moreover, a number of dentists have limited experience regarding the management of these patients. This article reviews literature published within the last fifteen years, to better understand the impact of this disease in oral health. A literature search (MEDLINE and PUBMED), using keywords Parkinson Disease and Oral Hygiene, yielded 27 articles, from which 20 were selected. All of the articles were published in English in the last 15 years.

  16. Threadworms: a starting point for family hygiene.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, J

    2001-08-01

    Owing to the embarrassing anal itch caused by threadworm infection, some sufferers feel they cannot even mention the problem to their doctor. Community nurses, often regarded as a more approachable source of support, will also be able to prescribe medication if they have prescribing status. With an adequate understanding of the complaint, they can offer a choice of treatment options, mechanical removal or drugs, necessarily backed by the appropriate personal and environmental hygiene measures. The starting point for relevant hygiene is cheerful good practice in hand washing at home and school, which is also key to preventing the spread of many other more serious infections. Implementation is of basic importance and should form part of any of the current initiatives from Sure Start to Healthy Schools.

  17. Skin interaction with absorbent hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Runeman, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Skin problems due to the use of absorbent hygiene products, such as diapers, incontinence pads, and feminine sanitary articles, are mostly due to climate or chafing discomfort. If these conditions are allowed to prevail, these may develop into an irritant contact dermatitis and eventually superficial skin infections. Skin humidity and aging skin are among the most significant predisposing and aggravating factors for dermatitis development. Improved product design features are believed to explain the decline in observed diaper dermatitis among infants. Where adult incontinence-related skin problems are concerned, it is very important to apply a holistic perspective to understand the influences due to the individual's incontinence level and skin condition, as well as the hygiene and skin care measures provided. Individuals with frail, sensitive skin or with skin diseases may preferably have to use high-quality products, equipped with superabsorbent polymers and water vapor-permeable back sheets, to minimize the risk of skin complications.

  18. Oral hygiene products and acidic medicines.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, E; Lussi, A

    2006-01-01

    Acidic or EDTA-containing oral hygiene products and acidic medicines have the potential to soften dental hard tissues. The low pH of oral care products increases the chemical stability of some fluoride compounds, favors the incorporation of fluoride ions in the lattice of hydroxyapatite and the precipitation of calcium fluoride on the tooth surface. This layer has some protective effect against an erosive attack. However, when the pH is too low or when no fluoride is present these protecting effects are replaced by direct softening of the tooth surface. Xerostomia or oral dryness can occur as a consequence of medication such as tranquilizers, anti-histamines, anti-emetics and anti-parkinsonian medicaments or of salivary gland dysfunction e.g. due to radiotherapy of the oral cavity and the head and neck region. Above all, these patients should be aware of the potential demineralization effects of oral hygiene products with low pH and high titratable acids. Acetyl salicylic acid taken regularly in the form of multiple chewable tablets or in the form of headache powder as well chewing hydrochloric acids tablets for treatment of stomach disorders can cause erosion. There is most probably no direct association between asthmatic drugs and erosion on the population level. Consumers, patients and health professionals should be aware of the potential of tooth damage not only by oral hygiene products and salivary substitutes but also by chewable and effervescent tablets. Additionally, it can be assumed that patients suffering from xerostomia should be aware of the potential effects of oral hygiene products with low pH and high titratable acids.

  19. Dental hygiene regulation: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Johnson, P M

    2008-08-01

    Occupational regulation of health personnel is important to professional associations and their members, the public that relies on their services and the regulatory agencies responsible for their conduct. There is increasing interest in ensuring that dental hygiene regulation fosters the continuing evolution of the profession and its contribution to oral health. The keynote address for the 2007 Regulatory Forum on Dental Hygiene, this paper discusses the rationale for and issues pertaining to occupational regulation, outlines the evolvement of dental hygiene and identifies regulatory options for the profession. Professional regulation exists to ensure public safety, health and welfare. However, negative political-economic side effects coupled with environmental pressures have resulted in increased scrutiny for health professionals. One such profession is dental hygiene. Its evolution has been dramatic, in particular over the past few decades, as illustrated by its rapidly increasing numbers and broader distribution globally, gradual shift to the baccalaureate as the entry-level educational requirement and increase in postgraduate programs and expanding scope of practice and increased professional autonomy. Regulatory changes have been more gradual. Regulation is mandatory for the vast majority of dental hygienists. Of the options available, the practice act - the most rigorous type, is predominant. Globally, regulation tends to be administered directly by the government (n = 9 countries) more so than indirectly through a dental board (n = 4) or self-regulation (n = 3). Whether regulated directly or indirectly, dental hygienists increasingly are seeking a greater role in shaping their professional future. Self-regulation, its responsibilities, misperceptions and challenges, is examined as an option.

  20. The evolution: Handwashing to hand hygiene guidance.

    PubMed

    Bjerke, Nancy B

    2004-01-01

    Handwashing is a fundamental principle and practice in the prevention, control, and reduction of healthcare-acquired infection. Advocated by Semmelweiss (Nursing, The Finest Art: An Illustrated History. St Louis: Mosby; 1985:204) from the 1800s to resolve an obstetric morbidity and mortality occurrence, the simple act of hand cleansing portrays the intuitive benefits to basic hygiene, health continuum, and, most important, disease prevention. According to recently published guidance (MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. October 25, 2002;51:32-34), the term handwashing is replaced by the new term hand hygiene, which includes hand cleansing, hand disinfecting, and surgical hand scrub. This article focuses on the published guidance, blending the salient aspects of hand hygiene practices from noted champions, reinforcing the aesthetics of meticulous cleansing, to guidance on its practice in healthcare settings. In healthcare, the principle of "clean hands are healing hands" bears value and demands compliance in order to prevent and control infectious processes while protecting the person from acquiring infectious diseases.

  1. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries--Study on the Federal Republic of Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitschke, Christoph; And Others

    A study focused on new occupational and qualification structures in the field of environmental protection in the metal and chemical industries in the Federal Republic of Germany. A total of 22 interviews were conducted with representatives of 11 firms. The public debate on occupational requirements in the field of environmental protection and on…

  2. Using Consumer Electronics and Apps in Industrial Environments - Development of a Framework for Dynamic Feature Deployment and Extension by Using Apps on Field Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Mathias

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a preliminary insight regarding the current work in the field of mobile interaction in industrial environments by using established interaction technologies and metaphors from the consumer goods industry. The major objective is the development and implementation of a holistic app-framework, which enables dynamic feature deployment and extension by using mobile apps on industrial field devices. As a result, field device functionalities can be updated and adapted effectively in accordance with well-known appconcepts from consumer electronics to comply with the urgent requirements of more flexible and changeable factory systems of the future. In addition, a much more user-friendly and utilizable interaction with field devices can be realized. Proprietary software solutions and device-stationary user interfaces can be overcome and replaced by uniform, cross-vendor solutions

  3. R&D priorities in the field of sustainable remediation and purification of agro-industrial and municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Miksch, Korneliusz; Cema, Grzegorz; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Felis, Ewa; Sochacki, Adam; Surmacz-Górska, Joanna; Wiszniowski, Jarosław; Zabczynski, Sebastian

    2015-01-25

    This article was presented as a position paper during the Environmental Biotechnology and Microbiology Conference in Bologna, Italy in April 2012. It indicates major and emerging environmental biotechnology research and development (R&D) priorities for EU members in the field of sustainable remediation and purification of agro-industrial and municipal wastewater. The identified priorities are: anaerobic/aerobic microbial treatment, combination of photochemical and biological treatment, phytoremediation and algae-based remediation, as well as innovative technologies currently investigated, such as enzyme-based treatment, bioelectrochemical treatment and recovery of nutrients and reuse of cleaned water. State of the art, research needs and prospective development in these domains are crucially discussed. As a result, goals of the future development of bioremediation and purification processes are defined and the way to achieve them is proposed.

  4. [Physiological and hygienic characteristic of high-precision manufacturing operations in microelectronics].

    PubMed

    Kirillov, V F; Mironov, A I; Gadakchan, K A; Mekhova, M M; Spiridonova, V S

    2010-01-01

    It was shown that workers performing high-precision manufacturing operations in microelectronic industry undergo severe visual, nervous and emotional stress combined with significant locomotor load, air deionization and deozonation, bacterial contamination, and UV deficit at their workplaces. These working conditions promote development of negative changes in the visual analyzer, nervous and emotional disorders, disturbances of systemic and regional hemodynamics. Also impaired is the functional state of the upper limb neuromuscular apparatus, central nervous and cardiovascular systems. The proposed certified complex of organizational, sanitary, hygienic, physiological, ergonomic, therapeutic and preventive measures has positive influence on the working capacity of employees in microelectronic industry.

  5. Assessment of hand hygiene compliance after hand hygiene education among health care workers in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Sansam, Sim; Yamamoto, Eiko; Srun, Sok; Sinath, Yin; Moniborin, Mey; Bun Sim, Kheang; Reyer, Joshua A; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-05-01

    Health care-associated infection (HCAI) is the most frequent adverse event for hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is a simple and effective solution to protect patients from HCAI. This study aimed to introduce hand hygiene to health care workers based on the World Health Organization guideline for reducing HCAI in Cambodia and to assess their behavioral patterns on hand hygiene. All health care workers at Kampong Cham provincial hospital had lectures and practice on hand hygiene in January 2012. The surveys for hand hygiene compliance (HHC) were performed after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years, respectively. The number of surgical site infections (SSI) was counted in 2011 and 2014. Our analysis used the data of 58 workers, who were observed at all three points, although 139 workers were observed during the study period. The average of HHC at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were 62.37%, 85.76% and 80.36%, respectively. The improved group (HHC 2 years/1 year≧1) had 32 workers, whereas the worsened group (HHC 2 years/1 year<1) had 26. There was a significant difference in departments of the two groups (P=0.011) but not in sex, age or occupations. The improved group had more workers of General (31.2% vs. 19.2%), Surgical (25.0% vs. 11.5%) and Infection (21.9% vs. 11.5%) categories compared to the worsened group. The incidence of SSI was improved from 32.26% in 2011 to 0.97% in 2014. Our results suggest that the education and the survey on hand hygiene are effective for reducing HCAI in Cambodia.

  6. Assessment of hand hygiene compliance after hand hygiene education among health care workers in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Sansam, Sim; Yamamoto, Eiko; Srun, Sok; Sinath, Yin; Moniborin, Mey; Bun Sim, Kheang; Reyer, Joshua A.; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Health care-associated infection (HCAI) is the most frequent adverse event for hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is a simple and effective solution to protect patients from HCAI. This study aimed to introduce hand hygiene to health care workers based on the World Health Organization guideline for reducing HCAI in Cambodia and to assess their behavioral patterns on hand hygiene. All health care workers at Kampong Cham provincial hospital had lectures and practice on hand hygiene in January 2012. The surveys for hand hygiene compliance (HHC) were performed after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years, respectively. The number of surgical site infections (SSI) was counted in 2011 and 2014. Our analysis used the data of 58 workers, who were observed at all three points, although 139 workers were observed during the study period. The average of HHC at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were 62.37%, 85.76% and 80.36%, respectively. The improved group (HHC 2 years/1 year≧1) had 32 workers, whereas the worsened group (HHC 2 years/1 year<1) had 26. There was a significant difference in departments of the two groups (P=0.011) but not in sex, age or occupations. The improved group had more workers of General (31.2% vs. 19.2%), Surgical (25.0% vs. 11.5%) and Infection (21.9% vs. 11.5%) categories compared to the worsened group. The incidence of SSI was improved from 32.26% in 2011 to 0.97% in 2014. Our results suggest that the education and the survey on hand hygiene are effective for reducing HCAI in Cambodia. PMID:27303102

  7. [Definition of "Safety and Hygiene Packages" as a management model for the Hospital Hygiene Service (HHS)].

    PubMed

    Raponi, Matteo; Damiani, Gianfranco; Vincenti, Sara; Wachocka, Malgorzata; Boninti, Federica; Bruno, Stefania; Quaranta, Gianluigi; Moscato, Umberto; Boccia, Stefania; Ficarra, Maria Giovanna; Specchia, Maria Lucia; Posteraro, Brunella; Berloco, Filippo; Celani, Fabrizio; Ricciardi, Walter; Laurenti, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify and formalize the Hospital Hygiene Service activities and products, evaluating them in a cost accounting management view. The ultimate aim, is to evaluate the financial adverse events prevention impact, in an Hospital Hygiene Service management. A three step methodology based on affinity grouping activities, was employed. This methodology led us to identify 4 action areas, with 23 related productive processes, and 86 available safety packages. Owing to this new methodology, we was able to implement a systematic evaluation of the furnished services.

  8. [150 years of hygienic requirements of dwellings in Italy].

    PubMed

    Capasso, L; Schioppa, F S

    2012-01-01

    In Italy Public Health legislation had, since unification of the nation in 1861, a peculiar consideration for building hygiene, with a particular focus on dwellings. The first law about these themes is the number 5849 in 1888, named Crispi-Pagliani, after the Italian prime minister of the time and the hygienist who collaborated in lawmaking. The authors of the present work describe how laws evolved during 150 years of history, passing through social, demographic, political, economical, cultural and scientific changes. In the meantime they try to explain the role of public health practitioners in this field, also in relation with administrative processes that changed in time. Everything considering how indoor environment and home in particular are fundamental determinants of health, nowadays that people in richest countries spend most of their lifetime in this particular environment.

  9. [Autoimmune processes after long-term low-level exposure to electromagnetic fields (the results of an experiment). Part 1. Mobile communications and changes in electromagnetic conditions for the population. Needs for additional substantiation of the existing hygienic standards].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu G; Grigor'ev, O A; Ivanov, A A; Liaginskaia, A M; Merkulov, A V; Stepanov, V S; Shagina, N B

    2010-01-01

    Mobile communications provides a new source of electromagnetic exposure for almost the whole population of the Russian Federation. For the first time in the history of civilization the brain of mobile phone users was exposed to localized radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). Population exposure from the base stations is also considered to be specific. However, existing standards for limiting the exposure do not account for this special EMF source and may not ensure the absence of health effects. There was a need for reliable information that would extend databases used for development of new standards. As recommended by the World Health Organization an additional experiment was performed under the supervision of foreign experts, which showed changes in autoimmune status in rats after long-term low-level RF EMF exposure with an incident power density of 500 microW/cm2.

  10. [Hygiene practices for patients with HIV/AIDS].

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Gilmara Holanda; de Araujo, Thelma Leite; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Cavalcante, Tahissa Frota; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the scientific production on health interventions related to hygiene for adults with HIV/AIDS. An integrative literature review was performed using six databases in June 2013. The descriptors AIDS and Hygiene were used, in Portuguese, English or Spanish. A total of 682 articles were found and 16 were selected. Personal hygiene practices were identified, such as hand washing, showers, tooth brushing and quitting smoking. Food hygiene practices involved washing food and kitchen utensils, using treated water, conserving and cooking food. Environmental hygiene took into account raising domestic animals, control of disease vectors, household cleanliness, waste disposal and basic sanitation. In conclusion, these specific hygiene interventions can be applied to the general population and, especially, to people with HIV/AIDS, due to immunosuppression.

  11. Effects of flow field on the metabolic characteristics of Streptomyces lincolnensis in the industrial fermentation of lincomycin.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Zhang, Jiang; Tan, Ya-Li; Li, Zhi-Hong; Yu, Xue-Feng; Xia, Jian-Ye; Chu, Ju; Ge, You-Qun

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the flow field in the existing fermentor with radial-flow impellers (C1) was studied using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package Fluent, then the fermentor with radial-axial flow impellers (C2) was constructed and was compared with the C1 fermentor by CFD and experimental research. The simulation results revealed that the flow field in C2 fermentor had characteristics such as higher turbulent kinetic energy, gas holdup and shear rates. Metabolic variables of Streptomyces lincolnensis in the two fermentors such as carbon and nitrogen source consumption rates, specific growth rates (μ), hyphae morphologies, and lincomycin productivities were further explored. The correlation analysis between the experimental measurements and the simulation results indicated that the hyphae clustering and dry cell weight (DCW) decreasing at production stage were eliminated in C2 fermentor, which had higher gas volumetric mass transfer coefficient (K(L)a), dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and consumption rates of nutrient materials. When C2 was employed in the fermentor, the specific growth rate of S. lincolnensis at growth stage was higher, and the maintenance metabolism together with secondary metabolism at production stage was kept at higher levels. As a result, the yield of lincomycin was achieved 7039 μg ml(-1) when the 60 m(3) industrial fermentor was equipped with C2, which was increased by 46% compared to that obtained in the C1 fermentor.

  12. Demonstration of high current carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors at industrially relevant voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Mitchell

    The display market is presently dominated by the active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD). However, the active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display is argued to become the successor to the LCD, and is already beginning its way into the market, mainly in small size displays. But, for AMOLED technology to become comparable in market share to LCD, larger size displays must become available at a competitive price with their LCD counterparts. A major issue preventing low-cost large AMOLED displays is the thin-film transistor (TFT) technology. Unlike the voltage driven LCD, the OLEDs in the AMOLED display are current driven. Because of this, the mature amorphous silicon TFT backplane technology used in the LCD must be upgraded to a material possessing a higher mobility. Polycrystalline silicon and transparent oxide TFT technologies are being considered to fill this need. But these technologies bring with them significant manufacturing complexity and cost concerns. Carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors (CN-VFETs) offer a unique solution to this problem (now known as the AMOLED backplane problem). The CN-VFET allows the use of organic semiconductors to be used for the semiconductor layer. Organics are known for their low-cost large area processing compatibility. Although the mobility of the best organics is only comparable to that of amorphous silicon, the CN-VFET makes up for this by orienting the channel vertically, as opposed to horizontally (like in conventional TFTs). This allows the CN-VFET to achieve sub-micron channel lengths without expensive high resolution patterning. Additionally, because the CN-VFET can be easily converted into a light emitting transistor (called the carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic light emitting transistor---CN-VOLET) by essentially stacking an OLED on top of the CN-VFET, more potential benefits can be realized. These potential benefits include, increased aperture ratio, increased OLED

  13. Back to basics: hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a significant issue in the United States and throughout the world, but following proper hand hygiene practices is the most effective and least expensive way to prevent HAIs. Hand hygiene is inexpensive and protects patients and health care personnel alike. The four general types of hand hygiene that should be performed in the perioperative environment are washing hands that are visibly soiled, hand hygiene using alcohol-based products, surgical hand scrubs, and surgical hand scrubs using an alcohol-based surgical hand rub product. Barriers to proper hand hygiene may include not thinking about it, forgetting, skin irritation, a lack of role models, or a lack of a safety culture. One strategy for improving hand hygiene practices is monitoring hand hygiene as part of a quality improvement project, but the most important aspect for perioperative team members is to set an example for other team members by following proper hand hygiene practices and reminding each other to perform hand hygiene.

  14. [Bases of information hygiene: concepts and problems of innovations].

    PubMed

    Buchtiyrov, I V; Denisov, E I; Eryomin, A L

    2014-01-01

    The rising flow of information affects the health and affords ground for strengthening measures of hygienists. There is considered the place of information hygiene in preventive medicine. There are discussed physical and hygienic aspects of measurement and evaluation of information, there are considered some of their negative consequences. International and local regulations and guidance documents in this area are presented. In the light of the strategy of innovative development of Russia there are considered hygienic aspects of innovation and the improvement of hygienic standards.

  15. [Creating optimal hygienic conditions for students' activities].

    PubMed

    Grebniak, N P

    1990-05-01

    Optimization of the preparation of school-children for the working activity may be presented as a model consisting of 4 blocks. Socially significant functions are system-forming factors of this model, i.e. the functions of an organism with which successful implementation of the major types of activities is associated. System approach to the management of schoolchildren's activities based on the dynamic control of socially significant functions and on selective influence on external and internal factors with the help of prophylactic and corrective activities make it possible to maintain its hygienic optimization.

  16. Hazard surveillance for workplace magnetic fields. 1: Walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient field magnitude; 2: Field characteristics from waveform measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Methner, M.M.; Bowman, J.D.

    1998-03-01

    Recent epidemiologic research has suggested that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) may be associated with leukemia, brain cancer, spontaneous abortions, and Alzheimer`s disease. A walkaround sampling method for measuring ambient ELF-MF levels was developed for use in conducting occupational hazard surveillance. This survey was designed to determine the range of MF levels at different industrial facilities so they could be categorized by MF levels and identified for possible subsequent personal exposure assessments. Industries were selected based on their annual electric power consumption in accordance with the hypothesis that large power consumers would have higher ambient MFs when compared with lower power consumers. Sixty-two facilities within thirteen 2-digit Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC) were selected based on their willingness to participate. A traditional industrial hygiene walkaround survey was conducted to identify MF sources, with a special emphasis on work stations.

  17. Surgical hand hygiene: scrub or rub?

    PubMed

    Widmer, A F

    2013-02-01

    Surgical hand hygiene is standard care prior to any surgical procedure. Per-operative glove punctures are observed in almost 30% of all interventions, and a risk factor for postoperative infections. In the past, washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water (surgical scrub) was the norm, mainly with chlorhexidine or iodine. More recently, alcohol-based hand rub has been successfully introduced, showing greater effectiveness, less irritation to the hands, and requiring less time than washing hands. All products should have a remnant effect that delays microbial growth under the gloved hand. Some of the alcohol-based compounds are effective (as determined by the European Norm EN 12791) within 90 s whereas others require 3-5 min, similar to the scrub. The short procedure relies heavily on proper technique and timing, since lowering the exposure time to <90 s leads to significantly lower effectiveness of bacterial killing. Today, surgical hand hygiene should meet EN 12791 in Europe, or other standards, such as the US Food and Drug Administration tentative final monograph norm in the USA. It is best performed by using an alcohol-based hand rub, but a scrub with chlorhexidine-containing soap also meets these standards.

  18. Evaluation of biotechnological potentials of some industrial fungi in economical lipid accumulation and biofuel production as a field of use.

    PubMed

    Karatay, Sevgi Ertuğrul; Dönmez, Gönül

    2014-01-01

    Considering the vast number of scientific reports on various potential uses of fungi, there was an attempt to select the best lipid producer of some fungi at optimized conditions (Aspergillus versicolor, Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus arrhizus, Tramates versicolor). The aim was to offer new fields of use to the industries already culturing and using such materials. Aspergillus versicolor mycelia were found to be accumulating the highest amount of lipids. Experiments to improve lipid accumulation and transesterification properties were performed in molasses medium; the first steps were testing the effects of different pH values and different nitrogen sources on lipid accumulation. Various concentrations of KNO(3) (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 gL(-1)) and molasses (6%, 8%, 10%) were tried in order to find the optimum carbon and nitrogen requirements. Maximum lipid content was 22.8% in the samples containing 6% molasses solution and 1.0 gL(-1) KNO(3) at pH 4 after 10 days of incubation. The highest fatty acid ethyl ester yield of these samples was 77% (5.0 ethanol:oil, 0.4 sulfuric acid:oil at 30°C for 6 hr). Since the crude lipids were rich in C16 and C18 fatty acids, this was considered as suitable feedstock for biodiesel production.

  19. Surface failure analysis of a field-exposed copper-clad plate in a marine environment with industrial pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Pan; Dong, Chaofang; Xiao, Kui; Li, Xiaogang

    2017-03-01

    The corrosion behavior and electrochemical migration mechanism of a copper-clad plate (PCB-Cu) in a marine atmospheric environment with industrial pollution were studied in field exposure experiments. The results showed that corrosion was initiated from activity locations with low potential. With extended exposure time, the amount of corrosion products increased and gradually formed a double layer structure. The inner layer corrosion products were mainly Cu2O; the outer layer mainly included CuCO3·Cu(OH)2, Cu(OH)2·CuO·HCl, CuSO4·3Cu(OH)2 and CuSO3·3Cu(OH)2. When a 12 V bias voltage was applied, an anomalous electrochemical migration (ECM) phenomenon was observed: a Cu dendrite was produced near the anode and migrated toward the cathode. Finally, ECM led to the bridge connection of the two metallization stripes and caused a short circuit in the PCB-Cu.

  20. Outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kanji, Zul; Sunell, Susanne; Boschma, Geertje; Imai, Pauline; Craig, Bonnie J

    2011-03-01

    There is little published literature about the outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education, particularly in Canada. Since there are various dental hygiene entry-to-practice educational models in Canada, exploring baccalaureate dental hygiene education is becoming an increasingly important subject. The purpose of this study was to explore the personal outcomes and dental hygiene practice outcomes of dental hygiene degree-completion education in Canada from the perspectives of diploma dental hygienists who have continued their education to the bachelor's degree level. This study employed a qualitative phenomenological design, using a maximum variation purposeful sampling strategy. Data generation occurred with sixteen dental hygienists across Canada through individual semistructured interviews. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded for data analysis, involving pattern recognition and thematic development. Themes that emerged included changes in self-perception, values, and knowledge base. Changes in self-perception were reflected in a reported increase in self-confidence and perceived credibility. Changes in values included a greater appreciation for lifelong learning. Advancements in knowledge strengthened the development of specific abilities that ultimately influenced participants' dental hygiene practice. These abilities included an increased ability to think critically, to make evidence-based decisions, and to provide more comprehensive care. Participants also commented on having more career opportunities available to them outside of the private clinical practice setting. These results reveal important insights into the impact of earning a dental hygiene baccalaureate degree on oneself and one's dental hygiene practice.

  1. Maintenance of an Adequate Dental Hygiene Education System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ley, Eugene; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Administrative decisions about the future of dental hygiene programs are often based on inadequate information about employment trends and about the importance of the dental hygienist in dental practices. Studies indicate that demand for dental hygiene services will remain high in the 1980s. (Author/MLW)

  2. [The hygiene and toxicology of fertilizers at the present stage].

    PubMed

    Prodanchuk, N G; Mudryĭ, I V

    2007-01-01

    The paper touches upon the topical aspects of the hygiene and toxicology of fertilizers and their state sanitary-and-epidemiological examination at the present stage. It also considers guidelines for the toxicological-and-hygienic evaluation when state trials are carried out.

  3. [Significance of personal hygiene habits in the prevention of enterobiasis].

    PubMed

    Markin, A V; Terekhova, T V; Liubimova, S V

    1996-01-01

    The pupils from Rostov-on-Don were interviewed by a questionnaire on medical helminthology. They were found to poor knowledge in this sphere. They do not observe elementary personal hygienic rules. The ways of improving the hygienic education of pupils.

  4. [The hygienic bases for the prevention of enterobiasis].

