Science.gov

Sample records for industrial sector energy

  1. Energy productivity in the industrial sector: an econometric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Energy productivity and energy intensity within the industrial sector of the economy are examined. Results suggest that relative prices and other economic factors can explain much of the variation in both energy productivity and energy intensity for manufacturing and mining and for the industrial sector as a whole. Cyclical factors, seasonal factors and trend variables are also useful in explaining variation in these data, both for annual and monthly time series. Of the variables examined, it appears that the relative price of energy is a highly significant factor in accounting for the difference between actual industrial energy intensity and that which might have been expected had pre-1973 trends continued.

  2. United States Industrial Sector Energy End Use Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shehabi, Arman; Morrow, William R.; Masanet, Eric

    2012-05-11

    The United States Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) conducts the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) to provide detailed data on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector. The survey is a sample of approximately 15,000 manufacturing establishments selected from the Economic Census - Manufacturing Sector. MECS provides statistics on the consumption of energy by end uses (e.g., boilers, process, electric drives, etc.) disaggregated by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) categories. The manufacturing sector (NAICS Sector 31-33) consists of all manufacturing establishments in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. According to the NAICS, the manufacturing sector comprises establishments engaged in the mechanical, physical, or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products. The establishments are physical facilities such as plants, factories, or mills. For many of the sectors in the MECS datasets, information is missing because the reported energy use is less than 0.5 units or BTUs, or is withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual establishments, or is withheld because the standard error is greater than 50%. We infer what the missing information likely are using several approximations techniques. First, much of the missing data can be easily calculated by adding or subtracting other values reported by MECS. If this is not possible (e.g. two data are missing), we look at historic MECS reports to help identify the breakdown of energy use in the past and assume it remained the same for the current MECS. Lastly, if historic data is also missing, we assume that 3 digit NAICS classifications predict energy use in their 4, 5, or 6 digit NAICS sub-classifications, or vice versa. Along with addressing data gaps, end use energy is disaggregated beyond the specified MECS allocations using additional industry specific energy consumption data. The result is a

  3. Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM) Framework Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2012-12-12

    The goal of this study is to develop a new bottom-up industry sector energy-modeling framework with an agenda of addressing least cost regional and global carbon reduction strategies, improving the capabilities and limitations of the existing models that allows trading across regions and countries as an alternative.

  4. Energy efficiency programs and policies in the industrial sector in industrialized countries

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst

    2004-06-01

    About 37% of the primary energy consumed both in the U.S. and globally is used by the industrial sector. A variety of energy efficiency policies and programs have been implemented throughout the world in an effort to improve the energy efficiency of this sector. This report provides an overview of these policies and programs in twelve industrialized nations and the European Union (EU). We focus on energy efficiency products and services that are available to industrial consumers, such as reports, guidebooks, case studies, fact sheets, profiles, tools, demonstrations, roadmaps and benchmarking. We also focus on the mechanisms to communicate the availability and features of these products and services and to disseminate them to the industrial consumers who can use them. Communication channels include customer information centers and websites, conferences and trade shows, workshops and other training mechanisms, financial assistance programs, negotiated agreements, newsletters, publicity, assessments, tax and subsidy schemes and working groups. In total, over 30 types of industrial sector energy efficiency products, services and delivery channels have been identified in the countries studied. Overall, we found that the United States has a large variety of programs and offers industry a number of supporting programs for improving industrial energy efficiency. However, there are some products and services found in other industrialized countries that are not currently used in the U.S., including benchmarking programs, demonstration of commercialized technologies and provision of energy awareness promotion materials to companies. Delivery mechanisms found in other industrialized countries that are not employed in the U.S. include negotiated agreements, public disclosure and national-level tax abatement for energy-efficient technologies.

  5. Energy use and CO2 emissions of China’s industrial sector from a global perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Sheng; Kyle, G. Page; Yu, Sha; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Luckow, Patrick W.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Zhang, Xiliang; Edmonds, James A.

    2013-07-10

    The industrial sector has accounted for more than 50% of China’s final energy consumption in the past 30 years. Understanding the future emissions and emissions mitigation opportunities depends on proper characterization of the present-day industrial energy use, as well as industrial demand drivers and technological opportunities in the future. Traditionally, however, integrated assessment research has handled the industrial sector of China in a highly aggregate form. In this study, we develop a technologically detailed, service-oriented representation of 11 industrial subsectors in China, and analyze a suite of scenarios of future industrial demand growth. We find that, due to anticipated saturation of China’s per-capita demands of basic industrial goods, industrial energy demand and CO2 emissions approach a plateau between 2030 and 2040, then decrease gradually. Still, without emissions mitigation policies, the industrial sector remains heavily reliant on coal, and therefore emissions-intensive. With carbon prices, we observe some degree of industrial sector electrification, deployment of CCS at large industrial point sources of CO2 emissions at low carbon prices, an increase in the share of CHP systems at industrial facilities. These technological responses amount to reductions of industrial emissions (including indirect emission from electricity) are of 24% in 2050 and 66% in 2095.

  6. Industrial Energy Efficiency: Designing Effective State Programs for the Industrial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Amelie Goldberg; Taylor, Robert P.; Hedman, Bruce

    2014-03-21

    This report provides state regulators, utilities, and other program administrators with an overview of U.S. industrial energy efficiency programs and assesses some of the key features of programs that have generated increased energy savings.

  7. Comparative analysis of energy data bases for the industrial and commercial sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Belzer, D.B.; Bohn, A.A.

    1986-12-01

    Energy data bases for the industrial and commercial sectors were analyzed to determine how valuable this data might be for policy analysis. The approach is the same for both end-use sectors: first a descrption or overview of relevant data bases identifies the available data; the coverage and methods used to generate the data are then explained; the data are then characterized and examples are provided for the major data sets under consideration. A final step assesses the data bases under consideration and draws conclusions. There are a variety of data bases considered for each of the end-use sectors included in this report. Data bases for the industrial sector include the National Energy Accounts, process-derived data bases such as the Drexel data base and data obtained from industry trade associations. For the commercial sector, three types of data bases are analyzed: the Nonresidential Building Energy Consumption Surveys, Dodge Construction Data and the Building Owners and Manager's Association Experience Exchange Report.

  8. Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects. The NEMS Industrial Demand Model is a dynamic accounting model, bringing together the disparate industries and uses of energy in those industries, and putting them together in an understandable and cohesive framework. The Industrial Model generates mid-term (up to the year 2015) forecasts of industrial sector energy demand as a component of the NEMS integrated forecasting system. From the NEMS system, the Industrial Model receives fuel prices, employment data, and the value of industrial output. Based on the values of these variables, the Industrial Model passes back to the NEMS system estimates of consumption by fuel types.

  9. Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.A.; Woodruff, M.G.; Ashton, W.B.

    1992-08-01

    The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model's parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed.

  10. Analysis of the industrial sector representation in the Fossil2 energy-economic model

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.A.; Woodruff, M.G.; Ashton, W.B.

    1992-08-01

    The Fossil2 energy-economic model is used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for a variety of energy and environmental policy analyses. A number of improvements to the model are under way or are being considered. This report was prepared by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a clearer understanding of the current industrial sector module of Fossil2 and to explore strategies for improving it. The report includes a detailed description of the structure and decision logic of the industrial sector module, along with results from several simulation exercises to demonstrate the behavior of the module in different policy scenarios and under different values of key model parameters. The cases were run with the Fossil2 model at PNL using the National Energy Strategy Actions Case of 1991 as the point of departure. The report also includes a discussion of suggested industrial sector module improvements. These improvements include changes in the way the current model is used; on- and off-line adjustments to some of the model`s parameters; and significant changes to include more detail on the industrial processes, technologies, and regions of the country being modeled. The potential benefits and costs of these changes are also discussed.

  11. World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for SelectedIndustrial Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Neelis, Maarten; Galitsky,Christina; Zhou, Nan

    2007-06-05

    "World best practice" energy intensity values, representingthe most energy-efficient processes that are in commercial use in atleast one location worldwide, are provided for the production of iron andsteel, aluminium, cement, pulp and paper, ammonia, and ethylene. Energyintensity is expressed in energy use per physical unit of output for eachof these commodities; most commonly these are expressed in metric tonnes(t). The energy intensity values are provided by major energy-consumingprocesses for each industrial sector to allow comparisons at the processlevel. Energy values are provided for final energy, defined as the energyused at the production facility as well as for primary energy, defined asthe energy used at the production facility as well as the energy used toproduce the electricity consumed at the facility. The "best practice"figures for energy consumption provided in this report should beconsidered as indicative, as these may depend strongly on the materialinputs.

  12. Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model (18-sector version)

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.H.; Thimmapuram, P.; Fisher, R.E.; Maciorowski, W.

    1993-05-01

    The new 18-sector Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model is designed for convenient study of future industrial energy consumption, taking into account the composition of production, energy prices, and certain kinds of policy initiatives. Electricity and aggregate fossil fuels are modeled. Changes in energy intensity in each sector are driven by autonomous technological improvement (price-independent trend), the opportunity for energy-price-sensitive improvements, energy price expectations, and investment behavior. Although this decision-making framework involves more variables than the simplest econometric models, it enables direct comparison of an econometric approach with conservation supply curves from detailed engineering analysis. It also permits explicit consideration of a variety of policy approaches other than price manipulation. The model is tested in terms of historical data for nine manufacturing sectors, and parameters are determined for forecasting purposes. Relatively uniform and satisfactory parameters are obtained from this analysis. In this report, LIEF is also applied to create base-case and demand-side management scenarios to briefly illustrate modeling procedures and outputs.

  13. Jordanian industrial sector future energy consumption: Potential savings and environmental impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallat, Yousef; Al-Ghandoor, Ahmed; Salaymah, Mohammad

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes and evaluates impacts of introducing some efficient measures on the future fuel and electricity demands and associated reduction in GHG emissions. Without employing most effective energy conservation measures, energy demand is expected to rise by approximately 38% within 12 years time. Consequently, associated GHG emissions resulting from activities within the industrial sector are predicted to rise by 33% for the same period. However, if recommended energy management measures are implemented on a gradual basis, electricity and fuel consumptions as well as GHG emissions are forecasted to increase at a lower rate.

  14. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-09-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. Market Report for the Industrial Sector, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Sastri, Bhima; Brueske, Sabine; de los Reyes, Pamela; Jamison, Keith; Justiniano, Mauricio; Margolis, Nancy; Monfort, Joe; Raghunathan, Anand; Sabouni, Ridah

    2009-07-01

    This report provides an overview of trends in industrial-sector energy use. It focuses on some of the largest and most energy-intensive industrial subsectors and several emerging technologies that could transform key segments of industry.

  16. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the U.S. Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, Colin; Boardman, Richard; McKellar, Michael; Sabharwall, Piyush; Ruth, Mark; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon

    2016-12-01

    This report quantifies greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the industrial sector and identifies opportunities for non-GHG-emitting thermal energy sources to replace the most significant GHG-emitting U.S. industries based on targeted, process-level analysis of industrial heat requirements. The intent is to provide a basis for projecting opportunities for clean energy use. This provides a prospectus for small modular nuclear reactors (including nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems), solar industrial process heat, and geothermal energy. This report provides a complement to analysis of process-efficiency improvement by considering how clean energy delivery and use by industry could reduce GHG emissions.

  17. Process heat in California: Applications and potential for solar energy in the industrial, agricultural and commercial sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Bartera, R. E.; Davis, E. S.; Hlavka, G. E.; Pivirotto, D. S.; Yanow, G.

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the results of a survey of potential applications of solar energy for supplying process heat requirements in the industrial, agricultural, and commercial sectors of California is presented. Technical, economic, and institutional characteristics of the three sectors are examined. Specific applications for solar energy are then discussed. Finally, implications for California energy policy are discussed along with recommendations for possible actions by the State of California.

  18. Industrial Control Systems/SCADA systems risk assessment in the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falodun, Babatunde

    The energy sector is one of the most critical components of our national infrastructure. It not only provides the electrical power and petroleum required to run day-to-day operations and mechanisms in society, it's also an important element that directly impacts the economy with regard to growth and stability. Industrial Control Systems (ICS) /Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA) are computerized mechanisms, they are both software and hardware that are used to control real time processes and operations in power plants and oil production facilities. A significant attack on these control systems that leads to widespread disruption of energy could result in catastrophic consequences for any major city and even the nation. This research paper explores cyber threats and vulnerabilities faced by ICS/SCADA systems in the energy sector and also highlights possible outcomes of a successful breach. Furthermore, the research underscores mitigation strategies that could be used to prevent and respond to an attack. Keywords: Cybersecurity, SCADA, Cyber Attacks, Threats, Vulnerabilities, Risk Assessment, Dr. Albert Orbinati.

  19. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the U.S. Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, Colin A.; Boardman, Richard; McKellar, Michael; Sabharwall, Piyush; Ruth, Mark; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon

    2016-11-01

    The industrial sector was the third-largest source of direct U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2014 behind electricity generation and transportation and accounted for roughly 20% of total emissions (EPA 2016). The Energy Information Administration (EIA) projects that total U.S. energy consumption will grow to about 108 exajoules (1 EJ = 1018 J) or 102 quads (1 quad = 1015 British thermal units) in 2025, with nearly all of the growth coming from the industrial sector (DOE 2015b). Energy consumption in the industrial sector is forecast to increase to 39.5 EJ (37.4 quads)—a 22% increase, exceeding 36% of total energy consumption in the United States. Therefore, it is imperative that industrial GHG emissions be considered in any strategy intent on achieving deep decarbonization of the energy sector as a whole. It is important to note that unlike the transportation sector and electrical grid, energy use by industry often involves direct conversion of primary energy sources to thermal and electrical energy at the point of consumption. About 52% of U.S. industrial direct GHG emissions are the result of fuel combustion (EPA 2016) to produce hot gases and steam for process heating, process reactions, and process evaporation, concentration, and drying. The heterogeneity and variations in scale of U.S. industry and the complexity of modern industrial firms’ global supply chains are among the sector’s unique challenges to minimizing its GHG emissions. A combination of varied strategies—such as energy efficiency, material efficiency, and switching to low-carbon fuels—can help reduce absolute industrial GHG emissions. This report provides a complement to process-efficiency improvement to consider how clean energy delivery and use by industry could reduce GHG emissions. Specifically, it considers the possibility of replacing fossil-fuel combustion in industry with nuclear (specifically small modular reactors [SMRs]), solar thermal (referred to

  20. Nuclear Energy R&D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    David Petti; J. Stephen Herring

    2010-03-01

    As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, entitled “Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors”, addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R&D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: • Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, • Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and • Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation’s energy

  1. China's industrial sector in an international context

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Lehman, Bryan; Sinton, Jonathan

    2000-05-01

    The industrial sector accounts for 40% of global energy use. In 1995, developing countries used an estimated 48 EJ for industrial production, over one-third of world total industrial primary energy use (Price et al., 1998). Industrial output and energy use in developing countries is dominated by China, India, and Brazil. China alone accounts for about 30 EJ (National Bureau of Statistics, 1999), or about 23% of world industrial energy use. China's industrial sector is extremely energy-intensive and accounted for almost 75% of the country's total energy use in 1997. Industrial energy use in China grew an average of 6.6% per year, from 14 EJ in 1985 to 30 EJ in 1997 (Sinton et al., 1996; National Bureau of Statistics, 1999). This growth is more than three times faster than the average growth that took place in the world during the past two decades. The industrial sector can be divided into light and heavy industry, reflecting the relative energy-intensity of the manufacturing processes. In China, about 80% of the energy used in the industrial sector is consumed by heavy industry. Of this, the largest energy-consuming industries are chemicals, ferrous metals, and building materials (Sinton et al., 1996). This paper presents the results of international comparisons of production levels and energy use in six energy-intensive subsectors: iron and steel, aluminum, cement, petroleum refining, ammonia, and ethylene. The sectoral analysis results indicate that energy requirements to produce a unit of raw material in China are often higher than industrialized countries for most of the products analyzed in this paper, reflecting a significant potential to continue to improve energy efficiency in heavy industry.

  2. AY 2007-2008 Achieving U.S. Energy Security: Energy Industry Sector Report Seminar 8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    2008 ABSTRACT: The source of U.S. national security strength stems in large part from the nation’s economic foundation; the ability to generate and...exploit inexpensive energy underpins that strength. Therefore, the United States has a vital interest in ensuring the viability and stability of...relationships with nations that broaden our energy portfolio to maintain diversity of source; 3.) Increase the U.S.’ global leadership role in

  3. Analysis of energy use in building services of the industrial sector in California: A literature review and a preliminary characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Borgers, T.; Gadgil, A.; Sezgen, O.

    1991-04-01

    Energy use patterns in many of California's fastest-growing industries are not typical of those in the mix of industries elsewhere in the US. Many California firms operate small and medium-sized facilities, often in buildings used simultaneously or interchangeably for commercial (office, retail, warehouse) and industrial activities. In these industrial subsectors, the energy required for building services'' to provide occupant comfort and necessities (lighting, HVAC, office equipment, computers, etc.) may be at least as important as the more familiar process energy requirements -- especially for electricity and on-peak demand. In this report, published or unpublished information on energy use for building services in the industrial sector have been compiled and analyzed. Seven different sources of information and data relevant to California have been identified. Most of these are studies and/or projects sponsored by the Department of Energy, the California Energy Commission, and local utilities. The objectives of these studies were diverse: most focused on industrial energy use in general, and, in one case, the objective was to analyze energy use in commercial buildings. Only one of these studies focused directly on non-process energy use in industrial buildings. Our analysis of Northern California data for five selected industries shows that the contribution of total electricity consumption for lighting ranges from 9.5% in frozen fruits to 29.1% in instruments; for air-conditioning, it ranges from nonexistent in frozen fruits to 35% in instrument manufacturing. None of the five industries selected had significant electrical space heating. Gas space heating ranges from 5% in motor vehicles facilities to more than 58% in the instrument manufacturing industry. 15 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Model documentation report: Industrial sector demand module of the national energy modeling system

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Model. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description of the NEMS Industrial Model for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirements of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its model. Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects.

  5. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. Final Project Report. California Energy Balance Update and Decomposition Analysis for the Industry and Building Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-01

    This report on the California Energy Balance version 2 (CALEB v2) database documents the latest update and improvements to CALEB version 1 (CALEB v1) and provides a complete picture of how energy is supplied and consumed in the State of California. The CALEB research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) performed the research and analysis described in this report. CALEB manages highly disaggregated data on energy supply, transformation, and end-use consumption for about 40 different energy commodities, from 1990 to 2008. This report describes in detail California's energy use from supply through end-use consumption as well as the data sources used. The report also analyzes trends in energy demand for the "Manufacturing" and "Building" sectors. Decomposition analysis of energy consumption combined with measures of the activity driving that consumption quantifies the effects of factors that shape energy consumption trends. The study finds that a decrease in energy intensity has had a very significant impact on reducing energy demand over the past 20 years. The largest impact can be observed in the industry sector where energy demand would have had increased by 358 trillion British thermal units (TBtu) if subsectoral energy intensities had remained at 1997 levels. Instead, energy demand actually decreased by 70 TBtu. In the "Building" sector, combined results from the "Service" and "Residential" subsectors suggest that energy demand would have increased by 264 TBtu (121 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 143 TBtu in the "Residential" sector) during the same period, 1997 to 2008. However, energy demand increased at a lesser rate, by only 162 TBtu (92 TBtu in the "Services" sector and 70 TBtu in the "Residential" sector). These energy intensity reductions can be indicative of energyefficiency improvements during the past 10 years. The research presented in this report provides a basis for developing an energy-efficiency performance index to measure

  6. Public/private sector cooperation to promote industrial energy efficiency: Allied partners and the US Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Cockrill, Chris; Tutterow, Vestal; Radspieler, Anthony

    2003-05-18

    Since 1996, the US Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies (USDOE) has been involved in a unique voluntary collaboration with industry called the Allied Partner program. Initially developed under the Motor Challenge program, the partnership concept continues as a central element of USDOE's BestPractices, which in 2001 integrated all of USDOE's near-term industrial program offerings including those in motors, compressed air, pump, fan, process heating and steam systems. Partnerships are sought with end use industrial companies as well as equipment suppliers and manufacturers, utilities, consultants, and state agencies that have extensive existing relationships with industrial customers. Partners are neither paid nor charged a fee for participation. Since the inception of Allied Partners, the assumption has been that these relationships could serve as the foundation for conveying a system energy-efficiency message to many more industrial facilities than could be reached through a typical government-to-end-user program model. An independent evaluation of the Motor Challenge program, reported at the last EEMODS conference, attributed US $16.9 million or nearly 67 percent of the total annual program energy savings to the efforts of Allied Partners in the first three years of operation. A recent evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenger, which grew out of the former Motor Challenger program, attribute additional energy savings from compressed air training alone at US $12.1 million per year. Since the reorganization under BestPractices, the Allied Partner program has been reshaped to extend the impact of all BestPractices program activities. This new model is more ambitious than the former Motor Challenge program concerning the level of collaborative activities negotiated with Allied Partners. This paper describes in detail two new types of program initiatives involving Allied Partners: Qualified Specialist Training and Energy Events. The Qualified

  7. [Eco-efficiency of Jiaozuo industry sectors].

    PubMed

    Du, Yan-chun; Jiang, Pan; Mao, Jian-su; Xu, Lin-yu

    2011-05-01

    Jiaozuo city was taken as a representative industry city and its industry energy consumption and industry emissions such as wastewater,solid waste, SO2, dust and so on were selected as corresponding environmental loads. The contribution rate to the environmental loads and eco-efficiencies of Jiaozuo industry sectors were analyzed quantitatively. The results show that, the industry sector with the highest energy eco-efficiency is Mining and Processing of Ferrous Metal Ores (FMM), 43.19 x 10(4) yuan x tce(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.003%; the one with the highest wastewater-related eco-efficiency is Manufacture of Transport Equipment (TRM), 3.58 x 10(4) yuan x t(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.0001%; the one with the highest solid waste-related eco-efficiency is Manufacture of Special Purpose Machinery( SMM), 323.22 x 10(4) yuan x t(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.005%; the one with the highest SO2 emission-related eco-efficiency is Manufacture of Special Purpose Machinery (SMM), 19.74 x 10(4) yuan x kg(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.0001%; the one with the highest dust emission-related eco-efficiency is Manufacture of Rubber (RUM), 6.75 x 10(4) yuan x kg(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.001%. It can be seen that the industry sector with high value of eco-efficiency always contributes less to its environmental load, which results that the industry sectors with high eco-efficiencies only play a weak role in leading the overall industry eco-efficiency. A succinct distance index (SDI) was proposed to estimate the differences between Jiaozuo and China average for their eco-efficiency of every industrial sector. The values of SDI range from -1 to 63.45, and the absolute value of SDI with positive value is much greater than that with negative value, which indicates that the values of eco-efficiencies for the advanced industry sectors of Jiaozuo city are much higher than those for China's industry sectors average.

  8. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  9. Global Impact Estimation of ISO 50001 Energy Management System for Industrial and Service Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Aghajanzadeh, Arian; Therkelsen, Peter L.; Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee T.

    2016-08-01

    A methodology has been developed to determine the impacts of ISO 50001 Energy Management System (EnMS) at a region or country level. The impacts of ISO 50001 EnMS include energy, CO2 emissions, and cost savings. This internationally recognized and transparent methodology has been embodied in a user friendly Microsoft Excel® based tool called ISO 50001 Impact Estimator Tool (IET 50001). However, the tool inputs are critical in order to get accurate and defensible results. This report is intended to document the data sources used and assumptions made to calculate the global impact of ISO 50001 EnMS.

  10. Exploring Oman's Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saqlawi, Juman; Madani, Kaveh; Mac Dowell, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Located in a region where over 40% of the world's oil and gas reserves lie and in a trend similar to that of its neighbors, Oman's economy has been reliant on crude oil export since the 1970's. Being aware of the dangers of this reliance along with the discovery of Natural Gas since the 1980s, the Omani government's policy of diversifying its economy has shifted its reliance on Oil to another fossil fuel, namely Natural Gas. Given that energy is the lifeline of Oman's economy, effective and efficient forward planning and policy development is essential for the country's current and future economic development. This presentation explores the current status of the energy sector in Oman from home production and import to eventual final uses. The presentation highlights the major issues with Oman's current energy policies and suggests various strategies that could be adopted by Oman for a more efficient and sustainable future.

  11. Energy Sector Impacts and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmark, R. L.; Macknick, J.; Martinez, A.; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    The power sector is the largest user of freshwater in the U.S. The dominant use of water in power plants is for steam cycle cooling. The current portfolio of electricity generating technologies in the U.S. has highly regionalized and technology-specific requirements for water. Certain areas employ once-through cooling technologies with high withdrawals and low consumptive uses, whereas other areas employ recirculating cooling technologies with relatively low withdrawals but high consumptive uses. As water availability differs widely throughout the nation, assessments of water withdrawal and consumption impacts from the power sector must have a high geographic resolution and consider regional differences. The U.S. electricity portfolio is likely to evolve in coming years, shaped by various energy policies and economic drivers on both the national and regional level, which will impact power sector water demands. It is likely that the U.S. will continue to decarbonize its electricity industry, leading to more low-carbon technologies. However, many low-carbon technologies, such as coal with carbon capture and storage, nuclear, and concentrated solar power, can use more water than the current electricity portfolio average. National- and state-level water policies have been proposed (and enacted) that affect cooling system choices for power plants, with resulting implications for water use as well as power plant installed and operating costs and reliability. Energy policy analyses that do not consider power plant cooling system impacts may miss an important component power plant siting decisions. Similarly, water policies that do not take into consideration potential impacts on power plant operations or comprehensive regional water budget impacts may have deleterious effects on the energy industry. Analysis of future energy scenarios that incorporate technology options and constraints as well as different policies can provide useful insights about likely changes to both

  12. Energy industries abroad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    The relationships between foreign governments and energy industries in many of the world's most important energy producing and consuming nations are examined. The history of hydrocarbon exploration and production is traced and the concessionary and other contractual arrangements entered into by foreign governments and international oil companies are reviewed. Petroleum legislation that was enacted, how government institutions gradually assumed more responsibility for energy matters, and how the former concessionaires adapted to accommodate this increased government participation in the energy sector is described.

  13. Conservation and the industry sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The following six highly energy intensive industries were studied as targets of energy conservation opportunity: food and kindred products, paper and allied products, chemicals and allied products, petroleum and coal products, stone, glass and clay products, and primary manufacturing. After studying conservation actions within each industry the actions were grouped under three broad categories: increased combustion efficiency, process improvement, and good housekeeping. Some of the results were: (1) approximately 2.18 quads could be saved in 1980 and 2.57 quads in 1985 by installing cogenerative facilities in 50% of the industries, (2) regenerative air-preheaters could result in a 10-15% increase in furnace efficiency representing a 15-25% fuel savings (2.3 to 3.9 quads in 1980 and 2.7 to 4.5 quads in 1985), (3) several major industries have potential for energy savings by recycling-aluminum (0.2 quads), steel (1 quad), glass (0.006 quads), paper and cement (0.08 quads).

  14. How to achieve the 2020 and 2030 emissions targets of China: Evidence from high, mid and low energy-consumption industrial sub-sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juan; Zhao, Tao; Wang, Yanan

    2016-11-01

    Facing the challenge of meeting emissions reduction targets of China, this paper employed the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) method to study the changes of energy-related carbon emissions in high energy-consumption sectors (HES), mid energy-consumption sectors (MES) and low energy-consumption sectors (LES) from 1996 to 2012. The decomposition results revealed that the economic growth was the most significant factor to increase carbon emissions of three subgroups while the decrease in energy intensity was the dominant factor to reduce carbon emissions of MES and LES. Considering the important roles economic growth and energy intensity played in carbon emissions, three scenarios were set based on the different growth rates of these two factors to identify whether the emissions reduction targets of 40-45% in 2020 and 60-65% in 2030 can be achieved using the co-integration technique. It was indicated that the emissions targets both in 2020 and 2030 can be achieved by LES in the base scenario. In stark contrast to LES, the carbon intensity of HES reduced only 10.03% in 2020 and 14% in 2030 compared to the 2005 level. Therefore, more attentions should be focused on the economic activity and energy intensity of HES. Finally, according to the results obtained, policy implications were provided to further mitigate the carbon intensity of China's industrial sector.

  15. Assessing global resource utilization efficiency in the industrial sector.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Marc A

    2013-09-01

    Designing efficient energy systems, which also meet economic, environmental and other objectives and constraints, is a significant challenge. In a world with finite natural resources and large energy demands, it is important to understand not just actual efficiencies, but also limits to efficiency, as the latter identify margins for efficiency improvement. Energy analysis alone is inadequate, e.g., it yields energy efficiencies that do not provide limits to efficiency. To obtain meaningful and useful efficiencies for energy systems, and to clarify losses, exergy analysis is a beneficial and useful tool. Here, the global industrial sector and industries within it are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. The objective is to improve the understanding of the efficiency of global resource use in the industrial sector and, with this information, to facilitate the development, prioritization and ultimate implementation of rational improvement options. Global energy and exergy flow diagrams for the industrial sector are developed and overall efficiencies for the global industrial sector evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. Consequently, exergy analysis indicates a less efficient picture of energy use in the global industrial sector than does energy analysis. A larger margin for improvement exists from an exergy perspective, compared to the overly optimistic margin indicated by energy.

  16. Cross-Sector Impact Analysis of Industrial Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, William; CreskoEngineering, Joe; Carpenter, Alberta; Masanet, Eric; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Shehabi, Arman

    2013-01-01

    The industrial or manufacturing sector is a foundational component to all economic activity. In addition to being a large direct consumer of energy, the manufacturing sector also produces materials, products, and technologies that influence the energy use of other economic sectors. For example, the manufacturing of a lighter-weight vehicle component affects the energy required to ship that component as well as the fuel efficiency of the assembled vehicle. Many energy efficiency opportunities exist to improve manufacturing energy consumption, however comparisons of manufacturing sector energy efficiency investment opportunities tend to exclude any impacts that occur once the product leaves the factory. Expanding the scope of analysis to include energy impacts across different stages of product life-cycle can highlight less obvious opportunities and inform actions that create the greatest economy-wide benefits. We present a methodology and associated analysis tool (LIGHTEnUP Lifecycle Industry GHgas, Technology and Energy through the Use Phase) that aims to capture both the manufacturing sector energy consumption and product life-cycle energy consumption implications of manufacturing innovation measures. The tool architecture incorporates U.S. national energy use data associated with manufacturing, building operations, and transportation. Inputs for technology assessment, both direct energy saving to the manufacturing sector, and indirect energy impacts to additional sectors are estimated through extensive literature review and engineering methods. The result is a transparent and uniform system of comparing manufacturing and use-phase impacts of technologies.

  17. Voluntary agreements in the industrial sector in China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan

    2003-03-31

    China faces a significant challenge in the years ahead to continue to provide essential materials and products for a rapidly-growing economy while addressing pressing environmental concerns. China's industrial sector is heavily dependent on the country's abundant, yet polluting, coal resources. While tremendous energy conservation and environmental protection achievements were realized in the industrial sector in the past, there remains a great gulf between the China's level of energy efficiency and that of the advanced countries of the world. Internationally, significant energy efficiency improvement in the industrial sector has been realized in a number of countries using an innovative policy mechanism called Voluntary Agreements. This paper describes international experience with Voluntary Agreements in the industrial sector as well as the development of a pilot program to test the use of such agreements with two steel mills in Shandong Province, China.

  18. [Eco-efficiency of industry sectors for China].

    PubMed

    Mao, Jian-Su; Zeng, Run; Du, Yan-Chun; Jiang, Pan

    2010-11-01

    Industry is the main source of resource consumption and environmental emissions of China, and the analyzing of eco-efficiencies for industrial sectors may provide essential information for the restructure of industrial system and the improvement of environmental quality of China. The industry composition was analyzed and the relationship between the industry and its environment was established. The energy consumption and the main environmental emissions such as wastewater, solid waste, industry SO2, smog, dust were chosen as the environmental impact categories, the corresponding eco-efficiencies of industry were defined and estimated for China in 2007. The results are as follows: the energy efficiency is 615.5 x 10(4) yuan x ktce(-1), the wastewater and solid waste related eco-efficiencies are 54.3 x 10(4) yuan x kt(-1) and 1.9 x 10(4) yuan x t(-1), respectively; industry SO2, smog, dust related eco-efficiencies are 59.6 x 10(4), 169.2 x 10(4) and 184.6 x 10(4) yuan x t(-1), respectively. The eco-efficiencies of 39 industry sectors were analyzed extensively and the results showed that, the distribution of industrial sectors in above eco-efficiencies is uneven, and the order of industrial sector in industry will vary with industry sector and eco-efficiency category. Meanwhile, for the same category of eco-efficiency, the values for different industry sectors may change from centuplicate to several thousand folds, therefore a great possibility for the improvement of industry eco-efficiency is exist in the restructure of industry system.

  19. GHGRP Chemicals Sector Industrial Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Chemicals industry.

  20. GHGRP Minerals Sector Industrial Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Minerals industry.

  1. GHGRP Metals Sector Industrial Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Metals industry.

  2. GHGRP Refineries Sector Industrial Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Refineries industry.

  3. Entrepreneurship Education: Towards an Industry Sector Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Ita; Hynes, Briga

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the requirements for an industry sector approach to entrepreneurship education--the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. A modified Process Framework for Entrepreneurship Education is presented focusing specifically on ICT. The primary components of the Process Framework are…

  4. Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Cement Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, J.; Xu, T.; Galitsky, C.

    2010-08-15

    Adoption of efficient end-use technologies is one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. How to effectively analyze and manage the costs associated with GHG reductions becomes extremely important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Energy-climate (EC) models are often used for analyzing the costs of reducing GHG emissions for various emission-reduction measures, because an accurate estimation of these costs is critical for identifying and choosing optimal emission reduction measures, and for developing related policy options to accelerate market adoption and technology implementation. However, accuracies of assessing of GHG-emission reduction costs by taking into account the adoption of energy efficiency technologies will depend on how well these end-use technologies are represented in integrated assessment models (IAM) and other energy-climate models.

  5. Energy Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Biomass energy includes the burning of products such as wood, methanol, sludge, railroad ties, and agricultural waste, to produce heat, steam and... energy . Recent political will elevated the development of biomass fuels to the top of the President’s political agenda. In his 2007 State of the...Union Address, President Bush set an ambitious goal for the nation to draw 20% of its energy needs from the use of ethanol, a biomass derived fuel

  6. Joint Battery Industry Sector Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-31

    prototp Fmr ectdc Vehicle uses nickel cadmium batteries PSA’s WEIT A uses nickel cadmium batteries Table 8-19. Nickel Cadmium Batteries in Electric...BMDO to develop a nickel oxidedhydrogen multilayer bipolar battery for pulsed power. These batteries will be used to operate directed energy weapons in

  7. [Health, hospitality sector and tobacco industry].

    PubMed

    Abella Pons, Francesc; Córdoba Garcia, Rodrigo; Suárez Bonel, Maria Pilar

    2012-11-01

    To present the strategies used by the tobacco industry to meet government regulatory measures of its products. To demonstrate the relationship between tobacco industry and the hospitality sector. Note that the arguments and strategies used routinely by the hospitality industry have been previously provided by the tobacco industry. Location of key documents by meta-search, links to declassified documents, specific websites of the tobacco and hospitality industry, news sources and published articles in health journals. This review reveals the close relationship between tobacco industry and hospitality sector. It highlights the strategies carried out by the tobacco industry, including strategic hoarding of information, public relations, lobbying, consultation program, smoker defence groups, building partnerships, intimidation and patronage. The arguments and strategies used by the hospitality industry to match point by point that used by the tobacco industry. These arguments are refutable from the point of view of public health as it is scientifically proven that totally smoke-free environments are the only way to protect non-smokers from tobacco smoke exposure and its harmful effects on health.

  8. Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.T.; Sathaye, J.; Galitsky, C.

    2010-09-30

    measures are available over time, which allows an estimation of technological change over a decade-long historical period. In particular, the report will describe new treatment of technological change in energy-climate modeling for this industry sector, i.e., assessing the changes in costs and energy-savings potentials via comparing 1994 and 2002 conservation supply curves. In this study, we compared the same set of mitigation measures for both 1994 and 2002 -- no additional mitigation measure for year 2002 was included due to unavailability of such data. Therefore, the estimated potentials in total energy savings and carbon reduction would most likely be more conservative for year 2002 in this study. Based upon the cost curves, the rate of change in the savings potential at a given cost can be evaluated and be used to estimate future rates of change that can be the input for energy-climate models. Through characterizing energy-efficiency technology costs and improvement potentials, we have developed and presented energy cost curves for energy efficiency measures applicable to the U.S. iron and steel industry for the years 1994 and 2002. The cost curves can change significantly under various scenarios: the baseline year, discount rate, energy intensity, production, industry structure (e.g., integrated versus secondary steel making and number of plants), efficiency (or mitigation) measures, share of iron and steel production to which the individual measures can be applied, and inclusion of other non-energy benefits. Inclusion of other non-energy benefits from implementing mitigation measures can reduce the costs of conserved energy significantly. In addition, costs of conserved energy (CCE) for individual mitigation measures increase with the increases in discount rates, resulting in a general increase in total cost of mitigation measures for implementation and operation with a higher discount rate. In 1994, integrated steel mills in the U.S. produced 55.

  9. Voluntary GHG reduction of industrial sectors in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Tung; Hu, Allen H

    2012-08-01

    The present paper describes the voluntary greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction agreements of six different industrial sectors in Taiwan, as well as the fluorinated gases (F-gas) reduction agreement of the semiconductor and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) industries. The operating mechanisms, GHG reduction methods, capital investment, and investment effectiveness are also discussed. A total of 182 plants participated in the voluntary energy saving and GHG reduction in six industrial sectors (iron and steel, petrochemical, cement, paper, synthetic fiber, and textile printing and dyeing), with 5.35 Mt reduction from 2004 to 2008, or 33% higher than the target goal (4.02 Mt). The reduction accounts for 1.6% annual emission or 7.8% during the 5-yr span. The petrochemical industry accounts for 49% of the reduction, followed by the cement sector (21%) and the iron and steel industry (13%). The total investment amounted to approximately USD 716 million, in which, the majority of the investment went to the modification of the manufacturing process (89%). The benefit was valued at around USD 472 million with an average payback period of 1.5 yr. Moreover, related energy saving was achieved through different approaches, e.g., via electricity (iron and steel), steam and oil consumption (petrochemical) and coal usage (cement). The cost for unit CO(2) reduction varies per industry, with the steel and iron industrial sector having the highest cost (USD 346 t(-1) CO(2)) compared with the average cost of the six industrial sectors (USD 134 t(-1) CO(2)). For the semiconductor and Thin-Film Transistor LCD industries, F-gas emissions were reduced from approximately 4.1 to about 1.7 Mt CO(2)-eq, and from 2.2 to about 1.1 Mt CO(2)-eq, respectively. Incentive mechanisms for participation in GHG reduction are also further discussed.

