Science.gov

Sample records for industrial scale coal

  1. Statistical modeling of spontaneous combustion in industrial-scale coal stockpiles

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdeniz, H

    2009-07-01

    Companies consuming large amounts of coal should work with coal stocks in order to not face problems due to production delays. The industrial-scale stockpiles formed for the aforementioned reasons cause environmental problems and economic losses for the companies. This study was performed in a coal stock area of a large company in Konya, which uses large amounts of coal in its manufacturing units. The coal stockpile with 5 m width, 10 m length, 3 m height, and having 120 tons of weight was formed in the coal stock area of the company. The inner temperature data of the stockpile was recorded by 17 temperature sensors placed inside the stockpile at certain points. Additionally, the data relating to the air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and wind direction that are the parameters affecting the coal stockpile were also recorded. A statistical model applicable for a spontaneous combustion event was developed during this study after applying multi-regression analyses to the data recorded in the stockpile during the spontaneous combustion event. The correlation coefficients obtained by the developed statistical model were measured approximately at a 0.95 level. Thus, the prediction of temperature variations influential in the spontaneous combustion event of the industrial-scale coal stockpiles will be possible.

  2. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  3. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  4. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  5. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  6. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor'. The details of the task 5 effort are

  7. Artificial neural network modeling of the spontaneous combustion occurring in the industrial-scale coal stockpiles with 10-18 mm coal grain sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdeniz, A.H.; Yilmaz, N.

    2009-07-01

    Companies consuming large amounts of coal should work with coal stocks in order to not face problems due to production delays. The industrial-scale stockpiles formed for the aforementioned reasons cause environmental problems and economic losses for the companies. This study was performed in a coal stock area of a large company in Konya, which uses large amounts of coal in its manufacturing units. The coal stockpile with 5 m width, 10 m length, 3 m height, and having 120 tons of weight was formed in the coal stock area of the company. The inner temperature data of the stockpile was recorded by 17 temperature sensors placed inside the stockpile at certain points. In order to achieve this goal, the electrical signal conversion of temperatures sensed by 17 temperature sensors placed in certain points inside the coal stockpile, the transfer of these electrical signals into computer media by using analog-digital conversion unit after applying necessary filtration and upgrading processes, and the record of these information into a database in particular time intervals are provided. Additionally, the data relating to the air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and wind direction that are the parameters affecting the coal stockpile were also recorded. Afterwards, these measurement values were used for training and testing of an artificial neural network model. Comparison of the experimental and artificial neural network results, accuracy rates of training and testing were found to be 99.5% and 99.17%, respectively. It is shown that possible coal stockpile behavior with this artificial neural network model is powerfully estimated.

  8. Baseload, industrial-scale wind power: An alternative to coal in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, D.J.; Williams, R.H.; Xie Shaoxiong; Zhang Shihui

    1996-12-31

    This report presents a novel strategy for developing wind power on an industrial-scale in China. Oversized wind farms, large-scale electrical storage and long-distance transmission lines are integrated to deliver {open_quotes}baseload wind power{close_quotes} to distant electricity demand centers. The prospective costs for this approach to developing wind power are illustrated by modeling an oversized wind farm at Huitengxile, Inner Mongolia. Although storage adds to the total capital investment, it does not necessarily increase the cost of the delivered electricity. Storage makes it possible to increase the capacity factor of the electric transmission system, so that the unit cost for long-distance transmission is reduced. Moreover, baseload wind power is typically more valuable to the electric utility than intermittent wind power, so that storage can be economically attractive even in instances where the cost per kWh is somewhat higher than without storage. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1993-02-15

    A major part of the work in this quarter was on the combustor tests in task 2. Three of the six planned tests in this task were completed. The first two were parametric tests of nominal one shift, (8 hour) duration on coal. Due to failure of the UV detector in the first test only several hours of coal fired operation were completed. In the second test, coal fired operation continued for the planned one shift until the 4 ton coal bin was empty. After reviewing this work with DOE, it was decided to focus the remaining test on longer duration operation with each test at one optimum condition. The third test was planned for two shift coal fired operation. Due to a problem with the pilot gas ignitor, combustion was delayed by 5 hours from 7 AM to Noon. As a result coal fired operation was limited to one shift between 3 PM and 11 PM. Throughout this period the combustor remained at one fixed condition with the use of computer control. Results for these three tests are presented in this report. Most of the work on the task 4 design and cost of a 20 MW combined gas-steam turbine power plant using the air cooled combustor was completed in the previous quarter. The results obtained by the A/E subcontractor on the installation desip and cost were evaluated in the present quarter and they are summarized in this report.

  10. Development & testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Eleventh quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1994-11-15

    The primary objective of the present effort is to perform the final testing, at a 20Mmbtu/hr commercial scale, of an air cooled, slagging coal combustor for application to industrial steam boilers and power plants. The focus of the test effort is on combustor durability, automatic control of the combustor`s operation, and optimal environmental control of emissions inside the combustor.

  11. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Bert Zauderer

    1999-03-11

    In the second half of calendar year 1998, no work was performed on the present project. The 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility was operated for 11 tests, primarily with Coal Tech resources on biomass combustion and gasification. The total test days on the Philadelphia facility to the end of August 1998 was 119. Of these, 36 tests were part of another DOE project on sulfur retention is slag, and 8 were on an in-house biomass combustion effort. The test days on the other project are listed here because they demonstrate the durability of the combustor, which is one of the objectives of the present project. Also, the test work of 1998 revealed for the first time the major potential of this combustor for biomass combustion. These tests are double the 63 tests in the original plan for this project. All key project objectives have been exceeded including combustor durability, automated combustor operation, NO{sub x} emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO{sub 2} emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu. In addition, a novel post-combustion NOx control process has been tested on a 37 MW and 100 MW utility boiler. The only effort remaining on this project is facility disassembly and Final Report. However, as part of the commercialization effort for this combustor technology, Coal Tech is planning to maintain the combustor facility in an operational mode at least through 2001. Coal Tech is focusing on utilizing the combustor with biomass fuels in very low cost, small (1 MW nominal) steam power plants. Worldwide application of this technology would have a major impact in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions because the energy content of agricultural biomass is equal to the energy content of the USA's annual coal production.

  12. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal-Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, Bert

    1997-02-27

    In the fourth quarter of calendar year 1996, 15 days of combust-boiler tests were performed, including 10 days of tests on a parallel DOE sponsored project on sulfur retention in a slagging combustor. Between tests, modifications and improvements that were indicated by these tests were implemented. This brings the total number of test days to the end of December in the task 5 effort to 57, increased to 65 as of the date of this Report, 1/27/97. This compares with a total of 63 test days needed to complete the task 5 test effort, and it completes the number of tests days required to meet the task 5 project plan. The key project objectives of the areas of combustor performance and environmental performance have been exceeded. With sorbent injection in the combustion gas train, NOX emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and S02 emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu have been measured in tests in this quarter. Work in the next quarter will focus on even greater reductions in environmental emissions. Also tests are planned with coals other than the Eastern US bituminous coals tested in this project. For example, it is planned to tests Indian coals whose ash concentration is in the 40 {approx} 0 range.

  13. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale, Coal-Fired Combustion System: Phase 3.

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1997-04-21

    In the first quarter of calendar year 1997, 17 days of combustor- boiler tests were performed, including one day of tests on a parallel DOE sponsored project on sulfur retention in a slagging combustor. Between tests, modifications and improvements that were indicated by these tests were implemented. This brings the total number of test days required to meet the task 5 project plan. The key project objectives in the areas of combustor performance and environmental performance have been exceeded. With sorbent injection in the combustion gas train, NO{sub x} emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO{sub 2} emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu have been measured in tests in this quarter. Tests in the present quarter have resulted in further optimizing the sorbent injection and NO{sub x} control processes. A very important milestone in this quarter was two successful combustor tests on a very high ash (37%) Indian coal. Work in the next quarter will focus on commercialization of the combustor- boiler system. In addition, further tests of the NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} control process and on the Indian coal will be performed.

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Bert Zauderer

    1998-07-08

    In the second quarter of calendar year 1998, no work was performed on the present project. The 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility was not operated during this period. The total test days on the Philadelphia facility to the end of June 1998 remained at 108 as in the previous quarter. Of these, 34 tests were part of the other DOE project. The test days on the other project are listed here because they demonstrate the durability of the combustor, which is one of the objectives of the present project. As noted previously, this exceeds the planned 63 test days for this project. All key project objectives have been exceeded including combustor durability, automated combustor operation, NO{sub x} emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO{sub 2} emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu. In addition, a novel post-combustion NO{sub x} control process has been tested on a 37 MW and 100 MW utility boiler. Any further tests will depend on the results of evaluations of current and prior tests. The only effort remaining on this project is facility disassembly and Final Report. Also, as part of the commercialization effort for this combustor technology, Coal Tech is developing alternative designs of the combustor that allow its fabrication as substantially reduced costs from the present unit.

  15. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal-fire combustion system: phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, Dr. Bert

    1997-08-15

    In the second quarter of calendar year 1997, 9 days of combustor- boiler tests were performed, including 3 days of tests on a parallel DOE sponsored project on sulfur retention in a slagging combustor. Between tests, modifications and improvements that were indicated by these tests were implemented. This brings the total number of test days to the end of June 1997 in the task 5 effort to 83 days. This compares with a total of 63 test days needed to complete the task 5 test effort, and the number of tests days required to meet the task 5 project plan have been completed. The key project objectives in the areas of combustor performance and environmental performance have been exceeded. With sorbent injection in the combustion gas train, NO{sub x} emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO{sub 2} emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu have been measured in tests in the previous quarter. The emphasis of tests in the present quarter have been on further optimizing post-combustion sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control processes, with most of the test effort focused on the NO{sub x} control process. Many factors which control the NO{sub x} reduction were identified in tests on the 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler. Another very important milestone in this quarter was the successful test of this Coal Tech post combustion NO{sub x} control process on a 100 MW utility boiler, where in a preliminary test 25% NO{sub x} reduction was measured.

  16. Today's industrial coal market and its constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Raschke, M.G.

    1983-06-01

    This paper reviews current restraints on the coal market. An overview of the coal industry, from the TBS industrial steam coal data base, corrects major omissions discovered in EIA Form 6 information. Institutional restraints are more illusionary than real. The notion that coal is dirty is characteristic of states like California with little coal use background. Air pollution controls are not as stringent as believed. Rail rates do not hold coal transport hostage by high prices, as a few examples indicate. Three other, more fundamental, constraints include the permanent erosion of the American industrial base, conservation, and emphasis, in the 1980's, on capital investment for increased productivity, not coal conversion.

  17. Environmental protecting effect of industrial coal briquette

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.; Chen, L.

    1999-07-01

    This paper has analyzed the necessity of developing industrial coal briquette in China and introduced the present development of coal briquette and its environmental protecting effect in the country. The laboratory research shows that the rate of captured sulfur of coal briquette produced with calcium oxide as a capturing agent is up to 82%. Comparing with the combustion of raw coal, coal briquette produced in briquette cohesive agent made of magnesium oxide etc, can reduce the amount of sulfur dioxide by 78% and the amount of dust smoke by 29.3% when the coal briquette is burned in industrial boiler. When it is used as raw material of coal gasification, the amount of hydrogen sulfide in the gas generated by the gasification of mixed coal composed of 25% coal briquette and 75% lumps is lowered by 6.8% (volume ration) compared with that generated by the gasification of full lumps. Moreover, the sodium sulfocyanide is discovered in the boiler ashes and the amount of sodium sulfocyanide is up to 10% of the total (weight ration) when the boiler ashes are tested with x-ray diffractometer. The discovery shows that the coal briquette has the function of nitrogen fixation. The rate of captured sulfur of coal briquette which is briquetting at the front of industrial boiler and in which limestone is used as a capturing agent is up to 48% when it is burned in industrial boiler.

  18. Coal conversion products Industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, D.; Dunkin, J.

    1980-01-01

    The synfuels economic evaluation model was utilized to analyze cost and product economics of the TVA coal conversion facilities. It is concluded that; (1) moderate yearly future escalations ( 6%) in current natural gas prices will result in medium-Btu gas becoming competitive with natural gas at the plant boundary; (2) utilizing DRI price projections, the alternate synfuel products, except for electricity, will be competitive with their counterparts; (3) central site fuel cell generation of electricity, utilizing MBG, is economically less attractive than the other synthetic fuels, given projected price rises in electricity produced by other means; and (4) because of estimated northern Alabama synfuels market demands, existing conventional fuels, infrastructure and industrial synfuels retrofit problems, a diversity of transportable synfuels products should be produced by the conversion facility.

  19. Challenges facing the Australian coal industry

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, A.

    1982-09-01

    Coal is expected to play a major role in energy supply in the next 20 years. Oil is a convenient and still reasonably abundant fuel. However, its major sources of supply are regions where there is nervousness about political stability. Uranium is a more efficient fuel - but there is a continuing community apprehension regarding its use. What coal may lack in efficiency, it makes up in long term availability and competitive overall cost. Moreover, diversity of source ensures stable long-term supply. In this way, a major role for coal in the world energy scene is assured. Cyclical considerations aside, demand for coal will increase significantly and it will meet a substantial share of new energy demand, replacing oil and gas in major industrial and electric utility markets. By around the year 2000, coal's share of world energy could reach 30% and rival oil as the largest single source of energy. This expectation implies a major expansion of the international trade of coal, especially thermal coal. Australia with its significant coal resources is likely to play an important role in this trade. Both Australia and the United States have the resource base to be the top coal exporters for the remainder of this century. In 1982, world economic recession has deepened and uncertainty about the timing of future energy demand will result in delays in consumer and producer investment decisions. This uncertainty provides a challenge to us all. This paper looks at the challenges facing the Australian coal industry.

  20. Development & testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, phase 3. Eighth quarterly technical progress report, 1 October, 1993--31 December, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1994-01-31

    The primary objective of the present Phase 3 effort is to perform the final testing at a 20 MMBtu/hr commercial scale of an air cooled, slagging coal combustor for application to industrial steam boilers and power plants. The focus of the test effort will be on combustor durability, automatic control of the combustor`s operation, and optimum environmental control of emissions inside the combustor. In connection with the latter, the goal is to achieve 0.4 lb/MMBtu of SO{sub 2} emissions, 0.2 lb/MMBtu of NO{sub x} emissions, and 0.02 lb particulates/MMBtu. Meeting the particulate goal will require the use of a baghouse or electrostatic precipitator to augment the nominal slag retention in the combustor. The NO{sub x} emission goal will require a modest improvement over maximum reduction achieved to date in the combustor to a level of 0.26 lb/MMBtu. To reach the SO{sub 2} emissions goal may require a combination of sorbent injection inside the combustor and sorbent injection inside the boiler, especially in high (>3.5%) sulfur coals. Prior to the initiation of the project, SO{sub 2} levels as low as 0.6 lb/MMBtu, equal to 81% reduction in 2% sulfur coals, were measured with boiler injection of calcium hydrate. The final objective is to define suitable commercial power or steam generating systems to which the use of the air cooled combustor offers significant technical and economic benefits. In implementing this objective both simple steam generation and combined gas turbine-steam generation systems will be considered.

  1. Status and outlook of industrial coal briquetting technology in China

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.; Xu, Z.; Li, W.; Tian, B.

    1997-12-31

    Considering that the lump coal supply falls short of demands, great amounts of fine coal and slime are stockpiled, waste energy is extensive, and environmental pollution is serious, this paper summarizes the present situation of industrial coal briquetting technologies and their applications, and evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of several different coal briquette technologies widely used. The authors think that the energetic development of industrial coal briquetting technology is an effective and feasible option to fully utilize fine coal and slime, mitigate the contradiction between supply and demand for lump coal, reduce the production cost of users, as well as decrease and control environmental pollution caused by coal utilization. It is a practical solution for clean coal in China. At present, the research for developing industrial coal briquetting technologies is in the selection and adoption of suitable binders which need dry processing and can produce high strength and waterproof briquettes.

  2. Commercial scale gasification test with Kentucky coal

    SciTech Connect

    Roeger, A.; Jones, J.E.

    1984-03-01

    The paper describes in some detail the coal testing programme carried out by Tri-State Synfuels. One of the major elements in the programme was a commercial-scale gasification test with Kentucky 9 coal in a Lurgi dry-bottom gasifier. This was carried out at the Sasol One plant in Sasolburg, S. Africa, in 1981. Other parts of the programme included coal selection, characterisation, stockpile weatherability, corrosion testing, by-product characterisation and waste water treatability.

  3. Structural change in the coal industry: Coal industry concentration trends, 1970--1994. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, S.; Glover, W.

    1995-05-01

    This report evaluates the historical and current concentration of the US coal industry, with special consideration given to its potential impact on competitiveness and coal Prices. Four time periods are studied: 1970, 1980, 1990, and 1994. The report Presents data at various levels: nationwide, eastern US, western US, and subregions -- Powder River Basin, Rockies, Northern Appalachia, Central Appalachia, Southern Appalachia, Illinois Basin, and several smaller areas. The report presents data on mine size, number of mines, coal Prices, Production, and ownership. Herfindahl Hirschman indices (the surn of squares Of companies` market shares) were calculated on the coal Production and ownership data to represent concentration. Through these periods, the coal industry has been relatively unconcentrated aid highly competitive. However, in most parts of the country, concentration has increased dramatically since 1990, surpassing historical levels. Concentration is also expected to continue increasing. The effects of such concentration are felt unevenly, depending of factors unique to each coal buyer and each coal company merger, acquisition, or divestment. Generally, the population of potential suppliers for each buyer is limited quality constraints. Those buyers who are greatly limited by such factors can experience dramatic changes in the concentration of their supplier populations by mergers that may have little impact on other buyers.

  4. Research on the competitiveness and development strategy of china's modern coal chemical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Han, Y. J.; Yu, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    China's modern coal chemical industry has grown into a certain scale after over a decade of development, and remarkable progress has been made in key technologies. But as oil price collapsed since 2015, the economic benefit of the industry also slumped, with loud controversies in China over the necessity of modern coal chemical industry. The research believes that the modern coal chemical industry plays a positive role in the clean and sustainable exploitation of coal in China. It makes profit when oil price is no lower than 60/bbl, and outperforms petrochemical in terms of cost effectiveness when the price is between 60/bbl and 80/bbl. Given the low oil price and challenges posed by environmental protection and water restraints, we suggest that the state announce a guideline quickly, with adjusted tax policies and an encouragement to technological innovation, so that the modern coal chemical industry in China can grow sound and stable.

  5. Development and testing of an industrial scale coal fired slagging combustion system, Phase 3. Task 2.1, Preliminary systems test plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-11

    The planned effort for the task 2 tests has four major objectives. They are computer controlled combustor operation, optimization of SO2 reduction, combustor materials durability, and testing focused on application to industrial coal fired boilers. Several major advances in the combustor development have occurred since this original plan was proposed in 1991. Some of these advances occurred in tests performed in a project that was completed in June 1992, while others occurred during the design and shakedown tests of equipment that was installed in task I of this project. Therefore, the present test plan is based on the current status of the combustor technology, and it differs somewhat from the preliminary test plan that was prepared in April 1992. Depending on the results in the early tests in this task, further test plan modifications may be required. However, the general objectives will most probably remain unchanged.

  6. Laboratory scale separation of coal macerals

    SciTech Connect

    Dyrkacz, G.R.; Bloomquist, C.A.A.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    A laboratory scale procedure for separation of the maceral constituents of coal has been developed. This procedure is a modification and scale-up of our earlier density gradient centrifugation method. The technique enables us to separate larger quantities and to obtain higher density resoltuions of individual coal macerals than was previously possible. The procedure involves an intiial sink-float separation on finely ground chemically demineralized coal using a high speed centrifuge to obtain large quantities of single maceral groups (i.e., exinite, vitrinite, or inertinite). The maceral concentrate, 15 to 20 g in quantity, rather than the entire coal serves as the feed for the DGC separation. Efforts to apply continuous centrifugation techniques as an alternative to the sink-float separation to concentrate maceral groups were only partially sucessful. 8 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Determining the research needs of the surface coal mining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Zell, L.M.

    1982-12-01

    This paper reveals avenues open to the coal industry to help gain technology and research information needed to meet the requirements of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. It discusses projects of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Coal Mining and the Mining and Reclamation Council of America (MARC) to help meet the environmental needs as well as the coal industry needs.

  8. Burlington industries' program proves worth of shift to coal

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, R.G.; O'Keefe, W.

    1981-11-01

    It is shown how reduction in both fuel cost and energy consumption comes from corporate planning, local initiative, skilled operation, and constant followup. Phased conversion to solid fuel has paid off for the company. Burlington Industries energy-management objectives, diversification of the corporation, and return to coal in three phases are described. Coal sampling, coal handling, steam generation, pollution control, and the training program are described.

  9. Elevation (typical EBT Coal Hopper Car) with scale. 3 Bay ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation (typical EBT Coal Hopper Car) with scale. 3 Bay Steel Hopper Car with side extensions raising coal carrying capacity to 80,000 pounds. Note cars on either side lack extensions limiting their coal capacity to 70,000 pounds - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  10. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

  11. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1993-05-17

    In the present reporting period, the first quarter of calendar year 1993, the effort was divided between Task 2. ``Pre Systems Tests`` and Task 4 ``Economics and Commercialization Plan.`` A major part of the task 2 effort was devoted converting the nozzle from adiabatic to air cooted operation. This conversion will allow immediate implementation of the longer duration task 3.2 tests after the completion of the task 2 tests. Therefore, a significant pan of the exit nozzle conversion effort is also part of task 3.1, ``Combustor Refurbishment.`` In task 1 the only activity remaining is to receive the results of the BYU combustion modeling. The results are anticipated this Spring. One of the three remaining tests in task 2 was implemented in late January under freezing weather and snow conditions. Ice plugged the coal feed lines and stack scrubber water outlet and ice jammed and damaged the coal metering auger. While these lines were thawed, the combustor was fired with oil. The coal used in this test contained fine fibrous tramp material which passed through the two tramp material retaining screens and eventually plugged several of the coal feed lines to the combustor. This cut the planned coal feed rate in half. As a result it was decided for the next test to increase the number of coal injection ports by 50% in order to provide excess capacity in the pneumatic feed feed. This will allow continued operation even in the presence of fine tramp material in the coal.

  12. Environmental and industrial policy study on converting coal into city gas in China

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, D.; Chen, Y.; Teng, T.

    1994-12-31

    Because coal firing directly causes serious pollution, developing city gas has become inevitable trend in China. In this paper, large scale city gas projected and revamping medium and small scale ammonia plants are evaluated and the principle of environmental and industrial policy are proposed through typical technical and economic analysis.

  13. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1993-02-15

    A major part of the work in this quarter was on the combustor tests in task 2. Three of the six planned tests in this task were completed. The first two were parametric tests of nominal one shift, (8 hour) duration on coal. Due to failure of the UV detector in the first test only several hours of coal fired operation were completed. In the second test, coal fired operation continued for the planned one shift until the 4 ton coal bin was empty. After reviewing this work with DOE, it was decided to focus the remaining test on longer duration operation with each test at one optimum condition. The third test was planned for two shift coal fired operation. Due to a problem with the pilot gas ignitor, combustion was delayed by 5 hours from 7 AM to Noon. As a result coal fired operation was limited to one shift between 3 PM and 11 PM. Throughout this period the combustor remained at one fixed condition with the use of computer control. Results for these three tests are presented in this report. Most of the work on the task 4 design and cost of a 20 MW combined gas-steam turbine power plant using the air cooled combustor was completed in the previous quarter. The results obtained by the A/E subcontractor on the installation desip and cost were evaluated in the present quarter and they are summarized in this report.

  14. [Occupational fitness of workers in coal mining industry].

    PubMed

    Ismailova, A A; Musina, A A

    2006-01-01

    Specified criteria of occupational fitness are adequate for optimizing material expenses within the system "human-machine" and during occupational training for work in extreme conditions of coal industry.

  15. Development and testing of industrial scale coal fired combustion systems, Phase 3. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1993-09-22

    The most significant effort in the quarter was the completion of the conversion of the exit nozzle from adiabatic operation to air cooled operation. This conversion was implemented midway in the task 2 test effort, and the final two tests in task 2 were with the cooled nozzle. It performed as per design. The second significant result was the successful implementation of a computer controlled combustor wall cooling procedure. The hot side combustor liner temperature can now be maintained within a narrow range of less than 5OF at the nominal wall temperature of 2000F. This is an essential requirement for long term durability of the combustor wall. The first tests with the computer control system were implemented in June 1993. A third development in this period was the decision to replace the coal feeder that had been in use since coal fired operation began in late 1987. Since that time, this commercial device has been modified numerous times in order to achieve uniform coal feed. Uniform feed was achieved in 1991. However, the feeder operation was not sufficiently reliable for commercial use. The new feeder has the same design as the sorbent feeders that have been successfully used since 1987. This design has much better speed control and it can be rapidly restarted when the feed auger becomes jammed with tramp material. The last task 2 test was a long duration coal fired test with almost 12 hours of coal fired operation until the 4 ton coal bin was empty. It was the longest coal firing period of the task 2 tests. The exit nozzle cooling maintained the wall temperature in the desired operating range.

  16. Preliminary assessment of coal-based industrial energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, performed by Mittelhauser Corp. and Resource Engineering, Inc. to identify the potential economic, environmental, and energy impacts of possible New Source Performance Standards for industrial steam generators on the use of coal and coal-derived fuels. A systems-level approach was used to take mine-mouth coal and produce a given quantity of heat input to a new boiler at an existing Chicago industrial-plant site. The technologies studied included post-combustion clean-up, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, solvent-refined coal liquids, substitute natural gas, and low-Btu gas. Capital and operating costs were prepared on a mid-1985 basis from a consistent set of economic guidelines. The cases studied were evaluated using three levels of air emission controls, two coals, two boiler sizes, and two operating factors. Only those combinations considered likely to make a significant impact on the 1985 boiler population were considered. The conclusions drawn in the report are that the most attractive applications of coal technology are atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion and post-combustion clean-up. Solvent-refined coal and probably substitute natural gas become competitive for the smaller boiler applications. Coal-derived low-Btu gas was found not to be a competitive boiler fuel at the sizes studied. It is recommended that more cases be studied to broaden the applicability of these results.

  17. Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

  18. Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1992-12-31

    Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

  19. Digging Deeper: Crisis Management in the Coal Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Barbara M.; Horsley, J. Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This study explores crisis management/communication practices within the coal industry through the lens of high reliability organization (HRO) concepts and sensemaking theory. In-depth interviews with industry executives and an analysis of an emergency procedures manual were used to provide an exploratory examination of the status of crisis…

  20. Digging Deeper: Crisis Management in the Coal Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Barbara M.; Horsley, J. Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This study explores crisis management/communication practices within the coal industry through the lens of high reliability organization (HRO) concepts and sensemaking theory. In-depth interviews with industry executives and an analysis of an emergency procedures manual were used to provide an exploratory examination of the status of crisis…

  1. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale, Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3: Twentieth quarterly technical progress report, October 1-December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, Bert

    1997-02-27

    In the fourth quarter of calendar year 1996, 15 days of combust boiler tests were performed, including 10 days of tests on a parallel DOE sponsored project on sulfur retention in a slagging combustor. Between tests, modifications and improvements that were indicated by these tests were implemented. This brings the total number of test days to the end of December in the task 5 effort to 57, increased to 65 as of the date of this Report, 1/27/97. This compares with a total of 63 test days needed to complete the task 5 test effort, and it completes the number of tests days required to meet the task 5 project plan. The key project objectives of the areas of combustor performance and environmental performance have been exceeded. With sorbent injection in the combustion gas train, NO{sub x} emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO{sub 2} emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu have been measured in tests in this quarter. Work in the next quarter will focus on even greater reductions in environmental emissions. Also tests are planned with coals other than the Eastern U.S. bituminous coals tested in this project. For example, it is planned to tests Indian coals whose ash concentration is in the 40% range.

  2. Commissioning an Engineering Scale Coal Gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Douglas J.; Bearden, Mark D.; Cabe, James E.

    2010-07-01

    This report explains the development, commissioning, and testing of an engineering scale slagging coal gasifier at PNNL. The initial objective of this project was to commission the gasifier with zero safety incidents. The commissioning work was primarily an empirical study that required an engineering design approach. After bringing the gasifier on-line, tests were conducted to assess the impact of various operating parameters on the synthesis gas (syngas) product composition. The long-term intent of this project is to produce syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in catalyst, materials, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for greater than 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, alternate designs that allow for increased flexibility regarding the fuel sources that can be used for syngas production is desired. Continued modifications to the fuel feed system will be pursued to address these goals. Alternative feed mechanisms such as a coal/methanol slurry are being considered.

  3. Coal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Russell A.; Glass, Gary B.

    1983-01-01

    Principle work of 23 state geological surveys is summarized. Work includes mapping/estimating coal resources, centralizing data in National Coal Resources Data System through cooperative programs, exploration drilling, and others. Comments on U.S. Geological Survey activities, coal-related conferences/meetings, and industry research activities are…

  4. Coal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Russell A.; Glass, Gary B.

    1983-01-01

    Principle work of 23 state geological surveys is summarized. Work includes mapping/estimating coal resources, centralizing data in National Coal Resources Data System through cooperative programs, exploration drilling, and others. Comments on U.S. Geological Survey activities, coal-related conferences/meetings, and industry research activities are…

  5. Coal industry taxes: state-by-state guide

    SciTech Connect

    Sammons, D.

    1981-01-01

    This book describes the taxes levied on coal mining industries by each of the 26 coal-producing states in the US. Described are severance taxes, charter fees, permit fees, franchise taxes, income taxes, property taxes, sales taxes, use taxes, unemployment compensations, workmens compensation, utility taxes, inspection fees, motor fuel taxes, motor vehicle use taxes, message tax, local taxes, etc. The appendices contain the results of a study to translate the tax burden imposed by 21 states into a per-ton figure and a reprint of the US Supreme Court decision upholding Montana's 30% severance tax on coal. (CKK)

  6. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Second quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1992-07-10

    In the second quarter of calendar year 1992, work continued on Task 1.1. ``DESIGN MODIFICATIONS TO THE 20 MMBTU/HR AIR COOLED COMBUSTOR AND BOILER COMPONENTS``. This consisted of specifying and designing the changes needed to prepare the 20 MMBtu/hr air cooled combustor at the Tampella boiler house site in Williamsport, PA. In depth review of the technical status of the combustor showed that no major design changes were necessary in order to implement the effort of task 2 testing and part of the task 3 testing. Among the major planned changes eliminated were replacement of the inlet swirl air flow section of the combustor. The major changes undertaken were to improve the coal and sorbent injection into the combustor; refurbishing various components and controls systems such as the stack particle scrubber and temperature probes; automating key elements of the combustor, such as the slag tap, upgrading the computer control and automatic data acquisition; and upgrading the long duration capability of the exit nozzle. To support this effort advanced analytical modeling was used to provide guidance for the design changes. A multi-dimensional computer code was used to analyze the combustor performance for different combustor stoichiometries and geometry. A heat transfer analysis of the exit nozzle was performed to determine the best method of adding cooling capacity to the exit nozzle to allow its use for multi-day, round-the-clock coal testing.

  7. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Sixteenth quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1996-01-03

    In the fourth quarter of calendar year 1995 the installation and checkout of the 20 MMBtu/hr combustor and auxiliary equipment in Philadelphia was completed. The task 5, Site Demonstration Testing, combustor-boiler tests on gas, oil, and coal were initiated. The task 5 effort involves testing the combustor over extended periods under conditions that fully simulate commercial operation and that meet the combustion and environmental specifications for this project. To meet this project objective within the current work scope requires up to 500 hours of testing. The focus of this testing will be on the component and environmental performance of combustor, boiler, coal preparation and feeding, and the stack gas equipment. The facility can be converted to a 500 kW power plant by the addition of a steam turbine, condenser, and cooling tower. However, this added effort is beyond the current work scope and its implementation will depend on recovering the added costs by placing the steam production from the boiler to beneficial use. During the present quarterly reporting period, all the components needed to implement the initial 100 hours of testing under task 5 were installed at the test site, and checkout of this equipment was performed. Since the present installation contained substantial improvements and simplifications to all sub-systems that had been used in the Williamsport facility, each component and sub-system had to be tested individually.

  8. Respirable dust from lignite coal in the Victorian power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, R.

    1983-01-01

    The results from a 12-month program of static sampling for respirable dust in various work sites of the Victorian power industry are presented. Lignite coal is the major source of dust in this industry. The data appear to be nearly lognormal in distribution and are similar in magnitude to levels reported from North American surface mines and surface work sites. Average 8-hour, time-weighted-average dust concentrations of 0.3 mg/m/sup 3/ (SD = 0.3) were found in open areas. In enclosed coal handling areas, average concentrations of 0.7 mg/m/sup 3/ (SD = 0.6) were found.

  9. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3. Seventeenth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1996-04-07

    In the first quarter of calendar year 1996, 9 days of combust-boiler tests were performed. Between these tests, modifications and improvements that were indicated by these tests were implemented. In January and early February, the modifications and installations indicated by the 6 days of testing in December 1995 were implemented. This was followed by 6 additional consecutive test days in mid- February. This was in turn followed by additional modifications, followed by a series of 3 one day, coal fired tests at end of March. These latter tests were the first ones in which slagging conditions were achieved in the combustor. The maximum thermal input was 13 MMBtu/hr, which equals two-thirds of the rated boiler heat input. The measured thermal, combustion, and slagging performance achieved in the combustor was superior to that achieved in the final series of tests conducted in Williamsport in 1993. The combustor-boiler facility is now ready for implementation of the task 5 site demonstration.

  10. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Thirteenth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1995-04-18

    The present report is a summary of the activities in February and March 1995. The primary activities during these two months was to monitor the fabricator of the combustor extension in order to assure completion of the work according to the design, to procure the additional components needed to install the combustor-boiler system at the Arsenal test site, and on initial installation of auxiliary components at the site. Welding of the combustor extension major sections began in mid-January. However, the quality of the welds was poor and a number of non-critical flanges were warped during welding. As a result the fabricator replaced the welders and the quality assurance personnel in early February. To assure that the welded sections would properly mate with the existing combustor, Coal Tech personnel regularly visited the fabricator until the end of March. The combustor extension section was completed and delivered to the Arsenal at the end of March. To meet the Philadelphia particulate emission standard of 0.06 lb/MMBtu a baghouse was procured in February. Competitive procurement of the stack ducting from the boiler to the baghouse and to the atmosphere was initiated. Pneumatically controlled valves for the combustor extension section`s air cooling sub-system were ordered and delivered.

  11. Managing Scarce Water Resources in China's Coal Power Industry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Zhongnan

    2016-06-01

    Coal power generation capacity is expanding rapidly in the arid northwest regions in China. Its impact on water resources is attracting growing concerns from policy-makers, researchers, as well as mass media. This paper briefly describes the situation of electricity-water conflict in China and provides a comprehensive review on a variety of water resources management policies in China's coal power industry. These policies range from mandatory regulations to incentive-based instruments, covering water withdrawal standards, technological requirements on water saving, unconventional water resources utilization (such as reclaimed municipal wastewater, seawater, and mine water), water resources fee, and water permit transfer. Implementing these policies jointly is of crucial importance for alleviating the water stress from the expanding coal power industry in China.

  12. Managing Scarce Water Resources in China's Coal Power Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Fu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Zhongnan

    2016-06-01

    Coal power generation capacity is expanding rapidly in the arid northwest regions in China. Its impact on water resources is attracting growing concerns from policy-makers, researchers, as well as mass media. This paper briefly describes the situation of electricity-water conflict in China and provides a comprehensive review on a variety of water resources management policies in China's coal power industry. These policies range from mandatory regulations to incentive-based instruments, covering water withdrawal standards, technological requirements on water saving, unconventional water resources utilization (such as reclaimed municipal wastewater, seawater, and mine water), water resources fee, and water permit transfer. Implementing these policies jointly is of crucial importance for alleviating the water stress from the expanding coal power industry in China.

  13. New petrochemical compositions for use in the coal industry

    SciTech Connect

    D.O. Safieva; E.V. Surov; O.G. Safiev

    2008-12-15

    Various aspects of the use of antifreezing agents in the coal industry are considered. It has been found that, unlike previously proposed compositions, these agents can be prepared based on the products of a single process, the vacuum distillation of fuel oil.

  14. Industry Wage Survey: Bituminous Coal, January 1976-March 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Joseph C.

    Production and related workers in the nation's bituminous coal mines averaged $6.94 an hour in January 1976, which represents an increase of 110% since the Bureau of Labor Statistics' 1967 survey in the industry. Over the same period, the Hourly Earnings Index rose by 84% for private nonagricultural workers. Earnings for most of the 128,390…

  15. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale, Coal-Fired Combustin System, Phase 3. Twenty second technical progress report, April 1-June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B., Dr.

    1997-09-30

    In the second quarter of calendar year 1997, 9 days of combustor- boiler tests were performed, including 3 days of tests on a parallel DOE sponsored project on sulfur retention in a slagging combustor. Between tests, modifications and improvements that were indicated by these tests were implemented. This brings the total number of test days to the end of June 1997 in the task 5 effort to 83 days. This compares with a total of 63 test days needed to complete the task 5 test effort, and the number of tests days required to meet the task 5 project plan have been completed. The key project objectives in the areas of combustor performance and environmental performance have been exceeded. With sorbent injection in the combustion gas train, NO{sub x} emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and S0{sub 2} emissions as low as 0.lb/MBtu have been measured in tests in the previous quarter. The emphasis of tests in the present quarter have been on further optimizing post-combustion sorbent injection for S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control processes, with most of the test effort focused on the NO{sub x} control process. Many factors which control the NO{sub x} reduction were identified in tests on the 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler. Another very important milestone in this quarter was the successful test of this Coal Tech post combustion NO{sub x} control process on a 100 MAR utility boiler, where in a preliminary test 25% NO{sub x} reduction was measured.

  16. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3. Third quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1992-10-17

    In the third quarter of calendar year 1992, work continued on Task l. ``Design, Installation, and Shakedown of the Modifications to the 20 MMBtu/hr Air Cooled Combustor and Boiler Components``. Task 2. ``Preliminary Systems Tests`` and Task 4 ``Economics and Commercialization Plan``. In task 1, the design of the planned modifications were mostly completed. The equipment to implement these modifications was procured, and most of the installation of this equipment was completed. Finally, a series of two shakedown tests was performed to test the operability of these modifications. As previously reported, no modifications to the combustor were made. All the changes were improvements in overall combustor-boiler operation, maintenance and repair of components, and addition of diagnostics. In addition, during shakedown tests of these modifications the need for additional improvements or modifications became apparent, and these were or a-re being implemented. The major improvements focused on coal and sorbent storage, transport, and combustor injection, real time control of ash deposition in the boiler, unproved combustor wall cooling, expanded computer control and diagnostics, and refurbishment of the scrubber and combustor temperature measurements. AD this work has been described in a detailed topical report on task 1, which was recently submitted to DOE, and it will not be repeated here. Instead the focus of this report will be on the analysis of the test results obtained in the two shakedown tests. This work was partly reported in the 7th 8th and 9th monthly reports. An important result of these tests has been the observation of high (over 85%) SO{sub 2} reduction obtained with sorbent injection in the combustor.

  17. Efficient, large scale separation of coal macerals

    SciTech Connect

    Dyrkacz, G.R.; Bloomquist, C.A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors believe that the separation of macerals by continuous flow centrifugation offers a simple technique for the large scale separation of macerals. With relatively little cost (/approximately/ $10K), it provides an opportunity for obtaining quite pure maceral fractions. Although they have not completely worked out all the nuances of this separation system, they believe that the problems they have indicated can be minimized to pose only minor inconvenience. It cannot be said that this system completely bypasses the disagreeable tedium or time involved in separating macerals, nor will it by itself overcome the mental inertia required to make maceral separation an accepted necessary fact in fundamental coal science. However, they find their particular brand of continuous flow centrifugation is considerably faster than sink/float separation, can provide a good quality product with even one separation cycle, and permits the handling of more material than a conventional sink/float centrifuge separation.

  18. Program for large-scale underground-coal-gasification tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammesfahr, F. W.; Winter, P. L.

    1982-11-01

    The continuing development of underground coal gasification technology requires extended multi-module field programs in which the output gas is linked to surface usage. An effort was to appraise whether existing surface facilities in the utility, petroleum refinery, or natural gas industries could be used to reduce the cost of such an extended multi-module test and whether regional demand in areas having underground coal gasification coal resources could support the manufacture of transportation fuels from underground coal gasification gases. To limit the effort to a reasonable level but yet to permit a fair test of the concept, effort was focused on five states, Illinois, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wyoming, which have good underground coal gasification reserves. Studies of plant distribution located 25 potential sites within 3 miles of the underground coal gasification amenable reserves in the five states. Distribution was 44% to utilities, 44% to refineries, and 12% to gas processing facilities.

  19. Industrial pulverized coal low NO[sub x] burner

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-10

    The objective of Phase 1 of the Industrial Pulverized Coal Low NO[sub x] Burner'' Program is to develop a novel low NO[sub x], pulverized coal burner, which offers near-term commercialization potential, uses preheated combustion air of up to 1000[degrees]F, and which can be applied to high-temperature industrial heating furnaces, chemical process furnaces, fired heaters, and boilers. The program team is led byArthur D. Little, Inc., and includes the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Hauck Manufacturing Company. During the first quarter of the program the program team developed the overall program management plan; began a market survey to identify coals suitable for modeling the low NO[sub x], burner design and performance, as well as for use in the Phase II burner tests; and defined the preliminary burner design specifications, sized the prototype burner, and produced the first concept schematic. This report is for the second quarter of the program (July 1992 to September 1992). During this period the program team: Completed the study of industrial coal usage and sources; refined the preliminary burner design and confirmed it as the basis for computer modeling; and started definition of the modeling work scope, including the development of fuel and process specifications, description and modeling approaches.

  20. Early opportunities of CO₂ geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    DOE PAGES

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; ...

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO₂ emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO₂ sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO₂more » per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO₂ (CO₂ concentration >80% and >98.5% respectively). Four typical source-sink pairs are chosen for techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO₂ capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO₂. When a 15USD/t CO₂ tax and 20USD/t for CO₂ sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.« less

  1. Early opportunities of CO₂ geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; Dahowski, R. T.; Davidson, C. L.

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO₂ emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO₂ sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO₂ per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO₂ (CO₂ concentration >80% and >98.5% respectively). Four typical source-sink pairs are chosen for techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO₂ capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO₂. When a 15USD/t CO₂ tax and 20USD/t for CO₂ sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.

  2. Development program to support industrial coal gasification. Quarterly report 1

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-15

    The Development Program to Support Industrial Coal Gasification is on schedule. The efforts have centered on collecting background information and data, planning, and getting the experimental program underway. The three principal objectives in Task I-A were accomplished. The technical literature was reviewed, the coals and binders to be employed were selected, and tests and testing equipment to be used in evaluating agglomerates were developed. The entire Erie Mining facility design was reviewed and a large portion of the fluidized-bed coal gasification plant design was completed. Much of the work in Task I will be experimental. Wafer-briquette and roll-briquette screening tests will be performed. In Task II, work on the fluidized-bed gasification plant design will be completed and work on a plant design involving entrained-flow gasifiers will be initiated.

  3. Coal myths and environmental realities: Industrial fuel-use decisions in a time of change

    SciTech Connect

    Alm, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with two inconsistent myths that persistently surround industrial use of coal. The first myth is that the Clean Air Act effectively precludes use of coal; the second, that industrial use of coal will expand rapidly. Through analysing fuel-use decisions actually made by industry, Mr. Alm concludes that environmental quality standards have played a minor role in industrial choice of fuel. Historically, natural gas and oil have been both less costly and more convenient fuels for industry to use.

  4. Mercury transformation behavior on a bench scale coal combustion furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, N.; Fujita, Y.; Tomura, K.; Moritomi, H.; Murakami, E.; Akimoto, A.; Ikeda, S.; Tadakuma, Y.

    2003-05-01

    The mercury release behavior in bituminous coals, and the partitioning rate of mercury in solids and gaseous in flue gases have measured to develop technologies for evaluating the partitioning of mercury in coal combustion process and develop in-situ adsorption and removal technologies using three kinds of experiment equipments - a thermo-balance, a drop-tube furnace (DTF), a bench-scale pulverized coal combustion fumace. The results showed that about 20 to 60% of the mercury in coal was released between 573K and 673K, which was the range of temperature in which the release of the volatile matter of coal began. And more than 90% of the mercury was released at 773K, the temperature at which the release of the volatile matter was completed. The rate of mercury partitioned into bottom ash in a bench-scale pulverized coal combustion furnace was the smallest irrespective of the type of coal. The rate of mercury partitioned into cyclone ash was also low for all types of coal with values generally below 10%. The rest of the mercury was partitioned into mercury in gaseous form, but the rate partitioned into dust, oxidized mercury and elemental mercury varied slightly depending on the flue gas temperature and the type of coal.

  5. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  6. The role of coal in industrialization: A case study of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Akarakiri, J.B. )

    1989-01-01

    Coal is a mineral matter found in layers or beds in sedimentary rocks. It is a very highly variable substance. In addition to the variations from lignite to bituminous and anthracite, there are vast differences in its heating value, amount of volatiles, sulfur, moisture and so on. The chemical and physical properties of coal make it an important industrial raw material. There is proven 639 million tonnes of coal reserves in Nigeria. This paper examines the potential and current role of coal in the industrialization of Nigeria. Industries are now dependent on fuel oil as a source of fuel because of its economic and technological advantages over coal. Coal is a source of industrial energy for the future after the known oil reserves might have been exhausted. In the short term, coal can be used as a material for chemicals, iron and steel production as well as a substitute for wood energy in the process of industrialization.

  7. Economics of the coal industry east of the Mississippi, 1973-1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bhagwat, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    Government regulations on health, safety and environment have been poppular blamed for the declining productivity in U.S. coal mines since 1970. The stagnation in the coal industry east of the Mississippi is alleged to have been caused by this declining productivity and by the growth of cheaper and cleaner coal production west of the Mississippi. Economic evidence suggests, however, that productivity declines were more due to a relative lowering of labor costs in comparison with coal prices and due to work stoppages. The development of western coals fields was spurred by growth in local demand and had only a relatively small impact on coal production east of the Mississippi. Problems of the eastern coal industry are rooted mainly in slow economic growth in eastern U.S. which must be addressed in the long-term interests of the eastern coal industry. ?? 1987.

  8. Respirable dust from lignite coal in the Victorian power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, R.

    1983-04-01

    The results of a 12-month programme of static sampling for respirable dust at various work sites of the Victorian power industry are presented. Lignite is the major source of dust. The data appear to be nearly lognormal in distribution and are similar in magnitude to levels reported from North American surface mines and surface work sites. Average 8-hour, time-weighted-average dust concentrations of 0.3 mg/m/sup 3/ were found in open areas. In enclosed coal-handling areas, average concentrations of 0.7 mg/m/sup 3/ were found.

  9. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  10. Early opportunities of CO2 geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2014-11-12

    Abstract: Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO2 emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO2 sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation or in late planning stages. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO2 per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO2 (CO2 concentration >80% and >99% respectively).Four typical source-sink pairs are studied by a techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and experienced economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO2 capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO2. When a 15USD/t CO2 tax and 15USD/t for CO2 sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a net economic benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.

  11. Alcohol consumption in the Australian coal mining industry.

    PubMed

    Tynan, Ross J; Considine, Robyn; Wiggers, John; Lewin, Terry J; James, Carole; Inder, Kerry; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Baker, Amanda L; Skehan, Jaelea; Perkins, David; Kelly, Brian J

    2017-03-01

    To investigate patterns of alcohol use within the coal mining industry, and associations with the personal, social, workplace and employment characteristics. 8 mine sites across 3 eastern Australian states were surveyed, selected to encompass key geographic characteristics (accessibility and remoteness) and mine type (open cut and underground). Problematic alcohol use was measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) to determine: (1) overall risky or hazardous drinking behaviour; and (2) frequency of single-occasion drinking (6 or more drinks on 1 occasion). A total of 1457 employees completed the survey, of which 45.7% of male and 17.0% of female participants reported levels of alcohol use within the range considered as risky or hazardous, considerably higher than the national average. Hierarchical linear regression revealed a significant contribution of many individual level factors associated with AUDIT scores: younger age, male, current smoking status; illicit substance use; previous alcohol and other drug use (AOD) problems; and higher psychological distress. Workplace factors associated with alcohol use included working in mining primarily for the high remuneration, and the type of mining, with underground miners reporting higher alcohol use than open-cut miners. Our findings provide support for the need to address alcohol use in the coal mining industry over and above routine on-site testing for alcohol use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Non traditional uses of coal ash: Steel industry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hauke, D.

    1997-09-01

    Coal fly ash is used by the steel industry as an insulating cover to retain heat in ladles of molten steel and as a slag foamer in electric arc furnaces (EAFs) to prolong the life of consumable components and to aid extraction of impurities from the molten steel. The fly ashes that are used in the steel industry are generated from stoker boilers and have a relatively wide particle-size distribution. The powder-type materials used by steel mills to insulate ladles of molten metal include rice hull ash, a heat treated montmorillonite clay mineral (calcined clay), a fly ash from a stoker boiler called LadleJacket, and coke breeze. These ladle insulators should be flowable, coarse, and have a wide particle-size distribution. A study to compare the insulating characteristics of ladle insulators, conducted by the American Foundrymen`s Society Cast Metals Institute, indicated that the ladle insulated with LadleJacket exhibited a lower rate of heat loss than either the rice hull ash or calcined clay. To prolong the life of carbon electrodes and refractory in EAFs and to promote extraction of contaminants from the steel, carbon-based ingredients are injected into the slag to cause it to foam. Typically, high-carbon products such as coke breeze (coke fines) are used as slag foamers. A new product called Carbon Plus, which is a coarse, high-carbon fly ash from a coal-fired stoker boiler, is now being used as a slag foamer in the steel industry.

  13. The Economic Impact of Psychological Distress in the Australian Coal Mining Industry.

    PubMed

    Ling, Rod; Kelly, Brian; Considine, Robyn; Tynan, Ross; Searles, Andrew; Doran, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the economic impact of psychological distress among employees of the Australian Coal Mining Industry. Sample data were gathered from 1456 coal mining staff across eight sites in two Australian states. Two measures were taken of work time lost over four weeks due to psychological distress: (1) full-day absences; (2) presenteeism. Lost work time was valued using hourly wages. Sample data was modeled to estimate annual monetary losses for the Australian Coal Mining Industry. For the sample, estimated annual value of time lost due to psychological distress was $4.9 million ($AUS2015) ($0.61 million per mine), and for the Australian Coal Mining Industry, $153.8 million ($AUS2015). Psychological distress is a significant cost for the Australian Coal Mining Industry. Relevant intervention programs are potentially cost-effective.