    PubMed

    Markin, A V

    1994-01-01

    Evidence is provided for the value and priority of sanitary and hygienic measures and hygienic education of the population in the prevention of enterobiasis. It is emphasized that preventive work can be successful only when the parents, tutors of preschool institutions and teachers of schools are obligatorily attracted to it.

  5. Clinical skills: bed bathing and personal hygiene needs of patients.

    PubMed

    Pegram, Anne; Bloomfield, Jacqueline; Jones, Anne

    The maintenance of personal hygiene is essential for a patient's health and well-being. Nurses play a key role in ensuring that the individual hygiene needs of patients are met. In this article the process of bed-bathing a patient is described.

  6. Occupational Safety. Hygiene Safety. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This self-paced student training module on hygiene safety is one of a number of modules developed for Pre-apprenticeship Phase 1 Training. Purpose of the module is to familiarize students with the different types of airborne contaminants--including noise--which may be health hazards and with the proper hygienic measures for dealing with them. The…

  7. Use of Case-Based Learning in Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Dina Agnone; DeBiase, Christina B.; Gibson-Howell, Joan C.

    1998-01-01

    A survey investigated the extent of use of case-based learning in 141 dental hygiene programs. A majority of responding schools use the approach, most frequently in clinical dental hygiene, community dental health, and dental science courses. Proportion of instructional time was greatest in the content areas of special needs, ethics, medical…

  8. Improving Adherence to Hand Hygiene among Health Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maskerine, Courtney; Loeb, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Increased adherence to hand hygiene is widely acknowledged to be the most important way of reducing infections in health care facilities. Despite evidence of benefit, adherence to hand hygiene among health care professionals remains low. Several behavioral and organizational theories have been proposed to explain this. As a whole, the success of…

  9. Follow-Up Study of 1994 Dental Hygiene Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

    In an effort to evaluate the effectiveness of its dental hygiene program, William Rainey Harper College (WRHC), in Illinois, conducted a follow-up study of program graduates from 1994. Surveys were mailed to all 30 1994 dental hygiene associate degree graduates, receiving responses from 77% (n=23). Study findings included the following: (1) all…

  10. Dental Hygiene Curriculum Model for Transition to Future Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paarmann, Carlene S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of the baccalaureate degree as the minimum entry level for dental hygiene practice centers around three main concerns: changes in health care delivery, awarding of a degree commensurate with students' educational background, and the credibility of dental hygiene as a profession. A curriculum model is discussed. (MLW)

  11. Personal hygienic concerns in long term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Data from numerous experiments and hardware inventories were scanned for Skylab personal hygiene use. A computer program was formulated for predicting the degree of man's involvement with personal hygiene needs. A tabulation was kept for such events as water intake, frequency of urination and defecation, accidents or events requiring clean-up, methods of clean-up, microbiological environment and shower water contamination.

  12. 9 CFR 590.560 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 590.560 Section 590.560 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.560 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) Personnel...

  13. 9 CFR 590.560 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 590.560 Section 590.560 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.560 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) Personnel...

  14. 7 CFR 56.77 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 56.77 Section 56.77 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Facility Requirements § 56.77 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) No...

  15. 7 CFR 56.77 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 56.77 Section 56.77 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Facility Requirements § 56.77 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) No...

  16. 7 CFR 56.77 - Health and hygiene of personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Health and hygiene of personnel. 56.77 Section 56.77 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Facility Requirements § 56.77 Health and hygiene of personnel. (a) No...

  17. The History of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    The historiography of the Rhodes State College Dental Hygiene Program (Program) presents a historical journey of health care, as it relates to oral health, in the United States, in Ohio, and in Lima. This study bridges the gap between the history of higher education and the history of an academic program, dental hygiene. Prior to this study, there…

  18. Teaching Oral Hygiene Skills to Elementary Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Yeng-Hung; Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a program that taught oral hygiene skills to students with visual impairments using group instruction and individual coaching. The results showed that the program enhanced the oral hygiene skills of the three participants significantly, and its effectiveness lasted for at least two months after the…

  19. A Study of Radiographic Imaging Systems Used for Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karst, Nancy S.

    Thirty-three two-year dental hygiene programs throughout the United States were surveyed to identify the radiographic imaging system most often used and the accompanying rationale for that decision. A literature review identified the three radiographic imaging systems most frequently used and indicated that all dental hygiene programs had the…

  20. [Personal hygiene and cleanliness in an international comparison].

    PubMed

    Bergler, R

    1989-04-01

    The investigation was intended to analyse the attitude towards hygiene and cleanliness in the Federal Republic of Germany, France, and Spain. On the basis of a theoretical explanatory model and empirically gained qualitative raw data a standardized questionnaire was prepared; in a number of questions comparability with a study carried out in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1968 was ensured. In all countries the population was subjected to representative random tests (Federal Republic of Germany n = 1016; France n = 517; Spain n = 514). The paper presents a review of the hypothesis that quality and intensity of the cleanliness increases with (1) the extent of personal sensitivity to hygiene in the private, professional and public sphere, (2) with increasing physical sensibility, (3) the increase in our knowledge of hygiene and health, (4) with the increase in the personal behavioral standards for measures concerned with prevention, hygiene of the body, household, underwear and environment, (5) with the increasing weight given to hygiene and toilet during the process of development, and (6) with the extent of regular control of education in cleanliness based on established rules of behavior. The spheres of behavior investigated and mentioned below confirmed the validity of the hypothesis for (1) household hygiene (spring-cleaning, window cleaning, cleaning of the home: dusting, vacuum-cleaning, cleaning of the floor), (2) hygiene of the body (frequency of taking a shower, bathing, toothbrushing, intimate hygiene), (3) hygiene of the laundry (frequency of changing underclothes such as panties/underpants, brassieres, nightgowns/pyjamas, stockings/socks, linen, pillows, dish and kitchen towels). The following general findings were established: (1) In the Federal Republic of Germany the attitude towards hygiene and cleanliness has improved over the last 20 years. (2) The level of hygiene and cleanliness in France and Spain is significantly higher than in the FRG. (3

  1. Understanding the Determinants of Australian Hospital Nurses' Hand Hygiene Decisions Following the Implementation of a National Hand Hygiene Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine M.; Starfelt, Louise C.; Jimmieson, Nerina L.; Campbell, Megan; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian G.; Cockshaw, Wendell; Gee, Phillip; Page, Katie; Martin, Elizabeth; Brain, David; Paterson, David

    2015-01-01

    Hand hygiene is the primary measure in hospitals to reduce the spread of infections, with nurses experiencing the greatest frequency of patient contact. The "5 critical moments" of hand hygiene initiative has been implemented in hospitals across Australia, accompanied by awareness-raising, staff training and auditing. The aim of this…

  2. Education Physique et Hygiene. Revision Provisoire. Movement et Croissance (Physical Education and Hygiene. Provisional Revision. Movement and Growth).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Dept. of Education, Toronto.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 1-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Physical education and hygiene. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is in French. It is divided into two main sections, one for physical education, and one for hygiene. Each section contains several straight-text chapters with illustrations interspersed. The guide is offset printed and…

  3. Educational technology for millennial dental hygiene students: a survey of U.S. dental hygiene programs.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Catherine R R; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Rogo, Ellen J

    2014-06-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that today's learners have changed and education must change as well since Millennial generation students expect technology to be used in their coursework. This study sought to determine what educational technology is being used in U.S. dental hygiene programs, what student and faculty perceptions are of the effectiveness of technology, and what barriers exist to implementing educational technology. A stratified random sample of 120 entry-level dental hygiene programs nationwide were invited to participate in a survey. Fourteen programs participated, yielding a pool of 415 potential individual participants; out of those, eighty-four student and thirty-eight faculty respondents were included in the analysis, a total of 122. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a Mann-Whitney U test (p<0.05). Faculty and student respondents agreed on the effectiveness of educational technology in all areas except clickers and wikis. The faculty members tended to rate the effectiveness of educational technology higher than did the students. The greatest perceived barrier to implementing technology was technical difficulties. This study suggests that support services should be available to faculty and students to ensure successful implementation of technology. Dental hygiene educators have adopted many types of educational technology, but more data are needed to determine best practices.

  4. Effects of industrial noise on circumpulpar dentin - a field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cavacas, Maria Alzira; Tavares, Vitor; Oliveira, Maria João; Oliveira, Pedro; Sezinando, Ana; Martins dos Santos, José

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to Industrial Noise (IN), rich in Low Frequency Noise (LFN), causes systemic fibrotic transformation and sustained stress. Dental wear, significantly increased with exposure to LFN, affects the teeth particularly through the circumpulpar dentin. Our goal is to understand the consequences of IN exposure on the circumpulpar dentin of Wistar rats. 10 Wistar rats were exposed to IN for 4 months, according to an occupationally simulated time schedule and 10 animals were used as age-matched controls. The first and the second upper and lower molars of each animal were processed for observation by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was performed. In exposed animals FESEM showed a 2.0 to 6.0 μm-dense mineral band between dentin and the pulp with no regular continuity with the tubules. This structure had a few tubules where the odontoblasts processes could be observed embedded within the band and collagen fibers were trapped inside. EDS analysis revealed that it was hydroxyapatite similar to dentin, with a higher carbon content. FESEM results show that the band may be tertiary reparative dentin formed by odontoblast-like cells, but the increased amount of carbon (EDS) could mean that it is sclerotic dentin. IN should be acknowledge as a strong stimulus, able to cause an injury to odontoblasts and to the formation of reparative tertiary dentin, in a process that may accelerate the aging of the teeth, either by direct impact of acoustic pressure pulsations or by increased stress and dental wear. PMID:24294356

  5. BACIE Register of Programmed Instruction in the Field of Education and Training in Commerce and Industry. Volume 2, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Association for Commercial and Industrial Education, London (England).

    The British Association for Commercial and Industrial Education has included in its register of annotated programed instructional materials: programs available in the United Kingdom; programs dealing with industrial and commercial training and related further education; and information as supplied by the authors or producers of programs. The areas…

  6. [Hygienic optimization of the use of chemical protective means on railway transport].

    PubMed

    Kaptsov, V A; Pankova, V B; Elizarov, B B; Mezentsev, A P; Komleva, E A

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents data characterizing the working conditions of railway workers. It shows that there is the greatest levels of noise and vibration, the burden and intensity of work. The worst working conditions are noted in energy supply, car, locomotive services and track facilities. The working conditions determine a significant industrial risk of railway workers since the prevention of health abnormalities by using chemical protective means is a topical problem. The priority lines of hygienic rationale for optimization the choice and use of chemical protective means for workers exposed to occupational hazards are determined.

  7. Understanding non-compliance with hand hygiene practices.

    PubMed

    Gluyas, Heather

    2015-04-29

    Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) continue to be a challenge in developed and developing countries. Hand hygiene practice is considered to be the most effective strategy to prevent HCAIs, but healthcare workers' compliance is poor. Using a human factors perspective, this article explores elements that affect healthcare workers' hand hygiene compliance. Slips, lapses and mistakes can occur depending on the worker's skills and knowledge levels. Violations of protocols may also occur, and these may be associated with the intention to provide care efficiently. Strong leadership and an understanding of why non-compliance with hand hygiene occurs assists with developing strategies to improve compliance.

  8. Recovery of hygiene water by multifiltration. [in space shuttle orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, David F.; Jolly, Clifford D.; Colombo, Gerald V.; Price, Don

    1989-01-01

    A multifiltration hygiene water reclamation process that utilizes adsorption and particulate filtration techniques is described and evaluated. The applicability of the process is tested using a simulation of a 4-man subsystem operation for 240 days. It is proposed the process has a 10 year life, weighs 236 kg, and uses 88 kg of expendable filters and adsorption beds to process 8424 kg of water. The data reveal that the multifiltration is an efficient nonphase change technique for hygiene water recovery and that the chemical and microbiological purity of the product water is within the standards specified for the Space Station hygiene water.

  9. Field Test Report: NETL Portable Raman Gas Composition Monitor - Initial Industrial tests at NETL and General Electric (GE)

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, Buric; Jessica, Mullen; Steven, Woodruff; Ben, Chorpening

    2012-02-24

    NETL has developed new technology which enables the use of Raman spectroscopy in the real-time measurement of gas mixtures. This technology uses a hollow reflective metal-lined capillary waveguide as a gas sampling cell which contains the sample gas, and efficiently collects optical Raman scattering from the gas sample, for measurement with a miniature spectrometer. The result is an optical Raman “fingerprint” for each gas which is tens or hundreds of times larger than that which can be collected with conventional free-space optics. In this manner, the new technology exhibits a combination of measurement speed and accuracy which is unprecedented for spontaneous Raman measurements of gases. This makes the system especially well-suited to gas turbine engine control based on a-priori measurement of incoming fuel composition. The system has been developed to produce a measurement of all of the common components of natural gas, including the lesser nitrogen, oxygen, carbon-dioxide, and carbon monoxide diluents to better than 1% concentration accuracy each second. The objective of this task under CRADA 10-N100 was to evaluate the capability of a laser Raman capillary gas sensor for combustion fuels. A portable version of the Raman gas sensor, constructed at NETL, was used for field-trials conducted in a cooperative research effort at a GE facility. Testing under the CRADA was performed in 5 parts. Parts 1-4 were successful in testing of the Raman Gas Composition Monitor with bottled calibration gases, and in continuous monitoring of several gas streams at low pressure, in comparison with an online mass spectrometer. In part 5, the Raman Gas Composition Monitor was moved outdoors for testing with high pressure gas supplies. Some difficulties were encountered during industrial testing including the condensation of heavy hydrocarbons inside the sample cell (in part 5), communication with the GE data collection system, as well as some drift in the optical noise

  10. A Study to Develop an Industrial-Scale, Computer-Controlled High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) System to Assist in Commercializing the Novel, Enabling HMFP Manufacturing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz-; Chourey, Aashish

    2010-08-01

    As the original magnet designer and manufacturer of ORNL s 9T, 5-inch ID bore magnet, American Magnetics Inc. (AMI) has collaborated with ORNL s Materials Processing Group s and this partnership has been instrumental in the development of our unique thermo-magnetic facilities and expertise. Consequently, AMI and ORNL have realized that the commercial implementation of the High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) technology will require the evolution of robust, automated superconducting (SC) magnet systems that will be cost-effective and easy to operate in an industrial environment. The goal of this project and CRADA is to significantly expedite the timeline for implementing this revolutionary and pervasive cross-cutting technology for future US produced industrial components. The successful completion of this project is anticipated to significantly assist in the timely commercialization and licensing of our HMFP intellectual property for a broad spectrum of industries; and to open up a new market for AMI. One notable outcome of this project is that the ThermoMagnetic Processing Technology WON a prestigious 2009 R&D 100 Awards. This award acknowledges and recognizes our TMP Technology as one of the top 100 innovative US technologies in 2009. By successfully establishing the design requirements for a commercial scale magnetic processing system, this project effort has accomplished a key first step in facilitating the building and demonstration of a superconducting magnetic processing coil, enabling the transition of the High Magnetic Field Processing Technology beyond a laboratory novelty into a commercially viable and industrially scalable Manufacturing Technology.

  11. [Evaluating health state of chemical industry workers].

    PubMed

    Mogilenkova, L A

    2010-01-01

    The article presents structural and functional model based on systemic approach to improve evaluation of health state of workers engaged into chemical industry. The author specified hygienic criteria of work conditions and health state criteria to evaluate health risks due to chemical factors.

  12. Usefulness of a large field of view sensor for physicochemical, textural, and yield predictions under industrial goat cheese (Murcia al Vino) manufacturing conditions.

    PubMed

    Rovira, S; García, V; Ferrandini, E; Carrión, J; Castillo, M; López, M B

    2012-11-01

    The applicability of a light backscatter sensor with a large field of view was tested for on-line monitoring of coagulation and syneresis in a goat cheese (Murcia al Vino) manufactured under industrial conditions. Cheesemaking was carried out concurrently in a 12-L pilot vat and a 10,000-L industrial vat following the normal cheesemaking protocol. Cheese moisture, whey fat content, hardness, springiness, and adhesiveness were measured during syneresis. The results obtained show that cutting time is best predicted by considering the coagulation ratio at the inflection point and the percentage increase in the ratio during coagulation, with no need for the first derivative. The large field of view reflectance ratio provided good results for the prediction of moisture content, yield, hardness, springiness, and adhesiveness of the final cheese.

  13. National hand hygiene campaigns in Europe, 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    Magiorakos, A P; Suetens, C; Boyd, L; Costa, C; Cunney, R; Drouvot, V; Farrugia, C; Fernandez-Maillo, M M; Iversen, B G; Leens, E; Michael, S; Moro, M L; Reinhardt, C; Serban, R; Vatcheva-Dobrevska, R; Wilson, K; Heisbourg, E; Maltezou, H C; Strauss, R; Borocz, K; Dolinsek, M; Dumpis, U; Erne, S; Gudlaugsson, O; Heczko, P; Hedlova, D; Holt, J; Joe, L; Lyytikainen, O; Riesenfeld-Orn, I; Stefkovikova, M; Valinteliene, R; Voss, A; Monnet, D L

    2009-04-30

    Hand hygiene represents the single most effective way to prevent healthcare-associated infections. The World Health Organization, as part of its First Global Patient Safety Challenge, recommends implementation of multi-faceted strategies to increase compliance with hand hygiene. A questionnaire was sent by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control to 30 European countries, regarding the availability and organisation of their national hand hygiene campaigns. All countries responded. Thirteen countries had organised at least one national campaign during the period 2000-2009 and three countries were in the process of organising a national campaign. Although the remaining countries did not have a national campaign, several reported regional and local hand hygiene activities or educational resources on national websites.

  14. Pilot Overmyer completes hygiene activities / demostrates IVA foot restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    On middeck, Pilot Overmyer, drying his face with a towel from forward single tray personal item stowage locker, completes personal hygiene activities (shaving) and demostrates use of intravehicular activity (IVA) foot restraint on floor.

  15. A discourse on dental hygiene education in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kanji, Z; Sunell, S; Boschma, G; Imai, P; Craig, B J

    2011-11-01

    Over the past decade, the discourse on dental hygiene education has gained momentum in Canada. This review provides insights into the evolution of dental hygiene education in Canada, briefly exploring the history and professional influences for diploma and baccalaureate education within the profession. The profession in Canada has yet to implement a national standardized entry-to-practice educational model, but the recent development of national educational competencies may prove to be a promising beginning. The review also discusses efforts to advance dental hygiene education in recent years, while exploring the political and professional pressures and challenges that remain. Further discourse on education and outcomes-related research can be effective in positively influencing governmental, professional and public opinions of higher entry-level education for dental hygiene which may ultimately result in regulatory change and improved client outcomes.

  16. Assessing Interdisciplinary Education in U.S. Dental Hygiene Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Lorie; Bray, Kimberly; Mayberry, Bill; Overman, Pamela

    2000-01-01

    Survey responses from 136 of 216 dental hygiene programs indicated that 31% included interdisciplinary activities in the curriculum; only 15% included both clinical and instructional interdisciplinary coursework. However, 74% felt that students would benefit from interdisciplinary experiences. (SK)

  17. The history of dental hygiene in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Mann, Nancy K

    2011-01-01

    This historical narrative highlights the origin and development of the dental hygiene profession in South Korea. The legacy of early American missionaries to Korea includes profound and long-lasting contributions in medicine, education and theology. Many of Korea's top universities today have their roots in the missionary schools of the late nineteenth century, including Yonsei University, home of the first dental hygiene program in Korea. From Yonsei in Seoul, the dental hygiene profession spread throughout the country, includingtheAmerican missionary-based program in Kwangju in 1977. Contributions included clinical and didactic education, as well as professional leadership and development. American dental missionaries developed the profession of dental hygiene in Korea, and provided guidance to Korean dentists and hygienists for its growth and expansion.

  18. Online directed journaling in dental hygiene clinical education.

    PubMed

    Gwozdek, Anne E; Klausner, Christine P; Kerschbaum, Wendy E

    2009-01-01

    Reflecting upon and sharing of clinical experiences in dental hygiene education is a strategy used to support the application of didactic material to patient care. The promotion of interactive, clinically focused discussions creates opportunities for students to foster critical thinking and socialization skills in dental hygiene practice. Twenty-eight dental hygiene students in their first semester of patient care utilized online directed journaling via blogging software, as a reflection and sharing strategy. Journal entries found critical thinking and socialization themes including connection of didactic material to clinical experience, student-patient interaction, student-student collaboration, and a vision of the professional role of the dental hygienist. A 7 item evaluation instrument provided data that the online journaling strategy was perceived as effective and valuable by the students. Online directed journaling is a strategy that has the potential to enhance critical thinking and socialization skills in dental hygiene clinical education.

  19. Water, sanitation and hygiene for homeless people.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Walters, Vicky; Gaillard, J C; Hridi, Sanjida Marium; McSherry, Alice

    2016-02-01

    This short communication provides insights into water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for homeless people through a scoping study conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It investigates homeless access to WASH through the lens of a rights-based approach. It demonstrates that homeless people's denial of their right to WASH reflects their marginal position in society and an unequal distribution of power and opportunities. The study ultimately suggests a rights-based approach to work toward dealing with the root causes of discrimination and marginalisation rather than just the symptoms. For the homeless, who not only lack substantive rights, but also the means through which to claim their rights, an integrated rights-based approach to WASH offers the possibility for social inclusion and significant improvements in their life conditions. Given the unique deprivation of homelessness it is argued that in addressing the lack of access to adequate WASH for homeless people the immediate goal should be the fulfilment and protection of the right to adequate shelter.

  20. [Hygienic requirements on materials in contact with drinking water].

    PubMed

    Schlosser, F-U; Schuster, R; Rapp, T

    2007-03-01

    In Germany the hygienic requirements on materials used to supply drinking water are a part of the technical standards. These regulations have to ensure that legal requirements on drinking water are met at the tap. The hygienic harmlessness is assured by requirements on the composition of materials and by test procedures including parametric limits. Historically, the requirements on different types of materials are a part of different technical standards.

  1. Hygiene of the skin: when is clean too clean?

    PubMed Central

    Larson, E.

    2001-01-01

    Skin hygiene, particularly of the hands, is a primary mechanism for reducing contact and fecal-oral transmission of infectious agents. Widespread use of antimicrobial products has prompted concern about emergence of resistance to antiseptics and damage to the skin barrier associated with frequent washing. This article reviews evidence for the relationship between skin hygiene and infection, the effects of washing on skin integrity, and recommendations for skin care practices. PMID:11294712

  2. The first step in infection control is hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Canham, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    A dental health care worker (DHCW) has an obligation to prevent the spread of health care associated infections. Adhering to proper hand hygiene procedures, selecting appropriate hand hygiene products and the use of gloves are all important elements of infection control. The CDC Guidelines for Hand Hygiene state that improved hand hygiene practices can reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in health care settings. DHCWs must also protect themselves by recognizing pitfalls such as irritants or allergies that may pose obstacles to proper hand hygiene. Occupational irritants and allergies can be caused by frequent hand washing, exposure to hand hygiene products, exposure to chemicals and shear forces associated with wearing or removing gloves. Since the primary defense against infection and transmission of pathogens is healthy, unbroken skin, DHCWs must take steps to ensure that their skin remains healthy and intact. These steps include evaluating different types of hand hygiene products, lotions and gloves for the best compatibility. If the DHCW sees a breakdown of his or her skin barrier, steps should be taken to determine the cause and remedy. Remedies can include the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers containing emollients and moisturizers and regular use of a medical grade hand lotion. The bottom line: healthy skin protects you at work and at home. Selection and use of appropriate hand hygiene products, including moisturizers, are an essential part ofa dental office infection control program. My coworker lost the use of her thumb for several months due to complications of a staph infection. She was unable to work and found even simple tasks such as closing a button hard to do. Think of how difficult your work would be if something happened to your hands. Injury, irritation or allergies could alter your ability to work or even perform routine tasks. Our hands provide us with the ability to work in clinical dentistry. It makes

  3. Oral Hygiene Levels in Children of Tribal Population of Eastern Ghats: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Raju, P Krishnam; Vasanti, D; Kumar, J Raghavendra; Niranjani, K; Kumar, M S Saravana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene has been given due importance since ages. Different cultures have been using different methods for the maintenance of good oral hygiene. The study was done to find out the oral hygiene levels in children of tribal population and to correlate the brushing methods used and the oral hygiene levels. Methodology: A total of 5129 children of 5-12 years age (boys 2778, girls 2351) were checked for the simplified oral hygiene index in the study. Results: The overall oral hygiene status of 1267 girls and 1348 boys was fair, whereas 821 girls and 937 boys was good and 263 girls and 493 boys was poor. It has been shown that fair oral hygiene practices were being followed by the children. Conclusion: Children using twigs and other materials for oral hygiene had nearly equally good oral hygiene when compared to the tooth brush and tooth paste, though children using toothbrush and tooth paste had slightly better oral hygiene. PMID:26229382

  4. The correlation between sustainable development and home hygiene.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, M J

    2001-08-01

    Hygiene refers to the science of the establishment and maintenance of (human) health. In everyday life, hygiene is closely associated with good housekeeping. This article will focus on home hygiene in relation to cleaning, on microorganisms, and on sustainable development of domestic technology. In domestic cleaning there are two beneficial effects: the aesthetic aspects of cleanness and the removal of microorganisms. In cleaning science substantial attention is paid to the interrelation between cleaning and removal of microorganisms. It appears that the parameters of the cleaning process and the detergent properties play a significant role in this interrelation. Changing technology to reduce the environmental impact of household cleaning not only influences the household activities and the functional performance of the cleaning processes but also has an impact on the level of hygiene. Results are presented of research in which the hygiene has been evaluated in relation to such changes. One option recently studied to reduce the environmental impact of households is the reduction of water consumption by water reuse. In such concepts water is used in successive steps for various processes before it is drained. The potential impact of such systems and of the use of rain water on the level of home hygiene is discussed.

  5. The discourse of dental hygiene practice in Canada.

    PubMed

    McKeown, L; Sunell, S; Wickstrom, P

    2003-02-01

    Recently the discourse in Canada relating to dental hygiene practice has changed. While dentistry still exercises controlling power over the public's oral cavity, dental hygienists have made inroads through legislative changes. A description of Canadian dental hygiene practice is provided to set the stage for a discussion about current discourse in the dental hygiene profession. Although power is often perceived as a shifting changing set of relations, these can be frozen in abstraction. It is rather like taking a photo of a single moment or event in an ongoing activity. This moment provides a starting point, an event that can be analysed. Four such events are evident in Canadian dental hygiene practice; they include, education, recognition of dental hygienists as primary care providers, the culture of dental hygiene and self-regulation. While all the events are important, self-regulation is critical to the viability and development of the profession. It is the central event that provides the backdrop for effecting change. With self-regulation comes responsibility and accountability for professional actions. It also provides possibilities for changing the discourse in oral care. As oral health care discourse is transformed through legislation and public awareness, the public will, hopefully, be able to directly access dental hygiene services, and dental hygienists themselves might increasingly recognise their importance as contributors in the health care system.