  10. Universal Industrial Solution and Industrial Sectors Module for Pulp and Paper Sector

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased concerns over air pollution and its detrimental effects on health have called for more stringent emission reduction strategies in the industrial sector. However, stringent regulatory policies can potentially adversely affect domestic and international trade. Therefore E...

  11. Industrial energy performance indicator reports

    SciTech Connect

    Munroe, V.

    1999-07-01

    The mandate for this work originated in December, 1996, when a joint meeting of federal and provincial Ministers of Energy and Environment, in addressing their responsibility to provide leadership on the Greenhouse Gases/Climate Change agenda, endorsed the following statement ({number{underscore}sign}13 of 45 initiatives launches at that time): Industrial establishments will be provided with a confidential benchmarking report on their energy efficiency progress, including how they compare to national and international averages for their sector. Information will also be provided on energy management best practices in their industries. The goal of the initiative is to use information provided on the state of energy practice to prompt, motivate, and induce companies to implement further energy efficiency measures. And one premise underlying it is that useful guidance on the state of energy practice in a company can be obtained from existing data sources, primarily the Industrial Consumption of Energy (ICE) survey and the Annual Survey of Manufacturers (ASM), both products of Statistics Canada. In addition, there are existing surveys which include energy consumption that are undertaken by associations such as the Canadian Portland Cement Association, the Canadian Chemical Producers Association, the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, etc. Since the commitment was made, Natural Resources Canada staff have undertaken a large amount of investigative and developmental work which will be presented. Existing data from three sectors, pulp, cement and fluid milk, has been analyzed and will be delivered with draft context and energy efficiency guidance notes to the management of about 100 establishments. The author will also be able to report on how this information was received by these managers, and on the recommendations that will have been collected from industry on the more specific nature and frequency of industrial energy performance reporting desired.

  12. Sector-specific issues and reporting methodologies supporting the General Guidelines for the voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Volume 1: Part 1, Electricity supply sector; Part 2, Residential and commercial buildings sector; Part 3, Industrial sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    DOE encourages you to report your achievements in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and sequestering carbon under this program. Global climate change is increasingly being recognized as a threat that individuals and organizations can take action against. If you are among those taking action, reporting your projects may lead to recognition for you, motivation for others, and synergistic learning for the global community. This report discusses the reporting process for the voluntary detailed guidance in the sectoral supporting documents for electricity supply, residential and commercial buildings, industry, transportation, forestry, and agriculture. You may have reportable projects in several sectors; you may report them separately or capture and report the total effects on an entity-wide report.

  13. Industrial sector energy conservation programs in the People`s Republic of China during the seventh five-year plan (1986--1990)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zhiping; Sinton, J.E.; Yang Fuqiang; Levine, M.D.; Ting, M.K.

    1994-09-01

    The impetus at the national level to invest in energy conservation is quite strong and has long been reflected not only in official pronouncements, but also in the investments and organizational activities of the Chinese government. In the early 1980s the central government began a program of direct investments in industrial energy conservation that continues to the present. In addition, concurrently established governmental and quasi-governmental agencies have pursued conservation through administrative and educational measures. In Section 2 of this paper the authors outline the policies and institutions that supported China`s program of energy conservation investments in the Sixth and Seventh Five-Year Plans (FYPs) (1981--1985 and 1986--1990). In Section 3 they describe examples of the types of conservation projects pursued in four industrial subsectors: ferrous metals manufacturing; non-ferrous metals mining and manufacturing; chemicals manufacturing; and building materials manufacturing. Section 4 presents a simple methodology for comparing the costs of energy conservation to those of energy supply. Further discussion points out the applicability and limitations of this methodology to State Planning Commission published statistical material on the overall results of energy conservation investments. Though problematic, such analysis indicates that energy conservation investments were probably substantially cheaper than investments in equivalent energy supply would have been. They end with a discussion of some of the difficulties encountered in carrying out the conservation investment programs.

  14. Energy-saving options for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from the Mongolian energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Dorjpurev, J.; Purevjal, O.; Erdenechimeg, Ch.

    1996-12-31

    The Energy sector is the largest contributor to GHG emission in Mongolia. The Energy sector emits 54 percent of CO2 and 4 percent of methane. All emissions of other greenhouse gases are accounted from energy related activities. The activities in this sector include coal production, fuel combustion, and biomass combustion at the thermal power stations and in private houses (stoves) for heating purposes. This paper presents some important Demand-side options considered for mitigation of CO2 emissions from energy sector such as Energy Conservation in Industrial Sector and in Buildings. Changes in energy policies and programmes in the Mongolian situation that promote more efficient and sustainable practices are presented in the paper. These energy saving measures will not only help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but will also promote economic development and alleviate other environmental problems.

  15. Energy for industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.H. ); Steinmeyer, D. )

    1990-09-01

    Economic growth and energy use once marched in lockstep. Now industrial output is climbing while energy use declines. In practice, companies reduce energy consumption by optimizing the cost of existing processes, by introducing process refinements and by making breakthroughs that lead to entirely new methods of manufacture. Each of these are described with examples of each.

  16. Energy-economy interactions revisited within a comprehensive sectoral model

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D. A.; Laitner, J. A.

    2000-07-24

    This paper describes a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model with considerable sector and technology detail, the ``All Modular Industry Growth Assessment'' Model (AMIGA). It is argued that a detailed model is important to capture and understand the several rolls that energy plays within the economy. Fundamental consumer and industrial demands are for the services from energy; hence, energy demand is a derived demand based on the need for heating, cooling mechanical, electrical, and transportation services. Technologies that provide energy-services more efficiently (on a life cycle basis), when adopted, result in increased future output of the economy and higher paths of household consumption. The AMIGA model can examine the effects on energy use and economic output of increases in energy prices (e.g., a carbon charge) and other incentive-based policies or energy-efficiency programs. Energy sectors and sub-sector activities included in the model involve energy extraction conversion and transportation. There are business opportunities to produce energy-efficient goods (i.e., appliances, control systems, buildings, automobiles, clean electricity). These activities are represented in the model by characterizing their likely production processes (e.g., lighter weight motor vehicles). Also, multiple industrial processes can produce the same output but with different technologies and inputs. Secondary recovery, i.e., recycling processes, are examples of these multiple processes. Combined heat and power (CHP) is also represented for energy-intensive industries. Other modules represent residential and commercial building technologies to supply energy services. All sectors of the economy command real resources (capital services and labor).

  17. Development of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options for Alberta's Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanyam, Veena

    Alberta is the third largest economy in Canada and is expected to grow significantly in the coming decade. The energy sector plays a major role in Alberta's economy. The objective of this research is to develop various greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigations scenarios in the energy demand and supply sectors for the Province of Alberta. This is done through an energy-environment planning and forecasting tool called Long Range Energy Alternative Planning system model (LEAP). By using LEAP, a sankey diagram for energy and emission flows for the Province of Alberta has been developed. A reference case also called as business-as-usual scenario was developed for a study period of 25 years (2005-2030). The GHG mitigation scenarios encompassed various demand and supply side scenarios. In the energy conversion sector, mitigation scenarios for renewable power generation and inclusion of supercritical, ultra-supercritical and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants were investigated. In the oil and gas sector, GHG mitigation scenarios with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) option were considered. In Alberta's residential and commercial sector 4-6 MT of CO2 equivalents per year of GHG mitigation could be achieved with efficiency improvement. In the industrial sector up to 40 MT of CO2 equivalents per year of GHG reduction could be achieved with efficiency improvement. In the energy conversion sector large GHG mitigation potential lies in the oil and gas sector and also in power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS) option. The total GHG mitigation possible in the supply side option is between 20--70 MT CO2 equivalents per year.

  18. Strategies for Low Carbon Growth In India: Industry and Non Residential Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Iyer, Maithili; McNeil, Michael; Kramer, Klaas Jan; Roy, Joyashree; Roy, Moumita; Chowdhury, Shreya Roy

    2011-04-15

    This report analyzed the potential for increasing energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) in the non-residential building and the industrial sectors in India. The first two sections describe the research and analysis supporting the establishment of baseline energy consumption using a bottom up approach for the non residential sector and for the industry sector respectively. The third section covers the explanation of a modeling framework where GHG emissions are projected according to a baseline scenario and alternative scenarios that account for the implementation of cleaner technology.

  19. Industrial Rehabilitation in the Public Sector: The Ohio Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsheski, Jerry; Growick, Bruce

    In 1979, Ohio passed a law creating a Rehabilitation Division within its Industrial Commission and authorizing the building of two comprehensive rehabilitation centers to serve disabled workers. Ohio provides industrial rehabilitation services almost entirely through the public sector. This paper describes industrial rehabilitation policies and…

  20. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-10-01

    Current and future energy demands, end uses, and cost used to characterize typical applications and resultant services in the industrial sector of the United States and 15 selected states are examined. A review and evaluation of existing industrial energy data bases was undertaken to assess their potential for supporting SERI research on: (1) market suitability analysis, (2) market development, (3) end-use matching, (3) industrial applications case studies, and (4) identification of cost and performance goals for solar systems and typical information requirements for industrial energy end use. In reviewing existing industrial energy data bases, the level of detail, disaggregation, and primary sources of information were examined. The focus was on fuels and electric energy used for heat and power purchased by the manufacturing subsector and listed by 2-, 3-, and 4-digit SIC, primary fuel, and end use. Projections of state level energy prices to 1990 are developed using the energy intensity approach. The effects of federal and state industrial energy conservation programs on future industrial sector demands were assessed. Future end-use energy requirements were developed for each 4-digit SIC industry and were grouped as follows: (1) hot water, (2) steam (212 to 300/sup 0/F, each 100/sup 0/F interval from 300 to 1000/sup 0/F, and greater than 1000/sup 0/F), and (3) hot air (100/sup 0/F intervals). Volume I details the activities performed in this effort.

  1. Infrastructure opportunities in South America: Energy sector. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The report, conducted by CG/LA, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report was assembled for the South American Infrastructure Conference held in New Orleans. It contains a regional overview of infrastructure activities in ten countries represented at the conference. Also covered are project listings in five sectors, including Energy, Transportation, Environment, Telecommunications, and Industry. The study covers TDA case studies as well as project financeability. The ten countries covered in the report include the following: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. This volume focuses on the Energy Sector in South America.

  2. GHGRP Power Plants Sector Industrial Profiles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. These profiles, available for download below, contain detailed analyses for the Power Plants industry.

  3. GHGRP Pulp and Paper Sector Industrial Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Pulp and Paper industry.

  4. GHGRP Electronics Manufacturing Sector Industrial Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Electronics Manufacturing industry.

  5. GHGRP Miscellaneous Combustion Sector Industrial Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Miscellaneous Combustion industry.

  6. Energy Sector Adaptation in Response to Water Scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, N. A.; Fricko, O.; Parkinson, S.; Riahi, K.

    2015-12-01

    Global energy systems models have largely ignored the impacts of water scarcity on the energy sector and the related implications for climate change mitigation. However, significant water is required in the production of energy, including for thermoelectric power plant cooling, hydropower generation, irrigation for bioenergy, and the extraction and refining of liquid fuels. With a changing climate and expectations of increasing competition for water from the agricultural and municipal sectors, it is unclear whether sufficient water will be available where needed to support water-intensive energy technologies in the future. Thus, it is important that water use and water constraints are incorporated into energy systems models to better understand energy sector adaptation to water scarcity. The global energy systems model, MESSAGE, has recently been updated to quantify the water consumption and withdrawal requirements of the energy sector and now includes several cooling technologies for addressing water scarcity. This study introduces water constraints into the model to examine whether and how the energy sector can adapt to water scarcity over the next century. In addition, the implications for climate mitigation are evaluated under a scenario in which warming is limited to 2˚C over the pre-industrial level. Given the difficulty of introducing meaningful water constraints into global models, we use a simplistic approach and evaluate a series of scenarios in which the water available to the energy sector is systematically reduced. This approach allows for the evaluation of energy sector adaptations under various levels of water scarcity and can provide insight into how water scarcity, whether from climate change or competing demands, may impact the energy sector in different world regions. This study will provide insight into the following questions: How does the energy sector adapt to water scarcity in different regions? What are the costs associated with adaptation

  7. Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant; Kramer, Klaas Jan

    2012-07-01

    Adoption of efficient end-use technologies is one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. How to effectively analyze and manage the costs associated with GHG reductions becomes extremely important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Energy-climate (EC) models are often used for analyzing the costs of reducing GHG emissions for various emission-reduction measures, because an accurate estimation of these costs is critical for identifying and choosing optimal emission reduction measures, and for developing related policy options to accelerate market adoption and technology implementation. However, accuracies of assessing GHG-emission reduction costs by taking into account the adoption of energy efficiency technologies will depend on how well these end-use technologies are represented in integrated assessment models (IAM) and other energy-climate models. In this report, we first conduct a brief review of different representations of end-use technologies (mitigation measures) in various energy-climate models, followed by the problem statement, and a description of the basic concepts of quantifying the cost of conserved energy including integrating no-regrets options.

  8. The Distribution of Artists among Industrial Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Diane C.

    In 1980 the civilian labor force included over one million artists. This report, based on data collected by the U.S. Bureau of the Census, contains a detailed analysis of the distribution of those artists among various types of industries. Artists were assigned to one of 230 detailed industry categories, based upon the 1972 Standard Industrial…

  9. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    ScienceCinema

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2016-07-12

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  10. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2014-09-23

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  11. Poultry Industry Energy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The poultry industry, a multi-billion dollar business in the United States, uses great amounts of energy in such operations as broiler growing, feed manufacturing, poultry processing and packing. Higher costs and limited supply of fuels common to the industry are predicted, so poultry producers are seeking ways to reduce energy expenditure. NASA is providing assistance to Delmarva Poultry Industry, Inc., an association of some 4,000 growers and suppliers in one of the nation's largest poultry production areas. Delmarva is the East Coast peninsula that includes Delaware and parts of Maryland and Virginia. The upper right photo shows a weather station in the Delmarva area (wind indicator on the pole, other instruments in the elevated box). The station is located at the University of Maryland's Broiler Sub-station, Salisbury; Maryland, where the university conducts research on poultry production and processing. The sub-station is investigating ways of conserving energy in broiler production and also exploring the potential of solar collectors as an alternative energy source. For these studies, it is essential that researchers have continuous data on temperature, pressure, wind speed and direction, solar intensity and cloud cover. Equipment to acquire such data was loaned and installed by NASA's Wallops Flight Center, Wallops Island, Virginia.

  12. Industrial Scale Energy Systems Integration; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, Mark

    2015-07-28

    The industrial sector consumes 25% of the total energy in the U.S. and produces 18% of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Energy Systems Integration (ESI) opportunities can reduce those values and increase the profitability of that sector. This presentation outlines several options. Combined heat and power (CHP) is an option that is available today for many applications. In some cases, it can be extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed. extended to trigeneration by adding absorbtion cooling. Demand response is another option in use by the industrial sector - in 2012, industry provided 47% of demand response capacity. A longer term option that combines the benefits of CHP with those of demand response is hybrid energy systems (HESs). Two possible HESs are described and development implications discussed.

  13. Energy Industry 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    Support Center Energy supply and distribution for DOD Alexandria, VA H2Gen Hydrogen generation Frederick, MD BP Solar Photovoltaic panel manufacturing...Richard Allen, Office of Management and Budget COL Muslim Altynbayev, Kazakhstan Army Lt Col Linda Dahl, USAF Lt Col Harold Elkins, USAF COL Margie...hydro, geothermal, solar and wind. The following section on current conditions highlights the trends and challenges facing the industry. CURRENT

  14. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Study (Appendix A), June 2015

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This study examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This study also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  15. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Report to Congress, June 2015

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This report examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This report also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  16. Industrial Energy Audit Guidebook: Guidelines for Conducting an Energy Audit in Industrial Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn

    2010-10-07

    Various studies in different countries have shown that significant energy-efficiency improvement opportunities exist in the industrial sector, many of which are cost-effective. These energy-efficiency options include both cross-cutting as well as sector-specific measures. However, industrial plants are not always aware of energy-efficiency improvement potentials. Conducting an energy audit is one of the first steps in identifying these potentials. Even so, many plants do not have the capacity to conduct an effective energy audit. In some countries, government policies and programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency. However, usually only limited technical and financial resources for improving energy efficiency are available, especially for small and medium-sized enterprises. Information on energy auditing and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to industrial plants. This guidebook provides guidelines for energy auditors regarding the key elements for preparing for an energy audit, conducting an inventory and measuring energy use, analyzing energy bills, benchmarking, analyzing energy use patterns, identifying energy-efficiency opportunities, conducting cost-benefit analysis, preparing energy audit reports, and undertaking post-audit activities. The purpose of this guidebook is to assist energy auditors and engineers in the plant to conduct a well-structured and effective energy audit.

  17. Industrial market and energy management guide. Standard Industrial Classification 22, textile mill products industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Purpose of this guide is twofold: First, to provide an overview of the industrial market for consulting engineers in the textile mill products industry by providing an overall description of the market, its size, and attitudes toward more energy efficient operations. Second, to present sources of information to help consulting engineers locate these industries on a local and national level, and further assess their market opportunities. The facts and figures that describe the various elements of this industrial sector are presented along with its national distribution of plant locations, and resources where more detailed information can be found. Process flow diagrams, process step descriptions, and energy efficient ideas are presented.

  18. Sectoral scope and colocalisation of Spanish manufacturing industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, Marta R.; Orts, Vicente; Albert, José M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we use distance-based methods, specifically a slight variation of Ripley's K function and a bivariate generalisation of this function, to explore the detailed location pattern of the Spanish manufacturing industry, the scope of localisation and the tendency towards colocalisation between horizontally and vertically linked industries. To do so, we use micro-geographic data, considering a narrowly defined industry classification. Our results show heterogeneous location patterns, but with a significant tendency towards localisation. The sectoral scope is very sensitive to the degree of homogeneity of the activities in each sector. The more homogeneous the activities in a specific sector are, the more similarities we find in the spatial location patterns among its industries. Finally, although the patterns of colocalisation detected are sensitive to the counterfactuals used, between 20 and 48% of the pairs of industries with strong input-output linkages considered in this study show a significant tendency to colocalisation, and among them 74% are vertically linked industries.

  19. Analysis of fuel shares in the industrial sector

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Belzer, D.B.

    1986-06-01

    These studies describe how fuel shares have changed over time; determine what factors are important in promoting fuel share changes; and project fuel shares to the year 1995 in the industrial sector. A general characterization of changes in fuel shares of four fuel types - coal, natural gas, oil and electricity - for the industrial sector is as follows. Coal as a major fuel source declined rapidly from 1958 to the early 1970s, with oil and natural gas substituting for coal. Coal's share of total fuels stabilized after the oil price shock of 1972-1973, and increased after the 1979 price shock. In the period since 1973, most industries and the industrial sector as a whole appear to freely substitute natural gas for oil, and vice versa. Throughout the period 1958-1981, the share of electricity as a fuel increased. These observations are derived from analyzing the fuel share patterns of more than 20 industries over the 24-year period 1958 to 1981.

  20. Energy Savings from Industrial Water Reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee; de Fontaine, Andre

    2015-08-03

    Although it is widely recognized that reducing freshwater consumption is of critical importance, generating interest in industrial water reduction programs can be hindered for a variety of reasons. These include the low cost of water, greater focus on water use in other sectors such as the agriculture and residential sectors, high levels of unbilled and/or unregulated self-supplied water use in industry, and lack of water metering and tracking capabilities at industrial facilities. However, there are many additional components to the resource savings associated with reducing site water use beyond the water savings alone, such as reductions in energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, treatment chemicals, and impact on the local watershed. Understanding and quantifying these additional resource savings can expand the community of businesses, NGOs, government agencies, and researchers with a vested interest in water reduction. This paper will develop a methodology for evaluating the embedded energy consumption associated with water use at an industrial facility. The methodology developed will use available data and references to evaluate the energy consumption associated with water supply and wastewater treatment outside of a facility’s fence line for various water sources. It will also include a framework for evaluating the energy consumption associated with water use within a facility’s fence line. The methodology will develop a more complete picture of the total resource savings associated with water reduction efforts and allow industrial water reduction programs to assess the energy and CO2 savings associated with their efforts.

  1. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles; Fuller, Merrian C.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Peters, Jane S.; McRae, Marjorie; Albers, Nathaniel; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Spahic, Mersiha

    2010-03-22

    The energy efficiency services sector (EESS) is poised to become an increasingly important part of the U.S. economy. Climate change and energy supply concerns, volatile and increasing energy prices, and a desire for greater energy independence have led many state and national leaders to support an increasingly prominent role for energy efficiency in U.S. energy policy. The national economic recession has also helped to boost the visibility of energy efficiency, as part of a strategy to support economic recovery. We expect investment in energy efficiency to increase dramatically both in the near-term and through 2020 and beyond. This increase will come both from public support, such as the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and significant increases in utility ratepayer funds directed toward efficiency, and also from increased private spending due to codes and standards, increasing energy prices, and voluntary standards for industry. Given the growing attention on energy efficiency, there is a concern among policy makers, program administrators, and others that there is an insufficiently trained workforce in place to meet the energy efficiency goals being put in place by local, state, and federal policy. To understand the likelihood of a potential workforce gap and appropriate response strategies, one needs to understand the size, composition, and potential for growth of the EESS. We use a bottom-up approach based upon almost 300 interviews with program administrators, education and training providers, and a variety of EESS employers and trade associations; communications with over 50 sector experts; as well as an extensive literature review. We attempt to provide insight into key aspects of the EESS by describing the current job composition, the current workforce size, our projections for sector growth through 2020, and key issues that may limit this growth.

  2. UNIVERSAL INDUSTRIAL SECTORS INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS MODEL FOR PULP AND PAPER MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY – UISIS-PNP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a model for the pulp and paper sector that provides an integrated approach for investigating, developing, and evaluating strategies for reducing the emissions of interest. The Universal Industrial Sectors Integrated Sol...

  3. India's Fertilizer Industry: Productivity and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, K.; Sathaye, J.

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's fertilizer sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Our analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the fertilizer sector increased by 2.3% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's fertilizer sector has been biased towards the use of energy, while it has been capital and labor saving. The increase in productivity took place during the era of total control when a retention price system and distribution control was in effect. With liberalization of the fertilizer sector and reduction of subsidies productivity declined substantially since the early 1990s. Industrial policies and fiscal incentives still play a major role in the Indian fertilizer sect or. As substantial energy savings and carbon reduction potential exists, energy policies can help overcome barriers to the adoption of these measures in giving proper incentives and correcting distorted prices.

  4. Towards greener environment: Energy efficient pathways for the transportation sector in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indati, M. S.; Ghate, A. T.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    Transportation sector is the second most energy consuming sector after industrial sector, accounting for 40% of total energy consumption in Malaysia. The transportation sector is one of the most energy intensive sectors in the country and relies primarily on petroleum products, which in total account for nearly 98% of the total consumption in the sector. Since it is heavily reliant on petroleum based fuels, the sector contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need to reduce the greenhouse gas emission is paramount as Malaysia at Conference of the Parties (COP15) pledged to reduce its carbon intensity by 40% by 2020 from 2005 level subject to availability of technology and finance. Transport sector will be among the first sectors that need to be addressed to achieve this goal, as two-thirds of the emissions come from fuel combustion in transport sector. This paper will analyse the factors influencing the transport sector's growth and energy consumption trends and discuss the key issues and challenges for greener environment and sustainable transportation in Malaysia. The paper will also discuss the policy and strategic options aimed towards energy efficient pathways in Malaysia.

  5. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; McNeil, Michael A.; Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Price,Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Sathaye, Jayant; Levine, Mark

    2007-10-04

    This report provides a detailed, bottom-up analysis ofenergy consumption in China. It recalibrates official Chinese governmentstatistics by reallocating primary energy into categories more commonlyused in international comparisons. It also provides an analysis of trendsin sectoral energy consumption over the past decades. Finally, itassesses the future outlook for the critical period extending to 2020,based on assumptions of likely patterns of economic activity,availability of energy services, and energy intensities. The followingare some highlights of the study's findings: * A reallocation of sectorenergy consumption from the 2000 official Chinese government statisticsfinds that: * Buildings account for 25 percent of primary energy, insteadof 19 percent * Industry accounts for 61 percent of energy instead of 69percent * Industrial energy made a large and unexpected leap between2000-2005, growing by an astonishing 50 percent in the 3 years between2002 and 2005. * Energy consumption in the iron and steel industry was 40percent higher than predicted * Energy consumption in the cement industrywas 54 percent higher than predicted * Overall energy intensity in theindustrial sector grew between 2000 and 2003. This is largely due tointernal shifts towards the most energy-intensive sub-sectors, an effectwhich more than counterbalances the impact of efficiency increases. *Industry accounted for 63 percent of total primary energy consumption in2005 - it is expected to continue to dominate energy consumption through2020, dropping only to 60 percent by that year. * Even assuming thatgrowth rates in 2005-2020 will return to the levels of 2000-2003,industrial energy will grow from 42 EJ in 2005 to 72 EJ in 2020. * Thepercentage of transport energy used to carry passengers (instead offreight) will double from 37 percent to 52 percent between 2000 to 2020,.Much of this increase is due to private car ownership, which willincrease by a factor of 15 from 5.1 million in 2000 to 77

  6. Energy Sector Vulnerability to Climate Change: Adaptation Options to Increase Resilience (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R. L.; Bilello, D.; Macknick, J.; Hallet, K. C.; Anderson, R.; Tidwell, V.; Zamuda, C.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting an assessment of vulnerabilities of the U.S. energy sector to climate change and extreme weather. Emphasizing peer reviewed research, it seeks to quantify vulnerabilities and identify specific knowledge or technology gaps. It draws upon a July 2012 workshop, ?Climate Change and Extreme Weather Vulnerability Assessment of the US Energy Sector?, hosted by the Atlantic Council and sponsored by DOE to solicit industry input.

  7. ImSET: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, Joseph M.; Scott, Michael J.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2005-07-19

    This version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the ''next generation'' of the previously developed Visual Basic model (ImBUILD 2.0) that was developed in 2003 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. More specifically, a special-purpose version of the 1997 benchmark national Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) -developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version allows for more complete and automated analysis of the essential features of energy efficiency investments in buildings, industry, transportation, and the electric power sectors. This version also incorporates improvements in the treatment of operations and maintenance costs, and improves the treatment of financing of investment options. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act.

  8. Urban energy consumption and related carbon emission estimation: a study at the sector scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Weiwei; Chen, Chen; Su, Meirong; Chen, Bin; Cai, Yanpeng; Xing, Tao

    2013-12-01

    With rapid economic development and energy consumption growth, China has become the largest energy consumer in the world. Impelled by extensive international concern, there is an urgent need to analyze the characteristics of energy consumption and related carbon emission, with the objective of saving energy, reducing carbon emission, and lessening environmental impact. Focusing on urban ecosystems, the biggest energy consumer, a method for estimating energy consumption and related carbon emission was established at the urban sector scale in this paper. Based on data for 1996-2010, the proposed method was applied to Beijing in a case study to analyze the consumption of different energy resources (i.e., coal, oil, gas, and electricity) and related carbon emission in different sectors (i.e., agriculture, industry, construction, transportation, household, and service sectors). The results showed that coal and oil contributed most to energy consumption and carbon emission among different energy resources during the study period, while the industrial sector consumed the most energy and emitted the most carbon among different sectors. Suggestions were put forward for energy conservation and emission reduction in Beijing. The analysis of energy consumption and related carbon emission at the sector scale is helpful for practical energy saving and emission reduction in urban ecosystems.

  9. The US textile industry: An energy perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Badin, J. S.; Lowitt, H. E.

    1988-01-01

    This report investigates the state of the US textile industry in terms of energy consumption and conservation. Specific objectives were: To update and verify energy and materials consumption data at the various process levels in 1984; to determine the potential energy savings attainable with current (1984), state-of-the-art, and future production practices and technologies (2010); and to identify new areas of research and development opportunity that will enable these potential future savings to be achieved. Results of this study concluded that in the year 2010, there is a potential to save between 34% and 53% of the energy used in current production practices, dependent on the projected technology mix. RandD needs and opportunities were identified for the industry in three categories: process modification, basic research, and improved housekeeping practices that reduce energy consumption. Potential RandD candidates for DOE involvement with the private sector were assessed and selected from the identified list.

  10. Mining Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-07-01

    The Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) relies on analytical studies to identify large energy reduction opportunities in energy-intensive industries and uses these results to guide its R&D portfolio. The energy bandwidth illustrates the total energy-saving opportunity that exists in the industry if the current processes are improved by implementing more energy-efficient practices and by using advanced technologies. This bandwidth analysis report was conducted to assist the ITP Mining R&D program in identifying energy-saving opportunities in coal, metals, and mineral mining. These opportunities were analyzed in key mining processes of blasting, dewatering, drilling, digging, ventilation, materials handling, crushing, grinding, and separations.

  11. Interacting vacuum energy in the dark sector

    SciTech Connect

    Chimento, L. P.; Carneiro, S.

    2015-03-26

    We analyse three cosmological scenarios with interaction in the dark sector, which are particular cases of a general expression for the energy flux from vacuum to matter. In the first case the interaction leads to a transition from an unstable de Sitter phase to a radiation dominated universe, avoiding in this way the initial singularity. In the second case the interaction gives rise to a slow-roll power-law inflation. Finally, the third scenario is a concordance model for the late-time universe, with the vacuum term decaying into cold dark matter. We identify the physics behind these forms of interaction and show that they can be described as particular types of the modified Chaplygin gas.

  12. Interacting vacuum energy in the dark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimento, L. P.; Carneiro, S.

    2015-03-01

    We analyse three cosmological scenarios with interaction in the dark sector, which are particular cases of a general expression for the energy flux from vacuum to matter. In the first case the interaction leads to a transition from an unstable de Sitter phase to a radiation dominated universe, avoiding in this way the initial singularity. In the second case the interaction gives rise to a slow-roll power-law inflation. Finally, the third scenario is a concordance model for the late-time universe, with the vacuum term decaying into cold dark matter. We identify the physics behind these forms of interaction and show that they can be described as particular types of the modified Chaplygin gas.

  13. Analysis of labour risks in the Spanish industrial aerospace sector.

    PubMed

    Laguardia, Juan; Rubio, Emilio; Garcia, Ana; Garcia-Foncillas, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Labour risk prevention is an activity integrated within Safety and Hygiene at Work in Spain. In 2003, the Electronic Declaration for Accidents at Work, Delt@ (DELTA) was introduced. The industrial aerospace sector is subject to various risks. Our objective is to analyse the Spanish Industrial Aerospace Sector (SIAS) using the ACSOM methodology to assess its labour risks and to prioritise preventive actions. The SIAS and the Services Subsector (SS) were created and the relevant accident rate data were obtained. The ACSOM method was applied through double contrast (deviation and translocation) of the SIAS or SS risk polygon with the considered pattern, accidents from all sectors (ACSOM G) or the SIAS. A list of risks was obtained, ordered by action phases. In the SIAS vs. ACSOM G analysis, radiation risks were the worst, followed by overstrains. Accidents caused by living beings were also significant in the SS vs. SIAE, which will be able to be used to improve Risk Prevention. Radiation is the most significant risk in the SIAS and the SS. Preventive actions will be primary and secondary. ACSOM has shown itself to be a valid tool for the analysis of labour risks.

  14. Determinants of eco-efficiency in the Chinese industrial sector.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2013-12-01

    This study measures productive inefficiency within the context of multi-environmental pollution (eco-efficiency) in the Chinese industrial sector. The weighted Russell directional distance model is applied to measure eco-efficiency using production technology. The objective is to clarify how external factors affect eco-efficiency. The major findings are that both foreign direct investment and investment for pollution abatement improve eco-efficiency as measured by air pollutant substances. A levy system for wastewater discharge improves eco-efficiency as measured by wastewater pollutant substances. However, an air pollutant levy does not significantly affect eco-efficiency as measured by air pollutants.

  15. Industrial Energy Conservation Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 55 papers presented in this volume, all of which will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); 18 were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  16. Industrial energy conservation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, P.S.; Williams, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 60 papers included in this volume, all of which will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); 21 were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  17. Assessment of On-Site Power Opportunities in the Industrial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, T.

    2001-10-08

    The purpose of this report is to identify the potential for on-site power generation in the U.S. industrial sector with emphasis on nine industrial groups called the ''Industries of the Future'' (IOFs) by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through its Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), the DOE has teamed with the IOFs to develop collaborative strategies for improving productivity, global competitiveness, energy usage and environmental performance. Total purchases for electricity and steam for the IOFs are in excess of $27 billion annually. Energy-related costs are very significant for these industries. The nine industrial groups are (1) Agriculture (SIC 1); (2) Forest products; (3) Lumber and wood products (SIC 24); (4) Paper and allied products (SIC 26); (5) Mining (SIC 11, 12, 14); (6) Glass (SIC 32); (7) Petroleum (SIC 29); (8) Chemicals (SIC 28); and (9) Metals (SIC 33): Steel, Aluminum, and Metal casting. Although not currently part of the IOF program, the food industry is included in this report because of its close relationship to the agricultural industry and its success with on-site power generation. On-site generation provides an alternative means to reduce energy costs, comply with environmental regulations, and ensure a reliable power supply. On-site generation can ease congestion in the local utility's electric grid. Electric market restructuring is exacerbating the price premium for peak electricity use and for reliability, creating considerable market interest in on-site generation.

  18. Market leadership by example: Government sector energy efficiency in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Harris, Jeffrey; Breceda, Miguel; Campbell, Stephanie; Sachu, Constantine; della Cava, Mirka; Gonzalez Martinez, Jose; Meyer, Sarah; Romo, Ana Margarita

    2002-05-20

    Government facilities and services are often the largest energy users and major purchasers of energy-using equipment within a country. In developing as well as industrial countries, government ''leadership by example'' can be a powerful force to shift the market toward energy efficiency, complementing other elements of a national energy efficiency strategy. Benefits from more efficient energy management in government facilities and operations include lower government energy bills, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, less demand on electric utility systems, and in many cases reduced dependence on imported oil. Even more significantly, the government sector's buying power and example to others can generate broader demand for energy-efficient products and services, creating entry markets for domestic suppliers and stimulating competition in providing high-efficiency products and services. Despite these benefits, with the exception of a few countries government sector actions have often lagged behind other energy efficiency policies. This is especially true in developing countries and transition economies - even though energy used by public agencies in these countries may represent at least as large a share of total energy use as the public sector in industrial economies. This paper summarizes work in progress to inventory current programs and policies for government sector energy efficiency in developing countries, and describes successful case studies from Mexico's implementation of energy management in the public sector. We show how these policies in Mexico, begun at the federal level, have more recently been extended to state and local agencies, and consider the applicability of this model to other developing countries.

  19. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Lu, Hongyou; Horvath, Arpad

    2010-05-21

    The 2006 California Global Warming Solutions Act calls for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. Meeting this target will require action from all sectors of the California economy, including industry. The industrial sector consumes 25% of the energy used and emits 28% of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced in the state. Many countries around the world have national-level GHG reduction or energy-efficiency targets, and comprehensive programs focused on implementation of energy efficiency and GHG emissions mitigation measures in the industrial sector are essential for achieving their goals. A combination of targets and industry-focused supporting programs has led to significant investments in energy efficiency as well as reductions in GHG emissions within the industrial sectors in these countries. This project has identified program and policies that have effectively targeted the industrial sector in other countries to achieve real energy and CO{sub 2} savings. Programs in Ireland, France, The Netherlands, Denmark, and the UK were chosen for detailed review. Based on the international experience documented in this report, it is recommended that companies in California's industrial sector be engaged in a program to provide them with support to meet the requirements of AB32, The Global Warming Solution Act. As shown in this review, structured programs that engage industry, require members to evaluate their potential efficiency measures, plan how to meet efficiency or emissions reduction goals, and provide support in achieving the goals, can be quite effective at assisting companies to achieve energy efficiency levels beyond those that can be expected to be achieved autonomously.

  20. Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-10-01

    ITP conducted a study on energy use and potential savings, or "bandwidth" study, in major steelmaking processes. Intended to provide a realistic estimate of the potential amount of energy that can be saved in an industrial process, the "bandwidth" refers to the difference between the amount of energy that would be consumed in a process using commercially available technology versus the minimum amount of energy needed to achieve those same results based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study (PDF 133 KB) also estimates steel industry energy use in the year 2010, and uses that value as a basis for comparison against the minimum requirements. This energy savings opportunity for 2010 will aid focus on longer term R&D.

  1. Trends of anthropogenic mercury emissions from 1970-2008 using the global EDGARv4 database: the role of increasing emission mitigation by the energy sector and the chlor-alkali industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Olivier, J. G.; Guizzardi, D.; Dentener, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) describes time-series of emissions of man-made greenhouse gases and short-lived atmospheric pollutants from 1970-2008. EDGARv4 is continuously updated to respond to needs of both the scientific community and environmental policy makers. Mercury, a toxic pollutant with bioaccumulation properties, is included in the forthcoming EDGARv4.3 release, thereby enriching the spectrum of multi-pollutant sources. Three different forms of mercury have been distinguished: gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), divalent mercury compounds (Hg2+) and particulate associated mercury (Hg-P). A complete inventory of mercury emission sources has been developed at country level using the EDGAR technology-based methodology together with international activity statistics, technology-specific abatement measures, and emission factors from EMEP/EEA (2009), USEPA AP 42 and the scientific literature. A comparison of the EDGAR mercury emission data to the widely used UNEP inventory shows consistent emissions across most sectors compared for the year 2005. The different shares of mercury emissions by region and by sector will be presented with special emphasis on the region-specific mercury emission mitigation potential. We provide a comprehensive ex-post analysis of the mitigation of mercury emissions by respectively end-of-pipe abatement measures in the power generation sector and technology changes in the chlor-alkali industry between 1970 and 2008. Given the local scale impacts of mercury, we have paid special attention to the spatial distribution of emissions. The default EDGAR Population proxy data was only used to distribute emissions from the residential and solid waste incineration sectors. Other sectors use point source data of power plants, industrial plants, gold and mercury mines. The 2008 mercury emission distribution will be presented, which shows emissions hot-spots on a 0.1°x0.1°resolution gridmap.