  14. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. ne primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order toevaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, three preliminary coal-fired tests were successfully completed. These tests used industrial boiler flyash, sewer sludge ash, and waste glass collet as feedstocks. The coal-fired ash vitrification tests are considered near term potential commercial applications of the CMS technology. The waste glass cullet provided necessary dam on the effect of coal firing with respect to vitrified product oxidation state. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the proof-of-concept tests are continuing. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes is continuing. Preliminary designs for 15, 25, 100 and 400 ton/day systems are in progress. This dam will serve as input data to the life cycle cost analysis which will be-an integral part of the CMS commercialization plan.

  15. Burlington Industries' program proves worth of shift to coal

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, R.G.; O'Keefe, W.

    1981-11-01

    This US textile manufacturer started to convert its factories to coal in 1973. Boilers with spreader stokers and travelling grates burn low-sulphur, low-ash coal. Coal delivery and handling, the boilers, and the removal of fly ash from the flue gas are described.

  16. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1991--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump & Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

  17. Some Problems of Industrial Scale-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, A. T.

    1985-01-01

    Scientific ideas of the biological laboratory are turned into economic realities in industry only after several problems are solved. Economics of scale, agitation, heat transfer, sterilization of medium and air, product recovery, waste disposal, and future developments are discussed using aerobic respiration as the example in the scale-up…

  18. Some Problems of Industrial Scale-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, A. T.

    1985-01-01

    Scientific ideas of the biological laboratory are turned into economic realities in industry only after several problems are solved. Economics of scale, agitation, heat transfer, sterilization of medium and air, product recovery, waste disposal, and future developments are discussed using aerobic respiration as the example in the scale-up…

  19. Time scales of organic contaminant dissolution from complex source zones: coal tar pools vs. blobs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhardt, Christina; Grathwohl, Peter

    2002-11-01

    Groundwater contamination due to complex organic mixtures such as coal tar, creosote and fuels is a widespread problem in industrialized regions. Although most compounds in these mixtures are biodegradable, the contaminant sources are very persistent for many decades after the contamination occurred (e.g., more than 100 years ago at gasworks sites). This limited bioavailability is due to slow dissolution processes. This study presents results from a large scale tank experiment (8 m long) on the long-term (354 days) dissolution kinetics of BTEX and PAHs from a 2.5 m long coal tar pool and 0.5 m long (smear) zone containing coal tar blobs distributed in a coarse sand. The results indicate (1) that Raoult's law holds for estimation of the saturation aqueous concentrations of the coal tar constituents, (2) that for the dissolution of smear zones longer than approximately 0.1 m and with more than 3-5% residual saturation, the local equilibrium assumption is valid and (3) that although very small (<0.1 mm), the transverse vertical dispersivity dominates the pool dissolution processes. Typical time scales for removal of the pollutants from the blob zone and the pool are in the order of a few weeks to more than 10,000 years, respectively.

  20. Development of Affordable, Low-Carbon Hydrogen Supplies at an Industrial Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roddy, Dermot J.

    2008-01-01

    An existing industrial hydrogen generation and distribution infrastructure is described, and a number of large-scale investment projects are outlined. All of these projects have the potential to generate significant volumes of low-cost, low-carbon hydrogen. The technologies concerned range from gasification of coal with carbon capture and storage…

  1. Development of Affordable, Low-Carbon Hydrogen Supplies at an Industrial Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roddy, Dermot J.

    2008-01-01

    An existing industrial hydrogen generation and distribution infrastructure is described, and a number of large-scale investment projects are outlined. All of these projects have the potential to generate significant volumes of low-cost, low-carbon hydrogen. The technologies concerned range from gasification of coal with carbon capture and storage…

  2. Effective Communication and Training. A Guide for Workplace Trainers in the Australian Coal Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukin, Annabelle

    This guide is designed to help workplace trainers in Australia's coal industry improve coal miners' operator and general communication skills through a curriculum that integrates training in language, literacy, and numeracy. The following topics are discussed in the guide's seven sections: the changing workplace (changing work environment;…

  3. Effective Communication and Training. A Guide for Workplace Trainers in the Australian Coal Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukin, Annabelle

    This guide is designed to help workplace trainers in Australia's coal industry improve coal miners' operator and general communication skills through a curriculum that integrates training in language, literacy, and numeracy. The following topics are discussed in the guide's seven sections: the changing workplace (changing work environment;…

  4. Productivity, job satisfaction, and health and safety in the coal industry: the participatory alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This is a conference which presents results and ideas on workplace participation in the coal industry. It discusses the theory of the quality circle groups for developing their own production rates and design goals. It presents the results of different coal company participation in this idea and how to implement this option. Individual topics are entered into the Data Base as separate items.

  5. Multi-scale sustainability assessments for biomass-based and coal-based fuels in China.

    PubMed

    Man, Yi; Xiao, Honghua; Cai, Wei; Yang, Siyu

    2017-12-01

    Transportation liquid fuels production is heavily depend on oil. In recent years, developing biomass based and coal based fuels are regarded as promising alternatives for non-petroleum based fuels in China. With the rapid growth of constructing and planning b biomass based and coal based fuels production projects, sustainability assessments are needed to simultaneously consider the resource, the economic, and the environmental factors. This paper performs multi-scale analyses on the biomass based and coal based fuels in China. The production cost, life cycle cost, and ecological life cycle cost (ELCC) of these synfuels are investigated to compare their pros to cons and reveal the sustainability. The results show that BTL fuels has high production cost. It lacks of economic attractiveness. However, insignificant resource cost and environmental cost lead to a substantially lower ELCC, which may indicate better ecological sustainability. CTL fuels, on the contrary, is lower in production cost and reliable for economic benefit. But its coal consumption and pollutant emissions are both serious, leading to overwhelming resource cost and environmental cost. A shifting from petroleum to CTL fuels could double the ELCC, posing great threat to the sustainability of the entire fuels industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Upgrading selected Czech coals for home and industrial heating

    SciTech Connect

    Musich, M.A.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-31

    The Czech Republic has large coal reserves, particularly brown coal and lignite, and to a lesser extent, bituminous coal. Concurrent with the recent political changes, there has been a reassessment of the role of coal for electrical and heating energy in the future economy, owing to the large dependence on brown coal and lignite and the implementation of more stringent environmental regulations. These coals have a relatively high sulfur content, typically 1-3 wt%, and ash content, leading to significant SO{sub 2} and other gaseous and particulate emissions. Some of the bituminous coals also exhibit high ash content. Against this background, the Energy & Environmental Research Center, on behalf of the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy, undertook a project on upgrading Czech coals to achieve desired fuel properties. The purpose of the project was to assist the city of Usti nad Labem in Northern Bohemia in developing cost-effective alternatives for reducing environmental emissions from district and home heating systems.

  7. Development of a retrofit coal combustor for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    During this quarter the tandem design configuration unit was tested on a low ash pulverized coal. The test results confirmed operation with strong peak-to-peak pressures and high carbon burn-out efficiencies. These configuration units were dismantled after testing with micronized coal (see third quarterly) and pulverized coal during this period. The refractory material in one of the chambers failed, probably due to improper curing during installation. Design modifications based on performance were incorporated into both the combustors and the facility. The tandem unit was modified and evaluation testing initiated. Performance on 100 percent pulverized coal was similar to performance on micronized coal indicating that the unit has a high degree of tolerance and flexibility for a spectrum of fuel types.

  8. Coal face and stockpile ash analyser for the coal mining industry.

    PubMed

    Borsaru, M; Dixon, R; Rojc, A; Stehle, R; Jecny, Z

    2001-09-01

    A portable nucleonic instrument was developed for the determination of coal ash on the coal face or the surface of coal stockpiles. The instrument employs the backscattered gamma-gamma technique. There are two gamma-ray sources used in this instrument: a 1.1 MBq 133Ba source as the primary source of radiation and a 37 kBq 137Cs for gain stabilization. The instrument is commercially available.

  9. Combustion characterization of coals for industrial applications. Final technical report, January 1, 1981-May 29, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala, N.; Patel, R.L.; Lao, T.C.

    1985-03-01

    In-depth fundamental information was obtained from a two-inch inner diameter laminar flow reactor referred to as the Drop Tube Furnace System (DTFS). This information consists of the following: (1) pyrolysis kinetic characteristics of four coals of various rank (Texas lignite, Montana subbituminous, Alabama high volatile bituminous, and Pennsylvania anthracite); and (2) combustion kinetic studies of chars produced from the foregoing parent coals. A number of standard ASTM and special in-house bench scale tests were also performed on the coals and chars prepared therefrom to characterize their physicochemical properties. The pilot scale (500,000 Btu/hr) Controlled Mixing History Furnace (CMHF) was used to determine the effect of staged combustion on NO/sub x/ emissions control from an overall combustion performance of the Alabama high volatile bituminous coal. The quantitative fundamental data developed from this study indicate significant differences in coal/char chemical, physical, and reactivity characteristics, which should be useful to those interested in modeling coal combustion and pyrolysis processes. These results underscore the fact that coal selection is one of the keys governing a successful coal conversion/utilization process. The combustion kinetic information obtained on the high volatile bituminous coal has been used in conjunction with combustion engineering's proprietary mathematical models to predict the combustion performance of this coal in the Controlled Mixing History Furnace. Comparison of the predicted data with the experimental results shows a virtually one-to-one scale-up from the DTFS to the CMHF. These data should provide vital information to designers in the area of carbon burnout and NO/sub x/ reduction for large scale coal utilization applications. 31 refs., 28 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. Coal combustion: Science and technology of industrial and utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Junkai, F.

    1988-01-01

    This reference source offers material on theoretical research (including mathematical modeling, low NO/sub x/ combustion, and studies of sulfur), applications of the newest technologies, and actual experience of low-grade coal combustion.

  11. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  12. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Zhai, Guojiang; Wang, Qun; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Mengcang; Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Yi, Hongbo; Li, Yuting; Zhai, Yuhan; Sheng, Yang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males’ life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China. PMID:26845337

  13. Estimates and Predictions of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis Cases among Redeployed Coal Workers of the Fuxin Mining Industry Group in China: A Historical Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Liu, Hongbo; Zhai, Guojiang; Wang, Qun; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Mengcang; Cui, Kai; Shen, Fuhai; Yi, Hongbo; Li, Yuting; Zhai, Yuhan; Sheng, Yang; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This research was aimed at estimating possible Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) cases as of 2012, and predicting future CWP cases among redeployed coal workers from the Fuxin Mining Industry Group. This study provided the scientific basis for regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis and labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted mines. The study cohort included 19,116 coal workers. The cumulative incidence of CWP was calculated by the life-table method. Possible CWP cases by occupational category were estimated through the average annual incidence rate of CWP and males' life expectancy. It was estimated that 141 redeployed coal workers might have suffered from CWP as of 2012, and 221 redeployed coal workers could suffer from CWP in the future. It is crucial to establish a set of feasible and affordable regulations on CWP screening and diagnosis as well as labor insurance policies for redeployed coal workers of resource-exhausted coal mines in China.

  14. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. This quarter, work was centered on design, fabrication, and testing of the combustor, cleanup, fuel specifications, and hot end simulation rig. 2 refs., 59 figs., 29 tabs.

  15. Do coal consumption and industrial development increase environmental degradation in China and India?

    PubMed

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Farhani, Sahbi; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2015-03-01

    The present study is aimed to explore the relationship between coal consumption, industrial production, and CO2 emissions in China and India for the period of 1971-2011. The structural break unit root test and cointegrating approach have been applied. The direction of causal relationship between the variables is investigated by applying the VECM Granger causality test. Our results validate the presence of cointegration among the series in both countries. Our results also validate the existence of inverted U-shaped curve between industrial production and CO2 emissions for India, but for China, it is a U-shaped relationship. Coal consumption adds in CO2 emissions. The causality analysis reveals that industrial production and coal consumption Granger cause CO2 emissions in India. In the case of China, the feedback effect exists between coal consumption and CO2 emissions. Due to the importance of coal in China and India, any reduction in coal consumption will negatively affect their industrial value added as well as economic growth.

  16. Ash characterization in laboratory-scale oxy-coal combustor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxygen enriched coal (oxy-coal) combustion is a developing technology. During oxy-coal combustion, combustion air is separated and the coal is burned in a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas. The resulting effluent must be further processed before the C02 can be compressed, t...

  17. Ash characterization in laboratory-scale oxy-coal combustor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxygen enriched coal (oxy-coal) combustion is a developing technology. During oxy-coal combustion, combustion air is separated and the coal is burned in a mixture of oxygen and recycled flue gas. The resulting effluent must be further processed before the C02 can be compressed, t...

  18. The development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-16

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications has been selected for Phase III development under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting, recycling, and refining processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase HI research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing glass frits and wool fiber from boiler and incinerator ashes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes has begun. In order to accurately estimate the cost of the primary process vessels, preliminary designs for 25, 50, and 100 ton/day systems have been started under Task 1. This data will serve as input data for life cycle cost analysis performed as part of techno-economic evaluations. The economic evaluations of commercial CMS systems will be an integral part of the commercialization plan.

  19. Froude Scaling of Buried Structures Using Coal and Coal/Leas as Simulants for Sand. Volume 1. Study Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    9 D. SUMMARY OF SPECIFIC NONDIMENSIONAL VARIABLES USED IN THIS STUDY 10 1. Static Tests...Scaled Response of Crushed Anthracite Coal .......................... .. 31 12 Comparison of Uniaxial Strain Behavior of WES Flume Sand with the Scaled...structures. A literature s,;_th on Froude scaling through the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) failed to identify any new work in this area

  20. Rates and costs of respiratory illness in coal mining: a cross-industry comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Van Houtven, George; Reed, W Randy; Biddle, Elyce A; Volkwein, John C; Clayton, Laurel; Finkelstein, Eric

    2010-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence and costs of respiratory illness for workers in coal mining, compared with other US industries. Using 5 years of insurance claims data for an annual average of 96,240 adult males, we model the probability and costs of respiratory illness as a function of workers' industry and other factors. Controlling for nonindustry factors, workers in coal mining had significantly higher rates of respiratory illness claims (by 2.1% to 3.3% points) compared with other mining, agriculture, construction, and manufacturing. For coal mining workers with respiratory illness, annual medical care costs for these claims were also significantly higher (by $111 to $289). Surprisingly, drug costs were mostly lower (by $17 to $268). Our findings underscore the continued importance and potential cost effectiveness of measures to protect miners from harmful occupational exposures, particularly to coal dust.

  1. Coal gasification via the Lurgi process: Topical report: Volume 2, Production of IFG (industrial fuel gas)

    SciTech Connect

    Zahnstecher, L.W.

    1984-12-01

    A Lurgi baseline study was requested by the DOE/GRI Operating Committee of the Joint Coal Gasification Program for the purpose of updating the economics of earlier Lurgi coal gasification plant studies for the production of industrial fuel gas (IFG) based on commercially advanced technologies. The current study incorporates the recent experience with large size Lurgi plants in an effort to improve capital and operating costs of earlier plant designs. The present coal gasification study is based upon a plant producing 73.3 billion Btu (HHV) per day of IFG using the Lurgi dry bottom coal gasification technology. A Western subbituminous coal was designated as the plant feed, obtained from the Rosebud seam at Colstrip, Montana. This study presents the detailed description of an integrated facility which utilizes coal, air, and water to produce 73.3 billion Btu (HHV) per day of industrial fuel gas. The plant consists of coal handling and preparation, seven Lurgi dry bottom gasifiers, acid gas removal, sulfur recovery, phenol and ammonia recovery, as well as necessary support facilities. The plant is a grass roots facility located in the area of Minneapolis, Minnesota. The Lurgi Corporation assisted in this study, under subcontract to Foster Wheeler, by supplying the heat and material balances, flow sheets, utilities, catalysts and chemical requirements, and cost data for Lurgi designed process sections. Details of material supplied by Lurgi Corporation are presented in Appendix A. 39 refs., 33 figs., 50 tabs.

  2. Markets for small-scale, advanced coal-combustion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Placet, M.; Kenkeremath, L.D.; Streets, D.G.; Dials, G.E.; Kern, D.M.; Nehring, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.

    1988-12-01

    This report examines the potential of using US-developed advanced coal technologies (ACTs) for small combustors in foreign markets; in particular, the market potentials of the member countries of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) were determined. First, the United States and those OECD countries with very low energy demands were eliminated. The remaining 15 countries were characterized on the basis of eight factors that would influence their decision to use US ACTs: energy plan and situation, dependence on oil and gas imports, experience with coal, residential/commercial energy demand, industrial energy demand, trade relationship with the United States, level of domestic competition with US ACT manufacturers, and environmental pressure to use advanced technology. Each country was rated high, medium-high, low-medium, or low on each factor, based on statistical and other data. The ratings were then used to group the countries in terms of their relative market potential (good, good but with impediments, or limited). The best potential markets appear to be Spain, Italy, turkey, Greece, and Canada. 25 refs., 1 fig., 37 tabs.

  3. Review of China's Low-Carbon City Initiative and Developments in the Coal Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Khanna, Nina Zheng; Hong, Lixuan

    2012-09-01

    As China continues its double-digit economic growth, coal remains the principal fuel for the country’s primary energy consumption and electricity generation. China’s dependence on coal in coming years makes its carbon emission intensity reduction targets more difficult to achieve, particularly given rising electricity demand from a growing number of Chinese cities. This paradox has led the government to pursue cleaner and more efficient development of the coal industry on the supply side and “low carbon” development of cities on the demand side. To understand and assess how China may be able to meet its energy and carbon intensity reduction targets, this report looks at the recent development of low carbon cities as well as new developments and trends in the coal industry. Specifically, we review low-carbon city and related eco-city development in China before delving into a comparison of eight pilot lowcarbon city plans to highlight their strengths and weaknesses in helping achieve national energy and carbon targets. We then provide insights into the future outlook for China’s coal industry by evaluating new and emerging trends in coal production, consumption, transport, trade and economic performance.

  4. The Safety Attitudes of Senior Managers in the Chinese Coal Industry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiangshi; Chen, Na; Fu, Gui; Yan, Mingwei; Kim, Young-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Senior managers’ attitudes towards safety are very important regarding the safety practices in an organization. The study is to describe the current situation of senior managers′ attitudes towards safety in the Chinese coal industry. Method: We evaluated the changing trends as well as the reasons for these changes in the Chinese coal industry in 2009 and in 2014 with 168 senior manager samples from large Chinese state-owned coal enterprises. Evaluations of 15 safety concepts were performed by means of a questionnaire. Results and Conclusions: Results indicate that, in 2014, three concepts were at a very high level (mean > 4.5), and six were at a relatively high level (4.5 > mean > 4.0). Analyses of changing trends revealed that nine concepts improved significantly, while four greatly declined in 2014 compared to those in 2009. The data reported here suggest that the reasons for the significant improvement with respect to the nine concepts include the improvement in social and legal environments, the improvement of the culture of social safety, workers′ safety demands being met, and scientific and technical advances in the coal industry. The decline of the four concepts seemed to be caused by a poor awareness of managers in the coal industry that safety creates economic benefits, insufficient information on safety, inadequate attention to the development of a safety culture and safety management methods, and safety organizations and workers′ unions not playing their role effectively. Practical Applications: We therefore recommend strengthening the evidence that safety creates economic benefits, providing incentives for employees to encourage their participation in safety management, and paying more attention to the prevention of accidents in coal mines via safety organizations and unions. These results can provide guidelines for workers, industrialists, and government regarding occupational safety in the whole coal industry. PMID:27869654

  5. The Safety Attitudes of Senior Managers in the Chinese Coal Industry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiangshi; Chen, Na; Fu, Gui; Yan, Mingwei; Kim, Young-Chan

    2016-11-17

    Introduction: Senior managers' attitudes towards safety are very important regarding the safety practices in an organization. The study is to describe the current situation of senior managers' attitudes towards safety in the Chinese coal industry. Method: We evaluated the changing trends as well as the reasons for these changes in the Chinese coal industry in 2009 and in 2014 with 168 senior manager samples from large Chinese state-owned coal enterprises. Evaluations of 15 safety concepts were performed by means of a questionnaire. Results and Conclusions: Results indicate that, in 2014, three concepts were at a very high level (mean > 4.5), and six were at a relatively high level (4.5 > mean > 4.0). Analyses of changing trends revealed that nine concepts improved significantly, while four greatly declined in 2014 compared to those in 2009. The data reported here suggest that the reasons for the significant improvement with respect to the nine concepts include the improvement in social and legal environments, the improvement of the culture of social safety, workers' safety demands being met, and scientific and technical advances in the coal industry. The decline of the four concepts seemed to be caused by a poor awareness of managers in the coal industry that safety creates economic benefits, insufficient information on safety, inadequate attention to the development of a safety culture and safety management methods, and safety organizations and workers' unions not playing their role effectively. Practical Applications: We therefore recommend strengthening the evidence that safety creates economic benefits, providing incentives for employees to encourage their participation in safety management, and paying more attention to the prevention of accidents in coal mines via safety organizations and unions. These results can provide guidelines for workers, industrialists, and government regarding occupational safety in the whole coal industry.

  6. POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    B.K. PAREKH; D. TAO; J.G. GROPPO

    1998-02-03

    The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the UKCAER will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean-coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high-sulfur and low-sulfur clean coal. The Mayflower Plant processes coals from five different seams, thus the dewatering studies results could be generalized for most of the bituminous coals.

  7. Laboratory-scale study of the suppression of PCDD/F emission during coal and MSW co-incineration.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sheng-yong; Yan, Jian-hua; Li, Xiao-dong; Ni, Ming-jiang; Cen, Ke-fa

    2007-01-01

    The experimental test of co-incinerating Chinese raw municipal solid waste (MSW) and coal in a laboratory-scale tubular reactor was first reported in present study, and the emission of normal gas components and the effects of the S/C1 molar ratio or coal mixing percentages on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) emission were investigated and discussed. The results indicated that OCDD was the only PCDD homologues since others like TCDD-HpCDD was hardly detected, while as the categories of PCDF homologues were comparatively much more general. The amount of PCDD was much larger than that of PCDF in all operating conditions. Since sigma PCDF/sigma PCDD<1, the dominant role of the precursor formation was proven in our experimental conductions. With increasing the coal addition to MSW (from 0 to 16%), PCDD and PCDF were reduced considerably. Coal and MSW may suppress the PCDD/F emissions efficiently (over 95%) during the MSW incineration process. The PCDD/F suppression results of the present study could be helpful guidance to the industrial application of Chinese MSW and auxiliary coal co-incineration processes. The PCDD/F stack emission data of two industrial incinerators using co-incineration technology in China seem to have a great positive reduction of PCDDs/Fs.

  8. Trace element emissions when firing pulverized coal in a pilot-scale combustion facility

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Wincek, R.T.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1998-04-01

    Title Ed of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 designates 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Fourteen of the 189 substances identified are: antimony (Sb), beryllium (Be), chlorine (0), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), fluorine (F), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and phosphorous (P). Eleven of these elements have been detected in the flue gas of pulverized coal-fired utility boilers. Currently there are no regulations that limit the emissions of these elements during coal combustion in utility- or industrial-scale boilers. Given the growing body of risk assessment data on these elements and their impact on the environment and human health, it is possible that regulations on emission levels for certain elements will be imposed. A knowledge of the occurrence of trace elements in coal and their behavior during combustion is essential to predict emissions and to develop control technologies for remediation. The partitioning of trace elements during combustion can be traced to their volatility within the system. For purposes of this paper, the classification of trace elements summarized by Clarke and Sloss will be used: Group I elements, i.e., elements that are not easily volatilized and form larger bottom ash and fly ash particles; Group H elements, i.e., elements that are partially or completely volatilization followed by condensation as small particles or on the surface of small particles; and Group III elements, i.e., elements that are readily volatilized and usually remain in the gas phase system.

  9. POC-SCALE TESTING OF OIL AGGLOMERATION TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT FOR FINE COAL PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from July 01, 1997 to September 30, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental procedures and test data for recovery of fine coal from coal fines streams generated at a commercial coal preparation plant are described. Two coal fines streams, namely Sieve Bend Effluent and Cyclone Overflow were investigated. The test results showed that ash was reduced by more than 50% at combustible matter recovery levels exceeding 95%.

  10. Corrosion performance of alumina scales in coal gasification environments

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1997-02-01

    Corrosion of metallic structural materials in complex gas environments of coal gasification is a potential problem. The corrosion process is dictated by concentrations of two key constituents: sulfur as H{sub 2}S and Cl as HCl. This paper examines the corrosion performance of alumina scales that are thermally grown on Fe-base alloys during exposure to O/S mixed-gas environments. The results are compared with the performance of chromia-forming alloys in similar environments. The paper also discusses the available information on corrosion performance of alloys whose surfaces were enriched with Al by the pack-diffusion process, by the electrospark deposition process, or by weld overlay techniques.

  11. Abandoned coal mining sites: using ecotoxicological tests to support an industrial organic sludge amendment.

    PubMed

    Chiochetta, Claudete G; Radetski, Marilice R; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Tischer, Vinícius; Tiepo, Erasmo N; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2013-11-01

    The different stages involved in coal mining-related activities result in a degraded landscape and sites associated with large amounts of dumped waste material. Remediation of these contaminated soils can be carried out by application of industrial organic sludge if the concerns regarding the potential negative environmental impacts of this experimental practice are properly addressed. In this context, the objective of this study was to use ecotoxicological tests to determine the quantity of organic industrial sludge that is required as a soil amendment to restore soil production while avoiding environmental impact. Chemical analysis of the solids (industrial sludge and soil) and their leachates was carried out as well as a battery of ecotoxicity tests on enzymes (hydrolytic activity), bacteria, algae, daphnids, earthworms, and higher plants, according to standardized methodologies. Solid and leachate samples of coal-contaminated soil were more toxic than those of industrial sludge towards enzyme activity, bacteria, algae, daphnids, and earthworms. In the case of the higher plants (lettuce, corn, wild cabbage, and Surinam cherry) the industrial sludge was more toxic than the coal-contaminated soil, and a soil/sludge mixture (66:34% dry weight basis) had a stimulatory effect on the Surinam cherry biomass. The ecotoxicological assessment of the coal-contaminated soil remediation using sludge as an amendment is very important to determine application rates that could promote a stimulatory effect on agronomic species without negatively affecting the environment.

  12. Characteristics of coking coal burnout

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, M.; Bailey, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    An attempt was made to clarify the characteristics of coking coal burnout by the morphological analysis of char and fly ash samples. Laboratory-scale combustion testing, simulating an ignition process, was carried out for three kinds of coal (two coking coals and one non-coking coal for reference), and sampled chars were analyzed for size, shape and type by image analysis. The full combustion process was examined in industrial-scale combustion testing for the same kinds of coal. Char sampled at the burner outlet and fly ash at the furnace exit were also analyzed. The difference between the char type, swelling properties, agglomeration, anisotropy and carbon burnout were compared at laboratory scale and at industrial scale. As a result, it was found that coking coals produced chars with relatively thicker walls, which mainly impeded char burnout, especially for low volatile coals.

  13. The changing structure of the US coal industry: An update, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    Section 205(a)(2) of the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 requires the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to carry out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data and information program that will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information relevant to energy resources, reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of changes in the structure of the US coal industry between 1976 and 1991. The structural elements examined include the number of mines, average mine size, the size distribution of mines, and the size distribution of coal firms. The report measures changes in the market shares of the largest coal producers at the national level and in various regions. The Central Appalachian low-sulfur coal market is given special attention, and the market for coal reserves is examined. A history of mergers in the coal industry is presented, and changes in the proportions of US coal output that are produced by various types of companies, including foreign-controlled firms, are described. Finally, the impact of post-1991 mergers on the structure of the industry is estimated. The legislation that created the EIA vested the organization with an element of statutory independence. The EIA does not take positions on policy questions. The EIA`s responsibility is to provide timely, high-quality information and to perform objective, credible analyses in support of deliberations by both public and private decisionmakers. Accordingly, this report does not purport to represent the policy positions of the US Department of Energy or the Administration.

  14. From Mining to Post-Mining: The Sustainable Development Strategy of the German Hard Coal Mining Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretschmann, J.; Efremenkov, A. B.; Khoreshok, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    By the end of the 1950s, the German coal mining industry produced 150 million tons of hard coal per year in 170 collieries with 600,000 employees. At that time, 70% of the primary energy demand of the Federal Republic of Germany was covered by domestic coal. Since the advance of oil, later of natural gas, in the world energy market and with the growth of world coal trade, domestic coal stood under a long-term restructuring pressure. This decision required a new strategy for the coal mining industry. Now German coal mining will be strictly finalized and will be prepared for the post-mining era. Within a sustainability strategy the long-term impacts of mining activities before and after the mine closures concerning the environmental, economic and social dimensions will be analyzed systematically and forward-looking.

  15. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.; Rawls, P.

    1995-11-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. As the contract title suggests, the main focus of the program is on proof-of-concept testing of a dewatering technique for a fine clean coal product. The coal industry is reluctant to use the advanced fine coal recovery technology due to the non-availability of an economical dewatering process. in fact, in a recent survey conducted by U.S. DOE and Battelle, dewatering of fine clean coal was identified as the number one priority for the coal industry. This project will attempt to demonstrate an efficient and economic fine clean coal slurry dewatering process.

  16. CFD study of temperature distribution in full scale boiler adopting in-furnace coal blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadhil, S. S. A.; Hasini, H.; Shuaib, N. H.

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the investigation of temperature characteristics of an in-furnace combustion using different coals in a 700 MW full scale boiler. Single mixture fraction approach is adopted for combustion model of both primary and secondary coals. The primary coal was based on the properties of Adaro which has been used as the design coal for the boiler under investigation. The secondary blend coal was selected based on sub-bituminous coal with higher calorific value. Both coals are simultaneously injected into the furnace at alternate coal burner elevations. The general prediction of the temperature contours at primary combustion zone shows identical pattern compared with conventional single coal combustion in similar furnace. Reasonable agreement was achieved by the prediction of the average temperature at furnace exit. The temperature distribution is at different furnace elevation is non-uniform with higher temperature predicted at circumferential "ring-like" region at lower burner levels for both cases. The maximum flame temperature is higher at the elevation where coal of higher calorific value is injected. The temperature magnitude is within the accepTable limit and the variations does not differ much compared to the conventional single coal combustion.

  17. Evaluation of the Impact of Chlorine on Mercury Oxidation in a Pilot-Scale Coal Combustor--The Effect of Coal Blending

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study has been undertaken to investigate the effect of blending PRB coal with an Eastern bituminous coal on the speciation of Hg across an SCR catalyst. In this project, a pilot-scale (1.2 MWt) coal combustor equipped with an SCR reactor for NOx control was used for evaluating ...

  18. Evaluation of the Impact of Chlorine on Mercury Oxidation in a Pilot-Scale Coal Combustor--The Effect of Coal Blending

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study has been undertaken to investigate the effect of blending PRB coal with an Eastern bituminous coal on the speciation of Hg across an SCR catalyst. In this project, a pilot-scale (1.2 MWt) coal combustor equipped with an SCR reactor for NOx control was used for evaluating ...

  19. The Coal Employment Project--How Women Can Make Breakthroughs into Nontraditional Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Based on a project carried out by the Women's Bureau of the U.S. Department of Labor, this program guide provides a plan for helping women gain entrance into nontraditional industries. The guide uses as background and examples in the planning process the coal employment project that began in 1977 to make intensive efforts to help women get jobs in…

  20. APPLICATION OF REBURNING TO COAL-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILERS IN TAIWAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of the characteristics of coal-fired industrial boilers in Taiwan and projections of the cost and performance data for retrofitting several boilers with reburning. The impacts of reburning fuel type on the reburning system design and cost effectivenes...

  1. Liquid Fuels from Coal: From R&D to an Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swabb, L. E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Government support of coal liquefaction Research and Development has created the conditions that make possible the development of needed technology. With the proper government incentives, pioneer plants will lead to lower costs, and this, plus rising prices, will create the conditions necessary to develop a multi-plant industry. (Author/MA)

  2. Liquid Fuels from Coal: From R&D to an Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swabb, L. E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Government support of coal liquefaction Research and Development has created the conditions that make possible the development of needed technology. With the proper government incentives, pioneer plants will lead to lower costs, and this, plus rising prices, will create the conditions necessary to develop a multi-plant industry. (Author/MA)

  3. Advanced Thermally Stable Coal Based Jet Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    commercially available so that tests could be run through pilot-plant scale were derivatives of coal tar from the metallurgical coke industry. The specific...end" for the coal-based jet fuel production. Options include direct liquefaction, tars from coal carbonization ( coking ), solvent extracts, coker...liquids from coking coal/petroleum blends, or by-product tars from fixed-bed coal gasification. Provided that any of these materials is suitably

  4. Co-combustion of coal and solid waste (municipal and industrial solid wastes)

    SciTech Connect

    Ketlogetswe, C.

    1996-12-31

    This work determines the thermal characteristics of various mixtures of carpet waste as an illustrative solid waste. Generally the results revealed that combustion of a mixture of coal with carpet waste yields high fuel bed temperature, in comparison with the combustion of pure solid waste. High fuel bed temperatures of 1,340 C to 1,520 C obtained during the combustion of a mixture of coal with PVC carpet waste would be ideal for energy recovery. The fuel bed temperature of 1,290 C obtained during the combustion of 100% PVC carpet waste suggests that the combustion of general industrial solid waste may be expected to yield a fuel bed temperature of about 1,400 C which would be suitable for energy recovery in the form of power generation or steam generation for general use. The results also revealed that combustion of a mixture of coal and municipal solid waste may require 30% to 35% coal to achieve a fuel bed temperature of about 1,300 C. From economical viewpoint, the % of coal must be kept to a minimum, at least 20% coal or less.

  5. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1992--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. ne primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order toevaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, three preliminary coal-fired tests were successfully completed. These tests used industrial boiler flyash, sewer sludge ash, and waste glass collet as feedstocks. The coal-fired ash vitrification tests are considered near term potential commercial applications of the CMS technology. The waste glass cullet provided necessary dam on the effect of coal firing with respect to vitrified product oxidation state. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the proof-of-concept tests are continuing. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes is continuing. Preliminary designs for 15, 25, 100 and 400 ton/day systems are in progress. This dam will serve as input data to the life cycle cost analysis which will be-an integral part of the CMS commercialization plan.

  6. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  7. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. POC-Scale Testing of a Dry Triboelectrostatic Seprator for Fine Coal Cleaning.

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Yan, E.S.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1997-12-31

    It is the objective of the present project to further develop the triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process developed at the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and test the process at a proof-of-concept (POC) scale. This process has a distinct advantage over other coal cleaning processes in that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering. The POC-scale unit is to be developed based on (i) the charge characteristics of coal and mineral matter that can be determined using the novel online tribocharge measuring device developed at Virginia Tech, and (ii) the results obtained from bench-scale TES tests conducted on three different coals.

  9. Sources and Distribution of Trace Elements in Soils Near Coal-Related Industries.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Yuxian; Wei, Yuan; Wang, Linquan; Hou, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The degree of contamination of soil and the potential ecological risks associated with five different coal-burning industries were assessed in Shanxi Province, China. Results showed that the trace element concentrations in soil close to the coal industries were higher than those in the background soils, and the enrichment factors were >1. The potential ecological risk indexes ranged from 99 to 328 for the five coal-related industries. Results also illustrated that the trace elements were transported through the atmosphere. Concentrations of B, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn, and Mn were high in the area around the steel plant. Principal component analysis and redundancy analysis indicated that the sources of Se, Mo, Hg, Cd, As, Cr, B, Ni, and Cu were mainly anthropogenic, whereas Pb, V, Cu, Zn, and Mn were from natural sources. The soil Hg and Se contents were simulated by an artificial neural network model, which showed that Hg and Se in soils were from atmospheric deposits and their spatial distributions were related to the dominant wind direction. The potential ecological risk from Hg was much higher (one order of magnitude) than that from the other trace elements, which highlights the fact that it deserves urgent attention. Control of emissions from the burning of coal and other raw materials (such as iron and phosphate ores) should also be prioritized.

  10. Pollution tolerance and distribution pattern of plants in surrounding area of coal-fired industries.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, A K; Tripathi, B D

    2007-04-01

    Higher concentration of SO2 and particulate matters was reported in surrounding areas of coal-fired industries which influences the distribution pattern of plants. Sensitive plant species are abolished from such areas, however, only pollution tolerant species survive under stress conditions. The present study was designed to investigate the vegetation composition around coal-fired industries i.e. brick industries. To categorise plants as sensitive or resistant air pollution tolerance index (APTI) value was calculated. Out of 99 plants studied, Ricinus communis with APTI 81.10 was found to be the most resistant wild plant showing uniform distribution at all the polluted sites. On the other hand, Lepidium sativum with APTI 5.27 was recorded as the most sensitive plant and found to be present only at the less polluted sites.

  11. The mine management professions in the twentieth-century Scottish coal mining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Perchard, A.

    2007-07-01

    This book seeks to redress the exclusion of colliery managers and other mining professionals from the history of British, and particularly Scottish, coal industries. This is accomplished by examining these groups within the most crucial period of their ascendancy in the Scottish coal mining industry, 1930-1966. This work seeks to place such persons within their context and to examine their roles, statuses and behaviours through their relationships with employees and the execution of their functions, also examining their terms and conditions of employment, the outlook of their professional associations, and that of their union. Through all this, Dr. Perchard illustrates how this growing consciousness amongst managerial employees in the industry was accompanied by an intense public discussion, within the mining professions, over their future shape, principles and occupational standards.

  12. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Suardini, P.J.

    1995-11-01

    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  13. The production of high load coal-water mixtures on the base of Kansk-Achinsk Coal Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Demidov, Y.; Bruer, G.; Kolesnikova, S.

    1995-12-01

    The results of the {open_quotes}KATEKNIIugol{close_quotes} work on the problems of high load coal-water mixtures are given in this article. General principles of the mixture production, short characteristics of Kansk-Achinsk coals, the experimental results of the coal mixture production on a test-industrial scale, the suspension preparation on the base of coal mixtures, technical-economical indexes of tested coal pipeline variants based on Kansk-Achinsk coals are described.

  14. Solid by-products of coal combustion: Fly ash as a source of industrial minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Bhagwat, S.B.; Rapp, D.M.; Bukowski, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Fly ash is one of the most important by-products of coal combustion. It is a complex mix of cenospheres, reactive glasses, magnetite and carbon, in addition to minor quantities of other minerals. Fly ash components are determined by the type of coal, the combustion technology, material collection system and the temperature of combustion. The changing mix of coal burned in power plants is increasingly making the fly ash characteristics independent of the locally mined coal. Fly ash is thus becoming a raw material independent of the existence of a local coal mining industry. Currently, about 65 million tons of fly ash are generated annually in the United States. This is equivalent to the crushed stone production of such highly industrialized states as Illinois. Only about twenty percent of the total fly ash are currently used, mostly in low value applications such as road building materials and concrete additions. The fly ash currently represents an environmental and financial liability to electric utilities. The increasingly competitive and boundaryless electricity market in the US increases the incentive to look at fly ash in terms of its individual components and recognize their potential as industrial minerals in the production of value added materials. For example, zeolites and other adsorbents could be produced from reactive glasses, magnetite could be used in pigments and ferrite manufacture, activated carbon could serve in pollution control and cenospheres could be used to make lightweight ceramics. If one begins to look at fly ash as a source of industrial minerals and not as a waste product, this change in perspective could turn a financial and environmental liability into an economic opportunity.

  15. Unique nature of the coal mining industry-are the labor law rules determining when two employers should be treated as one different for the coal industry?

    SciTech Connect

    Roles, F.J.

    1995-11-01

    Modern United States labor law dates from the 1935 enactment of the Wagner Act. Its definition of {open_quotes}employer{close_quotes} has remained the same over the the nearly sixty years of its application. The Courts and the Board have developed detailed criteria deciding when two or more employers should be considered one under that definition. Since the 1984 decision in B.F.I., those criteria have been uniformly accepted and applied. There is nothing unique about the coal industry warranting a change or a different application of the criteria.

  16. 77 FR 74473 - Notice of Filing of Self-Certification of Coal Capability Under the Powerplant and Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... coal or another alternate fuel as a primary energy source. Pursuant to FUA in order to meet the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Notice of Filing of Self-Certification of Coal Capability Under the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use...

  17. 78 FR 26337 - Notice of Filing of Self-Certification of Coal Capability Under the Powerplant and Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... of Filing of Self-Certification of Coal Capability Under the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act... a coal capability self- certification to the Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to Sec. 201(d) of... 501.60, 61. FUA and regulations thereunder require DOE to publish a notice of filing of...

  18. [Emission characteristics of PM10 from coal-fired industrial boiler].

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Zhao, Meng; Duan, Jing-Chun; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-03-15

    Through ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor) based dilution sampling system, the emission characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was studied experimentally at the inlet and outlet of dust catchers at eight different coal-fired industrial boilers. Results showed that a peak existed at around 0.12-0.20 microm of particle size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution of PM10 emitted from most of the boilers. Chemical composition analysis indicated that PM2.5 was largely composed of organic carbon, elementary carbon, and sulfate, with mass fraction of 3.7%-21.4%, 4.2%-24.6%, and 1.5%-55.2% respectively. Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 measured were 0.13-0.65 kg x t(-1) and 0.08-0.49 kg x t(-1) respectively for grate boiler using raw coal, and 0.24 kg x t(-1) and 0.22 kg x t(-1) for chain-grate boiler using briquette. In comparison, the PM2.5 emission factor of fluidized bed boiler is 1.14 kg x t(-1), much her than that of grate boiler. Due to high coal consumption and low efficiency of dust separator, coal-fired industrial boiler may become the most important source of PM10, and should be preferentially controlled in China.

  19. Linkage with Industry on a National Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, Byrl R.

    1985-01-01

    Examines how the automobile industry, through the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence and the National Automotive Technical Education Foundation, has accepted a set of standards developed by the Industry Planning Council of the American Vocational Association Trade and Industrial Division and made them a basis for certification of…

  20. Partners in health: Injury prevention and the coal mining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hoerner, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    It is necessary to solve many of the work-related problems and areas of concern that are present in the mining industry. An overview of concerns and how to attack the problems is discussed. Some of the worker`s injury problems, such as back pain syndromes, are by no means unique to the industry. However, other problems such as bolter shoulder syndrome problems, are job specific and need biomechanical investigation to determine specific causal relation of job task to injury. The goal would be defined as twofold. The primary goal is to identify the specific job contribution to high risk occupations, and secondly, to implement a total work force injury prevention program. These goals are discussed.

  1. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing

    SciTech Connect

    W. Pawlak; K. Szymocha

    1998-04-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from January 1, 1998 to April 31, 1998 on the POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing. Experimental work was carried out with two coal fines. One sample originated from pond (Drummond Pond Fines) while the second was pulverized Luscar Mine coal. Both samples were tested at the laboratory batch-scale while only Luscar Mine Coal was processed on the 250 kg/h continuous system. Significant progress was made on optimization of process conditions for Pond Fines. The test results showed that ash could be reduced by about 42% at combustible recovery exiting 94%. It was also found that pond fines required significantly longer conditioning time than freshly pulverized run of mine coal. Continuous bench-scale testing carried out with Luscar Mine coal included rod mill calibration, plant equipment and instrumentation check-up, and parametric studies. Compared with batch-scale tests, the continuous bench-scale process required more bridging oil to achieve similar process performance. During the current reporting period work has been commenced on the final engineering and preparation of design package of 3t/h POC-scale unit.

  2. An explanation of large-scale coal and gas outbursts in underground coal mines: the effect of low-permeability zones on abnormally abundant gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. H.; Cheng, Y. P.

    2013-09-01

    Large-scale coal and gas outbursts post a risk of fatal disasters in underground mines. Large-scale outbursts (outburst of coal and rock greater than 500 t) in recent years in China indicate that there is abundant gas in areas of outbursts containing large amounts of potential energy. The adequate sealing properties of the roof and floor of a coal seam are required for local abundant gas around the site of an outburst, but an annular low-permeability zone in a coal seam, which prevents the loss by gas migration through the coal seam itself, is also required. The distribution of coal gas with this annular zone of low permeability is described, and it is proposed that the annular zone of low permeability creates conditions for confining the coal gas. The effect of this low-permeability zone on the gas distribution is analyzed after allowing for simplifications in the model. The results show that the permeability and length of the low-permeability zone have a great impact on the gas distribution. A steep gradient of gas pressure in the low-permeability zone and the high gas pressure in the abundant zone of gas can promote coal mass failure and coal wall deformation, thereby accelerating the coal and gas outburst. The high pressure gas in abundant zone of gas will lead to a large-scale outburst if an outburst occurs.

  3. Strategy for large scale solubilization of coal - characterization of Neurospora protein and gene

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A.; Chen, Y.P.; Mishra, N.C.

    1995-12-31

    Low grade coal placed on mycelial mat of Neurospora crassa growing on Petri plate was found to be solubilized by this fungus. A heat stable protein has been purified to near homogeneity which can solubilize low grade coal in in vitro. The biochemical properties of the Neurospora protein will be presented. The nature of the product obtained after solubilization of coal by Neurospora protein in vivo and in vitro will also be presented. The N-terminus sequence of the amino acids of this protein will be used to design primer for possible cloning of gene for Neurospora protein capable of solubilization of coal in order to develop methodology for coal solubilization on a large scale.

  4. An industrial application using meager-lean coal briquette in chemical fertilizer plant

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Zesheng; Yang Qiaowen; Zhao Yinrong; Wang Xingou; Hu Kunmo; Wang Shiquan; Tao Xilo; Wang Guangnan; Chen Zhiyon |

    1998-12-31

    Mechanized mining results in increased fine coals up to 60--80% of raw coal produced. Because anthracite lump coals are used as fuel coal by Chinese small and/or middle fertilizer factories in gasifiers supplying fuel gas and syngas, an increasing disparity between supply and demand of lump coal is intensifying. The necessary development and production of gasification briquettes from coal fines is welcomed by the small and middle fertilizer factories. This paper discusses making syngas using meager-lean coal briquettes, produced from coal fines and mixed coal using the newly developed binder; the coal was from the Fourth Coal Mine, Hebi Coal Mine Bureau.

  5. Use of sorbents of hot-contact coal carbonization in the power industry

    SciTech Connect

    A.I. Blokhin; F.E. Keneman; A.V. Sklyarov; B.S. Fedoseev

    2003-11-15

    The many years of experience in the use of sorbents of hot-contact coal carbonization (HCCC) in the power industry is used for substantiation of their prospects for solving problems of power and materials saving and improving the reliability and safety of operation of power equipment. Results of tests of sorbents in systems of water conditioning of thermal power plants, cleaning of return condensates, mazut- and oil-contaminated process wastewaters, makeup water in heat networks, and biosorption cleaning of sewerage are presented. The sorption methods of cleaning are shown to have many advantages, to save expensive ion-exchange resins and reagents, to decrease the cost of desalinated water, and to prolong the service of power equipment. Comparative data are presented for basic commercial kinds of activated carbon and HCCC (sorbents activated crushed brown-coal coke (ABD)). The technical characteristics of sorbents of hot-contact coal carbonization are shown to be at the level of commercial sorbents or be higher at a much lower cost (by a factor of 2.5 - 3). It is shown that the creation of several HCCC installations with an output of 25 - 30 thousand tons of sorbents a year at coal-fired power plants will solve many water-cleaning problems of the 'EES Rossii' Co. ('The United Power Systems of Russia') and make it a monopolistic producer of activated carbon in the Russian market.

  6. Industry perspectives on increasing the efficiency of coal-fired power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Torrens, I.M.; Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-12-31

    Independent power producers will build a substantial fraction of expected new coal-fired power generation in developing countries over the coming decades. To reduce perceived risk and obtain financing for their projects, they are currently building and plan to continue to build subcritical coal-fired plants with generating efficiency below 40%. Up-to-date engineering assessment leads to the conclusion that supercritical generating technology, capable of efficiencies of up to 45%, can produce electricity at a lower total cost than conventional plants. If such plants were built in Asia over the coming decades, the savings in carbon dioxide emissions over their lifetime would be measured in billions of tons. IPPs perceive supercritical technology as riskier and higher cost than conventional technology. The truth needs to be confirmed by discussions with additional experienced power engineering companies. Better communication among the interested parties could help to overcome the IPP perception issue. Governments working together with industry might be able to identify creative financing arrangements which can encourage the use of more efficient pulverized clean coal technologies, while awaiting the commercialization of advanced clean coal technologies like gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  7. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1995-11-01

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both the ash and sulfur contents of run-of-mine coals. The extent of cleaning depends on the liberation characteristics of the coal, which generally improve with reducing particle size. however, since most of the advanced technologies are wet processes, the clean coal product must be dewatered before it can be transported and burned in conventional boilers. This additional treatment step significantly increases the processing cost and makes the industrial applicability of these advanced technologies much less attractive. In order to avoid problems associated with fine coal dewatering, researchers at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a novel triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process that can remove mineral matter from dry coal. In this technique, finely pulverized coal is brought into contact with a material (such as copper) having a work function intermediate to that of the carbonaceous material and associated mineral matter. Carbonaceous particles having a relatively low work function become positively charged, while particles of mineral matter having significantly higher work functions become negatively charged. once the particles become selectively charged, a separation can be achieved by passing the particle stream through an electrically charged field. Details related to the triboelectrostatic charging phenomenon have been discussed elsewhere (Inculet, 1984).

  8. Modeling of hydrodynamics of large scale atmospheric circulating fluidized bed coal combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Leretaille, P.Y.; Werther, J.; Briand, P.; Montat, D.

    1999-07-01

    A model for evaluation of the hydrodynamics of gas-solid flow in the riser of a circulating fluidized bed coal boiler is proposed. The 3D fields of the gas and solid velocities and of the solid concentration in the riser are estimated from measured data of the vertical pressure profile. The model includes semi-empirical laws developed on the basis of a set of experimental data on six industrial boilers ranging from 12 MWth to 700 MWth. Its relevance for laboratory scale risers was not tested. The estimation of flow of solids near the walls was fulfilled with a special care due to the influence of this flow on heat transfer. For the validation of the model, measurements of solid concentration with guarded capacitance probes were performed in the 250 MWe Stein Industrie-Lurgi type CFB boiler in Gardanne, France. Finally, an attempt to predict the vertical pressure profile on the riser, starting from the operating conditions (and based on an empirical evaluation of the variation of the downward flow of solid from local conditions) is presented and compared to experimental data.