  6. Hygiene behaviour in rural Nicaragua in relation to diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Gorter, A C; Sandiford, P; Pauw, J; Morales, P; Pérez, R M; Alberts, H

    1998-12-01

    Poor hygiene practices are among the risk factors for the transmission of childhood diarrhea, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Nicaragua. Findings are reported from a prospective follow-up study in rural Nicaragua of the effect of a number of hygiene practices upon diarrheal disease in children under age 2 years old. 172 families, of whom half had experienced a higher than expected rate of diarrhea in their children and the other half a lower rate, participated. Hygiene behavior was observed over 2 mornings and diarrhea incidence was recorded with a calendar over the course of 5 months. Of 46 good practices studied, 39 were associated with a lower risk of diarrhea, 5 were unrelated, and a higher risk was observed for 2. The washing of hands, domestic cleanliness, and the use of a diaper/underclothes by the child had the strongest protective effect against diarrhea. Mothers with more than 3 years of primary school education and in a comparatively better economic position, including having a radio, exhibited comparatively better general hygiene behavior. Education had a slightly stronger effect when a radio was present. However, individual hygiene behavior seems to be highly variable compared to the consistent behavior of the overall community. Appropriate indicators of hygiene behavior were domestic cleanliness and the use of a diaper or underclothes by the child.

  7. Balancing hygienization and anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Astals, S; Venegas, C; Peces, M; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Mata-Alvarez, J

    2012-12-01

    The anaerobic digestion of raw sewage sludge was evaluated in terms of process efficiency and sludge hygienization. Four different scenarios were analyzed, i.e. mesophilic anaerobic digestion, thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a 60 °C or by an 80 °C hygienization treatment. Digester performance (organic matter removal, process stability and biogas yield) and the hygienization efficiency (reduction of Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and F-specific RNA phages) were the main examined factors. Moreover, a preliminary economical feasibility study of each option was carried out throughout an energy balance (heat and electricity). The obtained results showed that both thermophilic anaerobic digestion and mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by a hygienization step were able to produce an effluent sludge that fulfills the American and the European legislation for land application. However, higher removal efficiencies of indicators were obtained when a hygienization post-treatment was present. Regarding the energy balance, it should be noted that all scenarios have a significant energy surplus. Particularly, positive heat balances will be obtained for the thermophilic anaerobic digestion and for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion followed by 60 °C hygienization post-treatment if an additional fresh-sludge/digested sludge heat exchanger is installed for energy recovery.

  8. Menstrual Hygiene Practices in Context of Schooling: A Community Study Among Rural Adolescent Girls in Varanasi

    PubMed Central

    Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Sweta; Kumar, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Up until now, poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. The lack of attention to this issue is striking as we cannot achieve several Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), that is, 2, 3 4,5, and 5B. This study aimed to assess the level of awareness about menarche and hygienic practices during menstruation in context of schooling. Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study using a mix method approach (qualitative and quantitative). It was conducted among 650 adolescent girls in the field practice area of Rural Health and Training Centre, Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi between January and June2011. Pretested, semistructured interview schedule was used. Data were analyzed statistically by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results: Out of the total 650 respondents, 590 (90.78%) had attained menarche at the time of interview and only one-third of the respondents (29.4%) were aware of menstruation before menarche and sisters (55%) played the key role in providing information to them. Only 31% respondents were using sanitary pads during menstruation. Self-reported reproductive tract infection (RTI) was observed more in respondents not maintaining hygienic practices (6.6%) as compared to those maintaining hygiene (2.6%). Conclusion and Recommendations: From the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) as well as quantitative survey it was observed that the awareness about menarche before its onset was still poor in rural areas. Significant association (P < 0.05) was observed between respondent education and their awareness about menarche before its onset. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers can play an influential role in informing them about changes during adolescence, especially about menarche and other issues related to menstruation. As per the present study, sisters and mothers were the major source of information. Therefore, there is a need for the

  9. Manpower Needs in the Field of Aging: The Nursing Home Industry. AOA Occasional Papers in Gerontology, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration on Aging (DHEW), Washington, DC. National Clearinghouse on Aging.

    Employment in nursing homes is projected to increase from 583,000 in 1973 to 1,036,000 in 1985. Substantially more workers are expected to be employed in nearly all occupations. The projected growth of 78% is faster than that expected in any segment of the health industry. Most nursing home employees are service workers. Two of these occupational…

  10. Field Study: A Welding Survey of the Blackhawk Technical Institute Industries (Up-dating the Welding Curriculum).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesch, Gerald E.

    In 1972, the welding department personnel at Blackhawk Technical Institute in Wisconsin undertook the project of updating the curriculum of their one-year welding degree program. A study was conducted of local welding industries to determine hiring policies, the tools and equipment a beginning welder should purchase, the types of welding processes…

  11. Reasons for Choosing a Technically Oriented Education: An Interview Study within the Fields of Pipefitting and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjurulf, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    The article examines how professionals within technical businesses describe their ways into their trade and why they have remained. Semi-structured interviews, analyzed by analysis of narratives, have been conducted with six informants within pipefitting and industrial work aiming to understand how technically oriented professions can attract…

  12. Strategic Coupling of Advanced Induction Heating with Magnetic Field Processing Technologies Provides Innovative Solutions for Elevated Industries Demands

    SciTech Connect

    Ludtka, Mackiewicz-Ludtka; Pfaffmann, George; Ludtka, Gerard Michael

    2013-01-01

    Industry s relentless pursuit of product performance improvements is now challenging the capability of available/existing Thermal processing technologies, i.e., Heat Treating. In fact, the EPA-mandated requirement for light-weighting vehicles underscores the urgent US need for achieving higher product strength improvements.

  13. Success Factors in Higher Education-Industry Collaboration: A Case Study of Collaboration in the Engineering Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thune, Taran

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of what potential success factors are relevant when developing and managing higher education-business partnerships. To shed light on this question, the paper presents a review of research literature on the possible success factors in university-industry relations. To shed further light on the factors identified in…

  14. Hand hygiene monitoring technology: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthcare worker hand hygiene is thought to be one of the most important strategies to prevent healthcare-associated infections, but compliance is generally poor. Hand hygiene improvement interventions must include audits of compliance (almost always with feedback), which are most often done by direct observation - a method that is expensive, subjective, and prone to bias. New technologies, including electronic and video hand hygiene monitoring systems, have the potential to provide continuous and objective monitoring of hand hygiene, regular feedback, and for some systems, real-time reminders. We propose a systematic review of the evidence supporting the effectiveness of these systems. The primary objective is to determine whether hand hygiene monitoring systems yield sustainable improvements in hand hygiene compliance when compared to usual care. Methods/Design MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and other relevant databases will be searched for randomized control studies and quasi-experimental studies evaluating a video or electronic hand hygiene monitoring system. A standard data collection form will be used to abstract relevant information from included studies. Bias will be assessed using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. Studies will be reviewed independently by two reviewers, with disputes resolved by a third reviewer. The primary outcome is directly observed hand hygiene compliance. Secondary outcomes include healthcare-associated infection incidence and improvements in hand hygiene compliance as measured by alternative metrics. Results will be qualitatively summarized with comparisons made between study quality, the measured outcome, and study-specific factors that may be expected to affect outcome (for example, study duration, frequency of feedback, use of real-time reminders). Meta-analysis will be performed if there is more than one study of similar systems with comparable outcome definitions

  15. Menstrual Hygiene Practices and Sources of Menstrual Hygiene Information among Adolescent Secondary School Girls in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilo, Cajetan I.; Nwimo, Ignatius O.; Onwunaka, Chinagorom

    2016-01-01

    Menstruation is clouded by socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of hygienic practices. The study was designed to ascertain the menstrual hygiene practices and sources of menstrual hygiene information among 1200 adolescent secondary school girls, who completed the questionnaire designed for the study. Out of…

  16. Short-term impact of oral hygiene training package to Anganwadi workers on improving oral hygiene of preschool children in North Indian City

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Globally, dental caries is categorized in the list of public health problems in preschool children. In India, lack of availability and affordability of oral health enhances the cost of treatment and care. Empowering community workers like anganwadi workers (AWWs) in oral health, and providing basic oral health awareness to the mothers through them can be feasible model. So, the present study was conducted to evaluate the short-term impact of Oral Hygiene Training Package (OHTP) to AWWs on improving oral hygiene of preschool children. Methods This before and after comparison field trial was done in Anganwadi centres (AWCs) of Chandigarh city, India. 534 children aged 36-72 months attending 21 AWCs were examined before and after imparting trainings to AWWs. OHTP was administered to AWWs, which consisted of power-point presentation and demonstrated the skills like proper brushing technique, plaque disclosure, flossing technique, gum massaging etc. The AWWs later imparted training to mothers in their respective AWCs. Post intervention data was collected after three months. Outcome measures were improvement in oral health status (plaque, debris, gingival health), oral habits (brushing, rinsing) and decrease in caries activity (Snyder test). Results Prevalence of dental caries was found to be 48.3%. Only 4.1% of the population reported brushing twice which increased significantly to 9.9% post-intervention (p = 0.000). There was a significant decrease in debris (78.3% to 54.1%), and stage-1 plaque (75.5 to 66.5%) in the oral cavity. Caries activity by Snyder’s test decreased from 48.2% to 31.2% (p = 0.01) post-intervention. Conclusions Controlled trials of using AWWs to improve oral hygiene appear to be justified. Trial registration CTRI/2012/07/002786 PMID:24279468

  17. Hygiene and health - the need for a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Exner, M; Hartemann, P; Kistemann, T

    2001-08-01

    The holistic principles of hygiene and public health have contributed substantially to an increase in life expectancy by more than 30 years and in life quality since the beginning of the 20th century. Frank, Pettenkofer, Nightingale, Pasteur, Lister, and Koch have been pioneering protagonists of the holistic approach to hygiene and public health. Socioeconomic development and related factors such as nutrition status and food hygiene, housing conditions, water supply and sewage systems, and education (including motivation for personal hygiene) have obviously been of more importance for life expectancy and life quality than progress in curative medicine, such as availability of microbial diagnosis, vaccination, and antibiotics. Today, new risk factors for infectious diseases arise, even in developed countries. These risk factors arise from emerging pathogens, antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, changing demographic patterns, an increasing amount of ambulatory and home care, socioeconomic and environmental changes, technical environments, worldwide distribution of food, and changing human behavior with a decreased awareness of microbial threats. These new challenges worldwide make a renewal of the holistic approach of hygiene and public health both urgent and necessary. On the basis of historic experience, policies that focus on surveillance and control, diagnosis, and therapy only can be assumed to be both insufficient and inefficient in controlling the new challenges in infectious diseases. Experiences in Germany with a holistic hospital hygiene strategy since 1976 provide encouragement for the promotion of holistic health concepts. Risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication are basic steps of a modern holistic strategy. Hygiene has the potential to act as a moderator of diverging positions of different disciplines within this renewed approach.

  18. Electro-mechanical properties of REBCO coated conductors from various industrial manufacturers at 77 K, self-field and 4.2 K, 19 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, C.; Mondonico, G.; Senatore, C.

    2015-04-01

    Rare-Earth-barium-copper-oxide tapes are now available from several industrial manufacturers and are very promising conductors in high field applications. Due to diverging materials and deposition processes, these manufacturers’ tapes can be expected to differ in their electro-mechanical and mechanical properties. For magnets designers, these are together with the conductors’ in-field critical current performance of the highest importance in choosing a suitable conductor. In this work, the strain and stress dependence of the current carrying capabilities as well as the stress and strain correlation are investigated for commercial coated conductors from Bruker HTS, Fujikura, SuNAM, SuperOx and SuperPower at 77 K, self-field and 4.2 K, 19 T.

  19. A Study to Develop an Industrial-Scale, Computer-Controlled High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) System to Assist in Commercializing the Novel, Enabling HMFP Manufacturing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lutdka, G. M.; Chourey, A.

    2010-05-12

    As the original magnet designer and manufacturer of ORNL’s 9T, 5-inch ID bore magnet, American Magnetics Inc. (AMI) has collaborated with ORNL’s Materials Processing Group’s and this partnership has been instrumental in the development of our unique thermo-magnetic facilities and expertise. Consequently, AMI and ORNL have realized that the commercial implementation of the High Magnetic Field Processing (HMFP) technology will require the evolution of robust, automated superconducting (SC) magnet systems that will be cost-effective and easy to operate in an industrial environment. The goal of this project and CRADA is to significantly expedite the timeline for implementing this revolutionary and pervasive cross-cutting technology for future US produced industrial components. The successful completion of this project is anticipated to significantly assist in the timely commercialization and licensing of our HMFP intellectual property for a broad spectrum of industries; and to open up a new market for AMI. One notable outcome of this project is that the ThermoMagnetic Processing Technology WON a prestigious 2009 R&D 100 Awards. This award acknowledges and recognizes our TMP Technology as one of the top 100 innovative US technologies in 2009. By successfully establishing the design requirements for a commercial scale magnetic processing system, this project effort has accomplished a key first step in facilitating the building and demonstration of a superconducting magnetic processing coil, enabling the transition of the High Magnetic Field Processing Technology beyond a laboratory novelty into a commercially viable and industrially scalable Manufacturing Technology.

  20. Issues in access to safe drinking water and basic hygiene for persons with physical disabilities in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Marin; Pann, Mala; Cantwell, Ray; Moore, Spencer

    2014-12-01

    An estimated 1.6 million people die from diarrheal diseases each year due to lack of access to safe water and sanitation, and persons with physical disabilities face additional barriers. In Cambodia, approximately 5% of the population is disabled, presenting substantial obstacles in accessing these basic services. The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to identify the challenges facing persons with physical disabilities in accessing safe household water and basic hygiene in rural Cambodia; and, second, to use these results to generate policy and practice recommendations for the water and sanitation hygiene sector implementing water treatment system interventions in rural settings. Fifteen field interviews were conducted with persons with physical disabilities. Thematic analysis was used to identify six main themes. The results indicated that environmental barriers to access were greater in the workplace than household settings and those persons with disabilities had greater awareness about safe drinking water compared to basic hygiene. Additionally, lack of physical strength, distance to water, and lack of financial means were noted as common access barriers. The findings support ongoing research and offer insight into the particular challenges facing persons with physical disabilities in rural areas in accessing safe drinking water and basic hygiene.

  1. [Hygiene tips for kids. Concept and examples of realisation].

    PubMed

    Gebel, J; Teichert-Barthel, U; Hornbach-Beckers, S; Vogt, A; Kehr, B; Littmann, M; Kupfernagel, F; Ilschner, C; Simon, A; Exner, M

    2008-11-01

    Basic hygiene measures aim at promoting and maintaining good health. The necessary routines are most effectively learned and adopted during childhood. These key findings form the basis for the educational programme "Hygiene Tips for Kids" which was initiated at the Department of Hygiene and Public Health at Bonn University under the auspices of WHO Europe in 2003. The programme addresses children, teachers and parents and offers a range of materials and activities tailored to the specific needs of the target groups based on expert advice. The objective is to exert a long-lasting, positive influence on the performance of hygiene routines. Campaigns are usually directed at pre-school, kindergarten and primary school settings, with the public health service personnel playing a crucial role in coordinating and implementing the various activities. Evaluation of a campaign in the federal state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern has proven a positive effect on hand washing routines in pre-school as well as in the domestic setting. Moreover, Hygiene Tips for Kids has a sustained positive effect on the cooperation and communication between public health authorities and teachers, children and their parents. Teachers implement their own ideas within a framework of standardised information to suit their local needs. A long-term goal would be the obligatory integration of a sensible health education programme in the syllabus of pre-school, kindergarten and primary schools.

  2. Menstrual hygiene among adolescent schoolgirls in Mansoura, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Badawi, Karima; El-Fedawy, Sanaa

    2005-11-01

    Learning about menstrual hygiene is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. This study among 664 schoolgirls aged 14-18 in Mansoura, Egypt, asked about type of sanitary protection used, frequency of changing pads or cloths, means of disposal and bathing during menstruation. Girls were selected by cluster sampling technique in public secondary schools in urban and rural areas. Data were collected through an anonymous, self-administered, open-ended questionnaire during class time. The significant predictors of use of sanitary pads were availability of mass media at home, high and middle social class and urban residence. Use of sanitary pads may be increasing, but not among girls from rural and poor families, and other aspects of personal hygiene were generally found to be poor, such as not changing pads regularly or at night, and not bathing during menstruation. Lack of privacy was an important problem. Mass media were the main source of information about menstrual hygiene, followed by mothers, but a large majority of girls said they needed more information. Instruction in menstrual hygiene should be linked to an expanded programme of health education in schools. A supportive environment for menstrual hygiene has to be provided both at home and in school and sanitary pads made more affordable.

  3. Dirt and diarrhoea: formative research in hygiene promotion programmes.

    PubMed

    Curtis, V; Kanki, B; Cousens, S; Sanou, A; Diallo, I; Mertens, T

    1997-06-01

    Investment in the promotion of better hygiene for the prevention of diarrhoeal diseases and as a component of water and sanitation programmes is increasing. Before designing programmes capable of sustainably modifying hygiene behaviour in large populations, valid answers to a number of basic questions concerning the site and the intended beneficiaries have to be obtained. Such questions include 'what practices favour the transmission of enteric pathogens?', 'what advantages will be perceived by those who adopt safe practices?' and 'what channels of communication are currently employed by the target population?' A study of hygiene and diarrhoea in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, used a mixture of methods to address such questions. This paper draws on that experience to propose a plan of preliminary research using a variety of techniques which could be implemented over a period of a few months by planners of hygiene promotion programmes. The techniques discussed include structured observation, focus group discussions and behavioural trials. Modest investment in such systematic formative research with clear and limited goals is likely to be repaid many times over in the increased effectiveness of hygiene promotion programmes.

  4. A survey of degree completion programs in dental hygiene education.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Karen M; Rogo, Ellen J; Calley, Kristin H; Cellucci, Leigh W

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to identify specific information related to U.S. dental hygiene baccalaureate degree completion programs. Learning experiences, assessment methods, and baccalaureate institutional partnerships were assessed. Of the sixty dental hygiene programs that offer a degree completion program, the forty-two that met the inclusion criteria (including having operated for at least three years) were invited to participate in a thirty-eight item online survey. A 62 percent (n=26) response rate was obtained. Learning experiences in responding programs included core dental hygiene courses, general education courses, and elective dental hygiene courses. Emphasis areas offered by various programs were in the specialty areas of education, public or community health, and research. Respondents reported that their graduates were employed in multiple settings (65 percent; n=17), with 19 percent (n=5) reporting employment in the combined grouping of private practice, education, and public health. Institutional partnerships included articulation agreements (88 percent; n=21), community college baccalaureate (8 percent; n=2), and university extension (4 percent; n=1) models. The findings of this study provide a baseline for assessing the educational composition and design of U.S. dental hygiene degree completion programs. However, results of this study showed inconsistencies among learning experiences that might raise concerns when considering students' level of preparation for graduate education and future leadership roles in the profession.

  5. Improving hand hygiene behaviour among adolescents by a planning intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangyu; Jiang, Tingting; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    To improve regular hand hygiene in adolescents, educational messages based on medical information have not been very successful. Therefore, a theory-guided self-regulatory intervention has been designed with a particular focus on planning strategies. A randomised controlled trial with 307 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, was conducted in high schools. The control group received educational hand hygiene leaflets, whereas the experimental group received a self-regulatory treatment which required them to generate specific action plans and coping plans. Three times during one month, both groups received verbal reminder messages about planning to wash their hands properly. At one-month follow-up, hand hygiene behaviour as well as planning to practise hand hygiene were higher in the self-regulation than in the education group (p < .01). Moreover, changes in planning levels operated as a mediator between experimental conditions and changes in behavioural outcomes. Teaching self-regulatory planning strategies may constitute a superior approach than educational messages to improve regular hand hygiene practice in adolescents.

  6. Paralleling technique for frenectomy and oral hygiene evaluation after frenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Abullais, Shahabe Saquib; Dani, Nitin; Ningappa, Priyanka; Golvankar, Kapil; Chavan, Amit; Malgaonkar, Nikhil; Gore, Anup

    2016-01-01

    Background: High frenum attachment is a very common problem in the population. Various conventional techniques are available which has certain disadvantages; in addition to that high frenum also hinders oral hygiene maintenance. This study aims to evaluate patient's response to two different frenectomy technique, and oral hygiene maintenance before and after frenectomy. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients with high labial frenum were randomly selected from the outpatient department. Patients were divided into two groups according to the technique used. Each group contained ten patients. One group was treated by “conventional scalpel technique” and other group by “new paralleling technique”. To evaluate patients response, visual analogue scale for pain and speech were taken at first postoperative day, 1-week and 1-month. In other part of the study the oral hygiene maintenance was evaluated by using plaque and gingival bleeding index at baseline before frenectomy, 1-week and 1-month after frenectomy. Results: Results showed that new paralleling technique for frenectomy causes less postoperative discomfort and also there was significant improvement in the oral hygiene maintenance by the patient after frenectomy. Conclusion: High maxillary frenum causes hindrance in oral hygiene maintenance. Paralleling technique for frenectomy causes less discomfort to the patient during healing phase when compared with the conventional technique. PMID:27041834

  7. Hazard zoning around electric substations of petrochemical industries by stimulation of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Monireh; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Farhang Matin, Laleh; Khosroabadi, Hossein

    2015-05-01

    Electromagnetic fields in recent years have been discussed as one of the occupational hazards at workplaces. Hence, control and assessment of these physical factors is very important to protect and promote the health of employees. The present study was conducted to determine hazard zones based on assessment of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields at electric substations of a petrochemical complex in southern Iran, using the single-axis HI-3604 device. In measurement of electromagnetic fields by the single-axis HI-3604 device, the sensor screen should be oriented in a way to be perpendicular to the field lines. Therefore, in places where power lines are located in different directions, it is required to keep the device towards three axes of x, y, and z. For further precision, the measurements should be repeated along each of the three axes. In this research, magnetic field was measured, for the first time, in three axes of x, y, and z whose resultant value was considered as the value of magnetic field. Measurements were done based on IEEE std 644-1994. Further, the spatial changes of the magnetic field surrounding electric substations were stimulated using MATLAB software. The obtained results indicated that the maximum magnetic flux density was 49.90 μT recorded from boiler substation, while the minimum magnetic flux density of 0.02 μT was measured at the control room of the complex. As the stimulation results suggest, the spaces around incoming panels, transformers, and cables were recognized as hazardous zones of indoor electric substations. Considering the health effects of chronic exposure to magnetic fields, it would be possible to minimize exposure to these contaminants at workplaces by identification of risky zones and observation of protective considerations.

  8. Flux Emissions of SO2 and NO2 Measured at the Tula Industrial Complex (Mexico) during MCMA 2006 Field Campaign using a Mini-DOAS System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa, G.; Rivera, C.; Wöhrnschimmel, H.; de Foy, B.; Johansson, M.; Molina, L. T.

    2007-05-01

    The Tula industrial zone is located 60 km northeast from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), in the Hidalgo State in México. This region is known as the Tula-Vito-Apasco industrial corridor, where a number of industries are located. According to the latest information from the environmental authority, about 313,000 ton/year of SO2 and 40,000 ton/year of NOx are released in this region. The Miguel Hidalgo refinery (MHR) and the Francisco Pérez Ríos power plant (FPRPP) are the main emitters, contributing almost 90% of SO2 and 80% of NOx from the total emission inside the Hidalgo State. Other industries such as cement plants, open-sky mines and agricultural activities are also responsible for important emissions of particulat matter (PM) into the atmosphere and soil erosion. This highly industrialized region is thought to influence the air quality in the MCMA, where in some occasions SO2 concentrations in the north part of the city have exceeded the Mexican air quality standard (130 ppb as a 24 hour average), which could not be attributed to irregular operations of industries located in the surrounding area. To address the question of emissions from the refinery and the power plant, the total fluxes of SO2 and NO2 were determined by measurements of their respective integrated vertical column in the neighborhood of the Tula industrial zone, using a Mini-DOAS system. These measurements were carried out as part of the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO Field Campaign, from March 24th to April 18th 2006. Meteorological measurements at the height of the plume dispersion were also determined using pilot balloons and radiosondes techniques. The experimental data were complemented by model simulations. Forward Lagrangian stochastic trajectories were calculated to simulate the plume using FLEXPART in combination with meso-scale meteorological simulations with MM5. The experimental data set was used to evaluate model performance. The simulations were used as an additional estimate of

  9. Point-of-care hand hygiene: preventing infection behind the curtain.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Anson; Landers, Timothy; Kirk, Jane; Young, Elizabeth

    2012-05-01

    Best practices for hand hygiene provide indications for performance of hand hygiene at specific points in time during patient care. For hand hygiene to prevent infections, hand hygiene resources must be readily available to health care workers whenever required. This article reviews practices and recommendations intended to facilitate hand hygiene behavior at the point of care (POC) within the health care setting. Key aspects of POC hand hygiene include the provision of alcohol-based hand rub products, integration of dispensing solutions within the patient zone, consideration of patient care workflow, and dispenser designs that optimize acceptance and usage.

  10. New technology markedly improves hand-hygiene performance among healthcare workers after restroom visits.

    PubMed

    Møller-Sørensen, H; Korshin, A; Mogensen, T; Høiby, N

    2016-04-01

    The risks to patients from pathogens present on healthcare workers' (HCWs') hands are high; however, compliance with hand hygiene among HCWs is low. We devised a prospective intervention trial of a new hand-hygiene dispensing technology to improve HCWs' compliance with hand hygiene. Baseline hand-hygiene compliance was observed for three months before and after an intervention consisting of implementation of an electronic device that reminds people to comply with hand hygiene after restroom visits. Compliance in hand-hygiene performance after restroom visits increased among HCWs from 66% to 91% after the intervention.

  11. State of R&D in photonics-related fields in Japan's industry and academia: leading the green digital economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsuno, Kimio

    2010-06-01

    Photonics product statistics in Japan provided by OITDA is shown and analyzed from the aspect of three basic issues those the Japanese R & D state is facing. They are (1) off-shoring due to the deep integration in east Asia, (2) industry-academia collaboration and (3) global warming issue. The challengeable photonics R&D will come by aiming the volume zone market to get rid of the Galapagos problem and by opening innovation through the international collaboration. The connecting of the photonics products to the broadband systems are prospective to lead the "Green Digital Economy.