  2. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gasemissions

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell, Ernst; Zhou, Nan; Sathaye, Jayant; Levine, Mark

    2006-07-24

    In 2000, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published a new set of baseline greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). The SRES team defined four narrative storylines (A1, A2, B1 and B2) describing the relationships between the forces driving GHG and aerosol emissions and their evolution during the 21st century. The SRES reports emissions for each of these storylines by type of GHG and by fuel type to 2100 globally and for four world regions (OECD countries as of 1990, countries undergoing economic reform, developing countries in Asia, rest of world). Specific assumptions about the quantification of scenario drivers, such as population and economic growth, technological change, resource availability, land-use changes, and local and regional environmental policies, are also provided. End-use sector-level results for buildings, industry, or transportation or information regarding adoption of particular technologies and policies are not provided in the SRES. The goal of this report is to provide more detailed information on the SRES scenarios at the end use level including historical time series data and a decomposition of energy consumption to understand the forecast implications in terms of end use efficiency to 2030. This report focuses on the A1 (A1B) and B2 marker scenarios since they represent distinctly contrasting futures. The A1 storyline describes a future of very rapid economic growth, low population growth, and the rapid introduction of new and more efficient technologies. Major underlying themes are convergence among regions, capacity building, and increased cultural and social interactions, with a substantial reduction in regional differences in per capita income. The B2 storyline describes a world with an emphasis on economic, social, and environmental sustainability, especially at the local and regional levels. It is a world with moderate population growth

  3. Use of solar energy to produce process heat for industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, K.

    1980-04-01

    The role of solar energy in supplying heat and hot water to residential and commerical buildings is familiar. On the other hand, the role that solar energy may play in displacing imported energy supplies in the industrial and utility sectors often goes unrecognized. The versatility of solar technology lends itself well to applications in industry; particulary to the supplemental supply for process heat. The status of solar thermal technology for industrial process heat applications, including a description of current costs and operating histories is surveyed. The most important objectives to be met in improving system performance, reducing cost, and identifying markets for solar industrial process heat are outlined.

  4. Industrial Energy Efficiency Practices in Indonesia: Lesson Learned from Astra Green Energy (AGen) Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telaga, A. S.; Hartanto, I. D.

    2017-03-01

    Many countries have used award system to promote energy efficiency practices in industry. The award system has been found to have significant impact to increase energy conservation and sustainability adoption in companies. Astra International (AI) as a holding company of more than 200 companies also organised Astra green energy (AGen) award to all affiliated companies (AFFCO) in Astra group. The event has been used to share energy efficiency best practices among AFFCO in Astra group. AFFCOs of Astra International are among the biggest and the leader in their industrial sectors Therefore, analyses from AFFO’s energy efficiency case studies represents current practices in Indonesia industrial sectors. Analyses are divided into industry, building, and renewable energy. The results from analyses found that AFFCOs already aware of energy conservation and have implemented projects to promote energy efficiency. However, the AFFCOs do not optimally use monitoring data for energy reduction.

  5. Human Settlements, Energy, and Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Gupta, Sujata; Jauregui, Ernesto; Nwafor, James; Satterthwaite, David; Wanasinghe, Yapa; Wilbanks, Thomas; Yoshino, Masatoshi; Kelkar, Ulka

    2001-01-15

    Human settlements are integrators of many of the climate impacts initially felt in other sectors, and differ from each other in geographic location, size, economic circumstances, and political and social capacity. The most wide-spread serious potential impact is flooding and landslides, followed by tropical cyclones. A growing literature suggests that a very wide variety of settlements in nearly every climate zone may be affected, although the specific evidence is still very limited. Settlements with little economic diversification and where a high percentage of incomes derive from climate sensitive primary resource industries (agriculture, forestry and fisheries) are more sensitive than more diversified settlements

  6. Turkey energy and environmental review - Task 7 energy sector modeling : executive summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-02-28

    Turkey's demand for energy and electricity is increasing rapidly. Since 1990, energy consumption has increased at an annual average rate of 4.3%. As would be expected, the rapid expansion of energy production and consumption has brought with it a wide range of environmental issues at the local, regional and global levels. With respect to global environmental issues, Turkey's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have grown along with its energy consumption. Emissions in 2000 reached 211 million metric tons. With GDP projected to grow at over 6% per year over the next 25 years, both the energy sector and the pollution associated with it are expected to increase substantially. This is expected to occur even if assuming stricter controls on lignite and hard coal-fired power generation. All energy consuming sectors, that is, power, industrial, residential, and transportation, will contribute to this increased emissions burden. Turkish Government authorities charged with managing the fundamental problem of carrying on economic development while protecting the environment include the Ministry of Environment (MOE), the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR), and the Ministry of Health, as well as the Turkish Electricity Generation & Transmission Company (TEAS). The World Bank, working with these agencies, is planning to assess the costs and benefits of various energy policy alternatives under an Energy and Environment Review (EER). Eight individual studies have been conducted under this activity to analyze certain key energy technology issues and use this analysis to fill in the gaps in data and technical information. This will allow the World Bank and Turkish authorities to better understand the trade-offs in costs and impacts associated with specific policy decisions. The purpose of Task 7-Energy Sector Modeling, is to integrate information obtained in other EER tasks and provide Turkey's policy makers with an integrated systems analysis of the various options for

  7. Household energy management strategies in Bulgaria's transitioning energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carper, Mark Daniel Lynn

    Recent transition literature of post-socialist states has addressed the shortcomings of a rapid blanket implementation of neo-liberal policies and practices placed upon a landscape barren of the needed institutions and experiences. Included in these observations are the policy-making oversight of spatial socioeconomic variations and their individual and diverse methods of coping with their individual challenges. Of such literature addressing the case of Bulgaria, a good portion deals with the spatial consequences of restructuring as well as with embedded disputes over access to and control of resources. With few exceptions, studies of Bulgaria's changing energy sector have largely been at the state level and have not been placed within the context of spatial disparities of socioeconomic response. By exploring the variations of household energy management strategies across space, my dissertation places this resource within such a theoretical context and offers analysis based on respective levels of economic and human development, inherited material infrastructures, the organization and activities of institutions, and fuel and technological availability. A closed survey was distributed to explore six investigational themes across four geographic realms. The investigational themes include materials of housing construction, methods of household heating, use of electrical appliances, energy conservation strategies, awareness and use of energy conservation technologies, and attitudes toward the transitioning energy sector. The geographic realms include countrywide results, the urban-rural divide, regional variations, and urban divisions of the capital city, Sofia. Results conclude that, indeed, energy management strategies at the household level have been shaped by multiple variables, many of which differ across space. These variables include price sensitivity, degree of dependence on remnant technologies, fuel and substitute availability, and level of human and

  8. Analysis of energy-related CO2 emissions and driving factors in five major energy consumption sectors in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Erqian; Ren, Lijun; Sun, Haoyu

    2016-10-01

    Continual growth of energy-related CO2 emissions in China has received great attention, both domestically and internationally. In this paper, we evaluated the CO2 emissions in five major energy consumption sectors which were evaluated from 1991 to 2012. In order to analyze the driving factors of CO2 emission change in different sectors, the Kaya identity was extended by adding several variables based on specific industrial characteristics and a decomposition analysis model was established according to the LMDI method. The results demonstrated that economic factor was the leading force explaining emission increase in each sector while energy intensity and sector contribution were major contributors to emission mitigation. Meanwhile, CO2 emission intensity had no significant influence on CO2 emission in the short term, and energy consumption structure had a small but growing negative impact on the increase of CO2 emissions. In addition, the future CO2 emissions of industry from 2013 to 2020 under three scenarios were estimated, and the reduction potential of CO2 emissions in industry are 335 Mt in 2020 under lower-emission scenario while the CO2 emission difference between higher-emission scenario and lower-emission scenario is nearly 725 Mt. This paper can offer complementary perspectives on determinants of energy-related CO2 emission change in different sectors and help to formulate mitigation strategies for CO2 emissions.

  9. A model for Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF)

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M. ||; Hwang, R.

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish the content and structural validity of the Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model, and to provide estimates for the model`s parameters. The model is intended to provide decision makers with a relatively simple, yet credible tool to forecast the impacts of policies which affect long-term energy demand in the manufacturing sector. Particular strengths of this model are its relative simplicity which facilitates both ease of use and understanding of results, and the inclusion of relevant causal relationships which provide useful policy handles. The modeling approach of LIEF is intermediate between top-down econometric modeling and bottom-up technology models. It relies on the following simple concept, that trends in aggregate energy demand are dependent upon the factors: (1) trends in total production; (2) sectoral or structural shift, that is, changes in the mix of industrial output from energy-intensive to energy non-intensive sectors; and (3) changes in real energy intensity due to technical change and energy-price effects as measured by the amount of energy used per unit of manufacturing output (KBtu per constant $ of output). The manufacturing sector is first disaggregated according to their historic output growth rates, energy intensities and recycling opportunities. Exogenous, macroeconomic forecasts of individual subsector growth rates and energy prices can then be combined with endogenous forecasts of real energy intensity trends to yield forecasts of overall energy demand. 75 refs.

  10. A model for Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF)

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M. Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI . Dept. of Physics Argonne National Lab., IL . Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.); Hwang, R. )

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish the content and structural validity of the Long-term Industrial Energy Forecasting (LIEF) model, and to provide estimates for the model's parameters. The model is intended to provide decision makers with a relatively simple, yet credible tool to forecast the impacts of policies which affect long-term energy demand in the manufacturing sector. Particular strengths of this model are its relative simplicity which facilitates both ease of use and understanding of results, and the inclusion of relevant causal relationships which provide useful policy handles. The modeling approach of LIEF is intermediate between top-down econometric modeling and bottom-up technology models. It relies on the following simple concept, that trends in aggregate energy demand are dependent upon the factors: (1) trends in total production; (2) sectoral or structural shift, that is, changes in the mix of industrial output from energy-intensive to energy non-intensive sectors; and (3) changes in real energy intensity due to technical change and energy-price effects as measured by the amount of energy used per unit of manufacturing output (KBtu per constant $ of output). The manufacturing sector is first disaggregated according to their historic output growth rates, energy intensities and recycling opportunities. Exogenous, macroeconomic forecasts of individual subsector growth rates and energy prices can then be combined with endogenous forecasts of real energy intensity trends to yield forecasts of overall energy demand. 75 refs.

  11. Reduction of Multi-pollutant Emissions from Industrial Sectors: The U.S. Cement Industry – A Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    For Frank Princiotta’s book, Global Climate Change—The Technology Challenge Carbon dioxide (CO2) accounts for more than 90% of worldwide CO2-eq green-house gas (GHG) emissions from industrial sectors other than power generation. Amongst these sectors, the cement industry is one ...

  12. Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H.

    1996-12-31

    Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

  13. Workshop proceeding of the industrial building energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Gadgil, A.

    1988-01-01

    California has a large number of small and medium sized industries which have a major impact on the demand growth of California utilities. Energy use in building services (lighting, HVAC, office equipment, computers, etc.). These industries constitute an important but largely neglected fraction of the total site energy use. The ratio of energy use in building service to the total site energy use is a function of the industrial activity, its size, and the climate at the site of the facility. Also, energy use in building services is more responsive to weather and occupant schedules than the traditional base-load'' industrial process energy. Industrial energy use is considered as a base-load'' by utility companies because it helps to increase the utilities' load factor. To increase this further, utilities often market energy at lower rates to industrial facilities. Presently, the energy use in the building services of the industrial sector is often clubbed together with industrial process load. Data on non-process industrial energy use are not readily available in the literature. In cases where the major portion of the energy is used in the building services (with daily and seasonal load profiles that in fact peak at the same time as systemwide load peaks), the utility may be selling below cost at peak power times. These cases frequently happen with electric utilities. 30 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Industrial Facility Combustion Energy Use

    DOE Data Explorer

    McMillan, Colin

    2016-08-01

    Facility-level industrial combustion energy use is calculated from greenhouse gas emissions data reported by large emitters (>25,000 metric tons CO2e per year) under the U.S. EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP, https://www.epa.gov/ghgreporting). The calculation applies EPA default emissions factors to reported fuel use by fuel type. Additional facility information is included with calculated combustion energy values, such as industry type (six-digit NAICS code), location (lat, long, zip code, county, and state), combustion unit type, and combustion unit name. Further identification of combustion energy use is provided by calculating energy end use (e.g., conventional boiler use, co-generation/CHP use, process heating, other facility support) by manufacturing NAICS code. Manufacturing facilities are matched by their NAICS code and reported fuel type with the proportion of combustion fuel energy for each end use category identified in the 2010 Energy Information Administration Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS, http://www.eia.gov/consumption/manufacturing/data/2010/). MECS data are adjusted to account for data that were withheld or whose end use was unspecified following the procedure described in Fox, Don B., Daniel Sutter, and Jefferson W. Tester. 2011. The Thermal Spectrum of Low-Temperature Energy Use in the United States, NY: Cornell Energy Institute.

  15. Methodology for Modeling Building Energy Performance across the Commercial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2008-03-01

    This report uses EnergyPlus simulations of each building in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to document and demonstrate bottom-up methods of modeling the entire U.S. commercial buildings sector (EIA 2006). The ability to use a whole-building simulation tool to model the entire sector is of interest because the energy models enable us to answer subsequent 'what-if' questions that involve technologies and practices related to energy. This report documents how the whole-building models were generated from the building characteristics in 2003 CBECS and compares the simulation results to the survey data for energy use.

  16. Energy finance data warehouse: Tracking revenues through the power sector

    DOE PAGES

    Claire, Zeng; Hendrickson, Stephen; Lee, Sangkeun; ...

    2017-03-24

    Reliable data is needed to understand financial relationships in the power sector. However, relevant data acquisition and visualization can be a challenge due to the fragmented nature of the power sector. The Energy Policy and Systems Analysis office of the U.S. Department of Energy led a team of data scientists at Oak Ridge National Lab to collect revenue information from a variety of sources.

  17. Energy saver for industrial lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arline, J.; Lapalme, J.; Warren, C.

    1980-01-01

    Electronic controller switches lights on or off in response to amount of sunlight available. Is application in offices and industrial installations where electrical energy is wasted by using artificial light in sunlit areas. Device utilizes electronic monitor that varies artificial lighting according to amount of sunlight in given area.

  18. Mitigation technologies and measures in energy sector of Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect

    Pilifosova, O.; Danchuk, D.; Temertekov, T.

    1996-12-31

    An important commitment in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is to conduct mitigation analysis and to communicate climate change measures and policies. In major part reducing CO{sub 2} as well as the other greenhouse gas emissions in Kazakstan, can be a side-product of measures addressed to increasing energy efficiency. Since such measures are very important for the national economy, mitigation strategies in the energy sector of Kazakstan are directly connected with the general national strategy of the energy sector development. This paper outlines the main measures and technologies in energy sector of Kazakstan which can lead to GHG emissions reduction and presents the results of current mitigation assessment. The mitigation analysis is addressed to energy production sector. A baseline and six mitigation scenarios were developed to evaluate the most attractive mitigation options, focusing on specific technologies which have been already included in sustainable energy programs. According to the baseline projection, Kazakstan`s CO{sub 2} emissions will not exceed their 1990 level until 2005. The potential for CO{sub 2} emission reduction is estimated to be about 11 % of the base line emission level by the end of considered period (in 2020). The main mitigation options in the energy production sector in terms of mitigation potential and technical and economical feasibility include rehabilitation of thermal power plants aimed to increasing efficiency, use of nuclear energy and further expansion in the use of hydro energy based on small hydroelectric power plants.

  19. Trends in Worker Hearing Loss by Industry Sector, 1981–2010

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, Elizabeth A.; Deddens, James A.; Themann, Christa L.; Bertke, Stephen; Calvert, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of hearing loss for noise-exposed U.S. workers by industry sector and 5-year time period, covering 30 years. Methods Audiograms for 1.8 million workers from 1981–2010 were examined. Incidence and prevalence were estimated by industry sector and time period. The adjusted risk of incident hearing loss within each time period and industry sector as compared with a reference time period was also estimated. Results The adjusted risk for incident hearing loss decreased over time when all industry sectors were combined. However, the risk remained high for workers in Healthcare and Social Assistance, and the prevalence was consistently high for Mining and Construction workers. Conclusions While progress has been made in reducing the risk of incident hearing loss within most industry sectors, additional efforts are needed within Mining, Construction and Healthcare and Social Assistance. PMID:25690583

  20. California Industrial Energy Efficiency Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Coito, Fred; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Masanet, Eric; RafaelFriedmann; Rufo, Mike

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the modeling approach andhighlights key findings of a California industrial energy efficiencypotential study. In addition to providing estimates of technical andeconomic potential, the study examines achievable program potential undervarious program-funding scenarios. The focus is on electricity andnatural gas savings for manufacturing in the service territories ofCalifornia's investor-owned utilities (IOUs). The assessment is conductedby industry type and by end use. Both crosscutting technologies andindustry-specific process measures are examined. Measure penetration intothe marketplace is modeled as a function of customer awareness, measurecost effectiveness, and perceived market barriers. Data for the studycomes from a variety of sources, including: utility billing records, theEnergy Information Association (EIA) Manufacturing Energy ConsumptionSurvey (MECS), state-sponsored avoided cost studies, energy efficiencyprogram filings, and technology savings and cost data developed throughLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The study identifies 1,706GWh and 47 Mth (million therms) per year of achievable potential over thenext twelve years under recent levels of program expenditures, accountingfor 5.2 percent of industrial electricity consumption and 1.3 percent ofindustrial natural gas consumption. These estimates grow to 2,748 GWh and192 Mth per year if all cost-effective and achievable opportunities arepursued. Key industrial electricity end uses, in terms of energy savingspotential, include compressed air and pumping systems that combine toaccount for about half of the total achievable potential estimates. Fornatural gas, savings are concentrated in the boiler and process heatingend uses, accounting for over 99 percent to total achievablepotential.

  1. India's pulp and paper industry: Productivity and energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Katja

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's pulp and paper sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. The authors derive both statistical and econometric estimates of productivity growth for this sector. Their results show that productivity declined over the observed period from 1973-74 to 1993-94 by 1.1% p.a. Using a translog specification the econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's pulp and paper sector has been biased towards the use of energy and material, while it has been capital and labor saving. The decline in productivity was caused largely by the protection afforded by high tariffs on imported paper products and other policies, which allowed inefficient, small plants to enter the market and flourish. Will these trends continue into the future, particularly where energy use is concerned? The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency undergoing in the sector. Their analysis shows that with liberalization of the sector, and tighter environmental controls, the industry is moving towards higher efficiency and productivity. However, the analysis also shows that because these improvements are being hampered by significant financial and other barriers the industry might have a long way to go.

  2. External research and energy efficiency in the process industries

    SciTech Connect

    Kaarsberg, T.M.; Foust, T.D.

    1997-07-01

    The process industries in the US are under enormous pressure. These industries, even more than US industry on average, face skyrocketing environmental costs, a rapidly changing electricity market, potential climate change policies, aging infrastructure and strong international competition. To be profitable they must reduce their costs and environmental impacts while increasing their product quality, turnaround time, productivity and output. Most of these industries have already cut costs and labor as much as possible. Therefore, to survive, these industries must innovate. History shows that industries that are the most innovative are the most successful. These industries are vital to the US economy. For example, the metals, pulp and paper, chemicals and the petroleum refining industries account for more than $800 billion in products shipped and employ more than three million workers. Although the US has shifted dramatically toward services with 77% of workers and 74% of GDP now in the service sector, what many have missed is that the process industries are important customers for many of these new services. ServOnly the last two years of NSF industrial R and D data provide any breakout of non-manufacturing R and D. This paper discusses the past, current and possible future role of eternal research and development (R and D)--much of which is now in the service sector--in fostering innovation and thus energy efficiency in these industries. The authors suggest that these industries are more innovative than previously thought because of external research.

  3. Energy conservation and the transportation sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The present status of the energy implications of the transportation systems in the United States was illustrated, with primary emphasis on the technologies and methods for achieving a substantial reduction in the associated energy price (approximately 25% of the nation's energy is consumed directly in the operation of these systems). These technologies may be classified as follows: (1) improvement of system efficiency (system operations or technological), (2) substitution for scarce energy resources (electrification, alternate fuels, use of man power, recycling), (3) curtailment of end use (managed population growth rate, education of citizenry, alternatives to personal transportation, improved urban planning, reduced travel incentives). Examples and illustrations were given. Thirty-four actions were chosen on the basis of a preliminary filtering process with the objective of: (1) demonstrating a methodological approach to arrive at logical and consistent conservation action packages, (2) recommending a viable and supportable specific set of actions.

  4. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  5. Executive Summary - Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, J.; Heath, G.; Macknick, J.; Paranhos, E.; Boyd, W.; Carlson, K.

    2013-01-01

    In November 2012, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) released a new report, 'Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity.' The study provides a new methodological approach to estimate natural gas related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, tracks trends in regulatory and voluntary industry practices, and explores various electricity futures. The Executive Summary provides key findings, insights, data, and figures from this major study.

  6. Energy Industry. Industry Study, Spring 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    transitioning to clean energy from fossil fuels) coupled with more efficient timelines for nuclear plant licensin construction, may lower the investment...impact on food imports/exports.1 Wind—A Breath of Clean Energy ! Wind power has the greatest near-term growth potential of all renewable energy...currently feasible clean energy sources to expand. The U.S. must also work to decarbonize current energy sources by capturing and storing carbon. Much

  7. Public sector energy management: A strategy for catalyzing energy efficiency in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Anish Kumar

    To date the public sector role in facilitating the transition to a sustainable energy future has been envisaged mainly from a regulatory perspective. In such a role, the public sector provides the push factors---enforcing regulations and providing incentives---to correct market imperfections that impede energy transitions. An alternative and complementary role of the public sector that is now gaining increasing attention is that of catalyzing energy transitions through public sector energy management initiatives. This dissertation offers a conceptual framework to rationalize such a role for the public sector by combining recent theories of sustainable energy transition and public management. In particular, the framework identifies innovative public management strategies (such as performance contracting and procurement) for effectively implementing sustainable energy projects in government facilities. The dissertation evaluates a model of sustainable public sector energy management for promoting energy efficiency in Malaysia. The public sector in Malaysia can be a major player in leading and catalyzing energy efficiency efforts as it is not only the largest and one of the most influential energy consumers, but it also plays a central role in setting national development strategy. The dissertation makes several recommendations on how a public sector energy management strategy can be implemented in Malaysia. The US Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is used as a practical model. The analysis, however, shows that in applying the FEMP model to the Malaysian context, there are a number of limitations that will have to be taken into consideration to enable a public sector energy management strategy to be effectively implemented. Overall the analysis of this dissertation contributes to a rethinking of the public sector role in sustainable energy development that can strengthen the sector's credibility both in terms of governance and institutional performance. In

  8. Detection and Analysis of Threats to the Energy Sector: DATES

    SciTech Connect

    Alfonso Valdes

    2010-03-31

    This report summarizes Detection and Analysis of Threats to the Energy Sector (DATES), a project sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and performed by a team led by SRI International, with collaboration from Sandia National Laboratories, ArcSight, Inc., and Invensys Process Systems. DATES sought to advance the state of the practice in intrusion detection and situational awareness with respect to cyber attacks in energy systems. This was achieved through adaptation of detection algorithms for process systems as well as development of novel anomaly detection techniques suited for such systems into a detection suite. These detection components, together with third-party commercial security systems, were interfaced with the commercial Security Information Event Management (SIEM) solution from ArcSight. The efficacy of the integrated solution was demonstrated on two testbeds, one based on a Distributed Control System (DCS) from Invensys, and the other based on the Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE) from Sandia. These achievements advance the DOE Cybersecurity Roadmap [DOE2006] goals in the area of security monitoring. The project ran from October 2007 until March 2010, with the final six months focused on experimentation. In the validation phase, team members from SRI and Sandia coupled the two test environments and carried out a number of distributed and cross-site attacks against various points in one or both testbeds. Alert messages from the distributed, heterogeneous detection components were correlated using the ArcSight SIEM platform, providing within-site and cross-site views of the attacks. In particular, the team demonstrated detection and visualization of network zone traversal and denial-of-service attacks. These capabilities were presented to the DistribuTech Conference and Exhibition in March 2010. The project was hampered by interruption of funding due to continuing resolution issues and agreement on cost share for four months in 2008

  9. Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry

    SciTech Connect

    China Energy Group; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2010-09-29

    The textile industry is one of the most complicated manufacturing industries because it is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Energy is one of the main cost factors in the textile industry. Especially in times of high energy price volatility, improving energy efficiency should be a primary concern for textile plants. There are various energy-efficiency opportunities that exist in every textile plant, many of which are cost-effective. However, even cost-effective options often are not implemented in textile plants mostly because of limited information on how to implement energy-efficiency measures, especially given the fact that a majority of textile plants are categorized as SMEs and hence they have limited resources to acquire this information. Know-how on energy-efficiency technologies and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to textile plants. This guidebook provides information on energy-efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the textile industry. The guidebook includes case studies from textile plants around the world and includes energy savings and cost information when available. First, the guidebook gives a brief overview of the textile industry around the world, with an explanation of major textile processes. An analysis of the type and the share of energy used in different textile processes is also included in the guidebook. Subsequently, energy-efficiency improvement opportunities available within some of the major textile sub-sectors are given with a brief explanation of each measure. The conclusion includes a short section dedicated to highlighting a few emerging technologies in the textile industry as well as the potential for the use of renewable energy in the textile industry.

  10. Interacting dark sector with variable vacuum energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimento, Luis P.; Richarte, Martín G.; García, Iván E. Sánchez

    2013-10-01

    We examine a cosmological scenario where dark matter is coupled to a variable vacuum energy while baryons and photons are two decoupled components for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime. We apply the χ2 method to the updated observational Hubble data for constraining the cosmological parameters and analyze the amount of dark energy in the radiation era. We show that our model fulfills the severe bound of Ωx(z≃1100)<0.009 at the 2σ level, so it is consistent with the recent analysis that includes cosmic microwave background anisotropy measurements from the Planck survey, the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, and the South Pole Telescope along with the future constraints achievable by the Euclid and CMBPol experiments, and fulfills the stringent bound Ωx(z≃1010)<0.04 at the 2σ level in the big-bang nucleosynthesis epoch.

  11. Phase change materials in energy sector - applications and material requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuta, Marta; Wójcik, Tadeusz M.

    2015-05-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) have been applying in many areas. One of them is energy field. PCMs are interesting for the energy sector because their use enables thermal stabilization and storage of large amount of heat. It is major issue for safety of electronic devices, thermal control of buildings and vehicles, solar power and many others energy domains. This paper contains preliminary results of research on solid-solid phase change materials designed for thermal stabilisation of electronic devices.

  12. Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum RefiningIndustry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-05-01

    Information has proven to be an important barrier inindustrial energy efficiency improvement. Voluntary government programsaim to assist industry to improve energy efficiency by supplyinginformation on opportunities. ENERGY STAR(R) supports the development ofstrong strategic corporate energy management programs, by providingenergy management information tools and strategies. This paper summarizesENERGY STAR research conducted to develop an Energy Guide for thePetroleum Refining industry. Petroleum refining in the United States isthe largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually every economicsector, including the transport sector and the chemical industry.Refineries spend typically 50 percent of the cash operating costs (e.g.,excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy amajor cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction.The petroleum refining industry consumes about 3.1 Quads of primaryenergy, making it the single largest industrial energy user in the UnitedStates. Typically, refineries can economically improve energy efficiencyby 20 percent. The findings suggest that given available resources andtechnology, there are substantial opportunities to reduce energyconsumption cost-effectively in the petroleum refining industry whilemaintaining the quality of the products manufactured.

  13. Secure Control Systems for the Energy Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Rhett; Campbell, Jack; Hadley, Mark

    2012-03-31

    Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL) will conduct the Hallmark Project to address the need to reduce the risk of energy disruptions because of cyber incidents on control systems. The goals is to develop solutions that can be both applied to existing control systems and designed into new control systems to add the security measures needed to mitigate energy network vulnerabilities. The scope of the Hallmark Project contains four primary elements: 1. Technology transfer of the Secure Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Communications Protocol (SSCP) from Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). The project shall use this technology to develop a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2 compliant original equipment manufacturer (OEM) module to be called a Cryptographic Daughter Card (CDC) with the ability to directly connect to any PC enabling that computer to securely communicate across serial to field devices. Validate the OEM capabilities with another vendor. 2. Development of a Link Authenticator Module (LAM) using the FIPS 140-2 validated Secure SCADA Communications Protocol (SSCP) CDC module with a central management software kit. 3. Validation of the CDC and Link Authenticator modules via laboratory and field tests. 4. Creation of documents that record the impact of the Link Authenticator to the operators of control systems and on the control system itself. The information in the documents can assist others with technology deployment and maintenance.

  14. Emerging Wind Energy Opportunities in the Federal Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, Robi

    2016-08-08

    Robi Robichaud made this presentation as part of an Energy Technology session at the Energy Exchange event, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. The presentation discusses a wind energy industry update, technology trends, financing options at federal facilities, and creative approaches for developing wind projects at federal facilities.

  15. Priority mitigation measures in non-energy sector in Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect

    Mizina, S.V.; Pilifosova, O.V.; Gossen, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    Fulfilling the Commitments on UN FCCC through the U.S. Country Studies Program, Kazakstan has developed the national GHG Inventory, vulnerability and adaptation assessment and estimated the possibility of mitigation measures in certain sectors. Next step is developing National Climate Change Action Plan. That process includes such major steps as setting priorities in mitigation measures and technologies, their comprehensive evaluation, preparation implementation strategies, developing the procedure of incorporation of the National Action Plan into other development plans and programs. This paper presents programs and measures that can reduce GHG emissions in non-energy sector. Measures in land-use change and forestry, agriculture and coal mining are considered. Current situation in non-energy sector of Kazakstan is discussed. The amount of GHG emissions reduction and cost analysis presented in this paper was developed with the use of IPCC recommendations.

  16. Reforming Mexico’s Energy Sector to Enhance Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-27

    requirement to reform Mexico’s energy sector. Subsequent analysis demonstrates government ownership of Petroleos Mexico ( Pemex ) is the fundamental... Pemex , stability 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Chairman... Pemex and Stability 8 Conclusions and Recommendations 13 Policy Implications 16 Bibliography

  17. Economic development and multiple air pollutant emissions from the industrial sector.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between economic growth and emissions of eight environmental air pollutants (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxide (NOx), sulfur oxide (SOx), carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC), and ammonia (NH3)) in 39 countries from 1995 to 2009. We tested an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 16 individual industry sectors and for the total industrial sector. The results clarified that at least ten individual industries do not have an EKC relationship in eight air pollutants even though this relationship was observed in the country and total industrial sector level data. We found that the key industries that dictated the EKC relationship in the country and the total industrial sector existed in CO2, N2O, CO, and NMVOC emissions. Finally, the EKC turning point and the relationship between economic development and trends of air pollutant emissions differ among industries according to the pollution substances. These results suggest inducing new environmental policy design such as the sectoral crediting mechanism, which focuses on the industrial characteristics of emissions.

  18. Sectoral output, energy use, and CO2 emission in middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Sohag, Kazi; Al Mamun, Md; Uddin, Gazi Salah; Ahmed, Ali M

    2017-03-01

    Middle-income countries are currently undergoing massive structural changes towards more industrialized economies. In this paper, we carefully examine the impact of these transformations on the environmental quality of middle-income countries. Specifically, we examine the role of sector value addition to GDP on CO2 emission nexus for middle-income economies controlling for the effects of population growth, energy use, and trade openness. Using recently developed panel methods that consider cross-sectional dependence and allow for heterogeneous slope coefficients, we show that energy use and growth of industrial and service sectors positively explain CO2 emissions in middle-income economies. We also find that population growth is insignificantly associated with CO2 emission. Hence, our paper provides a solid ground for developing a sustainable and pro-growth policy for middle-income countries.

  19. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  20. Building a Comprehensive Mill-Level Database for the Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) Model of the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) model for the pulp and paper sector is currently under development at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and can be utilized to facilitate multi-pollutant sector-based analyses that are performed in conjunction with ...

  1. Optical inspection methods and their applications in the manufactured industrial sector: knowledge transfer to Panamanian industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pino, Abdiel O.; Pladellorens, Josep

    2014-07-01

    A means of facilitating the transfer of Optical inspection methods knowledge and skills from academic institutions and their research partners into Panama optics and optical research groups is described. The process involves the creation of an Integrated Knowledge Group Research (IKGR), a partnership led by Polytechnic University of Panama with the support of the SENACYT and Optics and Optometry Department, Polytechnic University of Catalonia. This paper describes the development of the Project for knowledge transfer "Implementation of a method of optical inspection of low cost for improving the surface quality of rolled material of metallic and nonmetallic industrial use", this project will develop a method for measuring the surface quality using texture analysis speckle pattern formed on the surface to be characterized. The project is designed to address the shortage of key skills in the field of precision engineering for optical applications. The main issues encountered during the development of the knowledge transfer teaching and learning are discussed, and the outcomes from the first four months of knowledge transfer activities are described. In overall summary, the results demonstrate how the Integrated Knowledge Group Research and new approach to knowledge transfer has been effective in addressing the engineering skills gap in precision optics for manufactured industrial sector.

  2. Employment-generating projects for the energy and minerals sectors of Honduras. Proyectos generadores de empleos para los sectores energetico y minero de Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, J.A.

    1988-12-01

    A mission to Honduras invited by the Government of Honduras and sponsored by the Organization of American States addressed the generation of employment in various areas of interest to the country. The mission was made up of experts from numerous countries and international agencies. In the energy sector, the mission recommended consolidating the sector under a coordinating body; carrying out projects to promote reforestation, tree farms, and rational forest utilization; encouraging industrial energy conservation; developing alternative energy sources; and promoting rural electrification and expansion of the electrical grid. In the mining sector, the mission supported promotion and technical assistance for small gold-leaching and placer operations, the national mineral inventory, detailed exploration of promising sites, and the development of a mining school. 13 refs., 7 tabs.

  3. Impact of climate on energy sector in economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, H.E.; LeDuc, S.K.

    1981-12-01

    Assessments of economic conditions by region or sector attempt to include relevant climatic variability through residual adjustment techniques. There is no direct consideration of climatic fluctuations. Three recent severe winters combined with the increasing price of energy have intensified the need to quantify the interaction of climate with the energy sector of the economy. This paper presents examples of the uses of climatic data by utilities, public service commissions and the NOAA Center for Environmental Assessment Services to determine econoclimatic energy relationships at the local, state, regional and national levels. A technique based on the linear relationships between heating degree days and natural gas consumption for space heating is used to quantify the interaction of climate and prices on gas consumption. This provides regional estimates of the response of gas consumption to degree days and price.

  4. Energy and water sector policy strategies for drought mitigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelic, Andjelka; Vugrin, Eric D.; Loose, Verne W.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2009-03-01

    Tensions between the energy and water sectors occur when demand for electric power is high and water supply levels are low. There are several regions of the country, such as the western and southwestern states, where the confluence of energy and water is always strained due to population growth. However, for much of the country, this tension occurs at particular times of year (e.g., summer) or when a region is suffering from drought conditions. This report discusses prior work on the interdependencies between energy and water. It identifies the types of power plants that are most likely to be susceptible to water shortages, the regions of the country where this is most likely to occur, and policy options that can be applied in both the energy and water sectors to address the issue. The policy options are designed to be applied in the near term, applicable to all areas of the country, and to ease the tension between the energy and water sectors by addressing peak power demand or decreased water supply.

  5. Restructuring Energy Industries: Lessons from Natural Gas

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the natural gas industry has been undergoing a restructuring similar to the transition now confronting the electric power industry. This article presents a summary of some of these gas industry experiences to provide a basis for some insights into energy industry restructuring.

  6. Why is energy use rising in the freight sector

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.; Vyas, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    Trends in transportation sector energy use and carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed with an emphasis on three freight modes -- rail, truck, and marine. A recent set of energy use projections is presented and freight mode energy characteristics are discussed. Transportation sector energy use, which nearly doubled between 1960 and 1985, is projected to grow more slowly during the period 1985{endash}2010. Most of the growth is projected to come from non-personal modes (freight and commercial air). Trends in freight mode energy intensities are discussed and a variety of factors behind these trends are analyzed. Rail and marine modes improved their energy intensities during sudden fuel price rises of the 1970s. Though there is room for further technological improvement, long power plant life cycles preclude rapid penetration of new technologies. Thus, energy intensities in these modes are more likely to improve through operational changes. Because of relatively stable fuel prices, the energy share of truck operating expenses is likely to remain low. Coupled with increasing labor costs, this portends only modest improvements in truck energy efficiency over the next two decades.

  7. Why is energy use rising in the freight sector?

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.; Vyas, A.D.

    1991-12-31

    Trends in transportation sector energy use and carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed with an emphasis on three freight modes -- rail, truck, and marine. A recent set of energy use projections is presented and freight mode energy characteristics are discussed. Transportation sector energy use, which nearly doubled between 1960 and 1985, is projected to grow more slowly during the period 1985{endash}2010. Most of the growth is projected to come from non-personal modes (freight and commercial air). Trends in freight mode energy intensities are discussed and a variety of factors behind these trends are analyzed. Rail and marine modes improved their energy intensities during sudden fuel price rises of the 1970s. Though there is room for further technological improvement, long power plant life cycles preclude rapid penetration of new technologies. Thus, energy intensities in these modes are more likely to improve through operational changes. Because of relatively stable fuel prices, the energy share of truck operating expenses is likely to remain low. Coupled with increasing labor costs, this portends only modest improvements in truck energy efficiency over the next two decades.

  8. Supporting industries energy and environmental profile

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2005-09-21

    As part of its Industries of the Future strategy, the Industrial Technologies Program within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy works with energy-intensive industries to improve efficiency, reduce waste, and increase productivity. These seven Industries of the Future (IOFs) – aluminum, chemicals, forest products, glass, metal casting, mining, and steel – rely on several other so-called “supporting industries” to supply materials and processes necessary to the products that the IOFs create. The supporting industries, in many cases, also provide great opportunities for realizing energy efficiency gains in IOF processes.

  9. Restructuring the energy industry: A financial perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, W.A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper present eight tables summarizing financial aspects of energy industry restructuring. Historical, current, and future business characteristics of energy industries are outlined. Projections of industry characteristics are listed for the next five years and for the 21st century. Future independent power procedures related to financial aspects are also outlined. 8 tabs.