  9. Source profiles of particulate matter emissions from a pilot-scale boiler burning North American coal blends.

    PubMed

    Lee, S W

    2001-11-01

    Recent awareness of suspected adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM) emission has prompted publication of new standards for fine PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). However, scientific data on fine PM emissions from various point sources and their characteristics are very limited. Source apportionment methods are applied to identify contributions of individual regional sources to tropospheric particulate concentrations. The existing industrial database developed using traditional source measurement techniques provides total emission rates only, with no details on chemical nature or size characteristics of particulates. This database is inadequate, in current form, to address source-receptor relationships. A source dilution system was developed for sampling and characterization of total PM, PM2.5, and PM10 (i.e., PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 pm) from residual oil and coal combustion. This new system has automatic control capabilities for key parameters, such as relative humidity (RH), temperature, and sample dilution. During optimization of the prototype equipment, three North American coal blends were burned using a 0.7-megawatt thermal (MWt) pulverized coal-fired, pilot-scale boiler. Characteristic emission profiles, including PM2.5 and total PM soluble acids, and elemental and carbon concentrations for three coal blends are presented. Preliminary results indicate that volatile trace elements such as Pb, Zn, Ti, and Se are preferentially enriched in PM2.5. PM2.5 is also more concentrated in soluble sulfates relative to total PM. Coal fly ash collected at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) contains about 85-90% PM10 and 30-50% PM2.5. Particles contain the highest elemental concentrations of Si and Al while Ca, Fe, Na, Ba, and K also exist as major elements. Approximately 4-12% of the materials exists as soluble sulfates in fly ash generated by coal blends containing 0.2-0.8% sulfur by mass

  10. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system particle removal system development

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, M.

    1994-03-01

    Solar Turbines developed a direct coal-fueled turbine system (DCFT) and tested each component in subscale facilities and the combustion system was tested at full-scale. The combustion system was comprised of a two-stage slagging combustor with an impact separator between the two combustors. Greater than 90 percent of the native ash in the coal was removed as liquid slag with this system. In the first combustor, coal water slurry mixture (CWM) was injected into a combustion chamber which was operated loan to suppress NO{sub x} formation. The slurry was introduced through four fuel injectors that created a toroidal vortex because of the combustor geometry and angle of orientation of the injectors. The liquid slag that was formed was directed downward toward an impaction plate made of a refractory material. Sixty to seventy percent of the coal-borne ash was collected in this fashion. An impact separator was used to remove additional slag that had escaped the primary combustor. The combined particulate collection efficiency from both combustors was above 95 percent. Unfortunately, a great deal of the original sulfur from the coal still remained in the gas stream and needed to be separated. To accomplish this, dolomite or hydrated lime were injected in the secondary combustor to react with the sulfur dioxide and form calcium sulfite and sulfates. This solution for the sulfur problem increased the dust concentrations to as much as 6000 ppmw. A downstream particulate control system was required, and one that could operate at 150 psia, 1850-1900{degrees}F and with low pressure drop. Solar designed and tested a particulate rejection system to remove essentially all particulate from the high temperature, high pressure gas stream. A thorough research and development program was aimed at identifying candidate technologies and testing them with Solar`s coal-fired system. This topical report summarizes these activities over a period beginning in 1987 and ending in 1992.

  11. The efficient, large scale separation of coal macerals

    SciTech Connect

    Dyrkacz, G.R.; Bloomquist, C.A.A.

    1988-01-01

    In our continuing efforts in the area of maceral separation, we have recognized the need for a process to supply relatively large amounts of macerals as rapidly as possible. Earlier we reported some initial work using combined sink/float and density gradient centrifugation (DGC) or continuous flow centrifugation and DGC. There are several notable advantages in using continuous flow centrifugation for maceral separation. First, the coal particles can be in a highly dilute suspension, which reduces particle-particle interactions. Second, large amounts of material can be separated; the major limitation being the capacity of the rotor. Third, the separation efficiency is higher. Unlike batch sink/float centrifuge operations, there are less cross-contamination problems with removal of the light and heavy particles, since the light phase is continuously removed. Lastly, the separation is fast. To produce an equivalent amount of purified coal material, much less manipulation is necessary to achieve separation compared to batch sink/float. With all of these advantages in mind, we have again turned our investigations to continuous flow centrifugation for maceral separations. However, this time we are using a centrifuge specifically designed for such work. We report our initial investigations on the separation of the maceral groups from Lewiston-Stockton coal from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Program (APCS-7). 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

    1981-03-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

  13. Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

  14. Application of a coal pile drainage model to an industrial/institutional site

    SciTech Connect

    Brookman, G.T.

    1983-07-01

    The report describes the site selection, field sampling and analysis and mathematical model calibration and verification process used to apply a coal pile drainage model to an industrial/institutional site (e.g., a small storage pile of less than 25 tons). The field program included 10 weeks of monitoring drainage flow, pH, conductivity, precipitation, coal moisture, and pile infiltration rates with the analysis of drainage water for acidity, filterable and nonfilterable residue, sulfate and 10 trace metals. Five storms were sampled ranging from 0.62 inches to 1.59 inches of rain. The pH metal concentrations exceeded NYS Department of Environmental Conservation effluent limitations for Class GA waters before treatment.

  15. Partitioning behavior of trace elements during pilot-scale combustion of pulverized coal and coal-water slurry fuel

    PubMed

    Nodelman; Pisupati; Miller; Scaroni

    2000-05-29

    Release pathways for inorganic hazardous air pollutants (IHAPs) from a pilot-scale, down-fired combustor (DFC) when firing pulverized coal (PC) and coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) were identified and quantified to demonstrate the effect of fuel form on IHAP partitioning, enrichment and emissions. The baghouse capturing efficiency for each element was calculated to determine the effectiveness of IHAP emission control. Most of the IHAPs were enriched in the fly ash and depleted in the bottom ash. Mercury was found to be enriched in the flue gas, and preferentially emitted in the vapor phase. When firing CWSF, more IHAPs were partitioned in the bottom ash than when firing PC. Significant reduction of Hg emissions during CWSF combustion was also observed.

  16. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007-2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NOx and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers.

  17. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.-H.; Yan, E.S.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1996-12-31

    It is the objective of the present project to further develop the triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process developed at the Federal Energy Technology Center and test the process at a proof-of-concept (POC) scale. This process has a distinct advantage over other coal cleaning processes in that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering. The POC-scale unit is to developed based on (1) the charge characteristics of coal and mineral matter that can be determined using the novel online tribocharge measuring device developed at Virginia Tech, and (2) the results obtained from bench-scale TES tests conducted on three different coals. At present, the project is at the stage of engineering design, which has three subtasks, Charger Tests, Separator Tests, and Final POC Design. Work accomplished during the current reporting period pertains to the first two subtasks.

  18. Managing produced water from coal seam gas projects: implications for an emerging industry in Australia.

    PubMed

    Davies, Peter J; Gore, Damian B; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the environmental problems, impacts and risks associated with the generation and disposal of produced water by the emerging coal seam gas (CSG) industry and how it may be relevant to Australia and similar physical settings. With only limited independent research on the potential environmental impacts of produced water, is it necessary for industry and government policy makers and regulators to draw upon the experiences of related endeavours such as mining and groundwater extraction accepting that the conclusions may not always be directly transferrable. CSG is widely touted in Australia as having the potential to provide significant economic and energy security benefits, yet the environmental and health policies and the planning and regulatory setting are yet to mature and are continuing to evolve amidst ongoing social and environmental concerns and political indecision. In this review, produced water has been defined as water that is brought to the land surface during the process of recovering methane gas from coal seams and includes water sourced from CSG wells as well as flowback water associated with drilling, hydraulic fracturing and gas extraction. A brief overview of produced water generation, its characteristics and environmental issues is provided. A review of past lessons and identification of potential risks, including disposal options, is included to assist in planning and management of this industry.

  19. An explanation of large-scale coal and gas outbursts in underground coal mines: the effect of low-permeability zones on abnormally abundant gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, F. H.; Cheng, Y. P.

    2014-08-01

    Large-scale coal and gas outbursts pose a risk of fatal disasters in underground mines. Large-scale outbursts (outburst of coal and rock greater than 500 t) in recent years in China indicate that there is abundant gas in areas of outbursts containing large amounts of potential energy. The adequate sealing properties of the roof and floor of a coal seam are required for local abundant gas around the site of an outburst, but an annular low-permeability zone in a coal seam, which prevents the loss by gas migration through the coal seam itself, is also required. The distribution of coal gas with this annular zone of low permeability is described, and it is proposed that the annular zone of low permeability creates conditions for confining the coal gas. The effect of this low-permeability zone on the gas distribution is analyzed after allowing for simplifications in the model. The results show that the permeability and length of the low-permeability zone have a great impact on the gas distribution, and the permeability is required to be several orders of magnitude less than that of normal coal and enough length is also in demand. A steep gradient of gas pressure in the low-permeability zone and the high-pressure gas in the abundant zone of gas can promote coal mass failure and coal wall deformation, thereby accelerating the coal and gas outburst. The high-pressure gas in abundant zone of gas will lead to a large-scale outburst if an outburst occurs.

  20. Water-carbon trade-off in China's coal power industry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Mo, Hongpin; Zhao, Zhongnan; Liu, Zhu

    2014-10-07

    The energy sector is increasingly facing water scarcity constraints in many regions around the globe, especially in China, where the unprecedented large-scale construction of coal-fired thermal power plants is taking place in its extremely arid northwest regions. As a response to water scarcity, air-cooled coal power plants have experienced dramatic diffusion in China since the middle 2000s. By the end of 2012, air-cooled coal-fired thermal power plants in China amounted to 112 GW, making up 14% of China's thermal power generation capacity. But the water conservation benefit of air-cooled units is achieved at the cost of lower thermal efficiency and consequently higher carbon emission intensity. We estimate that in 2012 the deployment of air-cooled units contributed an additional 24.3-31.9 million tonnes of CO2 emissions (equivalent to 0.7-1.0% of the total CO2 emissions by China's electric power sector), while saving 832-942 million m(3) of consumptive water use (about 60% of the total annual water use of Beijing) when compared to a scenario with water-cooled plants. Additional CO2 emissions from air-cooled plants largely offset the CO2 emissions reduction benefits from Chinese policies of retiring small and outdated coal plants. This water-carbon trade-off is poised to become even more significant by 2020, as air-cooled units are expected to grow by a factor of 2-260 GW, accounting for 22% of China's total coal-fired power generation capacity.

  1. Synthesis of hydroxy sodalite from coal fly ash using waste industrial brine solution.

    PubMed

    Musyoka, Nicholas M; Petrik, Leslie F; Balfour, Gillian; Gitari, Wilson M; Hums, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The effect of using industrial waste brine solution instead of ultra pure water was investigated during the synthesis of zeolites using three South African coal fly ashes as Si feedstock. The high halide brine was obtained from the retentate effluent of a reverse osmosis mine water treatment plant. Synthesis conditions applied were; ageing of fly ash was at 47 ° C for 48 hours, and while the hydrothermal treatment temperature was set at 140 ° C for 48 hours. The use of brine as a solvent resulted in the formation of hydroxy sodalite zeolite although unconverted mullite and hematite from the fly ash feedstock was also found in the synthesis product.

  2. Laboratory Scale Coal And Biomass To Drop-In Fuels (CBDF) Production And Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lux, Kenneth; Imam, Tahmina; Chevanan, Nehru; Namazian, Mehdi; Wang, Xiaoxing; Song, Chunshan

    2016-06-29

    This Final Technical Report describes the work and accomplishments of the project entitled, “Laboratory Scale Coal and Biomass to Drop-In Fuels (CBDF) Production and Assessment.” The main objective of the project was to fabricate and test a lab-scale liquid-fuel production system using coal containing different percentages of biomass such as corn stover and switchgrass at a rate of 2 liters per day. The system utilizes the patented Altex fuel-production technology, which incorporates advanced catalysts developed by Pennsylvania State University. The system was designed, fabricated, tested, and assessed for economic and environmental feasibility relative to competing technologies.

  3. Pilot scale single stage fine coal dewatering and briquetting process. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Ding, Y.; Honaker, R.Q.

    1995-12-31

    The primary goal of the current coal preparation research is to reduce the ash and sulfur content from coal, using fine grinding and various coal cleaning processes to separate finely disseminated mineral matter and pyrite from coal. Small coal particles are produced by the grinding operation, thus the ultrafine coal becomes very difficult to dewater. In addition, the ultrafine coal also creates problems during its transportation, storage and handling at utility plants. The current research is seeking to combine ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation, using hydrophobic binders as coal dewatering and binding reagents with the help of a compaction device. From previous tests, it has been found that coal pellets with a moisture content of less than 15% and good wear and water resistance can be successfully fabricated at pressures of less than 6,000 psi using a lab scale ram extruder. The primary objective of the research described in this quarter has been to extend the lab scale ultrafine coal dewatering and briquetting process into a pilot scale operation, based on the test data obtained from earlier research. A standard roller briquetting machine was used to dewater fine coal-binder mixtures during the briquetting process. The operating parameters, including moisture content of feed, feed rate, and roller speed, were evaluated on the basis of the performance of the briquettes. Briquettes fabricated at rates of up to 108 pellets per minute exhibited satisfactory water and wear resistance, i.e., less than 7.5% cured moisture and less than 8.3% weight loss after 6 min. of tumbling. Also, coal-binder samples with moisture contents of 40 percent have been successfully dewatered and briquetted. Briquetting of fine coal was possible under current feeding conditions, however, a better feeding system must be designed to further improve the quality of dewatered coal briquettes.

  4. Study of application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T. V.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The mine refuse inventory maps were prepared in response to a need by both the State and the coal industry. The lack of information on the scope of the problem handicapped all people concerned in drafting realistic legislation for a severance tax on coal production to raise funds for restoration of refuse sites. The inventory was conducted rapidly and economically, and demonstrated the benefits which can be derived through remote sensing methods.

  5. Cost-effectiveness Analysis on Measures to Improve China's Coal-fired Industrial Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Manzhi; Shen, Bo; Han, Yafeng; Price, Lynn; Xu, Mingchao

    2015-08-01

    Tackling coal-burning industrial boiler is becoming one of the key programs to solve the environmental problem in China. Assessing the economics of various options to address coal-fired boiler is essential to identify cost-effective solutions. This paper discusses our work in conducting a cost-effectiveness analysis on various types of improvement measures ranging from energy efficiency retrofits to switch from coal to other fuels in China. Sensitivity analysis was also performed in order to understand the impacts of some economic factors such as discount rate and energy price on the economics of boiler improvement options. The results show that nine out of 14 solutions are cost-effective, and a lower discount rate and higher energy price will result in more energy efficiency measures being cost-effective. Both monetary and non-monetary barriers to energy-efficiency improvement are discussed and policies to tackle these barriers are recommended. Our research aims at providing a methodology to assess cost-effective solutions to boiler problems.

  6. Cost-effectiveness Analysis on Measures to Improve China's Coal-fired Industrial Boiler

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Manzhi; Shen, Bo; Han, Yafeng; ...

    2015-08-01

    Tackling coal-burning industrial boiler is becoming one of the key programs to solve the environmental problem in China. Assessing the economics of various options to address coal-fired boiler is essential to identify cost-effective solutions. This paper discusses our work in conducting a cost-effectiveness analysis on various types of improvement measures ranging from energy efficiency retrofits to switch from coal to other fuels in China. Sensitivity analysis was also performed in order to understand the impacts of some economic factors such as discount rate and energy price on the economics of boiler improvement options. The results show that nine out ofmore » 14 solutions are cost-effective, and a lower discount rate and higher energy price will result in more energy efficiency measures being cost-effective. Both monetary and non-monetary barriers to energy-efficiency improvement are discussed and policies to tackle these barriers are recommended. Our research aims at providing a methodology to assess cost-effective solutions to boiler problems.« less

  7. Use of Sorbents of Hot-Contact Coal Carbonization in the Power Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Blokhin, A. I.; Keneman, F. E.; Sklyarov, A. V.; Fedoseev, B. S.

    2003-11-15

    The many years of experience in the use of sorbents of hot-contact coal carbonization in the power industry is used for substantiation of their prospects for solving problems of power and materials saving and improving the reliability and safety of operation of power equipment. Results of tests of sorbents in systems of water conditioning of thermal power plants, cleaning of return condensates, mazut- and oil-contaminated process wastewaters, makeup water in heat networks, and biosorption cleaning of sewerage are presented. The sorption methods of cleaning are shown to have many advantages, to save expensive ion-exchange resins and reagents, to decrease the cost of desalinated water, and to prolong the service of power equipment. Comparative data are presented for basic commercial kinds of activated carbon and HCCC sorbents (ABD). The technical characteristics of sorbents of hot-contact coal carbonization are shown to be at the level of commercial sorbents or be higher at a much lower cost (by a factor of 2.5 - 3). It is shown that the creation of several HCCC installations with an output of 25 - 30 thousand tons of sorbents a year at coal-fired power plants will solve many water-cleaning problems of the 'EES Rossii' Co. ('The United Power Systems of Russia') and make it a monopolistic producer of activated carbon in the Russian market.

  8. Application of a coal-pile drainage model to an industrial/institutional site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the site selection, field sampling and analysis and mathematical model calibration and verification process used to apply a coal pile drainage model to an industrial/institutional site, e.g., a small storage pile of less than 25 tons. The field program included 10 weeks of monitoring drainage flow, pH, conductivity, precipitation, coal moisture, and pile infiltration rates with the analysis of drainage water for acidity, filterable and nonfilterable residue, sulfate and ten trace metals. The program was performed at Cornell University's steam plant coal pile. Five storms were sampled ranging from 0.62 inches to 1.59 inches of rain. The pH of the runoff was generally in the range of 2.0 to 2.8. In several instances, metals concentrations exceeded New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) effluent limitations for Class GA waters. The model which has two parts, H20TRC (hydraulic) and TRCCOAL (water quality) was calibrated and verified using the field data. The hydraulic portion was able to predict flows within 12% for large storms. The water quality portion was able to predict within 20% for sulfate and iron loadings but was not as accurate in predicting the acid loading. 21 figures, 13 tables.

  9. POC-SCALE TESTING OF AN ADVANCED FINE COAL DEWATERING EQUIPMENT/TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect

    X.H. Wang; J. Wiseman; D.J. Sung; D. McLean; William Peters; Jim Mullins; John Hugh; G. Evans; Vince Hamilton; Kenneth Robinette; Tim Krim; Michael Fleet

    1999-08-01

    Dewatering of ultra-fine (minus 150 {micro}m) coal slurry to less than 20% moisture is difficult using the conventional dewatering techniques. The main objective of the project was to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions and surfactants in combination for the dewatering of ultra-fine clean-coal slurries using various dewatering techniques on a proof-of-concept (POC) scale of 0.5 to 2 tons per hour. The addition of conventional reagents and the application of coal surface modification technique were evaluated using vacuum filtration, hyperbaric (pressure) filtration, ceramic plate filtration and screen-bowl centrifuge techniques. The laboratory and pilot-scale dewatering studies were conducted using the fine-size, clean-coal slurry produced in the column flotation circuit at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, St. Charles, VA. The pilot-scale studies were conducted at the Mayflower preparation plant in St. Charles, VA. The program consisted of nine tasks, namely, Task 1--Project Work Planning, Task 2--Laboratory Testing, Task 3--Engineering Design, Task 4--Procurement and Fabrication, Task 5--Installation and Shakedown, Task 6--System Operation, Task 7--Process Evaluation, Task 8--Equipment Removal, and Task 9--Reporting.

  10. Capital and the state in regional economic development: the case of the coal industry in central Appalachia

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    This study examines theories of development policy to assess their relevance for the problems of persistently poor regions within advanced capitalist societies. The central premises of three sets of theories are explored using a multi-method approach that combines quantitative analysis of the impact of growth in the coal industry in rural Kentucky between 1960 and 1980, and qualitative analysis of the perspectives of coal industry executives on development in the coal fields. Theories are categorized into neoclassical, redistributionist and critical paradigms because this typology clarifies the differences in the role of capital and the state in development strategies. Results of analyses of economic and social change in rural Kentucky challenge neoclassical development theory. Greater economic growth in coal counties did not bring greater social progress. The analysis supports the redistributionist and critical theorists' thesis that widespread distribution of economic benefits is important to development. Counties with better distribution of income and work had better conditions in 1980, and coal counties have the greatest economic inequality. Comments of coal industry executives confirm the critical theorists' argument that capital resists State policies to redistribute economic surplus for investment in development.

  11. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; E.S. Yan; A.D. Walters

    2001-04-30

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both ash- and sulfur-forming minerals from coal. However, most of the processes involve fine grinding and use water as the cleaning medium; therefore, the clean coal products must be dewatered before they can be transported and burned. Unfortunately, dewatering fine coal is costly, which makes it difficult to deploy advanced coal cleaning processes for commercial applications. As a means of avoiding problems associated with the fine coal dewatering, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) developed a dry coal cleaning process in which mineral matter is separated from coal without using water. In this process, pulverized coal is subjected to triboelectrification before being placed in an electric field for electrostatic separation. The triboelectrification is accomplished by passing a pulverized coal through an in-line mixer made of copper. Copper has a work function that lies between that of carbonaceous material (coal) and mineral matter. Thus, coal particles impinging on the copper wall lose electrons to the metal thereby acquiring positive charges, while mineral matter impinging on the wall gain electrons to acquire negative charges. The charged particles then pass through an electric field where they are separated according to their charges into two or more products depending on the configuration of the separator. The results obtained at NETL showed that it is capable of removing more than 90% of the pyritic sulfur and 70% of the ash-forming minerals from a number of eastern U.S. coals. However, the BTU recoveries were less than desirable. The laboratory-scale batch triboelectrostatic separator (TES) used by NETL relied on adhering charged particles on parallel electrode surfaces and scraping them off. Therefore, its throughput will be proportional to the electrode surface area. If this laboratory device is scaled-up as is, it would

  12. Impact of suspended coal dusts on methane deflagration properties in a large-scale straight duct.

    PubMed

    Ajrash, Mohammed J; Zanganeh, Jafar; Moghtaderi, Behdad

    2017-09-15

    Knowledge about flame deflagrations in mixtures of methane and diluted coal dust assists in the prediction of fires and explosions, and in the design of adequate protective systems. This vital lack of information on the role of hybrid mixtures (methane/coal dust) is covered in this work by employing a novel Large-Scale Straight Duct (LSSD) designed specifically for this purpose. The hybrid fuel was injected along the first 8m of the 30m long LSSD. The results revealed that a 30gm(-3) coal dust concentration boosted the flame travel distance, from 6.5m to 28.5m, and increased the over pressure rise profile to 0.135bar. The over pressure rise (OPR), pressure wave velocity, flame intensity and the flame velocity were significantly boosted along the LSSD in the presence of 10gm(-3) or 30gm(-3) coal dust concentrations in the methane flame deflagrations. Finally, the high speed camera showed that the presence of the coal dust enhanced the turbulence in the front flame. Consequently, the pressure wave and flame velocities were both increased when a 10gm(-3) coal dust concentration coexisted with a 9.5% methane concentration in the deflagration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. POC-SCALE TESTING OF OIL AGGLOMERATION TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT FOR FINE COAL PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from October 1, 1997 to December 31, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental test procedures and the results related to the processing of coal fines originating from process streams generated at the Shoal Creek Mine preparation plant, owned and operated by the Drummond Company Inc. of Alabama, are described. Two samples of coal fines, namely Cyclone Overflow and Pond Fines were investigated. The batch test results showed that by applying the Aglofloat technology a significant ash removal might be achieved at a very high combustible matter recovery: · for the Cyclone Overflow sample the ash reduction was in the range 50 to 55% at combustible matter recovery about 98% · for the Pond Fines sample the ash reduction was up to 48% at combustible matter recovery up to 85%. Additional tests were carried out with the Alberta origin Luscar Mine coal, which will be used for the parametric studies of agglomeration equipment at the 250 kg/h pilot plant. The Luscar coal is very similar to the Mary Lee Coal Group (processed at Shoal Creek Mine preparation plant) in terms of rank and chemical composition.

  14. FTIR monitoring of industrial scale CVD processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopfe, V.; Mosebach, H.; Meyer, M.; Sheel, D.; Grählert, W.; Throl, O.; Dresler, B.

    1998-06-01

    The goal is to improve chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and infiltration (CVI) process control by a multipurpose, knowledge based feedback system. For monitoring the CVD/CVI process in-situ FTIR spectroscopic data has been identified as input information. In the presentation, three commonly used, and distinctly different, types of industrial CVD/CVI processes are taken as test cases: (i) a thermal high capacity CVI batch process for manufacturing carbon fibre reinforced SiC composites for high temperature applications, (ii) a continuously driven CVD thermal process for coating float glass for energy protection, and (iii) a laser stimulated CVD process for continuously coating bundles of thin ceramic fibers. The feasibility of the concept with FTIR in-situ monitoring as a core technology has been demonstrated. FTIR monitoring sensibly reflects process conditions.

  15. Tri-State Synfuels Project Commercial Scale Coal Test: Volume 1. Selection of camp 1 coal. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; selection and testing of coal supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This report focuses on the rationale for selecting Camp 1 coal for a commercial scale gasification test conducted at the Sasol One Plant. The initial coal quality evaluation consisted primarily of The Pennsylvania State University coal data from Illinois Basin Counties. In November 1980, a preliminary collection of Illinois Basin coal quality data was developed to support the selection of coals for potential plant supply and full scale commercial testing. The total sample and coarse and fine fractions were analyzed. Lurgi and Sasol examined the list and gave their reasons for selection but they had not examined the samples in their laboratories. In December 1980, the list of potential source mines for the 22,000 short ton sample of raw coal for the test was narrowed to three. The mines were Camp 1, Ken and Providence. The reasons for this selection are given. The three candidate mines were again sampled and representative splits of the run-of-mine samples were flown to Lurgi and to Sasol for examination. The Lurgi laboratory report indicated that both Camp 1 and Ken mine samples would qualify as suitable gasifier feed coals. Sasol concluded from an examination of the November report data that Camp 1 and Ken mine samples would be preferable since the free swelling indices are not excessive. Paul Weir Company examined the data and recommended Camp 1 mine since it operates in the seams contiguous to other potential candidate reserve sites and has the ability to transport the mine sample by belt to a barge loading facility to limit production of fines. The final selection of the Camp 1 mine for the test shipment resulted from considerations given in the report.

  16. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-03

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications'' is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelling and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, approval of Vortec's Environmental Assessment (EA) required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was approved. The EA approval cycle took approximately 9 months. The preliminary test program which was being held in abeyance pending approval of the EA was initiated. Six preliminary test runs were successfully competed during the period. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the preliminary tests were completed.

  17. Employment conditions of blacks in the coal industry, 1900 to 1930

    SciTech Connect

    Fishback, P.V.M.

    1983-01-01

    Economic historians recently have analyzed black economic welfare mostly in agriculture. The thesis contributes to knowledge of black welfare in nonagricultural employment by analyzing their status in bituminous-coal mining, an industry in which black employment rose throughout the handloading era ending in 1930. Employmen conditions of blacks are compared with those of native whites and immigrants. Using a model of Schumpeterian competition in an environment of racial hostility, the study analyzes the multiple facets of employment packages, as well as differences in the individuals' initial endowments of wealth and skills, acquisition of human capital, and mobility. Discrimination is found to have been a minor factor in the West Virginia coal industry. Piece-rate wages, about which information was relatively easy to gather, were the same for all ethnic groups. The evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that blacks did not receive unequal treatment via assignments in the mine that affected their safety. Lack of managment positions for blacks was the primary form of job segregation.

  18. Integrated process control for recirculating cooling water treatment in the coal chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Pei, Y S; Guo, W; Yang, Z F

    2011-01-01

    This work focused on the integrated process of the recirculating cooling water (RCW) treatment to achieve approximate zero emission in the coal chemical industry. The benefits of fractional and comprehensive RCW treatment were quantified and qualified by using a water and mass balance approach. Limits of cycle of concentrations and some encountered bottlenecks were used to ascertain set target limits for different water sources. Makeup water was mixed with water produced from reverse osmosis (RO) in the proportion of 6:4, which notably reduced salts discharge. Side infiltration, which settled down suspended solids, can reduce energy consumption by over 40%. An automated on-line monitoring organic phosphorus inhibitor feed maintains the RCW system stability in comparison to the manual feed. Two-step electrosorb technology (EST) instead of an acid feed can lead cycle of concentration of water to reach 7.0. The wastewater from RO, EST and filter was transferred into a concentration treatment system where metallic ions were adsorbed by permanent magnetic materials. Separation of water and salts was completed by using a magnetic disc separator. Applying the integrated process in a coal chemical industry, a benefit of 1.60 million Yuan annually in 2 years was gained and approximate zero emission was achieved. Moreover, both technical and economic feasibility were demonstrated in detail.

  19. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the

  20. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  1. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the

  2. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the

  3. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  4. Schmidt hammer rebound data for estimation of large scale in situ coal strength

    SciTech Connect

    Sheorey, P.R.

    1984-02-01

    The paper reports an investigation to determine whether a correlation exists between the Schmidt hammer rebound and the in situ large-scale strength. The results showed a reasonable correlation between the large-scale in situ crushing strength of 0.3 m cubes of coal and the lower mean of rebound values obtained. The regression is seen to be linear within the range 2.75 - 13.14 MPa of in situ strength. In situ large-scale testing procedures are cumbersome and expensive, and the Schmidt hammer rebound method can offer a quicker and cheaper means of estimating this strength. Laboratory 25 mm cube coal strength shows a greater scatter with rebound values than the large-scale in situ strength, and gives a non-linear regression.

  5. Ever-shifting ground: work and labor relations in the anthracite coal industry, 1968-1903

    SciTech Connect

    Blatz, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation traces the work experience of the mine workers of the anthracite coal industry of northeastern Pennsylvania from the final three decades of the nineteenth century, during which several attempts to unionize the mines failed, to the industry-wide anthracite strikes of 1900 and 1902, which brought to a successful conclusion the United Mine Workers' drive for unionization. The correspondence of corporate executives shows that a pervasive philosophy of antiunionism characterized management's approach to labor relations. During the nonunion era, the state, rather than any labor organization, served as the most effective counterpoise to corporate power through its enactment of an extensive code of mining regulation. Nevertheless, mine workers still confronted a perilous workplace which, along with chronic underemployment and an utterly unsystematized congeries of work rules, combined to create a work experience fraught with insecurity. The United Mine Workers proposed an industry-wide contract as the means to solve these problems, and effective organization as the prod to force the corporations to negotiate such a contract. However, the union succeeded in its organizing only in the wake of numerous wildcat strikes protesting the many manifestations of the paternalistic, individualized style of labor relations which had always characterized the industry.

  6. Impending impacts of Title III and Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 on the coal industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kerch, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    The coal industry has already begun to feel the affects of the acid deposition title, particularly in Illinois. Two challenges to the producers and sellers of coal; i.e., (1) Title III, Hazardous Air Pollutants and what is in store for customers, and (2) Title V, Operating Permits, which may affect production facilities are discussed. The utilities are temporarily exempted from Title III. The Great Waters report suggests that mercury will be regulated, and it looks like risk assessments will be based on coal analysis rather than on actual emission measurements. Stack sampling is difficult, expensive and slow. Coal cleaning is important in reducing trace elements. Electrostatic precipitators also remove trace elements. ESPs are less effective for mercury and selenium because they are emitted in the gas phase. FGD can remove hazardous air pollutants, but it is not well documented.

  7. Corrosivities in a pilot-scale combustor of a British and two Illinois coals with varying chlorine contents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Lytle, J.M.; Kung, S.C.; Ho, K.K.

    2000-01-01

    Many US boiler manufacturers have recommended limits on the chlorine (Cl) content (< 0.25% or < 0.3%) of coals to be used in their boilers. These limits were based primarily on extrapolation of British coal data to predict the probable corrosion behavior of US coals. Even though Cl-related boiler corrosion has not been reported by US utilities burning high-Cl Illinois coals, the manufacturer's limits affect the marketability of high-Cl Illinois coals. This study measured the relative rates of corrosion caused by two high-Cl coals (British and Illinois) and one low-Cl Illinois baseline coal under identical pilot-scale combustion conditions for about 1000 h which gave reliable comparisons. Temperatures used reflected conditions in boiler superheaters. The corrosion probes were fabricated from commercial alloy 304SS frequently used at the hottest superheater section of utility boilers. The results showed no evidence of direct correlation between the coal chlorine content and rate of corrosion. A correlation between the rate of corrosion and the metal temperature was obvious. The results suggested that the different field histories of corrosivity from burning high-Cl Illinois coal and high-Cl British coal occurred because of different metal temperatures operated in US and UK utility boilers. The results of this study can be combined into a database, which could be used for lifting the limits on chlorine contents of coals burned in utility boilers in the US.

  8. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing

    SciTech Connect

    W. Pawlak; K. Szymocha

    1998-08-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from April 1, 1998 to June 30, 1998 on the POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing. Continuous bench-scale runs were carried out with Luscar Mine coal. The main objectives were to optimize process conditions for a proposed jet processor and to compare its performance with a standard high-shear mixer. A total of three runs consisted of 15 testing periods was carried out. Both conditioning devices performed very well with combustible matter recovery exceeding 96%. Slightly higher coal recovery was observed for high-shear mixer, while lower ash contents were achieved when jet processor was used for coal conditioning. During the current reporting period work has been continued and completed on the engineering and design package of a 3 t/h POC-scale agglomeration unit. Preliminary design package prepared by Thermo Design Engineering, a subcontractor to this project, was submitted to DOE for revision and approval.

  9. THE SCALE-UP OF LARGE PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BEDS FOR ADVANCED COAL FIRED PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Leon Glicksman; Hesham Younis; Richard Hing-Fung Tan; Michel Louge; Elizabeth Griffith; Vincent Bricout

    1998-04-30

    Pressurized fluidization is a promising new technology for the clean and efficient combustion of coal. Its principle is to operate a coal combustor at high inlet gas velocity to increase the flow of reactants, at an elevated pressure to raise the overall efficiency of the process. Unfortunately, commercialization of large pressurized fluidized beds is inhibited by uncertainties in scaling up units from the current pilot plant levels. In this context, our objective is to conduct a study of the fluid dynamics and solid capture of a large pressurized coal-fired unit. The idea is to employ dimensional similitude to simulate in a cold laboratory model the flow in a Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed ''Pyrolyzer,'' which is part of a High Performance Power System (HIPPS) developed by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC) under the DOE's Combustion 2000 program.

  10. Development of a coal quality expert

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-09

    Four companies and seven host utilities have teamed with CQ Inc. and C-E to perform the work on this project. The 42-month project will provide the utility industry with a PC expert system to confidently and inexpensively evaluate the potential for coal cleaning, blending, and switching options to reduce emissions while producing lowest cost electricity. Specifically, this project will: enhance the existing Coal Quality Information System (CQIS) database and Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM) to allow confident assessment of the effects of cleaning on specific boiler cost and performance; and develop and validate a methodology, Coal Quality Expert (CQE) which allows accurate and detailed predictions of coal quality impacts on total power plant capital cost, operating cost, and performance based upon inputs from inexpensive bench-scale tests. During the past quarter, coal cleanability characterization and utility boiler field tests were conducted. Coal characterization studies were performed with the Croweburg Seam coal, obtained from Peabody Coal Company's Rogers County No. 2 Mine located in northeastern Oklahoma. This coal is burned as part of a blend at Public Service Oklahoma's Northeastern Unit 4 (PSO-NE4), a 450-MW unit located at Oologah, Oklahoma. Full-scale combustion tests were initiated at PSO-NE4. Three coal feed scenarios will be evaluated at this site: (1) 100 percent Wyoming Coal (baseline), (2) 90/10 blend of Wyoming and Oklahoma coals, and (3) 70/30 blend of Wyoming and Oklahoma coals. Results to date are given. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Unexpected Dominance of Elusive Acidobacteria in Early Industrial Soft Coal Slags

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Carl-Eric; Liesack, Werner

    2017-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) and mine tailing environments are well-characterized ecosystems known to be dominated by organisms involved in iron- and sulfur-cycling. Here we examined the microbiology of industrial soft coal slags that originate from alum leaching, an ecosystem distantly related to AMD environments. Our study involved geochemical analyses, bacterial community profiling, and shotgun metagenomics. The slags still contained high amounts of alum constituents (aluminum, sulfur), which mediated direct and indirect effects on bacterial community structure. Bacterial groups typically found in AMD systems and mine tailings were not present. Instead, the soft coal slags were dominated by uncharacterized groups of Acidobacteria (DA052 [subdivision 2], KF-JG30-18 [subdivision 13]), Actinobacteria (TM214), Alphaproteobacteria (DA111), and Chloroflexi (JG37-AG-4), which have previously been detected primarily in peatlands and uranium waste piles. Shotgun metagenomics allowed us to reconstruct 13 high-quality Acidobacteria draft genomes, of which two genomes could be directly linked to dominating groups (DA052, KF-JG30-18) by recovered 16S rRNA gene sequences. Comparative genomics revealed broad carbon utilization capabilities for these two groups of elusive Acidobacteria, including polysaccharide breakdown (cellulose, xylan) and the competence to metabolize C1 compounds (ribulose monophosphate pathway) and lignin derivatives (dye-decolorizing peroxidases). Equipped with a broad range of efflux systems for metal cations and xenobiotics, DA052 and KF-JG30-18 may have a competitive advantage over other bacterial groups in this unique habitat. PMID:28642744

  12. Evaluation of water resources around Barapukuria coal mine industrial area, Dinajpur, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howladar, M. Farhad; Deb, Pulok Kanti; Muzemder, A. T. M. Shahidul Huqe; Ahmed, Mushfique

    2014-09-01

    Water is a very important natural resource which can be utilized in renewable or non-renewable forms but before utilizing, the evaluation of the quality of this resource is crucial for a particular use. However, the problems of water quality are more severe in areas where the mining and mineral processes' industries are present. In mining processes, several classes of wastes are produced which may turn into ultimately the sources of water quality and environmental degradation. In consequences, the evaluations of water quality for livestock, drinking, irrigation purposes and environmental implications have been carried out around the Barapukuria Coal Mining Industry under different methods and techniques such as primarily the field investigation; secondly the laboratory chemical analysis and thirdly justified the suitability of the laboratory analysis with statistical representation and correlation matrix, Schoeller plot, Piper's Trilinear diagram, Expanded Durov diagram, Wilcox diagram, US salinity diagram, Doneen's chart and others. The results of all surface and ground water samples analysis show that the characteristics and concentrations of all the major physical and chemical parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fetotal, Cl-, HCO3 -, CO3 2- and SO4 2- are varied from one sample to other but well analogous with the WHO and EQS standard limit for all purposes in the area where the abundance of the major ions is as follows: Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ > Fetotal = HCO3 - > SO4 2- > Cl- > CO3 2-. The graphical exposition of analytical data demonstrates two major hydrochemical facies for example: calcium-bicarbonate (Ca2+- HCO3 -) and magnesium-bicarbonate (Mg2+- HCO3 -) type facies which directly support the shallow recently recharged alkaline water around the industry. The calculated values for the evaluation classification of water based on TDS, Na%, EC, SAR, PI, RSC, MH, and TH replicate good to excellent use of water for livestock, drinking and

  13. New cleaning technologies advance coal

    SciTech Connect

    Onursal, B.

    1984-05-01

    Alternative options are discussed for reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from coal burning utility and industrial sources. Test results indicate that it may be most advantageous to use the AED Process after coal preparation or on coals that do not need much ash removal. However, the developer claims that research efforts after 1981 have led to process improvements for producing clean coals containing 1.5% to 3% ash. This paper describes the test facility where a full-scale test of the AED Process is underway.

  14. Fields of Coal: An analysis of industry and sedimentology in Dolores, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oaden, A.; Besonen, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    characterize the sediments is underway. Basic conclusions indicate the present environment to be minimally affected by the coal operations and resulting tipple pile, but with a large variance over time in mineralogy and composition of sediment, with further research necessary to determine the full effects of industry in the area.

  15. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-29

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, a majority of the effort was spent relining the separator/reservoir and the cyclone melter. The relinings were completed, the cyclonemelter was reinstalled, and the test system was returned to operational status. The wet ESP was delivered and placed on its foundation. The focus during the upcoming months will be completing the integration ofthe wet ESP and conducting the first industrial proof-of-concept test. The other system modifications are well underway with the designs of the recuperator installation and the batch/coal feed system progressing smoothly. The program is still slightly behind the original schedule but it is anticipated that it will be back on schedule by the end of the year. The commercialization planning is continuing with the identification of seven potential near-term commercial demonstration opportunities.

  16. Physicochemical characterizations and desulfurization properties in coal combustion of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jun Cheng; Junhu Zhou; Jianzhong Liu; Xinyu Cao; Kefa Cen

    2009-05-15

    To recycle industrial wastes and reduce SO{sub 2} pollutant emission in coal combustion, the mineralogical compositions, porosity structures, surface morphologies, and desulfurization properties of three calcium and sodium industrial wastes were investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD), porosimeter, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a fixed-bed reactor. (1) White lime mud (WLM) mainly composed of CaCO{sub 3} with Na{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}O impurities has smaller CaCO{sub 3} particles and a higher surface area than limestone. But calcined WLM has larger CaO particles and a lower surface area than limestone calcined at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s. (2) Calcium carbide residue (CCR) mainly composed of Ca(OH)2, has the highest surface area and smaller Ca(OH){sub 2} particles than the CaCO{sub 3} particles in WLM. Its surface area monotonously and dramatically decreases at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, but the sintered CaO particles are still smaller than those in the limestone. (3) When brine sludge (BS), mainly composed of NaCl and CaCO{sub 3}, is heated at 1200{sup o}C for 300 s, the NaCl/CaO eutectic solvent facilitates the aggregation of some complex composites to form many larger particles. (4) WLM gives the highest desulfurization efficiency of 80.4% at 1000{sup o}C and 65.0% at 1100{sup o}C in coal combustion. Combined CCR and limestone give a synergistic desulfurization efficiency of 45.8% at 1200{sup o}C. BS with a molar ratio of Na/Ca at 1:15 effectively promotes the synergistic desulfurization efficiency of combined CCR and limestone to a peak of 54.9% at 1200{sup o}C. 23 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. A comparison between ceramic membrane filters and conventional fabric filters for fine particulate removal from a coal-fired industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Wincek, R.T.; Glick, D.C.; Scaroni, A.W.; Drury, K.; Makris; Stubblefield, D.J.

    1998-12-31

    Penn State is developing technologies for ultralow emissions when firing coal-based fuels, i.e., micronized coal and coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) in industrial boilers. Emissions being addressed are SO{sub 2}, NOx, fine particulate matter (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}), and air toxics (trace elements and volatile organic compounds). Results from trace element and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon emissions testing, when firing coal-based fuels, are reported elsewhere in these proceedings. This paper discusses the evaluation of ceramic membrane filters for fine particulate removal in a package boiler when firing micronized coal and CWSF.

  18. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect

    R.-H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; B. Luvsansambuu; A.D. Walters

    2000-10-01

    Work continued during the past quarter to improve the performance of the POC-scale unit. For the charging system, a more robust ''turbocharger'' has been fabricated and installed. All of the internal components of the charger have been constructed from the same material (i.e., Plexiglas) to prevent particles from contacting surfaces with different work functions. For the electrode system, a new set of vinyl-coated electrodes have been constructed and tested. The coated electrodes (i) allow higher field strengths to be tested without of risk of arcing and (ii) minimize the likelihood of charge reversal caused by particles colliding with the conducting surfaces of the uncoated electrodes. Tests are underway to evaluate these modifications. Several different coal samples were collected for testing during this reporting period. These samples included (i) a ''reject'' material that was collected from the pyrite trap of a pulverizer at a coal-fired power plant, (ii) an ''intermediate'' product that was selectively withdrawn from the grinding chamber of a pulverizer at a power plant, and (iii) a run-of-mine feed coal from an operating coal preparation plant. Tests were conducted with these samples to investigate the effects of several key parameters (e.g., particle size, charger type, sample history, electrode coatings, etc.) on the performance of the bench-scale separator.

  19. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF CHLORINE ON MERCURY OXIDATION IN A PILOT-SCALE COAL COMBUSTION--THE EFFECT OF COAL BLENDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coal-fired power plants are a major source of mercury (Hg) released into the environment and the utility industry is currently investigating options to reduce Hg emissions. The EPA Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) depends heavily on the co-benefit of mercury removal by existing and ...

  20. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF CHLORINE ON MERCURY OXIDATION IN A PILOT-SCALE COAL COMBUSTION--THE EFFECT OF COAL BLENDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coal-fired power plants are a major source of mercury (Hg) released into the environment and the utility industry is currently investigating options to reduce Hg emissions. The EPA Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) depends heavily on the co-benefit of mercury removal by existing and ...

  1. Large scale solubilization of coal and bioconversion to utilizable energy. Fifth quarterly technical report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, N.C.

    1995-12-01

    In order to develop a system for a large scale coal solubilization and its bioconversion to utilizable fuel, we plan to clone the genes encoding Neurospora protein that facilitate depolymerization of coal. We also plan to use desulfurizing bacteria to remove the sulfur in situ and use other microorganisms to convert biosolubilized coal into utilizable energy following an approach utilizing several microorganisms. In addition the product of coal solubilized by fungus will be characterized to determine their chemical nature and the mechanism of reaction catalyzed by fungal product during in vivo and in vitro solubilization by the fungus or purified fungal protein.

  2. Large scale solubilization of coal and bioconversion to utilizable energy. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, N.C.

    1994-06-01

    In order to develop a system for large scale coal solubilization and its bioconversion to utilizable fuel, the authors plan to clone the genes encoding Neurospora protein that facilitate depolymerization of coal. They also plan to use desulfurizing bacteria to remove the sulfur in situ and use other microorganisms to convert biosolubilized coal into utilizable energy following an approach utilizing several microorganisms (Faison). In addition the product of coal solubilized by fungus will be characterized to determine their chemical nature and the mechanism of reaction catalyzed by fungal product during in vivo and in vitro solubilization by the fungus or purified fungal protein.

  3. Large scale solubilization of coal and bioconversion to utilizable energy. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, N.C.

    1996-12-22

    In order to develop a system for a large scale coal solubilization and its bioconversion to utilizable fuel, the author plans to clone the genes encoding Neurospora protein that facilitate depolymerization of coal. He also plans to use desulfurizing bacteria to remove the sulfur in situ and use other microorganisms to convert biosolubilized coal into utilizable energy following an approach utilizing several microorganisms. In addition the product of coal solubilized by fungus will be characterized to determine their chemical nature and the mechanism of reaction catalyzed by fungal product during in vivo and in vitro solubilization by the fungus or purified fungal protein.

  4. Mercury emissions control in coal combustion systems using potassium iodide: bench-scale and pilot-scale studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ying Li; Michael Daukoru; Achariya Suriyawong; Pratim Biswas

    2009-01-15

    Bench- and pilot-scale experiments were conducted using potassium iodide (KI) for capture and removal of Hg in air and coal combustion exhaust. Two bench-scale reactor systems were used: (1) a packed-bed reactor (PBR) packed with granular or powder KI and (2) an aerosol flow reactor (AFR) with injection of KI particles. It was found that a higher temperature, a higher concentration of KI, and a longer gas residence time resulted in a higher Hg removal efficiency. A 100% Hg removal was achieved in the PBR above 300{sup o}C using 0.5 g of powder KI and in the AFR above 500{sup o}C with a KI/Hg molar ratio of 600 at a 5.8 s residence time. The low KI injection ratio relative to Hg indicated that KI is highly effective for Hg removal in air. Formation of I{sub 2} vapor by the oxidation of KI by O{sub 2} at high temperatures, which then reacts with Hg to produce HgI{sub 2}, was identified as the pathway for removal. The pilot-scale experiments were conducted in a 160 kW pulverized coal combustor. KI was introduced in two ways: as a powder mixed with coal and by spraying KI solution droplets into the flue gas. In both cases the Hg removal efficiency increased with an increase in the feed rate of KI. Mixing KI powder with coal was found to be more effective than spraying KI into the flue gas. The Hg removal by KI was less efficient in the pilot-scale tests than in the bench-scale tests probably due to certain flue gas components reacting with KI or I{sub 2}. Hg speciation measurements in both bench- and pilot-scale experiments indicated no oxidized mercury in the gas phase upon introduction of KI, indicating that the oxidation product HgI2 was captured in the particulate phase. This is very beneficial in coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators where particulate-bound Hg can be efficiently removed. 27 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial processing heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1995--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a {open_quotes}Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes} is a project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The test program consisted of one test run, with a duration of 100 hours at a nominal feed rate of 1000 lbs/hr. Throughout the test, the CMS was fired with coal and a coal by-product (i.e. coal-fired boiler fly ash) as the primary fuels. Natural gas was used as an auxiliary fuel as necessary to provide process trim. The feedstock consisted of a coal-fired utility boiler fly ash and dolomite and produced a stable, fully-reacted vitrified product. The fly ash, supplied by PENELEC, contained between 6 and 12% by weight of carbon because of the low NOx burners on the PENELEC boilers. Therefore, a substantial portion of the required thermal input came from the fly ash.

  6. Development and scale-up of particle agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Meiyu

    The development of two modified agglomeration processes for coal beneficiation is presented separately in Parts I and II of this dissertation. Part I is based on research which was conducted to study the mechanism and characteristics of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process. Part II is based on research which was carried out to develop a newer and more innovative method for agglomerating coal particles with microscopic gas bubbles in aqueous suspensions. In Part I, the development of a gas-promoted oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During batch agglomeration tests the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspension. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. It was shown that gas bubbles trigger the process of agglomeration and participate in a very complex mechanism involving the interaction of particles, oil droplets, and gas bubbles. The process takes place in stages involving dispersion of oil and gas, flocculation, coagulation, and agglomerate building. Numerous agglomeration tests were conducted with two kinds of coal in concentrated suspensions to determine the important characteristics of the process and to study the effects of the following operating parameters: i-octane concentration, air concentration, particle concentration, tank diameter, impeller diameter, and impeller speed

  7. POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-12

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale oil agglomeration technology capable of increasing the recovery and improving the quality of fine coal strearrts. Two distinct agglomeration devices will be tested, namely, a conventional high shear mixer and a jet processor. To meet the overall objective an eleven task work plan has been designed. The work ranges from batch and continuous bench-scale testing through the design, commissioning and field testing of POC-scale agglomeration equipment.

  8. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system -- combustion development

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.