  12. Ernst Rüdin: Hitler's Racial Hygiene Mastermind.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jay; Wetzel, Norbert A

    2013-01-01

    Ernst Rüdin (1874-1952) was the founder of psychiatric genetics and was also a founder of the German racial hygiene movement. Throughout his long career he played a major role in promoting eugenic ideas and policies in Germany, including helping formulate the 1933 Nazi eugenic sterilization law and other governmental policies directed against the alleged carriers of genetic defects. In the 1940s Rüdin supported the killing of children and mental patients under a Nazi program euphemistically called "Euthanasia." The authors document these crimes and discuss their implications, and also present translations of two publications Rüdin co-authored in 1938 showing his strong support for Hitler and his policies. The authors also document what they see as revisionist historical accounts by leading psychiatric genetic authors. They outline three categories of contemporary psychiatric genetic accounts of Rüdin and his work: (A) those who write about German psychiatric genetics in the Nazi period, but either fail to mention Rüdin at all, or cast him in a favorable light; (B) those who acknowledge that Rüdin helped promote eugenic sterilization and/or may have worked with the Nazis, but generally paint a positive picture of Rüdin's research and fail to mention his participation in the "euthanasia" killing program; and (C) those who have written that Rüdin committed and supported unspeakable atrocities. The authors conclude by calling on the leaders of psychiatric genetics to produce a detailed and complete account of their field's history, including all of the documented crimes committed by Rüdin and his associates.

  13. Safety, security, hygiene and privacy in migrant farmworker housing.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Weir, Maria M; Summers, Phillip; Chen, Haiying; Bailey, Melissa; Wiggins, Melinda F; Bischoff, Werner E; Quandt, Sara A

    2012-01-01

    Safety, security, hygiene, and privacy in migrant farmworker housing have not previously been documented, yet these attributes are important for farmworker quality of life and dignity. This analysis describes the safety, security, hygiene, and privacy of migrant farmworker housing and delineates camp characteristics that are associated with these attributes, using data collected in 183 eastern North Carolina migrant farmworker camps in 2010. Migrant farmworker housing is deficient. For example, 73.8 percent of housing had structural damage and 52.7 percent had indoor temperatures that were not safe. Farmworkers in 83.5 percent of the housing reported that they did not feel they or their possessions were secure. Bathing or toileting privacy was absent in 46.2 percent of the housing. Camps with residents having H-2A visas or North Carolina Department of Labor certificates of inspection posted had better safety, security, and hygiene. Regulations addressing the quality of migrant farmworker housing are needed.

  14. Looking for evidence that personal hygiene precautions prevent traveler's diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Shlim, David R

    2005-12-01

    In the 50 years during which traveler's diarrhea has been studied, it has always been assumed that personal hygiene precautions can prevent or reduce the likelihood of developing traveler's diarrhea. However, 7 of 8 studies that specifically addressed this issue showed no correlation between the types of food selected and the risk of acquiring traveler's diarrhea. The eighth study showed a correlation between a few dietary mistakes and a decreased risk of acquiring traveler's diarrhea. A further increase in the number of dietary mistakes, however, did not continue to increase the risk of acquiring traveler's diarrhea. Personal hygiene precautions, when performed under the direct supervision of an expatriate operating his or her own kitchen, can prevent traveler's diarrhea, but poor restaurant hygiene in most developing countries continues to create an insurmountable risk of acquiring traveler's diarrhea.

  15. Articulation in dental hygiene education from the student's perspective.

    PubMed

    Glick, N L

    1989-01-01

    Articulation deals with the transfer of associate degree and certificate dental hygiene students to four-year colleges or universities to complete baccalaureate degrees in the most efficient manner possible. Since a buyer's market exists in higher education at the present time, informed student consumers can select degree completion programs that will best meet their specific long-term career goals. The advantages of securing the bachelor's degree, the degree completion options available, and the factors that affect the articulation process are discussed. Recommendations are offered on how to acquire information about degree completion programs. Questions that students should ask before making a final choice of a four-year institution are also presented. Advance planning by students is a key to future mobility and career adaptability in dental hygiene. To this end, high school and college counselors and faculty members in all dental hygiene programs are instrumental in the articulation process.

  16. Comparison of hand hygiene procedures for removing Bacillus cereus spores.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hosoda, Kouichi; Morisawa, Yuji; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occasionally causes nosocomial infections, in which hand contamination with the spores plays an important role. Therefore, hand hygiene is the most important practice for controlling nosocomial B. cereus infections. This study aimed to determine the appropriate hand hygiene procedure for removing B. cereus spores. Thirty volunteers' hands were experimentally contaminated with B. cereus spores, after which they performed 6 different hand hygiene procedures. We compared the efficacy of the procedures in removing the spores from hands. The alcohol-based hand-rubbing procedures scarcely removed them. The soap washing procedures reduced the number of spores by more than 2 log10. Extending the washing time increased the spore-removing efficacy of the washing procedures. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the use of plain soap and antiseptic soap. Handwashing with soap is appropriate for removing B. cereus spores from hands. Alcohol-based hand-rubbing is not effective.

  17. SAFETY, SECURITY, HYGIENE AND PRIVACY IN MIGRANT FARMWORKER HOUSING

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Weir, Maria M.; Summers, Phillip; Chen, Haiying; Bailey, Melissa; Wiggins, Melinda F.; Bischoff, Werner E.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Safety, security, hygiene, and privacy in migrant farmworker housing have not previously been documented, yet these attributes are important for farmworker quality of life and dignity. This analysis describes the safety, security, hygiene, and privacy of migrant farmworker housing and delineates camp characteristics that are associated with these attributes, using data collected in 183 eastern North Carolina migrant farmworker camps in 2010. Migrant farmworker housing is deficient. For example, 73.8 percent of housing had structural damage and 52.7 percent had indoor temperatures that were not safe. Farmworkers in 83.5 percent of the housing reported that they did not feel they or their possessions were secure. Bathing or toileting privacy was absent in 46.2 percent of the housing. Camps with residents having H-2A visas or North Carolina Department of Labor certificates of inspection posted had better safety, security, and hygiene. Regulations addressing the quality of migrant farmworker housing are needed. PMID:22776578

  18. Association between sleep hygiene and sleep quality in medical students.

    PubMed

    Brick, Cameron A; Seely, Darbi L; Palermo, Tonya M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether subjective sleep quality was reduced in medical students, and whether demographics and sleep hygiene behaviors were associated with sleep quality. A Web-based survey was completed by 314 medical students, containing questions about demographics, sleep habits, exercise habits, caffeine, tobacco and alcohol use, and subjective sleep quality (using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). Correlation and regression analyses tested for associations among demographics, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep quality. As hypothesized, medical students' sleep quality was significantly worse than a healthy adult normative sample (t = 5.13, p < .001). Poor sleep quality in medical students was predicted by several demographic and sleep hygiene variables, and future research directions are proposed.

  19. Prioritization of the National Dental Hygiene Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Doherty, Frances; Stach, Donna J; Wyche, Charlotte J; Connolly, Irene; Wilder, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    The profession of dental hygiene has made considerable progress over the past 30 years toward developing a unique body of knowledge for guiding education, practice, and research. The 1993-1994 American Dental Hygienists' Association Council on Research published the first national dental hygiene research agenda in 1994. The 1994 research agenda focused dental hygienists' research efforts; however, publication of two national reports--the Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health, and Healthy People 2010--have made it necessary to revisit the research agenda. After considering input from participants in the Fourth National Dental Hygiene Research Conference and evaluating the Surgeon General's Report, the 2000-2001 Council on Research has established recommendations for the prioritization of the 1993-1994 research agenda. This report outlines for readers the rationale for the proposed recommendations.

  20. Effects of materials containing antimicrobial compounds on food hygiene.

    PubMed

    Møretrø, Trond; Langsrud, Solveig

    2011-07-01

    Surfaces with microorganisms may transfer unwanted microorganisms to food through cross-contamination during processing and preparation. A high hygienic status of surfaces that come in contact with food is important in order to reduce the risk of cross-contamination. During the last decade, products containing antimicrobial compounds, such as cutting boards, knives, countertops, kitchen utensils, refrigerators, and conveyor belts, have been introduced to the market, claiming hygienic effects. Such products are often referred to as "treated articles." Here we review various aspects related to treated articles intended for use during preparation and processing of food. Regulatory issues and methods to assess antibacterial effects are covered. Different concepts for treated articles as well as their antibacterial activity are reviewed. The effects of products with antimicrobials on food hygiene and safety are discussed.

  1. Psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale.

    PubMed

    Storfer-Isser, Amy; Lebourgeois, Monique K; Harsh, John; Tompsett, Carolyn J; Redline, Susan

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), a self-report measure assessing sleep practices theoretically important for optimal sleep. Data were collected on a community sample of 514 adolescents (16-19; 17.7 ± 0.4 years; 50% female) participating in the late adolescent examination of a longitudinal study on sleep and health. Sleep hygiene and daytime sleepiness were obtained from adolescent reports, behavior from caretaker reports, and sleep-wake estimation on weekdays from wrist actigraphy. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the empirical and conceptually based factor structure were similar for six of the eight proposed sleep hygiene domains. Internal consistency of the revised scale (ASHSr) was α = 0.84; subscale alphas were: physiological: α = 0.60; behavioural arousal: α = 0.62; cognitive/emotional: α = 0.81; sleep environment: α = 0.61; sleep stability: α = 0.68; daytime sleep: α = 0.78. Sleep hygiene scores were associated positively with sleep duration (r = 0.16) and sleep efficiency (r = 0.12) and negatively with daytime sleepiness (r = -0.26). Results of extreme-groups analyses comparing ASHSr scores in the lowest and highest quintile provided further evidence for concurrent validity. Correlations between sleep hygiene scores and caretaker reports of school competence, internalizing and externalizing behaviours provided support for convergent validity. These findings indicate that the ASHSr has satisfactory psychometric properties for a research instrument and is a useful research tool for assessing sleep hygiene in adolescents.

  2. The six golden rules to improve compliance in hand hygiene.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G

    2004-04-01

    Improvement of compliance in hand hygiene is probably the most effective step in reducing the incidence of nosocomial infections (NI). But improvement of compliance is known to be complex. Six possibilities for improving compliance are available although some of them may be difficult to carry out. Rule 1: Select an alcohol-based hand rub which has a good skin tolerance and is acceptable to health care workers to use. This has been shown to improve compliance. Rule 2: The hand rub shall be easily available. Wall dispensers near the patient and pocket bottles may well help. Other possibilities should be assessed locally. Rule 3: Implement teaching and promotion of hand hygiene, which has been shown to be very effective. This is may be the most effective tool but will cost time and money. If money is a problem, rule 4 may be the solution. Rule 4: Create a hospital budget which covers all costs involved with preventable nosocomial infection. Combine it with the budget for hand hygiene products. Even a small number of prevented NI largely outweighs the cost of effective hand hygiene products. Rule 5: Get senior staff to set a good example in order to motivate junior staff, because negligence in hand hygiene appears to correlate with the number of professional years. Rule 6: Have the patient-staff ratio well balanced. It has been shown that staff shortage decreases hand hygiene compliance. Other factors may be important as well, but implementation of these 6 golden rules could be an effective step into the right direction.

  3. WIND VELOCITIES AND SAND FLUXES IN MESQUITE DUNE-LANDS IN THE NORTHERN CHIHUAHUAN DESERT: A COMPARISON BETWEEN FIELD MEASUREMENTS AND THE QUIC (QUICK URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX) MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The poster shows comparisons of wind velocities and sand fluxes between field measurements and a computer model, called QUIC (Quick Urban & Industrial Complex). The comparisons were made for a small desert region in New Mexico.

  4. The habitus of hygiene: discourses of cleanliness and infection control in nursing work.

    PubMed

    Brown, Brian; Crawford, Paul; Nerlich, Brigitte; Koteyko, Nelya

    2008-10-01

    This paper reports upon a qualitative interview study of 22 matrons, infection control staff and operating theatre staff who were questioned about their working lives and the role they played in the control of healthcare acquired infections such as MRSA virus in the UK. A theoretical framework drawing upon the work of Bourdieu is deployed as his notion of habitus captures the combination of practical work, physical disposition and ways of looking at the world which are displayed in the interview accounts of labour in the healthcare field. Three themes emerged from the analysis: first, the 'securitization' of healthcare work, concerned with control, supervision, 'making sure' and the management of risk through inspection, audit and the exercise of responsibility; second, the sense of struggle against doctors who were seen to represent a threat to the carefully organized boundaries, through such alleged violations as not washing their hands, wandering between theatre and canteen areas in soiled clothing and thinking the rules did not apply to them; third, in a 'back to basics' theme participants emphasised the fundamentals of what they saw to be nursing work and were concerned with cleanliness and practically based training -- the habitus of hygiene itself. This was formulated in nostalgic terms with reminiscences about basic training earlier in the participants' careers. The preoccupation with hygiene and its 'basic' processes can be seen as a way of managing uncertainty, accumulating a certain kind of symbolic capital and constructing and maintaining boundaries in the healthcare field. It also makes for self-governing, self-exploiting individuals who accrue responsibility to themselves for implementing the 'habitus of hygiene'.

  5. Quantitative impact of direct, personal feedback on hand hygiene technique.

    PubMed

    Lehotsky, Á; Szilágyi, L; Ferenci, T; Kovács, L; Pethes, R; Wéber, G; Haidegger, T

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of targeting hand hygiene technique using a new training device that provides objective, personal and quantitative feedback. One hundred and thirty-six healthcare workers in three Hungarian hospitals participated in a repetitive hand hygiene technique assessment study. Ultraviolet (UV)-labelled hand rub was used at each event, and digital images of the hands were subsequently taken under UV light. Immediate objective visual feedback was given to participants, showing missed areas on their hands. The rate of inadequate hand rubbing reduced from 50% to 15% (P < 0.001). However, maintenance of this reduced rate is likely to require continuous use of the electronic equipment.

  6. Enhanced hygiene measures and norovirus transmission during an outbreak.

    PubMed

    Heijne, Janneke C M; Teunis, Peter; Morroy, Gabriella; Wijkmans, Clementine; Oostveen, Sandy; Duizer, Erwin; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Wallinga, Jacco

    2009-01-01

    Control of norovirus outbreaks relies on enhanced hygiene measures, such as handwashing, surface cleaning, using disposable paper towels, and using separate toilets for sick and well persons. However, little is known about their effectiveness in limiting further spread of norovirus infections. We analyzed norovirus outbreaks in 7 camps at an international scouting jamboree in the Netherlands during 2004. Implementation of hygiene measures coincided with an 84.8% (95% predictive interval 81.2%-86.6%) reduction in reproduction number. This reduction was unexpectedly large but still below the reduction needed to contain a norovirus outbreak. Even more stringent control measures are required to break the chain of transmission of norovirus.

  7. [A photographic competition on hand hygiene in a nursing home].

    PubMed

    Guerre, Graziella; Aho-Glele, Ludwig-Serge; Astruc, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene is often considered as the attribute of caregivers. However, it is the patient who is increasingly targeted by improved communication around hygiene in care notably in the framework of the "Clean Hands Mission". In this sense, the French regional centres for the fight against nosocomial infections in Burgundy has proved itself innovative on two levels by organising a photo competition in nursing homes. The aim was to show residents how to prevent care-related infections through the simple act of handwashing.

  8. [HYGIENE: STRUCTURE OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH STUDIES IN RUSSIA (2000-2014)].

    PubMed

    Evdokimov, V I; Popov, V I; Rut, A N

    2015-01-01

    There was analyzed the array of 1548 dissertations on the scientific specialty 14.02.01 (former specification 14.00.07) "Hygiene". Over period of 2000-2014 to the Dissertation Committee in Russia there were annually submitted (103 ± 10) theses, which include (21 ± 3) doctoral dissertations and (83 ± 8) candidate dissertations. Doctoral dissertations accounted for 20,1%, dissertations in medicine--89.3%. There was established not only the decline in the number of theses in hygiene, but the reduction of their proportion in the total array of all medical and biological dissertations in Russia. The conjugacy of the trend curves of the total stream of dissertations in medicine and biology in Russia and in hygiene is considered to be not very high (r = 0.54). In the total structure of dissertation works on General Hygiene accounted for 22.7%, Community Hygiene--15.45%, Occupational Hygiene--19.6%, Children's and Adolescents' Hygiene--24.7%, Nutrition Hygiene--8.2%, Radiation Hygiene--2.3%, in Rural Hygiene--1.2%, Hospital Hygiene-- 3.4%, Military Hygiene--2.3% correspondingly. There is pointed the development gap between the research studies in hygiene and tendency in training of high class health care professionals' in Russia.

  9. The effect of automated monitoring and real-time prompting on nurses' hand hygiene performance.

    PubMed

    Levchenko, Alexander I; Boscart, Veronique M; Fernie, Geoff R

    2013-10-01

    Adequate hand hygiene compliance by healthcare staff is considered an effective method to reduce hospital-acquired infections. The electronic system developed at Toronto Rehabilitation Institute automatically detects hand hygiene opportunities and records hand hygiene actions. It includes an optional visual hand hygiene status indication, generates real-time hand hygiene prompting signals, and enables automated monitoring of individual and aggregated hand hygiene performance. The system was installed on a complex continuous care unit at the entrance to 17 patient rooms and a utility room. A total of 93 alcohol gel and soap dispensers were instrumented and 14 nurses were provided with the personal wearable electronic monitors. The study included three phases with the system operating in three different modes: (1) an inactive mode during the first phase when hand hygiene opportunities and hand hygiene actions were recorded but prompting and visual indication functions were disabled, (2) only hand hygiene status indicators were enabled during the second phase, and (3) both hand hygiene status and real-time hand hygiene prompting signals were enabled during the third phase. Data collection was performed automatically during all of the three phases. The system indicated significantly higher hand hygiene activity rates and compliance during the third phase, with both hand hygiene indication and real-time prompting functions enabled. To increase the efficacy of the technology, its use was supplemented with individual performance reviews of the automatically collected data.

  10. Role of education with regard to environmental hygiene and promotional activities.

    PubMed

    Mishra, C P

    1996-01-01

    Unprecedented population growth in developing countries will increase pressure on the environment and on the earth's carrying capacity. The current phenomenal growth in urbanization in developing countries has exacerbated efforts to secure environmental health. In India, the urban population is growing at a faster rate than the rural population, with about half of urban dwellers living in slums. Therefore, efforts to improve conditions in slums have been the subject of a number of recent projects. Challenges include providing sufficient housing in urban areas and improving ventilation, illumination, and exhaust of cooking fuels in rural houses. The water supply is threatened both in quality and quantity, and 89.2% of households in India lack or fail to use latrines. Lack of proper management of solid wastes and lack of drainage has led to serious health risks, and the safety of the supply of edible food sold in shops and schools is far from satisfactory. A lack of proper hygiene associated with infant feeding contributes significantly to infant mortality. School children exhibit a lack of personal hygiene, and often play in dirt and muddy water. Other problems are associated with the environmental ill-effects of home-based industries, pollution of the air and rivers, and behavioral-related health problems such as alcoholism, drug addiction, and high-risk sex behavior. Many innovative approaches exist as models for the development of the information, education, and communication programs necessary to improve the environment.

  11. [Hygienic evaluation of the occupational risk in working with Bulgarian bentonite raw material].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlova-Docheva, L; Buralkov, T; Kolev, K

    1986-01-01

    The use of bentonite in various branches of industry, and first of all, in foundry workshops, grows rapidly. The literature data on health injuries by bentonite dust are rather contradictory: due primarily, to the changeable mineralogical composition of the raw material from different deposits. That requires a specific hygienic assessment of each deposit in exploitation. The authors studied the mineral composition, quantitative ratio of the mineral components and morphology of the particles from the respirable fraction of aerosol in the extraction of Bulgarian bentonite. The microscopic mineralogical analysis in phase contrast, established a basic mass of clay minerals, confirmed by the X-ray structural analysis. The free silicic oxide is presented by low-temperature crystobalite and quartz, more rarely opal and chalcedony. Its quantity does not surpass 1-2%. The experimental studies on experimental animals confirmed fibrosis, degree I and II, according to Belt and King. The clinical studies on the workers established the presence of reticular changes in the lungs, type S and L, according to ILO-UC classification. The hygienic characteristic of the Bulgarian bentonite provided grounds for its broad application as a substitute for more dangerous raw materials, quartz sand in the foundries, in particular. Regardless of its advantages, bentonite is not harmless. The adherence to MAC for dustiness and periodic control of the quartz content in the raw material and aerosol in the working environment, are compulsory.

  12. Understanding and development of cost-effective industrial aluminum back surface field (Al-BSF) silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nian

    For the long-term strategy of gradual decarbonization of the world's energy supply, high penetration of PV electricity is critical in the future world energy landscape. In order to achieve this, solar electricity with competitive cost to fossil fuel energy is necessary. To be able to obtain high efficiency solar cells, many advanced cell architectures have been developed commercially by PV industry. However, the fabrication of these cells necessitates complex processing steps and high requirements on semiconductor materials, which make it not as cost-effective as the state-of-the-art conventional Al-BSF structure. In order to keep the cost of PV cell low and improve on the efficiency with fewer processing steps, this thesis work focuses on the understanding of the conventional Al-BSF solar cell structure. The research work therefore, focuses on the (i) design, and modeling of front metal electrodes including the use of multi-bus-bar capable of decreasing the gridline resistance, (ii) fine-line printing and (iii) metal contact co-firing using high belt speed that is not common to the solar industry to achieve ~20% efficient industrial Al-BSF silicon solar cells. In order to achieve the objectives of this thesis work, firstly, the appropriate Al paste was investigated for lowest back surface recombination velocity (BSRV), which gives high open circuit voltage (Voc). Secondly, the impact of emitter sheet resistance on solar cell performance was modeled to determine the optimal sheet resistance, and the uniformity of emitter was also investigated. Thirdly, modeling on the front metal electrodes was carried out to investigate the optimal number of busbars, and determine the optimum number of gridlines and gridline geometries that would result in low series resistance (Rs), high fill factor (FF) and hence high efficiency. Fourthly, the modeled results were experimentally validated through fine-line printing and optimized contact co-firing. By combining each layer to make

  13. Upscaling from benchtop processing to industrial scale production: More factors to be considered for pulsed electric field food processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing has been intensively studied with benchtop scale experiments. However, there is still limited information regarding critical factors to be considered for PEF efficacy in microbial reduction with PEF processing at a pilot or commercial scale production of juice....

  14. Applying remote sensing expertise to crop improvement: progress and challenges to scale up high throughput field phenotyping from research to industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouache, David; Beauchêne, Katia; Mini, Agathe; Fournier, Antoine; de Solan, Benoit; Baret, Fred; Comar, Alexis

    2016-05-01

    Digital and image analysis technologies in greenhouses have become commonplace in plant science research and started to move into the plant breeding industry. However, the core of plant breeding work takes place in fields. We will present successive technological developments that have allowed the migration and application of remote sensing approaches at large into the field of crop genetics and physiology research, with a number of projects that have taken place in France. These projects have allowed us to develop combined sensor plus vector systems, from tractor mounted and UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) mounted spectroradiometry to autonomous vehicle mounted spectroradiometry, RGB (red-green-blue) imagery and Lidar. We have tested these systems for deciphering the genetics of complex plant improvement targets such as the robustness to nitrogen and water deficiency of wheat and maize. Our results from wheat experiments indicate that these systems can be used both to screen genetic diversity for nitrogen stress tolerance and to decipher the genetics behind this diversity. We will present our view on the next critical steps in terms of technology and data analysis that will be required to reach cost effective implementation in industrial plant breeding programs. If this can be achieved, these technologies will largely contribute to resolving the equation of increasing food supply in the resource limited world that lies ahead.

  15. [Evaluation of microbial contamination of linens in industrial laundry processes].

    PubMed

    Sanna, Adriana; Coroneo, Valentina; Dessì, Sandro; Brandas, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Laundering linens and protecting them from microbiological recontamination are critical issues for the hotel and food industries and especially for hospitals. This study was performed to evaluate a sample of industrial laundries in Sardinia (Italy), to assess their compliance with national hygienic and sanitary regulations, along the complete laundering process. Study results indicate that industrial laundering processes are effective and that better awareness of staff who handle laundered textiles is required to reduce the risk of recontamination.

  16. Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. Methods This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care worker (HCW) adherence with WHO hand hygiene guidelines. It was implemented in three phases: 1) baseline evaluation of hand hygiene adherence and hospital infrastructure; 2) intervention (distribution of commercial hand sanitizer and implementation of an abbreviated WHO-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign); and 3) post-intervention evaluation of HCW hand hygiene adherence. HCWs’ perceptions of the campaign and hand sanitizer tolerability were assessed through a survey performed in the post-intervention period. Results At baseline, hand washing materials were infrequently available, with only 20% of sinks having hand-washing materials. There was a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence among HCWs following implementation of a WHO multimodal hand hygiene program. Adherence increased from 2.1% at baseline (21 hand hygiene actions/1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) to 12.7% (127 hand hygiene actions /1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) after the implementation of the hand hygiene campaign (OR = 6.8, 95% CI 4.2-10.9). Hand hygiene rates significantly increased among all HCW types except attending physicians. Independent predictors of HCW hand hygiene compliance included performing hand hygiene in the post-intervention period (aOR = 5.7, 95% CI 3.5-9.3), in the emergency department (aOR = 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.6), during patient care that did not involve Attending Physician Rounds (aOR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.5), and after patient contact (aOR = 2

  17. Results of Continuous Load Cell Monitoring Field Trial for UF6 Withdrawals at an Operating Industrial Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Krichinsky, Alan M; Bell, Lisa S; Conchewski, Curtis A; Peters, Benjamin R; Pickett, Chris A; Richardson, Dave; Rowe, Nathan C; Younkin, James R

    2010-01-01

    Continuous load cell monitoring (CLCM) has been implemented and tested for use as a safeguards tool during a 2009 field trial in an operating UF6 transfer facility. The transfer facility is part of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Piketon, Ohio, operated by the United States Enrichment Corporation. During the field trial, two process scales for UF{sub 6} cylinders were continuously monitored for a 6-month period as cylinders were being filled. The collected CLCM data were used in testing an event processor serving as a filter for highlighting measurements representing significant operational activities that are important in verifying declared operations. The collection of CLCM data, coupled with rules-based event processing, can provide inspectors with knowledge of a facility's feed and withdrawal activities occurring between site visits. Such process knowledge promises to enhance the effectiveness of safeguards by enabling inspectors to quantitatively compare declared activities directly with process measurements. Selected results of the field trial and event processing will be presented in the context of their value to an independent inspector and a facility operator.