  10. An information flow among industry sectors in the Korean stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Gabjin; Oh, Tamina; Kim, Hoyong; Kwon, Okyu

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the information flow among 22 industry sectors in the Korean stock market by using the symbolic transfer entropy (STE) method. We consider the daily index of 22 industry sectors in the Korean Composite Stock Price Index (KOSPI) from January 3, 2000 to March 30, 2012. We measure the degree of asymmetry in the information flow and the amount of information flow among the industry sectors before, during, and after the subprime crisis in order to analyze how to relate them to the market crisis. We find that the amount of information flow and the number of connectedness during the financial crisis in the Korean stock market are higher than those before and after the market crisis. In addition, we find the role of the insurance sector, which is related to risk management, increases as information source after the crisis.

  11. Current practices for risk zoning around nuclear power plants in comparison to other industry sectors.

    PubMed

    Kirchsteiger, Christian

    2006-08-25

    This paper analyses the background and current status of the information basis leading to the definition of risk and emergency zones around nuclear power plants (NPPs) in different countries in Europe and beyond. Although dependable plant-specific probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of level 2 and/or level 3 could in principle provide sufficiently detailed input to define the geographical dimension of a NPP's risk and emergency zones, the analysis of the status in some European and other countries shows that other, "deterministic" approaches using a reference accident are actually used in practice. Regarding use of level 2 PSA for emergency planning, the approach so far has been to use the level 2 PSA information retrospectively to provide the justification for the choice of reference accident(s) used to define the emergency plans and emergency planning zones (EPZs). There are significant differences in the EPZs that are defined in different countries, ranging from a few up to 80km. There is a striking contrast in the extent of using probabilistic information to define emergency zones between the nuclear and other high risk industry sectors, such as the chemical process industry, and the reasons for these differences are not entirely clear, since the risk of chemical industry is similar as that of the nuclear sector. The differences seem to be more related to risk perception than to the actual risk potential. Therefore, there is a strong need to be able to communicate risk information to the Public both before and following an accident. In addition, there is a need to educate the Public so that they can understand risk information in a comparative sense. Finally, based on the consensus discussions at a recent JRC/OECD International Seminar on Risk and Emergency Zoning around NPPs, a set of recommendations is given in the areas of: -a more comprehensive use of the available risk information for risk zoning purposes, -risk communication; -comparative (energy) risk

  12. Technology Co-evolution Analysis in the Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjoo; Yoon, Byungun

    This paper suggests the method that can describe the co-evolutionary patterns in the energy sectors. Technologies that have facilitated the growth of other technologies should get the priority in the R&D investment, if other conditions are almost the same. In the suggested method, LVC equations were applied to the patents relating to energy technologies. Then a network showing the interactions between technologies in their evolution process is visualised. Research findings will provide numerous implications for policy-making and strategic planning for energy technology development.

  13. GHGRP Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Sector Industrial Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. These profiles contain detailed analyses for Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems.

  14. Development of an energy conservation voluntary agreement pilot project in the steel sector in Shandong

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Yun, Jiang; Worrell, Ernst; Wenwei, Du; Sinton, Jonathan E.

    2004-02-05

    China faces a significant challenge in the years ahead to continue to provide essential materials and products for a rapidly-growing economy while addressing pressing environmental concerns. Energy is a fundamental element of the national economy and the conditions of its use have a direct impact on China's ability to reach its sustainable development goals. China's industrial sector, which accounts for over 70 percent of the nation's total energy consumption each year, provides materials such as steel and cement that build the nation's roads, bridges, homes, offices and other buildings. Industrial products include bicycles, cars, buses, trains, ships, office equipment, appliances, furniture, packaging, pharmaceuticals, and many other components of everyday life in an increasingly modern society. This vital production of materials and products, however, comes with considerable problems. China's industrial sector is heavily dependent on the country's abundant, yet polluting, coal resources. Industrial production locally pollutes the air with emissions of particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides, uses scarce water and oil resources, emits greenhouse gases contributing to the warming global atmosphere, and often produces hazardous and polluting wastes. Fostering innovative approaches to reduce the use of polluting energy resources and to diminish pollution from industrial production that are tailored to China's emerging market-based economy is one of the most important challenges facing the nation today. The pressures of rapid industrial production growth, continued environmental degradation, and increased competition create a situation that calls for a strategically-planned evolution of China's industries into world-class production facilities that are competitive, energy-efficient and less polluting. Such a transition requires the complete commitment of industrial enterprises and the government to work together to transform the industrial

  15. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Education and Training Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles A.; Peters, Jane S.; Albers, Nathaniel; Stuart, Elizabeth; Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-03-19

    This report provides a baseline assessment of the current state of energy efficiency-related education and training programs and analyzes training and education needs to support expected growth in the energy efficiency services workforce. In the last year, there has been a significant increase in funding for 'green job' training and workforce development (including energy efficiency), through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Key segments of the energy efficiency services sector (EESS) have experienced significant growth during the past several years, and this growth is projected to continue and accelerate over the next decade. In a companion study (Goldman et al. 2009), our research team estimated that the EESS will increase two- to four-fold by 2020, to 220,000 person-years of employment (PYE) (low-growth scenario) or up to 380,000 PYE (high-growth scenario), which may represent as many as 1.3 million individuals. In assessing energy efficiency workforce education and training needs, we focus on energy-efficiency services-related jobs that are required to improve the efficiency of residential and nonresidential buildings. Figure ES-1 shows the market value chain for the EESS, sub-sectors included in this study, as well as the types of market players and specific occupations. Our assessment does not include the manufacturing, wholesale, and retail distribution subsectors, or energy efficiency-focused operations and maintenance performed by facility managers.

  16. Measuring the influence of industry sector membership on supply chain disruption reporting.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The global Supply Chain Resilience Survey by the Business Continuity Institute and Zurich Insurance is a comprehensive study on the state of supply chains in different organisations worldwide. As a benchmarking tool, it also contains data about business continuity arrangements in place to ensure supply chain resilience. Given this study's historically qualitative approach to reporting, this paper aims to introduce quantitative analysis. In this paper, responses that report membership in Standard Industrial Classification 2007 industry sectors from the 2013 Supply Chain Resilience Survey were disaggregated and related to supply chain disruption reporting. A chi-square test of independence reveals that membership in a particular industry sector influences reporting of supply chain disruption. Nonetheless, the relationship between these variables is weak. This study demonstrates interesting differences between industry sectors in terms of supply chain resilience. Further research is required in terms of other variables in order to provide granularity and relevant findings to supply chain planners.

  17. Technologies and Policies to Improve Energy Efficiency in Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Price, Lynn

    2008-03-01

    The industrial sector consumes nearly 40% of annual global primary energy use and is responsible for a similar share of global energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Many studies and actual experience indicate that there is considerable potential to reduce the amount of energy used to manufacture most commodities, concurrently reducing CO2 emissions. With the support of strong policies and programs, energy-efficient technologies and measures can be implemented that will reduce global CO2 emissions. A number of countries, including the Netherlands, the UK, and China, have experience implementing aggressive programs to improve energy efficiency and reduce related CO2 emissions from industry. Even so, there is no silver bullet and all options must be pursued if greenhouse gas emissions are to be constrained to the level required to avoid significant negative impacts from global climate change.

  18. Technologies and Policies to Improve Energy Efficiency in Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Lynn

    2008-09-01

    The industrial sector consumes nearly 40% of annual global primary energy use and is responsible for a similar share of global energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Many studies and actual experience indicate that there is considerable potential to reduce the amount of energy used to manufacture most commodities, concurrently reducing CO2 emissions. With the support of strong policies and programs, energy-efficient technologies and measures can be implemented that will reduce global CO2 emissions. A number of countries, including the Netherlands, the UK, and China, have experience implementing aggressive programs to improve energy efficiency and reduce related CO2 emissions from industry. Even so, there is no silver bullet and all options must be pursued if greenhouse gas emissions are to be constrained to the level required to avoid significant negative impacts from global climate change.

  19. End use energy consumption data base: transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, J.N.; Rose, A.B.; Greene, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The transportation fuel and energy use estimates developed a Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the End Use Energy Consumption Data Base are documented. The total data base contains estimates of energy use in the United States broken down into many categories within all sectors of the economy: agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing, commerce, the household, electric utilities, and transportation. The transportation data provided by ORNL generally cover each of the 10 years from 1967 through 1976 (occasionally 1977 and 1978), with omissions in some models. The estimtes are broken down by mode of transport, fuel, region and State, sector of the economy providing transportation, and by the use to which it is put, and, in the case of automobile and bus travel, by the income of the traveler. Fuel types include natural gas, motor and aviation gasoline, residual and diesel oil, liuqefied propane, liquefied butane, and naphtha- and kerosene-type jet engine fuels. Electricity use is also estimated. The mode, fuel, sector, and use categories themselves subsume one, two, or three levels of subcategories, resulting in a very detailed categorization and definitive accounting.

  20. Black Women Workers' Earnings Progress in Three Industrial Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwartney-Gibbs, Patricia A.; Taylor, Patricia A.

    1986-01-01

    An examination of data from 1960 and 1980 reveals the following: (1) black women's earnings increased during these decades; (2) gaps in earnings remain between women and men; and (3) black women received more equitable treatment in government than in industry. The comparable worth policy and more affirmative action are necessary. (VM)

  1. Water Use in the US Electric Power Sector: Energy Systems ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation reviews the water demands of long-range electricity scenarios. It addresses questions such as: What are the aggregate water requirements of the U.S. electric power sector? How could water requirements evolve under different long-range regional generation mixes? It also looks at research addressing the electricity generation water demand from a life cycle perspective, such as water use for the fuel cycle (natural gas, coal, uranium, etc.) and water use for the materials/equipment/manufacturing of new power plants. The presentation is part of panel session on the Water-Energy Nexus at the World Energy Engineering Congress

  2. High Penetration of Renewable Energy in the Transportation Sector: Scenarios, Barriers, and Enablers; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, L.; Brown, A.; Heath, G.; Mai, T.; Ruth, M.; Melaina, M.; Simpkins, T.; Steward, D.; Warner, E.; Bertram, K.; Plotkin, S.; Patel, D.; Stephens, T.; Vyas, A.

    2012-06-01

    Transportation accounts for 71% of U.S. petroleum use and 33% of its greenhouse gases emissions. Pathways toward reduced greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum dependence in the transportation sector have been analyzed in considerable detail, but with some limitations. To add to this knowledge, the U.S. Department of Energy has launched a study focused on underexplored greenhouse-gas-abatement and oil-savings opportunities related to transportation. This Transportation Energy Futures study analyzes specific issues and associated key questions to strengthen the existing knowledge base and help cultivate partnerships among federal agencies, state and local governments, and industry.

  3. Industry sector analysis, China: Urban water sanitation. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the water pollution control equipment market for urban water sanitation in China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  4. Current and future industrial energy service characterizations. Volume II. Energy data on the US manufacturing subsector

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, F.; Thomas, T.; Jackson, F.; Limaye, D.R.; Isser, S.; Karnofsky, K.; Davis, T.D.

    1980-10-01

    In order to characterize industrial energy service, current energy demand, its end uses, and cost of typical energy applications and resultant services in the industrial sector were examined and a projection of state industrial energy demands and prices to 1990 was developed. Volume II presents in Section 2 data on the US manufacturing subsector energy demand, intensity, growth rates, and cost for 1971, 1974, and 1976. These energy data are disaggregated not only by fuel type but also by user classifications, including the 2-digit SIC industry groups, 3-digit subgroups, and 4-digit SIC individual industries. These data characterize typical energy applications and the resultant services in this subsector. The quantities of fuel and electric energy purchased by the US manufacturing subsector were converted to British thermal units and reported in billions of Btu. The conversion factors are presented in Table 4-1 of Volume I. To facilitate the descriptive analysis, all energy cost and intensity data were expressed in constant 1976 dollars. The specific US industrial energy service characteristics developed and used in the descriptive analysis are presented in Volume I. Section 3 presents the computer program used to produce the tabulated data.

  5. Energy and the English Industrial Revolution.

    PubMed

    Wrigley, E A

    2013-03-13

    Societies before the Industrial Revolution were dependent on the annual cycle of plant photosynthesis for both heat and mechanical energy. The quantity of energy available each year was therefore limited, and economic growth was necessarily constrained. In the Industrial Revolution, energy usage increased massively and output rose accordingly. The energy source continued to be plant photosynthesis, but accumulated over a geological age in the form of coal. This poses a problem for the future. Fossil fuels are a depleting stock, whereas in pre-industrial time the energy source, though limited, was renewed each year.

  6. Susceptibility of SCADA systems and the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goike, Lindsay

    The research in this paper focused on analyzing SCADA systems in the energy sector for susceptibility to cyber attacks, in furtherance of providing suggestions to mitigate current and future cyber attacks. The research will be addressing the questions: how are SCADA systems susceptible to cyber attacks, and what are the suggested ways to mitigate both current and future cyber attacks. The five main categories of security vulnerabilities facing current SCADA systems were found to be: connectivity to the Internet, failure to plan, interdependency of sectors, numerous different types of threats, and outdated software. Some of the recommendations mentioned to mitigate current and future risks were: virtual private networks, risk assessments, increased physical security, updating of software, and firewalls.

  7. Policy modeling for industrial energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Park, Hi-Chun; Lee, Sang-Gon; Jung, Yonghun; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Nyboer, John; Jaccard, Mark; Nordqvist, Joakim; Boyd, Christopher; Klee, Howard; Anglani, Norma; Biermans, Gijs

    2003-03-01

    The international workshop on Policy Modeling for Industrial Energy Use was jointly organized by EETA (Professional Network for Engineering Economic Technology Analysis) and INEDIS (International Network for Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector). The workshop has helped to layout the needs and challenges to include policy more explicitly in energy-efficiency modeling. The current state-of-the-art models have a proven track record in forecasting future trends under conditions similar to those faced in the recent past. However, the future of energy policy in a climate-restrained world is likely to demand different and additional services to be provided by energy modelers. In this workshop some of the international models used to make energy consumption forecasts have been discussed as well as innovations to enable the modeling of policy scenarios. This was followed by the discussion of future challenges, new insights in the data needed to determine the inputs into energy model s, and methods to incorporate decision making and policy in the models. Based on the discussion the workshop participants came to the following conclusions and recommendations: Current energy models are already complex, and it is already difficult to collect the model inputs. Hence, new approaches should be transparent and not lead to extremely complex models that try to ''do everything''. The model structure will be determined by the questions that need to be answered. A good understanding of the decision making framework of policy makers and clear communication on the needs are essential to make any future energy modeling effort successful. There is a need to better understand the effects of policy on future energy use, emissions and the economy. To allow the inclusion of policy instruments in models, evaluation of programs and instruments is essential, and need to be included in the policy instrument design. Increased efforts are needed to better understand the effects of

  8. Economic Dependence of U.S. Industrial Sectors on Animal-Mediated Pollination Service.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Shauhrat S; Bakshi, Bhavik R; Khanna, Vikas

    2015-12-15

    Declining animal pollinator health and diversity in the U.S. is a matter of growing concern and has particularly gained attention since the emergence of colony collapse disorder (CCD) in 2006. Failure to maintain adequate animal-mediated pollination service to support increasing demand for pollination-dependent crops poses risks for the U.S. economy. We integrate the Economic Input-Output (EIO) model and network analysis with data on pollinator dependence of crops to understand the economic dependence of U.S. industrial sectors on animal-mediated pollination service. The novelty of this work lies in its ability to identify industrial sectors and industrial communities (groups of closely linked sectors) that are most vulnerable to scarcity of pollination service provided by various animal species. While the economic dependence of agricultural sectors on pollination service is significant (US$14.2-23.8 billion), the higher-order economic dependence of the rest of the U.S. industrial sectors is substantially high as well (US$10.3-21.1 billion). The results are compelling as they highlight the critical importance of animal-induced pollination service for the U.S. economy, and the need to account for the role of ecosystem goods and services in product life cycles.

  9. Energy data sourcebook for the US residential sector

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, T.P.; Koomey, J.G.; Sanchez, M.

    1997-09-01

    Analysts assessing policies and programs to improve energy efficiency in the residential sector require disparate input data from a variety of sources. This sourcebook, which updates a previous report, compiles these input data into a single location. The data provided include information on end-use unit energy consumption (UEC) values of appliances and equipment efficiency; historical and current appliance and equipment market shares; appliances and equipment efficiency and sales trends; appliance and equipment efficiency standards; cost vs. efficiency data for appliances and equipment; product lifetime estimates; thermal shell characteristics of buildings; heating and cooling loads; shell measure cost data for new and retrofit buildings; baseline housing stocks; forecasts of housing starts; and forecasts of energy prices and other economic drivers. This report is the essential sourcebook for policy analysts interested in residential sector energy use. The report can be downloaded from the Web at http://enduse.lbl. gov/Projects/RED.html. Future updates to the report, errata, and related links, will also be posted at this address.

  10. Mobilization of the private sector in effective development of fusion energy: Papers for and a summary of a workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Four papers and a summary of a workshop on the mobilization of the private sector in developing fusion energy is reported. The workshop is one of a series which assesses Federal policy options relating to the commercialization of selected energy technologies viewed as alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels. The papers focused on the potential roles to be played by fusion energy in the future electric generating industry; current commitments and participation of the private sector in fusion energy development; suggestions for policy incentives to enhance private participation in fusion research; organization, staffing, and operating a center for fusion engineering; the industrial structure and practices in developing and deploying power generating facilities and their implications in relation to fusion energy development; and characteristics required by any new energy-producing technology such as low capital and operating costs and minimal environmental output.

  11. 31 CFR 500.584 - Energy sector projects in North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Energy sector projects in North Korea... Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 500.584 Energy sector projects in North Korea... energy sector projects in North Korea in connection with that country's transition to light-water...

  12. Trends in US private-sector energy R and D funding 1985--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, J.J.

    1996-09-01

    This report has been prepared in response to a set of four questions submitted by the International Energy Agency`s (IEA) Energy Technology Policy Division to the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Research. The IEA`s questions all center on trends in US industrial energy R{ampersand}D spending over the decade 1985--1995. IEA has asked all of its member countries similar questions and intends to use the resulting multi-country data set on trends in private-sector energy R and D as basis for discussions at its October 16, 1996, Governing Board Meeting. This report first describes the principal data sets used with caveats about their shortcomings, then characterizes the context of US R and D spending over the recent past and short-term future. The remainder of the report is organized by addressing each of the four IEA questions. The appendices provide further information. IEA Question {number_sign}1: Are industry (energy) R and D expenditures monitored by the US Government? If so, please describe the types of data that are collected. Question {number_sign}2: How much money did industry spend to support energy technology development in your country in the following years: 1985, 1993, 1994, 1995? Question {number_sign}3: From the experience of your country in working with industry what is the timeframe of their R and D efforts in terms of the expected payback of their investments (e.g., short term 0--3 years, medium term 3--7 years, long term 7--12 years, or very long term beyond 12 years)? Question {number_sign}4: How would you describe industry energy technology investment trends over the past ten years?

  13. Feasibility of a 90° electric sector energy analyzer for low energy ion beam characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahinay, C. L. S.; Wada, M.; Ramos, H. J.

    2015-02-01

    A simple formula to calculate refocusing by locating the output slit at a specific distance away from the exit of 90° ion deflecting electric sector is given. Numerical analysis is also performed to calculate the ion beam trajectories for different values of the initial angular deviation of the beam. To validate the theory, a compact (90 mm × 5.5 mm × 32 mm) 90° sector ESA is fabricated which can fit through the inner diameter of a conflat 70 vacuum flange. Experimental results show that the dependence of resolution upon the distance between the sector exit and the Faraday cup agrees with the theory. The fabricated 90° sector electrostatic energy analyzer was then used to measure the space resolved ion energy distribution functions of an ion beam with the energy as low as 600 eV.

  14. Feasibility of a 90° electric sector energy analyzer for low energy ion beam characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Mahinay, C. L. S. Ramos, H. J.; Wada, M.

    2015-02-15

    A simple formula to calculate refocusing by locating the output slit at a specific distance away from the exit of 90° ion deflecting electric sector is given. Numerical analysis is also performed to calculate the ion beam trajectories for different values of the initial angular deviation of the beam. To validate the theory, a compact (90 mm × 5.5 mm × 32 mm) 90° sector ESA is fabricated which can fit through the inner diameter of a conflat 70 vacuum flange. Experimental results show that the dependence of resolution upon the distance between the sector exit and the Faraday cup agrees with the theory. The fabricated 90° sector electrostatic energy analyzer was then used to measure the space resolved ion energy distribution functions of an ion beam with the energy as low as 600 eV.

  15. Productive trends in India's energy intensive industries

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, J.; Sathaye, J.; Sanstad, A.; Mongia, P.; Schumacher, K.

    1999-07-01

    This paper reports on an analysis of productivity growth and input trends in six energy intensive sectors of the Indian economy, using growth accounting and econometric methods. The econometric work estimates rates and factor price biases of technological change using a translog production model with an explicit relationship defined for technological change. Estimates of own-price responses indicate that raising energy prices would be an effective carbon abatement policy for India. At the same time, the authors results suggest that, as with previous findings on the US economy, such policies in India could have negative long run effects on productivity in these sectors. Inter-input substitution possibilities are relatively weak, so that such policies might have negative short and medium term effects on sectoral growth. The authors study provides information relevant for the analysis of costs and benefits of carbon abatement policies applied to India and thus contributes to the emerging body of modeling and analysis of global climate policy.

  16. The Garment Industry Development Corporation: A Case Study of a Sectoral Employment Development Approach. Sectoral Employment Development Learning Project Case Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Maureen

    The Garment Industry Development Corporation (GIDC) was founded in 1984 by a 3-member partnership that included the local union, industry associations, and local government. GIDC's goal was to support New York City's garment industry, which had been steadily losing jobs. GIDC exhibits the following characteristics of sectoral initiatives: it…

  17. Energy conservation and the residential and commercial sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A detailed analysis of energy conservation actions relevant to the residential and commercial sector has led to the conclusion that the potential for savings is great. The task will not be easy, however, since many of the actions require significant life style changes that are difficult to accomplish. Furthermore, many of the conservation actions cited as instant solutions to the energy crisis are those with only mid to long term potential, such as solar energy or heat pumps. Three significant conservation approaches are viable: adjusting price structure, mandating actions, and educating consumers. The first two appear to be the most feasible. But they are not without a price. Higher utility bills adversely affect the poor and the elderly on fixed incomes. Likewise, strict mandatory measures can be quite distasteful. But the effect of alternatives, such as voluntary savings accomplished through education processes, is minimal in a nation without a true conservation ethic.

  18. Industrial energy systems and assessment opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barringer, Frank Leonard, III

    Industrial energy assessments are performed primarily to increase energy system efficiency and reduce energy costs in industrial facilities. The most common energy systems are lighting, compressed air, steam, process heating, HVAC, pumping, and fan systems, and these systems are described in this document. ASME has produced energy assessment standards for four energy systems, and these systems include compressed air, steam, process heating, and pumping systems. ASHRAE has produced an energy assessment standard for HVAC systems. Software tools for energy systems were developed for the DOE, and there are software tools for almost all of the most common energy systems. The software tools are AIRMaster+ and LogTool for compressed air systems, SSAT and 3E Plus for steam systems, PHAST and 3E Plus for process heating systems, eQUEST for HVAC systems, PSAT for pumping systems, and FSAT for fan systems. The recommended assessment procedures described in this thesis are used to set up an energy assessment for an industrial facility, collect energy system data, and analyze the energy system data. The assessment recommendations (ARs) are opportunities to increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems. A set of recommended assessment procedures and recommended assessment opportunities are presented for each of the most common energy systems. There are many assessment opportunities for industrial facilities, and this thesis describes forty-three ARs for the seven different energy systems. There are seven ARs for lighting systems, ten ARs for compressed air systems, eight ARs for boiler and steam systems, four ARs for process heating systems, six ARs for HVAC systems, and four ARs for both pumping and fan systems. Based on a history of past assessments, average potential energy savings and typical implementation costs are shared in this thesis for most ARs. Implementing these ARs will increase efficiency and reduce energy consumption for energy systems in

  19. Designing effective incentives for energy conservation in the public sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drezner, Jeffrey Alan

    Understanding why government officials behave in certain ways under particular circumstances is an important theme in political science. This research explores the design of policies and incentives targeted at public sector officials, in particular the use of market based policy tools in a non-market environment, and the influence of that organizational environment on the effectiveness of the policy. The research examines the case of Department of Defense (DoD) facility energy management. DoD energy policy includes a provision for the retention of savings generated by conservation activities: two-thirds of the savings is retained at the installation generating the savings, half to used for further investment in energy conservation, and half to be used for general morale, welfare, and recreation activities. This policy creates a financial incentive for installation energy managers to establish higher quality and more active conservation programs. A formal written survey of installation energy managers within DoD was conducted, providing data to test hypotheses regarding policy effectiveness and factors affecting policy implementation. Additionally, two detailed implementation case studies were conducted in order to gain further insights. Results suggest that policy design needs to account for the environment within which the policy will be implemented, particularly organizational culture and standard operating procedures. The retention of savings policy failed to achieve its intended outcome---retention of savings for re-investment in energy conservation---because the role required of the financial management community was outside its normal mode of operation and interests and the budget process for allocating resources did not include a mechanism for retention of savings. The policy design did not adequately address these start-up barriers to implementation. This analysis has shown that in order for retention of savings, or similar policies based on market

  20. AIJ in the Non-Energy Sector in India: Opportunities and Concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindranath, N.H.; Meili, A.; Anita, R.

    1998-11-01

    Although the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) has been signed and ratified by 168 countries, global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have increased substantially since the 1992 Rio Summit. In both developing countries (DCs) and industrialized countries (ICs), there has been a need to find mechanisms to facilitate environmentally sound mitigation strategies. This need led to the formation of Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) at the first Conference-of the Parties (COP) in 1995. In Article 4A, para 2D, the COP established an AIJ pilot phase in which Annex I (IC) countries would enter into agreements to implement activities jointly with non-Annex I parties. DCs would engage in AIJ on a purely voluntary basis and all AIJ projects should be compatible with and supportive of national environment and development goals. AIJ does not imply GHG reduction commitments by DCs. Neither do all projects undertaken during the pilot phase qualify as a fulfillment of current commitment s of Annex I parties under the COP. The current pilot phase for AIJ ends in the year 2000, a date which may be extended. Current AIJ activities are largely focused on the energy sector. The Nordic countries, for example, feel that the most important potential areas for cooperation in AIJ are fuel conversion, more effective energy production, increased energy efficiency, and reforms in energy-intensive industry (Nordic Council of Ministers, 1995). Denmark does not want to include non-energy sector projects such as carbon sink enhancement projects in the pilot phase (Nordic Council of Ministers, 1995). However, other countries, including the US, have already funded a number of forestry sector projects (Development Alternatives, 1997). Moreover, energy-sector projects involving high technology or capital-intensive technology are often a source of controversy between DCs and ICs regarding the kind of technology transferred and sharing of costs and benefits. Further, the pilot phase

  1. The role of thermal energy storage in industrial energy conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duscha, R. A.; Masica, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Thermal Energy Storage for Industrial Applications is a major thrust of the Department of Energy's Thermal Energy Storage Program. Utilizing Thermal Energy Storage (TES) with process or reject heat recovery systems is shown to be extremely beneficial for several applications. Recent system studies resulting from contracts awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE) identified four especially significant industries where TES appears attractive - food processing, paper and pulp, iron and steel, and cement. Potential annual fuel savings with large scale implementation of near term TES systems for these industries is over 9,000,000 bbl of oil. This savings is due to recuperation and storage in the food processing industry, direct fuel substitution in the paper and pulp industry and reduction in electric utility peak fuel use through inplant production of electricity from utilization of reject heat in the steel and cement industries.

  2. Effective transfer of industrial energy conservation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, M.; Vallario, R.W.

    1983-04-01

    Voluntary participation in industrial energy conservation programs resulted in savings of approximately 1 million barrels of oil equivalent per day in the US during 1981. These energy savings accrued largely from the development, introduction, and acceptance by industry of new energy conserving technologies. These new technologies were developed through cost sharing programs between the Department of Energy and private industry. These joint efforts reduced risk to industry, thus making them willing to accept and use these new technologies at an accelerated rate. Examples of several technologies that were used by industry at an accelerated rate are described. These technologies are: textile foam finishing and dyeing, forging furnace modifications, and high-efficiency metallic recuperators.

  3. Process modeling and industrial energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S O; Pilati, D A; Sparrow, F T

    1980-11-01

    How the process models developed at BNL are used to analyze industrial energy use is described and illustrated. Following a brief overview of the industry modeling program, the general methodology of process modeling is discussed. The discussion highlights the important concepts, contents, inputs, and outputs of a typical process model. A model of the US pulp and paper industry is then discussed as a specific application of process modeling methodology. Case study results from the pulp and paper model illustrate how process models can be used to analyze a variety of issues. Applications addressed with the case study results include projections of energy demand, conservation technology assessment, energy-related tax policies, and sensitivity analysis. A subsequent discussion of these results supports the conclusion that industry process models are versatile and powerful tools for energy end-use modeling and conservation analysis. Information on the current status of industry models at BNL is tabulated.

  4. Implementing the Montreal Protocol in China: Use of cleaner technology in two industrial sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J.; Ortolano, L.

    1999-09-01

    An analysis of the household refrigeration sector and the foams sector investigates how Chinese enterprises have adopted cleaner technologies involving substitutes for ozone depleting substances (ODSs), such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The performance of the household refrigeration sector in reducing ODS consumption has been superior to that of the foams sector, even though required technology changes are relatively simple for the foams sector. There are two expansions for this outcome. First, market demand matters. The influence of the global market, multinational corporations, intense (and occasionally misleading) advertising about non-CFC products, and severe competition for consumers caused China`s principal refrigerator manufacturers to adopt non-CFC production technologies. Similar incentives did not exist for enterprises in the foams sector. Second, industrial structure matters. The foams sector includes a large number of small enterprises with limited financial and technical capability and weak access to information and technology, and these factors obstructed technological change. In general, assistance from the Multilateral fund established under the Montreal Protocol has motivated enterprises to shift to ODS reduction technologies, but complex and lengthy procedures for accessing the Multilateral Fund, difficulties in finding appropriate suppliers of non-CFC technologies, and insufficient financial an technical capabilities of many enterprises have slowed down this shift. The results provide a foundation for making changes in international assistance programs and China`s strategies for CFC reduction.

  5. Articulation of Industrial R&D with Higher Education in the Telecommunications Sector in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This article shows how and why particular higher education?industry research and development networks articulate with the South African telecommunications sector. The range of competing and complementary data telecommunications technologies available in the South African market provide varying opportunities for enterprises to engage in R&D. Two…

  6. Information as Commodity and Economic Sector: Its Emergence in the Discourse of Industrial Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Cheryl Knott; Elichirigoity, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    Provides a critical analysis of the development and deployment of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), focusing on discourse surrounding creation of the system's "information" category. Suggests that it functions to position information as a major sector of the economy and to organize data about information as a…

  7. Major models and data sources for residential and commercial sector energy conservation analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Major models and data sources are reviewed that can be used for energy-conservation analysis in the residential and commercial sectors to provide an introduction to the information that can or is available to DOE in order to further its efforts in analyzing and quantifying their policy and program requirements. Models and data sources examined in the residential sector are: ORNL Residential Energy Model; BECOM; NEPOOL; MATH/CHRDS; NIECS; Energy Consumption Data Base: Household Sector; Patterns of Energy Use by Electrical Appliances Data Base; Annual Housing Survey; 1970 Census of Housing; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; RECS; Solar Market Development Model; and ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book. Models and data sources examined in the commercial sector are: ORNL Commercial Sector Model of Energy Demand; BECOM; NEPOOL; Energy Consumption Data Base: Commercial Sector; F.W. Dodge Data Base; NFIB Energy Report for Small Businesses; ADL Commercial Sector Energy Use Data Base; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; Nonresidential Buildings Surveys of Energy Consumption; General Electric Co: Commercial Sector Data Base; The BOMA Commercial Sector Data Base; The Tishman-Syska and Hennessy Data Base; The NEMA Commercial Sector Data Base; ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book; and Solar Market Development Model. Purpose; basis for model structure; policy variables and parameters; level of regional, sectoral, and fuels detail; outputs; input requirements; sources of data; computer accessibility and requirements; and a bibliography are provided for each model and data source.

  8. Industrial energy-efficiency-improvement program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Progress made by industry toward attaining the voluntary 1980 energy efficiency improvement targets is reported. The mandatory reporting population has been expanded from ten original industries to include ten additional non-targeted industries and all corporations using over one trillion Btu's annually in any manufacturing industry. The ten most energy intensive industries have been involved in the reporting program since the signing of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act and as industrial energy efficiency improvement overview, based primarily on information from these industries (chemicals and allied products; primary metal industry; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass products; paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metal products; transportation equipment; machinery, except electrical; and textile mill products), is presented. Reports from industries, now required to report, are included for rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products. Additional data from voluntary submissions are included for American Gas Association; American Hotel and Motel Association; General Telephone and Electronics Corporation; and American Telephone and Telegraph Company. (MCW)

  9. The energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The United states housing industry is undergoing a metamorphosis from hand built to factory built products. Virtually all new housing incorporates manufactured components; indeed, an increasing percentage is totally assembled in a factory. The factory-built process offers the promise of houses that are more energy efficient, of higher quality, and less costly. To ensure that this promise can be met, the US industry must begin to develop and use new technologies, new design strategies, and new industrial processes. However, the current fragmentation of the industry makes research by individual companies prohibitively expensive, and retards innovation. This research program addresses the need to increase the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers have responsibility for the program: the Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. The two organizations provide complementary architectural, systems engineering, and industrial engineering capabilities. In 1989 we worked on these tasks: the formation of a steering committee; the development of a multiyear research plan; analysis of the US industrialized housing industry; assessment of foreign technology; assessment of industrial applications; analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools; and assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. Our goal is to develop techniques to produce marketable industrialized housing that is 25% more energy efficient that the most stringent US residential codes now require, and that costs less. Energy efficiency is the focus of the research, but it is viewed in the context of production and design. 63 refs.

  10. SEADS 3.0 Sectoral Energy/Employment Analysis and Data System

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, Joseph M.; Anderson, David A.; Schultz, Robert W.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2007-12-17

    SEADS 3.0, the Sectoral Energy/Employment Analysis and Data System, is a revision and upgrading of SEADS--PC, a software package designed for the analysis of policy that could be described by modifying final demands of consumer, businesses, or governments (Roop, et al., 1995). If a question can be formulated so that implications can be translated into changes in final demands for goods and services, then SEADS 3.0 provides a quick and easy tool to assess preliminary impacts. And SEADS 3.0 should be considered just that: a quick and easy way to get preliminary results. Often a thorough answer, even to such a simple question as, “What would be the effect on U. S. energy use and employment if the Federal Government doubled R&D expenditures?” requires a more sophisticated analytical framework than the input-output structure embedded in SEADS 3.0. This tool uses a static, input-output model to assess the impacts of changes in final demands on first industry output, then employment and energy use. The employment and energy impacts are derived by multiplying the industry outputs (derived from the changed final demands) by industry-specific energy and employment coefficients. The tool also allows for the specification of regional or state employment impacts, though this option is not available for energy impacts.

  11. The Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial Program: 1995 review

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    During 1995, the Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial (SI) Program worked to bring the benefits of solar energy to America`s industrial sector. Scientists and engineers within the program continued the basic research, applied engineering, and economic analyses that have been at the heart of the Program`s success since its inception in 1989. In 1995, all three of the SI Program`s primary areas of research and development--solar detoxification, advanced solar processes, and solar process heat--succeeded in increasing the contribution made by renewable and energy-efficient technologies to American industry`s sustainable energy future. The Solar Detoxification Program develops solar-based pollution control technologies for destroying hazardous environmental contaminants. The Advanced Solar Processes Program investigates industrial uses of highly concentrated solar energy. The Solar Process Heat Program conducts the investigations and analyses that help energy planners determine when solar heating technologies--like those that produce industrial-scale quantities of hot water, hot air, and steam--can be applied cost effectively. The remainder of this report highlights the research and development conducted within in each of these subprograms during 1995.

  12. Evaluation and forecast of energy consumption in different sectors of the United States using artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kialashaki, Arash

    The United States is a country which consumes a vast amount of energy. In order to keep the development of the United States sustainable (diverse and productive over the time) energy planning should be carried out comprehensively and precisely. This dissertation presents a specific mathematical modeling approach towards energy demand modeling of the United States and forecast future energy demand. To generate more detailed and accurate results, this dissertation investigates the energy demand of each sector separately using the analysis of trend for unique set of independent parameters which affect the energy demand in that sector. In solving a forecast problem with artificial neural networks, the most important part is to choose the independent variables that provide the most precise estimate of the dependent variable. While including too many variables makes the model complicated and increases the calculation time significantly, excluding important independent variables makes integrity of the model questionable and reduces its predictive ability. In this study, correlation coefficient analysis is applied to initially select the independent variables. In terms of forecasting the energy demand in the residential sector, the MLR and ANN models show two different trends while their performances are at a similar level of accuracy during the test period. ANN model anticipates a small increase in the energy demand of the transportation sector. Although a small increase has been estimated by the ANN, the United States should keep trying to reduce energy consumption in order to reduce CO2 gas and meet its national and international commitments. ANN is also applied to forecast the industrial energy demand and perform future projections for the period 2013-2030. Based on model trained with historical data of period 1980-2012, the price of energy significantly affects the amount of energy used in the industrial sector. Hence, ascending price scenario and descending price

  13. Energy efficient engine sector combustor rig test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubiel, D. J.; Greene, W.; Sundt, C. V.; Tanrikut, S.; Zeisser, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored Energy Efficient Engine program, Pratt & Whitney Aircraft has successfully completed a comprehensive combustor rig test using a 90-degree sector of an advanced two-stage combustor with a segmented liner. Initial testing utilized a combustor with a conventional louvered liner and demonstrated that the Energy Efficient Engine two-stage combustor configuration is a viable system for controlling exhaust emissions, with the capability to meet all aerothermal performance goals. Goals for both carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were surpassed and the goal for oxides of nitrogen was closely approached. In another series of tests, an advanced segmented liner configuration with a unique counter-parallel FINWALL cooling system was evaluated at engine sea level takeoff pressure and temperature levels. These tests verified the structural integrity of this liner design. Overall, the results from the program have provided a high level of confidence to proceed with the scheduled Combustor Component Rig Test Program.