    1994-06-01

    This topical report summarizes the combustor development work accomplished under the subject contract. The objective was to develop a combustion system for the Solar 4MW Type H Centaur gas turbine generator set which was to be used to demonstrate the economic, technical and environmental feasibility of a direct coal-fueled gas turbine in a 100 hour proof-of-concept test. This program started with a design configuration derived during the CSC program. The design went through the following evolution: CSC design which had some known shortcomings, redesigned CSC now designated as the Two Stage Slagging Combustor (TSSC), improved TSSC with the PRIS evaluated in the IBSTF, and full scale design. Supporting and complimentary activities included computer modelling, flow visualization, slag removal, SO{sub x} removal, fuel injector development and fuel properties evaluation. Three combustor rigs were utilized: the TSSC, the IBSTF and the full scale rig at Peoria. The TSSC rig, which was 1/10th scale of the proposed system, consisted of a primary and secondary zone and was used to develop the primary zone performance and to evaluate SO{sub x} and slag removal and fuel properties variations. The IBSTF rig which included all the components of the proposed system was also 1/10th scale except for the particulate removal system which was about 1/30th scale. This rig was used to verify combustor performance data obtained on the TSSC and to develop the PRIS and the particulate removal system. The full scale rig initially included the primary and secondary zones and was later modified to incorporate the PRIS. The purpose of the full scale testing was to verify the scale up calculations and to provide a combustion system for the proof-of-concept engine test that was initially planned in the program.

  9. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  10. Technological processing of coals. 1. The coke and chemical industry and its development potential

    SciTech Connect

    Sklyar, M.G.

    1992-12-31

    The conditions of state sovereignty over the former USSR republics and the changeover in the national economy to free market functioning requires the reconsideration and in some cases the abandonment of former ideas and priorities. The place of the coke and chemical industry must be reviewed in relation to other industrial sectors in general and the iron and steel industry in particular. The scale of the coke and chemical industry throughout the world has hitherto depended on the demand for blast-furnace coke. Moreover, coke-oven plants have always been and still are, as it were, appendages to blast-furnace plants; in the EC countries, for example, around 80% of the coke produced in consumed in iron and steel plants (in the FRG, the figure is actually 90%). In the CIS countries, the figure is more than 80% (nearly 95% in Ukraine). 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Analysis of the interaction of the coal and transportation industries in 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    This study analyzes the impacts of major developments in coal transportation on coal production, prices and markets. Coal and coal transportation markets have special characteristics that must be accommodated if an analysis is to be useful. First, coal of differing energy and sulfur contents is produced in different regions in the United States. The transportation options from these supply regions to the various coal demand regions also differ. The market boundary between coal supply regions depends on the end-use cost to the final purchaser of using coal from each source. The differences in coals and transportation options imply that no simple rule of thumb will yield the end-use cost from competing supply regions at a given site, so market boundaries cannot be identified simply. Second, at most sites, one fuel, say coal from a given region, will clearly have a lower end-use cost than the others. However, there is no unique answer to the question of how the benefits from this lower cost at a given site are shared among the parties involved. Finally, the current status of the coal market is not a reliable guide to the future, because of ongoing changes in relative real fuel prices, the regulatory rules that railroads follow, and environmental constraints on utilities. The implication of these characteristics is that no one can predict what actual future coal markets and transportation rates will be using only a theoretical model or statistical analysis of historical data.

  12. [Industrial pulverized coal low NO{sub x} burner, Phase I] technical progress report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Market evaluation of industrial pulverized coal usage, and of typical industries and applications where the low-NO{sub x}, burner may be sold, was partially completed at the end of this reporting period. The study identified three coals that may adequately meet the requirements of the low-NO{sub x} burner modeling study, and of the intended industrial applications. These were: (a) Pittsburgh Seam Bituminous, (b) Pittsburgh No. 8, and (c) Utah Bituminous. The first burner design, for modeling studies, was developed for a nominal output of 5.0 million Btu/hr. All input and process parameters, and all major dimensions of the burner have been determined. Burner design sketch was developed. Standard jet pump geometry of the fuel-rich burner flow path (US Patents No. 4,445,842 and No. 3,990,831), has been modified for use with pulverized coal. Staged air was added. Staged air, in conjunction with recirculated flue gas, has been found by ADL, MIT and other researchers to be effective in NO{sub x}, reduction. No attempt has been made to achieve compactness of design. The primary and seconder, air inlets and flow passages are separate, although in the industrial burner they will be combined. Flue gas may be drawn into the burner either from the hot furnace chamber, or from the flue stack after recuperation. However, to satisfy the energy requirements for volatilizing the coal, flue gas temperature above 2000{degrees}F may be needed. With the preliminary burner design completed, and suitable coals for the modeling study selected, type project is ready to proceed to the kinetic modeling tasks at MIT.

  13. [Industrial pulverized coal low NO[sub x] burner, Phase I] technical progress report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Market evaluation of industrial pulverized coal usage, and of typical industries and applications where the low-NO[sub x], burner may be sold, was partially completed at the end of this reporting period. The study identified three coals that may adequately meet the requirements of the low-NO[sub x] burner modeling study, and of the intended industrial applications. These were: (a) Pittsburgh Seam Bituminous, (b) Pittsburgh No. 8, and (c) Utah Bituminous. The first burner design, for modeling studies, was developed for a nominal output of 5.0 million Btu/hr. All input and process parameters, and all major dimensions of the burner have been determined. Burner design sketch was developed. Standard jet pump geometry of the fuel-rich burner flow path (US Patents No. 4,445,842 and No. 3,990,831), has been modified for use with pulverized coal. Staged air was added. Staged air, in conjunction with recirculated flue gas, has been found by ADL, MIT and other researchers to be effective in NO[sub x], reduction. No attempt has been made to achieve compactness of design. The primary and seconder, air inlets and flow passages are separate, although in the industrial burner they will be combined. Flue gas may be drawn into the burner either from the hot furnace chamber, or from the flue stack after recuperation. However, to satisfy the energy requirements for volatilizing the coal, flue gas temperature above 2000[degrees]F may be needed. With the preliminary burner design completed, and suitable coals for the modeling study selected, type project is ready to proceed to the kinetic modeling tasks at MIT.

  14. Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system, controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The past quarter began with a two-day test performed in January to determine the cause of pulsations in the batch feed system observed during pilot-scale testing of surrogate TSCA incinerator ash performed in December of 1993. Two different batch feedstocks were used during this test: flyash and cullet. The cause of the pulsations was traced to a worn part in the feeder located at the bottom of the batch feed tank. The problem was corrected by replacing the wom part with the corresponding part on the existing coal feed tank. A new feeder for the existing coal tank, which had previously been ordered as part of the new coal handling system, was procured and installed. The data from the pilot-scale tests performed on surrogate TSCA incinerator ash during December of 1993 was collected and analyzed. All of the glass produced during the test passed both the Toxicity characteristics Leach Procedure (TCLP) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT) by approximately two orders of magnitude.

  15. Advanced Thermally Stable Coal-Based Jet Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    through pilot-plant scale were derivatives of coal tar from the metallurgical coke industry. The specific coal tar product selected was refined...production. Options 3 include direct liquefaction, tars from coal carbonization ( coking ), solvent extracts, coker liquids from coking coal/petroleum...route was needed to obtain good yields of a product having the same chemical characteristics as refined chemical oil but one not requiring a coke

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) around tea processing industries using high-sulfur coals.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Jyotilima; Khare, Puja; Saikia, Prasenjit; Saikia, Binoy K

    2016-09-27

    In the present investigation, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with PM2.5, PM10 and dust particles emitted from two tea processing industrial units were studied that uses high-sulfur coal as their energy source. A total of 16 PAHs (viz. naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthene (Ace), acenaphthylene (Acen), phenanthrene (Phe), fluorene (Flu), anthracene (Ant), fluoranthene (Fluo), pyrene (Pyr), benz[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chry), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBahA), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IP) and benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP) were measured. The total PAH concentration was found to be 94.7 ng/m(3) (∑4 PAHs) in the PM10 particle, 32.5 (∑12 PAHs) in PM2.5 and 1.08 ng/m(3) (∑6 PAHs) in the dust sample from site A. In site B, the sum of the PAHs in the PM2.5, PM10 and dust samples are found to be 154.4 ng/m(3) (∑7 PAHs), 165 ng/m(3) (∑3 PAHs) and 1.27 ng/m(3) (∑6 PAHs), respectively. Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model study revealed the contribution of local or long-range transport of aerosol sources. Along with the coal combustion activities in the study sites, other sources such as biomass burning and vehicular emission may contribute to the PAHs in the aerosol samples.

  17. Large scale solubilization of coal and bioconversion to utilizable energy. Quarterly technical progress report, September--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, N.C.

    1993-12-31

    In order to develop a system for a large scale coal solubilization and its bioconversion to utilizable fuel, we plan to clone the genes encoding Neurospora protein that facilitate depolymerization of coal. We also plan to use desulfurizing bacteria to remove the sulfur in situ and use other microorganisms to convert biosolubilized coal into utilizable energy following an approach utilizing several microorganisms (Faison, 1991). In addition the product of coal solubilized by fungus will be characterized to determine their chemical nature and the mechanism of reaction catalyzed by fungal product during in vivo and in vitro solubilization by the fungus or purified fungal protein. The main objectives are: (1) Cloning of Neurospora gene for coal depolymerization protein controlling solubilization in different host cells, utilizing Neurospora plasmid and other vector(s); (2) (a) Development of a large scale electrophoretic separation of coal-drived products obtained after microbial solubilization; (b) Identification of the coal derived products obtained after biosolubilization by Neurospora cultures or obtained after Neurospora enzyme catalyzed reaction in in vitro by the wildtype and mutant enzymes; and (3) Bioconversion of coal-derived products into utilizable fuel.

  18. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  19. "Rule of Thumb Methods No Longer Suffice": Development of British Coal Industry Education and Training 1900-circa 1970 and Lessons for Present-Day Education Policy-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martyn A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the origins and development of coal mining education and training in Britain from 1900 to the 1970s, by which time the coal industry had substantially declined. It looks at the progress from working-class self-help to national policy in support of education and training. The research makes use of college prospectuses and…

  20. "Rule of Thumb Methods No Longer Suffice": Development of British Coal Industry Education and Training 1900-circa 1970 and Lessons for Present-Day Education Policy-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martyn A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper traces the origins and development of coal mining education and training in Britain from 1900 to the 1970s, by which time the coal industry had substantially declined. It looks at the progress from working-class self-help to national policy in support of education and training. The research makes use of college prospectuses and…

  1. Identifying Catchment-Scale Predictors of Coal Mining Impacts on New Zealand Stream Communities.

    PubMed

    Clapcott, Joanne E; Goodwin, Eric O; Harding, Jon S

    2016-03-01

    Coal mining activities can have severe and long-term impacts on freshwater ecosystems. At the individual stream scale, these impacts have been well studied; however, few attempts have been made to determine the predictors of mine impacts at a regional scale. We investigated whether catchment-scale measures of mining impacts could be used to predict biological responses. We collated data from multiple studies and analyzed algae, benthic invertebrate, and fish community data from 186 stream sites, including un-mined streams, and those associated with 620 mines on the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand. Algal, invertebrate, and fish richness responded to mine impacts and were significantly higher in un-mined compared to mine-impacted streams. Changes in community composition toward more acid- and metal-tolerant species were evident for algae and invertebrates, whereas changes in fish communities were significant and driven by a loss of nonmigratory native species. Consistent catchment-scale predictors of mining activities affecting biota included the time post mining (years), mining density (the number of mines upstream per catchment area), and mining intensity (tons of coal production per catchment area). Mining was associated with a decline in stream biodiversity irrespective of catchment size, and recovery was not evident until at least 30 years after mining activities have ceased. These catchment-scale predictors can provide managers and regulators with practical metrics to focus on management and remediation decisions.

  2. Identifying Catchment-Scale Predictors of Coal Mining Impacts on New Zealand Stream Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapcott, Joanne E.; Goodwin, Eric O.; Harding, Jon S.

    2016-03-01

    Coal mining activities can have severe and long-term impacts on freshwater ecosystems. At the individual stream scale, these impacts have been well studied; however, few attempts have been made to determine the predictors of mine impacts at a regional scale. We investigated whether catchment-scale measures of mining impacts could be used to predict biological responses. We collated data from multiple studies and analyzed algae, benthic invertebrate, and fish community data from 186 stream sites, including un-mined streams, and those associated with 620 mines on the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand. Algal, invertebrate, and fish richness responded to mine impacts and were significantly higher in un-mined compared to mine-impacted streams. Changes in community composition toward more acid- and metal-tolerant species were evident for algae and invertebrates, whereas changes in fish communities were significant and driven by a loss of nonmigratory native species. Consistent catchment-scale predictors of mining activities affecting biota included the time post mining (years), mining density (the number of mines upstream per catchment area), and mining intensity (tons of coal production per catchment area). Mining was associated with a decline in stream biodiversity irrespective of catchment size, and recovery was not evident until at least 30 years after mining activities have ceased. These catchment-scale predictors can provide managers and regulators with practical metrics to focus on management and remediation decisions.

  3. Semi industrial scale RVNRL preparation, products manufacturing and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, Wan Manshol Bin W.

    1998-06-01

    Natural rubber latex vulcanisation by radiation aims towards the preparation of prevulcanised natural rubber latex in the name of RVNRL for use to produce chemical-free and environment-friendly latex products. Scale up RVNRL preparation is proven possible when a semi-commercial latex irradiator was commissioned in MINT in March 1996. The plant is designed to irradiate up to 6 000 cubic meters per annum of natural rubber latex. RVNRL has the required properties and successfully used on industrial scale production of quality gloves and balloons.

  4. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect

    E.S. Yan; G.H. Luttrell; G.T. Adel; R.-H. Yoon

    1999-03-10

    It is the objective of the project to further develop the triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process developed at the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and to test the process at a proof-of-concept (POC) scale. This process has a distinct advantage over other coal cleaning processes in that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering. The POC-scale unit is to be developed based on (i) the charging characteristics of coal and mineral matter that can be determined using the novel on-line tribocharge measuring device developed at Virginia Tech and (ii) the results obtained from bench-scale TES tests conducted on three different coals. During the past quarter, most of the personnel assigned to this project have been performing work elements associated with the engineering design (Task 3) of the TES process. This activity has been subdivided into three subtasks, i.e., Charger Tests (Subtask 3.1), Separator Tests (Subtask 3.2), and Final POC Design (Subtask 3.3). In Subtask 3.1, several different tribocharging devices have been constructed using materials of various work functions. They are currently being tested to establish the best materials to be used for designing and manufacturing the optimum tribochargers that can maximum charge differences between coal and mineral matter. In Subtask 3.2, bench-scale cleaning tests have been conducted to study the effects of the various operating and design parameters on the performance of the electrostatic separator. Two different TES units have been tested to date. One uses drum-type electrodes to separate charged particles, while the other uses plate-type electrodes for the separation. The test results showed that a major improvement in separation efficiency can be achieved by recycling the middlings back to the feed stream. It has also been established that the major source of inefficiency arises from the difficulty in separating ultrafine particles. Understanding the behavior of the ultrafine particles and finding

  5. [Cardiac deaths in hard coal-mining industry as an indicator of efficiency of occupational medicine services].

    PubMed

    Skowronek, Rafał; Chowaniec, Czesław; Kowalska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Deaths in hard-coal mining industry can be divided into: accidental (usually of a single character) and non-accidental-intentional (homicide, suicide) and natural (with a pathological background, 'without external factors'). The main cause of natural deaths is myocardial infarction (MI). Its risk is increased by environmental factors in working place, unhealthy life style, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking, which is often an attempt at coping with chronic stress, so proper prevention, qualification and periodic examination of workers is indispensable. The aim of the study is to analyze cases of miners' cardiac deaths investigated in Department of Forensic Medicine in Katowice and the number of natural deaths in hard-coal mines in the years 1999-2010. There were 298 accidental and 122 natural deaths, the latter showing an increasing tendency in the years 2002-2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Natural deaths--in 95% sudden cardiac deaths--constituted 29% of all deaths in hard-coal mining industry. Autopsies supplemented by histopathological investigations often revealed advanced atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, which should disqualify a candidate from working underground. A high number of natural deaths in hard-coal mining industry and morphological post mortem assessment of victims indicate insufficiency of occupational medicine services. We propose an improvement of its quality and a higher frequency of periodic examinations of workers (especially in groups with the highest risk of MI), as well as courses of Basic Life Support (BLS). Forensic medicine may be socially useful in assessing the efficiency of occupational medicine services in mining industry.

  6. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    SciTech Connect

    A.D. Walters; G.H. Luttrell; G.T. Adel; R.-H. Yoon

    1999-01-01

    It is the objective of the current project to further refine the TES process developed at FETC through bench-scale and proof-of-concept (POC) test programs. The bench-scale test program is aimed at studying the charging mechanisms associated with coal and mineral matter and improving the triboelectrification process, while the POC test program is aimed at obtaining scale-up information. The POC tests will be conducted at a throughput of 200-250 kg/hr. It is also the objective of the project to conduct a cost analysis based on the scale-up information obtained in the present work. Specific objectives of the work conducted during the current reporting period can be summarized as follows: to complete the engineering design of the TES tribocharging system and electrostatic separator, and to continue work related to the procurement and fabrication of the key components required to construct and install the proposed POC test circuit.

  7. Production cost and air emissions impacts of coal cycling in power systems with large-scale wind penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oates, David Luke; Jaramillo, Paulina

    2013-06-01

    Wind power introduces variability into electric power systems. Due to the physical characteristics of wind, most of this variability occurs at inter-hour time-scales and coal units are therefore technically capable of balancing wind. Operators of coal-fired units have raised concerns that additional cycling will be prohibitively costly. Using PJM bid-data, we observe that coal operators are likely systematically under-bidding their startup costs. We then consider the effects of a 20% wind penetration scenario in the coal-heavy PJM West area, both when coal units bid business as usual startup costs, and when they bid costs accounting for the elevated wear and tear that occurs during cycling. We conclude that while 20% wind leads to increased coal cycling and reduced coal capacity factors under business as usual startup costs, including full startup costs shifts the burden of balancing wind onto more flexible units. This shift has benefits for CO2, NOX, and SO2 emissions as well as for the profitability of coal plants, as calculated by our dispatch model.

  8. Delayed coking of decant oil and coal in a laboratory-scale coking unit

    SciTech Connect

    Oemer Guel; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert

    2006-08-15

    In this paper, we describe the development of a laboratory-scale delayed coker and present results of an investigation on the recovered liquid from the coking of decant oil and decant oil/coal mixtures. Using quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, a study was made of the chemical composition of the distillate liquids isolated from the overheads collected during the coking and co-coking process. {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR analyses of combined liquids from coking and co-coking did not show any substantial differences. These NMR results of coking and co-coking liquids agree with those of GC/MS. In these studies, it was observed that co-coking with coal resulted in a decrease in the paraffins contents of the liquid. The percentage of cycloparaffins, indenes, naphthalenes, and tetralins did not change significantly. In contrast, alkyl benzenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the distillate were higher in the co-coking experiments which may have resulted from the distillation of thermally cracked coal macromolecules and the contribution of these molecules to the overall liquid composition. 40 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. Large-Scale Digital Geologic Map Databases and Reports of the North Coal District in Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hare, Trent M.; Davis, Philip A.; Nigh, Devon; Skinner, James A.; SanFilipo, John R.; Bolm, Karen S.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Galuszka, Donna; Stettner, William R.; Sultani, Shafiqullah; Nader, Billal

    2008-01-01

    members of the coal team: Engineer Saifuddin Aminy (Team Leader); Engineer Gul Pacha Azizi; Engineer Abdul Haq Barakati; Engineer Abdul Basir; Engineer Mohammad Daoud; Engineer Abdullah Ebadi; Engineer Abdul Ahad Omaid; Engineer Spozmy; and Engineer Shapary Tokhi. The ongoing efforts of Engineer Mir M. Atiq Kazimi (Team leader); Engineer M. Anwar Housinzada; and Engineer Shereen Agha of the AGS Records Department to organize and catalogue the AGS material were invaluable in locating and preserving these data. The efforts of the entire AGS staff to personally preserve these data during war time, in the absence of virtually any supporting infrastructure, was truly remarkable. The efforts by the British Geological Survey (BGS) to assist the AGS in archiving these data, and the personal assistance provided by BGS (notably Robert McIntosh), to the USGS teams were also appreciated. The logistical support provided by the U.S. Embassy in Kabul, particularly the Afghanistan Reconstruction Group, was critical to the success of the USGS teams while in Afghanistan. Finally, the efforts of the Minister of the Ministry of Mines and Industries (M. Ibrahim Adel) to support the USGS coal resource assessment in Afghanistan, in both his current and former role as President of the Mines Affairs Department was vital to this effort.

  10. CFD modeling of commercial-scale entrained-flow coal gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of an advanced coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle system requires an accurate numerical prediction of gasifier performance. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to model the turbulent multiphase reacting flow inside commercial-scale entrained-flow coal gasifiers. Due to the complexity of the physical and chemical processes involved, the accuracy of sub-models requires further improvement. Built upon a previously developed CFD model for entrained-flow gasification, the advanced physical and chemical sub-models presented in this paper include a moisture vaporization model with consideration of high mass transfer rate and a coal devolatilization model with more species to represent coal volatiles and the heating rate effect on volatile yield. The global gas phase reaction kinetics is also carefully selected. To predict a reasonable peak temperature of the coal/O{sub 2} flame inside an entrained-flow gasifier, the reserve reaction of H{sub 2} oxidation is included in the gas phase reaction model. The enhanced CFD model is applied to simulate two typical commercial-scale oxygen-blown entrained-flow configurations including a single-stage down-fired gasifier and a two-stage up-fired gasifier. The CFD results are reasonable in terms of predicted carbon conversion, syngas exit temperature, and syngas exit composition. The predicted profiles of velocity, temperature, and species mole fractions inside the entrained-flow gasifier models show trends similar to those observed in a diffusion-type flame. The predicted distributions of mole fractions of major species inside both gasifiers can be explained by the heterogeneous combustion and gasification reactions and the homogeneous gas phase reactions. It was also found that the syngas compositions at the CFD model exits are not in chemical equilibrium, indicating the kinetics for both heterogeneous and gas phase homogeneous reactions are important. Overall, the results achieved here

  11. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a {open_quotes}Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes} is a project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the major effort was concentrated on conducting the 100 hour demonstration test. The test was successfully conducted from September 12th through the 16th. The test program consisted of one test run, with a duration of 100 hours at a nominal feed rate of 1000 lbs/hr. Throughout the test, the CMS was fired with coal and a coal by-product (i.e. coal-fired boiler flyash) as the primary fuels. Natural gas was used as an auxiliary fuel as necessary to provide process trim. The feedstock consisted of a coal-fired utility boiler flyash and dolomite and produced a stable, fully-reacted vitrified product. The fly ash, supplied by PENELEC, contained between 6 and 12% by weight of carbon because of the low NO{sub x} burners on the PENELEC boilers.

  12. Industrial experiments for the application of ultrasound on scale control in the Chinese sugar industry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Aijun; Zheng, Jie; Qiu, Taiqiu

    2006-05-01

    The industrialized application of a technique of scale control by ultrasound was investigated in this paper. The results indicated that not only the viscosity of sugar solution was reduced, but also the heat transfer coefficient and evaporation intensity of the evaporation system were improved by 42.4% and 15.2% respectively, and the scale was removed remarkably with no significant effects on white sugar quality. In addition, chemical detergent was not necessary, so no chemical contamination existed and labour intensity was reduced in this technique. Furthermore, the ultrasonic equipment is easy to operate and has good performance in terms of high continuity and automisation.

  13. Bench-scale treatment of Lurgi gasifier and H-coal wastewaters by the PACT system

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, T.L.

    1984-11-01

    Laboratory and pilot scale studies were carried out on the feasibility of applying the PACT system (involving addition of powdered activated carbon to the aeration tanks in the activated sludge process, and wet-air oxidation of the sludge to recover carbon) to the treatment of wastewaters from the Lurgi/Mobil M process, which produces synthesis gas, and a coal liquefaction process. The PACT system provided continuous, reliable treatment. A 2-stage process gave the best overall removal of COD and DOC. Both single and 2-stage systems achieved consistent nitrification of the wastewaters, producing effluents containing < 1 mg NH/sub 3//l.

  14. Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

    1992-05-01

    Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

  15. Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

    1991-07-01

    Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

  16. Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

    1991-10-01

    Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

  17. Novel sensing techniques for industrial scale bio-digesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rallis, Ilias; Deakin, Anthony; Spencer, J. W.; Jones, G. R.

    2005-05-01

    The monitoring of a complex industrial scale process is a challenging task, particularly when such a process is a large (100m3) industrial organic waste anaerobic digestion (AD) system. This paper describes the deployment of fibre optic based sensors for monitoring an AD process. To enable this complex process to proceed, a number of critical conditions must be set (e.g. temperature, pH etc.).Two novel fibre optic sensors have been developed for monitoring temperature and pH. These operate in a zone zero environment (highly explosive) and need to withstand vibrations and microbial activity and to operate over extended periods of time (months) with no or little servicing.

  18. A comparison study of ash formation during pilot-scale combustion of pulverized coal and coal-water slurry fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fuel form. specifically pulverized coal and coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF), on the particle size distribution (PSD) and inorganic composition of the ash formed during combustion. Three areas of primary interest were fuel particle and droplet size distribution, mineral matter PSD, and the composition and occurrence of inorganics in the fuel. The reactions of pyrite, silicates, aluminosilicates, and alkali and alkaline earth elements during combustion are traced. Two coals, a West Virginia Elk Creek high volatile A bituminous coal and the North Dakota Beulah lignite, were fired as a standard utility grind pulverized fuel and a CWSF at 316.2 MJ/h at 20% excess air in the Penn State Combustion Laboratory down-fired combustor. Fuel PSD and droplet size distribution of the pulverized coal and CWSF are important in determining the PSD of the respective ash when the PSD of the mineral matter and the composition and occurrence of the inorganics in the two fuels are similar, as in the case of the Elk Creek fuels. The mechanism for ash formation in both Elk Creek fuels was coalescence and agglomeration of the inorganics in the coal. The Elk Creek CWSF ash was coarser than the pulverized coal ash due to the larger CWSF char size formed during atomization. The average diameter of the inorganic particles identified in the pulverized coal ash was 2.6 times smaller than those identified in the fuel. The mechanism for ash formation in the Beulah CWSF was coalescence and agglomeration of inherent mineral matter. The average diameter of the inorganic particles identified in the CWSF ash was 3.3 times larger than those identified in the fuel.

  19. Industrial innovations for tomorrow: Advances in industrial energy-efficiency technologies. Commercial power plant tests blend of refuse-derived fuel and coal to generate electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    MSW can be converted to energy in two ways. One involves the direct burning of MSW to produce steam and electricity. The second converts MSW into refuse-derived fuel (RDF) by reducing the size of the MSW and separating metals, glass, and other inorganic materials. RDF can be densified or mixed with binders to form fuel pellets. As part of a program sponsored by DOE`s Office of Industrial Technologies, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory participated in a cooperative research and development agreement to examine combustion of binder-enhanced, densified refuse-derived fuel (b-d RDF) pellets with coal. Pelletized b-d RDF has been burned in coal combustors, but only in quantities of less than 3% in large utility systems. The DOE project involved the use of b-d RDF in quantities up to 20%. A major goal was to quantify the pollutants released during combustion and measure combustion performance.

  20. Industrial-Scale Processes For Stabilizing Radioactively Contaminated Mercury Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, T. E.; Grondin, R.

    2003-02-24

    This paper describes two industrial-scaled processes now being used to treat two problematic mercury waste categories: elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides and radioactive solid wastes containing greater than 260-ppm mercury. The stabilization processes were developed by ADA Technologies, Inc., an environmental control and process development company in Littleton, Colorado. Perma-Fix Environmental Services has licensed the liquid elemental mercury stabilization process to treat radioactive mercury from Los Alamos National Laboratory and other DOE sites. ADA and Perma-Fix also cooperated to apply the >260-ppm mercury treatment technology to a storm sewer sediment waste collected from the Y-12 complex in Oak Ridge, TN.

  1. Development of a retrofit coal combustor for industrial applications, (Phase 1-A)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    During this past quarter, two tandem-fired pulse combustors were designed to fire at a nominal rate of 3.5 to 5.5 MMBtu/hr under continuation of Phase I work on DOE project DE-AC22-87PC79654. In prior work, MTCI demonstrated the operation of a 1--2 MMBtu/h coal-fired tandem pulse combustor that is intended for small industrial applications. These component tests emphasized verification of key design issues such as combustor coupling, slag rejection, and staged air addition. The current work, which represents an extension of the Phase I effort, focuses on integrated testing of the tandem pulse combustor with a fire-tube boiler, and the addition of a slag quench vessel. A tandem-fired pulse combustion unit designed to fire at a nominal rate of 3.5-5 MMBtu/hr was designed and fabricated. The configuration includes two combustion chambers cast in a single monolith, tailpipes cast separately with annular air preheating capability, and a cyclonic decoupler. Design analysis and evaluations were performed to optimize the system with respect to minimizing heat losses, size, and cost. Heat losses from the combustor and decoupler walls are predicted to be approximately 3 percent. The final designs for the ancillary items (slag quench, tertiary air addition, scrubber and sampling system) were completed and fabrication and installation initiated. A Cleaver-Brooks 150 hp-4 pass boiler was delivered and installed and modifications for interfacing with the retrofit pulse combustor unit completed. A below-ground slag collection pit was excavated to permit direct in-line coupling of the combustor to the boiler and to reduce head-room requirements. The pit is 30 inches deep and lined with waterproof and fireproof siding.

  2. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20

    China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is inextricably entwined with

  3. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment.

  4. Large scale solubilization of coal and bioconversion to utilizable energy. Technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, N.C.

    1996-05-01

    In order develop a system for a large scale coal solubilization and its bioconversion to utilizable fuel, the authors plan to clone the genes encoding Neurospora protein that facilitates depolymerization of coal. They also plan to use desulfurizing bacteria to remove the sulfur in situ and use other microorganisms to convert biosolubilized coal into utilizable energy following an approach utilizing several microorganisms. In addition the products of coal solubilized by fungus will be characterized to determine their chemical nature and the mechanism of reaction catalyzed by fungal product during in vivo and in vitro solubilization by the fungus or purified fungal protein. Results are presented for the cloning of genes for Neurospora CSA-protein.

  5. Old Dominion, industrial commonwealth: coal, politics, and economy in Antebellum America

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.P.

    2005-05-15

    The political economies of coal in Virginia and Pennsylvania from the late eighteenth century through the Civil War are compared, and the divergent paths these two states took in developing their ample coal reserves during a critical period of American industrialisation are examined. State economic policies played a major role. Virginia's failure to exploit the rich coal fields in the western part of the state can be traced to the legislature's over riding concern to protect and promote the interests of the agrarian, slaveholding elite of eastern Virginia. Pennsylvania's more fractious legislature enthusiastically embraced a policy of economic growth that resulted in the construction of an extensive transportation network, a statewide geological survey, and support for private investment in its coal fields.

  6. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  7. Industrial Large Scale Applications of Superconductivity -- Current and Future Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amm, Kathleen

    2011-03-01

    Since the initial development of NbTi and Nb3Sn superconducting wires in the early 1960's, superconductivity has developed a broad range of industrial applications in research, medicine and energy. Superconductivity has been used extensively in NMR low field and high field spectrometers and MRI systems, and has been demonstrated in many power applications, including power cables, transformers, fault current limiters, and motors and generators. To date, the most commercially successful application for superconductivity has been the high field magnets required for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with a global market well in excess of 4 billion excluding the service industry. The unique ability of superconductors to carry large currents with no losses enabled high field MRI and its unique clinical capabilities in imaging soft tissue. The rapid adoption of high field MRI with superconducting magnets was because superconductivity was a key enabler for high field magnets with their high field uniformity and image quality. With over 30 years of developing MRI systems and applications, MRI has become a robust clinical tool that is ever expanding into new and developing markets. Continued innovation in system design is continuing to address these market needs. One of the key questions that innovators in industrial superconducting magnet design must consider today is what application of superconductivity may lead to a market on the scale of MRI? What are the key considerations for where superconductivity can provide a unique solution as it did in the case of MRI? Many companies in the superconducting industry today are investigating possible technologies that may be the next large market like MRI.

  8. No corrosion caused by coal chlorine found in AFBC pilot scale tests

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, K.; Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Liu, K.; Smith, S.

    2000-07-01

    Measurements of deposition and corrosion were made in the freeboard of a 3 m inner diameter pilot scale atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) during seven 1,000-hours tests using coals with chlorine (Cl) contents ranging from 0.026% up to 0.47% and sulfur contents ranging from 0.897{approximately}4.4%. Uncooled coupons of alloys 304, 309, 347 and a cooled tube of A210C medium carbon steel were exposed to the hot flue gases to investigate the effects of different coal compositions on deposition and corrosion behavior, if any. The uncooled coupons were installed at the tope of the freeboard to simulate the superheater tube conditions (1,020--1,100 F surface temperature), while the temperature of the cooled A210C test tube was controlled to match the conditions of the evaporator tubes. Specimens were removed for examination after 250, 500, 750, 1,000 hours of exposure and analyzed for deposit formation and corrosion. No chlorine was found in the corrosion scale or on the metal surfaces after any of the tests. High sulfur contents were found in the outer parts of the deposits, and appeared to be associated with calcium and magnesium suggesting that the fly ash may react further after being deposited on the surface of the metal. It was concluded that the limestone bed in the AFBC not only can capture the sulfur but also can effectively capture chlorine. This effect helps being the Cl in the AFBC flue gas down to a level of <50 ppm which is significantly lower than the 300{approximately}400 ppm expected from combustion of the coal in the absence of limestone. This reduction in chlorine species in the gas phase has possible implications for decreased corrosion problems not only in the freeboard, but also in the cold end of the boiler. No evidence was found in these tests that metal wastage or corrosion was accelerated, either directly or indirectly, by chlorine in the coal.

  9. A new partnership to enhance international competitiveness for coal-related industries

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Finkelman, R.B.

    1999-07-01

    Conducting business in countries with significant indigenous coal supplies and expected economic growth (China, Indonesia, India, Russia, Ukraine, South Africa, Columbia, Brazil, and Venezuela) is extremely difficult, not only from a socio-economic/cultural standpoint, but because little reliable information is available on the properties and quality of raw materials. The question is how to compete and create opportunities in these countries when little or nothing is known about the properties of the indigenous raw materials. To address this concern the Penn State University and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are partnering to develop an integrated database and sample bank of international coal and limestone samples of commercial value to power generation. The purpose of this partnership is to provide a reliable database linked to a convenient sample bank that would aid in resource evaluation and testing with regard to coal utilization including, but not limited to, combustion and combustion engineering, coke making, liquefaction, gasification, coalbed methane recovery, coal preparation, and mining. The Penn State-USGS-Private Sector partnership offers unique potential to provide this valuable service. The Penn State Energy Institute maintains a wide variety of analytical and testing equipment and expertise in coal-related engineering, chemistry and geology and has access to much more throughout the University system. For several decades the Institute has successfully maintained a large domestic coal sample bank. The USGS maintains a state-of-the-art analytical facility and a comprehensive domestic coal quality database. The USGS is actively working in about thirty countries to develop a reliable international coal quality database. Private sector will bring insights into the issues of competitiveness, certain knowledge of the marketplace and financial support.

  10. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  11. Availability of radium isotopes and heavy metals from scales and tailings of Polish hard coal mining.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Karsten; Michalik, Boguslaw; Wiegand, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Radium and heavy metal contaminated tailings and scales resulting from Polish hard coal mining were investigated for their mobilisation potential by using leaching methods. The main focus is set on a three-step extraction procedure proposed by BCR (Bureau Communautaire de Référence, now Standards Measurements and Testing Programme) of the European Union, which was used for investigating the availability of radium isotopes. In addition, the results of a Polish extraction procedure for the heavy metals' water solubility are presented for rough comparison. After a special treatment, the BCR-reagents were measured by gamma-spectrometry to define their radium activity concentrations; the heavy metal content in the water soluble fractions was determined by ICP-AES. The samples were collected at two different sites influenced by the discharge of pit water from hard coal mining. The tailings were taken from a former tailing pond, which now is no longer in use, but the settled material is still present. At another abandoned and meanwhile flooded tailing pond, the scales were scraped from the inside of a discharge tube. The results obtained show that there is different leaching behaviour between the radium isotopes. The tailings being characterised by surface adsorbed radium provide up to 25% of the initial (226)Ra content, (228)Ra is altogether leached up to 15%. The scales comprise stable radiobaryte (Ba[Ra]SO(4)) and can be considered as being unable to provide radium isotopes, since no trace of radium dissolution was observed. The leaching behaviour of heavy metals is similar to that of radium. Mn, Ni and Zn are dissolved by water from the tailings; the scales do not provide any.

  12. Estimation of Scale Deposition in the Water Walls of an Operating Indian Coal Fired Boiler: Predictive Modeling Approach Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Amrita; Das, Suchandan Kumar; Srivastava, Prem Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Application of computational intelligence for predicting industrial processes has been in extensive use in various industrial sectors including power sector industry. An ANN model using multi-layer perceptron philosophy has been proposed in this paper to predict the deposition behaviors of oxide scale on waterwall tubes of a coal fired boiler. The input parameters comprises of boiler water chemistry and associated operating parameters, such as, pH, alkalinity, total dissolved solids, specific conductivity, iron and dissolved oxygen concentration of the feed water and local heat flux on boiler tube. An efficient gradient based network optimization algorithm has been employed to minimize neural predictions errors. Effects of heat flux, iron content, pH and the concentrations of total dissolved solids in feed water and other operating variables on the scale deposition behavior have been studied. It has been observed that heat flux, iron content and pH of the feed water have a relatively prime influence on the rate of oxide scale deposition in water walls of an Indian boiler. Reasonably good agreement between ANN model predictions and the measured values of oxide scale deposition rate has been observed which is corroborated by the regression fit between these values.

  13. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Task 3, Demonstration scale testing at 50 {times} 10{sup 6} BTU/HR: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.

    1989-04-01

    The objective of this program is to develop an advanced coal- combustion system capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas, distillate, and/or residual oil. Through the use of beneficiated coal fuel and advanced combustion technology, the program was to produce a combustion system which is reliable, simple to operate, and incorporates significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions over a base coal case. (VC)

  14. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-30

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy awarded Vortec Corporation this Phase III contract (No. DE-AC22-91PC91161) for the development of {open_quotes}A Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes}. The effective contrast start date was September 3, 1991. The contract period of performance is 36 months. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. Final detailed installation designs for the integrated test system configuration are being completed. The equipment is being fabricated and deliveries have begun. The industry funded testing consisted of vitrifying Spent Aluminum Potliner (SPL) which is a listed hazardous waste. This testing has verified that SPL can be vitrified into a safe recyclable glass product.

  15. The development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1992--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-16

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications has been selected for Phase III development under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting, recycling, and refining processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase HI research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing glass frits and wool fiber from boiler and incinerator ashes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes has begun. In order to accurately estimate the cost of the primary process vessels, preliminary designs for 25, 50, and 100 ton/day systems have been started under Task 1. This data will serve as input data for life cycle cost analysis performed as part of techno-economic evaluations. The economic evaluations of commercial CMS systems will be an integral part of the commercialization plan.

  16. Pilot scale single stage fine coal dewatering and briquetting process. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Honaker, R.Q.; Ding, Y.

    1997-05-01

    The primary goal of the ongoing ICCI coal preparation research project is to reduce ash and sulfur content in coal by using fine grinding and other coal cleaning processes. The ultrafine coal particles that result from the grinding and cleaning operations are difficult to dewater, and create problems in their storage, handling and transportation. The objective of this research is to combine the dewatering and briquetting processes of fine coal preparation into a single stage operation, thereby enhancing the economic viability of utilizing fine coal. A bitumen based emulsion, Orimulsion, has proven to be an effective hydrophobic binder, which helps not only with the briquetting process but also in the expulsion of water from the coal. Encouraging results from the use of a ram extruder briquetting device led to experimentation in the production of briquettes using a lab scale roll briquetting device. In the first quarter of this reporting year, a commercially available lab scale roll briquetting machine was employed (Komarek B-100). Further testing was conducted for the rest of the year with the use of a pilot scale model (Komarek B220-A). Briquettes were produced and evaluated by comparing results developed by adjusting various parameters of the briquetting machines and feed material. Results further substantiate previous findings that curing time dictates both moisture content and strengths of briquettes, and slower roll speeds produce more robust briquettes. A statistical model was set up to determine the optimal range of operating parameters. The statistical model generated from these results provided basic relationships between the roll speed and briquette form pressure.

  17. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Techology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: • Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs. • Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF). • Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools. • Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems. • Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost. • Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project completion date was April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a

  18. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Ignasiak, B.; Pawlak, W.; Szymocha, K.

    1997-12-31

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from July 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental procedures and test data for recovery of fine coal from coal fines streams generated at a commercial coal preparation plant are described. Two coal fines streams, namely Sieve Bend Effluent and Cyclone Overflow were investigated. The test results showed that ash was reduced by more than 50% at combustible matter recovery levels exceeding 95%.

  19. Development of a coal quality expert

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-03

    This 42-month project will provide the utility industry with a PC expert system to confidently and inexpensively evaluate the potential for coal cleaning, blending, and switching options to reduce emissions while producing lowest cost electricity. The project consists of the following seven tasks: (Task 1) Project management, (Task 2) Coal cleanability characterization, (Task 3) Pilot-scale combustion testing, (Task 4) Utility boiler field testing, (Task 5) CQIM completion and development of CQE specification (Task 6) Develop CQE, and (Task 7) CQE workstation testing and validation. During the past quarter, coal cleanability characterization, pilot-scale combustion, and utility boiler field tests were conducted. Coal characterization studies were performed at CQ Inc. with the Croweburg Seam coal (alternate coal at Public Service Oklahoma's Northeastern Unit 4) and Western Kentucky No. 11 Seam coal (alternate coal at Mississippi Power Company's Plant Watson Unit 4). Pilot-scale combustion testing was initiated at Combustion Engineering's Fireside Performance Test Facility (FPTF) with evaluations of two of the four PSO test coals. Full-scale combustion tests were completed at the first two utility test sites: Public Service Oklahoma's Northeastern Unit 4 (PSO-NE4) and Mississippi Power Company's Plant Watson Unit 4 (MPC-W4). 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Selenium and arsenic speciation in fly ash from full-scale coal-burning utility plants.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Frank E; Senior, Constance L; Chu, Paul; Ladwig, Ken; Huffman, Gerald P

    2007-05-01

    X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy has been used to determine directly the oxidation states and speciation of selenium and arsenic in 10 fly ash samples collected from full-scale utility plants. Such information is needed to assess the health risk posed by these elements in fly ash and to understand their behavior during combustion and in fly ash disposal options, such as sequestration in tailings ponds. Selenium is found predominantly as Se(IV) in selenite (SeO3(2-)) species, whereas arsenic is found predominantly as As(V) in arsenate (AsO4(3-)) species. Two distinct types of selenite and arsenate spectra were observed depending upon whether the fly ash was derived from eastern U.S. bituminous (Fe-rich) coals or from western subbituminous or lignite (Ca-rich) coals. Similar spectral details were observed for both arsenic and selenium in the two different types of fly ash, suggesting that the postcombustion behavior and capture of both of these elements are likely controlled by the same dominant element or phase in each type of fly ash.

  1. Small-Scale Coal-Biomass to Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; McCabe, Kevin

    2015-04-30

    The research project advanced coal-to-liquids (CTL) and coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) processes by testing and validating Chevron’s highly selective and active cobalt-zeolite hybrid Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalyst to convert gasifier syngas predominantly to gasoline, jet fuel and diesel range hydrocarbon liquids, thereby eliminating expensive wax upgrading operations The National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) operated by Southern Company (SC) at Wilsonville, Alabama served as the host site for the gasifier slip-stream testing/demonstration. Southern Research designed, installed and commissioned a bench scale skid mounted FT reactor system (SR-CBTL test rig) that was fully integrated with a slip stream from SC/NCCC’s transport integrated gasifier (TRIGTM). The test-rig was designed to receive up to 5 lb/h raw syngas augmented with bottled syngas to adjust the H2/CO molar ratio to 2, clean it to cobalt FT catalyst specifications, and produce liquid FT products at the design capacity of 2 to 4 L/day. It employed a 2-inch diameter boiling water jacketed fixed-bed heat-exchange FT reactor incorporating Chevron’s catalyst in Intramicron’s high thermal conductivity micro-fibrous entrapped catalyst (MFEC) packing to efficiently remove heat produced by the highly exothermic FT reaction.

  2. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system: Hot End Simulation Rig

    SciTech Connect

    Galica, M.A.

    1994-02-01

    This Hot End Simulation Rig (HESR) was an integral part of the overall Solar/METC program chartered to prove the technical, economic, an environmental feasibility of a coal-fueled gas turbine, for cogeneration applications. The program was to culminate in a test of a Solar Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal slurry fuel throughput the engine design operating range. This particular activity was designed to verify the performance of the Centaur Type H engine hot section materials in a coal-fired environment varying the amounts of alkali, ash, and sulfur in the coal to assess the material corrosion. Success in the program was dependent upon the satisfactory resolution of several key issues. Included was the control of hot end corrosion and erosion, necessary to ensure adequate operating life. The Hot End Simulation Rig addressed this important issue by exposing currently used hot section turbine alloys, alternate alloys, and commercially available advanced protective coating systems to a representative coal-fueled environment at turbine inlet temperatures typical of Solar`s Centaur Type H. Turbine hot end components which would experience material degradation include the transition duct from the combustor outlet to the turbine inlet, the shroud, nozzles, and blades. A ceramic candle filter vessel was included in the system as the particulate removal device for the HESR. In addition to turbine material testing, the candle material was exposed and evaluated. Long-term testing was intended to sufficiently characterize the performance of these materials for the turbine.

  3. Pilot Scale Single Stage Fine Coal Dewatering and Briquetting Process. Technical report, March 1, 1996 - May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Honaker, R.Q.; Ding, Y.; Ho, K.

    1996-12-31

    The primary goal for this ICCI coal research project is to effectively liberate coal from fnely disseminated minerals for Illinois Basin coal by using fine grinding and cleaning processes. However, because of the large surface area generated during the cleaning processes, it is difficult and uneconomic for conventional techniques to dewater the coal fines. In addition, these coal fine pose transportation, storage and handling problems at cleaning and utility facilities. The objective of this research is to combine dewatering and briquetting processes into a single stage operation that will solve the problems mentioned above. To build on the promising results obtained from the previous studies, a pilot scale commercial briquetting machine was used to evaluate this technique. The primary objective of the research in this reporting period is to determine the effectiveness of a single stage dewatering and briquetting technique using a commercial briquetting device. Two types of samples were prepared and the results of the -28 x 100 mesh samples are presented in this report. Modifications were made to the machine in an attempt to solve the back drainage problem. A total of six experiments were conducted and the results indicate that water resistance of coal briquettes increased as curing time increased. However, due to a deficiency of fine particles to bridge the gaps between the coarse particles, the wear resistance of the products declined. Also, at high roll speeds and compaction pressures, the coal briquettes produced tended to have higher moisture content and lower strength. On the other hand, at high feed rates, because of the screw extrusion effect, coal briquettes were produced with lower moisture content and higher strengths.

  4. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3, industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report number 12, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.L.; Borio, R.; McGowan, J.G.

    1994-11-18

    The objective of this project is to retrofit the previously developed High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. During this reporting period, data reduction/evaluation and interpretation from the long term four hundred hours Proof-of-Concept System Test under Task 3 were completed. Cumulatively, a total of approximately 563 hours of coal testing was performed with 160 hrs on 100% coal and over 400 hours with co-firing coal and gas. The primary objectives of this testing were to: (1) obtain steady state operation consistently on 100% coal; (2) increase carbon conversion efficiency from 95% to the project goal of 98%; and (3) maintain NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lbs/MBtu. The following specific conclusions are based on results of coal-fired testing at Penn State and the initial economic evaluation of the HEACC system: a coal handling/preparation system can be designed to meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal combustion to a gas/oil-designed boiler; the boiler thermal performance requirements were met; the NOx emission target of was met; combustion efficiencies of 95% could be met on a daily average basis, somewhat below the target of 98%; the economic playback is very sensitive to fuel differential cost, unit size, and annual operating hours; continuous long term demonstration is needed to quantify ash effects and how to best handle ashes. The following modifications are recommended prior to the 1,000 hour demonstration phase testing: (1) coal feeding improvements--improved raw coal/storage and transport, installation of gravimetric feeder, and redesign/installation of surge bin bottom; (2) burner modification--minor modification to the tip of the existing HEACC burner to prevent change of flame shapes for no apparent reason.

  5. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning. Quarterly technical progress report, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.-H.; Yan, E.S.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process which is capable of removing mineral matter from coal without using water. A distinct advantage of this dry coal cleaning process is that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering which is a common problem associated with conventional fine coal cleaning processes. It is the objective of this project to conduct a series of proof-of-concept (POC) scale tests at a throughput of 200-250 kg/hr and obtain scale-up information. Prior to the POC testing, bench-scale test work will be conducted with the objective of increasing the separation efficiency and throughput, for which changes in the basic designs for the charger and the separator may be necessary. The bench- and POC-scale test work will be carried out to evaluate various operating parameters and establish a reliable scale-up procedure. The scale-up data will be used to analyze the economic merits of the TES process. At present, the project is at the stage of engineering design (Task 3). Work accomplished during this reporting period are summarized as follows: (i) An on-line tribocharge analyzer has been developed to study triboelectrification. (ii) The effects of aeration rate, feed rate and particle size on the tribocbarging mechanisms using the on-line tribocharge analyzer. (iii) A continuous bench-scale tnboelectrostatic separator has been constructed. (iv) Shakedown testing of the bench-scale triboelectrostatic separator is on-going.

  6. Urinary bladder cancer risk factors in an area of former coal, iron, and steel industries in Germany.

    PubMed

    Krech, Eugen; Selinski, Silvia; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Bürger, Hannah; Kadhum, Thura; Hengstler, Jan G; Truss, Michael C; Golka, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the frequency of bladder cancer in patients with an occupational history such as underground hard coal mining and/or painting after the structural change in the local industry. A total of 206 patients with bladder cancer and 207 controls were enlisted regarding occupational and nonoccupational bladder cancer risk factors by questionnaire. The phase II enzymes N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2), glutathione S-transferases M1 (GSTM1), and T1 (GSTT1) and the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11892031[A/C] reported to be associated with bladder cancer in genome-wide association studies were genotyped. The bladder cancer risk in varnishers and underground hard coal miners was increased as previously shown in a study in this area performed in the 1980s. The occupation of a car mechanic was associated with a significantly elevated bladder cancer risk and higher in the case of underground hard coal miners even though the mine was closed in 1987. The frequency of GSTM1 negative genotype was comparable in cases and controls (53% versus 54%). In the case of NAT2, the slow NAT2 genotype was more frequent (62% versus 58%) and ultra-slow NAT2 genotype (NAT2*6A and/or *7B alleles only) was 23% versus 15%. An occupational history of a varnisher or an underground hard coal miner remains a risk factor for bladder cancer occurrence. Data indicate that in the case of bladder cancer, GSTM1 is a susceptibility factor related to environmental and/or occupational exposure.