  18. "Take time. Save lives. Clean hands protect." A comparison of two hand hygiene health promotion posters.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Champlin, Sara; Liang, Ming-Ching; Mabry, Amanda; Stroever, Stephanie; Guadagno, Marie; Watkins, Lynda

    2014-05-01

    Two posters were designed to encourage hospital staff hand hygiene. One focused on broad benefits of hand hygiene to patients and staff, and the other highlighted hand hygiene as a long-known measure to infection control. The former was better received in terms of attention, likability, and potential to promote hand hygiene. A third-person effect, the perception of stronger impact of communication messages on others, was observed. Implications on health promotion message design were discussed.

  19. The miswak chewing stick: a traditional oral hygiene aid.

    PubMed

    Yarde, A; Robinson, M

    1996-01-01

    The miswak chewing stick is an oral hygiene device used by the majority of people in Arab Gulf countries. Despite its widespread use, few studies demonstrated its benefits or applications as an alternative and convenient means for cleansing the teeth. This paper will examine the unique properties of the miswak chewing stick and its proper use.

  20. Periodontal Disease and Oral Hygiene Among Children. United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Statistical data presented on periodontal disease and oral hygiene among noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States are based on a probability sample of approximately 7,400 children involved in a national health survey during 1963-65. The report contains estimates of the Periodontal Index (PI) and the Simplified Oral Hygiene…

  1. [Quality standards and hygienic problems of bottled drinking-water].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Shu, Weiqun; Gao, Jingsheng

    2004-05-01

    The consumption of bottled drinking-water increases worldwide and relevant regulation for inspection and supervision work of bottled drinking-water were established in many countries. However, regulation mentioned above is lower than that for tap water. The hygienic problems of bottled drinking-water is emphasized, especially on microbial contamination. In this paper, some issues in regards were reviewed and discussed.

  2. External Evaluation of CDC Homestudy Course 3010-G, "Community Hygiene."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantt, Judy M.; Terrell, Edward L.

    A study examined the impact of the Centers for Disease Control's home study course in community hygiene on the job performance of 45 sanitarians in 30 districts throughout North Carolina. Data were collected from: (1) pre- and post-tests that evaluated the sanitarians' mastery of knowledge in such areas as water supply, sewage disposal, solid…

  3. Attitudes of Dental Hygiene Students toward Individuals with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haring, Joen Iannucci; Lind, Laura J.

    1992-01-01

    At Ohio State University, 81 dental hygiene students' attitudes toward homosexual and heterosexual patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia were assessed using ratings of prejudice, social interaction, and interpersonal interaction. Negative bias toward individuals with AIDS and unwillingness to engage in everyday…

  4. Expanding the Oral Hygiene Curriculum in a Nursing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Susan; Griego, Elizabeth

    A program was implemented to expand the curriculum materials within the Licensed Practical Nursing (LPN) Program at Clark County Community College (CCCC) which relate to oral hygiene care for the hospital patient. The instructional materials included a video tape and a written instructional packet which were researched, prepared, and presented by…

  5. Guidance on maintaining personal hygiene in nail care.

    PubMed

    Malkin, Bridget; Berridge, Pat

    Nail care is important in the maintenance of personal hygiene and is an essential aspect of patient care. Confusion about who should perform nail care for patients has resulted in poor practice and cycles of non-activity. This article provides guidance for nurses on performing routine nail care.

  6. [Refusal of personal hygiene care and nursing responsibility].

    PubMed

    Peyé, Anne

    2013-03-01

    Situations of patients refusing personal hygiene care are frequent. Sources of difficulties and questioning for caregivers, they can lead to maltreatment. In order to avoid this pitfall, it is essential to support the teams in their approach around representations of caregiving and nursing responsibility.

  7. Infection control: maintaining the personal hygiene of patients and staff.

    PubMed

    Parker, Lynn

    This article concentrates on the importance of personal hygiene for staff and patients in reducing the risk of healthcare-associated infections for patients. It provides an historical context to the associated risks of "basic nursing care" and how these can be counteracted. With the introduction of modern matrons and directors of infection control, emphasis is again focused on these practices.

  8. Utilization of Radiographs for a State Dental Hygiene Board Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Brad G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study documented the number of x-rays acquired during screening and subsequent treatment of patients for a state dental hygiene licensing examination for 109 candidates. Results indicate that patient exposure guidelines attempt to minimize radiographic exposure but that some exposures should be reevaluated for need and effect on patients. (MSE)

  9. Critical Thinking Skills of United States Dental Hygiene Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notgarnie, Howard M.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of decision-making in dental hygienists' practice requires critical thinking skills. Interest in raising educational standards for entry into the dental hygiene profession is a response to the demand for enhanced professional skills, including critical thinking skills. No studies found in the course of literature review compared…

  10. Dental Hygiene Program Clinic Manual, Fall 1997. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Errico, Mary; Cama, Christine; Pastoriza-Maldonado, Alida

    This is the fourth edition of the Clinic Manual for the Dental Hygiene Program at Eugenio Maria de Hostos Community College in the Bronx (New York). It contains general information, grading procedures, performance guides, and clinical forms related to the program. Section 1 provides an introduction to clinic philosophy, policies, goals and…

  11. Requirements for an Accredited Program in Dental Hygiene Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Association, Washington, DC. Council on Dental Education.

    Dental hygiene programs should operate on a nonprofit basis as departments, divisions, schools, or colleges of a parent institution of higher learning approved or eligible for approval by agencies recognized by the National Commission on Accreditation. Provision should be made for liaison with the dental profession. The physical plant should meet…

  12. The Use of Gaming in a Dental Hygiene Review Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Charlotte A.; Mauriello, Sally M.; Caplan, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of gaming to create an interactive, stimulating learning environment as a review format for the Dental Hygiene National Board examination. Students (n=28) participated in either the gaming or a lecture review format. The gaming group scored higher on the exam on eight of 12 topics as well as on the case-based learning…

  13. Evidence-based practice and the professionalization of dental hygiene.

    PubMed

    Cobban, Sandra J

    2004-11-01

    The application of knowledge is fundamental to human problem solving. In health disciplines, knowledge utilization commonly manifests through evidence-based decision making in practice. The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of the evidence-based practice (EBP) movement in health professions in general, and dental hygiene in particular, and to examine its relationship to the professionalization agenda of dental hygiene in Canada. EBP means integrating practitioner expertise with the best available external evidence from research. Proponents of EBP believe that it holds promise for reducing a research-practice gap by encouraging clinicians to seek current research results. Both the Canadian and American Dental Hygienists Associations support practice based on current research evidence, yet recent studies show variation in practice. Professionalization refers to the developmental stages through which an organized occupation passes as it develops traits that characterize it as a profession. The status conferred by professionalization privileges a group to make and monitor its own decisions relative to practice. Dental hygiene's success in acquiring attributes of a profession suggests that transformation to a profession is occurring. This paper compares the assumptions and challenges of both movements, and argues the need for a principal focus on the development of a culture of evidence-based dental hygiene practice.

  14. [Hygienic evaluation of risk factors on powder metallurgy production].

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Complex hygienic, clinical, sociologic and epidemiologic studies revealed reliable relationship between work conditions and arterial hypertension, locomotory system disorders, monocytosis in powder metallurgy production workers. Findings are more probable cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, digestive tract diseases due to influence of lifestyle factors.

  15. Evaluating a Hygiene Education Program for Child Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petri, Cynthia J.; Winnail, Scott D.; Geiger, Brian F.; Artz, Lynn M.; Mason, J. W.

    Children, parents, and child caregivers are vulnerable to several infectious diseases as a result of contact with child care centers. This pilot program, implemented in a rural county in a southeastern state, was designed to enhance knowledge and skills related to improved hygiene practices in a child care setting. The target audience for the…

  16. Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa in Dental and Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Karen B. W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Dentists and dental hygienists are in a unique position to identify an eating disorder patient from observed oral manifestations and to refer the patient for psychological therapy. The inclusion of information on general and oral complications of bulimia and anorexia nervosa in dental and dental hygiene curriculum was examined. (MLW)

  17. Sustained improvement in hand hygiene at a children's hospital.

    PubMed

    Crews, Jonathan D; Whaley, Elaine; Syblik, Dorothy; Starke, Jeffrey

    2013-07-01

    A quality improvement project was conducted to improve hand hygiene at a children's hospital. Interventions included education, performance feedback, an incentive program, and a marketing campaign. There were 9,322 observations performed over a 5-year period. Hospital-wide adherence increased from 39.9% to 97.9%. Adherence of 95% or greater was sustained for over 3 years.

  18. Field-testing a new directional passive air sampler for fugitive dust in a complex industrial source environment.

    PubMed

    Ferranti, E J S; Fryer, M; Sweetman, A J; Garcia, M A Solera; Timmis, R J

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the sources of fugitive dusts on complex industrial sites is essential for regulation and effective dust management. This study applied two recently-patented Directional Passive Air Samplers (DPAS) to measure the fugitive dust contribution from a Metal Recovery Plant (MRP) located on the periphery of a major steelworks site. The DPAS can collect separate samples for winds from different directions (12 × 30° sectors), and the collected dust may be quantified using several different measurement methods. The DPASs were located up and down-prevailing-wind of the MRP processing area to (i) identify and measure the contribution made by the MRP processing operation; (ii) monitor this contribution during the processing of a particularly dusty material; and (iii) detect any changes to this contribution following new dust-control measures. Sampling took place over a 12-month period and the amount of dust was quantified using photographic, magnetic and mass-loading measurement methods. The DPASs are able to effectively resolve the incoming dust signal from the wider steelworks complex, and also different sources of fugitive dust from the MRP processing area. There was no confirmable increase in the dust contribution from the MRP during the processing of a particularly dusty material, but dust levels significantly reduced following the introduction of new dust-control measures. This research was undertaken in a regulatory context, and the results provide a unique evidence-base for current and future operational or regulatory decisions.

  19. DENTAL HYGIENE MANUAL, GUIDE FOR A TWO-YEAR POST HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational-Technical Programs.

    DEVELOPED BY TEACHERS IN DENTAL HYGIENE PROGRAMS, THE STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR DENTAL AUXILIARY EDUCATION, AND REPRESENTATIVES OF THE DENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND BASED UPON THE EXPERIENCE OF THREE OPERATING DENTAL HYGIENE PROGRAMS OVER A 3-YEAR PERIOD, THIS GUIDE IS FOR ADMINISTRATOR AND TEACHER USE IN DEVELOPING CURRICULUMS IN DENTAL HYGIENE IN…

  20. The Effect of Teaching Experience on Service-Learning Beliefs of Dental Hygiene Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Sharlee Shirley

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental causal-comparative study was to determine if service-learning teaching experience affects dental hygiene faculty perceptions of service-learning benefits and barriers in the United States. Dental hygiene educators from entry-level dental hygiene education programs in the United States completed the Web-based…

  1. Follow-Up Study of 1993 Dental Hygiene Graduates. Volume XXII, Number 17, June 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.

    In an effort to evaluate the effectiveness of its dental hygiene program, William Rainey Harper College (WRHC), in Palatine, Illinois, conducted a follow-up study of its dental hygiene students. The survey instrument was mailed to all 31 1993 dental hygiene associate degree graduates, and a response rate of 97% (n=30) was attained. Results of the…

  2. 21 CFR 872.6650 - Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6650 Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed device...

  3. 21 CFR 872.6650 - Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene. 872.6650 Section 872.6650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... hygiene. (a) Identification. A massaging pick or tip for oral hygiene is a rigid, pointed device...

  4. Dental Hygiene Entry-Level Program Administrators' Strategies for Overcoming Challenges of Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Bette A.

    2009-01-01

    The use of distance education by entry-level dental hygiene programs is increasing. The focus of this study was to determine the number of entry-level dental hygiene program administrators with experience developing and/or maintaining dental hygiene education by distance, the challenges encountered, and the strategies used to overcome the…

  5. [Problem in the hygienic regulation and standardization of biotechnological strains in reservoir water].

    PubMed

    Sheina, N I; Zholdakova, Z I; Ivanov, N G

    2010-01-01

    The pattern of the negative effect of biotechnological strains belonging to different taxons was experimentally studied. The effect of the strains manifested as imbalance of immunocompetent cells, development of immediate and delayed hypersensitivity, and altered qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the autochtonic microflora of the intestine. The minimum acting (10(5) cells/l) and non-acting (10(4) cells/l) enteral exposure levels were determined for the bulk of the test strains. Analysis of the authors' findings and the data available in the literature made it possible to propose a study program on the hygienic regulation and standardization of industrial microorganisms and their based microbiological products in the reservoir water.

  6. Marketing hand hygiene in hospitals--a case study.

    PubMed

    Gopal Rao, G; Jeanes, A; Osman, M; Aylott, C; Green, J

    2002-01-01

    Hand hygiene of healthcare workers is frequently poor despite the efforts of infection control teams to promote hand decontamination as the most important method to prevent transmission of hospital-acquired infections. In this case study, we describe how principles of societal marketing were applied to improve hand hygiene. Pre-marketing analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to implementation; attention to product, price, promotion and placement; and post-marketing 'customer' surveys were the essential components of the marketing strategy and its implementation. Placement of an alcohol-based gel decontaminant (Spirigel) at the bedside of every patient was widely welcomed in the hospital, and has played a major role in improving hand hygiene of healthcare workers. In the twelve months following the implementation, the decontaminant was used at least 440,000 times. The cost of purchasing the decontaminant was approximately 5000 pounds sterling. Following the introduction of Spirigel, there was a consistent reduction in the proportion of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in each of the quarters of 2000-2001 compared with 1999-2000. In the period 1999-2000, nearly 50% of the MRSA were hospital acquired compared with 39% in 2000-2001. Similarly, the average incidence of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhoea (CDAD) decreased in each of the quarters in 2000-2001 following the introduction of Spirigel. During this period, there was an average incidence of 9.5 cases of CDAD/1000 admissions compared with 11.5 cases of CDAD/1000 admissions in 1999-2000. This represents a 17.4% reduction in the incidence of CDAD. However, this reduction was not statistically significant (P=0.2). Our case study demonstrates that principles of societal marketing methods can be used effectively to promote and sustain hand hygiene in hospitals. Improvement in hand hygiene will lead to considerable reduction in hospital

  7. Maintaining health by balancing microbial exposure and prevention of infection: the hygiene hypothesis versus the hypothesis of early immune challenge.

    PubMed

    Kramer, A; Bekeschus, S; Bröker, B M; Schleibinger, H; Razavi, B; Assadian, O

    2013-02-01

    The human immune system is inseparably bonded to an individual's personal micro-biome from birth to death. Since the beginning of life, commensal relationships have ensured the survival of micro- and macro-organisms within complex relationships. However, technological advances and altered lifestyle imposed new rules for this interaction during recent decades. It has been observed that reduced exposure to micro-organisms and parasites results in decreased morbidity and mortality, but is also associated with a rising prevalence of atopic disorders and autoimmune diseases, mostly in industrialized countries. This inverse relationship is described by the 'hygiene hypothesis', put forward in 1989, yet this term only imperfectly describes these observations, as excessive hygiene or hygienic measures may not directly be the central cause. The lack of appropriate immune stimulation during early childhood with the consequence of disturbed alignment in the sequence of encountering self- or non-self-antigens might account in the rise of atopy and autoimmune disease. For this reason we propose the term 'early immune challenge hypothesis'. This concept highlights the importance of immune priming in early life in the context of genetic, social, geographic, cultural, and economic background. Moreover, it emphasizes the central role of 'training' of regulatory T-cells through sufficient microbial exposure, leading to a robust, healthy balance between inflammation and anti-inflammation or immune tolerance. Insufficient exposure might result in abnormal immune regulatory development. Finally, it incorporates the idea of encountering 'old friends' - organisms that shaped our immune system during human phylogeny. This article gives a comprehensive overview of the relationship between microbial exposure, and the incidence of asthma and hay fever is outlined. Although the outcomes of these studies originally were interpreted in the framework of the hygiene hypothesis, they may suit the

  8. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process: health programs. Research and development report No. 53, Interim report No. 39. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 4: Industrial hygiene, clinical and toxicological programs. Final report of subcontract No. 10, June 1, 1976-June 9, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    This report summarizes the toxicological studies on SRC-I materials completed under Subcontract No. 10 as part of the Health Programs under the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Contract during the total period of the subcontract, June 1, 1976 through June 9, 1978. The studies were conducted by Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories (IBT) as the subcontractor. A number of acute studies were completed on the products and intermediate streams as well as several subchronic studies. In addition, preliminary dose-ranging, or pilot, studies were completed. None of the materials exhibited high toxicities when administered orally, dermally, or by the inhalation route. Three of the materials proved to be severely or extremely irritating to the eyes. The pilot dermal and teratogenesis studies revealed some evidence of decreased viability in offspring and reduced fetal body weights. The subcontract was terminated for convenience on June 9, 1978 when it became apparent that IBT could not satisfactorily continue the studies.

  9. Dental Hygiene Education Workshop: Proceedings of Workshop on Dental Hygiene Education (Denver, Colorado, July 22-23, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dental Hygienists' Association, Chicago, IL.

    Proceedings from the first in a yearly series of conferences on dental hygiene education sponsored by the American Dental Hygienists' Association are presented. Three sessions are as follows: (1) "Society at Large: Economics, Cultural Trends, Work Trends, Demographics, and Technology" (Felix Kaufmann); (2) "The Health Care System: Changes and…

  10. [Hygienic substantiation of maximum permissible concentrations of oil products in the soils of the Republic of Belarus].

    PubMed

    Rubin, V M; Il'yukova, I I; Kremko, L M; Prismotrov, Yu A; Samsonova, A S; Volod'ko, I K; Lukashev, O V

    2013-01-01

    Oil products are the one out of major pollutants in soil. For reduction of the technogenic load on human beings and performing preventive measures in the Republic of Belarus differentiated hygienic rate setting for oil products in the soil have been scientifically substantiated for follows different categories of Lands: agricultural lands, defense lands, lands for recreation, historical and cultural purpose, forest lands, lands of water fund, reserve lands--50 mg/kg; settlements sand, garden housing and dacha cooperatives,--100 mg/kg; industrial, transport, communication, energy, defense and other appointments lands--500 mg/kg.

  11. Technical and environmental long-term properties of industrial residues--summary of field and laboratory investigations.

    PubMed

    Arm, Maria; Suer, Pascal; Arvidsson, Håkan; Lindqvist, Jan-Erik

    2011-01-01

    In Sweden, use of industrial residues is still hindered by concern for their long-term properties. A three-year research project was therefore initiated aiming to (1) identify the crucial processes of ageing related to the usefulness of residues in roads; (2) investigate the consequences of these processes for technical and environmental properties of the residues, and (3) propose a method for accelerated ageing to predict the long-term properties. This paper gives an overview of the project methodology, a summary of the test results and references to papers where further details are given. The project, running through 2006-2008, compared naturally aged samples of two residues used as sub-bases in existing asphalt paved roads with samples of fresh residues from producers' piles. Steel slag of electric arc furnace (EAF) type and municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash were chosen. The samples were thoroughly characterised in order to identify which ageing processes had been crucial. The results showed that: - Bottom ash from the pavement edge was more aged than bottom ash from the road centre. However, no difference in pH was found, instead the differences were caused by differences in water exposure. - Steel slag from the pavement edge showed traces of carbonation and leaching processes, whereas slag from the road centre was identical to fresh slag. - Water exposure to the subbase materials after ten years in an asphalt paved road was calculated to less than 0.1–0.5 litres per kg. - Ageing reactions in steel slag and MSWI bottom ash, ready for use, were too small to be verified by laboratory measurement of deformation properties under loaded conditions. An accelerated ageing test for steel slag was set up to achieve the carbonation (decrease in pH) and leaching that was observed in the pavement edge material. An accelerated ageing test for bottom ash was set up to achieve the pozzolan reactions that were observed in SEM analyses of in situ specimens

  12. Impact of INICC Multidimensional Hand Hygiene Approach in ICUs in Four Cities in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Victor D; Viegas, Mónica; Sztokhamer, Daniel; Benchetrit, Guillermo; Santoro, Beatriz; Lastra, Carlos Esteban; Romani, Adriana; Di Núbila, Beatriz Marta Alicia; Lanzetta, Diana; Fernández, Leonardo J; Rossetti, María Adelaida; Migazzi, Claudia; Barolin, Clarisa; Martínez, Estela; Bonaventura, Claudio; Caridi, Maria de Los Ángeles; Messina, Adriana; Ricci, Beatriz; Soroka, Luisa C; Frías, María Laura

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium multidimensional approach to hand hygiene in 11 intensive care units in 4 cities in Argentina and analyzed predictors of poor hand hygiene compliance. We had a baseline period and a follow-up period. We observed 21 100 hand hygiene opportunities. Hand hygiene compliance increased from 28.3% to 64.8% (P = .0001). Males versus females (56.8% vs 66.4%; P < .001) and physicians versus nurses (46.6% vs 67.8%; P < .001) were significantly associated with poor hand hygiene compliance.

  13. Prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene status among school going children: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, P L; Jayapalan, C S; Gondhalekar, Rajesh V; Krishna, B Jaya; Shaloob, K M Muhamed; Ummer, P Fajar

    2013-07-01

    Oral health is an important part of general health of body. Oral hygiene determines oral health status. Thus, oral hygiene is most important for good health in general. Poor oral hygiene can be source of many diseases. By maintaining the good oral hygiene, we can prevent occurrence of many disease. A survey was carried out to assess oral hygiene status and to find out caries prevalence rate among school going children of age 6 to 12 years. 957 healthy subjects including 567 boys and 390 girls from four different schools were examined in broad day light with the help of mouth mirror and explorer.

  14. The properties of human body phantoms used in calculations of electromagnetic fields exposure by wireless communication handsets or hand-operated industrial devices.

    PubMed

    Zradziński, Patryk

    2013-06-01

    According to international guidelines, the assessment of biophysical effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) generated by hand-operated sources needs the evaluation of induced electric field (E(in)) or specific energy absorption rate (SAR) caused by EMF inside a worker's body and is usually done by the numerical simulations with different protocols applied to these two exposure cases. The crucial element of these simulations is the numerical phantom of the human body. Procedures of E(in) and SAR evaluation due to compliance analysis with exposure limits have been defined in Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers standards and International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines, but a detailed specification of human body phantoms has not been described. An analysis of the properties of over 30 human body numerical phantoms was performed which has been used in recently published investigations related to the assessment of EMF exposure by various sources. The differences in applicability of these phantoms in the evaluation of E(in) and SAR while operating industrial devices and SAR while using mobile communication handsets are discussed. The whole human body numerical phantom dimensions, posture, spatial resolution and electric contact with the ground constitute the key parameters in modeling the exposure related to industrial devices, while modeling the exposure from mobile communication handsets, which needs only to represent the exposed part of the human body nearest to the handset, mainly depends on spatial resolution of the phantom. The specification and standardization of these parameters of numerical human body phantoms are key requirements to achieve comparable and reliable results from numerical simulations carried out for compliance analysis against exposure limits or within the exposure assessment in EMF-related epidemiological studies.

  15. Impact of rural water projects on hygienic behaviour in Swaziland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Graciana

    In Swaziland, access to safe water supply and sanitation has improved significantly and was expected to result in improved health and, in particular, reduced infant mortality rates. On the contrary, mortality rates in the under 5 years age group are high and have doubled from 60 in 1996, to 120 deaths per 1000 in 2006. The main objective of the study was to assess whether the water projects permit, and are accompanied by, changes in hygienic behaviour to prevent transmission of diseases. The study area was Phonjwane, located in the dry Lowveld of Swaziland, where water projects play a significant role in meeting domestic water demands. Hygienic behaviour and sanitation facilities were analysed and compared before and after project. The results of the study show that domestic water supply projects have significantly reduced distances travelled and time taken to collect water, and that increased quantities of water are collected and used. While the majority of respondents (95.6%) used the domestic water project source, the quantities allowed per household (125 l which translates to an average of 20.8 l per person) were insufficient and therefore were supplemented with harvested rainwater (57.8%), water from a polluted river (17.8%), and water from a dam (2.2%). Increased water quantities have permitted more baths and washing of clothes and hands, but significant proportions of the population still skip hygienic practices such as keeping water for washing hands inside or near toilet facilities (40%) and washing hands (20%). The study concludes that the water supply project has permitted and improved hygienic practices but not sufficiently. The health benefits of safe domestic water supplies are hampered by insufficient quantities of water availed through the projects, possible contamination of the water in the house, poor hygienic behaviours and lack of appropriate sanitation measures by some households. There is a need to provide sufficient quantities of safe water

  16. Measuring healthcare worker hand hygiene activity: current practices and emerging technologies.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M

    2011-10-01

    Monitoring hand hygiene compliance and providing healthcare workers with feedback regarding their performance are considered integral parts of multidisciplinary hand hygiene improvement programs. Observational surveys conducted by trained personnel are currently considered the "gold standard" method for establishing compliance rates, but they are time-consuming and have a number of shortcomings. Monitoring hand hygiene product consumption is less time-consuming and can provide useful information regarding the frequency of hand hygiene that can be used to give caregivers feedback. Electronic counting devices placed in hand hygiene product dispensers provide detailed information about hand hygiene frequency over time, by unit and during interventions. Electronic hand hygiene monitoring systems that utilize wireless systems to monitor room entry and exit of healthcare workers and their use of hand hygiene product dispensers can provide individual and unit-based data on compliance with the most common hand hygiene indications. Some systems include badges (tags) that can provide healthcare workers with real-time reminders to clean their hands upon entering and exiting patient rooms. Preliminary studies suggest that use of electronic monitoring systems is associated with increased hand hygiene compliance rates and that such systems may be acceptable to care givers. Although there are many questions remaining about the practicality, accuracy, cost, and long-term impact of electronic monitoring systems on compliance rates, they appear to have considerable promise for improving our efforts to monitor and improve hand hygiene practices among healthcare workers.

  17. Determinants of hand hygiene compliance in Egypt: building blocks for a communication strategy.

    PubMed

    Lohiniva, A-L; Bassim, H; Hafez, S; Kamel, E; Ahmed, E; Saeed, T; Talaat, M

    2015-10-02

    Hand hygiene of health-care staff is one of the most important interventions in reducing transmission of nosocomial infections. This qualitative study aimed to understand the behavioural determinants of hand hygiene in order to develop sustainable interventions to promote hand hygiene in hospitals. Fourteen focus group discussions were conducted with nurses in 2 university hospitals in Egypt. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 independent investigators. The findings highlighted that nurses did not perceive the benefits of hand hygiene, and that they linked the need to wash hands to a sense of dirtiness. Knowledge of hand hygiene and related products was limited and preference for water and soap was obvious. Environmental constraints, lack of role models and social control were identified as barriers for compliance with hand hygiene. A multi-faceted hand hygiene strategy was developed based on existing cultural concepts valued by the hospital staff.