  14. Voluntary agreements for increasing energy-efficiency in industry: Case study of a pilot project with the steel industry in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan; Yun, Jiang

    2003-03-01

    China faces a significant challenge in the years ahead to continue to provide essential materials and products for a rapidly-growing economy while addressing pressing environmental concerns. China's industrial sector is heavily dependent on the country's abundant, yet polluting, coal resources. While tremendous energy conservation and environmental protection achievements were realized in the industrial sector in the past, there remains a great gulf between the China's level of energy efficiency and that of the advanced countries of the world. Internationally, significant energy efficiency improvement in the industrial sector has been realized in a number of countries using an innovative policy mechanism called Voluntary Agreements. This paper describes international experience with Voluntary Agreements in the industrial sector as well as the development of a pilot program to test the use of such agreements with two steel mills in Shandong Province, China.

  15. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in energy-intensive industries in key developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian

    1999-09-01

    The industrial sector is the most important end-use sector in developing countries in terms of energy use and was responsible for 50% of primary energy use and 53% of associated carbon dioxide emissions in 1995 (Price et al., 1999). The industrial sector is extremely diverse, encompassing the extraction of natural resources, conversion of these resources into raw materials, and manufacture of finished products. Five energy-intensive industrial subsectors account for the bulk of industrial energy use and related carbon dioxide emissions: iron and steel, chemicals, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, and cement. In this paper, we focus on the steel and cement sectors in Brazil, China, India, and Mexico.1 We review historical trends, noting that China became the world's largest producer of cement in 1985 and of steel in 1996. We discuss trends that influence energy consumption, such as the amount of additives in cement (illustrated through the clinker/cement ratio), the share of electric arc furnaces, and the level of adoption of continuous casting. To gauge the potential for improvement in production of steel and cement in these countries, we calculate a ''best practice'' intensity based on use of international best practice technology to produce the mix of products manufactured in each country in 1995. We show that Brazil has the lowest potential for improvement in both sectors. In contrast, there is significant potential for improvement in Mexico, India, and especially China, where adoption of best practice technologies could reduce energy use and carbon dioxide emissions from steel production by 50% and cement production by 37%. We conclude by comparing the identified potential for energy efficiency improvement and carbon dioxide emissions reduction in these key developing countries to that of the U.S. This comparison raises interesting questions related to efforts to improve energy efficiency in developing countries, such as: what is the appropriate role of

  16. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; Mc Donald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, T. . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1989-01-01

    This is the second volume of a two volume report on energy efficient industrialized housing. Volume II contains support documentation for Volume I. The following items are included: individual trip reports; software bibliography; industry contacts in the US, Denmark, and Japan; Cost comparison of industrialized housing in the US and Denmark; draft of the final report on the systems analysis for Fleetwood Mobile Home Manufacturers. (SM)

  17. Plant Profiles - Industrial Energy Management in Action

    SciTech Connect

    2001-02-01

    This 24-page brochure profiles industrial manufacturing firms who are achieving significant energy savings in their plants. The DOE Office of Industrial Technologies six plant-of-the-year nominees are featured, and an additional 10 projects from other companies are also highlighted. Information on OIT's awards and recognition process, and information on OIT and BestPractices is also included.

  18. Methodologies Used for Scaling-up From a Single Energy Production Unit to State Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimdina, Ginta; Timma, Lelde; Veidenbergs, Ivars; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2015-12-01

    In a well-functioning and sustainable national energy sector, each of its elements should function with maximum efficiency. To ensure maximum efficiency and study possible improvement of the sector, a scaling-up framework is presented in this work. The scaling-up framework means that the starting point is a CHP unit and its operation, the next step of aggregation is in a district heating network, followed by a municipal energy plan and finally leading to a low carbon strategy. In this framework the authors argue, that the successful, innovative practices developed and tested at the lower level of aggregation can be then transferred to the upper levels of aggregation, thus leading to a scaling-up effect of innovative practices. The work summarizes 12 methodologies used in the energy sector, by dividing these methodologies among the levels of aggregation in a scaling-up framework.

  19. End User Functional and Performance Requirements for HTGR Energy Supply to Industrial Processes

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2010-09-01

    This document specifies end user functional and performance requirements to be used in the development of the design of a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) based plant supplying energy to industrial processes. These requirements were developed from collaboration with industry and HTGR suppliers and from detailed evaluation of integration of the HTGR technology in industrial processes. The functional and performance requirements specified herein are an effective representation of the industrial sector energy needs and an effective basis for developing a plant design that will serve the broadest range of industrial applications.

  20. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  1. Examination of the factors and issues for an environmental technology utilization partnership between the private sector and the Department of Energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brouse, P.

    1997-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) held a meeting on November 12, 1992 to evaluate the DOE relations with industry and university partners concerning environmental technology utilization. The goal of this meeting was to receive feedback from DOE industry and university partners for the identification of opportunities to improve the DOE cooperative work processes with the private sector. The meeting was designed to collect information and to turn that information into action to improve private sector partnerships with DOE.

  2. U.S. Building-Sector Energy Efficiency Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Rich; Borgeson, Sam; Koomey, Jon; Biermayer, Peter

    2008-09-30

    This paper presents an estimate of the potential for energy efficiency improvements in the U.S. building sector by 2030. The analysis uses the Energy Information Administration's AEO 2007 Reference Case as a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, and applies percentage savings estimates by end use drawn from several prior efficiency potential studies. These prior studies include the U.S. Department of Energy's Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future (CEF) study and a recent study of natural gas savings potential in New York state. For a few end uses for which savings estimates are not readily available, the LBNL study team compiled technical data to estimate savings percentages and costs of conserved energy. The analysis shows that for electricity use in buildings, approximately one-third of the BAU consumption can be saved at a cost of conserved energy of 2.7 cents/kWh (all values in 2007 dollars), while for natural gas approximately the same percentage savings is possible at a cost of between 2.5 and 6.9 $/million Btu. This cost-effective level of savings results in national annual energy bill savings in 2030 of nearly $170 billion. To achieve these savings, the cumulative capital investment needed between 2010 and 2030 is about $440 billion, which translates to a 2-1/2 year simple payback period, or savings over the life of the measures that are nearly 3.5 times larger than the investment required (i.e., a benefit-cost ratio of 3.5).

  3. Energy Industry Powers CTE Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khokhar, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Michael Fields is a recent graduate of Buckeye Union High School in Buckeye, Arizona. Fields is enrolled in the Estrella Mountain Community College (EMCC) Get Into Energy program, which means he is well on his way to a promising career. Specializing in power plant technology, in two years he will earn a certificate that will all but guarantee a…

  4. The Holyoke Industrial Energy Conservation And Development Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaufler, Edward R.; Bateman, Robert H.; Connor, Frederick J.

    1982-03-01

    An innovative approach to the development of a model system for comprehensive industrial sector thermographic investigations and inspections will be taken during the winter of 1981-82 in Holyoke, MA. Infrared thermography techniques will be utilized for cost effective identification of building and process heat losses. The Holyoke program provides for a wide range of energy conservation services and will result in the implementation of no-cost, low-cost, and cost-effective capital intensive measures financed through a cooperative effort of government and private funding.

  5. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1990-02-01

    This report summarizes three documents: Multiyear Research Plan, Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports, and Volume II Appendices. These documents describe tasks that were undertaken from November 1988 to December 1989, the first year of the project. Those tasks were: (1) the formation of a steering committee, (2) the development of a multiyear research plan, (3) analysis of the US industrialized housing industry, (4) assessment of foreign technology, (5) assessment of industrial applications, (6) analysis of computerized design and evaluation tools, and (7) assessment of energy performance of baseline and advanced industrialized housing concepts. While this document summarizes information developed in each task area, it doesn't review task by task, as Volume I FY 1989 Task Reports does, but rather treats the subject of energy efficient industrialized housing as a whole to give the reader a more coherent view. 7 figs., 9 refs.

  6. Consistent high-energy constraints in the anomalous QCD sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, Pablo; Sanz Cillero, Juan José

    2014-06-01

    The anomalous < VVP > Green function and related form-factors (π0 →γ*γ* and τ- →X-ντ vector form-factors, with X- = (KKπ)-, φ- γ, (φV)-) are analyzed in this letter in the large-NC limit. Within the single (vector and pseudoscalar) resonance approximation and the context of Resonance Chiral Theory, we show that all these observables overdetermine in a consistent way a unique set of compatible high-energy constraints for the resonance couplings. This result is in agreement with analogous relations found in the even intrinsic-parity sector of QCD like, e.g., FV2 = 3F2. The antisymmetric tensor formalism is considered for the spin-one resonance fields. Finally, we have also worked out and provide here the relation between the two bases of odd intrinsic-parity Lagrangian operators commonly employed in the literature.

  7. Second-order focusing parallel electron energy magnetic sector analyzer designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khursheed, Anjam

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents parallel magnetic sector analyzer designs that are predicted to have second-order or better focusing properties. Simulation results indicate that by reducing the gap between excitation plates in a compact parallel energy magnetic sector box design, second-order focusing regions in the detected energy spectrum can be obtained. A method for combining a first-order focusing magnetic box sector unit with a larger magnet sector unit is also presented in which, the field strength varies relatively slowly. Simulations predict that using a combination of such magnetic sector units, focusing properties better than second order can be achieved for most of the detected energy range.

  8. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; McDonald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, Tomoko . Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Mazwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. )

    1989-12-01

    This document describes the research work completed in five areas in fiscal year 1989. (1) The analysis of the US industrialized housing industry includes statistics, definitions, a case study, and a code analysis. (2) The assessment of foreign technology reviews the current status of design, manufacturing, marketing, and installation of industrialized housing primarily in Sweden and Japan. (3) Assessment of industrialization applications reviews housing production by climate zone, has a cost and energy comparison of Swedish and US housing, and discusses future manufacturing processes and emerging components. (4) The state of computer use in the industry is described and a prototype design tool is discussed. (5) Side by side testing of industrialized housing systems is discussed.

  9. Conservation in the energy industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The basic energy supply and utilization problems faced by the United States were described. Actions which might alleviate the domestic shortfall of petroleum and natural gas are described, analyzed and overall impacts are assessed. Specific actions included are coal gasification, in situ shale oil production, improved oil and gas recovery, importation of liquid natural gas and deregulation of natural gas prices. These actions are weighed against each other as alternate techniques of alleviating or overcoming existing shortfalls.

  10. Hyperspectral imaging for diagnosis and quality control in agri-food and industrial sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Allende, P. Beatriz; Conde, Olga M.; Mirapeix, Jesus; Cobo, Adolfo; Lopez-Higuera, Jose M.

    2010-04-01

    Optical spectroscopy has been utilized in various fields of science, industry and medicine, since each substance is discernible from all others by its spectral properties. However, optical spectroscopy traditionally generates information on the bulk properties of the whole sample, and mainly in the agri-food industry some product properties result from the heterogeneity in its composition. This monitoring is considerably more challenging and can be successfully achieved by the so-called hyperspectral imaging technology, which allows the simultaneous determination of the optical spectrum and the spatial location of an object in a surface. In addition, it is a nonintrusive and non-contact technique which gives rise to a great potential for industrial applications and it does not require any particular preparation of the samples, which is a primary concern in food monitoring. This work illustrates an overview of approaches based on this technology to address different problems in agri-food and industrial sectors. The hyperspectral system was originally designed and tested for raw material on-line discrimination, which is a key factor in the input stages of many industrial sectors. The combination of the acquisition of the spectral information across transversal lines while materials are being transported on a conveyor belt, and appropriate image analyses have been successfully validated in the tobacco industry. Lastly, the use of imaging spectroscopy applied to online welding quality monitoring is discussed and compared with traditional spectroscopic approaches in this regard.

  11. Solar energy for industrial process heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Findings of study of potential use for solar energy utilization by California dairy industry, prove that applicable solar energy system furnish much of heat needed for milk processing with large savings in expenditures for oil and gas and ensurance of adequate readily available sources of process heat.

  12. Industrial Arts Curriculum Guide for Alternative Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for alternative energy courses is part of a series of curriculum guides for use in the industrial arts curriculum in Connecticut. The guide contains two parts. Part 1 provides the following overview: (1) objectives of alternative energy education, including suggestions for course levels, class sizes, teaching methods, and…

  13. Energy resource management for energy-intensive manufacturing industries

    SciTech Connect

    Brenner, C.W.; Levangie, J.

    1981-10-01

    A program to introduce energy resource management into an energy-intensive manufacturing industry is presented. The food industry (SIC No. 20) was chosen and 20 companies were selected for interviews, but thirteen were actually visited. The methodology for this program is detailed. Reasons for choosing the food industry are described. The substance of the information gained and the principal conclusions drawn from the interviews are given. Results of the model Energy Resource Management Plan applied to three companies are compiled at length. Strategies for dissemination of the information gained are described. (MCW)

  14. Energy use patterns and environmental implications of direct-fired industrial processes. Final report 16 June-19 December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, J.R.; Blacksmith, J.R.; Spaite, P.W.

    1980-08-01

    Energy consumption patterns and environmental impacts of direct-fired processes in the industrial sector were identified. The potential effects of fuel switching in several of these processes were determined. An extensive bibliography lists the sources consulted in this study.

  15. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  16. Valorization of rendering industry wastes and co-products for industrial chemicals, materials and energy: review.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Tizazu; Mussone, Paolo; Bressler, David

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, strong global demand for industrial chemicals, raw materials and energy has been driven by rapid industrialization and population growth across the world. In this context, long-term environmental sustainability demands the development of sustainable strategies of resource utilization. The agricultural sector is a major source of underutilized or low-value streams that accompany the production of food and other biomass commodities. Animal agriculture in particular constitutes a substantial portion of the overall agricultural sector, with wastes being generated along the supply chain of slaughtering, handling, catering and rendering. The recent emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) resulted in the elimination of most of the traditional uses of rendered animal meals such as blood meal, meat and bone meal (MBM) as animal feed with significant economic losses for the entire sector. The focus of this review is on the valorization progress achieved on converting protein feedstock into bio-based plastics, flocculants, surfactants and adhesives. The utilization of other rendering streams such as fat and ash rich biomass for the production of renewable fuels, solvents, drop-in chemicals, minerals and fertilizers is also critically reviewed.

  17. Developing and Managing University-Industry Research Collaborations through a Process Methodology/Industrial Sector Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philbin, Simon P.

    2010-01-01

    A management framework has been successfully utilized at Imperial College London in the United Kingdom to improve the process for developing and managing university-industry research collaborations. The framework has been part of a systematic approach to increase the level of research contracts from industrial sources, to strengthen the…

  18. Identifying Opportunities and Impacts of Fuel Switching in the Industrial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Ramesh C.; Jamison, Keith; Thomas, Daniel E.

    2006-08-01

    The underlying purpose of this white paper is to examine fuel switching opportunities in the U.S. industrial sector and make strategic recommendations—leading to application of the best available technologies and development of new technologies—that will introduce fuel use flexibility as an economically feasible option for plant operators, as a means to condition local fuel demands and a hedge against the local rises in fuel prices.

  19. Electric Industry Structure and Regulatory Responses in a High Distributed Energy Resources Future

    SciTech Connect

    Corneli, Steve; Kihm, Steve; Schwartz, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of distributed energy resources (DERs) that can generate, manage and store energy on the customer side of the electric meter is widely recognized as a transformative force in the power sector. This report focuses on two key aspects of that transformation: structural changes in the electric industry and related changes in business organization and regulation that are likely to result from them. Both industry structure and regulation are inextricably linked. History shows that the regulation of the power sector has responded primarily to innovation in technologies and business models that created significant structural changes in the sector’s cost and organizational structure.

  20. Nurses, industrial action and ethics: considerations from the 2010 South African public-sector strike.

    PubMed

    van Rensburg, André J; van Rensburg, Dingie J

    2013-11-01

    Several important ethical dilemmas emerge when nurses join a public-sector strike. Such industrial action is commonplace in South Africa and was most notably illustrated by a national wage negotiation in 2010. Media coverage of the proceedings suggested unethical behaviour on the part of nurses, and further exploration is merited. Laws, policies and provisional codes are meant to guide nurses' behaviour during industrial action, while ethical theories can be used to further illuminate the role of nurses in industrial action. There are, however, important aspects to consider before judging whether nurses act unethically when striking. Following Loewy's suggestion that the nature of the work, the proceeding commitment of the nurse to the patient, the prevailing situation when the strike is planned and the person(s) who stand(s) to benefit from the strike be considered, coupled with a consideration of the South African historical socio-political context, important aspects of the ethics of nurses' behaviour in industrial action transpire.

  1. SOLPLAN report: An assessment of barriers and incentives to conservation and alternative-energy use in the residential sector in Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulenwider, C. K.; Weiss, L. S.; Pfefferkorn, C.; Wiener, D. E.; Feldmam, S. L.

    1981-03-01

    The Alternative Energy Policy Project of the Wisconsin Center for Public Policy focused upon two principle objectives: gathering and analyzing data on energy conservation and alternative energy commercialization; and building consensus around alternative energy policy to develop guidelines for alternative energy policy for the state. Particular attention was paid to public involvement in the policy process and to assessing barriers and incentives from as many key sectors of the energy field as possible. Data were gathered from the general public, alternative energy users, the heating industry generally, the alternative-energy industry specifically, and key decision makers.

  2. Emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, N.; Worrell, E.; Ruth, M.; Price, L.; Elliott, R.N.; Shipley, A.M.; Thorne, J.

    2000-10-01

    U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of the nation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly, industry is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, more sustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing global competitiveness. Technology will be essential for meeting these challenges. At some point, businesses are faced with investment in new capital stock. At this decision point, new and emerging technologies compete for capital investment alongside more established or mature technologies. Understanding the dynamics of the decision-making process is important to perceive what drives technology change and the overall effect on industrial energy use. The assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies can be useful for: (1) identifying R&D projects; (2) identifying potential technologies for market transformation activities; (3) providing common information on technologies to a broad audience of policy-makers; and (4) offering new insights into technology development and energy efficiency potentials. With the support of PG&E Co., NYSERDA, DOE, EPA, NEEA, and the Iowa Energy Center, staff from LBNL and ACEEE produced this assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies. The goal was to collect information on a broad array of potentially significant emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies and carefully characterize a sub-group of approximately 50 key technologies. Our use of the term ''emerging'' denotes technologies that are both pre-commercial but near commercialization, and technologies that have already entered the market but have less than 5 percent of current market share. We also have chosen technologies that are energy-efficient (i.e., use less energy than existing technologies and practices to produce the same product), and may have additional ''non-energy benefits.'' These benefits are as important (if not more important in many cases) in influencing

  3. Emerging Energy-Efficient Technologies for Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Price, Lynn; Ruth, Michael; Elliot, Neal; Shipley, Anna; Thorn, Jennifer

    2005-05-05

    U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of thenation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly,society is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, moresustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing globalcompetitiveness. Technology is essential in achieving these challenges.We report on a recent analysis of emerging energy-efficient technologiesfor industry, focusing on over 50 selected technologies. The technologiesare characterized with respect to energy efficiency, economics andenvironmental performance. This paper provides an overview of theresults, demonstrating that we are not running out of technologies toimprove energy efficiency, economic and environmental performance, andneither will we in the future. The study shows that many of thetechnologies have important non-energy benefits, ranging from reducedenvironmental impact to improved productivity, and reduced capital costscompared to current technologies.

  4. Opportunities and barriers for a crop-based energy sector in Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klupfel, Ellen Joanne

    This study investigates the existing opportunities and barriers for expanding the crop-based energy sector in Ontario. The investigation takes place at a time when growing concerns about sustainability---environmental, social, and economic---are encouraging the exploration of alternatives to energy systems based on fossil fuels, and concerns around the future viability of rural communities are making agriculturally-based and rural-based energy production systems attractive to many. To explore opportunities and barriers for the crop-based energy sector, this thesis addresses the question: What is the political-economic context within which the crop-based energy sector operates in Ontario? Taking an institutional approach, the study involved 26 interviews with individuals whose organizations influence Ontario's crop-based energy sector (that includes the biofuels ethanol and biodiesel), developed a model outlining relationships between the crop-based energy sector and other sectors of the economy, as well as the state, and implemented a survey of Ontario Members of Provincial Parliament's perspectives on biofuels. This research examines the balance of power of knowledge, production, security, finance, and technology for Ontario's crop-based energy sector. The overall balance of power currently rests with the petroleum sector. Through force field analysis, the study also identifies the key opportunities and barriers for the growth and development of the biofuels sector. These opportunities include climate change and rural development agendas, and the barriers include the petroleum sector, cost of production, and some sectors of the state. A few overarching conclusions emerge from this research: (1) Change in Ontario's crop-based energy sector is driven foremost by political and economic forces; (2) Climate change is the most significant driving force for the development and expansion of Ontario's crop-based energy sector; (3) Production cost and resistance from the

  5. Building a Comprehensive Mill-Level Database for the Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) Model of the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector

    PubMed Central

    Modak, Nabanita; Spence, Kelley; Sood, Saloni; Rosati, Jacky Ann

    2015-01-01

    Air emissions from the U.S. pulp and paper sector have been federally regulated since 1978; however, regulations are periodically reviewed and revised to improve efficiency and effectiveness of existing emission standards. The Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) model for the pulp and paper sector is currently under development at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and can be utilized to facilitate multi-pollutant, sector-based analyses that are performed in conjunction with regulatory development. The model utilizes a multi-sector, multi-product dynamic linear modeling framework that evaluates the economic impact of emission reduction strategies for multiple air pollutants. The ISIS model considers facility-level economic, environmental, and technical parameters, as well as sector-level market data, to estimate the impacts of environmental regulations on the pulp and paper industry. Specifically, the model can be used to estimate U.S. and global market impacts of new or more stringent air regulations, such as impacts on product price, exports and imports, market demands, capital investment, and mill closures. One major challenge to developing a representative model is the need for an extensive amount of data. This article discusses the collection and processing of data for use in the model, as well as the methods used for building the ISIS pulp and paper database that facilitates the required analyses to support the air quality management of the pulp and paper sector. PMID:25806516

  6. Building a comprehensive mill-level database for the Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) model of the U.S. pulp and paper sector.

    PubMed

    Modak, Nabanita; Spence, Kelley; Sood, Saloni; Rosati, Jacky Ann

    2015-01-01

    Air emissions from the U.S. pulp and paper sector have been federally regulated since 1978; however, regulations are periodically reviewed and revised to improve efficiency and effectiveness of existing emission standards. The Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) model for the pulp and paper sector is currently under development at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and can be utilized to facilitate multi-pollutant, sector-based analyses that are performed in conjunction with regulatory development. The model utilizes a multi-sector, multi-product dynamic linear modeling framework that evaluates the economic impact of emission reduction strategies for multiple air pollutants. The ISIS model considers facility-level economic, environmental, and technical parameters, as well as sector-level market data, to estimate the impacts of environmental regulations on the pulp and paper industry. Specifically, the model can be used to estimate U.S. and global market impacts of new or more stringent air regulations, such as impacts on product price, exports and imports, market demands, capital investment, and mill closures. One major challenge to developing a representative model is the need for an extensive amount of data. This article discusses the collection and processing of data for use in the model, as well as the methods used for building the ISIS pulp and paper database that facilitates the required analyses to support the air quality management of the pulp and paper sector.

  7. The Economic Potential of Three Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems Providing Thermal Energy to Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, Mark; Cutler, Dylan; Flores-Espino, Francisco; Stark, Greg; Jenkin, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that Idaho National Laboratory and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs). Previous reports provided results of an analysis of two N-R HES scenarios. This report builds that analysis with a Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario providing the basis in which the N-R HES sells heat directly to an industrial customer. Subsystems were included that convert electricity to heat thus allowing the renewable energy subsystem to generate heat and benefit from that revenue stream. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector's evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon emitting energy sources.

  8. Wind Energy Workforce Development: A Roadmap to a Sustainable Wind Industry (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.; Kelly, M.

    2010-05-01

    As the United States moves toward a vision of greatly expanded wind energy use as outlined in the U.S. Department of Energy's 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, the need for skilled workers at all levels in the industry is repeatedly identified as a critical issue. This presentation is an overview of the educational infrastructure and expected industry needs to support the continued development of a vibrant U.S. wind industry through a discussion of the activities identified that must be put in place to train workers. The paper will also provide a framework to address issues raised from each of the education and industry sectors, identifying a roadmap for developing an educational infrastructure to support wind technology. The presentation will also provide an understanding of the available resources, materials, and programs available across the industry. This presentation provides an overview of the educational infrastructure and expected industry needs to support the continued development of a vibrant U.S. wind industry as part of a collaborative effort to develop a wind workforce roadmap. This presentation will provide 1) A review of needed programs to train workers for the wind industry; 2) An overview of the importance education will play if the nation is to expand wind energy (both in development and deployment terms) and a review of ongoing activities with a focus on federal efforts; 3) A review of the materials and resources available across the industry and a framework to address issues raised from each of the education and industry sectors.

  9. The Role of Emerging Technologies in Improving Energy Efficiency:Examples from the Food Processing Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lung, Robert Bruce; Masanet, Eric; McKane, Aimee

    2006-05-01

    For over 25 years, the U.S. DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) has championed the application of emerging technologies in industrial plants and monitored these technologies impacts on industrial energy consumption. The cumulative energy savings of more than 160 completed and tracked projects is estimated at approximately 3.99 quadrillion Btu (quad), representing a production cost savings of $20.4 billion. Properly documenting the impacts of such technologies is essential for assessing their effectiveness and for delivering insights about the optimal direction of future technology research. This paper analyzes the impacts that several emerging technologies have had in the food processing industry. The analysis documents energy savings, carbon emissions reductions and production improvements and assesses the market penetration and sector-wide savings potential. Case study data is presented demonstrating the successful implementation of these technologies. The paper's conclusion discusses the effects of these technologies and offers some projections of sector-wide impacts.

  10. Industrial steam systems and the energy-water nexus.

    PubMed

    Walker, Michael E; Lv, Zhen; Masanet, Eric

    2013-11-19

    This paper presents estimates for water consumption and steam generation within U.S. manufacturing industries. These estimates were developed through the integration of detailed, industry-level fuel use and operation data with an engineering-based steam system model. The results indicate that industrial steam systems consume approximately 3780 TBTU/yr (3.98 × 10(9) GJ/yr) to generate an estimated 2.9 trillion lb/yr (1.3 trillion kg/yr) of steam. Since a good portion of this steam is injected directly into plant processes, vented, leaked, or removed via blowdown, roughly 354 MGD of freshwater must be introduced to these systems as makeup. This freshwater consumption rate is approximately 11% of that for the entire U.S. manufacturing sector, or the total residential consumption rate of Los Angeles, the second largest city in the U.S. The majority of this consumption (>94%) can be attributed to the food, paper, petroleum refining, and chemicals industries. The results of the analyses presented herein provide previously unavailable detail on water consumption in U.S. industrial steam systems and highlight opportunities for combined energy and water savings.

  11. Graphene for energy solutions and its industrialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Di; Kivioja, Jani

    2013-10-01

    Graphene attracts intensive interest globally across academia and industry since the award of the Nobel Prize in Physics 2010. Within the last half decade, there has been an explosion in the number of scientific publications, patents and industry projects involved in this topic. On the other hand, energy is one of the biggest challenges of this century and related to the global sustainable economy. There are many reviews on graphene and its applications in various devices, however, few of the review articles connect the intrinsic properties of graphene with its energy. The IUPAC definition of graphene refers to a single carbon layer of graphite structure and its related superlative properties. A lot of scientific results on graphene published to date are actually dealing with multi-layer graphenes or reduced graphenes from insulating graphene oxides (GO) which contain defects and contaminants from the reactions and do not possess some of the intrinsic physical properties of pristine graphene. In this review, the focus is on the most recent advances in the study of pure graphene properties and novel energy solutions based on these properties. It also includes graphene metrology and analysis of both intellectual property and the value chain for the existing and forthcoming graphene industry that may cause a new `industry revolution' with the strong and determined support of governments and industries across the European Union, U. S., Asia and many other countries in the world.

  12. Graphene for energy solutions and its industrialization.

    PubMed

    Wei, Di; Kivioja, Jani

    2013-11-07

    Graphene attracts intensive interest globally across academia and industry since the award of the Nobel Prize in Physics 2010. Within the last half decade, there has been an explosion in the number of scientific publications, patents and industry projects involved in this topic. On the other hand, energy is one of the biggest challenges of this century and related to the global sustainable economy. There are many reviews on graphene and its applications in various devices, however, few of the review articles connect the intrinsic properties of graphene with its energy. The IUPAC definition of graphene refers to a single carbon layer of graphite structure and its related superlative properties. A lot of scientific results on graphene published to date are actually dealing with multi-layer graphenes or reduced graphenes from insulating graphene oxides (GO) which contain defects and contaminants from the reactions and do not possess some of the intrinsic physical properties of pristine graphene. In this review, the focus is on the most recent advances in the study of pure graphene properties and novel energy solutions based on these properties. It also includes graphene metrology and analysis of both intellectual property and the value chain for the existing and forthcoming graphene industry that may cause a new 'industry revolution' with the strong and determined support of governments and industries across the European Union, U. S., Asia and many other countries in the world.

  13. Energy and mining industry workforce trends examined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-06-01

    The present and future are bright for energy and mining jobs in the United States, with the demand for workers expected to remain strong into the foreseeable future, according to a new report from the U.S. National Research Council. However, Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries: A Call to Action (2013) cautions that several key factors could adversely affect the workforce.

  14. Creating conditions for the success of the French industrial advanced therapy sector.

    PubMed

    Lirsac, Pierre Noel; Blin, Olivier; Magalon, Jérémy; Angot, Pierre; de Barbeyrac, Estelle; Bilbault, Pascal; Bourg, Elisabeth; Damour, Odile; Faure, Patrick; Ferry, Nicolas; Garbil, Bénédicte; Larghero, Jérôme; Nguon, Marina; Pattou, François; Thumelin, Stéphane; Yates, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Although the European Union merely followed the initiatives of the United States and Japan by introducing special regimes for orphan medicinal products, it has introduced a special status for a new category of biological medicinal products, advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), adopting specific associated regulations. European Regulation (which constitutes the highest legal instrument in the hierarchy of European law texts) [EC] No. 1394/2007, published in 2007, uses this term to define somatic cell therapy medicinal products, tissue-engineered products, and gene therapy medicinal products, possibly combined with medical devices. The stated objective was two-fold: both to promote their industrialization and market access, while guaranteeing a high level of health protection for patients. Since publication of the regulation, few marketing authorizations have been granted in Europe, and these have not been accompanied by commercial success. However, certain recent studies show that this is a growing sector and that France remains the leading European nation in terms of clinical trials. This round table brought together a panel of representatives of French public and private protagonists from the advanced therapy sector. The discussions focused on the conditions to ensure the success of translational research and, more generally, the French advanced therapy sector. These enabled a number of obstacles to be identified, which once lifted, by means of recommendations, would facilitate the development and success of this sector.

  15. Setting the Standard for Industrial Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Williams, Robert; Perry, Wayne; Li, Tienan

    2007-06-01

    Industrial motor-driven systems use more than 2194 billionkWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largest opportunitiesfor energy savings.1 The International Energy Agency estimates thatoptimization of motor driven systems could reduce global electricitydemand by 7 percent through the application of commercially availabletechnologies and using well-tested engineering practices. Yet manyindustrial firms remain either unaware of or unable to achieve theseenergy savings. The same factors that make it so challenging to achieveand sustain energy efficiency in motor-driven systems (complexity,frequent changes) apply to the production processes that they support.Yet production processes typically operate within a narrow band ofacceptable performance. These processes are frequently incorporated intoISO 9000/14000 quality and environmental management systems, whichrequire regular, independent audits to maintain ISO certification, anattractive value for international trade. It is our contention that acritical step in achieving and sustaining energy efficiency ofmotor-driven systems specifically, and industrial energy efficiencygenerally, is the adoption of a corporate energy management standard thatis consistent with current industrial quality and environmentalmanagement systems such as ISO. Several energy management standardscurrently exist (US, Denmark, Ireland, Sweden) and specifications(Germany, Netherlands) others are planned (China, Spain, Brazil, Korea).This paper presents the current status of energy management standardsdevelopment internationally, including an analysis of their sharedfeatures and differences, in terms of content, promulgation, andimplementation. The purpose of the analysis is to describe the currentstate of "best practices" for this emerging area of energy efficiencypolicymaking and tosuggest next steps toward the creation of a trulyinternational energy management standard that is consistent with the ISOprinciples of measurement

  16. FDI technology spillover and threshold effect of the technology gap: regional differences in the Chinese industrial sector.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Huifang; Cao, Zhiyong; Wang, Bowen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new perspective that there is a double-threshold effect in terms of the technology gap existing in the foreign direct investment (FDI) technology spillover process in different regional Chinese industrial sectors. In this paper, a double-threshold regression model was established to examine the relation between the threshold effect of the technology gap and technology spillover. Based on the provincial panel data of Chinese industrial sectors from 2000 to 2011, the empirical results reveal that there are two threshold values, which are 1.254 and 2.163, in terms of the technology gap in the industrial sector in eastern China. There are also two threshold values in both the central and western industrial sector, which are 1.516, 2.694 and 1.635, 2.714, respectively. The technology spillover is a decreasing function of the technology gap in both the eastern and western industrial sectors, but a concave curve function of the technology gap is in the central industrial sectors. Furthermore, the FDI technology spillover has increased gradually in recent years. Based on the empirical results, suggestions were proposed to elucidate the introduction of the FDI and the improvement in the industrial added value in different regions of China.

  17. Assessing the efficiency versus the inefficiency of the energy sectors in formerly centrally planned economies

    SciTech Connect

    Vorsatz, D.

    1995-12-01

    As much the extreme inefficiency of Eastern European energy sectors is emphasized, as little attention their relatively efficient aspects receive. Indeed, a few efficiency indicators show the highest global efficiencies for the formerly centrally planned economies, such as the overall primary to useful energy efficiency. These figures draw the attention to an underestimated feature of former socialist energy sectors and to crucial policy implications: in some respects central planning lead to a more efficient use of energy than the market economy. Consequently, if transitions from the central planning to the market economy are not managed carefully, further reductions in energy efficiency can be expected in some sectors of the economy.

  18. Modeling Innovations Advance Wind Energy Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    In 1981, Glenn Research Center scientist Dr. Larry Viterna developed a model that predicted certain elements of wind turbine performance with far greater accuracy than previous methods. The model was met with derision from others in the wind energy industry, but years later, Viterna discovered it had become the most widely used method of its kind, enabling significant wind energy technologies-like the fixed pitch turbines produced by manufacturers like Aerostar Inc. of Westport, Massachusetts-that are providing sustainable, climate friendly energy sources today.

  19. Energy strategy and mitigation potential in energy sector of the Russian federation

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, A.F.; Petrov, V.N.; Chupyatov, V.P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the mitigation potential in the Russian energy sector and presents CO{sub 2} - emission scenarios. Based on the Russian energy strategy, energy conservation potential has been estimated and three groups of energy conservation measures have been pointed out. Taking into account the economic development scenarios and the scenarios of energy consumption and energy conservation, future CO{sub 2} emission scenarios for 2000 and 2010 have been prepared. Some important characteristics of these scenarios have been presented and discussed. For the period 2000-2010 annual growth rates for CO{sub 2} emission in the Russian energy sector will not exceed 0.9-1.3 %, and emission levels in 2000 make up - 75-78 %, and in 2010 - 81-88 % of the 1990 level. For the probable scenario the CO{sub 2} emission reducing will make up about 6% and 25% (for the optimistic scenario about 16% and 31%) of CO{sub 2} emission for reference scenario in 2000 and 2010 respectively. Additional CO{sub 2} emission reducing (3-5% of domestic CO{sub 2} emission) will result from increasing share of natural gas consumption.

  20. How Does the Concentration of Determinants Affect Industrial Innovation Performance? – An Empirical Analysis of 23 Chinese Industrial Sectors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shansong; Bai, Yang; Tan, Qingmei

    2017-01-01

    The agglomeration of innovation determinants has a significant influence on the innovation performance of industries and enterprises. Such an effect has received less attention in empirical research studies. This study involves a survey of the agglomeration effect of two important innovation determinants, R&D investment and R&D personnel, and its influence on innovation performance from the perspective of the industrial level. We analysed the agglomeration features based on the panel data of 23 Chinese industrial sectors from 2001~2013. An interpretation model is proposed to examine the agglomeration effect on innovation performance for 4 industrial groups: state-owned enterprises, individual enterprises, foreign-owned enterprises and enterprises as a whole. We found two main results. First, the agglomeration of determinants has a clear positive effect on the innovation performance of all 4 groups but affects individual enterprises more significantly, followed by state-owned and foreign-owned enterprises. Second, the state-owned enterprises show a much higher concentration of R&D investment and R&D personnel than other groups. However, the induced innovation efficiency in the state-owned enterprises is worse than in the individual enterprises. The advantage of resources and capital does not translate into corresponding innovation output. The privately owned small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) show a high capability of technological innovation and mercerization but have limited innovation resources. PMID:28099452

  1. How Does the Concentration of Determinants Affect Industrial Innovation Performance? - An Empirical Analysis of 23 Chinese Industrial Sectors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shansong; Bai, Yang; Tan, Qingmei

    2017-01-01

    The agglomeration of innovation determinants has a significant influence on the innovation performance of industries and enterprises. Such an effect has received less attention in empirical research studies. This study involves a survey of the agglomeration effect of two important innovation determinants, R&D investment and R&D personnel, and its influence on innovation performance from the perspective of the industrial level. We analysed the agglomeration features based on the panel data of 23 Chinese industrial sectors from 2001~2013. An interpretation model is proposed to examine the agglomeration effect on innovation performance for 4 industrial groups: state-owned enterprises, individual enterprises, foreign-owned enterprises and enterprises as a whole. We found two main results. First, the agglomeration of determinants has a clear positive effect on the innovation performance of all 4 groups but affects individual enterprises more significantly, followed by state-owned and foreign-owned enterprises. Second, the state-owned enterprises show a much higher concentration of R&D investment and R&D personnel than other groups. However, the induced innovation efficiency in the state-owned enterprises is worse than in the individual enterprises. The advantage of resources and capital does not translate into corresponding innovation output. The privately owned small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) show a high capability of technological innovation and mercerization but have limited innovation resources.