  7. Environmental impact of coal industry and thermal power plants in India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, U C

    2004-01-01

    Coal is the only natural resource and fossil fuel available in abundance in India. Consequently, it is used widely as a thermal energy source and also as fuel for thermal power plants producing electricity. India has about 90,000 MW installed capacity for electricity generation, of which more than 70% is produced by coal-based thermal power plants. Hydro-electricity contributes about 25%, and the remaining is mostly from nuclear power plants (NPPs). The problems associated with the use of coal are low calorific value and very high ash content. The ash content is as high as 55-60%, with an average value of about 35-40%. Further, most of the coal is located in the eastern parts of the country and requires transportation over long distances, mostly by trains, which run on diesel. About 70% oil is imported and is a big drain on India's hard currency. In the foreseeable future, there is no other option likely to be available, as the nuclear power programme envisages installing 20,000 MWe by the year 2020, when it will still be around 5% of the installed capacity. Hence, attempts are being made to reduce the adverse environmental and ecological impact of coal-fired power plants. The installed electricity generating capacity has to increase very rapidly (at present around 8-10% per annum), as India has one of the lowest per capita electricity consumptions. Therefore, the problems for the future are formidable from ecological, radio-ecological and pollution viewpoints. A similar situation exists in many developing countries of the region, including the People's Republic of China, where coal is used extensively. The paper highlights some of these problems with the data generated in the author's laboratory and gives a brief description of the solutions being attempted. The extent of global warming in this century will be determined by how developing countries like India manage their energy generation plans. Some of the recommendations have been implemented for new plants

  8. Baseline Industrial Hygiene Survey at the Coal Fired Heating Plant, Malmstrom AFB, Montana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    entrance and maintenance (i.e., bag changing every 4-5 years), ash exposure and heat stress can create health hazards. c. Periodically, the waste ash...a neutralizing adsorbent called "mi]. klime .ŕ MilklimP is an alkaline reed slairry made by mixing q-uiklime (calciu.n oxide), ash and water. In a...USAFOEHL Report (2). b. Any of’ the thrpa (coal, ash, or combined) silica content percentages can change when new coal is delivered during the course of

  9. Pilot-scale test for electron beam purification of flue gas from coal-combustion boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namba, Hideki; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Hashimoto, Shoji; Tanaka, Tadashi; Ogura, Yoshimi; Doi, Yoshitaka; Aoki, Shinji; Izutsu, Masahiro

    1995-09-01

    A pilot-scale test for electron beam treatment of flue gas (12,000m3N/hr) from coal-fired boiler was conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Chubu Electric Power Company and Ebara Corporation, in the site of Shin-Nagoya Thermal Power Plant in Nagoya, Japan. During 14 months operation, it was proved that the method is possible to remove SO2 and NOX simultaneously in wide concentration range of SO2 (250-2,000ppm) and NOX (140-240ppm) with higher efficiency than the conventional methods, with appropriate operation conditions (dose, temperature etc.). The pilot plant was easily operated with well controllability and durability, and was operated for long period of time without serious problems. The byproduct, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate, produced by the treatment was proved to be a nitrogenous fertilizer with excellent quality.

  10. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing

    SciTech Connect

    W. Pawlak; K. Szymocha

    1999-07-01

    The information presented in this manual is solely for the purpose of operating the POC-scale equipment for fine coal processing as described herein. This manual provides a general description of the process technology and guidelines for plant operating procedures. It is intended for use by the operators and maintenance personnel who will be responsible for the operations of the plant. No attempt should be made to operate the plant until the principles of the process and operating instructions contained in this manual are fully understood. Operating personnel should thoroughly familiarize themselves with all processing equipment prior to commencing plant operation. All equipment is skid mounted to provide a self-contained unit. The dimensions of the unit are comply with standard guidelines. A minimum distance of 2 feet is provided between equipment for walkway and maintenance.

  11. Investigation of flow behaviour of coal particles in a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) using radiotracer technique.

    PubMed

    Pant, H J; Sharma, V K; Kamudu, M Vidya; Prakash, S G; Krishanamoorthy, S; Anandam, G; Rao, P Seshubabu; Ramani, N V S; Singh, Gursharan; Sonde, R R

    2009-09-01

    Knowledge of residence time distribution (RTD), mean residence time (MRT) and degree of axial mixing of solid phase is required for efficient operation of coal gasification process. Radiotracer technique was used to measure the RTD of coal particles in a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG). Two different radiotracers i.e. lanthanum-140 and gold-198 labeled coal particles (100 gm) were independently used as radiotracers. The radiotracer was instantaneously injected into the coal feed line and monitored at the ash extraction line at the bottom and gas outlet at the top of the gasifier using collimated scintillation detectors. The measured RTD data were treated and MRTs of coal/ash particles were determined. The treated data were simulated using tanks-in-series model. The simulation of RTD data indicated good degree of mixing with small fraction of the feed material bypassing/short-circuiting from the bottom of the gasifier. The results of the investigation were found useful for optimizing the design and operation of the FBG, and scale-up of the gasification process.

  12. Chlor-Alkali Industry: A Laboratory Scale Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Sanchez, C. M.; Exposito, E.; Frias-Ferrer, A.; Gonzalez-Garaia, J.; Monthiel, V.; Aldaz, A.

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory experiment for students in the last year of degree program in chemical engineering, chemistry, or industrial chemistry is presented. It models the chlor-alkali process, one of the most important industrial applications of electrochemical technology and the second largest industrial consumer of electricity after aluminium industry.

  13. Chlor-Alkali Industry: A Laboratory Scale Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Sanchez, C. M.; Exposito, E.; Frias-Ferrer, A.; Gonzalez-Garaia, J.; Monthiel, V.; Aldaz, A.

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory experiment for students in the last year of degree program in chemical engineering, chemistry, or industrial chemistry is presented. It models the chlor-alkali process, one of the most important industrial applications of electrochemical technology and the second largest industrial consumer of electricity after aluminium industry.

  14. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Volume 9. Results of Bench-Scale and Pilot Plant Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Amoco Oil Company has conducted bench- and pilot plant-scale experiments to produce jet fuels from the tar oil from the Great Plains Coal ... Gasification Plant in Beulah, North Dakota. Experiments show that the hydroprocessing conditions recommended in Task I are not severe enough to saturate the

  15. Mathematical and experimental pilot-scale study of coal reburning for NO sub x control in cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Farzan, H.; Wessel, R.A.

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of this pilot-scale study was to examine the effectiveness of reburning for NO{sub x} reduction and to assess the potential side effects. In addition, the potential of a high-sulfur Illinois coal for cyclone reburning application was evaluated. (VC)

  16. The Contribution of Individual, Social and Work Characteristics to Employee Mental Health in a Coal Mining Industry Population

    PubMed Central

    James, Carole; Wiggers, John; Lewin, Terry; Inder, Kerry; Perkins, David; Handley, Tonelle

    2017-01-01

    Background Evidence regarding the extent of mental health problems and the associated characteristics within an employee population is necessary to inform appropriate and tailored workplace mental health programs. Mental health within male dominated industries (such as mining) has received recent public attention, chiefly through observations regarding suicide in such populations in Australia and internationally. Currently there is limited empirical evidence regarding the mental health needs in the mining industry as an exemplar of a male dominated workforce, and the relative contribution to such problems of individual, socio-economic and workplace factors. This study aimed to investigate the mental health and associated characteristics among employees in the Australian coal mining industry with a specific focus on identifying modifiable work characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among employees (n = 1457) across eight coal mines stratified by key mine characteristics (state, mine type and employee commute arrangements). Participants completed measures of psychological distress (K10+) and key variables across four categories (socio-demographic characteristics, health history, current health behaviours, work attitudes and characteristics). Results Psychological distress levels within this sample were significantly higher in comparison with a community sample of employed Australians. The following factors contributed significantly to levels of psychological distress using hierarchical linear regression analysis: lower social networks; a past history of depression, anxiety or drug/alcohol problems; high recent alcohol use; work role (managers) and a set of work characteristics (level of satisfaction with work, financial factors and job insecurity; perception of lower workplace support for people with mental health problems. Conclusion This is the first study to examine the characteristics associated with mental health problems in the

  17. The Contribution of Individual, Social and Work Characteristics to Employee Mental Health in a Coal Mining Industry Population.

    PubMed

    Considine, Robyn; Tynan, Ross; James, Carole; Wiggers, John; Lewin, Terry; Inder, Kerry; Perkins, David; Handley, Tonelle; Kelly, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Evidence regarding the extent of mental health problems and the associated characteristics within an employee population is necessary to inform appropriate and tailored workplace mental health programs. Mental health within male dominated industries (such as mining) has received recent public attention, chiefly through observations regarding suicide in such populations in Australia and internationally. Currently there is limited empirical evidence regarding the mental health needs in the mining industry as an exemplar of a male dominated workforce, and the relative contribution to such problems of individual, socio-economic and workplace factors. This study aimed to investigate the mental health and associated characteristics among employees in the Australian coal mining industry with a specific focus on identifying modifiable work characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted among employees (n = 1457) across eight coal mines stratified by key mine characteristics (state, mine type and employee commute arrangements). Participants completed measures of psychological distress (K10+) and key variables across four categories (socio-demographic characteristics, health history, current health behaviours, work attitudes and characteristics). Psychological distress levels within this sample were significantly higher in comparison with a community sample of employed Australians. The following factors contributed significantly to levels of psychological distress using hierarchical linear regression analysis: lower social networks; a past history of depression, anxiety or drug/alcohol problems; high recent alcohol use; work role (managers) and a set of work characteristics (level of satisfaction with work, financial factors and job insecurity; perception of lower workplace support for people with mental health problems. This is the first study to examine the characteristics associated with mental health problems in the Australian coal mining industry. The findings

  18. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1992--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-03

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a ``Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications`` is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelling and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, approval of Vortec`s Environmental Assessment (EA) required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was approved. The EA approval cycle took approximately 9 months. The preliminary test program which was being held in abeyance pending approval of the EA was initiated. Six preliminary test runs were successfully competed during the period. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the preliminary tests were completed.

  19. Coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. This includes new installations and those existing installations that were originally designed for oil or gas firing. The data generated by these projects must be sufficient for private-sector decisions on the feasibility of using coal as the fuel of choice. This work should also provide incentives for the private sector to continue and expand the development, demonstration, and application of these combustion systems. Vortec Corporation`s Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications is being developed under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 as part of this DOE development program. The current contract represents the third phase of a three-phase development program. Phase I of the program addressed the technical and economic feasibility of the process, and was initiated in 1987 and completed 1989. Phase II was initiated in 1989 and completed in 1990. During Phase II of the development, design improvements were made to critical components and the test program addressed the performance of the process using several different feedstocks. Phase III of the program was initiated September 1991 and is scheduled for completion in 1994. The Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value-added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and selected industrial wastes.

  20. Tri-State Synfuels Project Commercial Scale Coal Test: Volume 5. Kentucky stockpile tests. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; coal stockpile study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This report focuses on the compacted coal stockpile built at Uniontown, Kentucky with a 200-ton sample representative of Camp 1 coal shipped to Sasolburg, Republic of South Africa. This stockpile program had several objectives: obtain information on the changes in quality of coal over a period of one year resulting from weatering and leaching. The weathering of coal may affect the physical and chemical properties, the gasification characteristics and oxygen consumption); obtain chemical composition of rainwater leached through the pile and collected over a period of one year to assist in the environmental design of water collection system; and demonstrate construction of a stockpile that is safe from spontaneous ignition. Conclusions and design recommendationa for the long term storage of compacted coal resulted from the program. Recommendations of interest include oxidation and weathering stability, minimal leaching due to rainwater, limited impact on gasification characteristics and effective method to minimize spontaneous ignition. The tests conducted on the compacted stockpile (Section 3.0) provided observations over the one-year period on spontaneous ignition, surface and weathering, oxidation as measured by chemical, physical and gasification property changes, size degradation, acid runoff, pH of rainwater and leachate and extent of leaching. Texas Gas was responsible for constructing, maintaining and collecting site data at the stockpile (Section 4.1.1). Paul Weir Company was responsible for sampling, screening, analytical testing program and the leaching program for the stockpile over regular intervals of one to two months (Section 4.2.1). Lurgi was requested to analyze samples (Section 4.2.2) corresponding to the samples analyzed by Commercial Testing and Engineering and report on the influence of weathering on the gasification characteristics.

  1. Metabolic engineering of strains: from industrial-scale to lab-scale chemical production.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie; Alper, Hal S

    2015-03-01

    A plethora of successful metabolic engineering case studies have been published over the past several decades. Here, we highlight a collection of microbially produced chemicals using a historical framework, starting with titers ranging from industrial scale (more than 50 g/L), to medium-scale (5-50 g/L), and lab-scale (0-5 g/L). Although engineered Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae emerge as prominent hosts in the literature as a result of well-developed genetic engineering tools, several novel native-producing strains are gaining attention. This review catalogs the current progress of metabolic engineering towards production of compounds such as acids, alcohols, amino acids, natural organic compounds, and others.

  2. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-30

    Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a ``Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications`` is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the designs of the remaining major components of the integrated system were completed and the equipment was ordered. DOE has elected to modify the scope of the existing R&D program being conducted under this contract to include testing of a simulated TSCA incinerator ash. The modification will be in the form of an additional Task (Task 8 -- TSCA Ash Testing) to the original Statement of Work.

  3. Continuous pilot-scale testing of column flotation for recovery of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. . Center for Applied Energy Research)

    1990-10-01

    A series of performance studies were conducted using countercurrent column flotation to recover a marketable clean coal product from existing preparation plant fine waste streams. The test work was conducted at several preparation plant sites in Kentucky and Virginia using a 150-mm (6-in.) inside diameter column that was 5.8 m (19 ft) high. Both thickener feed and classifying cyclone overflow with a typical size distribution of 150{mu}m (100 mesh) {times} 0 were tested. The percent solids of the column flotation feed varied from 1.5% to 15% while the ash content ranged from about 30% to 60%. The concentrates produced contained 2% to 10% ash with Btu recoveries of nearly 90% using 0.12 to 1.25 kg/t (0.25 to 2.5 lbs per st) fuel oil and 0.12 kg/t (0.25 lbs per st) MIBC. These results were consistent with or better than results obtained in preliminary laboratory scale column flotation evaluation. Test results from seven different seams are discussed as well as scale-up relationships used to design a full-scale installation presently in operation.

  4. Pilot-scale fluidized-bed combustor testing cofiring animal-tissue biomass with coal as a carcass disposal option

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Elizabeth M. Fedorowicz; David W. Harlan; Linda A. Detwiler; Michelle L. Rossman

    2006-10-15

    This study was performed to demonstrate the technical viability of cofiring animal-tissue biomass (ATB) in a coal-fired fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) as an option for disposing of specified risk materials (SRMs) and carcasses. The purpose of this study was to assess the technical issues of feeding/combusting ATB and not to investigate prion deactivation/pathogen destruction. Overall, the project successfully demonstrated that carcasses and SRMs can be cofired with coal in a bubbling FBC. Feeding ATB into the FBC did, however, present several challenges. Specifically, handling/feeding issues resulting from the small scale of the equipment and the extremely heterogeneous nature of the ATB were encountered during the testing. Feeder modifications and an overbed firing system were necessary. Through statistical analysis, it was shown that the ATB feed location had a greater effect on CO emissions, which were used as an indication of combustion performance, than the fuel type due to the feeding difficulties. Baseline coal tests and tests cofiring ATB into the bed were statistically indistinguishable. Fuel feeding issues would not be expected at the full scale since full-scale units routinely handle low-quality fuels. In a full-scale unit, the disproportionate ratio of feed line size to unit diameter would be eliminated thereby eliminating feed slugging. Also, the ATB would either be injected into the bed, thereby ensuring uniform mixing and complete combustion, or be injected directly above the bed with overfire air ports used to ensure complete combustion. Therefore, it is anticipated that a demonstration at the full scale, which is the next activity in demonstrating this concept, should be successful. As the statistical analysis shows, emissions cofiring ATB with coal would be expected to be similar to that when firing coal only. 14 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Speed up the development and popularization of coal in Shanxi and Taiyuan areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Y.; Ma, Q.; Fan, R.

    1997-12-31

    Clean coal utilization is a key step of sustainable development in China. In the period of ninth Five-Year-Plan, China will greatly enhance the development and adoption of clean coal technology, in which the industrial coal briquetting plays an important role. Compared with burning pulverized coal, burning coal briquettes in stoker boilers raises heat efficiency 10--14%, saves 15--21% of the coal, reduces particulate emission by 80--91% and SO{sub 2} by 20--36%. Consequently, development and popularization of coal briquette for boilers have been listed as one of the key projects in the ninth Five-Year-Plan. Owing to mechanized coal mining, the lump coal proportion is being reduced. On the other hand, thousands of gas producers in the small and medium scale ammonia plants increasingly demand lump anthracite. This discrepancy between supply and demand on lump coal can be resolved by coal briquetting. This paper describes the features and superiority of coal briquettes for gasification; it has uniform size, larger porosity, and higher reactivity. Some of its properties can be upgraded. Many Chinese organizations are being devoted to coal briquetting research, development and production. How to coordinate them in their efforts to form a coal briquetting industry with suitable production capacity and active market is a topic worth studying. This paper describes the current situation on briquette research, production and marketing. Some proposals to speed up the development and popularization of the coal briquettes are given.

  6. Scaled multisensor inspection of extended surfaces for industrial quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayser, Daniel; Bothe, Thorsten; Osten, Wolfgang

    2002-06-01

    Reliable real-time surface inspection of extended surfaces with high resolution is needed in several industrial applications. With respect to an efficient application to extended technical components such as aircraft or automotive parts, the inspection system has to perform a robust measurement with a ratio of less then 10-6 between depth resolution and lateral extension. This ratio is at least one order beyond the solutions that are offered by existing technologies. The concept of scaled topometry consists of arranging different optical measurement techniques with overlapping ranges of resolution systematically in order to receive characteristic surface information with the required accuracy. In such a surface inspection system, an active algorithm combines measurements on several scales of resolution and distinguishes between local fault indicating structures with different extensions and global geometric properties. The first part of this active algorithm finds indications of critical surface areas in the data of every measurement and separates them into different categories. The second part analyses the detected structures in the data with respect to their resolution and decides whether a further local measurement with a higher resolution has to be performed. The third part positions the sensors and starts the refined measurements. The fourth part finally integrates the measured local data set into the overall data mesh. We have constructed a laboratory setup capable of measuring surfaces with extensions up to 1500mm x 1000mm x 500mm (in x-, y- and z-direction respectively). Using this measurement system we will be able to separate the fault indicating structures on the surface from the global shape and to classify the detected structures according to their extensions and characteristic shapes simultaneously. The level of fault detection probability will be applicable by input parameter control.

  7. Numerical investigation of full scale coal combustion model of tangentially fired boiler with the effect of mill ducting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achim, Daniela; Naser, J.; Morsi, Y. S.; Pascoe, S.

    2009-11-01

    In this paper a full scale combustion model incorporating upstream mill ducting of a large tangentially fired boiler with flue gas recirculation was examined numerically. Lagrangian particle tracking was used to determine the coal particle paths and the Eddy Dissipation Model for the analysis of the gas phase combustion. Moreover volatiles and gaseous char products, given off by the coal particles were modelled by Arrhenius single phase reactions and a transport equation was solved for each material given off by the particles. Thermal, prompt, fuel and reburn NO x models with presumed probability density functions were used to model NO x production and the discrete transfer radiation model was used to model radiation heat transfer. Generally, the findings indicated reasonable agreement with observed qualitative and quantitative data of incident heat flux on the walls. The model developed here could be used for a range of applications in furnace design and optimisation of gas emissions of coal fired boiler plants.

  8. Study of application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The 70mm black and white infrared photography acquired in March 1973 at an approximate scale of 1:115,000 permits the identification of areas of mine subsidence not readily evident on other films. This is largely due to the high contrast rendition of water and land by this film and the excessive surface moisture conditions prevalent in the area at the time of photography. Subsided areas consist of shallow depressions which have impounded water. Patterns with a regularity indicative of the room and pillar configuration used in subsurface coal mining are evident.

  9. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor Phase III industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995 No. 16

    SciTech Connect

    Borio, R.W.

    1995-12-15

    The objective of this project is to retrofit a burner, capable of firing microfine coal, to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. This report documents the technical aspects of this project during the sixteenth quarter (July `95 through September `95) of the program. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components. (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC (High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor) burner. (3) Installation and testing of a prototype HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application. (4) Economics evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions.

  10. Using MSD prevention for cultural change in mining: Queensland Government/Anglo Coal Industry partnership.

    PubMed

    Tilbury, Trudy; Sanderson, Liz

    2012-01-01

    Queensland Mining has a strong focus on safety performance, but risk management of health, including Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) continues to have a lower priority. The reliance on individual screening of workers and lower level approaches such as manual handling training is part of the coal mining 'culture'. Initiatives such as the New South Wales and Queensland Mining joint project to develop good practice guidance for mining has allowed for a more consistent message on participatory ergonomics and prevention of MSD. An evidence based practice approach, including the introduction of participatory ergonomics and safe design principles, was proposed to Anglo American Coal operations in Queensland. The project consisted of a skills analysis of current health personnel, design of a facilitated participatory ergonomics training program, site visits to identify good practice and champions, and a graduated mentoring program for health personnel. Early results demonstrate a number of sites are benefiting from site taskforces with a focus on positive performance outcomes.

  11. TENORM: Coal Combustion Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Burning coal in boilers to create steam for power generation and industrial applications produces a number of combustion residuals. Naturally radioactive materials that were in the coal mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag.

  12. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    2008-11-15

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Annual Coal Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Provides information about U.S. coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience, including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public.

  14. Influence of high-energy impact on the physical and technical characteristics of coal fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mal'tsev, L. I.; Belogurova, T. P.; Kravchenko, I. V.

    2017-08-01

    Currently, in the world's large-scale coal-fired power industry, the combustion of pulverized coal is the most widely spread technology of combusting the coals. In recent years, the micropulverization technology for preparation and combustion of the coal has been developed in this field. As applied to the small-scale power industry, the method of combusting the coal in the form of a coal-water slurry has been explored for years. Fine coal powders are produced and used in the pulverized-coal gasification. Therefore, the coal preparation methods that involve high-dispersion disintegration of coals attract the greatest interest. The article deals with the problems of high-energy impact on the coal during the preparation of pulverized-coal fuels and coal-water slurries, in particular, during the milling of the coal in ball drum mills and the subsequent regrinding in disintegrators or the cavitation treatment of the coal-water slurries. The investigations were conducted using samples of anthracite and lignite from Belovskii open-pit mine (Kuznetsk Basin). It is shown that both the disintegration and the cavitation treatment are efficient methods for controlling the fuel characteristics. Both methods allow increasing the degree of dispersion of the coal. The content of the small-sized particles reground by cavitation considerably exceeds the similar figure obtained using the disintegrator. The specific surface area of the coal is increased by both cavitation and disintegration with the cavitation treatment producing a considerably greater effect. Being subjected to the cavitation treatment, most coal particles assume the form of a split characterized by the thermodynamically nonequilibrium state. Under external action, in particular, of temperature, the morphological structure of such pulverized materials changes faster and, consequently, the combustion of the treated coal should occur more efficiently. The obtained results are explained from the physical point of view.

  15. Bench scale development of the TRW process for cleaning coal (gravimelt process): Quarterly technical progress report for the period November 1984-January 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-02-01

    Major progress was made in defining and testing of the cocurrent leaching of coal with molten caustic. The purpose of this effort was to explore the possibility of simplifying the bench scale and proof of concept demonstration of the Gravimelt Process. While the countercurrent leaching of coal with molten caustic demonstrated ash and sulfur reductions far in excess of those required by the project scope of work, it has become apparent that implementation of countercurrent leaching at the 20 lb/h scale of this project would be more costly than the project budget would allow. This cost is due to the necessity of providing a filtration stage between each of the four reactor stages to reduce the caustic absorbed on the coal to no more than two weights per weight of coal. This is for efficient countercurrent movement of coal and caustic and to minimize regeneration requirements. Therefore, it was decided to test the potential of initially contacting the coal with only two weights of caustic and thus eliminating any need for filtration of molten caustic from coal. Thus, the product coal-caustic material leaving the cocurrent reactor contains approximately 1 to 2% dissolved sulfide and 2 to 4.5% dissolved ash upon treatment of the three project coals initially containing 3 to 4% sulfur and 5 to 10% ash and assuming 90% removal of sulfur and 95% removal of ash. These coal-derived products are then dissolved during the first stage of water washing of the coal, into a 50% aqueous caustic filtrate. They are then removed from the caustic by an aqueous regeneration route. The use of two weights of caustic per weight of coal was tested for all three project coals, Kentucky No. 11, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Bevier seams, and New Source Performance Standards were met in each case. 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  16. Coal supply/demand, 1980 to 2000. Task 3. Resource applications industrialization system data base. Final review draft. [USA; forecasting 1980 to 2000; sector and regional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, W.M.; Hasson, V.

    1980-10-10

    This report is a compilation of data and forecasts resulting from an analysis of the coal market and the factors influencing supply and demand. The analyses performed for the forecasts were made on an end-use-sector basis. The sectors analyzed are electric utility, industry demand for steam coal, industry demand for metallurgical coal, residential/commercial, coal demand for synfuel production, and exports. The purpose is to provide coal production and consumption forecasts that can be used to perform detailed, railroad company-specific coal transportation analyses. To make the data applicable for the subsequent transportation analyses, the forecasts have been made for each end-use sector on a regional basis. The supply regions are: Appalachia, East Interior, West Interior and Gulf, Northern Great Plains, and Mountain. The demand regions are the same as the nine Census Bureau regions. Coal production and consumption in the United States are projected to increase dramatically in the next 20 years due to increasing requirements for energy and the unavailability of other sources of energy to supply a substantial portion of this increase. Coal comprises 85 percent of the US recoverable fossil energy reserves and could be mined to supply the increasing energy demands of the US. The NTPSC study found that the additional traffic demands by 1985 may be met by the railways by the way of improved signalization, shorter block sections, centralized traffic control, and other modernization methods without providing for heavy line capacity works. But by 2000 the incremental traffic on some of the major corridors was projected to increase very significantly and is likely to call for special line capacity works involving heavy investment.

  17. Large scale solubilization of coal and bioconversion to utilizable energy. Eighth quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, N.C.

    1996-02-01

    In order to develop a system for a large scale coal solubilization and its bioconversion to utilizable fuel, we plan to clone the genes encoding Neurospora protein that facilitate depolymerization of coal. We also plan to use desulfurizing bacteria to remove the sulfur in situ and use other microorganisms to convert biosolubilized coal into utilizable energy following an approach utilizing several microorganisms. In addition the product of coal solubilized by fungus will be characterized to determine their chemical nature and the mechanism of reaction catalyzed by fungal product during in vivo and in vitro solubilization by the fungus or purified fungal protein.

  18. Large scale solubilization of coal and bioconversion to utilizable energy. Seventh quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, N.C.

    1995-12-01

    In order to develop a system for a large scale coal solubilization and its bioconversion to utilizable fuel, we plan to clone the genes encoding Neurospora protein that facilitate depolymerization of coal. We also plan to use desulfurizing bacteria to remove the sulfur in situ and use other microorganisms to convert biosolubilized coal into utilizable energy following an approach utilizing several microorganisms. In addition the product of coal solubilized by fungus will be characterized to determine their chemical nature and the mechanism of reaction catalyzed by fungal product during in vivo and in vitro solubilization by the fungus or purified fungal protein.

  19. Large scale solubilization of coal and bioconversion to utilizable energy. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, N.C.

    1995-02-01

    In order to develop a system for a large scale coal solubilization and its bioconversion to utilizable fuel, the authors plan to clone the genes encoding Neurospora protein that facilitate depolymerization of coal. The authors also plan to use desulfurizing bacteria to remove the sulfur in situ and use other microorganisms to convert biosolubilized coal into utilizable energy following an approach utilizing several microorganisms. In addition the product of coal solubilized by fungus will be characterized to determine their chemical nature and the mechanism of reaction catalyzed by fungal product during in vivo and in vitro solubilization by the fungus or purified fungal protein.

  20. Large scale solubilization of coal and bioconversion to utilizable energy. Technical progress report, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994, fourth quarterly

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, N.C.

    1994-11-01

    In order to develop a system for a large scale coal solubilization and its bioconversion to utilizable fuel, we plan to clone the genes encoding Neurospora protein that facilitate depolymerization of coal. We also plan to use desulfurizing bacteria to remove the sulfur in situ and use other microorganisms to convert biosolubilized coal into utilizable energy following an approach utilizing several microorganisms (Faison, 1991). In addition the product of coal solubilized by fungus will be characterized to determine their chemical nature and the mechanism of reaction catalyzed by fungal product during in vivo and in vitro solubilization by the fungus or purified fungal protein.

  1. Multi-scale radiographic applications in microelectronic industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluch, J.; Löffler, M.; Meyendorf, N.; Oppermann, M.; Röllig, M.; Sättler, P.; Wolter, K. J.; Zschech, E.

    2016-02-01

    New concepts in assembly technology boost our daily life in an unknown way. High end semiconductor industry today deals with functional structures down to a few nanometers. ITRS roadmap predicts an ongoing decrease of the "DRAM half pitch" over the next decade. Packaging of course is not intended to realize pitches at the nanometer scale, but has to face the challenges of integrating such semiconductor devices with smallest pitch and high pin counts into systems. System integration (SiP, SoP, Hetero System Integration etc.) into the third dimension is the only way to reduce the gap between semiconductor level and packaging level interconnection. The described development is mainly driven by communication technology but also other branches like power electronics benefit from the vast progress in integration and assembly technology. The challenge of advanced packaging requires new nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for technology development and production control. In power electronics production the condition monitoring receives a lot of interest to avoid electrical shortcuts, dead solder joints and interface cracking. It is also desired to detect and characterize very small defects like transportation phenomenon or Kirkendall voids. For this purpose imaging technologies with resolutions in the sub-micron range are required. Our presentation discusses the potentials and the limits of X-ray NDE techniques, illustrated by crack observation in solder joints, evaluation of micro vias in PCBs and interposers and the investigation of solder material composition and other aftermaths of electro migration in solder joints. Applied radiographic methods are X-ray through transmission, multi-energy techniques, laminography, CT and nano-CT.

  2. Large scale solubilization of coal and bioconversion to utilizable energy. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, N.C.

    1994-08-01

    In order to develop a system for a large scale coal solubilization and its bioconversion to utilizable fuel, the investigators plan to clone the genes encoding Neurospora protein that facilitate depolymerization of coal. They also plan to use desulfurizing bacteria to remove the sulfur in situ and use other microorganisms to convert biosolubilized coal into utilizable energy following an approach utilizing several microorganisms. In addition the product of coal solubilized by fungus will be characterized to determine their chemical nature and the mechanism of reaction catalyzed by fungal product during in vivo and in vitro solubilization by the fungus or purified fungal protein. Main objectives are: (1) cloning of Neurospora gene for coal depolymerization protein controlling solubilization in different host cells, utilizing Neurospora plasmid and other vector(s); (2) (a) development of a large scale electrophoretic separation of coal drived products obtained after microbial solubilization; (b) identification of the coal derived products obtained after biosolubilization by Neurospora cultures or obtained after Neurospora enzyme catalyzed reaction in in vitro by the wildtype and mutant enzymes; (3) bioconversion of coal drived products into utilizable fuel; and (4) characterization of Neurospora wildtype and mutant CSA protein(s) involved in solubilization of coal in order to assess the nature of the mechanism of solubilization and the role of Neurospora proteins in this process.

  3. Regional-scale geomechanical impact assessment of underground coal gasification by coupled 3D thermo-mechanical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Christopher; Kempka, Thomas; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Stańczyk, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has the potential to increase the world-wide coal reserves by utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. The UCG process involves combusting coal in situ to produce a high-calorific synthesis gas, which can be applied for electricity generation or chemical feedstock production. Apart from its high economic potentials, UCG may induce site-specific environmental impacts such as fault reactivation, induced seismicity and ground subsidence, potentially inducing groundwater pollution. Changes overburden hydraulic conductivity resulting from thermo-mechanical effects may introduce migration pathways for UCG contaminants. Due to the financial efforts associated with UCG field trials, numerical modeling has been an important methodology to study coupled processes considering UCG performance. Almost all previous UCG studies applied 1D or 2D models for that purpose, that do not allow to predict the performance of a commercial-scale UCG operation. Considering our previous findings, demonstrating that far-field models can be run at a higher computational efficiency by using temperature-independent thermo-mechanical parameters, representative coupled simulations based on complex 3D regional-scale models were employed in the present study. For that purpose, a coupled thermo-mechanical 3D model has been developed to investigate the environmental impacts of UCG based on a regional-scale of the Polish Wieczorek mine located in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. The model size is 10 km × 10 km × 5 km with ten dipping lithological layers, a double fault and 25 UCG reactors. Six different numerical simulation scenarios were investigated, considering the transpressive stress regime present in that part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Our simulation results demonstrate that the minimum distance between the UCG reactors is about the six-fold of the coal seam thickness to avoid hydraulic communication between the single UCG

  4. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1992--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-29

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, a majority of the effort was spent relining the separator/reservoir and the cyclone melter. The relinings were completed, the cyclonemelter was reinstalled, and the test system was returned to operational status. The wet ESP was delivered and placed on its foundation. The focus during the upcoming months will be completing the integration ofthe wet ESP and conducting the first industrial proof-of-concept test. The other system modifications are well underway with the designs of the recuperator installation and the batch/coal feed system progressing smoothly. The program is still slightly behind the original schedule but it is anticipated that it will be back on schedule by the end of the year. The commercialization planning is continuing with the identification of seven potential near-term commercial demonstration opportunities.

  5. Community Economic Identity: The Coal Industry and Ideology Construction in West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Shannon Elizabeth; York, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Economic changes and the machinations of the treadmill of production have dramatically reduced the number of jobs provided by extractive industries, such as mining and timber, in the United States and other affluent nations in the post-World War II era. As the importance of these industries to national, regional, and local economies wanes,…

  6. Community Economic Identity: The Coal Industry and Ideology Construction in West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Shannon Elizabeth; York, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Economic changes and the machinations of the treadmill of production have dramatically reduced the number of jobs provided by extractive industries, such as mining and timber, in the United States and other affluent nations in the post-World War II era. As the importance of these industries to national, regional, and local economies wanes,…

  7. Performance evaluation of a ceramic cross-flow filter on a bench-scale coal gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Lippert, T.E.; Bachovchin, D.M.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Meyer, J.H.; Vidt, E.J.

    1989-09-01

    The ceramic cross-flow filter (CXF) system is a promising method to be used in advanced coal based power systems for high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) particle removal. Using a subpilot scale pressurized fluid-bed combustor (PFBC) at Argonne National Laboratory and various PFBC simulators, prior projects have indicated that CXF systems can be used in oxidizing environments at PFBC conditions. To extend the use of CXF systems, this project completed an economic analysis comparing the cost of various oxygen and air blown gasification systems with the CXF system incorporated, initiated the scaleup of the CXF element from development to commercial size, predicted the characteristics of gasifier dust cake, evaluated cleaning pulse characteristics in a large multielement simulation, upgraded pulse cleaning mathematical model, and completed additional testing of the CXF elements under gasification (reducing) and PFBC conditions. Coors Ceramic Company and GTE Products Corporation were integrally involved in this program through the development and fabrication of the CXF elements. 39 figs., 23 tabs.

  8. O absorption measurements in an engineering-scale high-pressure coal gasifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kai; Sur, Ritobrata; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Clark, Tommy; Anthony, Justin; Machovec, Scott; Northington, John

    2014-10-01

    A real-time, in situ water vapor (H2O) sensor using a tunable diode laser near 1,352 nm was developed to continuously monitor water vapor in the synthesis gas of an engineering-scale high-pressure coal gasifier. Wavelength-scanned wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (WMS-2 f) was used to determine the absorption magnitude. The 1 f-normalized, WMS-2 f signal (WMS-2 f/1 f) was insensitive to non-absorption transmission losses including beam steering and light scattering by the particulate in the synthesis gas. A fitting strategy was used to simultaneously determine the water vapor mole fraction and the collisional-broadening width of the transition from the scanned 1 f-normalized WMS-2 f waveform at pressures up to 15 atm, which can be used for large absorbance values. This strategy is analogous to the fitting strategy for wavelength-scanned direct absorption measurements. In a test campaign at the US National Carbon Capture Center, the sensor demonstrated a water vapor detection limit of ~800 ppm (25 Hz bandwidth) at conditions with more than 99.99 % non-absorption transmission losses. Successful unattended monitoring was demonstrated over a 435 h period. Strong correlations between the sensor measurements and transient gasifier operation conditions were observed, demonstrating the capability of laser absorption to monitor the gasification process.

  9. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly progress report, July - September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1996-10-01

    The advanced fine-coal cleaning techniques such as column flotation, recovers a low-ash ultra-fine size clean-coal product. However, economical dewatering of the clean coal product to less than 20 percent moisture using conventional technology is difficult. This research program objective is to evaluate a novel coal surface modification technique developed at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research in conjunction with conventional and advanced dewatering technique at a pilot scale. The study which is in progress is being conducted at the Powell Mountain Coal Company`s Mayflower preparation plant located in St. Charles, VA. During this quarter laboratory dewatering studies were conducted using a 4-in diameter laboratory chemical centrifuge. The baseline data provided a filter cake with about 32% moisture. Addition of 0.3 kg/t of a cationic surfactant lowered the moisture to 29%. Addition of anionic and non-ionic surfactant was not effective in reducing the filter cake moisture content. In the pilot scale studies, a comparison was conducted between the high pressure and vacuum dewatering techniques. The base line data with high pressure and vacuum filtration provided filter cakes with 23.6% and 27.8% moisture, respectively. Addition of 20 g/t of cationic flocculent provided 21% filter cake moisture using the high pressure filter. A 15% moisture filter cake was obtained using 1.5 kg/t of non-ionic surfactant. Vacuum filter provided about 23% to 25% moisture product with additional reagents. The high pressure filter processed about 3 to 4 times more solids compared to vacuum filter.

  10. Coal use by industry and the associated air pollution emissions in the period from 1980 to 2000 under alternative market and regulatory conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    This study develops methods and data necessary to forecast both coal use and the associated air pollution emissions from US manufacturing industries in the period from 1980 to 2000 under alternative market and regulatory conditions. For the forecast and sensitivity analyses, a process model was developed to simulate industry's investment decisions for energy using equipment. Embodied in the process model are judgments on several practical issues of applied microeconomics, the most important being those concerning methods of investment decision making by industry. Under basecase assumptions, rapid growth in industrial coal use is forecast, a 9.8% compound rate of growth over the 1980 to 2000 period. If the base-case level of coal use was achieved and current air pollution rules were continued, a substantial increase in SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions would be realized; a 219% increase in industrial emissions of SO/sub 2/ and a 100% increase in NO/sub x/ emissions by the year 2000. To block this increase in emissions, a series of stricter air pollution regulations was simulated in the process model. With the high oil and gas prices assumed in the basecase, the stricter regulations did not slow the increase in coal use. However, the cost of stricter regulations may be a problem. The incremental cost of air pollution control (the cost per ton of pollutant reduction) rises steeply as stricter rules are imposed. A total cost of $4 billion could be incurred if very strict regulations (scrubber devices on all coal-fired systems) were imposed instead of continuing current policy.

  11. Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development; Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, Rebecca

    2013-03-31

    Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory in 2005 to study and develop a competing technology for use in future fossil-fueled power generation facilities that could operate with near zero emissions. CES’s background in oxy-fuel (O-F) rocket technology lead to the award of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42645, “Coal-Based Oxy-Fuel System Evaluation and Combustor Development,” where CES was to first evaluate the potential of these O-F power cycles, then develop the detailed design of a commercial-scale O-F combustor for use in these clean burning fossil-fueled plants. Throughout the studies, CES found that in order to operate at competitive cycle efficiencies a high-temperature intermediate pressure turbine was required. This led to an extension of the Agreement for, “Oxy-Fuel Turbomachinery Development for Energy Intensive Industrial Applications” where CES was to also develop an intermediate-pressure O-F turbine (OFT) that could be deployed in O-F industrial plants that capture and sequester >99% of produced CO2, at competitive cycle efficiencies using diverse fuels. The following report details CES’ activities from October 2005 through March 2013, to evaluate O-F power cycles, develop and validate detailed designs of O-F combustors (main and reheat), and to design, manufacture, and test a commercial-scale OFT, under the three-phase Cooperative Agreement.

  12. Scale-free phenomenon in industries in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Da-Hai; Chen, Bo-Kui; Gao, Ya-Chun; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the data of industries in China and find that the frequency distributions of fixed assets and fixed-assets’ investment of industries obey power laws. We show that these power-law modes can be explained by the rules of the Simon Model, rather than the existing investment theories such as the classical investment theory or acceleration principle. Moreover, the mechanism of the investment distribution may be similar to the forest-fire model of self-organizing criticality. By introducing the complex system methods, this research changes the traditional opinion of the investment and gains some meaningful understanding in the dynamics of industries and the economic cycle.

  13. Process improvement of knives production in a small scale industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananto, Gamawan; Muktasim, Irfan

    2017-06-01

    Small scale industry that produces several kinds of knive should increase its capacity due to the demand from the market. Qualitatively, this case study consisted of formulating the problems, collecting and analyzing the necessary data, and determining the possible recommendations for the improvement. While the current capacity is only 9 (nine), it is expected that 20 units of knife will produced per month. The processes sequence are: profiling (a), truing (b), beveling (c), heat treatment (d), polishing (e), assembly (f), sharpening (g) and finishing (h). The first process (a) is held by out-house vendor company while other steps from (b) to (g) are executed by in-house vendor. However, there is a high dependency upon the high skilled operator who executes the in -house processes that are mostly held manually with several unbalance successive tasks, where the processing time of one or two tasks require longer duration than others since the operation is merely relied on the operator's skill. The idea is the improvement or change of the profiling and beveling process. Due to the poor surface quality and suboptimal hardness resulted from the laser cut machine for profiling, it is considered to subst itute this kind of process with wire cut that is capable to obtain good surface quality with certain range levels of roughness. Through simple cutting experiments on the samples, it is expected that the generated surface quality is adequate to omit the truing process (b). In addition, the cutting experiments on one, two, and four test samples resulted the shortest time that was obtained through four pieces in one cut. The technical parameters were set according to the recommendation of machine standard as referred to samples condition such as thickness and path length that affect ed the rate of wear. Meanwhile, in order to guarantee the uniformity of knife angles that are formed through beveling process (c), a grinding fixture was created. This kind of tool diminishes the

  14. Surface runoff from full-scale coal combustion product pavements during accelerated loading

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.M.; Taerakul, P.; Tu, W.; Zand, B.; Butalia, T.; Wolfe, W.; Walker, H.

    2008-08-15

    In this study, the release of metals and metalloids from full-scale portland cement concrete pavements containing coal combustion products (CCPs) was evaluated by laboratory leaching tests and accelerated loading of full-scale pavement sections under well-controlled conditions. An equivalent of 20 years of highway traffic loading was simulated at the OSU/OU Accelerated Pavement Load Facility (APLF). Three types of portland cement concrete driving surface layers were tested, including a control section (i.e., ordinary portland cement (PC) concrete) containing no fly ash and two sections in which fly ash was substituted for a fraction of the cement; i.e., 30% fly ash (FA30) and 50% fly ash (FA50). In general, the concentrations of minor and trace elements were higher in the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leachates than in the leachates obtained from synthetic precipitation leaching procedure and ASTM leaching procedures. Importantly, none of the leachate concentrations exceeded the TCLP limits or primary drinking water standards. Surface runoff monitoring results showed the highest release rates of inorganic elements from the FA50 concrete pavement, whereas there were little differences in release rates between PC and FA30 concretes. The release of elements generally decreased with increasing pavement loading. Except for Cr, elements were released as particulates (>0.45 {mu} m) rather than dissolved constituents. The incorporation of fly ash in the PC cement concrete pavements examined in this study resulted in little or no deleterious environmental impact from the leaching of inorganic elements over the lifetime of the pavement system.

  15. Optical and chemical characterization of aerosols emitted from coal, heavy and light fuel oil, and small-scale wood combustion.

    PubMed

    Frey, Anna K; Saarnio, Karri; Lamberg, Heikki; Mylläri, Fanni; Karjalainen, Panu; Teinilä, Kimmo; Carbone, Samara; Tissari, Jarkko; Niemelä, Ville; Häyrinen, Anna; Rautiainen, Jani; Kytömäki, Jorma; Artaxo, Paulo; Virkkula, Aki; Pirjola, Liisa; Rönkkö, Topi; Keskinen, Jorma; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hillamo, Risto

    2014-01-01

    Particle emissions affect radiative forcing in the atmosphere. Therefore, it is essential to know the physical and chemical characteristics of them. This work studied the chemical, physical, and optical characteristics of particle emissions from small-scale wood combustion, coal combustion of a heating and power plant, as well as heavy and light fuel oil combustion at a district heating station. Fine particle (PM1) emissions were the highest in wood combustion with a high fraction of absorbing material. The emissions were lowest from coal combustion mostly because of efficient cleaning techniques used at the power plant. The chemical composition of aerosols from coal and oil combustion included mostly ions and trace elements with a rather low fraction of absorbing material. The single scattering albedo and aerosol forcing efficiency showed that primary particles emitted from wood combustion and some cases of oil combustion would have a clear climate warming effect even over dark earth surfaces. Instead, coal combustion particle emissions had a cooling effect. Secondary processes in the atmosphere will further change the radiative properties of these emissions but are not considered in this study.

  16. Integrated low emissions cleanup system for coal fueled turbines Phase III bench-scale testing and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, R.A.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1995-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Research Center (DOE/METC), is sponsoring the development of coal-fired turbine technologies such as Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC), coal Gasification Combined Cycles (GCC), and Direct Coal-Fired Turbines (DCFT). A major technical development challenge remaining for coal-fired turbine systems is high-temperature gas cleaning to meet environmental emissions standards, as well as to ensure acceptable turbine life. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science & Technology Center, has evaluated an Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup (ILEC) concept that has been configured to meet this technical challenge. This ceramic hot gas filter (HGF), ILEC concept controls particulate emissions, while simultaneously contributing to the control of sulfur and alkali vapor contaminants in high-temperature, high-pressure, fuel gases or combustion gases. This document reports on the results of Phase III of the ILEC evaluation program, the final phase of the program. In Phase III, a bench-scale ILEC facility has been tested to (1) confirm the feasibility of the ILEC concept, and (2) to resolve some major filter cake behavior issues identified in PFBC, HGF applications.

  17. POC-Scale Testing of an Advanced Fine Coal Dewatering Equipment/Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Karekh, B K; Tao, D; Groppo, J G

    1998-08-28

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 mm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy's program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 45 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from January 1 - March 31, 1998.

  18. Industrial pulverized coal low NO{sub x} burner. Phase 1, Second quarterly technical progress report, 1 April 1992--31 March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-10

    The objective of Phase 1 of the ``Industrial Pulverized Coal Low NO{sub x} Burner`` Program is to develop a novel low NO{sub x}, pulverized coal burner, which offers near-term commercialization potential, uses preheated combustion air of up to 1000{degrees}F, and which can be applied to high-temperature industrial heating furnaces, chemical process furnaces, fired heaters, and boilers. The program team is led byArthur D. Little, Inc., and includes the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Hauck Manufacturing Company. During the first quarter of the program the program team developed the overall program management plan; began a market survey to identify coals suitable for modeling the low NO{sub x}, burner design and performance, as well as for use in the Phase II burner tests; and defined the preliminary burner design specifications, sized the prototype burner, and produced the first concept schematic. This report is for the second quarter of the program (July 1992 to September 1992). During this period the program team: Completed the study of industrial coal usage and sources; refined the preliminary burner design and confirmed it as the basis for computer modeling; and started definition of the modeling work scope, including the development of fuel and process specifications, description and modeling approaches.

  19. Industrial Scale Energy Systems Integration; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, Mark

    2015-07-28

    The industrial sector consumes 25% of the total energy in the U.S. and produces 18% of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Energy Systems Integration (ESI) opportunities can reduce those values and increase the profitability of that sector. This presentation outlines several options. Combined heat and power (CHP) is an option that is available today for many applications. In some cases, it can be extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed. extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed.

  20. Have government regulations improved workplace safety? A test of the asynchronous regulatory effects in China's coal industry, 1995-2006

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, X.P.

    2009-07-01

    Empirical studies on the effectiveness of workplace safety regulations are inconclusive. This study hypothesizes that the asynchronous effects of safety regulations occur because regulations need time to become effective. Safety regulations will work initially by reducing the most serious accidents, and later by improving overall safety performance. The hypothesis is tested by studying a provincial level aggregate panel dataset for China's coal industry using two different models with different sets of dependent variables: a fixed-effects model on mortality rate, which is defined as fatalities per 1,000 employees; and a negative binominal model on the annual number (frequency) of disastrous accidents. Safety regulations can reduce the frequency of disastrous accidents, but have not reduced mortality rate, which represents overall safety performance. Policy recommendations are made, including shifting production from small to large mines through industrial consolidation, improving the safety performance of large mines, addressing consequences of decentralization, and facilitating the implementation of regulations through carrying on institutional actions and supporting legislation.

  1. (Performance evaluation of fabric bug filters on a bench-scale coal gasifier)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-15

    The objective of this proposed work is to demonstrate the operational and economic feasibility of using high-temperature ceramic filters for particulate control in a variety of coal gasification power generating systems.

  2. (Performance evaluation of fabric bag filters on a bench-scale coal gasifier)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-15

    The objective of this proposed work is to demonstrate the operational and economic feasibility of using high-temperature ceramic filters for particulate control in a variety of coal gasification power generating systems.

  3. (Performance evaluation of fabric bag filters on a bench-scale coal gasifier)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-15

    The objective of the proposed work is to demonstrate the operational and economic feasibility of using high-temperature ceramic filters for particulate control in a variety of coal gasification power generating systems.

  4. (Performance evaluation of fabric bag filters on a bench-scale coal gasifier)

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R.; Sawyer, J.; Lips, H.

    1985-07-15

    The objective of the proposed work is to demonstrate the operational and economic feasibility of using high-temperature ceramic filters for particulate control in a variety of coal gasification power generating systems.