  18. [The Vienna School of Water Hygiene from the End of World War II until now].

    PubMed

    Flamm, Heinz

    2010-08-01

    After the economic stagnation of the 1930s and World War II the water-hygiene had to revive. Besides basic research for large projects as the 3rd Viennese water-conduct, the Danube hydroelectric power station in Hainburg and the Marchfeldkanal new fields were opened. The evidence of fecal spring-water contamination by determination of the spectral-absorption-coefficients avoids the delay by bacterial cultivation and enables immediate satellite-transmission to central stations for turning-off the afflux. Determination of the origin (human and ruminant) of isolated E. coli by Real-time-PCR indicates necessities for sanitation. Investigation on UV-water-disinfection, considering also the formation of carcinogenic and genotoxic compounds, resulted in the only European national UV-norm and the establishment of one of the wordwide four testing institutions of UV-water-disinfection. The department for water-hygiene of the Medical University of Vienna carries out specific duties in various national committees of public health importance as well as in collaboration with EU, WHO, ISO and other international commissions.

  19. [Mercury levels in humans under conditions of environmental pollution by mercury-containing industrial waste].

    PubMed

    Larionova, T K

    2000-01-01

    Hygienic monitoring of lead, cadmium, and mercury as environmental pollutants should include the analysis of adverse human and environmental effects. The hygienic investigations of environmental pollution with gold-mining waste involved measurements of Hg in the water, soil, foodstuffs and human biological materials. Hg was found in the biological substrata of both industrial workers and the general population since they eat the products of animals and plants from the polluted area.

  20. A Prospective Controlled Trial of an Electronic Hand Hygiene Reminder System.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Richard T; Barysauskas, Constance M; Rundensteiner, Elke A; Wang, Di; Barton, Bruce

    2015-12-01

    Background.  The use of electronic hand hygiene reminder systems has been proposed as an approach to improve hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers, although information on efficacy is limited. We prospectively assessed whether hand hygiene activities among healthcare workers could be increased using an electronic hand hygiene monitoring and reminder system. Methods.  A prospective controlled clinical trial was conducted in 2 medical intensive care units (ICUs) at an academic medical center with comparable patient populations, healthcare staff, and physical layout. Hand hygiene activity was monitored concurrently in both ICUs, and the reminder system was installed in the test ICU. The reminder system was tested during 3 administered phases including: room entry/exit chimes, display of real-time hand hygiene activity, and a combination of the 2. Results.  In the test ICU, the mean number of hand hygiene events increased from 1538 per day at baseline to 1911 per day (24% increase) with the use of a combination of room entry/exit chimes, real-time displays of hand hygiene activity, and manager reports (P < .001); in addition, the ratio of hand hygiene to room entry/exit events also increased from 26.1% to 36.6% (40% increase, P < .001). The performance returned to baseline (1473 hand hygiene events per day) during the follow-up phase. There was no significant change in hand hygiene activity in the control ICU during the course of the trial. Conclusions.  In an ICU setting, an electronic hand hygiene reminder system that provided real-time feedback on overall unit-wide hand hygiene performance significantly increased hand hygiene activity.

  1. [Health status hygienic assessment of primary military education establishment pupils].

    PubMed

    Avshits, I V; Shirinskiĭ, V A

    2010-01-01

    During a comprehensive study, the investigators have made a hygienic assessment of an academic process and the actual nutrition of military school pupils, revealed the specific features of functioning of the body's major systems in adolescents at a closed primary military education establishment, studied the body's adaptive reactions to a combination of factors during study, and hygienically evaluated the pupils' health. Their health has been shown to improve at a closed education establishment according to the basic parameters of the body's functional status and nonspecific resistance, physical development. Specific recommendations are proposed to correct daily diets for pupils of primary military education establishments in order to bring the actual nutrition of cadets in compliance with the standard physiological requirements for this group of pupils.

  2. [VAP and oral hygiene.A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Guerra, F; De Martino, F; Capocci, M; Rinaldo, F; Mannocci, A; De Biase, A; Ottolenghi, L; La Torre, G

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection in intensive care units. International literature showed how the use of professional oral hygiene protocols provide an essential support in VAP prevention. The aim of this study is to provide a systematic and narrative updated review, to further demonstrate that a proper protocol of oral hygiene, in special needs patients, can reduce risk of developing VAP. In this study were analyzed 10 narrative and 3 systematic reviews. Systematic reviews were evaluated with AMSTAR checklist, INSA tool was used to analyze narrative reviews. The findings of this study suggest that the use of antimicrobials combined with tooth brushing can actively contribute to reducing the incidence of VAP.

  3. Diarrhea and school toilet hygiene in Cali, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Koopman, J S

    1978-05-01

    In a 4-week period in early 1976 in a poor, working class area of Cali, Colombia, the prevalences of diarrhea, vomiting, common cold, and head lice in schoolchildren were measured in relation to classroom size and to the condition of the school toilets. The study found that unhygienic toilet conditions were related to diarrhea, and it was estimated that if all schools could reach the modest level of hygiene of the two schools with the relatively best facilities, diarrhea would be reduced by 44% and vomiting by 34%. Toilet hygiene was found to be unrelated to colds or head lice, which have similar social class distributions to diarrhea and vomiting. Crowding was found to be related to a small percentage of the prevalences of vomiting, head lice and colds.

  4. Effective periodontal disease control using dental hygiene chews.

    PubMed

    Brown, Wendy Y; McGenity, Phil

    2005-03-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a newly developed dental hygiene chew for dogs, with and without a natural antimicrobial additive, compared with a reference diet. Efficacy was determined by measuring the severity of gingivitis and the accumulation of dental plaque and calculus in dogs after 4-weeks of being fed the different dietary regimens. Dogs fed a single daily dental chew had significantly less gingivitis (P = 0. 02), plaque (P = 0. 0004), and calculus (P = 0.0001) compared with dogs in the control group that were fed an identical diet but received no chews. The inclusion of the antimicrobial agent did not improve the efficacy of the product. The dental hygiene chews tested in this study have potential to help reduce the incidence of periodontal disease in dogs.

  5. Service-learning and dental hygiene: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lautar, C J; Miller, F Y

    2007-01-01

    Dental hygienists should be aware of the concept of service-learning and how it can enhance dental hygiene education. A look at national documents and other relevant historical literature will be reviewed, in addition to more recent books and articles to define service-learning. Although perceived as a new teaching strategy, service-learning has its roots in experiential education. Several definitions of service-learning have emerged, which take into consideration the reciprocal needs of the student and community, bridging academic theory with community service, and instilling civic responsibility through a reflective component. Considering the advantages and disadvantages, service-learning seems to be a good methodology for dental hygiene education. Recommendations include the expansion of the ADA Accreditation Standards to include service-learning, and incorporation of an operational definition of community-based oral health programs, as well as the term service-learning in its Definition of Terms.

  6. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the industrial diamond industry is provided. More than 90 percent of the industrial diamond consumed in the U.S. and the rest of the world is manufactured diamond. Ireland, Japan, Russia, and the U.S. produce 75 percent of the global industrial diamond output. In 2000, the U.S. was the largest market for industrial diamond. Industrial diamond applications, prices for industrial diamonds, imports and exports of industrial diamonds, the National Defense Stockpile of industrial diamonds, and the outlook for the industrial diamond market are discussed.

  7. [Food hygiene training of members of corporate public catering committees].

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Gianluigi; Laurenti, Patrizia; Gerardo Cairo, Antonio; Ricciardi, Gualtiero

    2007-01-01

    A food hygiene training course was offered to 25 members of the public catering committees of seven corporate restaurants. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the course and identify critical topics, participants were asked to complete a questionnaire before and after completing the training course. Results are presented in this article and underscore the importance of training members of public catering committees in addition to food handlers.

  8. [Hygienic education in pupils from general educational establishments].

    PubMed

    Mirskaia, N B

    2009-01-01

    The high prevalence of the major behavioral factors of a risk to health: violation of the study leisure regimen, violation of dietary pattern and quality, low motor activity, smoking, frequent alcohol abuse, drug taste, and deteriorated family microclimate, was revealed in middle and senior schoolchildren from Moscow, Kaliningrad, and Murmansk. Proposals are given to mold healthy lifestyle in adolescents and to optimize their hygienic education at general educational establishments.

  9. Attitudes towards students who plagiarize: a dental hygiene faculty perspective.

    PubMed

    Patel-Bhakta, Hemali G; Muzzin, Kathleen B; Dewald, Janice P; Campbell, Patricia R; Buschang, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine baccalaureate dental hygiene faculty members' attitudes and practices regarding student plagiarism. An email containing a link to a thirty-two-item survey was sent to fifty-two baccalaureate dental hygiene program directors in the United States; thirty of those agreed for their faculty members to participate. Of the 257 faculty members who received the survey link, 106 completed the survey, for a response rate of 41.2 percent. The responding faculty members reported thinking plagiarism is a rising concern in their dental hygiene programs (54.5 percent, 54/99). The majority said they check for plagiarism on student class assignment/projects (67.1 percent, 53/79). For those who did not check for plagiarism, 45.8 percent (11/24) stated it took "too much time to check" or it was "too hard to prove" (16.6 percent, 4/24). The most frequent form of student plagiarism observed by the respondents was "copying directly from a source electronically" (78.0 percent, 39/50). Most respondents reported checking for plagiarism through visual inspection (without technological assistance) (73.0 percent, 38/52). Of those who said they use plagiarism detection software/services, 44.4 percent (16/36) always recommended their students use plagiarism detection software/services to detect unintentional plagiarism. For those faculty members who caught students plagiarizing, 52.9 percent (27/51) reported they "always or often" handled the incident within their dental hygiene department, and 76.5 percent (39/51) said they had never reported the student's violation to an academic review board.

  10. Nutrient, Waste Management, and Hygiene Systems for Chemical Protective Suits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    U O <P 0) C " •H +J ID dJ 1-^ Q) -P &1-P n moist, hygienic towelettes containing benzalkonium chloride and lanolin (Fig. 7, top center...this loss, electrolyte beverages with an energy content of 0.4 MJ/L, a sodium level of .042 mol/L, and a chloride level of .038 mol/L were developed

  11. Hygiene in the home: relating bugs and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Val; Biran, Adam; Deverell, Katie; Hughes, Clarissa; Bellamy, Kate; Drasar, Bo

    2003-08-01

    Much infectious intestinal disease (IID) arises in the home environment. If programmes to prevent infection are to be effective it is essential to both identify the particular practices that risk disease transmission, and to understand the reasons for these practices. An in-depth, multidisciplinary study of carer and child hygiene in the domestic environment in the Wirral, UK, employed structured observation, surface swabbing for polio vaccine virus and enteric marker organisms, semi-structured interviews, projective interviews and focus group discussions. Observations revealed that child carers washed hands with soap after changing a dirty nappy on 42% of occasions, and that one in five toilet users did not wash hands with soap afterwards. Microbiological samples were taken from household surfaces at sites thought likely to be involved in the transfer of faecal material. 15% of bathroom samples showed contamination with polio vaccine virus. Nappy changing took place mainly in living rooms. Contact with living room surfaces and objects during nappy changing was frequent and evidence of faecal contamination was found in 12% of living room samples. Evidence of faecal contamination was also found in kitchens, again on surfaces thought likely to be involved in the transmission of faeces (taps and soap dispensers). Key factors motivating hygiene were the desire to give a good impression to others, protection of the child and aesthetics. In this setting, the particular risk practices to be addressed included washing hands with soap after stool and nappy contact and preventing the transfer of pathogenic organisms to the kitchen. The occasion of the birth of a child may be a privileged moment for the promotion of safer home hygiene practices. Using polio vaccine virus as an indicator of faecal contamination produces results that could be used in large-scale studies of household disease transmission. A better understanding of the household transmission of the agents of IID

  12. [Knowledge of oral hygiene amongst adolescents in Lombardy, Italy].

    PubMed

    Camoni, Nicole; Arpesella, Marisa; Cutti, Sara; Livieri, Monica; Lanati, Niccolò; Tenconi, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated oral hygiene knowledge among a group of 12-year-old students in Lombardy, Italy (n=182). Two different questionnaires were administered, respectively to adolescents and to their parents. Results indicate a low level of general knowledge on this topic. Factors influencing knowledge include the number of learning sources and yearly access to a dental clinic. The described situation highlights the need to implement school-based educational interventions.

  13. De-worming school children and hygiene intervention.

    PubMed

    Luong, T V

    2003-06-01

    Helminths or worm infestations refer to worms that live as parasites in the human body and are a fundamental cause of disease associated with health and nutrition problems beyond gastrointestinal tract disturbances. Globally, over 3.5 billion people are infected with intestinal worms, of which 1.47 billion are with roundworm, 1.3 billion people with hookworm and 1.05 billion with whipworm. School children aged 5 - 15 years suffer the highest infection rate and worm burden that attributes to poor sanitation and hygiene. About 400 million school-age children are infected with roundworm, whipworm and hookworm worldwide, a large proportion of whom are found in the East Asia region (Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam). These parasites consume nutrients from children they infect, thus retarding their physical development. They destroy tissues and organs, cause abdominal pain, diarrhoea, intestinal obstruction, anaemia, ulcers and other health problems. All of these consequences of infection can slow cognitive development and thus impair learning. De-worming school children by anthelmintic drug treatment is a curative approach for expelling the heavy worm load. However, drug therapy alone is only a short-term measure of reducing worm infection and re-infection is frequent. Control measures through improved sanitation, hygiene and de-worming are needed to prevent infection and re-infection. UNICEF has supported many governments in this (and other) regions to assist in the provision of water supply and sanitary facilities and intensive hygiene education in many schools through the Water, Environment and Sanitation (WES) programme. The UNICEF supported school sanitation and hygiene education (SSHE) programme, and other programmes, could effectively enhance behaviour change in children to break the routes of worm transmission and other waterborne diseases.

  14. Dental hygiene student experiences in external placements in Australia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jane A; Hayes, Melanie J; Wallace, Linda

    2012-05-01

    While placements in external locations are being increasingly used in dental education globally, few studies have explored the student learning experience at such placements. The purpose of this study was to investigate student experiences while on external placement in a baccalaureate dental hygiene program. A self-reporting questionnaire was distributed to final-year dental hygiene students (n=77) at the University of Newcastle, Australia, in 2010. The questionnaire included questions regarding the type of placement, experiences offered, supervision, resources available, and lasting impressions. Responding students were generally positive about their external placement experience and indicated that the majority of facilities provided them with the opportunity to provide direct patient care and perform clinical tasks typical of a practicing hygienist. However, there was a statistically significant difference in their opinions about discipline-focused and community placements. Students indicated that their external placement experience provided opportunities to learn more about time and patient management, including hands-on experience with specific clinical tasks. Ongoing evaluations are necessary to ensure that external placements meet both student needs and intended learning outcomes within dental hygiene programs.

  15. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Kavitha Sankar, P C; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M J

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product.

  16. Vaginal Hygiene and Douching: Perspectives of Hispanic Men

    PubMed Central

    Mckee, M Diane; Baquero, María; Anderson, Matthew; Karasz, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Vaginal douching is widely practiced by women in the USA, particularly among minority ethnic groups, and is associated with increased risk of pelvic and vaginal infections. Douching practices are shaped by social and cultural norms regarding female hygiene, reproduction, and sexuality. Little previous research has addressed the beliefs and practices of Latina women, and none has included the perspective of men, though limited data suggests that women may douche to please male partners. The present study seeks to identify the socially and culturally shaped beliefs and attitudes that influence douching practices from the perspective of Latino men. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews in English or Spanish with adult Latino men seeking primary care at a community health centre in New York City (USA). Results indicate that these Latino men (mostly of Caribbean descent) are emphatic about the role of cleanliness in vaginal health, reporting that it substantially influences their choice of partner. Most are very supportive of douching, which they consider a necessary hygiene activity. Vaginal health is perceived as a state that must be attained and maintained through proactive hygiene measures that remove seminal residue, menstrual blood, sweat and bacteria that contaminate the vagina. The implications of these findings for interventions with Latina women are discussed. PMID:19247860

  17. The importance and provision of oral hygiene in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Ford, Samuel J

    2008-10-01

    The provision of mouth care on the general surgical ward and intensive care setting has recently gained momentum as an important aspect of patient care. Oropharyngeal morbidity can cause pain and disordered swallowing leading to reluctance in commencing or maintaining an adequate dietary intake. On the intensive care unit, aside from patient discomfort and general well-being, oral hygiene is integral to the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Chlorhexidine (0.2%) is widely used to decrease oral bacterial loading, dental bacterial plaque and gingivitis. Pineapple juice has gained favour as a salivary stimulant in those with a dry mouth or coated tongue. Tooth brushing is the ideal method of promoting oral hygiene. Brushing is feasible in the vast majority, although access is problematic in ventilated patients. Surgical patients undergoing palliative treatment are particularly prone to oral morbidity that may require specific but simple remedies. Neglect of basic aspects of patient care, typified by poor oral hygiene, can be detrimental to surgical outcome.

  18. Measuring hygiene and health perfomance of buildings: a multidimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Capolongo, S; Buffoli, M; Oppio, A; Rizzitiello, S

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovative and transparent methodology to support the "ASL Milano" (Local Health Agency) in the hygiene and health evaluation of construction projects, in order to highlight their positive and negative performance beyond the requirements imposed by the current laws and regulations regarding buildings' hygiene performance, which are too old and therefore unsuitable to ascertain the real quality of indoor environments. The compliance with laws or regulations, mostly out of date, and the assessment of performance involving only a part of the current emerging needs and problems, in fact, should be considered as a necessary, although not a sufficient step, to ensure high quality indoors. Consequently, it is necessary to identify and test an assessment tool which could provide an effective and flexible support for the development of hygiene and health statements regarding projects at building scale (new construction, conversion of the existing, rehabilitation, extension, change of use, etc). The assessment tool suggested by this paper is tailored for the metropolitan area of the city of Milan, but its evaluation framework could be developed and applied to other contexts.

  19. [Oral hygiene customs in 6-12 year old schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, César Tadeo; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Robles-Bermeo, Norma Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Veras-Hernández, Miriam; De la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Escoffié-Ramírez, Mauricio; Márquez-Rodríguez, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To characterize utilization of oral hygiene devices and customs in schoolchildren. MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed a cross-sectional study in 1,404 schoolchildren (6- 12 year olds) from 14 public schools in Pachuca, Hidalgo, México, using a questionnaire for sociodemographic variables and 1) Tooth brushing frequency (<1/d vs. at least 1/d), 2) Use of toothpaste (not always vs. always), 3) Flossing (never, does not know vs. at least 1/week), 4) Use of mouthwash (never, does not know vs. at least 1/week). Analyses were performed with nonparametric tests. RESULTS. Mean age was 8.97 ± 1.99 years; 50.1% were male. Prevalence of utilization of oral hygiene devices and associated customs were 85.5% tooth brushing, 90.9% toothpaste, 19.4% flossing, and 28.2% mouthwash. Only 11.8% of participants reported utilization in all 4 categories. We observed differences (p < 0.05) across sexes only in the use of toothpaste, as women used it more often. Differences across age were observed (p < 0.05) for tooth brushing (younger children brushed more often) and flossing (older children flossed more often). CONCLUSIONS. Tooth brushing was the oral hygiene practice more often performed in this sample, with other frequencies being relatively low. There were differences by age and sex across some variables.

  20. Implementation of a Risk-Orientated Hygiene Analysis for the Control of Salmonella JAVA in the Broiler Production.

    PubMed

    Kloska, Franziska; Casteel, Maximilian; Kump, Frederik Wilms-Schulze; Klein, Günter

    2017-03-01

    This field study aimed to establish a risk-orientated hygiene analysis on two broiler farms in Northwestern Germany for the practical use in broiler housing to evaluate the success of disinfection procedures for eradicating S. Java. The risk-orientated hygiene analysis enables fast, reproducible and cost-effective testing of broiler farms and in turn helps minimize the public health risk ensuing from S. Java. Farms were tested before and after cleaning as well as after disinfection according to a risk-orientated hygiene analysis for the presence of Salmonella DNA with qPCR. Positive PCR samples were confirmed by classical microbiology. Before cleaning, all checkpoints were tested positive for Salmonella DNA. Salmonella reduction of ca 66% of the sampled points could be achieved by intensive cleaning. A first disinfection on farm A and B failed to completely eradicate S. Java. A second disinfection followed and finally achieved a Salmonella-free status of the barns. During nine rearing periods, farms were tested weekly with boot swabs for Salmonella and at slaughter carcasses were tested for Salmonella status. No Salmonella were detected in these examinations. The two studied broiler farms have, to date, remained free of Salmonella.

  1. Hand hygiene-related clinical trials reported since 2010: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kingston, L; O'Connell, N H; Dunne, C P

    2016-04-01

    Considerable emphasis is currently placed on reducing healthcare-associated infection through improving hand hygiene compliance among healthcare professionals. There is also increasing discussion in the lay media of perceived poor hand hygiene compliance among healthcare staff. Our aim was to report the outcomes of a systematic search for peer-reviewed, published studies - especially clinical trials - that focused on hand hygiene compliance among healthcare professionals. Literature published between December 2009, after publication of the World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene guidelines, and February 2014, which was indexed in PubMed and CINAHL on the topic of hand hygiene compliance, was searched. Following examination of relevance and methodology of the 57 publications initially retrieved, 16 clinical trials were finally included in the review. The majority of studies were conducted in the USA and Europe. The intensive care unit emerged as the predominant focus of studies followed by facilities for care of the elderly. The category of healthcare worker most often the focus of the research was the nurse, followed by the healthcare assistant and the doctor. The unit of analysis reported for hand hygiene compliance was 'hand hygiene opportunity'; four studies adopted the 'my five moments for hand hygiene' framework, as set out in the WHO guidelines, whereas other papers focused on unique multimodal strategies of varying design. We concluded that adopting a multimodal approach to hand hygiene improvement intervention strategies, whether guided by the WHO framework or by another tested multimodal framework, results in moderate improvements in hand hygiene compliance.

  2. Interventions to improve patient hand hygiene: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Srigley, J A; Furness, C D; Gardam, M

    2016-09-01

    Nosocomial pathogens may be acquired by patients via their own unclean hands, but there has been relatively little emphasis on patient hand hygiene as a tool for preventing healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). The aim of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of patient hand hygiene interventions in reducing HCAIs and improving patient hand hygiene rates compared to usual care. Electronic databases and grey literature were searched to August 2014. Experimental and quasi-experimental studies were included if they evaluated a patient hand hygiene intervention conducted in an acute or chronic healthcare facility and included HCAI incidence and/or patient hand hygiene rates as an outcome. All steps were performed independently by two investigators. Ten studies were included, most of which were uncontrolled before-after studies (N=8). The majority of interventions (N=7) were multi-modal, with components similar to healthcare worker hand hygiene programmes, including education, reminders, audit and feedback, and provision of hand hygiene products. Six studies reported HCAI outcomes and four studies assessed patient hand hygiene rates; all demonstrated improvements but were at moderate to high risk of bias. In conclusion, interventions to improve patient hand hygiene may reduce the incidence of HCAIs and improve hand hygiene rates, but the quality of evidence is low. Future studies should use stronger designs and be more selective in their choice of outcomes.

  3. Automated monitoring: a potential solution for achieving sustainable improvement in hand hygiene practices.

    PubMed

    Levchenko, Alexander I; Boscart, Veronique M; Fernie, Geoff R

    2014-08-01

    Adequate hand hygiene is often considered as the most effective method of reducing the rates of hospital-acquired infections, which are one of the major causes of increased cost, morbidity, and mortality in healthcare. Electronic monitoring technologies provide a promising direction for achieving sustainable hand hygiene improvement by introducing the elements of automated feedback and creating the possibility to automatically collect individual hand hygiene performance data. The results of the multiphase testing of an automated hand hygiene reminding and monitoring system installed in a complex continuing care setting are presented. The study included a baseline Phase 1, with the system performing automated data collection only, a preintervention Phase 2 with hand hygiene status indicator enabled, two intervention Phases 3 and 4 with the system generating hand hygiene reminding signals and periodic performance feedback sessions provided, and a postintervention Phase 5 with only hand hygiene status indicator enabled and no feedback sessions provided. A significant increase in hand hygiene performance observed during the first intervention Phase 3 was sustained over the second intervention Phase 4, with the postintervention phase also indicating higher hand hygiene activity rates compared with the preintervention and baseline phases. The overall trends observed during the multiphase testing, the factors affecting acceptability of the automated hand hygiene monitoring system, and various strategies of technology deployment are discussed.

  4. Evaluation of the time of uncapping and removing dead brood from cells by hygienic and non-hygienic honey bees.

    PubMed

    Palacio, Maria Alejandra; Flores, Jose Manuel; Figini, Emilio; Ruffinengo, Sergio; Escande, Alberto; Bedascarrasbure, Enrique; Rodriguez, Edgardo; Gonçalves, Lionel Segui

    2005-03-31

    Most research on hygienic behavior has recorded the time taken by the colony to remove an experimental amount of dead brood, usually after one or two days. We evaluated the time that hygienic (H) and non-hygienic (NH) honey bees take to uncap and remove dead brood in observation hives after the brood was killed using the pin-killing assay. Four experimental colonies were selected as the extreme cases among 108 original colonies. Thirty brood cells were perforated with a pin in two H and two NH colonies and observations were made after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 24 h. Different stages of uncapping and removing were recorded. Differences in uncapping and removal between H and NH colonies were significant for all comparisons made at the different times after perforation. Using observation hives one obtains a better and faster discrimination between H and NH colonies than in full size colonies. It is possible to differentiate H and NH within a few hours after perforating the cells.

  5. [Adherence to oral hygiene and dental self-care].