  2. Renewable energy recovery through selected industrial wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengchong

    Typically, industrial waste treatment costs a large amount of capital, and creates environmental concerns as well. A sound alternative for treating these industrial wastes is anaerobic digestion. This technique reduces environmental pollution, and recovers renewable energy from the organic fraction of those selected industrial wastes, mostly in the form of biogas (methane). By applying anaerobic technique, selected industrial wastes could be converted from cash negative materials into economic energy feed stocks. In this study, three kinds of industrial wastes (paper mill wastes, brown grease, and corn-ethanol thin stillage) were selected, their performance in the anaerobic digestion system was studied and their applicability was investigated as well. A pilot-scale system, including anaerobic section (homogenization, pre-digestion, and anaerobic digestion) and aerobic section (activated sludge) was applied to the selected waste streams. The investigation of selected waste streams was in a gradually progressive order. For paper mill effluents, since those effluents contain a large amount of recalcitrant or toxic compounds, the anaerobic-aerobic system was used to check its treatability, including organic removal efficiency, substrate utilization rate, and methane yield. The results showed the selected effluents were anaerobically treatable. For brown grease, as it is already well known as a treatable substrate, a high rate anaerobic digester were applied to check the economic effect of this substrate, including methane yield and substrate utilization rate. These data from pilot-scale experiment have the potential to be applied to full-scale plant. For thin stillage, anaerobic digestion system has been incorporated to the traditional ethanol making process as a gate-to-gate process. The performance of anaerobic digester was applied to the gate-to-gate life-cycle analysis to estimate the energy saving and industrial cost saving in a typical ethanol plant.

  3. ISTUM PC: industrial sector technology use model for the IBM-PC

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Kaplan, D.T.

    1984-09-01

    A project to improve and enhance the Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM) was originated in the summer of 1983. The project had dix identifiable objectives: update the data base; improve run-time efficiency; revise the reference base case; conduct case studies; provide technical and promotional seminars; and organize a service bureau. This interim report describes which of these objectives have been met and which tasks remain to be completed. The most dramatic achievement has been in the area of run-time efficiency. From a model that required a large proportion of the total resources of a mainframe computer and a great deal of effort to operate, the current version of the model (ISTUM-PC) runs on an IBM Personal Computer. The reorganization required for the model to run on a PC has additional advantages: the modular programs are somewhat easier to understand and the data base is more accessible and easier to use. A simple description of the logic of the model is given in this report. To generate the necessary funds for completion of the model, a multiclient project is proposed. This project will extend the industry coverage to all the industrial sectors, including the construction of process flow models for chemicals and petroleum refining. The project will also calibrate this model to historical data and construct a base case and alternative scenarios. The model will be delivered to clients and training provided. 2 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  4. Industry Response to the Challenge of Sustainability: The Case of the Canadian Nonferrous Mining Sector

    PubMed

    Sánchez

    1998-07-01

    / The paper investigates how the Canadian nonferrous sector is tackling the challenge of sustainable development. Although there is no consensus as to what sustainable development means in practice for management in the sector, at least three dimensions must be taken into account: (1) metals are recyclable, the availability of this resource is not a concern for the foreseeable future; (2) the need to minimize environmental impacts of metals exploration, extraction, transformation, consumption, and recycling; and (3) production activities should not be socially or culturally disruptive. The nonferrous mining industry faces several environmental problems. Some of the most significant are acid mine drainage, sulfur emissions, recycling, and metals toxicity. The industry has developed a number of responses to address these specific concerns as well as other more general challenges. Six strategies are described and analyzed: (1) research and development, (2) an effort of consensus building among stakeholders known as the Whitehorse Mining Initiative, (3) international networking, (4) active involvement in the development of environmental management standards, (5) management reorganization and (6) voluntary agreements. The importance of external factors in the shaping of corporate environmental management practices is discussed, in particular the role of government. Progress has been achieved in three areas: (1) managerial practices and organization, (2) reducing the impacts of ongoing operations and (3) minimizing future liabilities, but two significant fields of conflict remain, namely mining in wilderness areas and projects on aboriginal lands.KEY WORDS: Canada; Environmental management; Minerals industry; Nonferrous metals; Sustainable development; Whitehorse Mining Initiative

  5. Characterizing emerging industrial technologies in energy models

    SciTech Connect

    Laitner, John A.; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Hanson, Donald A.

    2003-07-29

    Conservation supply curves are a common tool in economic analysis. As such, they provide an important opportunity to include a non-linear representation of technology and technological change in economy-wide models. Because supply curves are closely related to production isoquants, we explore the possibility of using bottom-up technology assessments to inform top-down representations of energy models of the U.S. economy. Based on a recent report by LBNL and ACEEE on emerging industrial technologies within the United States, we have constructed a supply curve for 54 such technologies for the year 2015. Each of the selected technologies has been assessed with respect to energy efficiency characteristics, likely energy savings by 2015, economics, and environmental performance, as well as needs for further development or implementation of the technology. The technical potential for primary energy savings of the 54 identified technologies is equal to 3.54 Quads, or 8.4 percent of the assume d2015 industrial energy consumption. Based on the supply curve, assuming a discount rate of 15 percent and 2015 prices as forecasted in the Annual Energy Outlook2002, we estimate the economic potential to be 2.66 Quads - or 6.3 percent of the assumed forecast consumption for 2015. In addition, we further estimate how much these industrial technologies might contribute to standard reference case projections, and how much additional energy savings might be available assuming a different mix of policies and incentives. Finally, we review the prospects for integrating the findings of this and similar studies into standard economic models. Although further work needs to be completed to provide the necessary link between supply curves and production isoquants, it is hoped that this link will be a useful starting point for discussion with developers of energy-economic models.

  6. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

  7. India's iron and steel industry: Productivity, energy efficiency and carbon emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Katja; Sathaye, Jayant

    1998-10-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's iron and steel sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. The authors derive both growth accounting and econometric estimates of productivity growth for this sector. Their results show that over the observed period from 1973--74 to 1993--94 productivity declined by 1.71{percent} as indicated by the Translog index. Calculations of the Kendrick and Solow indices support this finding. Using a translog specification the econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's iron and steel sector has been biased towards the use of energy and material, while it has been capital and labor saving. The decline in productivity was caused largely by the protective policy regarding price and distribution of iron and steel as well as by large inefficiencies in public sector integrated steel plants. Will these trends continue into the future, particularly where energy use is concerned? Most likely they will not. The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency undergoing in the sector. Their analysis shows that with the liberalization of the iron and steel sector, the industry is rapidly moving towards world-best technology, which will result in fewer carbon emissions and more efficient energy use in existing and future plants.

  8. Incentives for solar energy in industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, K. D.

    1981-05-01

    Several issues are analyzed on the effects that government subsidies and other incentives have on the use of solar energy in industry, as well as on other capital-intensive alternative energy supplies. Discounted cash flow analysis is used to compare tax deductions for fuel expenses with tax credits for capital investments for energy. The result is a simple expression for tax equity. The effects that market penetration of solar energy has on conventional energy prices are analyzed with a free market model. It is shown that net costs of a subsidy program to the society can be significantly reduced by price. Several government loan guarantee concepts are evaluated as incentives that may not require direct outlays of government funds; their relative effectiveness in achieving loan leverage through project financing, and their cost and practicality, are discussed.

  9. Energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Dobrica; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Gordic, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the energy saving and outlines the importance of energy efficiency, particularly in three the most important areas: buildings, industry and transportation. Improving energy efficiency plays a crucial role in minimizing the societal and environmental impacts of economic growth and offers a powerful tool for achieving sustainable development by reducing the need for investment in new infrastructure, by cutting fuel costs, and by increasing competitiveness for businesses and welfare for consumers. It creates environmental benefits through reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and local air pollutants. It can offer social benefits in the form of increased energy security (through reduced dependence on fossil fuels, particularly when imported) and better energy services.

  10. Energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milovanovic, Dobrica; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Gordic, Dusan

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the energy saving and outlines the importance of energy efficiency, particularly in three the most important areas: buildings, industry and transportation. Improving energy efficiency plays a crucial role in minimizing the societal and environmental impacts of economic growth and offers a powerful tool for achieving sustainable development by reducing the need for investment in new infrastructure, by cutting fuel costs, and by increasing competitiveness for businesses and welfare for consumers. It creates environmental benefits through reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and local air pollutants. It can offer social benefits in the form of increased energy security (through reduced dependence on fossil fuels, particularly when imported) and better energy services.

  11. Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, J.; Heath, G.; Macknick, J.; Paranhos, E.; Boyd, W.; Carlson, K.

    2012-11-01

    The Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) designed this study to address four related key questions, which are a subset of the wider dialogue on natural gas: 1. What are the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas compared to conventional natural gas and other fuels used to generate electricity?; 2. What are the existing legal and regulatory frameworks governing unconventional gas development at federal, state, and local levels, and how are they changing in response to the rapid industry growth and public concerns?; 3. How are natural gas production companies changing their water-related practices?; and 4. How might demand for natural gas in the electric sector respond to a variety of policy and technology developments over the next 20 to 40 years?

  12. Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Jeffrey; Heath, Garvin; Macknick, Jordan; Paranhos, Elizabeth; Boyd, William; Carlson, Ken

    2012-11-01

    Domestic natural gas production was largely stagnant from the mid-1970s until about 2005. However, beginning in the late 1990s, advances linking horizontal drilling techniques with hydraulic fracturing allowed drilling to proceed in shale and other formations at much lower cost. The result was a slow, steady increase in unconventional gas production. The Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) designed this study to address four related key questions, which are a subset from the wider dialogue on natural gas; regarding the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas compared to conventional natural gas and other fuels used to generate electricity; existing legal and regulatory frameworks governing unconventional gas development at federal, state, and local levels, and changes in response to the rapid industry growth and public concerns; natural gas production companies changing their water-related practices; and demand for natural gas in the electric sector.

  13. Career Opportunities for Geoscientists in the Petroleum Service Sector: A Perspective from an Industrial Research Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, P.; Schwartz, L.

    2001-05-01

    The petroleum service sector provides client oil and gas companies with the measurements and services necessary to find and extract hydrocarbons from subsurface reservoirs. These services encompass a range of geophysical and petrophysical measurements ranging from the well bore to seismic scale. As the easily extracted oil and gas reserves are being depleted, new technologies allow geoscientists to tap reservoirs that were previously economically unattractive. Much of the industrial research that leads to these new technologies stems not from the oil companies themselves, but from the oilfield service companies. Schlumberger has traditionally been a leader of developing new technology for hydrocarbon exploitation, exemplified by its strong commitment to supporting research and development through the ups and downs in the oil industry. As a recent hire in a petroleum industry research lab, I will provide the perspective of a fairly recent graduate on careers in the petroleum industry. Specific attention will be given to significant industry trends that will shape the careers of petroleum geoscientists in the future and the skills and attitudes necessary to be successful.

  14. Performance analysis of CO(2) emissions and energy efficiency of metal industries in China.

    PubMed

    Shao, Chaofeng; Guan, Yang; Wan, Zheng; Chu, Chunli; Ju, Meiting

    2014-02-15

    Nonferrous metal industries play an important role in China's national economy and are some of the country's largest energy consumers. To better understand the nature of CO(2) emissions from these industries and to further move towards low-carbon development in this industry sector, this study investigates the CO(2) emissions of 12 nonferrous metal industries from 2003 to 2010 based on their life-cycle assessments. It then classifies these industries into four "emission-efficiency" types through cluster analysis. The results show that (1) the industrial economy and energy consumption of China's nonferrous metal industries have grown rapidly, although their recent energy consumption rate shows a declining trend. (2) The copper, aluminum, zinc, lead, and magnesium industries, classified as high-emission industries, are the main contributors of CO(2) emissions. The results have implications for policy decisions that aim to enhance energy efficiency, particularly for promoting the transformation of low-efficiency industries to high-efficiency ones. The study also highlights the important role of policy development in technological innovations, optimization, and upgrades, the reduction of coal proportion in energy consumption, and the advancement of new energy sources.

  15. Nano-energy research trends: bibliometrical analysis of nanotechnology research in the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez-Manjón, Ana; Moldenhauer, Kirsten; Wagener, Philipp; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2011-09-01

    Nano-energy, the part of nanotechnology dedicated to the study and improvement of the Energy Supply Sector, is a promising and perspective research field. A robust method to quantify international scientific activities in this field is the literature search. An evaluative bibliometric approach applied to the Science Citation Index has been done to retrieve a set of articles related to nano-energy and get knowledge of the direction and trends followed by this particular scientific topic. The resulting database showed an exponential increase of the number of publications issuing nano-based investigations in the energy sector in the last decade, accelerating to an annual growth rate of 1,100%. The most cited articles and the material-clustering protocol revealed that carbon-nanoelements and their application in solar energy harvesting and conversion, and energy storage devices have been principally investigated and represent the main focus in that continuously growing research field. The number of nanotechnology-related papers in the energy database increased monotonically for harvesting, conversion, and storage the last decade, being energy distribution and usage not affected. TiO2 or SnO2 nanoparticles or thin films, and nanocomposites occupied the following top positions in the investigated material ranking. This trend was constant along the decade, as confirmed by network analyses. Supported by discipline-clustering, we observed the fundamental character of the research developed between 2000 and 2009, relying mainly on material science and chemistry. Hence, further implementation of nanotechnology findings is needed to stimulate nano-based energy-focused technologies reaching widespread commercial applications.

  16. Energy consumed in 2010 by an energy-efficient building sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pine, G. D.

    1981-11-01

    The minimum practical energy consumption in the building sector in the year 2010 if an aggressive program of efficiency improvement were implemented was estimated. For the case of a 2% annual growth rate in real gross national product, an 0.8% annual growth in population, and a quadrupling of real fuel prices relative to the 1975 prices, we concluded that end-use fuel consumption by the building sector could be reduced to 7.7 exajoule (EJ) in 2010 compared to 18.0 EJ in 1977. This could be accomplished by using technologies that are available today or can be predicted with a high level of confidence to be available in 2010. No technological breakthroughs would be required, and no sacrifice in amenities would be necessary. Indeed, the real standard of living would improve. Futhermore, the results were only slightly sensitive to fuel prices; most efficiency improvements were attractive economically at today's fuel prices or at prices only slightly higher.

  17. Factors governing change in water withdrawals for U.S. industrial sectors from 1997 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Small, Mitchell J; Dzombak, David A

    2014-03-18

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) reports that U.S. water withdrawals have been steady since 1980, but the population and economy have grown since then. This implies that other factors have contributed to offsetting decreases in water withdrawals. Using water withdrawal data from USGS and economic data from Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), direct and total water withdrawals were estimated for 134 industrial summary sectors in the 1997 U.S. economic input-output (EIO) table and 136 industrial sectors in the 2002 EIO table. Using structural decomposition analysis (SDA), the change in water withdrawals for the economy from 1997 to 2002 was allocated to changes in population, GDP per capita, water use intensity, production structure, and consumption patterns. The changes in population, GDP per capita, and water use intensity led to increased water withdrawals, while the changes in production structure and consumption patterns decreased water withdrawals from 1997 to 2002. Consumption patterns change was the largest net contributor to the change in water withdrawals. The model was used to predict aggregate changes in total water withdrawals from 2002 to 2010 due to known changes in population and GDP per capita; a more complete model assessment must await release of updated data on USGS water withdrawals and EIO data.

  18. Enhancing Decision Making in the Energy Sector Using Space-Based Earth Observations: A GEO and CEOS Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckman, R. S.; Stackhouse, P. W.

    2009-12-01

    Earth observations from space are playing an increasing role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, spaceborne observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations to improve solar energy resource assessment globally. As one of the nine Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of policy and management decision making in the energy sector employing Earth observations and related models is being conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS supports the space-based activities of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), contributing directly to GEO work plan tasks supporting the energy societal benefit area. We describe several projects being conducted by CEOS member agencies, including NASA, to engage and partner with end-user energy decision makers to enhance their decision support systems using space-based observations. These prototype projects have been pursued through the GEO Energy Community of Practice and, more recently, in collaboration with the CEOS Energy societal benefit area. Several case studies exhibiting the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment, improve the forecast of space-weather impacts on the power grid, and augment integrated assessment modeling studies for energy technology scenario evaluation are discussed. In addition, ongoing activities to engage stakeholders in other Federal agencies, industry, and academia are described.

  19. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David G.

    2009-07-01

    Urbanization has re-shaped China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2007 China added 290 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 45%. This population adjustment spurred energy demand for construction of new buildings and infrastructure, as well as additional residential use as rural biomass was replaced with urban commercial energy services. Primary energy demand grew at an average annual rate of 10% between 2000 and 2007. Urbanization's effect on energy demand was compounded by the boom in domestic infrastructure investment, and in the export trade following World Trade Organization (WTO) accession in 2001. Industry energy consumption was most directly affected by this acceleration. Whereas industry comprised 32% of 2007 U.S. energy use, it accounted for 75% of China's 2007 energy consumption. Five sub-sectors accounted for 78% of China's industry energy use in 2007: iron and steel, energy extraction and processing, chemicals, cement, and non-ferrous metals. Ferrous metals alone accounted for 25% of industry and 18% of total primary energy use. The rapid growth of heavy industry has led China to become by far the world's largest producer of steel, cement, aluminum, and other energy-intensive commodities. However, the energy efficiency of heavy industrial production continues to lag world best practice levels. This study uses scenario analysis to quantify the impact of urbanization and trade on industrial and residential energy consumption from 2000 to 2025. The BAU scenario assumed 67% urbanization, frozen export amounts of heavy industrial products, and achievement of world best practices by 2025. The China Lightens Up (CLU) scenario assumed 55% urbanization, zero net exports of heavy industrial products, and more aggressive efficiency improvements by 2025. The five dominant industry sub-sectors were modeled in both scenarios using a LEAP energy end-use accounting model. The results of this study show that a CLU

  20. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  1. GUIDE TO INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENTS FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents an overview of industrial assessments and the general framework for conducting an assessment. It describes combined assessments for pollution prevention and energy, "industrial assessments," providing guidance to those performing assessments at industrial o...

  2. Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. SEGIS developments.

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, Mesa P.; Bower, Ward Isaac; Mills-Price, Michael A.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo

    2012-03-01

    The Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) initiative is a three-year, three-stage project that includes conceptual design and market analysis (Stage 1), prototype development/testing (Stage 2), and commercialization (Stage 3). Projects focus on system development of solar technologies, expansion of intelligent renewable energy applications, and connecting large-scale photovoltaic (PV) installations into the electric grid. As documented in this report, Advanced Energy Industries, Inc. (AE), its partners, and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) successfully collaborated to complete the final stage of the SEGIS initiative, which has guided new technology development and development of methodologies for unification of PV and smart-grid technologies. The combined team met all deliverables throughout the three-year program and commercialized a broad set of the developed technologies.

  3. Process-based modelling of regional water demand for electricity, industry and municipal sectors in Integrated Assessment Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, David L.; Bogaart, Patrick W.; Kram, Tom; De Vries, Bert J. M.; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2014-05-01

    Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) are a prime tool for studying global scale interactions between the human and natural earth systems. Our research contributes to this field by modelling water, food and energy demand as outcomes of more physical processes and by adding links between them. As part of this ambition, we here describe a model for water demand in the electricity generation, industrial and municipal sectors, going beyond previous modelling efforts. For instance, by coupling water demand to energy inputs, the model directly couples water efficiency to fuel efficiency of power plants. We present electricity, industry and municipal water demand models and develop water demand projections for the new Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) for climate research. Our regional-level demand models contribute to understanding the extent of crossing planetary boundaries and the scope for solutions such as virtual water trade or efficiency improvements. We also discuss how we plan to link demand and supply models, and how the usefulness for policy makers can be increased.

  4. Toxics Release Inventory, 1996. Public data release: Ten years of right-to-know industry sector analyses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This volume presents the data for 15 industrial sectors, identified by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes, that are presently required to report to TRI. These chapters set the TRI data in context of economic, regulatory, and technological developments that influence industry-wide releases and other waste management. They also analyze reporting by industrial activities at the four-digit SIC code level. Industry sectors covered are: Food and Beverage Processing; Tobacco Products; Textile Mill Products; Apparel and Fabricated Textiles; Lumber and Wood Products; Furniture; Printing and Publishing; Rubber and Plastics Products; Leather and Leather Products; Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete; Fabricated Metals; Industrial Machinery; Transportation Equipment; Instruments and Photographic Equipment; and Miscellaneous Manufacturing.

  5. Lost carbon emissions: The role of non-manufacturing 'other industries' and refining in industrial energy use and carbon emissions in IEA countries

    SciTech Connect

    Murtishaw, Scott; Schipper, Lee; Unander, Fridtjof; Karbuz, Sohbet; Khrushch, Marta

    2000-05-01

    We present a review of trends in energy use and output in branches of industry not often studied in detail: petroleum refining and what we call the other industries--agriculture, mining, and construction. From a sample of IEA countries we analyze eight with the most complete data from the early 1970s to the mid-1990s. We carry out a decomposition analysis of changes in energy use and carbon emissions in the ''other industries'' sector. We also review briefly the impact of including refining in the evolution of manufacturing energy use, usually studied without refining. Despite many data problems, we present our results as a way of enticing others to study these important ''lost'' sectors more carefully. We have five basic findings. First, ''other industries'' tends to be a minor consumer of energy in many countries, but in some, particularly Denmark, the US, and Australia, mining or agriculture can be a major sector too large to be overlooked. Second, refining is an extremely energy intensive industry which despite a relatively low share of value added consumes as much as 20 percent of final energy use in manufacturing. Third, as a result of a slower decline in the carbon-intensity of these industries vis-a-vis the manufacturing industries, their share of industrial emissions has been rising. Fourth, for other industries variation in per capita output plays a relatively small role in differentiating per capita carbon emissions compared to the impact of subsectoral energy intensities. Finally, including this energy in CO2 calculations has little impact on overall trends, but does change the magnitude of emissions in most countries significantly. Clearly, these industries provide important opportunities for searching for carbon emissions reductions.

  6. Assessing Energy Efficiency Opportunities in US Industrial and Commercial Building Motor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Prakash; Sheaffer, Paul; McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul

    2015-09-01

    In 2002, the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) published an energy efficiency assessment of U.S. industrial sector motor systems titled United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment. The assessment advanced motor system efficiency by providing a greater understanding of the energy consumption, use characteristics, and energy efficiency improvement potential of industrial sector motor systems in the U.S. Since 2002, regulations such as Minimum Energy Performance Standards, cost reductions for motor system components such as variable frequency drives, system-integrated motor-driven equipment, and awareness programs for motor system energy efficiency have changed the landscape of U.S. motor system energy consumption. To capture the new landscape, the USDOE has initiated a three-year Motor System Market Assessment (MSMA), led by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The MSMA will assess the energy consumption, operational and maintenance characteristics, and efficiency improvement opportunity of U.S. industrial sector and commercial building motor systems. As part of the MSMA, a significant effort is currently underway to conduct field assessments of motor systems from a sample of facilities representative of U.S. commercial and industrial motor system energy consumption. The Field Assessment Plan used for these assessments builds on recent LBNL research presented at EEMODS 2011 and EEMODS 2013 using methods for characterizing and determining regional motor system energy efficiency opportunities. This paper provides an update on the development and progress of the MSMA, focusing on the Field Assessment Plan and the framework for assessing the global supply chain for emerging motors and drive technologies.

  7. 78 FR 11996 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC54 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Commercial and Industrial Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... CONTACT: Mr. Charles Llenza, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable...

  8. Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    March, F.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.; Lee, V.E.

    1990-11-01

    This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected facts, figures, and analysis of strategic issues affecting the future of science in the United States. It is provided as background for people from government, the private sector, academia, and the public, who will be reviewing the NES in the coming months; and it is intended to serve as the basis for discussion of basic science issues within the context of the developing NES.

  9. Energy consumption behavior in the commercial sector: An ethnographic analysis of utility bill information and customer comprehension in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Christopher Todd

    The commercial and industrial sectors of the United States compose roughly one-third of total United States energy consumption. Many studies have suggested that significant cost-effective energy savings opportunities exist in this sector, but there is a gap between predictions of potential and actual investment in energy-efficient technologies. Very few studies have been conducted to examine the decision-making environment of the business sector. In particular, there is essentially no information about how small-business decision-makers make choices about energy consumption. My research is intended to begin the process of understanding this important arena of energy consumption behavior. Using semi-structured interview techniques, I interviewed forty-four businesses in ten states. The focus of the interviews was the business decision-maker's handling and use of the utility bill---the main (often sole) piece of information that links energy consumption to cost. Through the interviews, I collected information about how utility bills are understood and misunderstood, what components of the bill are seen as useful or confusing, and how energy consumption was seen in the context of larger business decision-making. In addition, I collected data on two forms of energy consumption feedback: historic consumption feedback, in which informants compared their current energy use to patterns of their own energy consumption over time; and group comparison consumption feedback, in which informants compared their energy consumption to the consumption of a group of similar energy consumers. Finally, I collected data on sources of information to which decision-makers turned when they wanted to seek more information about energy consumption alternatives. Overall, my findings suggest that the current utility bill format is often misunderstood. In many cases, particularly in the small-business and medium-size-business categories, the link between energy consumption and energy cost is

  10. Electric Power Interruption Cost Estimates for Individual Industries, Sectors and the U.S. Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; DeSteese, John G.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2003-05-16

    Distributed energy resources (DER) have been promoted as the least-cost approach to meeting steadily increasing energy demand. However, it is unclear whether DER deployment can maintain or improve the electric power supply reliability and quality currently available to consumers. This report addresses two key factors relating to this question: 1) characteristics of existing power supply reliability, and 2) costs resulting from supply interruptions characteristic of the existing power grid. Interruption cost data collected by the University of Saskatchewan was used in conjunction with data generated by the United States Department of Energy’s Annual Survey of Manufacturers, along with industry shares of gross domestic product (GDP) and gross output to derive interruption cost estimates for U.S. industries at the 2-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) level. Interruption cost estimates are presented as a function of outage duration (e.g., 20 minutes, 1-hour, 3-hour), and are normalized in terms of dollars per peak kW.

  11. Developing an energy efficiency service industry in Shanghai

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Goldman, Charles; Levine, Mark; Hopper, Nicole

    2004-02-10

    . It is one reason that China consumed over 60% of the world's cement production in 2003 (NBS 2004). Energy consumption in Shanghai has been growing at 6-8% annually, with the growth of electricity demand at over 10% per year. Shanghai, with very limited local energy resources, relies heavily on imported coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity. While coal still constitutes over half of Shanghai's energy consumption, oil and natural gas use have been growing in importance. Shanghai is the major market for China's West to East (natural gas) Pipeline (WEP). With the input from WEP and off-shore pipelines, it is expected that natural gas consumption will grow from 250 million cubic meters in 2000 to 3000-3500 million cubic meters in 2005. In order to secure energy supply to power Shanghai's fast-growing economy, the Shanghai government has set three priorities in its energy strategy: (1) diversification of its energy structure, (2) improving its energy efficiency, and (3) developing renewable and other cleaner forms of energy. Efficiency improvements are likely to be most critical, particularly in the near future, in addressing Shanghai's energy security, especially the recent electricity shortage in Shanghai. Commercial buildings and industries consume the majority of Shanghai's, as well as China's, commercial energy. In the building sector, Shanghai has been very active implementing energy efficiency codes for commercial and residential buildings. Following a workshop on building codes implementation held at LBNL for senior Shanghai policy makers in 2001, the Shanghai government recently introduced an implementation guideline on residential building energy code compliance for the downtown area of Shanghai to commence in April, 2004, with other areas of the city to follow in 2005. A draft code for commercial buildings has been developed as well. In the industrial sector, the Shanghai government started an ambitious initiative in 2002 to induce private capital to invest in

  12. Optimization model for the allocation of water resources based on the maximization of employment in the agriculture and industry sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi Davijani, M.; Banihabib, M. E.; Nadjafzadeh Anvar, A.; Hashemi, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    In many discussions, work force is mentioned as the most important factor of production. Principally, work force is a factor which can compensate for the physical and material limitations and shortcomings of other factors to a large extent which can help increase the production level. On the other hand, employment is considered as an effective factor in social issues. The goal of the present research is the allocation of water resources so as to maximize the number of jobs created in the industry and agriculture sectors. An objective that has attracted the attention of policy makers involved in water supply and distribution is the maximization of the interests of beneficiaries and consumers in case of certain policies adopted. The present model applies the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm in order to determine the optimum amount of water allocated to each water-demanding sector, area under cultivation, agricultural production, employment in the agriculture sector, industrial production and employment in the industry sector. Based on the results obtained from this research, by optimally allocating water resources in the central desert region of Iran, 1096 jobs can be created in the industry and agriculture sectors, which constitutes an improvement of about 13% relative to the previous situation (non-optimal water utilization). It is also worth mentioning that by optimizing the employment factor as a social parameter, the other areas such as the economic sector are influenced as well. For example, in this investigation, the resulting economic benefits (incomes) have improved from 73 billion Rials at baseline employment figures to 112 billion Rials in the case of optimized employment condition. Therefore, it is necessary to change the inter-sector and intra-sector water allocation models in this region, because this change not only leads to more jobs in this area, but also causes an improvement in the region's economic conditions.

  13. Guide to the energy industries. [Index of 2930 items

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The primary focus of the guide is the identification of marketing and financial data on seven specific energy industries: coal, energy alternatives, hydroelectric power, natural gas, nuclear energy, petroleum, and solar energy. The guide is divided into four parts. Part 1 contains sources of data that concern the seven energy industries. It is arranged alphabetically by industry and, within each industry, by broad geographic region. Part 2 lists publishers of energy industry data and includes an index to sources produced by those publishers. Part 3 contains indexes by SIC code and by subject. Part 4 is a title index.

  14. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  15. Energy Investment Advisory Series No. 2. Investment opportunities in Indochina`s energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    Indochina is well positioned to join Asia`s recent record of impressive economic growth. Vietnam, with the largest population and its long coast, seems poised to be the first nation in Indochina to succeed. It, and to a lesser extent Laos and Cambodia, are well positioned to take advantage of future tends in energy and energy-related markets. Electricity, hydro, renewables and nuclear are discussed as well as oil and gas. Areas of the energy industry in which investment might be possible in each country are tabulated.

  16. Low-energy particle events associated with sector boundaries. [solar proton enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svestka, Z.; Fritzova-Svestkova, L.; Nolte, J. T.; Dodson-Prince, H. W.; Hedeman, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    Onsets of some 40 to 45 low-energy proton events during the years 1957-1969 coincided in time with transits of well-defined sector boundaries across the earth. These events can be interpreted as long-lived proton streams filling up some of the magnetic sectors, indicating an acceleration of protons which is not associated with typical proton-producing flares. The sharp onsets of these particle streams, as well as a deficiency of flare-associated particle events shortly before the boundary transit, indicate that in some cases magnetic sector boundaries can inhibit transverse propagation of low-energy particles in the solar corona or in interplanetary space.

  17. Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial EnergyEfficiency: A Survey of International Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell,Ernst; Graus, Wina

    2005-09-15

    The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overview of tax and fiscal policies, including descriptions and evaluations of programs that use energy or energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) taxes, pollution levies, public benefit charges, grants or subsidies, subsidized audits, loans, tax relief for specific technologies, and tax relief as part of an energy or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission tax or agreement scheme. Following the discussion of these individual policies, the report reviews experience with integrated programs found in two countries as well as with GHG emissions trading programs. The report concludes with a discussion of the best practices related to international experience with tax and fiscal policies to encourage investment in energy efficiency in industry.

  18. Using risk elasticity to prioritize risk reduction strategies for geographical areas and industry sectors.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Chiun; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2016-01-25

    The total quantity of chemical emissions does not take into account their chemical toxicity, and fails to be an accurate indicator of the potential impact on human health. The sources of released contaminants, and therefore, the potential risk, also differ based on geography. Because of the complexity of the risk, there is no integrated method to evaluate the effectiveness of risk reduction. Therefore, this study developed a method to incorporate the spatial variability of emissions into human health risk assessment to evaluate how to effectively reduce risk using risk elasticity analysis. Risk elasticity analysis, the percentage change in risk in response to the percentage change in emissions, was adopted in this study to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of risk reduction. The results show that the main industry sectors are different in each area, and that high emission in an area does not correspond to high risk. Decreasing the high emissions of certain sectors in an area does not result in efficient risk reduction in this area. This method can provide more holistic information for risk management, prevent the development of increased risk, and prioritize the risk reduction strategies.

  19. Case studies on heat stress related perceptions in different industrial sectors in southern India

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ramalingam, Ayyappan; Dasu, Venkatesan; Stephen, Jeremiah Chinnadurai; Sivaperumal, Mohan Raj; Kumarasamy, Deepan; Mukhopadhyay, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Santu; Sambandam, Sankar

    2010-01-01

    Linkages between thermal loads and its physiological consequences have been widely studied in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries like India, despite the widespread recognition of the problem, limited attempts have been made to estimate health impacts related to occupational heat stress and fewer yet to link heat stress with potential productivity losses. This is reflected in the ubiquity of workplaces with limited or no controls to reduce exposures. As a prelude to understanding the feasibility of alternative interventions in different industrial sectors, we present case studies from 10 different industrial units in Tamil Nadu, Chennai, which describe perceptions of occupational heat stress among the workers and supervisors/management. Units were selected from among those who had previously requested an assessment of workplace heat stress exposure at select locations as part of routine industrial hygiene services provided by the investigators. Since the earlier measurements were performed in response to a management request, all units were revisited to generate a simple job and process profile using checklists in order to understand the overall heat exposure situation in the concerned unit. This was followed by a simple questionnaire administration to a small subsample of employees to evaluate the perceptions of workers and supervisors/management. Finally, we retrieved available quantitative data from previous measurements of heat stress at these units to correlate prevalence of exposures with respective perceptions. Results indicate that the existing level of controls may not be sufficient for managing work-related heat stress in any of the sectors studied, with wide variations in perceived risks. There was a noticeable disconnect between worker's perceptions and their ability to secure workplace improvements related to heat stress from the management. Wider availability of engineering and administrative controls in the

  20. Impact of Clean Energy R&D on the U.S. Power Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Donohoo-Vallett, Paul; Mai, Trieu; Mowers, Matthew; Porro, Gian

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. government, along with other governments, private corporations and organizations, invests significantly in research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) activities in clean energy technologies, in part to achieve the goal of a clean, secure, and reliable energy system. While specific outcomes and breakthroughs resulting from RDD&D investment are unpredictable, it can be instructive to explore the potential impacts of clean energy RDD&D activities in the power sector and to place those impacts in the context of current and anticipated market trends. This analysis builds on and leverages analysis by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) titled “Energy CO2 Emissions Impacts of Clean Energy Technology Innovation and Policy” (DOE 2017). Similar to DOE (2017), we explore how additional improvements in cost and performance of clean energy technologies could impact the future U.S. energy system; however, unlike the economy-wide modeling used in DOE (2017) our analysis is focused solely on the electricity sector and applies a different and more highly spatially-resolved electric sector model. More specifically, we apply a scenario analysis approach to explore how assumed further advancements in clean electricity technologies would impact power sector generation mix, electricity system costs, and power sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.

  1. Sickness absence in the private sector of Greece: comparing shipyard industry and national insurance data.

    PubMed

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Merekoulias, Georgios; Tanagra, Dimitra; Konstantinou, Eleni C; Mikelatou, Efi; Jelastopulu, Eleni

    2012-04-01

    Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently (<5 days/year) compared to most of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999-2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million) insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece) were retrieved from the Institute's annual statistical reports for the period 1987-2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (%) were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate) varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8), and 2.14-2.72% (median 2.49%), respectively. Short sick-leave spells (<4 days) may account at least for the 25% of the total number of sick-leave days, currently not recorded in national statistics. The level of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece was found to be higher than the suggested by previous reports and international comparative studies, but still remains one of the lowest in the industrialized world. In the 20-years national data, the results also showed a 7-year wave in sickness absence indexes (a decrease during the period 1991-1997 and an increase in 1998-2004) combined with a small yet significant decline as a general trend. These

  2. Assessment of Renewable Energy Technology and a Case of Sustainable Energy in Mobile Telecommunication Sector

    PubMed Central

    Okundamiya, Michael S.; Emagbetere, Joy O.; Ogujor, Emmanuel A.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of the mobile telecommunication sectors of many emerging countries creates a number of problems such as network congestion and poor service delivery for network operators. This results primarily from the lack of a reliable and cost-effective power solution within such regions. This study presents a comprehensive review of the underlying principles of the renewable energy technology (RET) with the objective of ensuring a reliable and cost-effective energy solution for a sustainable development in the emerging world. The grid-connected hybrid renewable energy system incorporating a power conversion and battery storage unit has been proposed based on the availability, dynamism, and technoeconomic viability of energy resources within the region. The proposed system's performance validation applied a simulation model developed in MATLAB, using a practical load data for different locations with varying climatic conditions in Nigeria. Results indicate that, apart from being environmentally friendly, the increase in the overall energy throughput of about 4 kWh/$ of the proposed system would not only improve the quality of mobile services, by making the operations of GSM base stations more reliable and cost effective, but also better the living standards of the host communities. PMID:24578673

  3. Assessment of renewable energy technology and a case of sustainable energy in mobile telecommunication sector.

    PubMed

    Okundamiya, Michael S; Emagbetere, Joy O; Ogujor, Emmanuel A

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of the mobile telecommunication sectors of many emerging countries creates a number of problems such as network congestion and poor service delivery for network operators. This results primarily from the lack of a reliable and cost-effective power solution within such regions. This study presents a comprehensive review of the underlying principles of the renewable energy technology (RET) with the objective of ensuring a reliable and cost-effective energy solution for a sustainable development in the emerging world. The grid-connected hybrid renewable energy system incorporating a power conversion and battery storage unit has been proposed based on the availability, dynamism, and technoeconomic viability of energy resources within the region. The proposed system's performance validation applied a simulation model developed in MATLAB, using a practical load data for different locations with varying climatic conditions in Nigeria. Results indicate that, apart from being environmentally friendly, the increase in the overall energy throughput of about 4 kWh/$ of the proposed system would not only improve the quality of mobile services, by making the operations of GSM base stations more reliable and cost effective, but also better the living standards of the host communities.

  4. Assessment of the Technical Potential for Achieving Net Zero-Energy Buildings in the Commercial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2007-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings from research conducted at NREL to assess the technical potential for zero-energy building technologies and practices to reduce the impact of commercial buildings on the U.S. energy system. Commercial buildings currently account for 18% of annual U.S. energy consumption, and energy use is growing along with overall floor area. Reducing the energy use of this sector will require aggressive research goals and rapid implementation of the research results.