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF A PILOT SCALE FACILITY FOR FABRICATION AND MARKETING OF LIGHTWEIGHT-COAL COMBUSTION BYPRODUCTS-BASED SUPPORTS AND MINE VENTILATION BLOCKS FOR UNDERGROUND MINES

    SciTech Connect

    Yoginder P. Chugh

    2002-10-01

    The overall goal of this program was to develop a pilot scale facility, and design, fabricate, and market CCBs-based lightweight blocks for mine ventilation control devices, and engineered crib elements and posts for use as artificial supports in underground mines to replace similar wooden elements. This specific project was undertaken to (1) design a pilot scale facility to develop and demonstrate commercial production techniques, and (2) provide technical and marketing support to Fly Lite, Inc to operate the pilot scale facility. Fly Lite, Inc is a joint venture company of the three industrial cooperators who were involved in research into the development of CCBs-based structural materials. The Fly-Lite pilot scale facility is located in McLeansboro, Illinois. Lightweight blocks for use in ventilation stoppings in underground mines have been successfully produced and marketed by the pilot-scale facility. To date, over 16,000 lightweight blocks (30-40 pcf) have been sold to the mining industry. Additionally, a smaller width (6-inch) full-density block was developed in August-September 2002 at the request of a mining company. An application has been submitted to Mine Safety and Health Administration for the developed block approval for use in mines. Commercialization of cribs and posts has also been accomplished. Two generations of cribs have been developed and demonstrated in the field. MSHA designated them suitable for use in mines. To date, over 2,000 crib elements have been sold to mines in Illinois. Two generations of posts were also demonstrated in the field and designated as suitable for use in mines by MSHA. Negotiations are currently underway with a mine in Illinois to market about 1,000 posts per year based on a field demonstration in their mine. It is estimated that 4-5 million tons CCBs (F-fly ash or FBC fly ash) may be utilized if the developed products can be commercially implemented in U.S. coal and non-coal mines.

  6. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

    2008-04-30

    This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO{sub x} behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu/hr pilot-scale furnace at the University of Utah. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team which included the University of Utah and Combustion Components Associates (CCA). Deep burner staging and RRI, combined with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), make up the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) for NO{sub x} reduction. The application of ALTA in a PC environment requires homogenization and rapid reaction of post-burner combustion gases and has not been successfully demonstrated in the past. Operation of the existing low-NO{sub x} burner and design and operation of an application specific ALTA burner was guided by CFD modeling conducted by REI. Parametric pilot-scale testing proved the chemistry of RRI in a PC environment with a NOx reduction of 79% at long residence times and high baseline NOx rate. At representative particle residence times, typical operation of the dual-register low-NO{sub x} burner provided an environment that was unsuitable for NO{sub x} reduction by RRI, showing no NOx reduction. With RRI, the ALTA burner was able to produce NO{sub x} emissions 20% lower than the low-NO{sub x} burner, 76 ppmv vs. 94 ppmv, at a burner stoichiometric ratio (BSR) of 0.7 and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) of 2.0. CFD modeling was used to investigate the application of RRI for NO{sub x} control on a 180 MW{sub e} wall-fired, PC boiler. A NO{sub x} reduction of 37% from baseline (normal operation) was predicted using ALTA burners with RRI to produce a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.185 lb/MBtu at the horizontal nose of

  7. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  8. Pilot Scale Water Gas Shift - Membrane Device for Hydrogen from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Tom

    2013-06-30

    The objectives of the project were to build pilot scale hydrogen separation systems for use in a gasification product stream. This device would demonstrate fabrication and manufacturing techniques for producing commercially ready facilities. The design was a 2 lb/day hydrogen device which included composite hydrogen separation membranes, a water gas shift monolith catalyst, and stainless steel structural components. Synkera Technologies was to prepare hydrogen separation membranes with metallic rims, and to adjust the alloy composition in their membranes to a palladium-gold composition which is sulfur resistant. Chart was to confirm their brazing technology for bonding the metallic rims of the composite membranes to their structural components and design and build the 2 lbs/day device incorporating membranes and catalysts. WRI prepared the catalysts and completed the testing of the membranes and devices on coal derived syngas. The reactor incorporated eighteen 2'' by 7'' composite palladium alloy membranes. These membranes were assembled with three stacks of three paired membranes. Initial vacuum testing and visual inspection indicated that some membranes were cracked, either in transportation or in testing. During replacement of the failed membranes, while pulling a vacuum on the back side of the membranes, folds were formed in the flexible composite membranes. In some instances these folds led to cracks, primarily at the interface between the alumina and the aluminum rim. The design of the 2 lb/day device was compromised by the lack of any membrane isolation. A leak in any membrane failed the entire device. A large number of tests were undertaken to bring the full 2 lb per day hydrogen capacity on line, but no single test lasted more than 48 hours. Subsequent tests to replace the mechanical seals with brazing have been promising, but the technology remains promising but not proven.

  9. Scale of harvesting by non-industrial private forest landowners

    Treesearch

    Melinda Vokoun; Gregory S. Amacher; David N. Wear

    2006-01-01

    We examine the intensity of harvesting decision by non-industrial landowners at the lowest price offer they deem acceptable, using a multiple bounded discrete choice stated preference approach that draws upon and connects two subfields of forestry, one identifying characteristics of landowners important to past harvesting or reforestation decisions, and another...

  10. Development of a coal quality expert. Technical progress report No. 6, [July 1--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-20

    The project will provide the utility industry with a PC expert system to confidently and inexpensively evaluate the potential for coal cleaning, blending, and switching options to reduce emissions while producing lowest cost electricity. Specifically, this project will: (1) Enhance the existing Coal Quality Information System (CQIS) database and Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM) to allow confident assessment of the effects of cleaning on specific boiler cost and performance; (2) Develop and validate a methodology, Coal Quality Expert (CQE) which allows accurate and detailed predictions of coal quality impacts on total power plant capital cost, operating cost, and performance based upon inputs from inexpensive bench-scale tests.

  11. Combination of metamorphism and deformation affect the nano-scale pore structures and macromolecule characteristics of high-rank deformed coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Li, H.; Ju, Y.

    2013-12-01

    experiments indicates that adsorption/desorption capacity shows a 'U' type with nano-pores volume and specific surface area, coals with best adsorption capacity contained both vitrinite and inertinite with an approximate ratio of 4:1 or 1:4, the increase of aromatic and aliphatic content individually facilitated the adsorption of CBM. Generally speaking, the adsorption/desorption capacity of ductile deformed coals is higher than that of brittle ones, but metamorphism could dramatically affects the final results. To enhance CBM production and reduce carbon emission, the appropriate coal-bearing strata need to be chosen. Our research shows that metamorphism and deformation affect the nano-scale pore structures and macromolecule characteristics of different coals. Therefore brittle-ductile superposed zone with medium-high rank coals has high gas content and permeability which is promising to exploit and helpful to environmental protection.

  12. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase 3 research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the major effort was completing some of the system modification installation designs, completing industry funded testing, developing a surrogate TSCA ash composition, and completing the TSCA ash Test Plan. The installation designs will be used for the equipment modifications planned for the end of CY 93. The industry funded testing consisted of vitrifying Spent Aluminum Potliner (SPL) which is a listed hazardous waste. This testing has verified that SPL can be vitrified into a safe, recyclable glass product. Some results from this testing are provided in Section 2.2.1. The surrogate TSCA ash composition was developed with input from various DOE laboratories and subcontractors. The surrogate ash consists of a mixture of MSW fly ash and bottom ash spiked with heavy metal contaminants. The levels of metal additives are sufficient to ascertain the partitioning of the contaminants between the glass and effluent flow streams. Details of the surrogate composition and the planned testing is provided in Section 4.2.2.

  13. Experimental characterization of an industrial pulverized coal-fired furnace under deep staging conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, M.; Azevedo, J.L.T.

    2007-07-01

    Measurements have been performed in a 300 MWe, front-wall-fired, pulverized-coal, utility boiler. This boiler was retrofitted with boosted over fire air injectors that allowed the operation of the furnace under deeper staging conditions. New data are reported for local mean gas species concentration of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NOx, gas temperatures and char burnout measured at several ports in the boiler including those in the main combustion and staged air regions. Comparisons of the present data with our previous measurements in this boiler, prior to the retrofitting with the new over fire system, show lower O{sub 2} and higher CO concentrations for the new situation as a consequence of the lower stoichiometry in the main combustion zone associated with the present boiler operating condition. Consistently, the measured mean NOx concentrations in the main combustion zone are now lower than those obtained previously, yielding emissions below 500 mg/Nm{sup 3}at 6% O{sub 2}. Finally, the measured values of particle burnout at the furnace exit are acceptable being those measured in the main combustion zone comparable with those obtained with the conventional over fire system.

  14. Coal production and transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen papers covering a wide variety of topics relevant to today's coal industry and a panel discussion on railroad deregulation and coal unit train rates were presented at the Seventh Annual PLM Coal Conference on Coal Production and Transportation. This volume contains all of these papers, which cover the topics ranging from acid rain to project financing, from slurry pipelines to barge and railroad transportation, as well as the panel discussion. All papers have been abstracted and indexed.

  15. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  16. Coal Activities for Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coal Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This collection of lesson plans designed for teachers of 4th- through 12th-grade students utilizes an assortment of teaching strategies for topics related to coal and the coal industry. Activities cover the following topics: coal formation; coal identification; "the geologist's dilemma" (a supply and demand activity); geologic time and…

  17. Coal Activities for Secondary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coal Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This collection of lesson plans designed for teachers of 4th- through 12th-grade students utilizes an assortment of teaching strategies for topics related to coal and the coal industry. Activities cover the following topics: coal formation; coal identification; "the geologist's dilemma" (a supply and demand activity); geologic time and…

  18. Coal market momentum converts skeptics

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-01-15

    Tight supplies, soaring natural gas prices and an improving economy bode well for coal. Coal Age presents it 'Forecast 2006' a survey of 200 US coal industry executives. Questions asked included predicted production levels, attitudes, expenditure on coal mining, and rating of factors of importance. 7 figs.

  19. Electrostatic precipitation of particulate emissions from the combustion of coal-oil-water and coal-water-slurry in an industrial packaged boiler. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, C.G.; Dooher, J.R.

    1984-12-01

    The report discusses the results of a research project designed to determine electrostatic-precipitation performance in collecting particulate emissions from coal-oil-water or coal-water slurry fuels. Measurements made on a mobile electrostatic precipitator (ESP) showed that New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) could be met by appropriate design and operation. Coal-oil-water fuels required a specific collection area (SCA) of 340 sq ft/1,000 ACFM flue gas, while coal-water slurry fuel needed 500 sq ft/ACFM flue gas to comply with NSPS. Specific electrode power densities were 200 watts/1,000 ACFM flue gas. The mobile ESP accepted flue gas from a packaged fire-tube boiler converted to coal-slurry firing. The fully instrumented boiler produced a fly-ash high-in carbon content, especially when burning CWS fuel. The high carbon content influenced fly-ash resistivity vs. temperature curves and must be taken into account in designing an ESP for this kind of service.

  20. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 pm) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean-coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20% or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. The cost-sharing contract effort is for 36 months beginning September 30, 1994. This report discusses technical progress made during the quarter from July 1 - September 30, 1997.

  1. Efficient and large scale synthesis of graphene from coal and its film electrical properties studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingpeng; Ma, Yanfeng; Wang, Yan; Huang, Lu; Li, Na; Zhang, Tengfei; Zhang, Yi; Wan, Xiangjian; Huang, Yi; Chen, Yongsheng

    2013-02-01

    Coal, which is abundant and has an incompact structure, is a good candidate to replace graphite as the raw material for the production of graphene. Here, a new solution phase technique for the preparation of graphene from coal has been developed. The precursor: graphene oxide got from coal was examined by atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering and X-ray diffraction, the results showed the GO was a small and single layer sheet. The graphene was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, graphene films have been prepared using direct solution process and the electrical conductivity and Hall effect have been studied. The results showed the conductivity of the films could reach as high as 2.5 x 10(5) Sm(-1) and exhibited an n-type behavior.

  2. Industrial-scale radio frequency treatments for insect control in lentils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Radio frequency (RF) treatments are considered as a potential postharvest technology for disinfesting legumes. After treatment protocols are validated to control postharvest insects without significant quality degradation, it is important to scale-up laboratory RF treatments to industrial applicatio...

  3. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1996-02-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74{mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultrafine clean coal product to a 20% level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. The main objective of the proposed program is to evaluate a novel surface modification technique, which utilizes the synergistic effect of metal ions-surfactant combination, for dewatering of ultra-fine clean coal on a proof-of-concept scale of 1 to 2 tph. The novel surface modification technique developed at the the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research will be evaluated using vacuum, centrifuge, and hyperbaric filtration equipment. Dewatering tests will be conducted using the fine clean coal froth produced by the column flotation units at the Powell Mountain Coal Company, Mayflower Preparation Plant in St. Charles, Virginia. The POC-scale studies will be conducted on two different types of clean coal, namely, high sulfur and low sulfur clean coal. Accomplishments for the past quarter are described.

  4. Numerical simulation of ash vaporization during pulverized coal combustion in the laboratory-scale single-burner furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Jiancai Sui; Minghou Xu; Jihua Qiu; Yu Qiao; Yun Yu; Xiaowei Liu; Xiangpeng Gao

    2005-08-01

    CFD tools have been developed to effectively simulate complex, reacting, multiphase flows that exist in utility boilers. In this paper, a model of ash vaporization was established and integrated into a self-developed CFD code to predict ash vaporization in the coal combustion process. Experimental data from a single-particle combustion was used to validate the above model. The calibrated model was then applied to simulate the ash vaporization in a 92.9 kW laboratory-scale single-burner furnace. The effects of different combustion conditions, including air staging, on the ash vaporization were investigated. The results showed that the fraction of ash vaporization is mostly sensitive to coal particle temperature. Ash vaporization primarily occurred after a short interval along the coal particle trajectories when the particle temperatures increased to 1800 K. Air staging influenced the ash vaporization by changing the gas temperature distribution in the furnace. The simulation results showed that the more extreme the staging condition, the lower the overall peak temperature, and hence the lower the amount of ash vaporization. 26 refs., 9 figs.

  5. In Developping a Bench-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor to Burn High Ash Brazilian Coal-Dolomites Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez Behainne, Jhon Jairo; Hory, Rogério Ishikawa; Goldstein, Leonardo; Bernárdez Pécora, Araí Augusta

    This work considers some of the questions in burning high ash Brazilian coal-dolomite mixtures in a bench-scale circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). Experimental tests were performed with the CE4500 coal from Santa Catarina State, in southern Brazil, with a Sauter mean diameter d p =43 μm. The coal particles were mixed with dolomite particles of d p = 111 μm and this fuel mixture was fed into the circulating fluidized reactor, previously loaded with quartz sand particles of d p =353 μm. This inert material was previously heated by the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas up to the ignition temperature of the fuel mixture. The CFBC unit has a 100mm internal diameter riser, 4.0m high, as well as a 62.8mm internal diameter downcomer. The loop has a cyclone, a sampling valve to collect particles and a 62.8mm internal diameter L-valve to recirculate the particles in the loop. A screw feeder with a rotation control system was used to feed the fuel mixture to the reactor. The operational conditions were monitored by pressure taps and thermocouples installed along the loop. A data acquisition system showed the main operational conditions to control. Experimental tests performed put in evidence the problems found during bed operation, with special attention to the solids feed device, to the L-valve operation, to particle size, solids inventory, fluidized gas velocity, fuel mixture and recirculated solids feeding positions.

  6. H.R. 2877: A Bill to require the Secretary of the Interior to determine the impact of leasing Federal lands for coal mining, on the existing mining industry prior to issuing Federal coal mining leases, and for other purposes. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session, August 5, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The report H.R. 2877 is a bill to require the Secretary of the Interior to determine the impact of leasing Federal lands for coal mining, on the existing mining industry prior to issuing Federal coal mining leases. The proposed legislative text is included.

  7. Panel discussion: The Clean Air Act: It`s impact on the coal testing industry The act itself: A summary and overview

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.

    1995-08-01

    The Clean Air Act was first enacted in 1970. It was re-enacted in both 1977 and 1991. The original act covered air quality standards (NAAQS) for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO and O{sub 3}. Pb was added in 1978 by court order and particulate matter (TSP) was added in 1987. A discussion of the impact of the Clean Air Act on the coal industry is presented.

  8. Emissions from carpet combustion in a pilot-scale rotary kiln: comparison with coal and particle-board combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanie Lucero Konopa; James A. Mulholland; Matthew J. Realff; Paul M. Lemieux

    2008-08-15

    The use of post-consumer carpet as a potential fuel substitute in cement kilns and other high-temperature processes is being considered to address the problem of huge volumes of carpet waste and the opportunity of waste-to-energy recovery. Carpet represents a high volume waste stream, provides high energy value, and contains other recoverable materials for the production of cement. This research studied the emission characteristics of burning 0.46-kg charges of chopped nylon carpet squares, pulverized coal, and particle-board pellets in a pilot-scale natural gas-fired rotary kiln. Carpet was tested with different amounts of water added. Emissions of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and total hydrocarbons and temperatures were continuously monitored. It was found that carpet burned faster and more completely than coal and particle board, with a rapid volatile release that resulted in large and variable transient emission peaks. NO emissions from carpet combustion ranged from 0.06 to 0.15 g/MJ and were inversely related to CO emissions. Carpet combustion yielded higher NO emissions than coal and particleboard combustion, consistent with its higher nitrogen content. S{sub 2} emissions were highest for coal combustion, consistent with its higher sulfur content than carpet or particle board. Adding water to carpet slowed its burn time and reduced variability in the emission transients, reducing the CO peak but increasing NO emissions. Results of this study indicate that carpet waste can be used as an effective alternative fuel, with the caveats that it might be necessary to wet carpet or chop it finely to avoid excessive transient puff emissions due to its high volatility compared with other solid fuels, and that controlled mixing of combustion air might be used to control NO emissions from nylon carpet. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Emissions from carpet combustion in a pilot-scale rotary kiln: comparison with coal and particle-board combustion.

    PubMed

    Konopa, Stephanie Lucero; Mulholland, James A; Realff, Matthew J; Lemieux, Paul M

    2008-08-01

    The use of post-consumer carpet as a potential fuel substitute in cement kilns and other high-temperature processes is being considered to address the problem of huge volumes of carpet waste and the opportunity of waste-to-energy recovery. Carpet represents a high volume waste stream, provides high energy value, and contains other recoverable materials for the production of cement. This research studied the emission characteristics of burning 0.46-kg charges of chopped nylon carpet squares, pulverized coal, and particle-board pellets in a pilot-scale natural gas-fired rotary kiln. Carpet was tested with different amounts of water added. Emissions of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and total hydrocarbons and temperatures were continuously monitored. It was found that carpet burned faster and more completely than coal and particle board, with a rapid volatile release that resulted in large and variable transient emission peaks. NO emissions from carpet combustion ranged from 0.06 to 0.15 g/MJ and were inversely related to CO emissions. Carpet combustion yielded higher NO emissions than coal and particle-board combustion, consistent with its higher nitrogen content. SO2 emissions were highest for coal combustion, consistent with its higher sulfur content than carpet or particle board. Adding water to carpet slowed its burn time and reduced variability in the emission transients, reducing the CO peak but increasing NO emissions. Results of this study indicate that carpet waste can be used as an effective alternative fuel, with the caveats that it might be necessary to wet carpet or chop it finely to avoid excessive transient puff emissions due to its high volatility compared with other solid fuels, and that controlled mixing of combustion air might be used to control NO emissions from nylon carpet.

  10. The Economics of Rural and Urban Small-Scale Industries in Sierra Leone. African Rural Economy Paper No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedholm, Carl; Chuta, Enyinna

    Small-scale industry in Sierra Leone, Africa was examined in terms of: labor intensity; output generated per unit of capital; generation of positive economic profits by small-scale industry groups/processes; and seasonal and locational variations. Key analytical issues were the nature of small-scale industry supply and demand processes. Data were…

  11. The Economics of Rural and Urban Small-Scale Industries in Sierra Leone. African Rural Economy Paper No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedholm, Carl; Chuta, Enyinna

    Small-scale industry in Sierra Leone, Africa was examined in terms of: labor intensity; output generated per unit of capital; generation of positive economic profits by small-scale industry groups/processes; and seasonal and locational variations. Key analytical issues were the nature of small-scale industry supply and demand processes. Data were…

  12. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, John; Schobert, Harold; Miller, Bruce G

    2006-03-01

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has been successfully operating the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by PSU, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with PSU responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes PSU and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. A second contract was executed with DOE NETL starting in October 2003 to continue the activities of CPCPC. An annual funding meeting was held in October 2003 and the council selected 10 projects for funding. Base funding for the projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the various subcontractors on March 1, 2004.

  13. Multimodal ultrafine particles from pulverized coal combustion in a laboratory scale reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Carbone, Francesco; Beretta, Federico; D'Anna, Andrea

    2010-07-15

    Particle size distribution functions have been measured in a ethanol fueled flame reactor fed with a low amount of pulverized coal particles. The reactor is operated in low (5.0 vol.%) and high (76.5 vol.%) oxygen concentrations using two high volatile bituminous Colombian and Indonesian coals. A carbon black powder is also oxidized in the same conditions. Generated particles are sampled using rapid-dilution probes and the size distribution functions are measured on-line by a high resolution Differential Mobility Analyzer. Results clearly show that ultrafine particles, those with sizes lower than 100 nm, have a multimodal size distribution function. These particles have huge number concentrations in both investigated conditions whereas their formation is enhanced in the oxygen enriched condition. Ultrafine particles are almost totally dominated in number by the fraction having sizes below 30 nm. Nanoparticles also account for a significant fraction of total particle mass and slowly coagulate in the reactor. The shape of the size distribution functions is not affected by the coal type, at least for the two investigated coals. Results suggest that ultrafine particles form through the vaporization-nucleation-growth pathway involving inorganic ashes. Moreover the contribution of carbonaceous particles seems particularly important for size smaller than 5 nm. (author)

  14. PROTOTYPE SCALE TESTING OF LIMB TECHNOLOGY FOR A PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of an evaluation of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. (NOTE: FSI of calcium-based sorbents has shown promise as a moderate SO2 removal technology.) The Electric Power Research I...

  15. PROTOTYPE SCALE TESTING OF LIMB TECHNOLOGY FOR A PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of an evaluation of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. (NOTE: FSI of calcium-based sorbents has shown promise as a moderate SO2 removal technology.) The Electric Power Research I...

  16. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique: Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October 1996--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, D.; Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K.

    1997-01-21

    The advanced fine-coal cleaning techniques such as column flotation, recovers a low-ash ultra-fine size clean-coal product. However, economical dewatering of the clean coal product to less than 20 percent moisture using conventional technology is difficult. This research program objective is to evaluate a novel coal surface modification technique developed at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research in conjunction with conventional and advanced dewatering technique at a pilot scale at the Powell Mountain Coal Company`s Mayflower preparation plant located in St. Charles, VA. During this quarter in the laboratory dewatering studies were conducted using copper and aluminum ions showed that for the low sulfur clean coal slurry addition of 0.1 Kg/t of copper ions was effective in lowering the filter cake moisture from 29 percent to 26.3 percent. Addition of 0.3 Kg/t of aluminum ions provided filter cake with 28 percent moisture. For the high sulfur clean coal slurry 0.5 Kg/t of copper and 0.1 Kg/t of aluminum ions reduced cake moisture from 30.5 percent to 28 percent respectively. Combined addition of anionic (10 g/t) and cationic (10 g/t) flocculants was effective in providing a filter cake with 29.8 percent moisture. Addition of flocculants was not effective in centrifuge dewatering. In pilot scale screen bowl centrifuge dewatering studies it was found that the clean coal slurry feed rate of 30 gpm was optimum to the centrifuge, which provided 65 percent solids capture. Addition of anionic or cationic flocculants was not effective in lowering of filter cake moisture, which remained close to 30 percent for both clean coal slurries.

  17. Total population study of factors affecting chronic bronchitis prevalence in the coal mining industry of New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, J; Wiles, A N; Glick, M

    1986-01-01

    The period prevalence of simple chronic bronchitis (SCB) (mucus hypersecretion), defined as chronic cough and sputum production by the MRC respiratory symptom questionnaire administered by occupational physicians and of obstructive chronic bronchitis (OCB) (airflow obstruction) (defined as SCB plus FEV1 less than 80% predicted) have been measured over the period 30 June 1977-30 June 1980 in the entire work force aged between 21 and 60 of the coal industry of New South Wales, Australia (12 357 men). Four dimensional contingency table analysis by a logistic transform method showed highly significant (p less than 0.001) additive affects of age (exposure duration), site of work, smoking, and alcohol consumption on development of overall chronic bronchitis (SCB + OCB). Odds ratios were face work:surface work = 1.78:1, smoker:non-smoker = 4.23:1, alcohol greater than 300 g/wk:alcohol less than 300 g/wk = 2.13:1. There was no evidence for synergistic effects of these factors on the development of mucus hypersecretion. When OCB was analysed separately, the effect of site of work, although in the same direction, was not statistically significant and this was assumed to be due to a "healthy worker" effect or a "swamping" effect of smoking. Age, smoking, and alcohol effects were highly significant (p less than 0.0001) and there was a sharp increase in prevalence of OCB in the age groups 41-50 and 51-60. Odds ratios were face work:surface work = 1.11:1, smoker:non-smoker = 2.66:1, alcohol greater than 300 g/wk:alcohol less than 300 g/wk = 2.91:1. There was no evidence of synergistic effects. These results are consistent with a hypothesis of additive effects of smoking, alcohol, and coal mine dust and fumes on the development of chronic mucus hypersecretion leading to airflow obstruction or a hypothesis of similar additive effects on the development of two separate conditions--mucus hypersecretion with airflow obstruction and mucus hypersecretion without airflow obstruction

  18. Full scale UASB reactor performance in the brewery industry.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Y H; Min, K S; Speece, R E

    2001-04-01

    In this paper the 7 year experience of the Oriental Breweries, located in Kumi, Korea utilizing a full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for the anaerobic pretreatment of brewery wastewater is presented. The anaerobic pretreatment system selected has successfully achieved the desired treatment efficiency for the brewery wastewater during that period and it has also continued operation even with low wastewater concentrations (average CODcr 1,400 mg l-1) and lower flow rates than specified by the design parameters. The CODcr removal of the UASB reactor averaged over 80% throughout the entire period, incurring normal running expenses of only $0.20-0.31 m-3 of treated water. In addition a further economical feature of the process was the utilization of the gas digester production as the municipal gas source, reducing total operating expenses around 30 to 45% and costing the plant only $0.1 m-3. Maintenance of good granule production, which is always a key issue in operating UASB systems, was not possible by this installation, however, so frequent expensive reseeding of the reactor was often necessary due to biomass washout. The full scale and lab scale research revealed that underloading can be as detrimental as overloading, due to excessively long retention time in the UASB system for the overall operating period and to excessive pre-acidification and/or incorrect reactor configuration of the completely mixed type. To enhance the sludge granulation, therefore, the installation of a pre-acidification reactor in the UASB system treating easily biodegradable substrates such as brewery wastewater is not necessary because adequate pre-acidification can occur in the equalization tank.

  19. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  20. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning. First quarterly technical progress report, September 27, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process which is capable of removing mineral matter from coal without using water. A distinct advantage of this dry coal cleaning process is that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering which is a common problem associated with conventional fine coal cleaning processes. It is the objective of this project to conduct a series of proof-of-concept (POC) scale tests at a throughput of 200--250 kg/hr and obtain scale- up information. Prior to the POC testing, bench-scale test work will be conducted with the objective of increasing the separation efficiency and throughput, for which changes in the basic designs for the charger and the separator may be necessary. The bench- and POC- scale test work will be carried out to evaluate various operating parameters and establish a reliable scale-up procedure. The scale-up data will be used to analyze the economic merits of the TES process. During the past quarter, a number of project tasks have been initiated. All documents required for project startup (i.e., work plans, management plans, etc.) have been submitted to DOE for approval. A bench-scale TES unit and an apparatus for studying tribocharging mechanisms have been designed and are currently being fabricated. One of the three coal samples to be used for bench-scale testing has been acquired.

  1. Development of pressurized coal partial combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, K.; Ino, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Kimura, N.

    1995-12-31

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), an environment-friendly power generation system of high thermal efficiency, is being developed via various approaches around the world. The oxygen-blown entrained flow gasification process is a relatively simple method of producing medium calorie coal gas suitable for application to gas turbines. Various systems for this process have been developed to a demonstration level in Europe and America. Japan has actively been developing the air-blown process. However, taking stable molten slag discharge into consideration, coal must be supplied at two stages to raise the combustor temperature in ash molten part. Only two reports have been presented regarding two-stage coal supply. One is the report on an experiment with the Hycol gasifier, in which air feed ratio is varied, with coal feed fixed. The other is report on a simulation study with various gasifier coal feed ratios, conducted at Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry. It seems that the appropriate feed ratio has not yet been established. Through this activity, a unique furnace construction has been established, and these influences of stoichiometric air ratio, of oxygen enrichment, of char recycling and of coal types on performance have been clarified. The purpose of the present study is to apply this developed CPC techniques to a Pressurized CPC (PCPC), thereby improving the IGCC technology. For the present study, we conducted systematic experiments on the air-blown process with a two stage dry feed system, using a 7 t/d-coal bench scale PCPC test facility, operated at the pressure of 0.4 MPa, and clarified the influence of coal feed ratio on coal gasification performance. This report describes the above-mentioned bench scale test procedures and results, and also some informations about a plan of a 25 t/d-coal pilot test system.

  2. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  3. Playing the Scales: Regional Transformations and the Differentiation of Rural Space in the Chilean Wine Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, John; Murray, Warwick E.

    2011-01-01

    Globalization and industrial restructuring transform rural places in complex and often contradictory ways. These involve both quantitative changes, increasing the size and scope of operation to achieve economies of scale, and qualitative shifts, sometimes leading to a shift up the quality/price scale, towards finer spatial resolution and…

  4. Playing the Scales: Regional Transformations and the Differentiation of Rural Space in the Chilean Wine Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, John; Murray, Warwick E.

    2011-01-01

    Globalization and industrial restructuring transform rural places in complex and often contradictory ways. These involve both quantitative changes, increasing the size and scope of operation to achieve economies of scale, and qualitative shifts, sometimes leading to a shift up the quality/price scale, towards finer spatial resolution and…

  5. Development of the industrial scale Ag/Bi-2223 tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikami, J.; Kaneko, T.; Ayai, N.; Kobayashi, S.; Hayashi, K.; Takei, H.; Sato, K.

    2002-10-01

    Tape shaped silver-sheathed Bi-2223 superconducting wire (Bi-2223 tape) technologies are reported. The operations of superconducting apparatus at liquid nitrogen temperature or at 20-30 K are expectable by using Bi-2223-tapes. The reduction of AC loss at 77 K is critical for power cable application, such as electric transmission cable and transformer prototypes. Thinning of the tape thickness and twisting of the tapes are the main techniques for the reduction of AC loss. For the power transformer application, coating technology is investigated to have good electrical insulation. The refrigerator-cooled magnet for industrial use is another example of the superconducting apparatus operating at 20-30 K. It is important to know the critical current density dependence on the applied magnetic field ( Jc- B dependence) for the magnet design. It was confirmed that Jc of the Bi-2223 tape, which shows Jc=30 kA/cm 2 at 77 K in self-magnetic field, exceeds 100 kA/cm 2 at 20 K, and 1 T.

  6. Development of a retrofit coal combustor for industrial applications. Technical progress report, October--December 1987: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-31

    During this quarter the tandem design configuration unit was tested on a low ash pulverized coal. The test results confirmed operation with strong peak-to-peak pressures and high carbon burn-out efficiencies. These configuration units were dismantled after testing with micronized coal (see third quarterly) and pulverized coal during this period. The refractory material in one of the chambers failed, probably due to improper curing during installation. Design modifications based on performance were incorporated into both the combustors and the facility. The tandem unit was modified and evaluation testing initiated. Performance on 100 percent pulverized coal was similar to performance on micronized coal indicating that the unit has a high degree of tolerance and flexibility for a spectrum of fuel types.

  7. Technology, managerial, and policy initiatives for improving environmental performance in small-scale gold mining industry.

    PubMed

    Hilson, Gavin; Van der Vorst, Rita

    2002-12-01

    This paper reviews a series of strategies for improving environmental performance in the small-scale gold mining industry. Although conditions vary regionally, few regulations and policies exist specifically for small-scale gold mining activity. Furthermore, because environmental awareness is low in most developing countries, sites typically feature rudimentary technologies and poor management practices. A combination of policy-, managerial- and technology-related initiatives is needed to facilitate environmental improvement in the industry. Following a broad overview of these initiatives, a recommended strategy is put forth for governments keen on improving the environmental conditions of resident small-scale gold mines.

  8. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase III, Industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report No. 14, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.L.; Borio, R.; Scaroni, A.W.; Miller, B.G.; McGowan, J.G.

    1995-04-28

    The objective of this project is to retrofit the previously developed High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. This report documents the technical aspects of this project during the fourteenth quarter (January `95 through March `95) of the program. The ABB project team met with cognizant DOE-PETC and Penn State personnel on February 15, 1995 at Penn State to discuss our ideas for a new burner (RSFC-based) to replace the HEACC burner prior to the long term ({approximately}1000 hrs) demonstration phase of this project. The main reasons for the proposed new burner were to improve combustion efficiencies and NO{sub x} reduction. Recent, experience at MIT with 5 million Btu/hr coal firing experiments on RSFC burner have shown remarkable performance. Results indicate that RSFC-based burner has the potential to produce lower NO{sub x} and higher carbon conversion efficiencies than the HEACC burner. M.I.T. developed the RSFC burner and obtained a patent for the concept. A decision was made to go with the new, RSFC-based burner during 1000 hr demonstration. ABB-CE will fund the costs ({approximately}$50K) for design/fabrication of the proposed new burner. Penn State plans to improve coal handling by installation of a gravimetric feeder and redesign/installation of a mass flow bottom on the surge bin.

  9. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor, Phase III industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report No. 15, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Scaroni, A.W.; Miller, B.G.; McGowan, J.G.

    1995-08-29

    The objective of this project is to retrofit a burner capable of firing microfine coal to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. This report documents the technical aspects of this project during the fifteenth quarter (April `95 through June `95) of the program. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1.0) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components. (2.0) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC (High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor) burner. (3.0) Installation and testing of a prototype HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application. (4.0) Economics evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. (5.0) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. Task 1 through Task 4 were previously completed. Based on all the results obtained to date the ABB/Penn State team and DOE/PETC have decided to conduct a 1000 hr demonstration test (Task 5). Importantly, a decision was made to employ a new burner for the demonstration. The new burner is based on the concept called {open_quotes}Radially Stratified Flame Core (RSFC){close_quotes}, developed by MIT and licensed by ABB. Work under Task 5 of this program was started during this reporting period.

  10. [The role, objectives and usefulness of medico-legal determinations in post-accidental procedures in traumatic deaths in hard coal-mining industry].

    PubMed

    Skowronek, Rafał; Chowaniec, Czesław

    2009-01-01

    The underground hard coal-mining sector demonstrates one of the highest rates of fatal accidents, in spite of a decline in coal-mining over the last few years. Post-accidental investigations, including forensic medical expertise, continue to present a significant problem. The objective of the research was to evaluate the role, tasks and usefulness of medico-legal determinations in post-accidental procedures in traumatic deaths in hard coal-mining industry. The study was carried out retrospectively by investigating files and autopsy reports, with attention focusing on the scope of necessary activities and medico-legal examinations in order to determine the cause and manner of death, and on identification of fatalities, especially in the cases of collective occupational accidents. Complex medico-legal determinations (identification, autopsy), supplemented by additional investigations (toxicology, histopathology and hemogenetics) provide a valuable source of evidence for legal authorities and post-accidental commissions. Mutual cooperation of the experts representing various branches of science is the basis of executing appropriate procedures after a traumatic death in the coal mine.

  11. Bench-scale solid phase biotreatment: Benfield Industries Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Marlowe, M.W.; Harper, T.R.; Semenak, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    The Benfield Industries, Inc. Superfund site located in Hazelwood, North Carolina has been found to have approximately 15,000 cubic yards of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil. Risk based clean up goals were specified at the site for eight target PAH compounds including benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, naphthalene, and pentachlorophenol. Treatability studies were performed to evaluate solid phase bioremediation, which includes ex-situ and in-situ land treatment processes, for treatment of the site soil. All treatments were conducted using only indigenous microorganisms maintained under aerobic conditions. Two soil samples with different levels of PAH contamination were collected from the site for use in the treatability evaluations. The two soil samples were contaminated with total PAHs at concentrations of approximately 30 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and 6,000 mg/kg, respectively. Three solid phase bioremediation studies were conducted over a one and one half year period using starting concentrations of total PAHs of approximately 30; 600; and 6,000 mg/kg. The objectives of the studies included determining (1) if clean up goals could be achieved, (2) the approximate biodegradation rate of PAHs in the site soils, and (3) the optimum environmental conditions for biodegradation of the PAHs. Some of the environmental parameters which were varied during the testing included moisture levels, soil conditioners, nutrients and pH. The results of the testing indicated that total and target PAHs can be reduced by up to 90 percent in less than 50 days, depending on environmental conditions maintained in the reactors. Clean up goals for all of the target compounds were achieved at some point during the study.

  12. China's post-coal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ye; Stern, Nicholas; Wu, Tong; Lu, Jiaqi; Green, Fergus

    2016-08-01

    Slowing GDP growth, a structural shift away from heavy industry, and more proactive policies on air pollution and clean energy have caused China's coal use to peak. It seems that economic growth has decoupled from growth in coal consumption.

  13. Study of application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J.; Russell, O. R.; Martin, K. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Mined land reclamation analysis procedures developed within the Indiana portion of the Illinois Coal Basin were independently tested in Ohio utilizing 1:80,000 scale enlargements of ERTS-1 image 1029-15361-7 (dated August 21, 1972). An area in Belmont County was selected for analysis due to the extensive surface mining and the different degrees of reclamation occurring in this area. Contour mining in this area provided the opportunity to extend techniques developed for analysis of relatively flat mining areas in Indiana to areas of rolling topography in Ohio. The analysts had no previous experience in the area. Field investigations largely confirmed office analysis results although in a few areas estimates of vegetation percentages were found to be too high. In one area this error approximated 25%. These results suggest that systematic ERTS-1 analysis in combination with selective field sampling can provide reliable vegetation percentage estimates in excess of 25% accuracy with minimum equipment investment and training. The utility of ERTS-1 for practical and reasonably reliable update of mined lands information for groups with budget limitations is suggested. Many states can benefit from low cost updates using ERTS-1 imagery from public sources.

  14. Measurement and capture of fine and ultrafine particles from a pilot-scale pulverized coal combustor with an electrostatic precipitator

    SciTech Connect

    Ying Li; Achariya Suriyawong; Michael Daukoru; Ye Zhuang; Pratim Biswas

    2009-05-15

    Experiments were carried out in a pilot-scale pulverized coal combustor at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) burning a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) were used to measure the particle size distributions (PSDs) in the range of 17 nm to 10 m at the inlet and outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). At the ESP inlet, a high number concentration of ultrafine particles was found, with the peak at approximately 75 nm. A trimodal PSD for mass concentration was observed with the modes at approximately 80-100 nm, 1-2 {mu}m, and 10 {mu}m. The penetration of ultrafine particles through the ESP increased dramatically as particle size decreased below 70 nm, attributable to insufficient or partial charging of the ultrafine particles. Injection of nanostructured fine-particle sorbents for capture of toxic metals in the flue gas caused high penetration of the ultrafine particles through the ESP. The conventional ESP was modified to enhance charging using soft X-ray irradiation. A slipstream of flue gas was introduced from the pilot-scale facility and passed through this modified ESP. Enhancement of particle capture was observed with the soft X-ray irradiation when moderate voltages were used in the ESP, indicating more efficient charging of fine particles. 32 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-29

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  16. Cyclone reburn using coal-water fuel: Pilot-scale development and testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.

    1991-10-01

    There is an ongoing effort to develop retrofit technologies capable of converting oil- and/or gas-fired boilers to coal combustion. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an improved portion of a previously developed retrofit system designed for the purpose of converting oil/gas boilers. This improvement would almost entirely eliminate the use of premium fuels, thereby significantly increasing the economical attractiveness of the system. Specifically, the goals in this program were to replace natural gas as a reburning fuel with coal-water fuel (CWF). The advantages of such a system include: (1) increased return on investment (ROI) for conversions; (2) nearly complete elimination of premium oil or gas fuel; (3) a more integrated approach to the conversion of oil- or gas-designed boilers to CWF.

  17. Cyclone reburn using coal-water fuel: Pilot-scale development and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.

    1991-10-01

    There is an ongoing effort to develop retrofit technologies capable of converting oil- and/or gas-fired boilers to coal combustion. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an improved portion of a previously developed retrofit system designed for the purpose of converting oil/gas boilers. This improvement would almost entirely eliminate the use of premium fuels, thereby significantly increasing the economical attractiveness of the system. Specifically, the goals in this program were to replace natural gas as a reburning fuel with coal-water fuel (CWF). The advantages of such a system include: (1) increased return on investment (ROI) for conversions; (2) nearly complete elimination of premium oil or gas fuel; (3) a more integrated approach to the conversion of oil- or gas-designed boilers to CWF.

  18. Development & Testing of Industrial Scale, Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bert Lauderer

    1998-01-17

    In the fourth quarter of calendar year 1997, 11 days of tests on the 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility were performed as part of a parallel project on sulfur capture in slag. No work was performed on the present project in this quarter. The total test days on the Philadelphia facility to the end of December 1997 was 103, of which 30 tests were part of the other DOE project. This exceeds the planned 63 test days for this project. All key project objectives have been exceeded including combustor durability, automated combustor operation, NO emissions as x low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu. In addition, a novel post- 2 combustion NOx control process has been tested on a 37 MW and 100 MW utility boiler. Any further tests will depend on the results of evaluations of current and prior tests. The only effort remaining on this project is facility disassembly and Final Report. This report also contains clarification of project results reported in the 22 Quarterly Technical Report in response to nd comments by DOE.

  19. Development & Testing of Industrial Scale, Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bert Lauderer

    1998-04-01

    In the first quarter of calendar year 1998, 4 days of tests on the 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility were performed as part of a parallel project on sulfur capture in slag. No work was performed on the present project in this quarter. The total test days on the Philadelphia facility to the end of March 1998 was 108, of which 34 tests were part of the other DOE project. This exceeds the planned 63 test days for this project. All key project objectives have been exceeded including combustor durability, automated combustor operation, NOx emissions as low as 0.07 lb/MMBtu and SO2 emissions as low as 0.2 lb/MMBtu. In addition, a novel post-combustion NOx control process has been tested on a 37 MW and 100 MW utility boiler. Any further tests will depend on the results of evaluations of current and prior tests. The only effort remaining on this project is facility disassembly and Final Report. Almost all of the effort in the present quarter focussed on applying the results of this project and the parallel sulfur capture in slag project on new applications of this technology. Several very promising areas were identified and a number of proposals to implement them were prepared.

  20. Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Phase 3 final report, November 1992--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-26

    A three phase research and development program has resulted in the development and commercialization of a Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}), capable of being fueled by pulverized coal, natural gas, and other solid, gaseous, or liquid fuels, for the vitrification of industrial wastes. The Phase 3 research effort focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added glass products from the vitrification of boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project was to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential for successful commercialization. The demonstration test consisted of one test run with a duration of 105 hours, approximately one-half (46 hours) performed with coal as the primary fuel source (70% to 100%), the other half with natural gas. Approximately 50 hours of melting operation were performed vitrifying approximately 50,000 lbs of coal-fired utility boiler flyash/dolomite mixture, producing a fully-reacted vitrified product.

  1. Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial processing heating applications: Appendix A. Phase 3 final report, November 1992--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-26

    A three phase research and development program has resulted in the development and commercialization of a Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}), capable of being fueled by pulverized coal, natural gas, and other solid, gaseous, or liquid fuels, for the vitrification of industrial wastes. The Phase 3 research effort focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added glass products from the vitrification of boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project was to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential for successful commercialization. The demonstration test consisted of one test run with a duration of 105 hours, approximately one-half (46 hours) performed with coal as the primary fuel source (70% to 100%), the other half with natural gas. Approximately 50 hours of melting operation were performed vitrifying approximately 50,000 lbs of coal-fired utility boiler flyash/dolomite mixture, producing a fully-reacted vitrified product. Appendix A contains 89 figures containing the data from the demonstration tests undertaken under Phase 3.

  2. Development of a retrofit coal combustor for industrial applications, (Phase 1-A). Technical progress report, July--September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    During this past quarter, two tandem-fired pulse combustors were designed to fire at a nominal rate of 3.5 to 5.5 MMBtu/hr under continuation of Phase I work on DOE project DE-AC22-87PC79654. In prior work, MTCI demonstrated the operation of a 1--2 MMBtu/h coal-fired tandem pulse combustor that is intended for small industrial applications. These component tests emphasized verification of key design issues such as combustor coupling, slag rejection, and staged air addition. The current work, which represents an extension of the Phase I effort, focuses on integrated testing of the tandem pulse combustor with a fire-tube boiler, and the addition of a slag quench vessel. A tandem-fired pulse combustion unit designed to fire at a nominal rate of 3.5-5 MMBtu/hr was designed and fabricated. The configuration includes two combustion chambers cast in a single monolith, tailpipes cast separately with annular air preheating capability, and a cyclonic decoupler. Design analysis and evaluations were performed to optimize the system with respect to minimizing heat losses, size, and cost. Heat losses from the combustor and decoupler walls are predicted to be approximately 3 percent. The final designs for the ancillary items (slag quench, tertiary air addition, scrubber and sampling system) were completed and fabrication and installation initiated. A Cleaver-Brooks 150 hp-4 pass boiler was delivered and installed and modifications for interfacing with the retrofit pulse combustor unit completed. A below-ground slag collection pit was excavated to permit direct in-line coupling of the combustor to the boiler and to reduce head-room requirements. The pit is 30 inches deep and lined with waterproof and fireproof siding.

  3. Computer Aided Design of Advanced Turbine Airfoil Alloys for Industrial Gas Turbines in Coal Fired Environments

    SciTech Connect

    G.E. Fuchs

    2007-12-31

    Recent initiatives for fuel flexibility, increased efficiency and decreased emissions in power generating industrial gas turbines (IGT's), have highlighted the need for the development of techniques to produce large single crystal or columnar grained, directionally solidified Ni-base superalloy turbine blades and vanes. In order to address the technical difficulties of producing large single crystal components, a program has been initiated to, using computational materials science, better understand how alloy composition in potential IGT alloys and solidification conditions during processing, effect castability, defect formation and environmental resistance. This program will help to identify potential routes for the development of high strength, corrosion resistant airfoil/vane alloys, which would be a benefit to all IGT's, including small IGT's and even aerospace gas turbines. During the first year, collaboration with Siemens Power Corporation (SPC), Rolls-Royce, Howmet and Solar Turbines has identified and evaluated about 50 alloy compositions that are of interest for this potential application. In addition, alloy modifications to an existing alloy (CMSX-4) were also evaluated. Collaborating with SPC and using computational software at SPC to evaluate about 50 alloy compositions identified 5 candidate alloys for experimental evaluation. The results obtained from the experimentally determined phase transformation temperatures did not compare well to the calculated values in many cases. The effects of small additions of boundary strengtheners (i.e., C, B and N) to CMSX-4 were also examined. The calculated phase transformation temperatures were somewhat closer to the experimentally determined values than for the 5 candidate alloys, discussed above. The calculated partitioning coefficients were similar for all of the CMSX-4 alloys, similar to the experimentally determined segregation behavior. In general, it appears that computational materials science has become a

  4. Allergen sanitation in the food industry: a systematic industrial scale approach to reduce hazelnut cross-contamination of cookies.

    PubMed

    Röder, Martin; Baltruweit, Iris; Gruyters, Helwig; Ibach, Anja; Mücke, Ingo; Matissek, Reinhard; Vieths, Stefan; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Recently, we investigated the impact of shared equipment on cross-contamination of cookies at a pilot plant scale. Based on those findings, this study investigated the extent and subsequent sanitation of hazelnut cross-contamination (HNCC) of cookies at the industrial scale. Similarly, a product change from cookies with hazelnut ingredient to cookies without hazelnut was performed on standard equipment. HNCC in the hazelnut-free follow-up product was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for each production device and the applied cleaning procedure. All experiments were repeated in duplicate. The highest HNCC was found in concordance with previous studies after mere mechanical scraping: more than 1,000 mg of hazelnut protein per kg was quantified in the follow-up product after processing by a cookie machine. Additional cleaning with hot water decreased the HNCC irrespective of the processing device to levels at or below 1 mg of hazelnut protein per kg. Furthermore, raw materials for cookie production were monitored over a period of 24 months for unwanted preloads of hazelnut and peanut: hazelnut was quantified in 16% of the investigated raw materials as being between 0.26 and 90 mg/kg. Further critical control points at the industrial scale, where cross-contamination might occur, were identified but did not display noteworthy sources of cross-contamination. In conclusion, the quantitative monitoring of the cleaning efficiency at the industrial scale confirmed the procedure of manual scraping plus wet cleaning as a qualified sanitation procedure to effectively reduce the hazelnut protein cross-contamination down to a level at which severe hazelnut-related allergic reactions are unlikely to occur.

  5. Accomplishments in genome-scale in silico modeling for industrial and medical biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Caroline B.; Kim, Pan-Jun; Eddy, James A.; Price, Nathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Driven by advancements in high-throughput biological technologies and the growing number of sequenced genomes, the construction of in silico models at the genome scale has provided powerful tools to investigate a vast array of biological systems and applications. Here, we review comprehensively the uses of such models in industrial and medical biotechnology, including biofuel generation, food production, and drug development. While the use of in silico models is still in its early stages for delivering to industry, significant initial successes have been achieved. For the cases presented here, genome-scale models predict engineering strategies to enhance properties of interest in an organism or to inhibit harmful mechanisms of pathogens or in disease. Going forward, genome-scale in silico models promise to extend their application and analysis scope to become a transformative tool in biotechnology. As such, genome-scale models can provide a basis for rational genome-scale engineering and synthetic biology. PMID:19946878

  6. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, February 15, 1994--August 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new system specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. During this reporting period, the construction of the CWSF preparation circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) continued. The CWSF preparation circuit will be completed by November 1,1994. Additional activities included receiving a coal-designed burner and installing it on the demonstration boiler, and working with DOE in selecting pollution control systems to install on the boiler.