    PubMed

    Poplinger, A

    2010-04-01

    illustrates, through a comprehensive literature review of theories, models and researches, the contemporary methods for promoting adherence to oral hygiene, dental Self-Care and treatment. Using the combination of a survey from a select sample of specialists in the field of Dentistry, and the conclusions inferred from studies reviewed, I was able to determine how investment in the Bio-Psycho-Social approach would improve patient satisfaction from their doctors and outcomes of the treatment, shorten the duration of treatment, consume only little resources, improve dental health of patients and prevent repetitive visits to the dentists clinics. At the same time, despite the fact that dentistry practitioners acknowledge the importance of patient's adherence and take active measures such as talks, praises, guidance and providing information, most of them don't seem to comprehend interfusion of family members or friends as an integral part of the treatment. Moreover, their overall feeling is of incompetence when regarding dealing with un-adherent patients. Therefore, maybe there is room for providing dentists and staff with seminars, conventions etc. about the latest novelties on the subject. In conclusion, enhancing dental patient's adherence to health behavior is a domain mainly under the responsibility of the dentist, but also of his staff. As elaborated in the article, the measures for doing so are: 1. Information- the dentist should guide patients about the different methods for maintaining oral hygiene, explain how proper adherence benefits positive treatment outcome, and provide a broad and informative picture of the patient's specific problem. 2. Positive rapport - the need for establishing a good relationship between the doctor and his patients is crucial for attaining effective and satisfactory treatment outcomes. No doubt that this matter depends upon the personality and character of both the doctor and the patient, but using positive verbal reinforcements, symbolic

  6. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    A general overview of the industrial garnet industry is provided. About 20 percent of global industrial garnet production takes place in the U.S. During 2000, an estimated 300 kt of industrial garnets were produced worldwide. The U.S. is the world's largest consumer of industrial garnet, consuming 56.9 kt in 2000.

  7. [Harmonization of national and foreign sanitary laws on industrial aerosols].

    PubMed

    Elovskaia, L T; Prokopenko, L V

    2014-01-01

    According to existing hygienic norms in Russian Federation, dust control covers a whole mass of particles contained in air of workplace--that is based on biologic value of all mass of dust affecting human, rather than of separate dust fractions, as is accepted abroad. State Standard specification R 54578-2011 establishes general principles of hygienic regulation, control and evaluation of occupational diseases risk due to aerosols with predominantly fibrogenous effects through measuring mass concentration of all dust particles contained in air of workplace, rather than groundless selective isolation of its separate fractions. The standard is set for specifying technical regulations in extracting branches, processing industry, machinery, technologic processes with dust releases.

  8. Asbestos hazard in the reprocessed textile industry

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, M.M.; Kriebel, D.; Buiatti, E.; Paci, E.; Sini, S.; Vannucchi, G.; Zappa, M.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have identified an excess risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma among workers in the reprocessed textile industry in Prato, Italy. These studies suggested that there may have been asbestos hazard in this industry although exposure was not known to exist. An industrial hygiene investigation was conducted to determine whether there was previous or current asbestos exposure in the industry. Walk-through surveys, environmental sampling, process documentation, and management and worker interviews were conducted in 13 textile reprocessing establishments. Polypropylene bags that once contained asbestos were found in 2 of the 13. Asbestos bags were cut open and used to cover bales of rags which were then distributed throughout the world. Workers were exposed to asbestos while handling the bags which were contaminated with chrysotile, amosite, and crocidolite. Additional sources of asbestos exposure that may have existed in the past in the industry are also discussed.

  9. Dopant materials used in the microelectronics industry.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D R

    1986-01-01

    Advances in microelectronics have transformed the occupational environment of the electronics industry. Large quantities of potentially hazardous materials are now in routine use as integrated circuit manufacturing becomes more complex and specialized. While the acute hazards associated with these dopant materials are clear, the subacute and chronic effects are less evident. Many of these elements are trace elements in humans and may play roles in health and disease in minute concentrations. Early detection and prevention of adverse health effects requires both astute medical surveillance, industrial hygiene, and safety engineering efforts to eliminate the sources of exposure to workers.

  10. [The location of wind-mill electric generating plants: hygienic aspects].

    PubMed

    Kireeva, I S; Dumanskiĭ, Iu D; Semashko, P V

    2009-01-01

    The hygienic aspects of the location of wind-mill electric generating plants become more pressing due to the intensive development of wind-power engineering. Possible risk factors from wind-mill electric generating plants that can influence the environment and the population are considered. A 400-m control area is recommended on the basis of the made calculations of an acoustic and electromagnetic pollution area, an exposure area during emergency situations, as well the field measuring data on noise from wind-mill electric generating plants with a capacity of 20 MW, by applying 100-kW wind-mill electric generating units. Further studies are proposed to improve the differentiated sizes of control areas for wind-mill electric generating plants with wind-mill electric generating units of varying capacity.

  11. Geothermal industry assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    An assessment of the geothermal industry is presented, focusing on industry structure, corporate activities and strategies, and detailed analysis of the technological, economic, financial, and institutional issues important to government policy formulation. The study is based principally on confidential interviews with executives of 75 companies active in the field. (MHR)

  12. Traditional sampling with laboratory analysis and solid phase microextraction sampling with field gas chromatography/mass spectrometry by military industrial hygienists.

    PubMed

    Smith, Philip A; Kluchinsky, Timothy A; Savage, Paul B; Erickson, Richard P; Lee, Arthur P; Williams, Kenneth; Stevens, Michael; Thomas, Richard J

    2002-01-01

    The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private ones of the authors and are not to be construed as official or reflecting the views of the United States Department of Defense or the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. Rapid on-site detection and identification of environmental contaminants to which personnel may be exposed is often needed during military deployment situations. The availability of military industrial hygienists with capabilities for "complete" on-site exposure assessment of chemical species should allow detection and identification of a number of important stressors almost immediately following sample collection. Portable gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) provides a rapid and efficient separation of volatile and semivolatile organic analytes, accompanied by sensitive electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry (EI-MS) detection. The use of GC/MS in the field is limited, however, by equipment cost, complexity of the equipment, and the analytical process. Additionally, a skilled operator is needed to obtain useful separations and to interpret mass spectral data. To demonstrate benefits and limitations of "complete" exposure assessment capabilities, a previously unidentified complex mixture, produced by thermal dispersion of riot control agents, was examined. Established active sampling methods were used with laboratory analyses. Solid phase microextraction, a passive sampling method that simplifies preparation for GC/MS analysis, also was used with a field-portable GC/MS system. Both sampling/analysis methods were used to detect CS riot control agent-derived air contaminants dispersed from riot control type canisters through oxidizer-supported combustion of a chemical fuel.

  13. Pathways to clean hands: highlights of successful hand hygiene implementation strategies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Magiorakos, A P; Leens, E; Drouvot, V; May-Michelangeli, L; Reichardt, C; Gastmeier, P; Wilson, K; Tannahill, M; McFarlane, E; Simon, A

    2010-05-06

    Hand hygiene is the most effective way to stop the spread of microorganisms and to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAI). The World Health Organization launched the First Global Patient Safety Challenge - Clean Care is Safer Care - in 2005 with the goal to prevent HAI globally. This year, on 5 May, the WHO s initiative SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands, which focuses on increasing awareness of and improving compliance with hand hygiene practices, celebrated its second global day. In this article, four Member States of the European Union describe strategies that were implemented as part of their national hand hygiene campaigns and were found to be noteworthy. The strategies were: governmental support, the use of indicators for hand hygiene benchmarking, developing national surveillance systems for auditing alcohol-based hand rub consumption, ensuring seamless coordination of processes between health regions in countries with regionalised healthcare systems, implementing the WHO's My Five Moments for Hand Hygiene, and auditing of hand hygiene compliance.

  14. Patient-centered hand hygiene: the next step in infection prevention.

    PubMed

    Landers, Timothy; Abusalem, Said; Coty, Mary-Beth; Bingham, James

    2012-05-01

    Hand hygiene has been recognized as the most important means of preventing the transmission of infection, and great emphasis has been placed on ways to improve hand hygiene compliance by health care workers (HCWs). Despite increasing evidence that patients' flora and the hospital environment are the primary source of many infections, little effort has been directed toward involving patients in their own hand hygiene. Most previous work involving patients has included patients as monitors or auditors of hand hygiene practices by their HCWs. This article reviews the evidence on the benefits of including patients more directly in hand hygiene initiatives, and uses the framework of patient-centered safety initiatives to provide recommendations for the timing and implementation of patient hand hygiene protocols. It also addresses key areas for further research, practice guideline development, and implications for training of HCWs.

  15. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Statistics on the production, consumption, cost, trade, and government stockpile of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are provided. The outlook for the industrial diamond market is also considered.

  16. Contact lens hygiene compliance and lens case contamination: A review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yvonne Tzu-Ying; Willcox, Mark; Zhu, Hua; Stapleton, Fiona

    2015-10-01

    A contaminated contact lens case can act as a reservoir for microorganisms that could potentially compromise contact lens wear and lead to sight threatening adverse events. The rate, level and profile of microbial contamination in lens cases, compliance and other risk factors associated with lens case contamination, and the challenges currently faced in this field are discussed. The rate of lens case contamination is commonly over 50%. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens are frequently recovered from lens cases. In addition, we provide suggestions regarding how to clean contact lens cases and improve lens wearers' compliance as well as future lens case design for reducing lens case contamination. This review highlights the challenges in reducing the level of microbial contamination which require an industry wide approach.

  17. Saving time and resources: observational research to support adoption of a hand hygiene promotion campaign.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Liang, Ming-Ching; Mabry, Amanda; Champlin, Sara; Stroever, Stephanie

    2015-06-01

    Hand hygiene is the most effective way to prevent the spread of health care-associated infections, but many facilities may not have the resources or expertise to develop their own hand hygiene promotion campaign. This observational study demonstrated that a campaign developed for 1 facility could successfully contribute to behavior change at another, unrelated facility. It serves as a model and evidence that health care facilities can successfully adopt hand hygiene promotion campaigns developed and validated at other facilities.

  18. Chewing xylitol gum improves self-rated and objective indicators of oral health status under conditions interrupting regular oral hygiene.

    PubMed

    Hashiba, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Kenji; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Takeshita, Toru; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Chewing xylitol gum provides oral health benefits including inhibiting Streptococcus mutans plaque. It is thought to be especially effective in conditions where it is difficult to perform daily oral cleaning. Our study aim was to determine the effects of chewing xylitol gum on self-rated and objective oral health status under a condition interfering with oral hygiene maintenance. A randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted on 55 healthy ≥ 20-year-old men recruited from the Japan Ground Self Defense Force who were undergoing field training. Participants were randomly assigned to a test group (chewing gum; n = 27) or a control group (no gum; n = 28) and the researchers were blinded to the group assignments. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores of oral conditions subjectively evaluated oral health, and the stimulated salivary bacteria quantity objectively evaluated oral health 1 day before field training (baseline) and 4 days after the beginning of field training (follow-up). VAS scores of all three oral conditions significantly increased in the control group (malodor: p < 0.001; discomfort: p < 0.001; dryness: p < 0.001), but only two VAS scores increased in the test group (malodor: p = 0.021; discomfort: p = 0.002). The number of salivary total bacteria significantly increased in the control group (p < 0.01), while no significant change was observed in the test group (p = 0.668). Chewing xylitol gum positively affects self-rated and objective oral health status by controlling oral hygiene under conditions that interfere with oral hygiene maintenance.

  19. Problems of equipment creation for hygienic treatment of textiles (underwear, garments, hygienic towels and napkins) for long-term space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumilina, I.

    Impossibility of just in time stocks delivery to the International Space Station ISS because of Shuttle space flights absence has led to forced changing of standards of underwear garments and personal hygiene means using Therefore hygienic treatment of textiles underwear garments towels and napkins are necessary for long-term space flight missions Investigations into the ways of cosmonauts sanitary -- hygienic supply are prepared The resent equipment means and methods of cosmonauts sanitary -- hygienic supply were created for space flight conditions with an opportunity of stocks updating This investigations are confirm necessity of new generation system creation for cosmonauts sanitary -- hygienic supply and special designing of hygienic treatment laundry drying equipment and technologies for long-term space flights without an opportunity of stocks updating in particular for martian mission One from main requirements for equipment means and methods of cosmonauts sanitary -- hygienic supply is full safety for human organisms under systematic and long-term application in space flight conditions small energy consumption and combining with space Life-Support Systems Method and program of experimental investigations of textiles laundry with application of washing means for long-term space flight conditions are prepared It is necessary to estimate opportunity and efficiency of washing means application for textiles laundry for space flight missions also to estimate compatibility of washing means for textiles laundry and for washing

  20. Hygiene factors associated with childhood food allergy and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anne Marie; Walkner, Madeline; Caruso, Deanna; Bryce, Paul J.; Wang, Xiaobin; Pongracic, Jacqueline A.; Smith, Bridget M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood food allergy and asthma rates are increasing. The hygiene hypothesis has been proposed as an explanation for the increased incidence of allergic disease. Objective: To describe the association of childhood food allergy and asthma with hygiene factors, such as the number of siblings, antibiotic use, infection history, pet exposure, child care exposure, and maternal–child factors. Methods: Children ages 0–21 years old (N = 1359) were recruited for a cross-sectional family-based study, including children with food allergy and children without food allergy, and their siblings. We assessed the associations between childhood food allergy and asthma with hygiene factors. Results: Of the 1359 children, 832 (61.2%) had food allergy, and 406 (30%) had asthma. In the adjusted analysis, the prevalence of food allergy was increased if there was a history of skin infection (prevalence ratio [RRR] 1.12 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01–1.24]) or eczema (RRR 1.89 [95% CI, 1.70–2.10]). The prevalence of asthma was increased with a history of respiratory syncytial virus infection (RRR 1.60 [95% CI, 1.34–1.90]) or eczema (RRR 1.54 [95% CI, 1.27–1.86]). A greater number of siblings were associated with a decreased prevalence of food allergy (RRR 0.79 [95% CI, 0.75–0.84]) and asthma (RRR 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74–0.91]). Conclusion: Our findings supported the accumulating evidence of an association between skin infections and eczema with food allergy. Because these results could be subject to recall bias, additional prospective studies are needed to substantiate these findings.

  1. Sequential hygienic behavior in Carniolan honey bees (Apis mellifera carnica).

    PubMed

    Gramacho, K P; Gonçalves, L S

    2009-01-01

    We examined the sequence, order or steps of hygienic behavior (HB) from pin-killed pupae until the removal of them by the bees. We conducted our study with four colonies of Apis mellifera carnica in Germany and made four repetitions. The pin-killing method was used for evaluation of the HB of bees. The data were collected every 2 h after perforation, totaling 13 observations. Additionally, for one hygienic colony and another non-hygienic colony, individual analyses of each dead pupa were made at every observation, including all details, steps or sequences of HB. The bees recognize the cells containing dead pupae within 2 h after perforation, initially making a hole in the capping, which is the beginning of HB. Uncapping of the dead brood cell reached maximum values from 4 to 6 h after perforation; after 24 h, practically all cells were already uncapped. Another variable, called brood partially removed, was analyzed 4 h after perforation, after the cells had been perforated, which involved uncapping, followed by partial or total removal of the brood. Maximum values of brood partially removed were found 10 h after perforation, though such cells could be found up to 48 h after perforation. The most frequent sequence of events in both colonies was: capped cell --> punctured cell --> brood partially removed --> empty cell. A new model of three pairs of recessive genes (uncapping u1, u2 and remover r) was proposed in order to explain the genetic control of the HB in Apis mellifera. We recommend evaluating HB 24 h after perforation and using a correction factor to compensate for control removal levels. We found a series of details of HB, which allow a study of how various factors may affect the sequence of the activities involved in HB and investigation of the genetics that controls this process.

  2. Effect of magnification loupes on dental hygiene student posture.

    PubMed

    Maillet, J Peggy; Millar, A Michele; Burke, Jillian M; Maillet, Michelle A; Maillet, Wayne A; Neish, Nancy R

    2008-01-01

    The chair-side work posture of dental hygienists has long been a concern because of health-related problems potentially caused or exacerbated by poor posture. The purpose of this study was to investigate if using magnification loupes improved dental hygiene students' posture during provision of treatment. The treatment chosen was hand-scaling, and the effect of the timing of introduction of the loupes to students was also examined. Thirty-five novice dental hygiene students took part in the study. Each student was assessed providing dental hygiene care with and without loupes, thus controlling for innate differences in natural posture. Students were randomized into two groups. Group one used loupes in the first session and did not use them for the second session. Group two reversed this sequence. At the end of each session, all students were videotaped while performing scaling procedures. Their posture was assessed using an adapted version of Branson et al.'s Posture Assessment Instrument (PAI). Four raters assessed students at three time periods for nine posture components on the PAI. A paired t-test compared scores with and without loupes for each student. Scores showed a significant improvement in posture when using loupes (p<0.0001), and these improvements were significantly more pronounced for students starting loupes immediately on entering the program compared with students who delayed until the second session (p<0.1). These results suggest a significant postural benefit is realized by requiring students to master the use of magnification loupes as early as possible within the curriculum.

  3. Presence of caries with different levels of oral hygiene.

    PubMed

    Apostolska, S; Rendzova, V; Ivanovski, K; Peeva, M; Elencevski, S

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this abstract is to examine the presence of caries in the adult population with different levels of oral hygiene; to examine the concentration of Streptococcus Mutans in saliva of patients with different levels of oral hygiene; to examine the correlation among Streptococcus Mutans, caries and level of oral hygiene. This examination was made on 50 (fifty) patients, both male and female, at the age of 20 to 65. The examinees were split into 5 groups. The examinations and sampling were done randomly at the Department of Cariology and Endodontics at the Faculty of Dental Medicine in Skopje. The microbiological researches were made at the Institute of Microbiology and parasitology at the Faculty of Medicine in Skopje. The examination of all patients was made according to a unique methodology. The results obtained indicate that the Plaque index level and the number of Streptococcus Mutans in saliva (CFU) are correlated to the number of carious teeth in all age groups except for Group V (61-65) where the Plaque index level and the level of Streptococcus Mutans in saliva were much higher compared to the number of carious teeth (51-99 and >100 CFU), particularly for examinees with prosthesis. Initial enamel caries was dominant in patients up to the age of 50, and for those older than 50 surface root caries was dominant. Initial caries was present in 28.62% of Group I and was 5.66% in Group V, unlike the root surface caries in Group 1, with 1.14%, and Group 5 with 28.30%.

  4. Behaviour change for better health: nutrition, hygiene and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Newson, Rachel S; Lion, Rene; Crawford, Robert J; Curtis, Valerie; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Feunekes, Gerda I J; Hicks, Cheryl; van Liere, Marti; Lowe, C Fergus; Meijer, Gert W; Pradeep, B V; Reddy, K Srinath; Sidibe, Myriam; Uauy, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    As the global population grows there is a clear challenge to address the needs of consumers, without depleting natural resources and whilst helping to improve nutrition and hygiene to reduce the growth of noncommunicable diseases. For fast-moving consumer goods companies, like Unilever, this challenge provides a clear opportunity to reshape its business to a model that decouples growth from a negative impact on natural resources and health. However, this change in the business model also requires a change in consumer behaviour. In acknowledgement of this challenge Unilever organised a symposium entitled 'Behaviour Change for Better Health: Nutrition, Hygiene and Sustainability'. The intention was to discuss how consumers can be motivated to live a more healthy and sustainable lifestlye in today's environment. This article summarises the main conclusions of the presentations given at the symposium. Three main topics were discussed. In the first session, key experts discussed how demographic changes - particularly in developing and emerging countries - imply the need for consumer behaviour change. The second session focused on the use of behaviour change theory to design, implement and evaluate interventions, and the potential role of (new or reformulated) products as agents of change. In the final session, key issues were discussed regarding the use of collaborations to increase the impact and reach, and to decrease the costs, of interventions. The symposium highlighted a number of key scientific challenges for Unilever and other parties that have set nutrition, hygiene and sustainability as key priorities. The key challenges include: adapting behaviour change approaches to cultures in developing and emerging economies; designing evidence-based behaviour change interventions, in which products can play a key role as agents of change; and scaling up behaviour change activities in cost-effective ways, which requires a new mindset involving public-private partnerships.

  5. Behaviour change for better health: nutrition, hygiene and sustainability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    As the global population grows there is a clear challenge to address the needs of consumers, without depleting natural resources and whilst helping to improve nutrition and hygiene to reduce the growth of noncommunicable diseases. For fast-moving consumer goods companies, like Unilever, this challenge provides a clear opportunity to reshape its business to a model that decouples growth from a negative impact on natural resources and health. However, this change in the business model also requires a change in consumer behaviour. In acknowledgement of this challenge Unilever organised a symposium entitled ‘Behaviour Change for Better Health: Nutrition, Hygiene and Sustainability’. The intention was to discuss how consumers can be motivated to live a more healthy and sustainable lifestlye in today’s environment. This article summarises the main conclusions of the presentations given at the symposium. Three main topics were discussed. In the first session, key experts discussed how demographic changes – particularly in developing and emerging countries – imply the need for consumer behaviour change. The second session focused on the use of behaviour change theory to design, implement and evaluate interventions, and the potential role of (new or reformulated) products as agents of change. In the final session, key issues were discussed regarding the use of collaborations to increase the impact and reach, and to decrease the costs, of interventions. The symposium highlighted a number of key scientific challenges for Unilever and other parties that have set nutrition, hygiene and sustainability as key priorities. The key challenges include: adapting behaviour change approaches to cultures in developing and emerging economies; designing evidence-based behaviour change interventions, in which products can play a key role as agents of change; and scaling up behaviour change activities in cost-effective ways, which requires a new mindset involving public

  6. Sleep Hygiene and Recovery Strategies in Elite Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Nédélec, Mathieu; Halson, Shona; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset; Ahmaidi, Said; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    In elite soccer, players are frequently exposed to various situations and conditions that can interfere with sleep (e.g., playing night matches interspersed with 3 days; performing activities demanding high levels of concentration close to bedtime; use of products containing caffeine or alcohol in the period preceding bedtime; regular daytime napping throughout the week; variable wake-up times or bedtime), potentially leading to sleep deprivation. We outline simple, practical, and pharmaceutical-free sleep strategies that are coordinated to the constraints of elite soccer in order to promote sleep. Sleep deprivation is best alleviated by sleep extension; however, sleep hygiene strategies (i.e., consistent sleep pattern, appropriate napping, and active daytime behaviors) can be utilized to promote restorative sleep. Light has a profound impact on sleep, and sleep hygiene strategies that support the natural environmental light-dark cycle (i.e., red-light treatment prior to sleep, dawn-simulation therapy prior to waking) and prevent cycle disruption (i.e., filtering short wavelengths prior to sleep) may be beneficial to elite soccer players. Under conditions of inordinate stress, techniques such as brainwave entrainment and meditation are promising sleep-promoting strategies, but future studies are required to ascertain the applicability of these techniques to elite soccer players. Consuming high-electrolyte fluids such as milk, high-glycemic index carbohydrates, some forms of protein immediately prior to sleep, as well as tart cherry juice concentrate and tryptophan may promote rehydration, substrate stores replenishment, muscle-damage repair and/or restorative sleep. The influence of cold water immersion performed close to bedtime on subsequent sleep is still debated. Conversely, the potential detrimental effects of sleeping medication must be recognized. Sleep initiation is influenced by numerous factors, reinforcing the need for future research to identify such

  7. The Role of Sleep Hygiene in Promoting Public Health: A Review of Empirical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Irish, Leah A.; Kline, Christopher E.; Gunn, Heather E.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Hall, Martica H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The ineffectiveness of sleep hygiene as a treatment in clinical sleep medicine has raised some interesting questions. If it is known that, individually, each specific component of sleep hygiene is related to sleep, why wouldn't addressing multiple individual components (i.e., sleep hygiene education) result in improved sleep? Is there still a use for sleep hygiene? Global public health concern over poor sleep has increased the demand for effective sleep promotion strategies that are easily accessible to the general population. However, the extent to which sleep hygiene principles and strategies apply outside of clinical settings is not well known. The present review sought to evaluate the empirical evidence for several common sleep hygiene recommendations, including regular exercise, stress management, noise reduction, sleep timing regularity, and avoidance of caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, and daytime napping, with a particular emphasis on their public health utility. Thus, our review is not intended to be exhaustive regarding the clinical application of these techniques, but rather to focus on broader applications. Overall, though epidemiologic and experimental research generally supported an association between individual sleep hygiene recommendations and nocturnal sleep, the direct effects of individual recommendations on sleep remains largely untested in the general population. Suggestions for further clarification of sleep hygiene recommendations and considerations for the use of sleep hygiene in nonclinical populations are discussed. PMID:25454674

  8. Maladaptive sleep hygiene practices in good sleepers and patients with insomnia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chien-Ming; Lin, Shih-Chun; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies examining the associations between sleep hygiene practices and insomnia have produced inconsistent results. This study further investigates this issue by examining different domains of sleep hygiene separately. One hundred and six insomnia patients and 89 good sleepers participated in the study. Their sleep hygiene, sleep quality and insomnia severity were assessed with subjective rating scales. Among good sleepers, almost all domains of sleep hygiene correlated significantly with their sleep ratings. However, in insomnia patients, only the arousal-related behavior correlated with sleep ratings. The findings suggest that strategies in prevention and treatment of sleep disturbance may be different accordingly.

  9. [The making of hygienic modernity in Meiji Japan, 1868-1905].

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Chan

    2003-06-01

    This article is based on conceptual and methodological understanding of hygienic modernity in the nineteenth-century Western countries: one is the concept of modern hygiene in the context of modern state and the other is methodological relation of modern hygiene to scientific theory of germ . While modern state calls for the institutionalization of medical police as an administrative tool for consolidating the governmentality what Michel Foucault calls, scientific 'invention' of germ may be considered as 'logical, philosophical and historiographical'. Furthermore, the Meiji medicine men preferred Koch's to Pasteur's laboratory framework, not because the former was scientific than the latter but because Koch's programs were more compatible with imperial needs. The objective of this paper is to investigate four ways in which hygienic modernity had been established in Meiji Japan; (i) how Meiji imperialists perceived and managed to control Japanese hygienic condition, (ii) how Meiji-leading doctors learned about the German modern system of hygiene to consolidate Meiji empire; (iii) how modern germ theory functioned as the formation of imperial bodies in Meiji period; and (iv) how modem military hygiene contributed to Japanese defeat of Russia. Although I try to contend that modern hygiene was adopted as one of the most significant strategies for intensifying and extending the Meiji empire, this paper has some limits in not identifying how Japanese perception of infectious diseases were culturally adaptive to science-based hygienic programs the Meiji administrators had installed.

  10. Striving for success in sanitation, hygiene, and water supply.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 800,000 people do not have access to improved water sources, and 2.5 billion are without access to improved sanitation. As a result, an estimated 1800 children under 5 years of age die every day from preventable diseases related to water, sanitation & hygiene; more are ill or stunted. To sustainably improve people's health, actors in the water sector at all levels should use flexible, integrated approaches focused on behavior change and service delivery. Approaches and technologies should be as simple as possible while still protecting human health and the environment. Remember, it's not just about the toilet.

  11. [The organic carbon--issues of hygienic regulation and harmonization].