  5. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model. The NEMS Transportation Model comprises a series of semi-independent models which address different aspects of the transportation sector. The primary purpose of this model is to provide mid-term forecasts of transportation energy demand by fuel type including, but not limited to, motor gasoline, distillate, jet fuel, and alternative fuels (such as CNG) not commonly associated with transportation. The current NEMS forecast horizon extends to the year 2010 and uses 1990 as the base year. Forecasts are generated through the separate consideration of energy consumption within the various modes of transport, including: private and fleet light-duty vehicles; aircraft; marine, rail, and truck freight; and various modes with minor overall impacts, such as mass transit and recreational boating. This approach is useful in assessing the impacts of policy initiatives, legislative mandates which affect individual modes of travel, and technological developments. The model also provides forecasts of selected intermediate values which are generated in order to determine energy consumption. These elements include estimates of passenger travel demand by automobile, air, or mass transit; estimates of the efficiency with which that demand is met; projections of vehicle stocks and the penetration of new technologies; and estimates of the demand for freight transport which are linked to forecasts of industrial output. Following the estimation of energy demand, TRAN produces forecasts of vehicular emissions of the following pollutants by source: oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, total carbon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds.

  6. Study of energy R and D in the private sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This study supplies DOE with information pertinent to the formulation of realistic national energy research policies and facilitates cooperation between government and business in the development and commercialization of new and improved energy technologies. The study gathered information on the amount of energy-related research and development that private companies are doing, types of energy-related programs they report, and their perceptions about appropriate areas for government support. Mail questionnaires obtained data on the amount of corporate research funding in specific energy-related technology areas and the interviews gathered information on corporate energy strategies, major commercial activities, and specific research plans in four major areas - conservation, supply, energy production and transmission, and new products. (MCW)

  7. Laser microprocessing technologies for automotive, flexible electronics, and solar energy sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikumb, Suwas; Bathe, Ravi; Knopf, George K.

    2014-10-01

    Laser microprocessing technologies offer an important tool to fulfill the needs of many industrial sectors. In particular, there is growing interest in applications of these processes in the manufacturing areas such as automotive parts fabrication, printable electronics and solar energy panels. The technology is primarily driven by our understanding of the fundamental laser-material interaction, process control strategies and the advancement of significant fabrication experience over the past few years. The wide-ranging operating parameters available with respect to power, pulse width variation, beam quality, higher repetition rates as well as precise control of the energy deposition through programmable pulse shaping technologies, enables pre-defined material removal, selective scribing of individual layer within a stacked multi-layer thin film structure, texturing of material surfaces as well as precise introduction of heat into the material to monitor its characteristic properties are a few examples. In this research, results in the area of laser surface texturing of metals for added hydrodynamic lubricity to reduce friction, processing of ink-jet printed graphene oxide for flexible printed electronic circuit fabrication and scribing of multi-layer thin films for the development of photovoltaic CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) interconnects for solar panel devices will be discussed.

  8. Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Lingbo; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn

    2012-11-01

    The pulp and paper industry ranks fourth in terms of energy consumption among industries worldwide. Globally, the pulp and paper industry accounted for approximately 5 percent of total world industrial final energy consumption in 2007, and contributed 2 percent of direct carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industry. Worldwide pulp and paper demand and production are projected to increase significantly by 2050, leading to an increase in this industry’s absolute energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and GHG mitigation technologies and their deployment in the market will be crucial for the pulp and paper industry’s mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report describes the industry’s processes and compiles available information on the energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for 36 emerging technologies to reduce the industry’s energy use and GHG emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies that have already been commercialized for the pulp and paper industry, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. The purpose of this report is to provide engineers, researchers, investors, paper companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured resource of information on these technologies.

  9. Energy, industry and nitrogen: strategies for decreasing reactive nitrogen emissions.

    PubMed

    Moomaw, William R

    2002-03-01

    Nitrogen oxides are released during atmospheric combustion of fossil fuels and biomass, and during the production of certain chemicals and products. They can react with natural or man-made volatile organic compounds to produce smog, or else can be further oxidized to produce particulate haze, or acid rain that can eutrophy land and water. The reactive nitrogen that begins in the energy sector thus cascades through the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and soils before being eventually partially denitrifed to the global warming and stratospheric ozone-depleting gas nitrous oxide or molecular nitrogen. This paper will suggest how an economic analysis of the nitrogen cycle can identify the most cost-effective places to intervene. Nitrogen oxides released during fossil-fuel combustion in vehicles, power plants and heating boilers can either be controlled by add-on emission control technology, or can be eliminated by many of the same technical options that lead to carbon dioxide reduction. These integrated strategies also address sustainability, economic development and national security issues. Similarly in industrial production, it is more effective to focus on redesigning industrial processes rather than on nitrogen oxide pollution elimination from the current system. This paper will suggest which strategies might be utilized to address multiple benefits rather than focusing on single pollutants.

  10. India's cement industry: Productivity, energy efficiency and carbon emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Katja; Sathaye, Jayant

    1999-07-01

    Historical estimates of productivity growth in India's cement sector vary from indicating an improvement to a decline in the sector's productivity. The variance may be traced to the time period of study, source of data for analysis, and type of indices and econometric specifications used for reporting productivity growth. Analysis shows that in the twenty year period, 1973 to 1993, productivity in the aluminum sector increased by 0.8% per annum. An econometric analysis reveals that technical progress in India's cement sector has been biased towards the use of energy and capital, while it has been material and labor saving. The increase in productivity was mainly driven by a period of progress between 1983 and 1991 following partial decontrol of the cement sector in 1982. The authors examine the current changes in structure and energy efficiency in the sector. Their analysis shows that the Indian cement sector is moving towards world-best technology, which will result in fewer carbon emissions and more efficient energy use. However, substantial further energy savings and carbon reduction potentials still exist.

  11. The Development of Sensor Applications in the Sectors of Energy and Environment in Italy, 1976-2015.

    PubMed

    Di Francia, Girolamo

    2017-04-07

    Although sensor technologies have been developing quite similarly all over the world, the investigation of their applications has been more affected by the specific industrial and economic characteristics of each country. This paper aims to investigate the development of applications based on sensor devices in the sectors of energy and the environment, in Italy, throughout the last forty years (1976-2015), examining the most relevant papers published by Italian R & D groups working in this field. Italy depends on foreign imports for more than 80% of its primary energy needs, and this has directed the research effort on the development of sensor applications both to improve load shaping and consumers' awareness and to develop specific equipment to maximize renewable energy production. Similarly, for the environment sector, there are increasing efforts to develop solutions to support a more and more capillary control of the environment itself using a cooperative approach. In both the sectors it seems that the solutions proposed can help to relieve the structural problems that Italy suffers and that the scientific and technical results obtained so far also have significant international relevance.

  12. Industrial sector-based volatile organic compound (VOC) source profiles measured in manufacturing facilities in the Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Junyu; Yu, Yufan; Mo, Ziwei; Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Xinming; Yin, Shasha; Peng, Kang; Yang, Yang; Feng, Xiaoqiong; Cai, Huihua

    2013-07-01

    Industrial sector-based VOC source profiles are reported for the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China, based source samples (stack emissions and fugitive emissions) analyzed from sources operating under normal conditions. The industrial sectors considered are printing (letterpress, offset and gravure printing processes), wood furniture coating, shoemaking, paint manufacturing and metal surface coating. More than 250 VOC species were detected following US EPA methods TO-14 and TO-15. The results indicated that benzene and toluene were the major species associated with letterpress printing, while ethyl acetate and isopropyl alcohol were the most abundant compounds of other two printing processes. Acetone and 2-butanone were the major species observed in the shoemaking sector. The source profile patterns were found to be similar for the paint manufacturing, wood furniture coating, and metal surface coating sectors, with aromatics being the most abundant group and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) as the second largest contributor in the profiles. While OVOCs were one of the most significant VOC groups detected in these five industrial sectors in the PRD region, they have not been reported in most other source profile studies. Such comparisons with other studies show that there are differences in source profiles for different regions or countries, indicating the importance of developing local source profiles.

  13. Low-energy signals from kinetic mixing with a warped abelian hidden sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Kristian L.; Morrissey, David E.

    2011-02-01

    We investigate the detailed phenomenology of a light Abelian hidden sector in the Randall-Sundrum framework. Relative to other works with light hidden sectors, the main new feature is a tower of hidden Kaluza-Klein vectors that kinetically mix with the Standard Model photon and Z. We investigate the decay properties of the hidden sector fields in some detail, and develop an approach for calculating processes initiated on the ultraviolet brane of a warped space with large injection momentum relative to the infrared scale. Using these results, we determine the detailed bounds on the light warped hidden sector from precision electroweak measurements and low-energy experiments. We find viable regions of parameter space that lead to significant production rates for several of the hidden Kaluza-Klein vectors in meson factories and fixed-target experiments. This offers the possibility of exploring the structure of an extra spacetime dimension with lower-energy probes.

  14. Solid fuel gasification in the global energy sector (a review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ol'khovskii, G. G.

    2015-07-01

    In the review of the Conference on Gasification of Solid Fuels, which was held on October 2013 by the United States, the commercial use of the most advanced coal gasification systems in the chemical and power industry is considered. Data on the projects of integrated solid fuel gasification combined-cycle plants, either being developed or exploited in the United States, as well as the nature and results performed in specialized organizations to improve the existing gasification equipment and systems, are presented.

  15. Effects of financial crisis on the industry sector of Chinese stock market — from a perspective of complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chunxia; Chen, Yanhua; Hao, Weiwei; Shen, Ying; Tang, Minxuan; Niu, Lei

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we use mutual information to measure the statistical interdependence between 23 industry sectors of Shanghai stock market and construct corresponding correlation network to analyze the shock of 2008 financial crisis on industry sectors. The obtained meaningful facts are as follows. First, such crisis has only a limited impact on leading industries such as Manufacturing, Commercial trade and Machinery & Equipment, which still play an important role in Chinese economy. Second, the crisis badly attacks China's export industries like Electronics, Wood & Furniture and Textile & Clothing. The damage further hurts other industries, and then export industries' influence becomes larger. Third, the crisis adversely impacts the import industries like Petrochemical, Metal & Nonmetal and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. While due to the stimulation of macroeconomic policies, the influence of crisis on import industries is limited. Similarly, due to relatively strict capital control and the macroeconomic policies stimulating the domestic demand, those industries like Construction, Real Estate and Financial Services are slightly wounded. All these findings suggest that Chinese government should transform from the external demand to the domestic consumption to sustain economic growth.

  16. A Review of the Water and Energy Sectors and the Use of a Nexus Approach in Abu Dhabi.

    PubMed

    Paul, Parneet; Al Tenaiji, Ameena Kulaib; Braimah, Nuhu

    2016-03-25

    Rapid population increase coupled with urbanization and industrialization has resulted in shortages of water in the Middle East. This situation is further exacerbated by global climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions. Recent research advocates that solutions to the global water security and scarcity crisis must involve water-energy nexus approaches. This means adopting policies and strategies that harmonize these inter-related sectors to minimize environmental impact while maximizing human benefit. In the case of Abu Dhabi, when designing and locating oil/gas refineries and associated power generation facilities, previous relevant decisions were based on simple economic and geographical grounds, such as nearness to oil rigs, pipelines, existing industries and port facilities, etc. The subsequent design and location of water abstraction and treatment works operated by the waste heat from these refining and/or power generation processes was catered for as an afterthought, meaning that there is now a mismatch between the water and energy supplies and demands. This review study was carried out to show how Abu Dhabi is trying now to integrate its water-energy sectors using a nexus approach so that future water/power infrastructure is designed optimally and operated in harmony, especially in regard to future demand. Based upon this review work, some recommendations are made for designers and policy makers alike to bolster the nexus approach that Abu Dhabi is pursuing.

  17. A Review of the Water and Energy Sectors and the Use of a Nexus Approach in Abu Dhabi

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Parneet; Al Tenaiji, Ameena Kulaib; Braimah, Nuhu

    2016-01-01

    Rapid population increase coupled with urbanization and industrialization has resulted in shortages of water in the Middle East. This situation is further exacerbated by global climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions. Recent research advocates that solutions to the global water security and scarcity crisis must involve water–energy nexus approaches. This means adopting policies and strategies that harmonize these inter-related sectors to minimize environmental impact while maximizing human benefit. In the case of Abu Dhabi, when designing and locating oil/gas refineries and associated power generation facilities, previous relevant decisions were based on simple economic and geographical grounds, such as nearness to oil rigs, pipelines, existing industries and port facilities, etc. The subsequent design and location of water abstraction and treatment works operated by the waste heat from these refining and/or power generation processes was catered for as an afterthought, meaning that there is now a mismatch between the water and energy supplies and demands. This review study was carried out to show how Abu Dhabi is trying now to integrate its water–energy sectors using a nexus approach so that future water/power infrastructure is designed optimally and operated in harmony, especially in regard to future demand. Based upon this review work, some recommendations are made for designers and policy makers alike to bolster the nexus approach that Abu Dhabi is pursuing. PMID:27023583

  18. An energy used model of the residential sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oneal, D. L.; Hirst, E.

    1980-11-01

    An energy simulation model for residential energy uses and costs from 1970 through 2000 estimates annual consumption of four fuels, eight end uses, and three housing types. The model also evaluates annual equipment installation, ownership, and equipment costs including charges for improving thermal performance of new and existing housing. An example of the model application is given by estimating the energy and economic factors of alternate water heating conservation options; they show the advantages of heat pump water heaters over conventional and solar units.

  19. Essays on alternative energy policies affecting the US transportation sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rear, Eric G.

    This dissertation encompasses three essays evaluating the impacts of different policies targeting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel demands, etc. of the transportation sector. Though there are some similarities across the three chapters, each essay stands alone as an independent work. The 2010 US EPA MARKAL model is used in each essay to evaluate policy effects. Essay 1 focuses on the recent increases in Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, and the implications of a "rebound effect." These increases are compared to a carbon tax generating similar reductions in system-wide emissions. As anticipated, the largest reductions in fuel use by light-duty vehicles (LDV) and emissions are achieved under CAFE. Consideration of the rebound effect does little to distort CAFE benefits. Our work validates many economists' belief that a carbon tax is a more efficient approach. However, because the tax takes advantage of cheaper abatement opportunities in other sectors, reductions in transportation emissions will be much lower than what we observe with CAFE. Essay 2 compares CAFE increases with what some economists suggest would be a much more "efficient" alternative -- a system-wide oil tax internalizing some environmental externalities. Because oil taxes are likely to be implemented in addition to CAFE standards, we consider a combined policy case reflecting this. Our supplementary analysis approximates the appropriate tax rates to produce similar reductions in oil demands as CAFE (CAFE-equivalent tax rates). We discover that taxes result in greater and more cost-effective reductions in system-wide emissions and net oil imports than CAFE. The current fuel tax system is compared to three versions of a national vehicle miles traveled (VMT) tax charged to all LDVs in Essay 3. VMT taxes directly charge motorists for each mile driven and help to correct the problem of eroding tax revenues given the failure of today's fuel taxes to adjust with inflation. Results

  20. Model documentation report: Residential sector demand module of the national energy modeling system

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code. This reference document provides a detailed description for energy analysts, other users, and the public. The NEMS Residential Sector Demand Module is currently used for mid-term forecasting purposes and energy policy analysis over the forecast horizon of 1993 through 2020. The model generates forecasts of energy demand for the residential sector by service, fuel, and Census Division. Policy impacts resulting from new technologies, market incentives, and regulatory changes can be estimated using the module. 26 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Greenhouse-gas emissions from energy use in the water sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothausen, Sabrina G. S. A.; Conway, Declan

    2011-07-01

    Water management faces great challenges over the coming decades. Pressures include stricter water-quality standards, increasing demand for water and the need to adapt to climate change, while reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The processes of abstraction, conveyance and treatment of fresh water and wastewater all demand energy. Energy use in the water sector is growing, yet its importance is under-recognized, and gaps remain in our knowledge. Here we define the need to integrate energy use further into water resource management and identify opportunities for the water sector to understand and describe more effectively its role in greenhouse-gas emissions.

  2. Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

  3. Severe accidents in the energy sector: comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Hirschberg, Stefan; Burgherr, Peter; Spiekerman, Gerard; Dones, Roberto

    2004-07-26

    This paper addresses one of the controversial issues in the current comparative studies of the environmental and health impacts of energy systems, i.e. the treatment of severe accidents. The work covers technical aspects of severe accidents and thus primarily reflects an engineering perspective on the energy-related risk issues, though some social implications are also touched upon. The assessment concerns fossil energy sources (coal, oil and gas), nuclear power and hydro power. The scope is not limited to the power production (conversion) step of these energy chains but, whenever applicable, also includes exploration, extraction, transports, processing, storage and waste disposal. With the exception of the nuclear chain the focus of the work has been on the evaluation of the historical experience of accidents. The basis used for this evaluation is a comprehensive database ENSAD (Energy-related Severe Accident Database), established by the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). For hypothetical nuclear accidents the probabilistic technique has also been employed and extended to cover the assessment of economic consequences of such accidents. The broader picture obtained by coverage of full energy chains leads on the world-wide basis to aggregated immediate fatality rates being much higher for the fossil chains than what one would expect if only power plants were considered. Generally, the immediate fatality rates are for all considered energy carriers significantly higher for the non-OECD countries than for OECD countries. In the case of hydro and nuclear the difference is in fact dramatic. The presentation of results is not limited to the aggregated values specific for each energy chain. Also frequency-consequence curves are provided. They reflect implicitly the ranking based on the aggregated values but include also such information as the observed or predicted chain-specific maximum extents of damages. This perspective on severe accidents may lead to different system

  4. Reducing Energy Cost and Greenhouse Gas Emission in the Corporate Sector, a Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Maxim L.

    2013-01-01

    The study is titled "Reducing energy cost and GreenHouse Gas emission in the corporate sector, A Delphi Study". The study applied the Delphi methodology and focused on the Green IT solutions that can help the modern corporate organizations with less than 1000 employees to decrease their energy costs and GHG emissions. The study presents…

  5. Industrial Technologies Program Research Plan for Energy-Intensive Process Industries

    SciTech Connect

    Chapas, Richard B.; Colwell, Jeffery A.

    2007-10-01

    In this plan, the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) identifies the objectives of its cross-cutting strategy for conducting research in collaboration with industry and U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories to develop technologies that improve the efficiencies of energy-intensive process industries.

  6. Multi-Sector General Permit Annual Industrial Storm Water Training, TA-3-22 Power and Steam Plant (Sector 0)

    SciTech Connect

    Shendo, Marwin Patrick

    2015-01-12

    This report offers training for employees who work at TA-3-22, the Power and Steam Plant that move product, metal, and other pollutants like oil, fuel, equipment, pumps, etc. outside or that work outside with industrial materials exposed to storm water.

  7. Integrating Energy and Environmental Management in Wood Furniture Industry

    PubMed Central

    Babić, Milun; Jelić, Dubravka; Konćalović, Davor; Vukašinović, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    As energy costs continue to rise, industrial plants (even those of energy nonintensive industries such as furniture industry) need effective way to reduce the amount of energy they consume. Besides, there are a number of economic and environmental reasons why a company should consider environmental management initiatives. This paper provides a detailed guideline for implementing joint energy and environmental management system in wood furniture industrial company. It covers in detail all essential aspects of the system: initial system assessment, organization, policy development, energy and environmental auditing, action plan development, system promotion, checking system performance, and management review. PMID:24587734

  8. Integrating energy and environmental management in wood furniture industry.

    PubMed

    Gordić, Dušan; Babić, Milun; Jelić, Dubravka; Konćalović, Davor; Vukašinović, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    As energy costs continue to rise, industrial plants (even those of energy nonintensive industries such as furniture industry) need effective way to reduce the amount of energy they consume. Besides, there are a number of economic and environmental reasons why a company should consider environmental management initiatives. This paper provides a detailed guideline for implementing joint energy and environmental management system in wood furniture industrial company. It covers in detail all essential aspects of the system: initial system assessment, organization, policy development, energy and environmental auditing, action plan development, system promotion, checking system performance, and management review.

  9. Financial and environmental impacts of new technologies in the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duthu, Ray Charles, III

    Energy industries (generation, transmission and distribution of fuels and electricity) have a long history as the key elements of the US energy economy and have operated within a mostly consistent niche in our society for the past century. However, varieties of interrelated drivers are forcing changes to these industries' business practices, relationship to their customers, and function in society. In the electric utility industry, the customer is moving towards acting as a fuller partner in the energy economy: buying, selling, and dispatching its demand according to its own incentives. Natural gas exploration and production has long operated out in rural areas farther from public concerns or regulations, but now, due to hydraulic fracturing, new exploration is occurring in more urbanized, developed regions of the country and is creating significant public concern. For these industries, the challenges to their economic development and to improvements to the energy sector are not necessarily technological; but are social, business, and policy problems. This dissertation seeks to understand and design towards these issues by building economic and life cycle assessment models that quantify value, potential monetization, and the potential difference between the monetization and value for two new technologies: customer-owned distributed generation systems and integrated development plans with pipeline water transport in hydraulically fractured oil and gas fields. An inclusive business model of a generic customer in Fort Collins, Co and its surrounding utilities demonstrates that traditional utility rates provide customers with incentives that encourage over-monetization of a customer's distributed generation resource at the expense of the utilities. Another model which compares customer behavior incented by traditional rates in three New England cities with the behavior incented through a real-time pricing market corroborates this conclusion. Daily customer load peak

  10. Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal energy storage systems designed for energy conservation through the recovery, storage, and reuse of industrial process waste heat are reviewed. Consideration is given to systems developed for primary aluminum, cement, the food processing industry, paper and pulp, and primary iron and steel. Projected waste-heat recovery and energy savings are listed for each category.

  11. Estimating energy intensity and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potentials in the manufacturing sectors in Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Wangskarn, P.; Khummongkol, P.; Schrattenholzer, L.

    1996-12-31

    The final energy consumption in Thailand increased at about ten percent annually within the last 10 years. To slow the energy demand growth rate while maintaining the country`s economic advance and environmental sustainability, the Energy Conservation Promotion Act (ECPA) was adopted in 1992. With this Act, a comprehensive Energy Conservation Program (ENCON) was initiated. ENCON commits the government to promoting energy conservation, to developing appropriate regulations, and to providing financial and organizational resources for program implementation. Due to this existing ENCON program a great benefit is expected not only to reducing energy consumption, but also to decreasing GHGs emissions substantially. This study is a part of the ENCON research program which was supported by the German Federal Government under the program called Prompt-Start Measures to Implement the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The basic activities carried out during the project included (1) An assessment of Thailand`s total and specific energy consumption in the industrial sectors and commercial buildings; (2) Identification of existing and candidate technologies for GHG emission reduction and energy efficiency improvements in specific factories and commercial buildings; and (3) Identification of individual factories and commercial buildings as candidates for detailed further study. Although the energy assessment had been carried out for the commercial buildings also, this paper will cover only the work on the manufacturing sector. On the basis of these steps, 14 factories were visited by the project team and preliminary energy audits were performed. As a result, concrete measures and investments were proposed and classified into two groups according to their economic characteristics. Those investments with a payback time of less than four years were considered together in a Moderate scenario, and those with longer payback times in an Intensive scenario.

  12. Evolving Role of the Power Sector Regulator: A Clean Energy Regulators Initiative Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zinaman, O.; Miller, M.; Bazilian, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper seeks to briefly characterize the evolving role of power sector regulation. Given current global dynamics, regulation of the power sector is undergoing dramatic changes. This transformation is being driven by various factors including technological advances and cost reductions in renewable energy, energy efficiency, and demand management; increasing air pollution and climate change concerns; and persistent pressure for ensuring sustainable economic development and increased access to energy services by the poor. These issues add to the already complex task of power sector regulation, of which the fundamental remit remains to objectively and transparently ensure least-cost service delivery at high quality. While no single regulatory task is trivial to undertake, it is the prioritization and harmonization of a multitude of objectives that exemplifies the essential challenge of power sector regulation. Evolving regulatory roles can be understood through the concept of existing objectives and an additional layer of emerging objectives. Following this categorization, we describe seven existing objectives of power sector regulators and nine emerging objectives, highlighting key challenges and outlining interdependencies. This essay serves as a preliminary installment in the Clean Energy Regulatory Initiative (CERI) series, and aims to lay the groundwork for subsequent reports and case studies that will explore these topics in more depth.

  13. Energy utilization and greenhouse-gas emissions: Transportation sector, topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, K.G.

    1992-06-01

    The objective of the report is to compare the emissions of greenhouse gases for alternative end-use technologies in the transportation sector. Scientists assert that global warming is occurring and will continue to occur as a result of increasing concentrations of certain gases in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the focus of this analysis because they are believed to cause three-fourths of the global warming effect and because energy production and use are a significant source of these emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions in the energy sector occur during energy production, conversion, transportation and end-use. This analysis compares alternative transportation sector fuel/technology choices in terms of their total fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases. The emphasis of this report is on the end use comparison. The fuel-cycle emissions comparison was developed in a companion report.

  14. Waste-to-energy sector and the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Fotis, S.C.; Sussman, D.

    1997-12-01

    The waste-to-energy sector provides one important avenue for the United States to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the significant GHG reductions capable of being achieved by the waste-to-energy (WTE) sector through avoided fossil generation and reduced municipal landfills. The paper begins with a review of the current voluntary reporting mechanism for {open_quotes}registering{close_quotes} GHG reduction credits under section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The paper then provides an overview of possible emerging international and domestic trends that could ultimately lead to mandatory targets and timetables for GHG mitigation in the United States and other countries. The paper ends with an analysis of the GHG benefits achievable by the WTE sector, based on the section 1605(b) report filed by the Integrated Waste Services Association IWSA on the GHG emissions avoided for year 1995.

  15. Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, Vish V.; Davies, Richard W.; Holbery, Jim D.

    2006-04-01

    United States industry consumed 32.5 Quads (34,300 PJ) of energy during 2003, which was 33.1% of total U.S. energy consumption (EIA 2003 Annual Energy Review). The U.S. industrial complex yields valuable goods and products. Through its manufacturing processes as well as its abundant energy consumption, it supports a multi-trillion dollar contribution to the gross domestic product and provides millions of jobs in the U.S. each year. Industry also yields waste products directly through its manufacturing processes and indirectly through its energy consumption. These waste products come in two forms, chemical and thermal. Both forms of waste have residual energy values that are not routinely recovered. Recovering and reusing these waste products may represent a significant opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. industrial complex. This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program (DOE-ITP). It analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities. A primary part of this analysis was to characterize the quantity and energy value of the emissions. For example, in 2001, the industrial sector emitted 19% of the U.S. greenhouse gases (GHG) through its industrial processes and emitted 11% of GHG through electricity purchased from off-site utilities. Therefore, industry (not including agriculture) was directly and indirectly responsible for emitting 30% of the U.S. GHG. These emissions were mainly comprised of carbon dioxide (CO2), but also contained a wide-variety of CH4 (methane), CO (carbon monoxide), H2 (hydrogen), NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compound), and other chemicals. As part of this study, we conducted a survey of publicly available literature to determine the amount of energy embedded in the emissions and to identify technology opportunities to capture and

  16. Maximizing Energy Savings Reliability in BC Hydro Industrial Demand-side Management Programs: An Assessment of Performance Incentive Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosman, Nathaniel

    For energy utilities faced with expanded jurisdictional energy efficiency requirements and pursuing demand-side management (DSM) incentive programs in the large industrial sector, performance incentive programs can be an effective means to maximize the reliability of planned energy savings. Performance incentive programs balance the objectives of high participation rates with persistent energy savings by: (1) providing financial incentives and resources to minimize constraints to investment in energy efficiency, and (2) requiring that incentive payments be dependent on measured energy savings over time. As BC Hydro increases its DSM initiatives to meet the Clean Energy Act objective to reduce at least 66 per cent of new electricity demand with DSM by 2020, the utility is faced with a higher level of DSM risk, or uncertainties that impact the costeffective acquisition of planned energy savings. For industrial DSM incentive programs, DSM risk can be broken down into project development and project performance risks. Development risk represents the project ramp-up phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not materialize due to low customer response to program incentives. Performance risk represents the operational phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not persist over the effective measure life. DSM project development and performance risks are, in turn, a result of industrial economic, technological and organizational conditions, or DSM risk factors. In the BC large industrial sector, and characteristic of large industrial sectors in general, these DSM risk factors include: (1) capital constraints to investment in energy efficiency, (2) commodity price volatility, (3) limited internal staffing resources to deploy towards energy efficiency, (4) variable load, process-based energy saving potential, and (5) a lack of organizational awareness of an operation's energy efficiency over time (energy performance). This research assessed the capacity

  17. Which environmental problems get policy attention? Examining energy and agricultural sector policies in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Engstroem, Rebecka Nilsson, Mans Finnveden, Goeran

    2008-05-15

    Not all environmental problems get the same level of policy attention. An interesting question is thus why certain aspects receive attention and others do not. This paper studies the level of policy attention given to different environmental aspects in agriculture and energy policy in Sweden and explores empirically some factors that can explain the level of attention. The first step was to explore the link between environmental issue characteristics and the level of policy attention. The level of policy attention was measured through a content analysis of Swedish government bills. The results from the content analysis are clear and stable over the studied time period. In the agriculture sector biodiversity and toxicity are in focus whereas in the energy sector climate change and resources are given the attention. Besides these aspects, the attention is limited. These results were compared with the results from sector-wide environmental assessments of the same sectors. These assessments were based on hybrid input-output analysis and life cycle assessment methodologies. A main finding from the study is that issue importance is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for policy attention. Other explanations are needed to understand which environmental issues get attention in sectoral policy. Our assessment showed that while the level of knowledge does not provide an explanation, the presence of strong and well-organised stakeholders within the sector, with an interest in having a certain issue on the agenda, might be decisive for issue attention. Path dependency and limited attention capacity are other important factors.

  18. Calibration of seasonal forecasts over Euro-Mediterranean region: improve climate information for the applications in the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Felice, Matteo; Alessandri, Andrea; Catalano, Franco

    2013-04-01

    Accurate and reliable climate information, calibrated for the specific geographic domain, are critical for an effective planning of operations in industrial sectors, and more in general, for all the human activities. The connection between climate and energy sector became particularly evident in the last decade, due to the diffusion of renewable energy sources and the consequent attention on the socio-economical effects of extreme climate events .The energy sector needs reliable climate information in order to plan effectively power plants operations and forecast energy demand and renewable output. On time-scales longer than two weeks (seasonal), it is of critical importance the optimization of global climate information on the local domains needed by specific applications. An application that is distinctly linked with climate is electricity demand forecast, in fact, especially during cold/hot periods, the electricity usage patterns are influenced by the use of electric heating/cooling equipments which diffusion is steadily increasing worldwide [McNeil & Letschert, 2007]. Following an approach similar to [Navarra & Tribbia, 2005], we find a linear relationship between seasonal forecasts main modes of temperature anomaly and the main modes of reanalysis on Euro-Mediterranean domain. Then, seasonal forecasts are calibrated by means of a cross-validation procedure with the aim of optimize climate information over Italy. Calibrated seasonal forecasts are used as predictor for electricity demand forecast on Italy during the summer (JJA) in the period 1990-2009. Finally, a comparison with the results obtained with not calibrated climate forecasts is performed. The proposed calibration procedure led to an improvements of electricity demand forecast performance with more evident effects on the North of Italy, reducing the overall RMSE of 10% (from 1.09 to 0.98). Furthermore, main principal components are visualized and put in relation with electricity demand patterns in

  19. Kyiv institutional buildings sector energy efficiency program: Technical assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, T.J.; Freeman, S.L.; Popelka, A.; Shestopal, P.A.; Gagurin, E.V.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this assessment is to characterize the economic energy efficiency potential and investment requirements for space heating and hot water provided by district heat in the stock of state and municipal institutional buildings in the city of Kyiv. The assessment involves three activities. The first is a survey of state and municipal institutions to characterize the stock of institutional buildings. The second is to develop an estimate of the cost-effective efficiency potential. The third is to estimate the investment requirements to acquire the efficiency resource. Institutional buildings are defined as nonresidential buildings owned and occupied by state and municipal organizations. General categories of institutional buildings are education, healthcare, and cultural. The characterization activity provides information about the number of buildings, building floorspace, and consumption of space heating and hot water energy provided by the district system.

  20. Coal exports may make Australia's energy sector among least sustainable

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-15

    Plentiful coal and cheap energy prices have resulted in an unusually heavy carbon footprint. Clearly, Australia has to rethink how much coal it will use to feed its own growing economy while becoming more conscious of its significant carbon export problem. For a country long used to digging the coal out of the ground and shipping it overseas, climate change will be a game changer.

  1. Materials Flows Through Industry Tool to Track Supply Chain Energy Demand

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Alberta; Mann, Margaret; Gelman, Rachel; Lewis, John; Benson, David; Cresko, Joe; Ma, Seungwook

    2014-10-01

    In evaluating next-generation materials and processes, the supply chain can have a large impact on the life cycle energy impacts. The Materials Flow through Industry (MFI) tool was developed for the Department of Energy's Advanced Manufacturing Office to be able to evaluate the energy impacts of the U.S. supply chain. The tool allows users to perform process comparisons, material substitutions, and grid modifications, and to see the effects of implementing sector efficiency potentials (Masanet, et al. 2009). This paper reviews the methodology of the tool and provides results around specific scenarios.

  2. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    This dissertation analyzes the energy consumption behavior of residential adopters of solar photovoltaic systems (solar-PV). Based on large data sets from the San Diego region that have been assembled or otherwise acquired by the author, the dissertation quantifies changes in energy consumption after solar-PV installation and determines whether certain household characteristics are correlated with such changes. In doing so, it seeks to answer two related questions: First, "Do residential solar adopters increase or decrease their electricity consumption after they install a solar-PV system?" Assuming that certain categories of residential adopters increase and others decrease, the second question is "Which residential adopters increase and which decrease their consumption and why?" The database that was used to conduct this analysis includes information about 5,243 residential systems in San Diego Gas & Electric's (SDG&E) service territory installed between January 2007 and December 2010. San Diego is a national leader in the installation of small-scale solar-electric systems, with over 12,000 systems in the region installed as of January 2012, or around 14% of the total number installed in California. The author performed detailed characterization of a significant subset of the solar installations in the San Diego region. Assembled data included technical and economic characteristics of the systems themselves; the solar companies that sold and installed them; individual customer electric utility billing data; metered PV production data for a subgroup of these solar systems; and data about the properties where the systems are located. Primarily, the author was able to conduct an electricity consumption analysis at the individual household level for 2,410 PV systems installed in SDG&E service territory between January 2007 and December 2010. This analysis was designed to detect changes in electricity consumption from the pre-solar to the post-installation period. To

  3. Impacts of irrigation network sectoring as an energy saving measure on olive grove production.

    PubMed

    Navarro Navajas, J M; Montesinos, P; Poyato, E Camacho; Rodríguez Díaz, J A

    2012-11-30

    In recent years, improving water use efficiency has been one of the most important challenges for the agricultural sector. However, such improvements have led to the installation of pressurized irrigation systems which generally require more energy to operate, especially in plantations on sloping and mountainous lands. Thus, the reduction of energy use in these systems has also become a major issue. Irrigation network sectoring has been proposed as one of the most effective energy saving measures. Typically, however, the potential benefits of this management strategy have been evaluated by means of theoretical approaches in networks that were originally designed to supply water on demand and not after water application in real irrigation districts designed following sectoring strategies. In this work, this measure is applied to an irrigation district devoted to olive grove production in a mountainous area that was designed according to this management strategy. With this aim, the WEBSO (Water and Energy Based Sectoring Operation) algorithm, which was developed in a previous work, has been modified in order to take into account the specific characteristics of the irrigation district and its actual management, as well as to analyze sensitivity to several irrigation water depths in terms of both energy demand and yields. An economic analysis of the potential benefits of this management strategy is also carried out. The results show that this measure has lead to a nearly 30% reduction in energy consumption, while increasing farmers' profits by 13% compared to traditional on-demand operations.

  4. Transportation Sector Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 2 -- Appendices: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains input data and parameters used in the model of the transportation sector of the National Energy Modeling System. The list of Transportation Sector Model variables includes parameters for the following: Light duty vehicle modules (fuel economy, regional sales, alternative fuel vehicles); Light duty vehicle stock modules; Light duty vehicle fleet module; Air travel module (demand model and fleet efficiency model); Freight transport module; Miscellaneous energy demand module; and Transportation emissions module. Also included in these appendices are: Light duty vehicle market classes; Maximum light duty vehicle market penetration parameters; Aircraft fleet efficiency model adjustment factors; and List of expected aircraft technology improvements.

  5. Regional industrial ecology: examples from regional economic systems of forest industry and energy supply in Finland.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, J

    2001-12-01

    Industrial ecology (IE) promotes the development of industrial systems based on recycling of matter and cascading of energy through cooperation. In this paper, the local/regional industrial ecosystem approach is reflected in two examples from Finland. The local forest industry system is based on renewable resources, waste materials and energy utilisation between forestry companies, a saw-mill, a pulp mill, a paper mill and a forest industry power plant. Waste energy from electricity production is used for production of heat and process steam. Regional city energy supply systems in Finland are also to a large extent arranged around power plants that utilise waste energy. The potential of combining the forest industry system with the energy supply systems of cities is considered and the conditions for success in the Finnish case are discussed.

  6. Assessment of industrial activity in the utilization of biomass for energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    Federal programs in biomass energy are defined by identifying the status and objectives of private sector activity in the biomass field as of mid 1979. The industry's perceptions of government activites are characterized. Findings and conclusions are based principally on confidential interviews with executives in 95 companies. These included forest products companies, agricultural products companies, equipment manufacturers, electric and gas utilities, petroleum refiners and distributors, research and engineering firms, and trade organizations. The study focused on four key questions: (1) what is the composition of the biomass industry? (2) what are the companies doing? (3) what are their objectives and strategies? (4) what are the implications for government policy?

  7. Development of the mitigation plan for Slovakia energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Mojik, I.

    1996-12-31

    According to the review of national communications from Annex I countries (FCCC/AGBM/1996/7), Slovakia is in 21st place among countries in descending order of GHG emissions. With respect to GHG emission per capita Slovakia is in 14th place and from the point of view of GHG emissions per GDP unit Slovakia is in 7th place. However, within world wide GHG emissions those originating from Slovakia are nearly negligible, but GHG emissions related to per capita or even to GDP are significantly high. Since energy production is responsible for more than 70% of GHG emissions (88% of CO{sub 2} emission) the high ranking of Slovakia is evidence of the high energy intensity of the Slovak Economy. As is common in countries with economies in transition there is no stable trend in macroeconomical values in Slovakia. Although the general shape of possible development curves is known, in fact the exact level of the real curve is not predictable. According to their analyses the Slovak Republic surely will meet the basic UN FCCC obligation for Annex I countries, i.e. to limit anthropogenic emissions of GHG in the year 2000 to the level of 1990. However, the above mentioned uncertainties are the main reason why they have no firm guaranty of fulfilling their domestic target (20% CO{sub 2} reduction in 2005 compared to 1988). Analyses made within the Country Study program have indicated that there is good possibility of reaching the domestic target but uncertainty is high and certain conditions have to be met.