  7. US coal market softens

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-01-15

    The operators table some near term expansion plans, meanwhile long-term fundamentals look strong. This is one of the findings of the Coal Age Forecast 2007 survey of readers predictions on production and consumption of coal and attitudes in the coal industry. 50% of respondents expected product levels in 2007 to be higher than in 2006 and 50% described the attitude in the coal industry to be more optimistic in 2007 than in 2006. Most expenditure is anticipated on going on new equipment but levels of expenditure will be less than in 2006. 7 figs.

  8. Projects for introduction of coal-water fuel technique in Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Papayani, F.A.; Switly, Y.G.; Vlasov, Y.F.; Titov, Y.V.; Khilko, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    Dramatic reduction in oil and gas supplies to Ukraine and the lack of its own developed oil production industry considerably raise the significance of coal in the fuel and energy complex of the country. Higher consumption of coal and simultaneous deterioration of its quality, however, come into conflict with environmental regulations, which is most strongly pronounced in such industrial-developed, densely-populated areas as the Donbas. Combustion problems with gas and candle coals are associated with the combustion efficiency and ecology, whereas in the case of brown and lean coals as well as anthracites, a combustion technique is the primary concern, which accounts for quite a limited application of the above coals for power generation. The abundant resources of brown, lean and hard coals in Ukraine create favorable conditions for wide introduction of coal-water fuel (CWF) produced primarily from the above ranks into the national heat and power industry. On the other hand, these coals are the least investigated in terms of a CWF technique. Small studies have been undertaken, but larger studies on a pilot scale are, for the present, economically impossible given the current situation in the Ukraine coal industry.

  9. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-01-01

    This Topical Report outlines guidelines and key considerations for design and operation of pulverized coal-fired boilers for oxy-combustion. The scope addressed includes only the boiler island, not the entire oxy-fired CO{sub 2} capture plant. These guidelines are primarily developed for tangential-fired boilers and focus on designs capable of dual air and oxy-fired operation. The guidelines and considerations discussed are applicable to both new units and existing boiler retrofits. These guidelines are largely based on the findings from the extensive 15 MW{sub th} pilot testing and design efforts conducted under this project. A summary level description is provided for each major aspect of boiler design impacted by oxy-combustion, and key considerations are discussed for broader application to different utility and industrial designs. Guidelines address the boiler system arrangement, firing system, boiler thermal design, ducting, materials, control system, and other key systems.

  10. Parameters of the industrial classification of the coals of eastern Siberia and the Kansk-Achinsk basin

    SciTech Connect

    Svyatets, I.E.; Agroskin, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    The proposed classification has been constructed according to the coding principle. Each type of coal is denoted by a three-symbol index. The first figure expresses the degree of coalification, the second the petrographic composition, and the third the degree of oxidation. The classification permits the determination of the methods of utilizing various types of coals of Eastern Siberia and the Kansk-Achinsk basin. Extensive analyzed data are tabulated and evaluated. 10 refs.

  11. Pilot-scale test for electron beam purification of flue gas from coal-combustion boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Namba, Hideki; Tokunaga, Okihiro

    1995-06-01

    Construction of a pilot plant of the treatment capacity of 12,000 m{sup 3}N/h flue gas was completed in November, 1992 in the Shin-Nagoya Thermal Power Station, Nagoya for electron beam purification of flue-gas from coal combustion boiler and the operation had been continued during one year. The results obtained In the tests shows that the target removal efficiency for SO{sub 2} (94 %) and for NO{sub x} (80 %) was achieved with appropriate operation conditions (electron beam dose, temperature, amount of ammonia etc.). The effective collection of powdery by-products was performed by an electrostatic precipitator.

  12. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW`s Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  13. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW's Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  14. Numerical investigation of pyrolysis of a Loy Yang coal in a lab-scale furnace at elevated pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, James; Al-Abbas, Audai Hussein; Naser, Jamal

    2013-12-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the pyrolysis of a Loy Yang low-rank coal in a pressurised drop tube furnace (pdtf) was undertaken evaluating Arrhenius reaction rate constants. The paper also presents predictions of an isothermal flow through the drop tube furnace. In this study, a pdtf reactor operated at pressures up to 15 bar and at a temperature of 1,173 K with particle heating rates of approximately 105 K s-1 was used. The CFD model consists of two geometrical sections; flow straightner and injector. The single reaction and two competing reaction models were employed for this numerical investigation of the pyrolysis process. The results are validated against the available experimental data in terms of velocity profiles for the drop tube furnace and the particle mass loss versus particle residence times. The isothermal flow results showed reasonable agreement with the available experimental data at different locations from the injector tip. The predicted results of both the single reaction and competing reaction modes showed slightly different results. In addition, several reaction rate constants were tested and validated against the available experimental data. The most accurate results were being Badzioch and Hawksley (Ind Eng Chem Process Des Dev 9:521-530, 1970) with a single reaction model and Ubhayakar et al. (Symp (Int) Combust 16:427-436, 1977) for two competing reactions. These numerical results can provide useful information towards future modelling of the behaviour of Loy Yang coal in a full scale tangentially-fired furnace.

  15. Evaluation of Multiple-Scale 3D Characterization for Coal Physical Structure with DCM Method and Synchrotron X-Ray CT

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yushuang; Yang, Jianli; Nie, Yihang; Jia, Jing; Wang, Yudan

    2015-01-01

    Multiscale nondestructive characterization of coal microscopic physical structure can provide important information for coal conversion and coal-bed methane extraction. In this study, the physical structure of a coal sample was investigated by synchrotron-based multiple-energy X-ray CT at three beam energies and two different spatial resolutions. A data-constrained modeling (DCM) approach was used to quantitatively characterize the multiscale compositional distributions at the two resolutions. The volume fractions of each voxel for four different composition groups were obtained at the two resolutions. Between the two resolutions, the difference for DCM computed volume fractions of coal matrix and pores is less than 0.3%, and the difference for mineral composition groups is less than 0.17%. This demonstrates that the DCM approach can account for compositions beyond the X-ray CT imaging resolution with adequate accuracy. By using DCM, it is possible to characterize a relatively large coal sample at a relatively low spatial resolution with minimal loss of the effect due to subpixel fine length scale structures. PMID:25861674

  16. Evaluation of multiple-scale 3D characterization for coal physical structure with DCM method and synchrotron X-ray CT.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haipeng; Yang, Yushuang; Yang, Jianli; Nie, Yihang; Jia, Jing; Wang, Yudan

    2015-01-01

    Multiscale nondestructive characterization of coal microscopic physical structure can provide important information for coal conversion and coal-bed methane extraction. In this study, the physical structure of a coal sample was investigated by synchrotron-based multiple-energy X-ray CT at three beam energies and two different spatial resolutions. A data-constrained modeling (DCM) approach was used to quantitatively characterize the multiscale compositional distributions at the two resolutions. The volume fractions of each voxel for four different composition groups were obtained at the two resolutions. Between the two resolutions, the difference for DCM computed volume fractions of coal matrix and pores is less than 0.3%, and the difference for mineral composition groups is less than 0.17%. This demonstrates that the DCM approach can account for compositions beyond the X-ray CT imaging resolution with adequate accuracy. By using DCM, it is possible to characterize a relatively large coal sample at a relatively low spatial resolution with minimal loss of the effect due to subpixel fine length scale structures.

  17. Elastic and optical anisotropy of the single-coal monolithic high-temperature (HT) carbonization products obtained on a laboratory scale

    SciTech Connect

    Marta Krzesinska; Slawomira Pusz; Andrzej Koszorek

    2005-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the directional dependences of the elastic and optical properties of monolithic single-coal high-temperature (HT) carbonization products obtained on a laboratory scale (with very slow heating rate) from coals of different caking propensity. Sixteen monolithic HT carbonization products, mainly cokes, were produced in the Jenkner retort furnace using 16 various types of coals of varying rank (from 83.1 wt % carbon to 98.3 wt % carbon) with a Roga index (RI) in the range of 0-76. Coals were carbonized in the form of monolithic blocks. The physical parameters such as true density, porosity, ultrasonic velocity, and dynamic elastic moduli, as well as optical reflectance parameters (R{sub max}, R{sub min}, R{sub am}), were determined for the resultant products. The elastic and optical properties of the HT carbonization products were related to their porosity and the rank of the parent coals. It was determined that the HT carbonization products exhibit the different directional properties of the studied parameters, and they can be divided into three groups, with respect to the observed differences. The properties of these groups were related to the parent coal rank and the caking propensity (i.e., to the RI value). Anisotropy of the coke matrix structure was determined to be important for discussion about the anisotropic properties of cokes. 50 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Coal and coal-bearing strata: recent advances

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    This volume contains keynote papers presented at the International Symposium on Coal and Coal-bearing Strata held at the University of London, April 1986. The authors reviewed progress in their fields over the past 15 years. Nine keynote lectures plus seven other invited contributions by experts in geology, geochemistry, sedimentology and biology are included in the volume. Coal, a major fossil fuel, is of broad interest to geologists and technological professionals alike. Topics in this volume include the formation of peat, coalification, coal geochemistry, palaeobotanical and palynological studies, sedimentology, coal exploration, oil-prone coals, and numerous coal basins. This volume is of interest not only to workers in the coal, oil, and gas industries, but also to survey geologists, lecturers, and students alike who are concerned with recent advances in the study of coal and coal-bearing strata.

  19. State coal profiles, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-02

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  20. Occupational health issues in small-scale industries in Sri Lanka: An underreported burden.

    PubMed

    Suraweera, Inoka K; Wijesinghe, Supun D; Senanayake, Sameera J; Herath, Hema D B; Jayalal, T B Ananda

    2016-10-17

    Work-related diseases and occupational accidents affect a significant number of workers globally. The majority of these diseases and accidents are reported from developing countries; and a large percentage of the workforce in developing countries is estimated to be employed in small-scale industries. Sri Lanka is no exception. These workers are exposed to occupational hazards and are at a great risk of developing work- related diseases and injuries. To identify occupational health issues faced by small-scale industry workers in Sri Lanka. A cross sectional study was conducted among workers in four selected small-scale industry categories in two districts of Sri Lanka. A small-scale industry was defined as a work setting with less than 20 workers. Cluster sampling using probability proportionate to size of workers was used. Eighty clusters with a cluster size of eight from each district were selected. Data was collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Our study surveyed 198 industries. Headache (2.2%, 95% CI 1.5-3.1) and eye problems (2.1%, 95% CI 1.4-2.9) were the commonest general health issues detected. Back pain (4.8%, 95% CI 3.8-6.1) was the most prevalent work-related musculoskeletal pain reported. Knee pain was the second highest (4.4%, 95% CI 3.4-5.6). Most of the work-related musculoskeletal pain was either of short duration or long lasting. Work-related musculoskeletal pain was much more common than the general health issues reported. Health promotional programs at workplaces focusing ergonomics will benefit the workers at small-scale industries inSri Lanka.

  1. Premium carbon products from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rusinko, F. Jr.; Morrison, J.L.

    2000-07-01

    The face of the US coal industry and its markets are changing. Environmental concerns over global warming and plant emissions are two factors that will continue to gain national attention and consequently will challenge the use of coal in the US within its traditional markets. The decline of coke production in the US has lead to high quality metallurgical-grade coal being used to generate electricity. One could argue this is a waste of a limited valuable resource. The debate over global warming and the generation of greenhouse gases, particularly CO{sub 2}, will undoubtedly negatively impact the use of coal in newly constructed power plants. What is the future of the US coal industry and the industries that benefit from coal? This paper will review the use of coal and coal-derived materials in new, non-fuel markets. It will review a new industrial consortium that has recently been formed to stimulate the use of coal in value-added carbon markets. One of the questions the reader should ask when reading this paper is: Is coal more valuable for its carbon content or its BTU content? Carbon materials such as carbon fibers, carbon-carbon composites, specialty and mechanical graphite, activated carbon, carbon black, and carbon foams may provide new markets for the coal industry. These markets are expanding and some of these markets are in their infancy. These new material applications offer an exciting, but little recognized, opportunity for the expanded use of coal.

  2. Coal devolatilization and char combustion study using FTIR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Raines, T.S.; Brown, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this research is to characterize coals during the normal operation of an industrial-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The method determines coal properties based on the analysis of transient CO and CO{sub 2} emissions from the boiler. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the gaseous products of combustion. The method is non-intrusive and is performed under realistic combustion conditions. Preliminary data suggest that coal devolatilization is complete before char combustion commences in a circulating fluidized bed boiler.

  3. ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS

    SciTech Connect

    E. James Davis

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this research is to apply electrokinetics to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal washing ponds without the addition of chemical additives. Colloidal particles do not settle gravitationally, but because their surfaces are charged one can produce settling by applying an external electric field. Of specific interest is a lake near Centralia, Washington used to wash coal prior to combustion in an electrical power generation facility. Laboratory experiments have demonstrated that electrokinetic treatment is feasible, so this project is examining how to scale up laboratory results to an industrial level. Electrode configurations, power requirements, and system properties are being studied.

  4. Modeling industrial centrifugation of mammalian cell culture using a capillary based scale-down system.

    PubMed

    Westoby, Matthew; Rogers, Jameson K; Haverstock, Ryan; Romero, Jonathan; Pieracci, John

    2011-05-01

    Continuous-flow centrifugation is widely utilized as the primary clarification step in the recovery of biopharmaceuticals from cell culture. However, it is a challenging operation to develop and characterize due to the lack of easy to use, small-scale, systems that can be used to model industrial processes. As a result, pilot-scale continuous centrifugation is typically employed to model large-scale systems requiring a significant amount of resources. In an effort to reduce resource requirements and create a system which is easy to construct and utilize, a capillary shear device, capable of producing energy dissipation rates equivalent to those present in the feed zones of industrial disk stack centrifuges, was developed and evaluated. When coupled to a bench-top, batch centrifuge, the capillary device reduced centrate turbidity prediction error from 37% to 4% compared to using a bench-top centrifuge alone. Laboratory-scale parameters that are analogous to those routinely varied during industrial-scale continuous centrifugation were identified and evaluated for their utility in emulating disk stack centrifuge performance. The resulting relationships enable bench-scale process modeling of continuous disk stack centrifuges using an easily constructed, scalable, capillary shear device coupled to a typical bench-top centrifuge.

  5. Treatment of aqueous streams containing strong oxidants using bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, F.M.; Bodine, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Certain oxidizing contaminants, notably Cr(VI) and Mn(VII), are attenuated by reduction and sorption on organic matter in soils. Coals have some chemical similarity with this organic matter, and might be used on an industrial scale to treat effluents. We have studied the ability of acidic KMnO{sub 4} to oxidize Upper Freeport, bituminous coal with concurrent sorption of the resulting Mn(IV) and Mn(II). The oxidizing ability of Cr(VI) was briefly investigated. The ability of the oxidized coal to sorb Cu{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} was then studied, and compared with coal oxidized by hydrogen peroxide. The effect of oxidation treatment, metal ion concentration, and solution pH on metal uptake kinetics and coal loading was investigated. Potential applications for treating effluents containing oxidizing ions are discussed.

  6. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor phase III industrial boiler retrofit. Technical progress report No. 17, 18 and 19, September 30, 1991--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Borio, R.W.; Patel, R.L.; Thornock, D.E.

    1996-07-29

    The objective of this project is to retrofit a burner, capable of firing microfine coal, to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. This report documents the technical aspects of this project during the last three quarters [seventeenth (October `95 through December `95), eighteenth (January `96 through March `96), and nineteenth (April `96 through June `96)] of the program.

  7. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-09-29

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University has been successfully managing the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by Penn State, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. Base funding for the selected projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. At the annual funding meeting held in October 2003, ten projects were selected for funding. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten 2004 projects were completed during the previous annual reporting period and their final reports were submitted with the previous annual report (i.e., 10/01/04-09/30/05). The final report for the remaining project, which was submitted during this reporting

  8. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal, Annual Progress Report, October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce G

    2006-03-01

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) has been successfully operating the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which is a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technology on premium carbon produces from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC is an initiative being led by PSU, its co-charter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provides the base funding for the program, with PSU responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity has continued under the present cooperative agreement, No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003. The objective of the second agreement is to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC has enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, that includes PSU and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC is its industry-led council that selects proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas have strong industrial support. A second contract was executed with DOE NETL starting in October 2003 to continue the activities of CPCPC. An annual funding meeting was held in October 2003 and the council selected ten projects for funding. Base funding for the projects is provided by NETL with matching funds from industry. Subcontracts were let from Penn State to the subcontractors on March 1, 2004. Nine of the ten projects have been completed and the final reports for these 2004 projects are attached. An annual funding meeting was held in November 2004 and the council selected

  9. Nano-Scale Interpenetrating Phase Composites (IPC S) for Industrial and Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; Hu, Michael Z.

    2010-06-01

    A one-year project was completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to explore the technical and economic feasibility of producing nano-scale Interpenetrating Phase Composite (IPC) components of a usable size for actual testing/implementation in a real applications such as high wear/corrosion resistant refractory shapes for industrial applications, lightweight vehicle braking system components, or lower cost/higher performance military body and vehicle armor. Nano-scale IPC s with improved mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties have previously been demonstrated at the lab scale, but have been limited in size. The work performed under this project was focused on investigating the ability to take the current traditional lab scale processes to a manufacturing scale through scaling of these processes or through the utilization of an alternative high-temperature process.

  10. A two-scale system to identify environmental risk of chemical industry clusters.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Wan, Wenbo; Li, Fengying; Li, Bing; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2011-02-15

    Recent reform policies in China have spurred rapid industrial development. This has led to a large increase in chemical accidents, which may have catastrophic impacts on the local population and environment. As industrial facilities become more complex, it becomes more difficult to control and mitigate the risks associated with chemical accidents. In this study, we propose a two-scale system for assessing the environmental risk level of chemical industry clusters. A series of risk early warning indices for both the plant-specific level and regional clusters level are used in this system. Firstly, at the enterprise scale, a risk early warning index is constructed using inputs such as the presence of hazardous materials, the operation of critical plant equipment and the efficiency of extant management techniques. Secondly, an index for quantifying risks on regional scales depends on environmental, economic, and social conditions as well as the specific enterprises' components. As an illustration, the system is applied to a case study involving a five-plant chemical industry cluster in Jiangsu province, China. A geographical information system-based methodology is used to obtain a composite index score for each mesh of the five plants. The results prove that the proposed two-scale early warning system can efficiently identify environmental risk and help guide emergency responses at both the enterprise and cluster level.

  11. Economies of scale and trends in the size of southern forest industries

    Treesearch

    James E. Granskog

    1978-01-01

    In each of the major southern forest industries, the trend has been toward achieving economies of scale, that is, to build larger production units to reduce unit costs. Current minimum efficient plant size estimated by survivor analysis is 1,000 tons per day capacity for sulfate pulping, 100 million square feet (3/8- inch basis) annual capacity for softwood plywood,...

  12. Software sensor design considering oscillating conditions as present in industrial scale fed-batch cultivations.

    PubMed

    Lyubenova, V; Junne, S; Ignatova, M; Neubauer, P

    2013-07-01

    Investigations of inhomogeneous dynamics in industrial-scale bioreactors can be realized in laboratory simulators. Such studies will be improved by on line observation of the growth of microorganisms and their product synthesis at oscillating substrate availability which represents the conditions in industrial-scale fed-batch cultivations. A method for the kinetic monitoring of such processes, supported by on line measurements accessible in industrial practice, is proposed. It consists of a software sensor (SS) system composed of a cascade structure. Process kinetics are simulated in models with a structure including time-varying yield coefficients. SSs for measured variable kinetics have classical structures. The SS design of unmeasured variables is realized after a linear transformation using a logarithmic function. For these software sensors, a tuning procedure is proposed, at which an arbitrary choice of one tuning parameter value that guarantees stability of the monitoring system allows the calculation of the optimal values of six parameters. The effectiveness of the proposed monitoring approach is demonstrated with experimental data from a glucose-limited fed-batch process of Bacillus subtilis in a laboratory two-compartment scale down reactor which tries to mimic the conditions present in industrial scale nutrient-limited fed-batch cultivations.

  13. Size distribution of rare earth elements in coal ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Clinton T.; Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Adams, Monique; Holland, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are utilized in various applications that are vital to the automotive, petrochemical, medical, and information technology industries. As world demand for REEs increases, critical shortages are expected. Due to the retention of REEs during coal combustion, coal fly ash is increasingly considered a potential resource. Previous studies have demonstrated that coal fly ash is variably enriched in REEs relative to feed coal (e.g, Seredin and Dai, 2012) and that enrichment increases with decreasing size fractions (Blissett et al., 2014). In order to further explore the REE resource potential of coal ash, and determine the partitioning behavior of REE as a function of grain size, we studied whole coal and fly ash size-fractions collected from three U.S commercial-scale coal-fired generating stations burning Appalachian or Powder River Basin coal. Whole fly ash was separated into , 5 um, to 5 to 10 um and 10 to 100 um particle size fractions by mechanical shaking using trace-metal clean procedures. In these samples REE enrichments in whole fly ash ranges 5.6 to 18.5 times that of feedcoals. Partitioning results for size separates relative to whole coal and whole fly ash will also be reported. 

  14. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.-H.; Mesenyashin, A.; Yan, E.S.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1996-10-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process which is capable of removing mineral matter from coal without using water. A distinct advantage of this dry coal cleaning process is that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering which is a common problem associated with conventional fine coal cleaning processes. It is the objective of this project to conduct a series of proof-of-concept (POC) scale tests at a throughput of 200--250 kg/hr and obtain scale- up information. Prior to the POC testing, bench-scale test work will be conducted with the objective of increasing the separation efficiency and throughput, for which changes in the basic designs for the charger and the separator may be necessary. The bench- and POC- scale test work will be carried out to evaluate various operating parameters and establish a reliable scale-up procedure. The scale-up data will be used to analyze the economic merits of the TES process. At present, the project is at the stage of engineering design (Task 3). Work accomplished during this reporting period include the construction of a Faraday Cage for measurement of particle charges (Subtask 3.1), construction of a bench-scale triboelectrostatic separator (Subtask 3.2) and development of a theoretical model for predicting motion of charged particles in a non-uniform electrostatic field (Subtask 3.2). This model will be useful for designing the POC module.

  15. Scale-up of stirring as foam disruption (SAFD) to industrial scale.

    PubMed

    Hoeks, Frans W J M M; Boon, Lotte A; Studer, Fabian; Wolff, Menno O; van der Schot, Freija; Vrabél, Peter; van der Lans, Rob G J M; Bujalski, Waldemar; Manelius, Asa; Blomsten, Gustav; Hjorth, Sven; Prada, Giovanna; Luyben, Karel Ch A M; Nienow, Alvin W

    2003-02-01

    Foam disruption by agitation-the stirring as foam disruption (SAFD) technique-was scaled up to pilot and production scale using Rushton turbines and an up-pumping hydrofoil impeller, the Scaba 3SHP1. The dominating mechanism behind SAFD-foam entrainment-was also demonstrated at production scale. The mechanistic model for SAFD defines a fictitious liquid velocity generated by the (upper) impeller near the dispersion surface, which is correlated with complete foam disruption. This model proved to be scalable, thus enabling the model to be used for the design of SAFD applications. Axial upward pumping impellers appeared to be more effective with respect to SAFD than Rushton turbines, as demonstrated by retrofitting a 12,000 l bioreactor, i.e. the triple Rushton configuration was compared with a mixed impeller configuration from Scaba with a 20% lower ungassed power draw. The retrofitted impeller configuration allowed 10% more broth without risking excessive foaming. In this way a substantial increase in the volumetric productivity of the bioreactor was achieved. Design recommendations for the application of SAFD are given in this paper. Using these recommendations for the design of a 30,000 l scale bioreactor, almost foamless Escherichia coli fermentations were realised.

  16. Industrialization of lipid nanoparticles: From laboratory-scale to large-scale production line.

    PubMed

    Hu, Caibiao; Qian, Airui; Wang, Qiang; Xu, Feng; He, Yi; Xu, Jing; Xia, Yongchang; Xia, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    This work aimed at developing a large-scale modular production line, which referred to coenzyme Q10 loaded-NLC as well as its continuous and scalable emulsification and homogenization process. The production line exhibited good control over the emulsification and homogenization process and enabled the particle size of NLC below 210nm at a throughput of 25kg/h (for lipid solution at a flow rate of 0.4kg/min). Among the several process parameters investigated, the size of the NLC was mainly influenced by the pre-emulsification temperature, homogenization pressure and homogenization. Suitable emulsification temperature (70°C), homogenization pressure (600, 800bar), and homogenization cycle (3, 4cycles) resulted in relatively smaller particles. These results proved that coenzyme Q10, a model active, had been successfully loaded into the NLC. Meanwhile, the large-scale production line can be effectively applied for continuous and modular production of NLC. The line had modern networking features-essential in the Internet age-and a modular design that was easily modified and upgraded. In addition, the long-term stability over 6month was monitored at 30°C and at 40°C to assess a potential effect of the laboratory scale and large scale on stability. All batches at room temperature and below were stable, and only a negligible increase in size was observed.

  17. Industrial scale salt-free reactive dyeing of cationized cotton fabric with different reactive dye chemistry.

    PubMed

    Nallathambi, Arivithamani; Venkateshwarapuram Rengaswami, Giri Dev

    2017-10-15

    Dyeing of knitted cotton goods in the industry has been mostly with reactive dyes. Handling of salt laden coloured effluent arising out of dyeing process is one of the prime concerns of the industry. Cationization of cotton is one of the effective alternative to overcome the above problem. But for cationization to be successful at industrial scale it has to be carried out by exhaust process and should be adoptable for the various dye chemistries currently practiced in the industry. Hence, in the present work, industrial level exhaust method of cationization process was carried out with concentration of 40g/L and 80g/L. The fabrics were dyed with dyes of three different dye chemistry and assessed for its dyeing performance without the addition of salt. Dye shades ranging from medium to extra dark shades were produced without the addition of salt. This study will provide industries the recipe that can be adopted for cationized cotton fabric for the widely used reactive dyes at industrial level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  19. Coal-water slurry fuel combustion testing in an oil-fired industrial boiler. Semiannual technical progress report, August 15, 1993--February 15, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Poe, R.L.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1994-11-30

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program with the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of four phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, (3) demonstration and evaluation (1,000-hour demonstration), and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit, conducting an additional 1,000 hours of testing, and installing an advanced flue gas treatment system). The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion tendencies, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. The first demonstrations been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler has been determined to be unacceptable. Consequently, the first demonstration has been concluded at 500 hours. The second demonstration will be conducted after a proven CWSF-designed burner is installed on the boiler. During this reporting period, the construction of the fuel preparation facility that will contain the CWSF circuit (as well as a dry, micronized coal circuit) was completed. Proposals from potential suppliers of the flue gas treatment systems were reviewed by Penn State and DOE.

  20. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing: technical progress report no. 3--January 1, 1996-March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale oil agglomeration technology capable of increasing the recovery and improving the quality of fine coal streams. Two distinct agglomeration devices will be tested, namely, a conventional high shear mixer and a tubular (jet) processor. To meet the overall objective an 11 task work plan has been designed. The work will range from batch and continuous bench-scale testing through the design, commissioning and field testing of POC-scale agglomeration equipment. During the reporting period there were activities under the following tasks: project planning and management; host site selection and plan formulation; preliminary engineering and design of POC equipment; coal characterization and laboratory (batch) and bench-scale testing; and process evaluation. The work on the remaining tasks is scheduled for the next months.

  1. Modeling of Thermochemical Behavior in an Industrial-Scale Rotary Hearth Furnace for Metallurgical Dust Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu-Liang; Jiang, Ze-Yi; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Xue, Qing-Guo; Yu, Ai-Bing; Shen, Yan-Song

    2017-10-01

    Metallurgical dusts can be recycled through direct reduction in rotary hearth furnaces (RHFs) via addition into carbon-based composite pellets. While iron in the dust is recycled, several heavy and alkali metal elements harmful for blast furnace operation, including Zn, Pb, K, and Na, can also be separated and then recycled. However, there is a lack of understanding on thermochemical behavior related to direct reduction in an industrial-scale RHF, especially removal behavior of Zn, Pb, K, and Na, leading to technical issues in industrial practice. In this work, an integrated model of the direct reduction process in an industrial-scale RHF is described. The integrated model includes three mathematical submodels and one physical model, specifically, a three-dimensional (3-D) CFD model of gas flow and heat transfer in an RHF chamber, a one-dimensional (1-D) CFD model of direct reduction inside a pellet, an energy/mass equilibrium model, and a reduction physical experiment using a Si-Mo furnace. The model is validated by comparing the simulation results with measurements in terms of furnace temperature, furnace pressure, and pellet indexes. The model is then used for describing in-furnace phenomena and pellet behavior in terms of heat transfer, direct reduction, and removal of a range of heavy and alkali metal elements under industrial-scale RHF conditions. The results show that the furnace temperature in the preheating section should be kept at a higher level in an industrial-scale RHF compared with that in a pilot-scale RHF. The removal rates of heavy and alkali metal elements inside the composite pellet are all faster than iron metallization, specifically in the order of Pb, Zn, K, and Na.

  2. Accomplishments in genome-scale in silico modeling for industrial and medical biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Milne, Caroline B; Kim, Pan-Jun; Eddy, James A; Price, Nathan D

    2009-12-01

    Driven by advancements in high-throughput biological technologies and the growing number of sequenced genomes, the construction of in silico models at the genome scale has provided powerful tools to investigate a vast array of biological systems and applications. Here, we review comprehensively the uses of such models in industrial and medical biotechnology, including biofuel generation, food production, and drug development. While the use of in silico models is still in its early stages for delivering to industry, significant initial successes have been achieved. For the cases presented here, genome-scale models predict engineering strategies to enhance properties of interest in an organism or to inhibit harmful mechanisms of pathogens. Going forward, genome-scale in silico models promise to extend their application and analysis scope to become a trans-formative tool in biotechnology.

  3. External validity of a generic safety climate scale for lone workers across different industries and companies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin; Huang, Yueng-hsiang; Robertson, Michelle M; Murphy, Lauren A; Garabet, Angela; Chang, Wen-Ruey

    2014-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the external validity of a 12-item generic safety climate scale for lone workers in order to evaluate the appropriateness of generalized use of the scale in the measurement of safety climate across various lone work settings. External validity evidence was established by investigating the measurement equivalence (ME) across different industries and companies. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)-based and item response theory (IRT)-based perspectives were adopted to examine the ME of the generic safety climate scale for lone workers across 11 companies from the trucking, electrical utility, and cable television industries. Fairly strong evidence of ME was observed for both organization- and group-level generic safety climate sub-scales. Although significant invariance was observed in the item intercepts across the different lone work settings, absolute model fit indices remained satisfactory in the most robust step of CFA-based ME testing. IRT-based ME testing identified only one differentially functioning item from the organization-level generic safety climate sub-scale, but its impact was minimal and strong ME was supported. The generic safety climate scale for lone workers reported good external validity and supported the presence of a common feature of safety climate among lone workers. The scale can be used as an effective safety evaluation tool in various lone work situations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric PM2.5 and PM10 at a coal-based industrial city: Implication for PAH control at industrial agglomeration regions, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Wang, Zongshuang; Chen, Jianhua; Kong, Shaofei; Fu, Xiao; Deng, Hongbing; Shao, Guofan; Wu, Gang

    2014-11-01

    Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM2.5 and PM10 are identified and quantified at five sites of E'erduosi in 2005 by GC-MS. Total PAH concentrations in PM2.5 and PM10 are in the ranges of 0.58-145.01 ng m- 3 and 5.80-180.32 ng m- 3 for the five sites, decreasing as coal-chemical base site (ZGE) > heavy industrial site (QPJ) > residential site with heavy traffic (DS) > suburban site surrounded by grassland (HJQ) > background site (QGN) for both PM2.5 and PM10. PAH concentrations in the coal-chemical base site are 250 and 31.1 times of those in the background site. Flu, Pyr, Chr, BbF, BeP, IND and BghiP are abundant for the coal-chemical base site, totally accounting for 75% of the PAH concentrations. 4, 5 and 6 rings PAHs are dominant, accounting for 88.9-94.2% and 90.5-94.1% of PAHs in PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Combustion-derived PAH concentrations cover 42%-84% and 75%-82% of PAHs in PM2.5 and PM10, indicating large amounts of combustion sources existed for them in E'erduosi. PAH compositions between PM2.5 and PM10 are quite different from each other for sites with few human activities (HJQ and QGN) by coefficient of divergence analysis. Results obtained from principal component analysis and diagnostic ratios indicate that coal combustion, vehicle emission, wood combustion and industrial processes are the main sources for PAHs in E'erduosi. According to BaP equivalent concentration, the potential health risk of PAHs in PM2.5 at the two industrial sites ZGE and QPJ are 537 and 460 times of those for the background site. And they are 4.3 and 3.7 times of those for the residential site. The potential PAH pollution in particles at other industrial agglomeration regions that occurred in China in recent years should be paid attention by the local government.

  5. Development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1993--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, a majority of the effort was spent performing the initial industrial proof-of-concept test and installing and integrating the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP). The other system modifications are well underway with the designs of the modifications to the batch/coal feed system being completed. A Purchase Order has been issued to a material conveying equipment vendor for the purchase of the batch/coal feeding equipment. The delivery and installation of the material conveying equipment is expected to occur in July and early August. The commercialization planning is continuing with the completion of a draft Business Plan. This plan is currently undergoing internal review, and will be submitted to Dawnbreaker, a DOE contracted small business consulting firm, for review.

  6. Investigation of the relationship between particulate-bound mercury and properties of fly ash in a full-scale 100 MWe pulverized coal combustion boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Sen Li; Chin-Min Cheng; Bobby Chen; Yan Cao; Jacob Vervynckt; Amanda Adebambo; Wei-Ping Pan

    2007-12-15

    The properties of fly ash in coal-fired boilers influence the emission of mercury from power plants into the environment. In this study, seven different bituminous coals were burned in a full-scale 100 MWe pulverized coal combustion boiler and the derived fly ash samples were collected from a mechanical hopper (MH) and an electrostatic precipitator hopper (ESP). The mercury content, specific surface area (SSA), unburned carbon, and elemental composition of the fly ash samples were analyzed to evaluate the correlation between the concentration of particulate-bound mercury and the properties of coal and fly ash. For a given coal, it was found that the mercury content in the fly ash collected from the ESP was greater than in the fly ash samples collected from the MHP. This phenomenon may be due to a lower temperature of flue gas at the ESP (about 135{sup o}C) compared to the temperature at the air preheater (about 350{sup o}C). Also, a significantly lower SSA observed in MH ash might also contribute to the observation. A comparison of the fly ash samples generated from seven different coals using statistical methods indicates that the mercury adsorbed on ESP fly ashes has a highly positive correlation with the unburned carbon content, manganese content, and SSA of the fly ash. Sulfur content in coal showed a significant negative correlation with the Hg adsorption. Manganese in fly ash is believed to participate in oxidizing volatile elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) to ionic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}). The oxidized mercury in flue gas can form a complex with the fly ash and then get removed before the flue gas leaves the stack of the boiler.

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-BASED TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Sarma V. Pisupati; Chunshan Song; Ronald S. Wasco; Ronald T. Wincek; Xiaochun Xu; Alan W. Scaroni; Richard Hogg; Subhash Chander; M. Thaddeus Ityokumbul; Mark S. Klima; Peter T. Luckie; Adam Rose; Richard L. Gordon; Jeffrey Lazo; A. Michael Schaal

    2004-01-30

    The third phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for US Department of Defense (DOD) facilities was completed. The objectives of the project were to: decrease DOD's dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase III activities were focused on evaluating deeply-cleaned coals as fuels for industrial boilers and investigating emissions control strategies for providing ultra-low emissions when firing coal-based fuels. This was addressed by performing coal beneficiation and preparation studies, and bench- to demonstration-scale emissions reduction studies. In addition, economic studies were conducted focused on determining cost and market penetration, selection of incentives, and regional economic impacts of coal-based technologies.

  8. Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

  9. Status of health and environmental research relative to coal gasification 1976 to the present

    SciTech Connect

    Wilzbach, K.E.; Reilly, C.A. Jr.

    1982-10-01

    Health and environmental research relative to coal gasification conducted by Argonne National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under DOE sponsorship is summarized. The studies have focused on the chemical and toxicological characterization of materials from a range of process streams in five bench-scale, pilot-plant and industrial gasifiers. They also address ecological effects, industrial hygiene, environmental control technology performance, and risk assessment. Following an overview of coal gasification technology and related environmental concerns, integrated summaries of the studies and results in each area are presented and conclusions are drawn. Needed health and environmental research relative to coal gasification is identified.

  10. Characteristics of fly ashes from full-scale coal-fired power plants and their relationship to mercury adsorption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Y.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Chang, R.; Richardson, C.; Paradis, J.

    2007-01-01

    Nine fly ash samples were collected from the particulate collection devices (baghouse or electrostatic precipitator) of four full-scale pulverized coal (PC) utility boilers burning eastern bituminous coals (EB-PC ashes) and three cyclone utility boilers burning either Powder River Basin (PRB) coals or PRB blends,(PRB-CYC ashes). As-received fly ash samples were mechanically sieved to obtain six size fractions. Unburned carbon (UBC) content, mercury content, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)-N2 surface areas of as-received fly ashes and their size fractions were measured. In addition, UBC particles were examined by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission microscopy, and thermogravimetry to obtain information on their surface morphology, structure, and oxidation reactivity. It was found that the UBC particles contained amorphous carbon, ribbon-shaped graphitic carbon, and highly ordered graphite structures. The mercury contents of the UBCs (Hg/UBC, in ppm) in raw ash samples were comparable to those of the UBC-enriched samples, indicating that mercury was mainly adsorbed on the UBC in fly ash. The UBC content decreased with a decreasing particle size range for all nine ashes. There was no correlation between the mercury and UBC contents of different size fractions of as-received ashes. The mercury content of the UBCs in each size fraction, however, generally increased with a decreasing particle size for the nine ashes. The mercury contents and surface areas of the UBCs in the PRB-CYC ashes were about 8 and 3 times higher than UBCs in the EB-PC ashes, respectively. It appeared that both the particle size and surface area of UBC could contribute to mercury capture. The particle size of the UBC in PRB-CYC ash and thus the external mass transfer was found to be the major factor impacting the mercury adsorption. Both the particle size and surface reactivity of the UBC in EB-PC ash, which generally had a lower carbon oxidation reactivity than the PRB

  11. Evaluation of an enhanced gravity-based fine-coal circuit for high-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, M.K.; Samal, A.R.; Palit, A.

    2008-02-15

    One of the main objectives of this study was to evaluate a fine-coal cleaning circuit using an enhanced gravity separator specifically for a high sulfur coal application. The evaluation not only included testing of individual unit operations used for fine-coal classification, cleaning and dewatering, but also included testing of the complete circuit simultaneously. At a scale of nearly 2 t/h, two alternative circuits were evaluated to clean a minus 0.6-mm coal stream utilizing a 150-mm-diameter classifying cyclone, a linear screen having a projected surface area of 0.5 m{sup 2}, an enhanced gravity separator having a bowl diameter of 250 mm and a screen-bowl centrifuge having a bowl diameter of 500 mm. The cleaning and dewatering components of both circuits were the same; however, one circuit used a classifying cyclone whereas the other used a linear screen as the classification device. An industrial size coal spiral was used to clean the 2- x 0.6-mm coal size fraction for each circuit to estimate the performance of a complete fine-coal circuit cleaning a minus 2-mm particle size coal stream. The 'linear screen + enhanced gravity separator + screen-bowl circuit' provided superior sulfur and ash-cleaning performance to the alternative circuit that used a classifying cyclone in place of the linear screen. Based on these test data, it was estimated that the use of the recommended circuit to treat 50 t/h of minus 2-mm size coal having feed ash and sulfur contents of 33.9% and 3.28%, respectively, may produce nearly 28.3 t/h of clean coal with product ash and sulfur contents of 9.15% and 1.61 %, respectively.

  12. 76 FR 48833 - Notice of Filings of Self-Certifications of Coal Capability Under the Powerplant and Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... coal or another alternate fuel as a primary energy source. Pursuant to FUA section 201(d), in order to... natural gas or petroleum as its primary energy source shall certify to the Secretary of Energy (Secretary... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  13. 78 FR 54879 - Notice of Filing of Self-Certification of Coal Capability Under the Powerplant and Industrial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... operated without the capability to use coal or another alternate fuel as a primary energy source. Pursuant... proposing to use natural gas or petroleum as its primary energy source shall certify to the Secretary of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  14. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3 industrial boiler retrofit. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.L.; Thornock, D.E.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1998-03-01

    Economics and/or political intervention may one day dictate the conversion from oil or natural gas to coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn oil or gas. In recognition of this future possibility the US Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technical Center (DOE-FETC) supported a program led by ABB Power Plant Laboratories with support from the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University with the goal of demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of the overall goal the following specific objectives were targeted: develop a coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical and operational requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; maintain boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; maintain NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb NO{sub 2} per million Btu; achieve combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and determine economic payback periods as a function of key variables.

  15. Effects of agricultural and industrial by-products on restoration quality of reclaimed coal mine soil in Mississippi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The generally low level of organic C in reclaimed coal mine soils may limit microbial activity. The oxidized material used as substitute soil for upland restoration at a surface mine in Mississippi contains a mixture of topsoil plus oxidized subsoils that provide for biota reestablishment. By incre...

  16. Clean coal reference plants: Pulverized coal boiler with flue gas desulfurization. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the U.S. energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. To achieve this goal, a multiphased effort consisting of five separate solicitations has been completed. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which, in general, correspond to the center`s areas of technology development. Primarily the categories of METC CCT projects are: atmospheric fluid bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications.

  17. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries, which have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. The fine grinding of coal is a crucial step in the manufacture of coal-water slurries. In this context, currently available grinding mills exhibit poor energy efficiency for size reduction and non-optimum packing characteristics of the ground coal. The first increases the cost of manufacture of coal-water slurries and the second adversely affects their rheological properties. The newly invented choke-fed, high-pressure roll mill is up to 50% more energy efficient and, moreover, there are reasons to believe that it produces a size distribution of ground particles which is closer to the dense packing composition. The high-pressure roll mill (which is perhaps the only really significant innovation in industrial comminution in this century) has lower capital cost, occupies less floor space, shows negligible wear rate, accepts feed with a wide range of moisture contents and, of particular importance, it can be scaled up to grind hundreds of tons of solids per hour. The high-pressure roll mill provides a unique opportunity to develop an improved technology for preparing coal-water slurries. Our research group in the University of California at Berkeley not only has a fully instrumented, laboratory-scale, choke-fed. high-pressure roll mill (the only one of its kind in the United States) but also fully instrumented laboratory ball mills for comparative fine coal preparation purposes. In this research program, our plans are to systematically investigate comminution energy consumption, deagglomeration procedures, and the stability and rheology of coal-water slurry fuel prepared with high-pressure roll mill, and to compare the results with slurry prepared with ball-milled coal.

  18. Laboratory-scale controlled-atmosphere chamber for use with premium coal samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filla, B. James; Callanan, Jane E.

    1985-04-01

    The recent availability of premium coal samples makes it desirable to have the capability for working with these materials, in one's own laboratory, in an atmosphere which can be controlled. A controlled-atmosphere chamber, large enough to allow for processing samples yet small enough to fit easily in an ordinary laboratory, has been designed and fabricated. The overall cost of this controlled-atmosphere chamber was competitive with commercially available systems. The major advantages of this specific system include: convenient size and reversible design for use in a limited work space; incorporation of a full vacuum antechamber that minimizes loss of the working chamber purified atmosphere; and a recirculating system with a bypass valve arrangement allowing separate or combined operation of oxygen and moisture removal systems. The design features were combined to create a unique apparatus capable of both the specific use for which it was intended and general controlled-atmosphere chamber applications. Compatible modular-design work chambers could have been purchased from commercial vendors; however, it still would have been necessary to custom fabricate both the antechamber and recirculation system to meet the requirements of the anticipated experimental work.

  19. Regional scale selenium loading associated with surface coal mining, Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Wellen, Christopher C; Shatilla, Nadine J; Carey, Sean K

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water downstream of surface mining operations have been reported at levels in excess of water quality guidelines for the protection of wildlife. Previous research in surface mining environments has focused on downstream water quality impacts, yet little is known about the fundamental controls on Se loading. This study investigated the relationship between mining practices, stream flows and Se concentrations using a SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model. This work is part of a R&D program examining the influence of surface coal mining on hydrological and water quality responses in the Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada, aimed at informing effective management responses. Results indicate that waste rock volume, a product of mining activity, accounted for roughly 80% of the Se load from the Elk Valley, while background sources accounted for roughly 13%. Wet years were characterized by more than twice the Se load of dry years. A number of variables regarding placement of waste rock within the catchments, length of buried streams, and the construction of rock drains did not significantly influence the Se load. The age of the waste rock, the proportion of waste rock surface reclaimed, and the ratio of waste rock pile side area to top area all varied inversely with the Se load from watersheds containing waste rock. These results suggest operational practices that are likely to reduce the release of Se to surface waters.

  20. Environmental justice implications of industrial hazardous waste generation in India: a national scale analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Pratyusha; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2016-12-01

    While rising air and water pollution have become issues of widespread public concern in India, the relationship between spatial distribution of environmental pollution and social disadvantage has received less attention. This lack of attention becomes particularly relevant in the context of industrial pollution, as India continues to pursue industrial development policies without sufficient regard to its adverse social impacts. This letter examines industrial pollution in India from an environmental justice (EJ) perspective by presenting a national scale study of social inequities in the distribution of industrial hazardous waste generation. Our analysis connects district-level data from the 2009 National Inventory of Hazardous Waste Generating Industries with variables representing urbanization, social disadvantage, and socioeconomic status from the 2011 Census of India. Our results indicate that more urbanized and densely populated districts with a higher proportion of socially and economically disadvantaged residents are significantly more likely to generate hazardous waste. The quantity of hazardous waste generated is significantly higher in more urbanized but sparsely populated districts with a higher proportion of economically disadvantaged households, after accounting for other relevant explanatory factors such as literacy and social disadvantage. These findings underscore the growing need to incorporate EJ considerations in future industrial development and waste management in India.

  1. A Proven, Industrial Magnetron Sputtering System With Excellent Expansion And Scale-Up Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, D.

    1987-11-01

    Airco Solar Products began as a business unit of Airco Temescal in the early 1970's. The first large area magnetron sputtering deposition occurred in 1974, and the first large area magnetron sputtering system was built and operated under contract to Guardian Industries in Carleton, Michigan in 1977, and was later sold to Guardian. This system continues in three-shift production today. A smaller development system, designed for use in the architectural glass coating industry, was introduced in parallel with the large area coaters. There are now over seventeen of these systems, called the ILS-1600, in use or on order throughout the world. This is a proven, industrial-style development sputter deposition system and has an excellent field record in the areas of versatility and low maintenance requirements. Airco Solar Products has recently begun to market this system into other applications such as the photovoltaics industry, the flat panel display industry and other specialty industries. The features of this system such as overall design, expandability, process scale-up and available options will be discussed. Expanded versions of this system currently in the field will be reviewed, and future applications will be discussed.

  2. Fluidized bed coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

  3. Potential for improved radiation thermometry measurement uncertainty through implementing a primary scale in an industrial laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmott, Jon R.; Lowe, David; Broughton, Mick; White, Ben S.; Machin, Graham

    2016-09-01

    A primary temperature scale requires realising a unit in terms of its definition. For high temperature radiation thermometry in terms of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 this means extrapolating from the signal measured at the freezing temperature of gold, silver or copper using Planck’s radiation law. The difficulty in doing this means that primary scales above 1000 °C require specialist equipment and careful characterisation in order to achieve the extrapolation with sufficient accuracy. As such, maintenance of the scale at high temperatures is usually only practicable for National Metrology Institutes, and calibration laboratories have to rely on a scale calibrated against transfer standards. At lower temperatures it is practicable for an industrial calibration laboratory to have its own primary temperature scale, which reduces the number of steps between the primary scale and end user. Proposed changes to the SI that will introduce internationally accepted high temperature reference standards might make it practicable to have a primary high temperature scale in a calibration laboratory. In this study such a scale was established by calibrating radiation thermometers directly to high temperature reference standards. The possible reduction in uncertainty to an end user as a result of the reduced calibration chain was evaluated.

  4. Coal supply for California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancik, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The potential sources and qualities of coals available for major utility and industrial consumers in California are examined and analyzed with respect to those factors that would affect the reliability of supplies. Other considerations, such as the requirements and assurances needed by the coal producers to enter into long-term contracts and dedicate large reserves of coal to these contracts are also discussed. Present and potential future mining contraints on coal mine operators are identified and analyzed with respect to their effect on availability of supply.

  5. Coal: the new black

    SciTech Connect

    Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

    2008-03-15

    Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

  6. Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2009-06-30

    , pressures, and volumetric flows practically identical. In POGT mode, the turbine specific power (turbine net power per lb mass flow from expander exhaust) is twice the value of the onventional turbine. POGT based IGCC plant conceptual design was developed and major components have been identified. Fuel flexible fluid bed gasifier, and novel POGT unit are the key components of the 100 MW IGCC plant for co producing electricity, hydrogen and/or yngas. Plant performances were calculated for bituminous coal and oxygen blown versions. Various POGT based, natural gas fueled systems for production of electricity only, coproduction of electricity and hydrogen, and co production of electricity and syngas for gas to liquid and hemical processes were developed and evaluated. Performance calculations for several versions of these systems were conducted. 64.6 % LHV efficiency for fuel to electricity in combined cycle was achieved. Such a high efficiency arise from using of syngas from POGT exhaust s a fuel that can provide required temperature level for superheated steam generation in HRSG, as well as combustion air preheating. Studies of POGT materials and combustion instabilities in POR were conducted and results reported. Preliminary market assessment was performed, and recommendations for POGT systems applications in oil industry were defined. POGT technology is ready to proceed to the engineering prototype stage, which is recommended.

  7. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing: Direct coal liquefaction of rawhide sub-bituminous coal. Final topical report, June 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Coless, L.A.; Poole, M.C.; Wen, M.Y.

    1995-11-21

    Supported catalysts, either in fixed bed or ebullating bed reactors, are subject to deactivation with time, especially if the feed contains deactivating species, such as metals and coke precursors. Dispersed catalyst systems avoid significant catalyst deactivation because there are no catalyst pores to plug, hence no pore mouth plugging, and hopefully, no relevant decline of catalyst surface area or pore volume. The tests carried out in 1994, at the Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL) for DOE covered a slate of 5 dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal, which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested earlier at Wilsonville. The catalysts included three iron and two molybdenum types. The Bailey iron oxide and the two molybdenum catalysts have previously been tested in DOE-sponsored research. These known catalysts will be used to help provide a base line and tie-in to previous work. The two new catalysts, Bayferrox PK 5210 and Mach-1`s Nanocat are very finely divided iron oxides. The iron oxide addition rate was varied from 1.0 to 0.25 wt % (dry coal basis) but the molybdenum addition rate remained constant at 100 wppm throughout the experiments. The effect of changing recycle rate, sulfur and iron oxide addition rates, first stage reactor temperature, mass velocity and catalyst type were tested in the 1994 operations of ERDL`s recycle coal liquefaction unit (RCLU). DOE will use these results to update economics and plan future work. The test program will resume in mid 1995, with another 2-3 months of pilot plant testing.