    PubMed

    Kuz'mina, E A; Kuznetsov, E O; Smagina, N V; Slyshkina, T V; Akramov, R L; Brusnitsina, L A; Nitsak, G B; Nikonova, S V

    2013-01-01

    This study is devoted to the investigation of possibility to use the total organic carbon as regulated index in drinking water as well as to the issues of hygienic regulation and harmonizing this index with the standards of other countries. Basing on the results of 3 years lasting investigation carried out by Municipal Unitary Enterprise "Vodokanal" of Yekaterinburg city permits to propose as the most informative and reliable index of the presence of organic substances in drinking water the content of total organic carbon in comparison with currently regulated permanganate oxidability, chemical and biochemical oxygen consumption.

  12. [Visual hygiene in LED lighting. Modern scientific imaginations].

    PubMed

    Deynego, V N; Kaptsov, V A

    2014-01-01

    There are considered a classic and modern paradigm of perception of light and its impact on human health. To consider the perception of light as a complex self-organizing synergistic system of compression of information in the process of its sequencing was supposed. This allowed to develop a complex of interrelated measures, which may become the basis for modern hygiene, and determine requirements for the led lamp with biologically adequate spectrum of the light, for which there were obtained patents in Russia, Europe and USA.

  13. Comfort, hygiene, and safety in veterinary palliative care and hospice.

    PubMed

    Downing, Robin; Adams, Valarie Hajek; McClenaghan, Ann P

    2011-05-01

    Hygiene, comfort, and safety during pet palliative care and hospice are usually straightforward. The veterinary health care team must coordinate care to ensure that the pet and the family are fully informed and engaged in the process. End-of-life issues, euthanasia, and death are typically not everyday concerns for the pet owner. Pet owners and veterinary patients rely on the veterinary health care team to help create the structure within which the pet will die. The veterinary team can give the family-pet unit the gift of structure and multifaceted comfort. The veterinary profession must take seriously this unique niche of care.

  14. [Hygienic issues related with prevention of parasitic diseases].

    PubMed

    Romanenko, N A

    2003-01-01

    Data on a wide spread of parasitic diseases among Russia's population are presented in the article. The contamination of soil, water-reserves' surfaces, drinking water, foodstuffs and of household goods with helminth ovum and with cysts of intestinal pathogenic protozoa was shown to play the key role in the discussed process. Therefore, hygienic measures targeted at preservation, environmental sanitation and protection of the environment from causative agents of parasites that would reduce or expel the risk of new contaminations should be regarded as the key trend in preventing the parasitic diseases.

  15. [The success of hygiene in the last 40 years].

    PubMed

    Thofern, E

    1989-04-01

    In Germany, the last period of the Second World War and the following years were characterized by deficiencies of hygiene which had not occurred previously in Middle Europe during the 20th century. There were focuses of typhus, typhoid fever, tuberculosis, diphtheria, scarlet fever, and meningitis. Insufficiencies in the removal of faeces caused high incidences of shigellosis, hepatitis A, and ascariasis. As a result of insufficient body care, many people were infested with fleas, lice and scabies. The migration of large proportions of the population resulted in an increasing prevalence of syphilis an gonorrhea. As the population resettled, the first steps towards reorganization of public health could be done. The spread of typhoid fever was controlled by drinking-water disinfection with chlorine, repair of sewage systems, and patient isolation. The application of DDT helped to reduce scabies and pediculosis, resulting in decreasing typhus risks. During the first two decades after the war, there was a steady decrease of the incidence of infectious diseases. The reconstruction of the towns resulted in improved housing conditions and a decreasing number of persons per housing area, reducing the intensity of physical contacts of the inhabitants with each other. The nutrition and clothing situation of the population improved, which, in addition to a general rise of the standards of hygiene, brought about an increase of the individual resistance to infection. A further reduction of sporadic and epidemic outbreaks of infectious diseases was achieved by the introduction of chemotherapy and antibiotics. Increasing prosperity was accompanied by new problems of hygiene. Infectious diseases almost eradicated in West Germany, were imported by air travellers. Ten imported cases of smallpox were reported between 1957 and 1972, eight of which originated from Southeast Asia. Malaria, imported by German and foreign soldiers, had not been uncommon after the end of the war but had

  16. [Notes for a History of Hygiene taken from the Bible].

    PubMed

    Ledermann, Walter

    2016-08-01

    Reading once more the Gospels, we found a discussion between Jesus and the Pharisee about the hand washing, this golden rule of medicine, and then, with the help of Thomas Mann, we began a search for other notes on hygiene in the Bible. For the return from Egypt to the Promised Land, Moses established several rules for his people, some of them disguised as religious principles, concerning elimination of excreta, healthy and poisonous foods, isolation in case of contagious diseases (leprosy, gonorrhea), decontamination of clothes and houses, and many others that now seem to us ahead his time.

  17. [Bacteriological control of various methods of sewage sludge hygienization].

    PubMed

    Breer, C

    1983-09-01

    As a result of extensive parallel investigations in a water treatment plant it was found that the fresh sludge pasteurization or prepasteurization with ensuing sludge digestion gives a product which is unobjectionable from an epidemiological hygienic point of view. The result were confirmed by investigations in a second plant. Similarly satisfactory results were obtained with the composting of previously desiccated sludge, with the aerobic-thermophilic fermentation of liquid sludge or with the drying of sewage sludge. An alternative to these thermal processes is the application of gamma rays or accelerated electrons.

  18. Microbial Contamination and Hygiene of Fresh Cow’s Milk Produced by Smallholders in Western Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Jones, Theodore J.D.; Hang’ombe, M. Bernard; Songe, Mwansa M.; Sinkala, Yona; Grace, Delia

    2016-01-01

    A field study was performed to assess safety of smallholder fresh cow’s milk around Mongu, Western Province, Zambia. This involved observation and sampling of milk along the value chain from milking to point-of-sale and storage. Samples were collected from 86 cows, from 9 farmers, selling through two dairy cooperatives, with additional samples from informal markets. Production was very low; around one litre/day/cow and 10 L/day/herd. The milk was typically transported by bicycle in high ambient temperatures without refrigeration until reaching the point-of-sale (journey times of 30–120 min), where it was sold without pasteurisation despite milk-borne zoonoses being endemic (bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and Brucellosis). Although microbiological contamination was initially low, with geometric mean total bacterial count (TBC) of 425 cfu/mL (cfu = colony forming units) upon arrival at point-of-sale, poor hygiene led to high bacterial loads later on (geometric mean TBC > 600,000 cfu/mL after two days refrigeration), with almost all samples culture positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After milking, milk was kept for 100–223 min at temperatures favouring microbial growth (median 34 °C) and sold without a microbial kill step. In this situation limited variation in observed standards of milk hygiene had no significant effect on milk end-product bacterial counts. Options for refrigerated transport are limited. Pasteurisation at the cooperative should be investigated, as this would largely remove pathogenic microbes present in the milk whether resulting from cattle infection or poor hygiene during milking and transportation. As milk is also purchased directly from producers, on-farm milk heating options should also be assessed. Smallholders may benefit from access to national markets by providing milk to large dairies, which have systems for ensuring safety. However, this requires significant investment and an increased and more consistent supply of

  19. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  20. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  1. Isocyanate exposure assessment combining industrial hygiene methods with biomonitoring for end users of orthopedic casting products.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Ronald L; Logan, Perry W; Kore, Anita M; Strom, Constance M; Brosseau, Lisa M; Kingston, Richard L

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested a potential risk to healthcare workers applying isocyanate-containing casts, but the authors reached their conclusions based on immunological or clinical pulmonology test results alone. We designed a study to assess potential exposure to methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) among medical personnel applying orthopedic casts using two different application methods. Air, dermal, surface, and glove permeation sampling methods were combined with urinary biomonitoring to assess the overall risk of occupational asthma to workers handling these materials. No MDI was detected in any of the personal and area air samples obtained. No glove permeation of MDI was detected. A small proportion of surface (3/45) and dermal wipe (1/60) samples were positive for MDI, but were all from inexperienced technicians. Urinary metabolites of MDI [methylenedianiline (MDA)] were detected in three of six study participants prior to both a 'dry' and 'wet' application method, five of six after the dry method, and three of six after the wet method. All MDA results were below levels noted in worker or general populations. Our conclusion is that the risk of MDI exposure is small, but unquantifiable. Because there is some potential risk of dermal exposure, medical personnel are instructed to wear a minimum of 5-mil-thick (5 mil = 0.005 inches) nitrile gloves and avoid contact to unprotected skin. This could include gauntlets, long sleeves, and/or a laboratory coat.

  2. Industrial-hygiene survey report of Dow Chemical USA SB (styrene butadiene) Latex Facility, Freeport, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Fajen, J.M.; Krishnan, E.R.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of the survey was to obtain information on the SB latex production process and assess the potential for occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene at the SB latex facility. The information will be used in determining the suitability of including the plant in an in-depth survey.

  3. [Proficiency testing schemes as a quality rating in industrial hygiene laboratories].

    PubMed

    Dobecki, Marek; Wziątek, Agata

    This publication presents the principles of organization, implementation, assessment and exploitation of proficiency testing results in the work environmental laboratory based on basic requirements included in standard PN-EN ISO/IEC 17043 and ISO 13528. The basis for the proper functioning of the laboratory is to use and observe the basic requirements for the competence to carry out the tests and the guidelines on ensuring reliable and accurate results, specified e.g., according to the guidelines described in the standard PN-EN ISO/IEC 17043. The confirmation of the laboratory competence is the obtained accreditation. To obtain this certificate several conditions, including proficiency testing (PT) should be met. The main aspects of this paper is to show the role of proficiency testing in the process of assuring a properly functioning quality system in the laboratory. The accreditation requirements, the types of proficiency testing schemes, methods of statistical analysis and interpretation of results are also discussed by the authors. Med Pr 2016;67(2):267-283.

  4. Detailed industrial hygiene survey formaldehyde production, Celanese Chemical Company, Inc. , Bishop, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D.W.; Johnson, M.L.; Holmes, L.; Hedley, W.H.; Barrett, G.J.

    1983-11-01

    A survey to assess techniques to control occupational exposure to formaldehyde (50000) and methanol (67561) was conducted at the Celanese Chemical Company (SIC-2819) formaldehyde production unit at Bishop, Texas, in October 1982. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde was expected to be low since the production process was isolated and enclosed, except for the process sample, and the loading and discharge points. Other control measures included water scrubbers on the formaldehyde storage tanks, enclosed ventilation systems, natural ventilation, and the use of personal protective equipment. The results of analysis of the formaldehyde samples were considered unreliable and were discarded. Breathing zone samples of methanol showed generally low concentrations. It was noted that since methanol was produced at the facility and the necessity of unloading trucks or rail cars was eliminated, a major source of methanol exposure was eliminated. The authors conclude that the workers are not overexposed to methanol on a short or long term basis. Due to the lack of analytical data, no conclusions concerning formaldehyde exposure could be drawn; however, engineering controls appear to be effective.

  5. Application of the Ames/Salmonella assay to routine industrial hygiene work

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.C.; Avila, J.; Elliott, J.; Felton, J.; Nielson, J.

    1992-05-01

    We have used the Ames/Salmonella assay aggressively for swipe-testing surfaces and for sampling the air people breathe. Our technique for air sampling particulates and subsequently analyzing them using a simple gravimetric assay and the Ames/Salmonella (or other biological) assay is discussed herein. We also discuss some recent applications of the assay to test for mutagenic materials on surfaces and in the air at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  6. Baseline Industrial Hygiene Survey at the Coal Fired Heating Plant, Malmstrom AFB, Montana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    entrance and maintenance (i.e., bag changing every 4-5 years), ash exposure and heat stress can create health hazards. c. Periodically, the waste ash...a neutralizing adsorbent called "mi]. klime .ŕ MilklimP is an alkaline reed slairry made by mixing q-uiklime (calciu.n oxide), ash and water. In a...USAFOEHL Report (2). b. Any of’ the thrpa (coal, ash, or combined) silica content percentages can change when new coal is delivered during the course of

  7. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. A review of the state of the global industrial diamond industry in 1999 is presented. World consumption of industrial diamond has increased annually in recent years, with an estimated 500 million carats valued between $650 million and $800 million consumed in 1999. In 1999, the U.S. was the world's largest market for industrial diamond and was also one of the world's main producers; the others were Ireland, Russia, and South Africa. Uses of industrial diamonds are discussed, and prices of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are reported.

  8. Recruitment of Dental Hygiene Students from Underrepresented Minority Groups: A National Survey of U.S. Dental Hygiene Programs.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Jennifer M; Kinney, Janet S; Inglehart, Marita R

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how U.S. undergraduate dental hygiene programs recruit students, especially students from underrepresented minority (URM) groups, and how the program directors value recruiting those students, how satisfied they are with their efforts, which practices they use, and which challenges they encounter. Relationships between diversity-related recruitment motivation and satisfaction and the program and recruitment characteristics were also explored. Survey data were collected from 56 of the 287 programs that could be successfully contacted with individual emails to their directors (response rate: 20%). The majority of responding programs recruited students into their programs by using written materials (91%), websites (91%), on-campus events (77%), and high school visits (52%). However, only 20% had written materials and 13% special events for recruiting students from URM groups. While 75% of the responding program directors considered high grade point averages (GPAs) to be a priority and 85% thought high GPAs were important/very important when recruiting students, only 17% considered it a priority to recruit URM students, and only 35% reported thinking it was important/very important to do so. The more of a priority it was to have a diverse student body and the more important the respondents considered it, the more likely they were to have written URM-specific recruitment materials (r=0.34; p<0.05/r=0.39; p<0.01). The more the respondents valued ACT scores, the less likely they were to engage in URM-specific recruitment efforts (r=-0.38; p<0.05/r=-0.34; p<0.05). If the dental hygiene profession is to better reflect the racial/ethnic makeup of the U.S. population, dental hygiene programs' considerations and efforts related to the recruitment of URM students need to be reconsidered.

  9. Industry-wide studies report of an industrial hygiene of Kettering Medical Center, Kettering, Ohio. [Ethylene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ringenburg, V.L.; Morelli-Schroth, P.; Elliott, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    Environmental and breathing-zone samples were analyzed for ethylene oxide in the respiratory therapy area of Kettering Medical Center, Kettering, Ohio in August, 1985. Work practices and engineering controls were observed. Engineering controls included local exhaust ventilation over sterilizer doors and the pressure relief valve and floor drain, and dedicated exhaust ventilation of the sterilizers and aerators. Effective work practices included wearing cotton gloves when unloading sterilizers and pulling instead of pushing carts containing sterilized items.

  10. Hygienic behavior in honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae): effects of brood, food, and time of the year.

    PubMed

    Bigio, Gianluigi; Schürch, Roger; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2013-12-01

    Hygienic behavior in honey bees is a heritable trait of individual workers that confers colony-level resistance against various brood diseases. Hygienic workers detect and remove dead or diseased brood from sealed cells. However, this behavior is quite rare, with only c.10% of unselected colonies showing high levels of hygiene. Beekeepers can potentially increase this by screening colonies for hygiene and breeding from the best. However, the level of hygiene expressed by a colony is variable, which poses a challenge to colony selection. In this study, we systematically varied two factors thought to be of importance in influencing hygiene levels, "nectar" availability, by feeding or not feeding sucrose syrup, and brood amount, by adding or removing brood, to determine what effect they had on hygienic behavior. We tested 19 colonies repeatedly over a 4-mo period using the freeze-killed brood assay, a standard technique to quantify hygienic behavior. Two days after freeze-killed brood treatment, our colonies showed a wide range of brood removal levels, with colony means ranging from 31.7 +/- 22.5 to 93 +/- 6.9 (mean % +/- SD). Neither the food nor the brood manipulation had an effect on hygiene levels. Colony size and time of year were also nonsignificant. The only significant effect was a three-way interaction between syrup availability, amount of brood, and time of the year, resulting in reduced hygienic behavior early in the season (spring), in colonies with added brood that were not fed sucrose syrup. Overall, these results suggest that hygienic behavior is not greatly affected by environmental conditions typical of a real-life beekeeping, and that screening of colonies can be done anytime without special regard to nectar conditions or brood levels.

  11. Dental hygiene public health supervision: changes in Maine law.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, E

    2000-01-01

    The author analyzed data from a set of reports submitted to the Maine Board of Dental Examiners by dental hygienists practicing under a new supervision category entitled "Public Health Supervision" enacted in Maine in 1995. The data set included information on public health dental hygiene applicants and projects reported between May 1995 and November 1998. With mounting interest from dental hygienists seeking to serve the population with limited access to preventive dental care, the regulatory board created a public health dental hygiene supervision category in the Maine regulations. The analysis revealed that dental hygienists are seeking and receiving the public health supervision endorsement. Sixty percent of the public health projects were implemented by dental hygienists in public service agencies. Those who addressed a need in their own communities without the benefit of a public health organization accounted for 40% of the applications. Examples of projects are described. The report serves as a summary of three years of data from which to assess future trends.

  12. The impact of workload on hygiene compliance in nursing.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Martin; Lautenschlaeger, Christine; Borneff-Lipp, Marianne

    The objective of this research was to clarify whether external factors (e.g. ward capacity, level of nursing intensity) had an influence on nursing staff compliance with hand hygiene guidelines. The study was conducted at a German hospital (450 beds). Quantitative data were collected prospectively in six trial phases (E1-E6) starting in June 2007 and ending in May 2008. Included in the study were ten hospital departments: four surgical wards, four internal medicine departments, and two interdisciplinary intensive care units. In six participant observation trials, nursing staff were monitored for the disinfection of hands. Narrative interviews were conducted immediately after the observation with those who did not disinfect their hands in accordance with national guidelines. Observations and interviews were unannounced, taking place at different times. The collected data was analysed on subsequent categorization after summarizing the core statements (content analysis). The statistical relevance of staff compliance to the rate of used ward capacity could be proved using a multifactorial regression model (P=0.011). Workload factors (e.g. maximum ward capacity, severity of patient cases) have an impact on staff compliance with hand hygiene guidelines, even where non-compliance contradicts the personal level of professional training.

  13. [Hygienic requirements for work organization of full-day schools].

    PubMed

    Stepanova, M I; Sazaniuk, Z I; Voronova, B Z; Aleksandrova, I E; Berezina, N O; Laponova, E D; Lashneva, I P; Polenova, M A; Sedova, A S; Shumkova, T V

    2009-01-01

    Physiological and hygienic studies under the conditions of a natural hygienic experiment were conducted to examine different variants of the organization of work of new types of general educational establishments--full-day schools. Over 580 pupils from 5 full-day schools were followed up. Organization of teaching children at full-day schools was found to mainly correspond to the age-related capabilities of pupils from primary and secondary classes. Of vital importance for maintenance of mental performance, good emotional and psychosomatic states are the organization of the intraschool environment, including a school plot, as well as the conditions for realization of additional education, motor activity of children, and recess. Health keeping in pupils from full-day schools is favored by the reduction in the duration of lessons to 35 minutes and day sleep for first-form children, the decrease in the number of pupils in a class, outdoor physical exercises in the middle of a school day (a primary school) and strolls after lessons, three meals a day, balanced additional education, medicopsychological accompaniment, optimization of studies and rest in children during a school year.

  14. CFD Model of Water Droplet Transport for ISS Hygiene Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Chang H.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the study is to assess the impacts of free water propagation in the Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC). Free water can be generated inside the WHC in small quantities due to crew hygiene activity. To mitigate potential impact of free water in Node 3 cabin the WHC doorway is enclosed by a waterproof bump-out, Kabin, with openings at the top and bottom. At the overhead side of the rack, there is a screen that prevents large drops of water from exiting. However, as the avionics fan in the WHC causes airflow toward the deck side of the rack, small quantities of free water may exit at the bottom of the Kabin. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of Node 3 cabin airflow made possible to identify the paths of water transport. The Node 3 airflow was computed for several ventilation scenarios. To simulate the droplet transport the Lagrangian discrete phase approach was used. Various initial droplet distributions were considered in the study. The droplet diameter was varied in the range of 2-20 mm. The results of the computations showed that most of the drops fall to the rack surface not far from the WHC curtain. The probability of the droplet transport to the adjacent rack surface with electronic equipment was predicted.

  15. Use of sleep hygiene in the treatment of insomnia.

    PubMed

    Stepanski, Edward J; Wyatt, James K

    2003-06-01

    Sleep hygiene (SH) refers to a list of behaviors, environmental conditions, and other sleep-related factors that can be adjusted as a stand-alone treatment or component of multimodal treatment for patients with insomnia. This paper presents a review of SH, how this concept has been applied and often modified over the past 24 years, and how it relates to the modern sleep disorder nosology, particularly Inadequate Sleep Hygiene. Although a recognized and commonly utilized treatment option, there is no absolute consensus about which steps must be included to constitute SH treatment, and there is much overlap between SH and other cognitive-behavioral treatments for insomnia such as Stimulus Control Procedures and Sleep Restriction Therapy. The literature on the effects of manipulations of individual components of SH under experimental conditions (e.g. effects of presleep alcohol or caffeine intake) in normal sleepers show mixed results. Empirical data demonstrating the role of poor SH as a contributor to insomnia, or showing that good SH improves sleep in patients with insomnia, is not available. Instead of evaluating the impact of a comprehensive list of SH recommendations, a focus on guidelines for use of individual rules is needed.

  16. Research on Hygiene Based on Fieldwork and Experimental Studies.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Several experimental studies on hygiene have recently been performed and fieldwork studies are also important and essential tools. However, the implementation of experimental studies is insufficient compared with that of fieldwork studies on hygiene. Here, we show our well-balanced implementation of both fieldwork and experimental studies of toxic-element-mediated diseases including skin cancer and hearing loss. Since the pollution of drinking well water by toxic elements induces various diseases including skin cancer, we performed both fieldwork and experimental studies to determine the levels of toxic elements and the mechanisms behind the development of toxic-element-related diseases and to develop a novel remediation system. Our fieldwork studies in several countries including Bangladesh, Vietnam and Malaysia demonstrated that drinking well water was polluted with high concentrations of several toxic elements including arsenic, barium, iron and manganese. Our experimental studies using the data from our fieldwork studies demonstrated that these toxic elements caused skin cancer and hearing loss. Further experimental studies resulted in the development of a novel remediation system that adsorbs toxic elements from polluted drinking water. A well-balanced implementation of both fieldwork and experimental studies is important for the prediction, prevention and therapy of toxic-element-mediated diseases.

  17. Status of the International Space Station Waste and Hygiene Compartment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Stephanie; Zahner, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) serves as the primary system for removal and containment of metabolic waste and hygiene activities on board the United States segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The WHC was launched on ULF 2 and is currently in the U.S. Laboratory and is integrated into the Water Recovery System (WRS) where pretreated urine is processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The waste collection part of the WHC system is derived from the Service Module system and was provided by RSC-Energia along with additional hardware to allow for urine delivery to the UPA. The System has been integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure for use on the U.S. segment of the ISS. The system has experienced several events of interest during the deployment, checkout, and operation of the system during its first year of use and these will be covered in this paper. Design and on-orbit performance will also be discussed.

  18. International Space Station USOS Waste and Hygiene Compartment Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Gelmis, Karen; Philistine, Cynthia; Balistreri, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides human waste collection and hygiene facilities in the Russian Segment Service Module (SM) which supports a three person crew. Additional hardware is planned for the United States Operational Segment (USOS) to support expansion of the crew to six person capability. The additional hardware will be integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure that was planned to be installed in the Node 3 element; however, the ISS Program Office recently directed implementation of the rack, or Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), into the U.S. Laboratory element to provide early operational capability. In this configuration, preserved urine from the WHC waste collection system can be processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) in either the U.S. Lab or Node 3 to recover water for crew consumption or oxygen production. The human waste collection hardware is derived from the Service Module system and is provided by RSC-Energia. This paper describes the concepts, design, and integration of the WHC waste collection hardware into the USOS including integration with U.S. Lab and Node 3 systems.

  19. A 3-year hygiene and safety monitoring of a meat processing plant which uses raw materials of global origin.

    PubMed

    Manios, Stavros G; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos C; Bikouli, Vasiliki C; Doultsos, Dimitrios A; Zilelidou, Evangelia A; Gialitaki, Maria A; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2015-09-16

    A systematic approach in monitoring the hygiene of a meat processing plant using classical microbiological analyses combined with molecular characterization tools may assist in the safety of the final products. This study aimed: (i) to evaluate the total hygiene level and, (ii) to monitor and characterize the occurrence and spread of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the environment and the final products of a meat industry that processes meat of global origin. In total, 2541 samples from the processing environment, the raw materials, and the final products were collected from a Greek meat industry in the period 2011-2013. All samples were subjected to enumeration of total viable counts (TVC), Escherichia coli (EC) and total coliforms (TCC) and the detection of Salmonella spp., while 709 of these samples were also analyzed for the presence L. monocytogenes. Pathogen isolates were serotyped and further characterized for their antibiotic resistance and subtyped by PFGE. Raw materials were identified as the primary source of contamination, while improper handling might have also favored the proliferation of the initial microbial load. The occurrence of Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes reached 5.5% and 26.9%, respectively. Various (apparent) cross-contamination or persistence trends were deduced based on PFGE analysis results. Salmonella isolates showed wide variation in their innate antibiotic resistance, contrary to L. monocytogenes ones, which were found susceptible to all antibiotics except for cefotaxime. The results emphasize the biodiversity of foodborne pathogens in a meat industry and may be used by meat processors to understand the spread of pathogens in the processing environment, as well as to assist the Food Business Operator (FBO) in establishing effective criteria for selection of raw materials and in improving meat safety and quality. This approach can limit the increase of microbial contamination during the processing steps observed in

  20. Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, A.; Boehm, A.; Davis, J.

    2008-12-01

    Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research investigates the potential for alcohol- based hand sanitizer (ABHS) to be an effective and appropriate hand hygiene option in developing countries. A study was conducted to assess the microbiological effectiveness of ABHS, as compared to handwashing with soap and water, in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 205 participants, including mothers, nurses, students, and teachers, were introduced to ABHS, given a standardized amount (2ml) of product, and instructed on how to use the product correctly. Hand samples were obtained using the hand rinse method before and after the use of ABHS from 152 participants. The other 53 participants were hand sampled before and after handwashing with a non-antimicrobial liquid soap and clean water (prior to using ABHS). Visual inspections of the hands were performed before hand sampling to record the level of dirt on the hands. All hand samples were processed and analyzed by membrane filtration for concentrations of two microbial indicators, enterococci and E. coli. User perceptions of the product and willingness to pay are also documented. The results of this study provide valuable insight on the prospective of promoting ABHS in developing countries and water scarce areas.