  8. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing. Technical report number 2, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale oil agglomeration technology capable of increasing the recovery and improving the quality of fine coal streams. Two distinct agglomeration devices will be tested, namely, a conventional high shear mixer and a tubular (jet) processor. To meet the overall objective an 11 task work plan has been designed. The work will range from batch and continuous bench-scale testing through the design, commissioning and field testing of POC-scale agglomeration equipment. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning and management; host site selection and plan formulation; preliminary engineering and design of POC equipment; coal characterization and laboratory (batch) and bench-scale testing; final engineering and design of POC equipment; proof-of-concept (POC) equipment procurement and fabrication; POC equipment inspection; POC equipment installation, shakedown and operation; process evaluation; dismantling of the system; final report. Accomplishments to date are described on the site selection, a work plan for bench-scale testing, preliminary engineering and design of POC equipment, and coal characterization.

  9. Directory of coal production ownership, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, B.

    1981-10-01

    Ownership patterns in the coal industry are highly complex. Many producers are diversified into other lines of activity. The pattern and extent of this diversification has varied through time. In the past, steel and nonferrous metals companies had major coal industry involvement. This is still true today. However, other types of enterprises have entered the industry de novo or through merger. Those of greatest significance in recent times have involved petroleum and particularly public utility companies. This report attempts to identify, as accurately as possible, production ownership patterns in the coal industry. The audience for this Directory is anyone who is interested in accurately tracing the ownership of coal companies to parent companies, or who is concerned about the structure of ownership in the US coal industry. This audience includes coal industry specialists, coal industry policy analysts, economists, financial analysts, and members of the investment community.

  10. Particle physics and polyedra proximity calculation for hazard simulations in large-scale industrial plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plebe, Alice; Grasso, Giorgio

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes a system developed for the simulation of flames inside an open-source 3D computer graphic software, Blender, with the aim of analyzing in virtual reality scenarios of hazards in large-scale industrial plants. The advantages of Blender are of rendering at high resolution the very complex structure of large industrial plants, and of embedding a physical engine based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics. This particle system is used to evolve a simulated fire. The interaction of this fire with the components of the plant is computed using polyhedron separation distance, adopting a Voronoi-based strategy that optimizes the number of feature distance computations. Results on a real oil and gas refining industry are presented.

  11. Scale development of safety management system evaluation for the airline industry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Fu; Chen, Shu-Chuan

    2012-07-01

    The airline industry relies on the implementation of Safety Management System (SMS) to integrate safety policies and augment safety performance at both organizational and individual levels. Although there are various degrees of SMS implementation in practice, a comprehensive scale measuring the essential dimensions of SMS is still lacking. This paper thus aims to develop an SMS measurement scale from the perspective of aviation experts and airline managers to evaluate the performance of company's safety management system, by adopting Schwab's (1980) three-stage scale development procedure. The results reveal a five-factor structure consisting of 23 items. The five factors include documentation and commands, safety promotion and training, executive management commitment, emergency preparedness and response plan and safety management policy. The implications of this SMS evaluation scale for practitioners and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    evaluation and commercial application. During the project performance period, Alstom performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and large pilot scale combustion testing in its Industrial Scale Burner Facility (ISBF) at its U.S. Power Plant Laboratories facility in Windsor, Connecticut in support of these objectives. The NOx reduction approach was to optimize near-field combustion to ensure that minimum NOx emissions are achieved with minimal impact on unburned carbon in ash, slagging and fouling, corrosion, and flame stability/turn-down. Several iterations of CFD and combustion testing on a Midwest coal led to an optimized design, which was extensively combustion tested on a range of coals. The data from these tests were then used to validate system costs and benefits versus SCR. Three coals were evaluated during the bench-scale and large pilot-scale testing tasks. The three coals ranged from a very reactive subbituminous coal to a moderately reactive Western bituminous coal to a much less reactive Midwest bituminous coal. Bench-scale testing was comprised of standard ASTM properties evaluation, plus more detailed characterization of fuel properties through drop tube furnace testing and thermogravimetric analysis. Bench-scale characterization of the three test coals showed that both NOx emissions and combustion performance are a strong function of coal properties. The more reactive coals evolved more of their fuel bound nitrogen in the substoichiometric main burner zone than less reactive coal, resulting in the potential for lower NOx emissions. From a combustion point of view, the more reactive coals also showed lower carbon in ash and CO values than the less reactive coal at any given main burner zone stoichiometry. According to bench-scale results, the subbituminous coal was found to be the most amenable to both low NOx, and acceptably low combustibles in the flue gas, in an air staged low NOx system. The Midwest bituminous coal, by contrast, was predicted to

  13. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g−1 volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g−1 VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH4 recovery of 189 L kg−1 VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH4 and 38% CO2 was recorded. PMID:26393620

  14. DEM GPU studies of industrial scale particle simulations for granular flow civil engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizette, Patrick; Govender, Nicolin; Wilke, Daniel N.; Abriak, Nor-Edine

    2017-06-01

    The use of the Discrete Element Method (DEM) for industrial civil engineering industrial applications is currently limited due to the computational demands when large numbers of particles are considered. The graphics processing unit (GPU) with its highly parallelized hardware architecture shows potential to enable solution of civil engineering problems using discrete granular approaches. We demonstrate in this study the pratical utility of a validated GPU-enabled DEM modeling environment to simulate industrial scale granular problems. As illustration, the flow discharge of storage silos using 8 and 17 million particles is considered. DEM simulations have been performed to investigate the influence of particle size (equivalent size for the 20/40-mesh gravel) and induced shear stress for two hopper shapes. The preliminary results indicate that the shape of the hopper significantly influences the discharge rates for the same material. Specifically, this work shows that GPU-enabled DEM modeling environments can model industrial scale problems on a single portable computer within a day for 30 seconds of process time.

  15. The development of an industrial-scale fed-batch fermentation simulation.

    PubMed

    Goldrick, Stephen; Ştefan, Andrei; Lovett, David; Montague, Gary; Lennox, Barry

    2015-01-10

    This paper describes a simulation of an industrial-scale fed-batch fermentation that can be used as a benchmark in process systems analysis and control studies. The simulation was developed using a mechanistic model and validated using historical data collected from an industrial-scale penicillin fermentation process. Each batch was carried out in a 100,000 L bioreactor that used an industrial strain of Penicillium chrysogenum. The manipulated variables recorded during each batch were used as inputs to the simulator and the predicted outputs were then compared with the on-line and off-line measurements recorded in the real process. The simulator adapted a previously published structured model to describe the penicillin fermentation and extended it to include the main environmental effects of dissolved oxygen, viscosity, temperature, pH and dissolved carbon dioxide. In addition the effects of nitrogen and phenylacetic acid concentrations on the biomass and penicillin production rates were also included. The simulated model predictions of all the on-line and off-line process measurements, including the off-gas analysis, were in good agreement with the batch records. The simulator and industrial process data are available to download at www.industrialpenicillinsimulation.com and can be used to evaluate, study and improve on the current control strategy implemented on this facility. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Anaerobic Digestion of Laminaria japonica Waste from Industrial Production Residues in Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Yann Nicolas; Thomsen, Claudia; Thomsen, Laurenz; Benz, Roland

    2015-09-18

    The cultivation of macroalgae to supply the biofuel, pharmaceutical or food industries generates a considerable amount of organic residue, which represents a potential substrate for biomethanation. Its use optimizes the total resource exploitation by the simultaneous disposal of waste biomaterials. In this study, we explored the biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomethane recovery of industrial Laminaria japonica waste (LJW) in batch, continuous laboratory and pilot-scale trials. Thermo-acidic pretreatment with industry-grade HCl or industrial flue gas condensate (FGC), as well as a co-digestion approach with maize silage (MS) did not improve the biomethane recovery. BMPs between 172 mL and 214 mL g(-1) volatile solids (VS) were recorded. We proved the feasibility of long-term continuous anaerobic digestion with LJW as sole feedstock showing a steady biomethane production rate of 173 mL g(-1) VS. The quality of fermentation residue was sufficient to serve as biofertilizer, with enriched amounts of potassium, sulfur and iron. We further demonstrated the upscaling feasibility of the process in a pilot-scale system where a CH₄ recovery of 189 L kg(-1) VS was achieved and a biogas composition of 55% CH₄ and 38% CO₂ was recorded.

  17. Energy saving membrane treatment of high organic load industrial effluents: from lab to pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mafalda Pessoa; Xin, Gang; Crespo, João G

    2013-12-15

    In this study, a nanofiltration unit was implemented at an industrial site, for the treatment of industrial wastewater generated during rubber tubing extrusion. The aim was to reduce the energy input required, while assuring a final effluent quality that meets the requirements of environmental legislation. In a first stage, two membrane process treatments, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, were evaluated at laboratory scale in order to assess the rejection of pollutants and maximise permeate throughput. Permeate generated from nanofiltration using either an NF90 or an NF270 membrane were shown to meet the effluent discharge requirements (<2000 mg COD/l). The less restrictive membrane, NF270, was chosen for study in a pilot plant at the industrial site, due to its higher membrane permeability. The pilot nanofiltration unit was integrated into the treatment plant operation aiming at optimising the process in terms of the efficiency of pollutant removal with minimal energy input. A feasibility study was performed for this case-study and it was concluded that the energy expenditure of the new process represents only 62% of the current energy consumption of the treatment plant. The proposed solution in this work may be retrofitted to full scale wastewater treatment processes, and may be applicable to industries that employ similar manufacturing processes, and face similar difficulties.

  18. Application of ERTS-1 imagery to fracture related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry. [Indiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T. V.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. New fracture detail of Indiana has been observed and mapped from ERTS-1 imagery. Studies so far indicate a close relationship between the directions of fracture traces mapped from the imagery, fractures measured on bedrock outcrops, and fractures measured in the underground mines. First hand observations and discussions with underground mine operators indicate good correlation of mine hazard maps prepared from ERTS-1/aircraft imagery and actual roof falls. The inventory of refuse piles/slurry ponds of the coal field of Indiana has identified over 225 such sites from past mining operations. These data will serve the State Legislature in making tax decisions on coal mining which take on increased importance because of the energy crisis.

  19. Bioprocess development for kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in semi industrial scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Dailin, Daniel Joe; Elsayed, Elsayed Ahmed; Othman, Nor Zalina; Malek, Roslinda; Phin, Hiew Siaw; Aziz, Ramlan; Wadaan, Mohamad; El Enshasy, Hesham Ali

    2016-07-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens is non-pathogenic gram positive bacteria isolated from kefir grains and able to produce extracellular exopolysaccharides named kefiran. This polysaccharide contains approximately equal amounts of glucose and galactose. Kefiran has wide applications in pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, an approach has been extensively studied to increase kefiran production for pharmaceutical application in industrial scale. The present work aims to maximize kefiran production through the optimization of medium composition and production in semi industrial scale bioreactor. The composition of the optimal medium for kefiran production contained sucrose, yeast extract and K2HPO4 at 20.0, 6.0, 0.25 g L(-1), respectively. The optimized medium significantly increased both cell growth and kefiran production by about 170.56% and 58.02%, respectively, in comparison with the unoptimized medium. Furthermore, the kinetics of cell growth and kefiran production in batch culture of L. kefiranofaciens was investigated under un-controlled pH conditions in 16-L scale bioreactor. The maximal cell mass in bioreactor culture reached 2.76 g L(-1) concomitant with kefiran production of 1.91 g L(-1).

  20. National Occupational Health Service policies and programs for workers in small-scale industries in China.

    PubMed

    Zhi, S; Sheng, W; Levine, S P

    2000-01-01

    Over the 14 years since economic reform began, and the restructuring of the economy to encourage international trade, a large number of township enterprises have been developed and put into operation in the Peoples Republic of China. From 1978 to 1991, the number of enterprises has increased 11.5 times; the number of employees has increased 2.4 times; the fixed assets have increased 13.7 times; and the value of the total output has increased 22.5 times. In this article, a report is given on a sample survey in 30 counties in 1990, which showed that 82.69% of rural industrial enterprises had at least one type of occupational hazard in their work environments. Workers engaged in at least one type of hazardous working environment accounted for 33.91% of the blue-collar workers. Physical examinations were performed for seven types of occupational diseases: silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, chronic lead poisoning, benzene analogs poisoning, chronic chromium poisoning, and noise-induced hearing loss. The total detectable rate of the seven types of occupational diseases was 4.4% among those workers. In addition, 11% had illnesses suspected of being (though not proven to be) caused by occupational exposures. Most township enterprises do not provide basic occupational health services. The coverage of five routine occupational health service activities provided for township enterprises were very limited, from 1.4 to 36%.

  1. Bench-scale demonstration of biological production of ethanol from coal synthesis gas. Topical report 5, Process analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The economics of converting coal to ethanol by a biological process is quite attractive. When processing 1500 tons of coal per day, the plant generates 85 million gallons of ethanol per year. The return on investment for the process is 110 percent and the payout is 0.9 years.

  2. GIS Representation of Coal-Bearing Areas in Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    The African continent contains approximately 5 percent of the world's proven recoverable reserves of coal (World Energy Council, 2007). Energy consumption in Africa is projected to grow at an annual rate of 2.3 percent from 2004 through 2030, while average consumption in first-world nations is expected to rise at 1.4 percent annually (Energy Information Administration, 2007). Coal reserves will undoubtedly continue to be part of Africa's energy portfolio as it grows in the future. A review of academic and industrial literature indicates that 27 nations in Africa contain coal-bearing rock. South Africa accounts for 96 percent of Africa's total proven recoverable coal reserves, ranking it sixth in the world. This report is a digital compilation of information on Africa's coal-bearing geology found in the literature and is intended to be used in small scale spatial investigations in a Geographic Information System (GIS) and as a visual aid for the discussion of Africa's coal resources. Many maps of African coal resources often include points for mine locations or regional scale polygons with generalized borders depicting basin edges. Point locations are detailed but provide no information regarding extent, and generalized polygons do not have sufficient detail. In this dataset, the polygons are representative of the actual coal-bearing lithology both in location and regional extent. Existing U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) digital geology datasets provide the majority of the base geologic polygons. Polygons for the coal-bearing localities were clipped from the base geology that represented the age and extent of the coal deposit as indicated in the literature. Where the 1:5,000,000-scale geology base layer's ages conflicted with those in the publications, polygons were generated directly from the regional African coal maps (1:500,000 scale, approximately) in the published material. In these cases, coal-bearing polygons were clipped to the literature's indicated coal

  3. Utilization of artificial recharged effluent as makeup water for industrial cooling system: corrosion and scaling.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liangliang; Qin, Kena; Zhao, Qingliang; Noguera, Daniel R; Xin, Ming; Liu, Chengcai; Keene, Natalie; Wang, Kun; Cui, Fuyi

    2016-01-01

    The secondary effluent from wastewater treatment plants was reused for industrial cooling water after pre-treatment with a laboratory-scale soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system. Up to a 95.3% removal efficiency for suspended solids (SS), 51.4% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 32.1% for Cl(-) and 30.0% SO4(2-) were observed for the recharged secondary effluent after the SAT operation, which is essential for controlling scaling and corrosion during the cooling process. As compared to the secondary effluent, the reuse of the 1.5 m depth SAT effluent decreased the corrosion by 75.0%, in addition to a 55.1% decline of the scales/biofouling formation (with a compacted structure). The experimental results can satisfy the Chinese criterion of Design Criterion of the Industrial Circulating Cooling Water Treatment (GB 50050-95), and was more efficient than tertiary effluent which coagulated with ferric chloride. In addition, chemical structure of the scales/biofouling obtained from the cooling system was analyzed.

  4. Industrial-scale application of the plunger flow electro-oxidation reactor in wastewater depth treatment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guolong; Yao, Jiachao; Pan, Weilong; Wang, Jiade

    2016-09-01

    Effluents after biochemical treatment contain pollutants that are mostly non-degradable. Based upon previous pilot-scale test results, an industrial-scale electro-oxidation device was built to decompose these refractory materials in the effluent from a park wastewater treatment plant. The electro-oxidation device comprised a ditch-shaped plunger flow electrolysis cell, with mesh-plate Ti/PbO2 electrodes as the anode and the same size mesh-plate Ti as the cathode. Wastewater flowed vertically through electrodes; the effective volume of the cell was 2.8 m(3), and the surface-to-volume ratio was 17.14 m(2) m(-3). The optimal current density was 100 A m(-2), and a suitable flow velocity was 14.0 m h(-1). The removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand and color in the effluent were over 60.0 and 84.0 %, respectively. In addition, the electro-oxidation system offered a good disinfection capability. The specific energy consumption for this industrial-scale device was 43.5 kWh kg COD(-1), with a current efficiency of 32.8 %, which was superior to the pilot-scale one. To meet the requirements for emission or reuse, the operation cost was $0.44 per ton of effluent at an average price for electricity of $0.11 kWh(-1).

  5. Minimizing Waste from the Oil Industry: Scale Treatment and Scrap Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, M.

    2002-02-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive material is technologically concentrated in the piping in systems in the oil and gas industry, especially in the offshore facilities. The activity, mainly Ra-226, in the scales in the systems are often at levels classified as low level radioactive waste (LSA) in the industry. When the components and pipes are descaled for maintenance or recycling purposes, usually by high-pressure water jetting, the LSA scales arising constitute a significant quantity of radioactive waste for disposal. A new process is under development for the treatment of scales, where the radioactive solids are separated from the inactive. This would result in a much smaller fraction to be deposited as radioactive waste. The radioactive part recovered from the scales will be reduced to a stable non-metallic salt and because the volume is significantly smaller then the original material, will minimize the cost for disposal. The pipes, that have been cleaned by high pressure water jetting can either be reused or free released by scrapping and melting for recycling.

  6. Advanced techniques for energy-efficient industrial-scale continuous chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    DeCarli, J.P. II ); Carta, G. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Byers, C.H. )

    1989-11-01

    Continuous annular chromatography (CAC) is a developing technology that allows truly continuous chromatographic separations. Previous work has demonstrated the utility of this technology for the separation of various materials by isocratic elution on a bench scale. Novel applications and improved operation of the process were studied in this work, demonstrating that CAC is a versatile apparatus which is capable of separations at high throughput. Three specific separation systems were investigated. Pilot-scale separations at high loadings were performed using an industrial sugar mixture as an example of scale-up for isocratic separations. Bench-scale experiments of a low concentration metal ion mixture were performed to demonstrate stepwise elution, a chromatographic technique which decreases dilution and increases sorbent capacity. Finally, the separation of mixtures of amino acids by ion exchange was investigated to demonstrate the use of displacement development on the CAC. This technique, which perhaps has the most potential, when applied to the CAC allowed simultaneous separation and concentration of multicomponent mixtures on a continuous basis. Mathematical models were developed to describe the CAC performance and optimize the operating conditions. For all the systems investigated, the continuous separation performance of the CAC was found to be very nearly the same as the batchwise performance of conventional chromatography. the technology appears, thus, to be very promising for industrial applications. 43 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. The Clean Coal Technology Program: Lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is a unique partnership between the federal government and industry that has as its primary goal the successful introduction of new clean coal utilization technologies into the energy marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program are establishing a technology base that will enable the nation to meet more stringent energy and environmental goals. Most of the, demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under circumstances typical of commercial operations. These features allow the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. Each application addresses one of the following four market sectors: advanced electric power generation; environmental control devices; coal processing for clean fuels; and industrial applications. The purpose of this report is fourfold: Explain the CCT program as a model for successful joint government industry partnership for selecting and demonstrating technologies that have promise for adaptation to the energy marketplace; set forth the process by which the process has been implemented and the changes that have been made to improve that process; outline efforts employed to inform potential users and other interested parties about the technologies being developed; and examine some of the questions which must be considered in determining if the CCT Program model can be applied to other programs.

  8. Industrial boiler combustion modification Nox controls. Volume II: stoker-coal-fired boiler field test - Site A. Final report Jul 78-Jul 79

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, P.M.; Higginbotham, E.B.

    1981-07-01

    The report gives methods and results of an environmental assessment test program at an industrial site. The aim of the program was to measure multimedia emissions changes as a result of applying NOx controls. Emissions of trace elements, organic materials, sulfur species, SO/sub 2/, NOx, CO, and particulate matter were measured. These emissions, under normal and controlled (for NOx) operating conditions, were compared. Source operating data were also analyzed so that changes in operating parameters and efficiency could be assessed. This unit is a spreader-stoker coal-fired boiler rated at 38 kg/s (300,000 lb/hr) of steam. The fuel tested was low-sulfur coal. High overfire air firing (constant overall air flow) was used for NOx control. These measures reduced NOx by about 10% from baseline. Increased overfire air levels also improved boiler efficiency. These tests lasted about 5 hours; long-term operation under test conditions was not addressed in this program. Test results suggest that applying combustion modification NOx controls increased particulate and organic emissions.

  9. An analysis of markets for small-scale, advanced coal-combustion technology in Spain, Italy, and Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Placet, M.; Gerry, P.A.; Kenski, D.M.; Kern, D.M.; Nehring, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.

    1989-09-01

    This report discusses the examination of potential overseas markets for using small-scale, US-developed, advanced coal-combustion technologies (ACTs). In previous work, member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) were rated on their potential for using ACTs through a comprehensive screening methodology. The three most promising OECD markets were found to be Spain, Italy, and Turkey. This report provides in-depth analyses of these three selected countries. First, it addresses changes in the European Community with particular reference to the 1992 restructuring and its potential effect on the energy situation in Europe, specifically in the three subject countries. It presents individual country studies that examine demographics, economics, building infrastructures, and energy-related factors. Potential niches for ACTs are explored for each country through regional analyses. Marketing channels, strategies, and the trading environments in each country are also discussed. The information gathered indicates that Turkey is a most promising market, Spain is a fairly promising market, and Italy appears to be a somewhat limited market for US ACTs. 76 refs., 16 figs., 14 tabs.

  10. Experimental investigation of mobile small-scale liquefier for 10000 NM3/D of coal bed methane gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhaohu; Wu, J. F.; Gong, Maoqiong; Guo, Ping

    2012-06-01

    There is a growing recognition that unconventional sources of gas, such as shale gas, coal bed methane (CBM) and deep tight gas will contribute a significant component of future gas supplies as technologies evolve. In recent years, the interest in such source of gas utilization technologies based on small-scale LNG production has been rising steeply. In this paper, a mobile liquefier prototype for 10000 Nm3/d of CBM has been designed, constructed and tested. It has two cascade refrigeration systems. The high-temperature refrigeration system will pre-cool the resource gas to 5oC, and the low-temperature refrigeration system will continue to cool the resource gas to the liquefied point with a Mixed Refrigerant Cycle (MRC). The kernel compressor is a conventional oil-lubricated air-conditioning compressor with the discharge pressure of 2.0 MPa. The main heat exchanger is plate-fin heat exchanger with four passages. A series of experiments have been done on the prototype liquefier at different resource gas pressures and environmental temperatures. It is less than one hour from the start of the equipment to the existence of LNG. The maximum production of LNG is about 20 m3/d when a stream of about 12500 Nm3/d of pure CBM at a process pressure of 1.3 MPa is liquefied. The energy consumption of liquefying 1 Nm3 methane is 0.612 kWh.

  11. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems, Phase 3. Technical progress report, October 1990--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  12. Do we have to consider temperature-dependent material properties in large-scale environmental impact assessments of underground coal gasification?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Christopher; Kempka, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) can increase the world-wide coal reserves by utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. The UCG process involves combusting coal in situ to produce a high-calorific synthesis gas which can be applied for electricity generation or chemical feedstock production. Apart from its high economic potentials, UCG may induce environmental impacts such as ground subsidence associated with groundwater pollution due to generation of hydraulic connectivities between the UCG reactor and adjacent aquifers. These changes overburden conductivity may introduce potential migration pathways for UCG contaminants such as organic (phenols, benzene, PAHs and heterocyclics) and inorganic (ammonia, sulphates, cyanides, and heavy metals) pollutants. Mitigation of potential environmental UCG impacts can be achieved by improving the understanding of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in the rocks surrounding the UCG reactor. In the present study, a coupled thermo-mechanical model has been developed to carry out a parameter sensitivity analysis and assess permeability changes derived from volumetric strain increments in the UCG reactor overburden. Our simulation results demonstrate that thermo-mechanical rock behavior is mainly influenced by the thermal expansion coefficient, tensile strength and elastic modulus of the surrounding rock. A comparison of temperature-dependent and temperature-independent simulation results indicates high variations in the distribution of total displacements in the UCG reactor vicinity related to thermal stress, but only negligible differences in permeability changes. Hence, temperature-dependent thermo-mechanical parameters have to be considered in the assessment of near-field UCG impacts, while far-field models can achieve a higher computational efficiency by using temperature-independent thermo-mechanical parameters. Considering the findings of the present study in the large-scale assessment of

  13. Mercury speciation and emissions from coal combustion in Guiyang, southwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, S.L.; Feng, X.B.; Qiu, H.R.; Yin, G.X.; Yang, Z.C.

    2007-10-15

    Although China has been regarded as one of the largest anthropogenic mercury emission source with coal combustion, so far the actual measurements of Hg species and Hg emissions from the combustion and the capture of Hg in Chinese emission control devices were very limited. Aiming at Hg mercury species measurements in Guiyang, the capital city of Guizhou province in Southwest China, we studied flue gases of medium-to-small-sized industrial steam coal-firing boiler (10-30 t/h) with no control devices, medium-to-small-sized industrial steam coal-firing boiler with WFGD and large-scale coal combustion with ESPs using Ontario Hytro method. We obtained mercury emission factors of the three representative coal combustion and estimated mercury emissions in Guiyang in 2003, as well as the whole province from 1986 to 2002. Coal combustion in Guiyang emitted 1898 kg mercury to the atmosphere, of which 36% Hg is released from power plants, 41% from industrial coal combustion, and 23% from domestic users, and 267 kg is Hg{sup P}, 813 kg is Hg{sup 2+} and 817 kg is Hg{sup 0}. Mercury emission in Guizhou province increased sharply from 5.8 t in 1986 to 16.4 t in 2002. With the implementation of national economic strategy of China's Western Development, the annual mercury emission from coal combustion in the province is estimated to be about 32 t in 2015.

  14. Mercury speciation and emissions from coal combustion in Guiyang, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shunlin; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Jianrong; Yin, Guoxun; Yang, Zaichan

    2007-10-01

    Although China has been regarded as one of the largest anthropogenic mercury emission source with coal combustion, so far the actual measurements of Hg species and Hg emissions from the combustion and the capture of Hg in Chinese emission control devices were very limited. Aiming at Hg mercury species measurements in Guiyang, the capital city of Guizhou province in Southwest China, we studied flue gases of medium-to-small-sized industrial steam coal-firing boiler (10-30 t/h) with no control devices, medium-to-small-sized industrial steam coal-firing boiler with WFGD and large-scale coal combustion with ESPs using Ontario Hytro method. We obtained mercury emission factors of the three representative coal combustion and estimated mercury emissions in Guiyang in 2003, as well as the whole province from 1986 to 2002. Coal combustion in Guiyang emitted 1898 kg mercury to the atmosphere, of which 36% Hg is released from power plants, 41% from industrial coal combustion, and 23% from domestic users, and 267 kg is Hg(p), 813 kg is Hg(2+) and 817 kg is Hg0. Mercury emission in Guizhou province increased sharply from 5.8 t in 1986 to 16.4 t in 2002. With the implementation of national economic strategy of China's Western Development, the annual mercury emission from coal combustion in the province is estimated to be about 32 t in 2015.

  15. Technological Change and Its Labor Impact in Five Energy Industries. Coal Mining/Oil and Gas Extraction/Petroleum Refining/Petroleum Pipeline Transportation/Electric and Gas Utilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin appraises major technological changes emerging in five American industries (coal mining, oil and gas extraction, petroleum refining, petroleum pipeline transportation, and electric and gas utilities) and discusses the impact of these changes on productivity and occupations over the next five to ten years. Its separate reports on each…

  16. Technological Change and Its Labor Impact in Five Energy Industries. Coal Mining/Oil and Gas Extraction/Petroleum Refining/Petroleum Pipeline Transportation/Electric and Gas Utilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This bulletin appraises major technological changes emerging in five American industries (coal mining, oil and gas extraction, petroleum refining, petroleum pipeline transportation, and electric and gas utilities) and discusses the impact of these changes on productivity and occupations over the next five to ten years. Its separate reports on each…

  17. Nitrogen removal and microbial community shift in an aerobic denitrification reactor bioaugmented with a Pseudomonas strain for coal-based ethylene glycol industry wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Du, Cong; Cui, Chong-Wei; Qiu, Shan; Shi, Sheng-Nan; Li, Ang; Ma, Fang

    2017-04-01

    An aerobic denitrification system, initially bioaugmented with Pseudomonas strain T13, was established to treat coal-based ethylene glycol industry wastewater, which contained 3219 ± 86 mg/L total nitrogen (TN) and 1978 ± 14 mg/L NO3(-)-N. In the current study, a stable denitrification efficiency of 53.7 ± 4.7% and nitrite removal efficiency of 40.1 ± 2.7% were achieved at different diluted influent concentrations. Toxicity evaluation showed that a lower toxicity of effluent was achieved when industry wastewater was treated by stuffing biofilm communities compared to suspended communities. Relatively high TN removal (~50%) and chemical oxygen demand removal percentages (>65%) were obtained when the influent concentration was controlled at below 50% of the raw industry wastewater. However, a further increased concentration led to a 20-30% decrease in nitrate and nitrite removal. Microbial network evaluation showed that a reduction in Pseudomonas abundance was induced during the succession of the microbial community. The napA gene analysis indicated that the decrease in nitrate and nitrite removal happened when abundance of Pseudomonas was reduced to less than 10% of the overall stuffing biofilm communities. Meanwhile, other denitrifying bacteria, such as Paracoccus, Brevundimonas, and Brucella, were subsequently enriched through symbiosis in the whole microbial network.

  18. Quality by design: scale-up of freeze-drying cycles in pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Roberto; Fissore, Davide; Barresi, Antonello A; Rastelli, Massimo

    2013-09-01

    This paper shows the application of mathematical modeling to scale-up a cycle developed with lab-scale equipment on two different production units. The above method is based on a simplified model of the process parameterized with experimentally determined heat and mass transfer coefficients. In this study, the overall heat transfer coefficient between product and shelf was determined by using the gravimetric procedure, while the dried product resistance to vapor flow was determined through the pressure rise test technique. Once model parameters were determined, the freeze-drying cycle of a parenteral product was developed via dynamic design space for a lab-scale unit. Then, mathematical modeling was used to scale-up the above cycle in the production equipment. In this way, appropriate values were determined for processing conditions, which allow the replication, in the industrial unit, of the product dynamics observed in the small scale freeze-dryer. This study also showed how inter-vial variability, as well as model parameter uncertainty, can be taken into account during scale-up calculations.

  19. Probing Rubber Cross-Linking Generation of Industrial Polymer Networks at Nanometer Scale.

    PubMed

    Gabrielle, Brice; Gomez, Emmanuel; Korb, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-23

    We present improved analyses of rheometric torque measurements as well as (1)H double-quantum (DQ) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) buildup data on polymer networks of industrial compounds. This latter DQ NMR analysis allows finding the distribution of an orientation order parameter (Dres) resulting from the noncomplete averaging of proton dipole-dipole couplings within the cross-linked polymer chains. We investigate the influence of the formulation (filler and vulcanization systems) as well as the process (curing temperature) ending to the final polymer network. We show that DQ NMR follows the generation of the polymer network during the vulcanization process from a heterogeneous network to a very homogeneous one. The time variations of microscopic Dres and macroscopic rheometric torques present power-law behaviors above a threshold time scale with characteristic exponents of the percolation theory. We observe also a very good linear correlation between the kinetics of Dres and rheometric data routinely performed in industry. All these observations confirm the description of the polymer network generation as a critical phenomenon. On the basis of all these results, we believe that DQ NMR could become a valuable tool for investigating in situ the cross-linking of industrial polymer networks at the nanometer scale.

  20. Noise-induced hearing loss in small-scale metal industry in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, J D; Robinson, T; Acharya, A; Singh, D; Smith, M

    2014-10-01

    There has been no previous research to demonstrate the risk of noise-induced hearing loss in industry in Nepal. Limited research on occupational noise-induced hearing loss has been conducted within small-scale industry worldwide, despite it being a substantial and growing cause of deafness in the developing world. The study involved a cross-sectional audiometric assessment, with questionnaire-based examinations of noise and occupational history, and workplace noise level assessment. A total of 115 metal workers and 123 hotel workers (control subjects) were recruited. Noise-induced hearing loss prevalence was 30.4 per cent in metal workers and 4.1 per cent in hotel workers, with a significant odds ratio of 10.3. Except for age and time in occupation, none of the demographic factors were significant in predicting outcomes in regression analyses. When adjusted for this finding, and previous noise-exposed occupations, the odds ratio was 13.8. Workplace noise was significantly different between the groups, ranging from 65.3 to 84.7 dBA in metal worker sites, and from 51.4 to 68.6 dBA in the control sites. Metal workers appear to have a greater risk of noise-induced hearing loss than controls. Additional research on occupational noise-induced hearing loss in Nepal and small-scale industry globally is needed.

  1. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning. Second quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.-H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.

    1996-08-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process which is capable of removing mineral matter from coal without using water. A distinct advantage of this dry coal cleaning process is that it does not entail costly steps of dewatering which is a common problem associated with conventional fine coal cleaning processes. It is the objective of this project to conduct a series of proof-of-concept (POC) scale tests at a throughput of 200--250 kg/hr and obtain scale- up information. Prior to the POC testing, bench-scale test work will be conducted with the objective of increasing the separation efficiency and throughput, for which changes in the basic designs for the charger and the separator may be necessary. The bench- and POC- scale test work will be carried out to evaluate various operating parameters and establish a reliable scale-up procedure. The scale-up data will be used to analyze the economic merits of the TES process. All required documents associated with project planning were completed and submitted to DOE for approval during the second quarter of this project. Approval of the project work plan is still pending at this time subject to additional review by DOE of requested modifications to the statement of work. Accomplishments during this reporting period include the set-up of an apparatus for assessing tribocharger performance, continued construction of the bench-scale (1 kg/hr) triboelectrostatic separator and initial development of a fundamental model for predicting the motion of charged particles in a non-uniform electrostatic field.

  2. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH4/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH4: 81.23% and CO2: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  3. Use of a moss biomonitoring method to compile emission inventories for small-scale industries.

    PubMed

    Varela, Z; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Real, C; Fernández, J A

    2014-06-30

    We used a method of detecting small-scale pollution sources (DSSP) that involves measurement of the concentrations of elements in moss tissues, with the following aims: (i) to determine any common qualitative patterns of contaminant emissions for individual industrial sectors, (ii) to compare any such patterns with previously described patterns, and (iii) to compile an inventory of the metals and metalloids emitted by the industries considered. Cluster analysis revealed that there were no common patterns of emission associated with the industrial sectors, probably because of differences in production processes and in the types of fuel and raw materials. However, when these variables were shared by different factories, the concentrations of the elements in moss tissues enabled the factories to be grouped according to their emissions. We compiled a list of the metals and metalloids emitted by the factories under study and found that the DSSP method was satisfactory for this purpose in most cases (53 of 56). The method appears to be a useful tool for compiling contaminant inventories; it may also be useful for determining the efficacy of technical improvements aimed at reducing the industrial emission of contaminants and could be incorporated in environmental monitoring and control programmes.

  4. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-29

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH{sub 4}/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH{sub 4}: 81.23% and CO{sub 2}: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  5. Create a Consortium and Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Rusinko; John Andresen; Jennifer E. Hill; Harold H. Schobert; Bruce G. Miller

    2006-01-01

    The objective of these projects was to investigate alternative technologies for non-fuel uses of coal. Special emphasis was placed on developing premium carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. A total of 14 projects, which are the 2003 Research Projects, are reported herein. These projects were categorized into three overall objectives. They are: (1) To explore new applications for the use of anthracite in order to improve its marketability; (2) To effectively minimize environmental damage caused by mercury emissions, CO{sub 2} emissions, and coal impounds; and (3) To continue to increase our understanding of coal properties and establish coal usage in non-fuel industries. Research was completed in laboratories throughout the United States. Most research was performed on a bench-scale level with the intent of scaling up if preliminary tests proved successful. These projects resulted in many potential applications for coal-derived feedstocks. These include: (1) Use of anthracite as a sorbent to capture CO{sub 2} emissions; (2) Use of anthracite-based carbon as a catalyst; (3) Use of processed anthracite in carbon electrodes and carbon black; (4) Use of raw coal refuse for producing activated carbon; (5) Reusable PACs to recycle captured mercury; (6) Use of combustion and gasification chars to capture mercury from coal-fired power plants; (7) Development of a synthetic coal tar enamel; (8) Use of alternative binder pitches in aluminum anodes; (9) Use of Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore (SECO) to fuel a carbon fuel cell; (10) Production of a low cost coal-derived turbostratic carbon powder for structural applications; (11) Production of high-value carbon fibers and foams via the co-processing of a low-cost coal extract pitch with well-dispersed carbon nanotubes; (12) Use of carbon from fly ash as metallurgical carbon; (13) Production of bulk carbon fiber for concrete reinforcement; and (14) Characterizing coal solvent extraction processes. Although some of the

  6. Electrostatic beneficiation of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, M.K.; Tennal, K.B.; Lindquist, D.

    1994-10-01

    Dry physical beneficiation of coal has many advantages over wet cleaning methods and post combustion flue gas cleanup processes. The dry beneficiation process is economically competitive and environmentally safe and has the potential of making vast amounts of US coal reserves available for energy generation. While the potential of the electrostatic beneficiation has been studied for many years in laboratories and in pilot plants, a successful full scale electrostatic coal cleaning plant has not been commercially realized yet. In this paper the authors review some of the technical problems that are encountered in this method and suggest possible solutions that may lead toward its full utilization in cleaning coal.

  7. Tri-State Synfuels Project Commercial Scale Coal Test: Volume 3A. Gasification test at Sasolburg, overview. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; Sasolburg test of Illinois Basin coals in Lurgi Mark IV

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The SASOL test was conducted in order to confirm the operability of the Lurgi process with Western Kentucky coal and determine the preliminary design basis for the Tri-State Synfuels Project. The test plan was structured to optimize design parameters of both the gasification and associated plants and their component units by: demonstrating the need for additional gasifiers over the 36 estimated in the feasibility study; determining the steam requirement, which was about 6% higher than for the feasibility study; confirming the oxygen requirement estimated for the feasibility study; confirming design and performance of the distributor/stirrer to be satisfactory for Illinois Basin type coal; confirming that moderately swelling and strongly caking Illinois Basin coals can be gasified in a Mark IV gasifier fitted with a distributor/stirrer when using a non-caking coal for start-up; determining coal handling and preparation should provide a proper size and minimize fines generation and reject rock material to provide a constant specific gravity coal to gasifier. Confirming that dusty tar injection is feasible up to certain limits and that all the tar injected is gasified; determining that no oil is produced directly from the gasifier; determining that no shift unit is required to adjust the hydrogen-to-carbon monoxide ratio to that required for the input to the Fischer-Tropsch Synthol Units; determining a required increase in frequency of monitoring and quality control measures; and determining that direct use of stripped gas liquor for plant cooling purposes is not practical nor economical due to the excessively high chloride levels.

  8. Coal distribution, January--June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-17

    The Coal Distribution report provides information on coal production, distribution, and stocks in the United States to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents information for January through June 1990. Coal distribution data are shown (in tables 1--34) by coal-producing state of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and state of destination. 6 figs., 34 tabs.

  9. Vertical profile, source apportionment, and toxicity of PAHs in sediment cores of a wharf near the coal-based steel refining industrial zone in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Ju, Yun-Ru; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2016-03-01

    Three sediment cores were collected from a wharf near a coal-based steel refining industrial zone in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Analyses for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the US Environmental Protection Agency priority list in the core sediment samples were conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The vertical profiles of PAHs in the core sediments were assessed, possible sources and apportionment were identified, and the toxicity risk of the core sediments was determined. The results from the sediment analyses showed that total concentrations of the 16 PAHs varied from 11774 ± 4244 to 16755 ± 4593 ng/g dry weight (dw). Generally, the vertical profiles of the PAHs in the sediment cores exhibited a decreasing trend from the top to the lower levels of the S1 core and an increasing trend of PAHs from the top to the lower levels of the S2 and S3 cores. Among the core sediment samples, the five- and six-ring PAHs were predominantly in the S1 core, ranging from 42 to 54 %, whereas the composition of the PAHs in the S2 and S3 cores were distributed equally across three groups: two- and three-ring, four-ring, and five- and six-ring PAHs. The results indicated that PAH contamination at the site of the S1 core had a different source. The molecular indices and principal component analyses with multivariate linear regression were used to determine the source contributions, with the results showing that the contributions of coal, oil-related, and vehicle sources were 38.6, 35.9, and 25.5 %, respectively. A PAH toxicity assessment using the mean effect range-median quotient (m-ERM-q, 0.59-0.79), benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalent (TEQ(carc), 1466-1954 ng TEQ/g dw), and dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ(fish), 3036-4174 pg TEQ/g dw) identified the wharf as the most affected area. The results can be used for regular monitoring, and future pollution prevention and management should target the coal-based industries in this region for pollution reduction.

  10. Enabling factors toward production of nanostructured steel on an industrial scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branagan, D. J.

    2005-02-01

    Utilizing the existing properties of steel, a modern technological society has been constructed. While there are over 25,000 worldwide equivalent steels based on manipulating the eutectoid transformation, there exist only a handful of commercial nanostructured steel alloys based on manipulating the more complex glass devitrification transformation. Thus, research on nanostructured steels is in its infancy, and many further developments are expected with the demonstrated promise of developing new combinations of superior properties. In this article, seven enabling metallurgical factors are presented that ultimately allow a variety of nanostructured steel products to be produced in an ever-increasing array of industrial processing techniques. Additionally, a case example of the formation of nanostructured steel are given showing how these factors can be harnessed on an industrial scale.

  11. Mulled Coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy and private industry, considerable progress has been made in: preparation of coal-water fuels; combustion of low-ash coal-based fuel forms; and in processes to provide deeply-cleaned coal. Since the inception of the project, we have: developed formulations for stabilizing wet filter cake into a granular free flowing material (Mulled Coal); applied the formulation to wet cake from a variety of coal sources ranging from anthracite to subbituminous coal; evaluated effects of moisture loss on mull properties; and developed design concepts for equipment for preparing the Mulled Coal and converting it into Coal Water Fuel.

  12. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    R.-H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; G.T. Adel; A.D. Walters

    1999-07-01

    The Proof-of-Concept (POC) triboelectrostatic separator (TES) has now been successfully installed at the Virginia Tech pilot-plant. As a result, most of the personnel assigned to this project during the past quarter have been performing work elements associated with the installation and shakedown testing of the electrostatic separator, tribocharger system, product conveying systems and nitrogen purge system (Tasks 4, 5.1 and 5.2). A representative from Carpco also carried out training in the operating features of the unit during the past month. Most of the shakedown test work has now been successfully completed. However, several minor operational problems associated with the pilot-scale equipment are currently in the process of being resolved.

  13. Trends in size of tropical deforestation events signal increasing dominance of industrial-scale drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Kemen G.; González-Roglich, Mariano; Schaffer-Smith, Danica; Schwantes, Amanda M.; Swenson, Jennifer J.

    2017-05-01

    Deforestation continues across the tropics at alarming rates, with repercussions for ecosystem processes, carbon storage and long term sustainability. Taking advantage of recent fine-scale measurement of deforestation, this analysis aims to improve our understanding of the scale of deforestation drivers in the tropics. We examined trends in forest clearings of different sizes from 2000-2012 by country, region and development level. As tropical deforestation increased from approximately 6900 kha yr-1 in the first half of the study period, to >7900 kha yr-1 in the second half of the study period, >50% of this increase was attributable to the proliferation of medium and large clearings (>10 ha). This trend was most pronounced in Southeast Asia and in South America. Outside of Brazil >60% of the observed increase in deforestation in South America was due to an upsurge in medium- and large-scale clearings; Brazil had a divergent trend of decreasing deforestation, >90% of which was attributable to a reduction in medium and large clearings. The emerging prominence of large-scale drivers of forest loss in many regions and countries suggests the growing need for policy interventions which target industrial-scale agricultural commodity producers. The experience in Brazil suggests that there are promising policy solutions to mitigate large-scale deforestation, but that these policy initiatives do not adequately address small-scale drivers. By providing up-to-date and spatially explicit information on the scale of deforestation, and the trends in these patterns over time, this study contributes valuable information for monitoring, and designing effective interventions to address deforestation.

  14. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  15. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities: Phase 1 final report. Volume 1: Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Pisupati, S.V.

    1997-01-31

    The first phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities has been completed. The objectives of the project are to: decrease DOD`s dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase 1 activities were focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water mixtures (MCWMs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. The specific objective in Phase 1 was to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWM or DMC. This was achieved through a project consisting of fundamental, pilot-sale, and demonstration-scale activities investigating coal beneficiation and preparation, and MCWM and DMC combustion performance. In addition, detailed engineering designs and an economic analysis were conducted for a boiler located at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, near Crane, Indiana. Results are reported on MCWM and DMC combustion performance evaluation; engineering design; and cost/economic analysis.

  16. Zero Emission Coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziock, H.; Guthrie, G. D.; Lackner, K. S.; Harrison, D. P.; Johnson, A. A.

    2002-05-01

    Unless the economic development of the majority of the world's population is prohibited, thereby forcing thereby forcing them to remain in poverty, world energy consumption and therefore carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emission rates could easily increase by an order of magnitude during this century. Given that we have already increased global atmospheric concentrations by 30% compared to their pre-industrial age level, without massive intervention, we will completely overwhelm Nature's ability to cope. In order to stabilize atmospheric CO2 levels, while allowing desired world economic development, the future allowable US per capita CO2 emissions are only 3 % of today's value. This is effectively zero, and thus what is required is the development of technologies that aim for emission of zero CO2 as well as other pollutants. If we continue to rely on our lowest cost, readily available, and dominant energy source, this will involve both a separation of the energy from the fossil fuel carbon followed by a permanent disposal of the CO2. To set the scale, today's yearly global emissions are approaching 25 cubic kilometers of CO2 at liquid densities, and these could grow by an order of magnitude by the end of the century. We describe a zero emission coal technology that would be able to deal with both the scope of the problem and the emission goal. The energy production process is a chemical conversion of coal to electricity or hydrogen, which involves no combustion and thus no smoke stack. The process provides a pure stream of CO2 for disposal while simultaneously achieving fuel to electricity conversion efficiencies that are two times better than today's value. This high efficiency by itself extends cuts pollutant production by a factor of two while also extending the lifetime of our fossil fuel reserves by a factor of two to many hundreds of years. By concentrating on coal, we also lay the groundwork for energy security and complete independence for the US, given the

  17. Large scale solubilization of coal and bioconversion to utilizable energy. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, N.C.

    1995-12-31

    The ability of Neurospora to solubilize and bioconvert coal was investigated. The coal solubilizing activity (CSA) was fractionated to isolate the enzyme responsible for this activity. The enzyme was purified in order to obtain the amino acid sequence. From that sequence potential oligonucleotide probes were synthesized and used to screen genomic library of Neurospora. The gene so identified was isolated. CSA appears to be an phenol oxidase or is tyrosinase.

  18. Fully three dimensional numerical analysis of industrial scale silicon Czochralski growth with a transverse magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, R.; Nakamura, T.; Fujiwara, T.; Hamaogi, K.; Takatani, K.

    2017-06-01

    Fully three dimensional (3D) numerical simulation model of the heat and mass transfer in the silicon (Si) Czochralski growth with a transverse magnetic field (MCZ) was developed. Time transient calculation of heat and mass transfer in the industrial scale crystal growth of 300 mm diameter was performed under the quasi steady state assumption. The model predicts the completely asymmetrically 3D melt flow and off-centered temperature distributions, different from the previous works. The temperature distribution measured experimentally by thermocouples, beneath the melt surface along the azimuthal direction, was almost the same as the model prediction, providing a strong support for the 3D simulation model.

  19. Tri-State Synfuels Project Commercial Scale Coal Test: Volume 2B. Collection and shipment analytical testwork. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; West Kentucky No. 9 seam coal characterization and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This report covers the detailed analytical testwork conducted for control purposes during the collection and shipment phase as well as the results obtained by Lurgi and other parties on the composite barge sample. These tests were conducted to ensure quality control at every step during the shipment, obtain fines generation data during rehandling and establish a chemical and physical characterization of the coal for testing and design purposes. Lurgi concluded from the laboratory results that the Camp 1 coal is suitable feedstock for the Lurgi pressure gasification process. This confirms their early statements during the selection phase as reported in Volume 1. Lurgi reported that the ash melting characteristics under oxidizing conditions indicated a short ash which means that the steam/oxygen ratio will have to be controlled carefully. The chlorine content is significantly higher than most coals and the gasifier, but not the downstream equipment, must be fited with protective cladding. The Kentucky Department of Energy coal shipment examination report provides a confirmation of the ASTM standard data; in addition, analyses for macerals, microlithotypes, reflectances and anisotropy are given. The crushed, run-of-mine, oversize material which required more operating attention at Sasolburg was investigated as to source and characteristics. Specimens collected at Sasolburg and from the Kentucky stockpile were examined as reported in Section 7.2.

  20. Bench-scale demonstration of biological production of ethanol from coal synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Culture isolation and selection studies are being performed in order to select the best biological system for bench-scale studies in producing ethanol from syngas components. Three isolates have been found which produce more than 2 g/L ethanol from CO and C0[sub 2]/H[sub 2] in batch culture. These low concentrations are actually quite promising since Clostridium ljungdahlii, strain PETC, performs well in continuous culture but produces only small concentrations of ethanol in batch culture after several weeks of incubation. Two of the isolates have been utilized in the CSTR, where 90 percent CO conversions have been noted, while producing up to 2 g/L ethanol, in preliminary studies. CSTR studies will continue until steady state is reached. An anaerobic bacterium has been isolated from natural sources that converts the components of synthesis gas (CO, H[sub 2],C0[sub 2]) into ethanol. This organism, the only one known at that time to produce ethanol from synthesis gas, has been identified as a new clostridial strain and has been named Clostridium ljungdahlii, strain PETC.