  8. Two Paths to Transforming Markets through Public Sector EnergyEfficiency: Bottom Up versus Top Down

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Coleman, Philip; Fridley, David; Harris,Jeffrey; Villasenor Franco, Edgar

    2006-05-10

    The evolution of government purchasing initiatives in Mexicoand China, part of the PEPS (Promoting an Energy-efficient Public Sector)program, demonstrates the need for flexibility in designingenergy-efficiency strategies in the public sector. Several years ofpursuing a top-down (federally led) strategy in Mexico produced fewresults, and it was not until the program was restructured in 2004 tofocus on municipal-level purchasing that the program gained momentum.Today, a new partnership with the Mexican federal government is leadingto an intergovernmental initiative with strong support at the federallevel. By contrast, the PEPS purchasing initiative in China wassuccessfully initiated and led at the central government level withstrategic support from international experts. The very different successtrajectories in these two countries provide valuable lessons fordesigning country-specific public sector energy-efficiency initiatives.Enabling conditions for any successful public sector purchasinginitiative include the existence of mandatory energy-efficiencyperformance standards, an effective energy-efficiency endorsementlabeling program, an immediate need for energy conservation, a simplepilot phase (focusing on a limited number of strategically chosenproducts), and specialized technical assistance. Top-down purchasingprograms are likely to be more successful where there is high-levelpolitical endorsement and a national procurement law in place, supportedby a network of trained purchasers. Bottom-up (municipally led)purchasing programs require that municipalities have the authority to settheir own purchasing policies, and also benefit from existing networks ofcities, supported by motivated municipal leaders and trained purchasingofficials.

  9. Energy Requirements by the Water Sector in the Southwestern US: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averyt, K.; Yates, D. N.; Meldrum, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate, energy, and water are fundamentally linked such that shifts in one sector have cascading impacts on the others. Consideration of the integrated system is necessary to fully understand the individual risk profile of each sector. In defining vulnerabilities and potential adaptations, the policy and regulatory environment must be considered alongside the biological and physical systems. Take, for example, the Southwestern U.S., a naturally arid system, where water availability is declining as a consequence of climate change and population growth. Adaptations by the water sector to convey, store, and develop new water sources (e.g. desalination, groundwater pumping, water-reuse) are strategies designed to enhance sustainability of the sector. But, the energy requirements embedded in these management techniques pose challenges to electric utilities. West wide, approximately 20% of total electricity generation goes toward supplying and heating water. If future investments made by the water sector to deal with changing supply and demand regimes continue to follow current trends, the dependence of water on energy availability will grow, meaning that the water supply will be increasingly reliant on the electricity system. Here, we use the example of long-term aridity and the recent drought in the Western US to illustrate the tradeoffs and challenges inherent at the nexus between energy and water. We present long-term trends in the energy intensity of water supplies in the Southwestern US, with a specific focus on groundwater systems. Projected energy requirements for proposed and future conveyance systems are discussed. The potential impacts of reduced flows on the Colorado River on the energy demands for groundwater pumping in the Lower Colorado River Basin are highlighted.

  10. Status of national CO{sub 2}-mitigation projects and initiatives in the Philippine energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Tupas, C.T.

    1996-12-31

    The Philippines has a huge energy requirement for the next 30 years in order to achieve its economic growth target. Based on an expected annual GDP growth rate of 6.9 percent, the Philippines total energy requirement is estimated to increase at an average of 6.6 percent annually from 1996 to 2025. Gross energy demand shall increase from 219.0 million barrels of fuel oil equivalent (MMBFOE) in 1996 to 552.4 MMBFOE in 2010 and 1,392.6 MMBFOE by 2025. These energy demand levels shall be driven primarily by the substantial increase in fuel requirements for power generation whose share of total energy requirement is 28.3 percent in 1996, 48.0 percent in 2010 and 55.0 percent in 2025. With the expected increase in energy demand, there will necessarily be adverse impacts on the environment. Energy projects and their supporting systems - from fuel extraction and storage to distribution - can and will be major contributors not only to local but also to regional and global environmental pollution and degradation. International experiences and trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventory have shown that the energy sector has always been the dominant source of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) - the principal contributor to global climate change. The energy sector`s CO{sub 2} emissions come primarily from fossil fuels combustion. Since energy use is the dominant source of CO{sub 2} emissions, efforts should therefore be concentrated on designing a mitigation strategy in this sector.

  11. Models for residential-and commercial-sector energy conservation analysis: Applications, limitations, and future potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, H. E.; Fuller, R. E.

    1980-09-01

    Four of the major models used by DOE for energy conservation analyses in the residential and commercial building sectors are reviewed and critically analyzed to determine how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. The most effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy conservation policy and analysis is assessed. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  12. Using Alternate Energy Sources. The Illinois Plan for Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Univ., Normal.

    This guide, which is one in the "Exploration" series of curriculum guides intended to assist junior high and middle school industrial educators in helping their students explore diverse industrial situations and technologies used in industry, deals with using alternate energy sources. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons:…

  13. Impacts of Energy Sector Emissions on PM2.5 Air Quality in Northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karambelas, A. N.; Kiesewetter, G.; Heyes, C.; Holloway, T.

    2015-12-01

    India experiences high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and several Indian cities currently rank among the world's most polluted cities. With ongoing urbanization and a growing economy, emissions from different energy sectors remain major contributors to air pollution in India. Emission sectors impact ambient air quality differently due to spatial distribution (typical urban vs. typical rural sources) as well as source height characteristics (low-level vs. high stack sources). This study aims to assess the impacts of emissions from three distinct energy sectors—transportation, domestic, and electricity—on ambient PM2.5­­ in northern India using an advanced air quality analysis framework based on the U.S. EPA Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Present air quality conditions are simulated using 2010 emissions from the Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interaction and Synergies (GAINS) model. Modeled PM2.5 concentrations are compared with satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2010. Energy sector emissions impacts on future (2030) PM2.5 are evaluated with three sensitivity simulations, assuming maximum feasible reduction technologies for either transportation, domestic, or electricity sectors. These simulations are compared with a business as usual 2030 simulation to assess relative sectoral impacts spatially and temporally. CMAQ is modeled at 12km by 12km and include biogenic emissions from the Community Land Model coupled with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols in Nature (CLM-MEGAN), biomass burning emissions from the Global Fires Emissions Database (GFED), and ERA-Interim meteorology generated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for 2010 to quantify the impact of modified anthropogenic emissions on ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Energy sector emissions analysis supports decision-making to improve future air quality and public health in

  14. Pulp and Paper Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-08-01

    The study provides energy estimates for the following four cases: current average mill energy consumption, state-of-the-art art mill energy consumption, mill energy consumption if advanced technologies requiring further R&D were employed, and theoretical minimum mill energy consumption.

  15. Changes in energy intensity in the manufacturing sector 1985--1991

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-15

    In this report, energy intensity is defined as the ratio of energy consumption per unit of output. Output is measured as the constant dollar of value of shipments and receipts, and two measures of energy consumption are presented in British thermal units (Btu): Offsite-Produced Energy and Total Inputs of Energy. A decrease in energy intensity from one period to another suggests an increase in energy efficiency, and vice versa. Energy efficiency can be defined and measured in various ways. Certain concepts of energy efficiency, especially those limited to equipment efficiencies, cannot be measured over time using changes in energy-intensity ratios. While improved energy efficiency will tend to reduce energy intensity, it is also true that a change in energy intensity can be due to factors unrelated to energy efficiency. For this report, energy intensity is used as a surrogate measure for energy efficiency, based on industry knowledge and current methodological analyses.

  16. Long-Term US Industrial Energy Use and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Marshall A.; Sinha, Paramita; Smith, Steven J.; Lurz, Joshua P.

    2007-12-03

    We present a description and scenario results from our recently-developed long-term model of United States industrial sector energy consumption, which we have incorporated as a module within the ObjECTS-MiniCAM integrated assessment model. This new industrial model focuses on energy technology and fuel choices over a 100 year period and allows examination of the industrial sector response to climate policies within a global modeling framework. A key challenge was to define a level of aggregation that would be able to represent the dynamics of industrial energy demand responses to prices and policies, but at a level that remains tractable over a long time frame. In our initial results, we find that electrification is an important response to a climate policy, although there are services where there are practical and economic limits to electrification, and the ability to switch to a low-carbon fuel becomes key. Cogeneration of heat and power using biomass may also play a role in reducing carbon emissions under a policy constraint.

  17. Renewable energy resources in a restructured electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Galen, P.S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper highlights a conference presentation addressing changes in the residential energy sector in view of the increasing competitiveness of the energy market. Renewable energy characteristics are briefly outlined, and capacity and generation data for non-hydroelectric power in 1994 are listed. A review of critical factors in renewables development and policy responses to market impediments is made. Current market barriers are identified, and proposals for Federal policies are made. 17 tabs., 2 figs.

  18. Industrial application of geothermal energy in southeast Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batdorf, J. A.; McClain, D. W.; Gross, M.; Simmons, G. M.

    1980-02-01

    The main industries in Southeastern Idaho are phosphorus/ phosphate production and potato processing. Most of the energy required in the phosphate industries is electrical and therefore not replaceable by direct application of geothermal energy. The main area for direct use of geothermal energy in the phosphate industry is for drying of the ore at the mine site; however, most of this is energy now supplied by waste heat from the calcining process. There exists a large need for a dedicated supply of electrical energy to these industries and the possibility of using geothermal energy to generate electricity for these areas should be investigated. The potato processing industry uses most of its energy to provide process steam for drying and cooking. Geothermal energy can potentially replace most of these energy requirements provided a high energy source temperature can be located. A 200 F geothermal source could supply about 40% of the industry's needs. A 400 F geothermal source could supply nearly 90% of the industry's needs.

  19. Use of modern information technologies for making budgetary sectors of the economy more energy-efficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Bobryakov, A. V.

    2010-12-01

    A strategy of administrative management and technological control of heat consumption and energy conservation processes in budgetary sectors of the economy is described together with a system of integrated indicators for estimating the efficiency of these processes and the main results obtained from putting the strategy in use in the system of the Russian Federal Agency for Education are presented.

  20. Refractories for Industrial Processing. Opportunities for Improved Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James G.; Hayden, H. Wayne; Angelini, Peter; Moore, Robert E.; Headrick, William L.

    2005-01-01

    Refractories are a class of materials of critical importance to manufacturing industries with high-temperature unit processes. This study describes industrial refractory applications and identifies refractory performance barriers to energy efficiency for processing. The report provides recommendations for R&D pathways leading to improved refractories for energy-efficient manufacturing and processing.

  1. Impact of recent energy legislation on the aluminum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, E.; Emery, J.G.; Hopp, W.J.; Kretz, A.L.

    1981-06-01

    This report examines the aluminum industry's technology in energy use and emissions control. Data on consumption and pollution levels are presented. A history of the aluminum industry in the Pacific Northwest, its role in providing power reserves, and how that role fits into the present power situation are given. The Northwest Power Act, the rates the industry will probably pay as a result of the Act, the implications of those rates to the industry, as well as the availability of federal power to the industry are discussed. Finally, the Act's effects on the relative competitiveness of the industry in both domestic and world markets are examined.

  2. Solar energy in California industry - Applications, characteristics and potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Pivirotto, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a survey to determine the potential applicability of solar thermal energy to industrial processes in California are presented. It is found that if the heat for all industrial processes at temperatures below 212 F were supplied by solar energy, total state energy consumption could be reduced by 100 trillion Btus (2%), while the use of solar energy in processes between 212 and 350 F could displace 500 trillion Btus. The issues and problems with which solar energy must contend are illustrated by a description of fluid milk processing operations. Solar energy application is found to be technically feasible for processes with thermal energy requirements below 212 F, with design, and degree of technical, economic and management feasibility being site specific. It is recommended that the state provide support for federal and industrial research, development and demonstration programs in order to stimulate acceptance of solar process heat application by industry.

  3. A $70/tCO2 greenhouse gas mitigation backstop for China’s industrial and electric power sectors: insights from a comprehensive CCS cost curve

    SciTech Connect

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Li, Xiaochun; Wei, Ning

    2012-08-27

    As one of the world's fastest growing economies with abundant coal reserves, China's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have doubled in the last decade and are expected to continue growing for the foreseeable future. While the Central Government has been promoting development and growth of cleaner and more efficient energy systems, efforts to reduce carbon emissions from the heavily coal-based economy may require continued and increased development and deployment of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies. This paper presents the first detailed, national-scale assessment of CCS potential across the diverse geographic, geologic, and industrial landscape of China, through the lens of an integrated CCS cost curve. It summarizes the development of a cost curve representing the full chain of components necessary for the capture and geologic storage of CO2 from China's power generation and industrial sectors. Individual component cost estimates are described, along with the optimized source-sink matching of over 1,600 large stationary CO2 sources and 2300 gigatons of CO2 storage capacity within 90 major deep geologic onshore sedimentary sub-basins, to develop a cost curve incorporating CO2 capture, compression, transport, and storage. Results suggest that CCS can provide an important greenhouse gas mitigation option for most regions and industrial sectors in China, able to store more than 80% of emissions from these large CO2 sources (2900 million tons of CO2 annually) at costs less than $70/tCO2 for perhaps a century or more.

  4. An Innovation for the Energy Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    REDOX is an economical energy storage system which promises major reductions in the cost of storing electrical energy. The system is based upon the conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy. 75 percent of the energy used to charge the system is returned. It is flexible and the energy may be stored for long periods. It was developed by Lewis Research Center, who transferred the technology to SOHIO for further development and possible commercialization. Redox could eliminate the use of high quality generator levels and would be particularly valuable to utilities which generate power from coal or nuclear energy.

  5. Industrial Energy in Transition: A Petrochemical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishart, Ronald S.

    1978-01-01

    An industrial development involves the conversion of biomass, through fermentation, to useful chemical products and the gasification of municiple wastes to produce steam for electricity generation. These gases may also serve as chemical feedstocks. (Author/MA)

  6. Lost Opportunities in the Buildings Sector: Energy-Efficiency Analysis and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Dirks, James A.; Anderson, David M.; Hostick, Donna J.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2008-09-12

    This report summarizes the results and the assumptions used in an analysis of the potential “lost efficiency opportunities” in the buildings sector. These targets of opportunity are those end-uses, applications, practices, and portions of the buildings market which are not currently being addressed, or addressed fully, by the Building Technologies Program (BTP) due to lack of resources. The lost opportunities, while a significant increase in effort and impact in the buildings sector, still represent only a small portion of the full technical potential for energy efficiency in buildings.

  7. Opportunity knocks - the sustainable energy industry and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Price, B.; Keegan, P.

    1997-12-31

    Climate change mitigation, if intelligently undertaken, can stimulate economic growth. The main tools available for this task are energy efficiency, renewable energy, and clean energy technologies and services, which are collectively known as sustainable energy. To unleash this potential, the US and other governments need the full cooperation of the sustainable energy industry. This industry knows more than most other about turning energy-related pollution prevention into profits. If engaged, they can help: (1) Identify the economic benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation; (2) Identify barriers to the implementation of greenhouse gas mitigation projects; (3) Develop policies and measures to overcome these barriers; and (4) Implement greenhouse gas mitigation projects. 7 refs.

  8. Energy Sources (Energy/Power). Industrial Arts, Senior High--Level II. North Dakota Senior High Industrial Arts Curriculum Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Allen; And Others

    This course guide for an energy sources course is one of four developed for the energy/power area in the North Dakota senior high industrial arts education program. (Eight other guides are available for two other areas of Industrial Arts--graphic communications and production.) Part 1 provides such introductory information as a definition and…

  9. Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.

  10. Energy investment advisory series No. 3: Investment opportunities in the Persian Gulf energy sector

    SciTech Connect

    Hadgen, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    Sometimes the greatest investment opportunities are in those areas where the least progress seems to be taking place. This report describes energy-based developments taking place in the Persian/Arabian Gulf. The 8 Gulf states are building their nations; each has large minority groups and swelling populations; their economies are built on one product (hydrocarbons). Large expatriate populations, being integrated into local societies and economies, have led to hostility and guarded access to contacts with the outside world. Gulf nations cannot benefit from any oil price rise as they did in the past, as their populations have grown too rapidly. Policies change daily and can be changed back to original ones as well as into new ones. Since the oil and gas industries are the primary source of government revenue, oil and gas are likely to remain longest under government control. A breakdown of energy-base investment potentials in the Middle East is tabulated: upstream oil, refining, domestic oil marketing, upstream gas, LNG, electricity, petrochemical.

  11. Regulatory Information By Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory, compliance, & enforcement information for various business, industry and government sectors, listed by NAICS code. Sectors include agriculture, automotive, petroleum manufacturing, oil & gas extraction & other manufacturing

  12. Energy efficiency business options for industrial end users in Latin American competitive energy markets: The case of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botero, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Energy markets today in Latin America and worldwide are being restructured from monopolies, either state-owned or privately-owned, to be more openly competitive and incorporate more participation from the private sector. Thus, the schemes that were formerly developed to foster end use energy efficiency are no longer applicable because they were based on mandatory regulations made with political decisions, without sufficiently considering economic feasibility. A consensus exists that the only way energy efficiency could survive in this new paradigm is by being market oriented, giving better services, and additional options to users. However; there is very little information on what end users prefer, and which options would most satisfy customers. Using Colombia as a case study, this research determines and categorizes the energy efficiency business options for large energy end users that can freely participate in the competitive energy market. The energy efficiency market is understood as a market of services aiming to increase efficiency in energy use. These services can be grouped into seven business options. A survey, following the descriptive method, was sent to energy end users in order to determine their preferences for specific energy efficiency business options, as well as the decision-making criteria taken into account for such options. This data was categorized in ten industry groups. As a conclusion, energy efficiency providers should adapt not only to the economic activity or processes of each customer, but also to the potential business options. It was also found that not all industries consider performance contracting as their most preferred option, as a matter of fact, some industries show much higher preference for conventional business options. Among end users, the divergence in option preferences contrasted with the convergence in decision-making criteria. The decision-making criteria "cost-benefit ratio" overwhelmed all other criterion. End users

  13. Reduction in tribological energy losses in the transportation and electric utilities sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkus, O.; Wilcock, D.F.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-09-01

    This report is part of a study of ways and means of advancing the national energy conservation effort, particularly with regard to oil, via progress in the technology of tribology. The report is confined to two economic sectors: transportation, where the scope embraces primarily the highway fleets, and electric utilities. Together these two sectors account for half of the US energy consumption. Goal of the study is to ascertain the energy sinks attributable to tribological components and processes and to recommend long-range research and development (R and D) programs aimed at reducing these losses. In addition to the obvious tribological machine components such as bearings, piston rings, transmissions and so on, the study also extends to processes which are linked to tribology indirectly such as wear of machine parts, coatings of blades, high temperature materials leading to higher cycle efficiencies, attenuation of vibration, and other cycle improvements.

  14. Analyzing industrial energy use through ordinary least squares regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Allyson Katherine

    Extensive research has been performed using regression analysis and calibrated simulations to create baseline energy consumption models for residential buildings and commercial institutions. However, few attempts have been made to discuss the applicability of these methodologies to establish baseline energy consumption models for industrial manufacturing facilities. In the few studies of industrial facilities, the presented linear change-point and degree-day regression analyses illustrate ideal cases. It follows that there is a need in the established literature to discuss the methodologies and to determine their applicability for establishing baseline energy consumption models of industrial manufacturing facilities. The thesis determines the effectiveness of simple inverse linear statistical regression models when establishing baseline energy consumption models for industrial manufacturing facilities. Ordinary least squares change-point and degree-day regression methods are used to create baseline energy consumption models for nine different case studies of industrial manufacturing facilities located in the southeastern United States. The influence of ambient dry-bulb temperature and production on total facility energy consumption is observed. The energy consumption behavior of industrial manufacturing facilities is only sometimes sufficiently explained by temperature, production, or a combination of the two variables. This thesis also provides methods for generating baseline energy models that are straightforward and accessible to anyone in the industrial manufacturing community. The methods outlined in this thesis may be easily replicated by anyone that possesses basic spreadsheet software and general knowledge of the relationship between energy consumption and weather, production, or other influential variables. With the help of simple inverse linear regression models, industrial manufacturing facilities may better understand their energy consumption and

  15. Moving Towards Multi - Air Pollutant Strategies in Major U.S. Industry Sectors, 2011

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report presents a summary of the Work Group’s discussions, a Framework for evaluating new approaches, and a set of recommendations for moving toward sector based, multi-pollutant strategies for air pollution reduction.

  16. Energy sector vulnerability to climate change: adaptation options to increase resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmark, R. L.; Bilello, D.; Macknick, J.; Hallett, K. C.; Anderson, R.; Tidwell, V. C.; Zamuda, C.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change will affect the energy sector in multiple ways. Potential impacts include those directly affecting energy infrastructure and operations, such as sea level rise combined with storm surge; increased frequency or intensity extreme events such as hurricanes, floods or droughts; alterations in the hydrologic cycle; as well as those indirectly affecting energy demand and system efficiencies such as increased average temperatures and heat waves, particularly during peak summer demand. Although these changes and challenges occur on different timescales; adaptation options must consider both long-term (chronic) changes as well as short-term (acute) affects as well as the benefits derived from adaptation actions relative to cost, degree of resiliency gained, and the probability of exposure to a given risk. Different energy sector stakeholders tend to focus on response strategies that address specific spatial and temporal scales based on their perceived risks. Here we assess climate change impacts to the Nation's electric sector reliability and consider potential responses necessary to ensure energy security and sustainability. For specific examples such as options to reduce freshwater needs for electricity generation or demand response strategies for extreme heat events, we examine both the technical and economic implications of adopting those strategies, including the national/regional costs for their implementation.

  17. Stepwise multiple regression method of greenhouse gas emission modeling in the energy sector in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kolasa-Wiecek, Alicja

    2015-04-01

    The energy sector in Poland is the source of 81% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Poland, among other European Union countries, occupies a leading position with regard to coal consumption. Polish energy sector actively participates in efforts to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere, through a gradual decrease of the share of coal in the fuel mix and development of renewable energy sources. All evidence which completes the knowledge about issues related to GHG emissions is a valuable source of information. The article presents the results of modeling of GHG emissions which are generated by the energy sector in Poland. For a better understanding of the quantitative relationship between total consumption of primary energy and greenhouse gas emission, multiple stepwise regression model was applied. The modeling results of CO2 emissions demonstrate a high relationship (0.97) with the hard coal consumption variable. Adjustment coefficient of the model to actual data is high and equal to 95%. The backward step regression model, in the case of CH4 emission, indicated the presence of hard coal (0.66), peat and fuel wood (0.34), solid waste fuels, as well as other sources (-0.64) as the most important variables. The adjusted coefficient is suitable and equals R2=0.90. For N2O emission modeling the obtained coefficient of determination is low and equal to 43%. A significant variable influencing the amount of N2O emission is the peat and wood fuel consumption.

  18. Probing dark forces and light hidden sectors at low-energy e+e- colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essig, Rouven; Schuster, Philip; Toro, Natalia

    2009-07-01

    A dark sector—a new non-Abelian gauge group Higgsed or confined near the GeV scale—can be spectacularly probed in low-energy e+e- collisions. A low-mass dark sector can explain the annual modulation signal reported by DAMA/LIBRA and the PAMELA, ATIC, and INTEGRAL observations by generating small mass splittings and new interactions for weak-scale dark matter. Some of these observations may be the first signs of a low-mass dark sector that collider searches can definitively confirm. Production and decay of O(GeV)-mass dark states is mediated by a Higgsed Abelian gauge boson that mixes kinetically with hypercharge. Existing data from BABAR, BELLE, CLEO-c, and KLOE may contain thousands of striking dark-sector events with a high multiplicity of leptons that reconstruct mass resonances and possibly displaced vertices. We discuss the production and decay phenomenology of Higgsed and confined dark sectors and propose e+e- collider search strategies. We also use the DAMA/LIBRA signal to estimate the production cross sections and decay lifetimes for dark-sector states.

  19. Process models: analytical tools for managing industrial energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, S O; Pilati, D A; Balzer, C; Sparrow, F T

    1980-01-01

    How the process models developed at BNL are used to analyze industrial energy systems is described and illustrated. Following a brief overview of the industry modeling program, the general methodology of process modeling is discussed. The discussion highlights the important concepts, contents, inputs, and outputs of a typical process model. A model of the US pulp and paper industry is then discussed as a specific application of process modeling methodology. Applications addressed with the case study results include projections of energy demand, conservation technology assessment, energy-related tax policies, and sensitivity analysis. A subsequent discussion of these results supports the conclusion that industry process models are versatile and powerful tools for managing industrial energy systems.

  20. Energy use in Poland, 1970--1991: Sectoral analysis and international comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Schipper, L.; Salay, J.

    1993-07-01

    This report provides an analysis of how and why energy use has changed in Poland since the 1970s, with particular emphasis on changes since the country began its transition from a centrally planned to a market economy in 1989. The most important factors behind the large decline in Polish energy use in 1990 were a sharp fall in industrial output and a huge drop in residential coal use driven by higher prices. The structural shift away from heavy industry was slight. Key factors that worked to increase energy use were the rise in energy intensity in many heavy industries and the shift toward more energy intensive modes of transport. The growth in private activities in 1991 was nearly sufficient to balance out continued decline in industrial energy use in that year. We compared energy use in Poland and the factors that shape it with similar elements in the West. We made a number of modifications to the Polish energy data to bring it closer to a Western energy accounting framework, and augmented these with a variety of estimates in order to construct a sufficiently detailed portrait of Polish energy use to allow comparison with Western data. Per capita energy use in Poland was not much below W. European levels despite Poland`s much lower GDP per capita. Poland has comparatively high energy intensities in manufacturing and residential space heating, and a large share of heavy industries in manufacturing output, all factors that contribute to higher energy use per capita. The structure of passenger and freight transportation and the energy intensity of automobiles contribute to lower energy use per capita in Poland than in Western Europe, but the patterns in Poland are moving closer to those that prevail in the West.

  1. Save Energy Now Resources

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides information resources to industrial energy users and partnering organizations to help the nation’s industrial sector save energy and improve productivity.

  2. Solar energy and the aeronautics industry. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedek, L.

    1985-01-01

    An introduction to the physical aspects of solar energy, incidental energy and variations in solar flux is presented, along with an explanation of the physical principles of obtaining solar energy. The history of the application of solar energy to aeronautics, including the Gossamer Penguin and the Solar Challenger is given. Finally, an analysis of the possibilities of using a reaction motor with hybrid propulsion combining solar energy with traditional fuels as well as calculations of the proposed cycle and its mode of operation are given.

  3. Solar energy and the aeronautics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedek, L.

    1985-11-01

    An introduction to the physical aspects of solar energy, incidental energy and variations in solar flux is presented, along with an explanation of the physical principles of obtaining solar energy. The history of the application of solar energy to aeronautics, including the Gossamer Penguin and the Solar Challenger is given. Finally, an analysis of the possibilities of using a reaction motor with hybrid propulsion combining solar energy with traditional fuels as well as calculations of the proposed cycle and its mode of operation are given.

  4. Space Telemetry for the Energy Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Space telemetry is the process whereby information acquired in orbit is relayed to Earth. In 1981, Bill Sheen, President of Nu-Tech Industries, Inc., saw a need for a better way of monitoring flow, due to high costs of oil and gas, increasing oil field theft and a mounting requirement for more timely information to speed up accounting procedures. Sheen turned to NASA for assistance which was provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center (KIAC). The system that emerged from two years of research, now in production at Nu-Tech's Fort Worth Texas facility, is known as the Remote Measurement and Control Network.

  5. US Clean Energy Sector and the Opportunity for Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inge, Carole Cameron

    2011-01-01

    The following paper sets forth the current understanding of the US clean energy demand and opportunity. As clean energy systems come online and technology is developed, modeling and simulation of these complex energy programs provides an untapped business opportunity. The US Department of Defense provides a great venue for developing new technology in the energy sector because it is demanding lower fuel costs, more energy efficiencies in its buildings and bases, and overall improvements in its carbon footprint. These issues coupled with the security issues faced by foreign dependence on oil will soon bring more clean energy innovations to the forefront (lighter batteries for soldiers, alternative fuel for jets, energy storage systems for ships, etc).

  6. Energy Reporting Practices among Top Energy Intensive Industries in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasrip, N. E.; Mat Husin, N.; Alrazi, B.

    2016-03-01

    This study content analyses the energy content in the corporate report of top 30 Malaysian energy-intensive companies. Motivated by the gap among prior corporate social responsibility and environmental reporting studies in respect of energy, this study provides evidence of Malaysian companies’ initiative to reduce energy consumption. While the evidence suggests that not all 30 companies have reported energy-related information, the findings provide an overview on the response of energy intensive companies in relation to Malaysian government initiatives on energy.

  7. Linking Energy Efficiency and ISO: Creating a Framework forSustainable Industrial Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Perry, Wayne; Aixian, Li; Tienan, Li; Williams,Robert

    2005-04-01

    Industrial motor-driven systems consume more than 2194billion kWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largestopportunities for energy savings. In the United States (US), they accountfor more than 50 percent of all manufacturing electricity use. Incountries with less well-developed consumer economies, the proportion ofelectricity consumed by motors is higher-more than 50 percent ofelectricity used in all sectors in China is attributable to motors.Todate, the energy savings potential from motor-driven systems haveremained largely unrealized worldwide. Both markets and policy makerstend to focus on individual system components, which have a typicalimprovement potential of 2-5 percent versus 20-50 percent for completesystems. Several factors contribute to this situation, most notably thecomplexity of the systems themselves. Determining how to optimize asystem requires a high level of technical skill. In addition, once anenergy efficiency project is completed, the energy savings are often notsustained due to changes in personnel and production processes. Althoughtraining and educational programs in the US, UK, and China to promotesystem optimization have proven effective, these resource-intensiveefforts have only reached a small portion of the market.The same factorsthat make it so challenging to achieve and sustain energy efficiency inmotor-driven systems (complexity, frequent changes) apply to theproduction processes that they support. Yet production processestypically operate within a narrow band of acceptable performance. Theseprocesses are frequently incorporated into ISO 9000/14000 quality andenvironmental management systems, which require regular, independentaudits to maintain ISO certification, an attractive value forinternational trade.This paper presents a new approach to achievingindustrial system efficiency (motors and steam) that will encourageplants to incorporate system energy efficiency into their existing ISOmanagement systems. We will

  8. RenewableNY - An Industrial Energy Conservation Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Lubarr, Tzipora

    2009-09-30

    The New York Industrial Retention Network (NYIRN) manages the RenewableNY program to assist industrial companies in New York City to implement energy efficiency projects. RenewableNY provides companies with project management assistance and grants to identify opportunities for energy savings and implement energy efficiency projects. The program helps companies identify energy efficient projects, complete an energy audit, and connect with energy contractors who install renewable energy and energy efficient equipment. It also provides grants to help cover the costs of installation for new systems and equipment. RenewableNY demonstrates that a small grant program that also provides project management assistance can incentivize companies to implement energy efficiency projects that might otherwise be avoided. Estimated savings through RenewableNY include 324,500 kWh saved through efficiency installations, 158 kW of solar energy systems installed, and 945 thm of gas avoided.

  9. Model documentation report: Commercial Sector Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. The NEMS Commercial Sector Demand Module is a simulation tool based upon economic and engineering relationships that models commercial sector energy demands at the nine Census Division level of detail for eleven distinct categories of commercial buildings. Commercial equipment selections are performed for the major fuels of electricity, natural gas, and distillate fuel, for the major services of space heating, space cooling, water heating, ventilation, cooking, refrigeration, and lighting. The algorithm also models demand for the minor fuels of residual oil, liquefied petroleum gas, steam coal, motor gasoline, and kerosene, the renewable fuel sources of wood and municipal solid waste, and the minor services of office equipment. Section 2 of this report discusses the purpose of the model, detailing its objectives, primary input and output quantities, and the relationship of the Commercial Module to the other modules of the NEMS system. Section 3 of the report describes the rationale behind the model design, providing insights into further assumptions utilized in the model development process to this point. Section 3 also reviews alternative commercial sector modeling methodologies drawn from existing literature, providing a comparison to the chosen approach. Section 4 details the model structure, using graphics and text to illustrate model flows and key computations.

  10. The changing structure of energy industries in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.

    1986-01-01

    Britain is fortunate in its abundant energy reserves. It has coal reserves of 45 billion tonnes, or a 300-year supply at current rates of use. Oil and gas reserves are up to 5000 million and 1800 million tonnes of oil equivalent, respectively. In addition, Britain has a substantial electricity industry with a sizable nuclear component. Alone among major Western industrialized countries, Britain is effectively self-sufficient in energy, with a sustained, major program to increase the efficiency of energy use. But this self-sufficiency in energy is temporary. Unless oil and gas reserves prove markedly greater than estimated, Britain in the next century will again become a significant net importer of energy. This shift requires development of appropriate energy, economic, industrial, and social policies to ensure that the imported energy is used to strengthen the basis of the economy.

  11. Energy sector water use implications of a 2 °C climate policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricko, Oliver; Parkinson, Simon C.; Johnson, Nils; Strubegger, Manfred; van Vliet, Michelle TH; Riahi, Keywan

    2016-03-01

    Quantifying water implications of energy transitions is important for assessing long-term freshwater sustainability since large volumes of water are currently used throughout the energy sector. In this paper, we assess direct global energy sector water use and thermal water pollution across a broad range of energy system transformation pathways to assess water impacts of a 2 °C climate policy. A global integrated assessment model is equipped with the capabilities to account for the water impacts of technologies located throughout the energy supply chain. The model framework is applied across a broad range of 2 °C scenarios to highlight long-term water impact uncertainties over the 21st century. We find that water implications vary significantly across scenarios, and that adaptation in power plant cooling technology can considerably reduce global freshwater withdrawals and thermal pollution. Global freshwater consumption increases across all of the investigated 2 °C scenarios as a result of rapidly expanding electricity demand in developing regions and the prevalence of freshwater-cooled thermal power generation. Reducing energy demand emerges as a robust strategy for water conservation, and enables increased technological flexibility on the supply side to fulfill ambitious climate objectives. The results underscore the importance of an integrated approach when developing water, energy, and climate policy, especially in regions where rapid growth in both energy and water demands is anticipated.

  12. Implications of climate change for economic development in northern Canada: energy, resource, and transportation sectors.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Chouinard, Rebecca; Melling, Humfrey; Milburn, David; Smith, Sharon L

    2009-07-01

    Northern Canada is projected to experience major changes to its climate, which will have major implications for northern economic development. Some of these, such as mining and oil and gas development, have experienced rapid expansion in recent years and are likely to expand further, partly as the result of indirect effects of changing climate. This article reviews how a changing climate will affect several economic sectors including the hydroelectric, oil and gas, and mining industries as well as infrastructure and transportation, both marine and freshwater. Of particular importance to all sectors are projected changes in the cryosphere, which will create both problems and opportunities. Potential adaptation strategies that could be used to minimize the negative impacts created by a climate change are also reviewed.

  13. Energy efficiency opportunities in the brewery industry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan

    2002-06-28

    Breweries in the United States spend annually over $200 Million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 3-8% of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that there may still be opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively for breweries. Major brewing companies have and will continue to spend capital on cost effective measures that do not impact the quality of the beer. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies at individual breweries.

  14. Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Diane E. Hoffmann

    2003-09-12

    On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The goal was not to provide answers to any of the

  15. Energy efficiency in industry and agriculture: Lessons from North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, R.N.

    1993-12-31

    The author presents lessons learned during 15 years of work on energy efficiency with North Carolina industry and agriculture. The paper includes examples of energy projects and recommendations for structuring programs that will best overcome institutional barriers. Based on a paper prepared for the 16th World Energy Engineering Congress.

  16. Pennsylvania's Energy Curriculum for the Secondary Grades: Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wighaman, Paul F.; Zimmerman, Earl R.

    Compiled in this guide are 23 previously published documents for use by secondary school industrial arts teachers who want to incorporate energy studies into their curricula. Over half of the entries describe energy-related projects such as fireplaces, solar water heaters, and solar ovens. Other materials presented address the place of energy in…

  17. Electricity Consumption in the Industrial Sector of Jordan: Application of Multivariate Linear Regression and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samhouri, M.; Al-Ghandoor, A.; Fouad, R. H.

    2009-08-01

    In this study two techniques, for modeling electricity consumption of the Jordanian industrial sector, are presented: (i) multivariate linear regression and (ii) neuro-fuzzy models. Electricity consumption is modeled as function of different variables such as number of establishments, number of employees, electricity tariff, prevailing fuel prices, production outputs, capacity utilizations, and structural effects. It was found that industrial production and capacity utilization are the most important variables that have significant effect on future electrical power demand. The results showed that both the multivariate linear regression and neuro-fuzzy models are generally comparable and can be used adequately to simulate industrial electricity consumption. However, comparison that is based on the square root average squared error of data suggests that the neuro-fuzzy model performs slightly better for future prediction of electricity consumption than the multivariate linear regression model. Such results are in full agreement with similar work, using different methods, for other countries.

  18. Cleanroom energy benchmarking in high-tech and biotech industries

    SciTech Connect

    Tschudi, William; Benschine, Kathleen; Fok, Stephen; Rumsey, Peter

    2001-04-01

    Cleanrooms, critical to a wide range of industries, universities, and government facilities, are extremely energy intensive. Consequently, energy represents a significant operating cost for these facilities. Improving energy efficiency in cleanrooms will yield dramatic productivity improvement. But more importantly to the industries which rely on cleanrooms, base load reduction will also improve reliability. The number of cleanrooms in the US is growing and the cleanroom environmental systems' energy use is increasing due to increases in total square footage and trends toward more energy intensive, higher cleanliness applications. In California, many industries important to the State's economy utilize cleanrooms. In California these industries utilize over 150 cleanrooms with a total of 4.2 million sq. ft. (McIlvaine). Energy intensive high tech buildings offer an attractive incentive for large base load energy reduction. Opportunities for energy efficiency improvement exist in virtually all operating cleanrooms as well as in new designs. To understand the opportunities and their potential impact, Pacific Gas and Electric Company sponsored a project to benchmark energy use in cleanrooms in the electronics (high-tech) and biotechnology industries. Both of these industries are heavily dependent intensive cleanroom environments for research and manufacturing. In California these two industries account for approximately 3.6 million sq. ft. of cleanroom (McIlvaine, 1996) and 4349 GWh/yr. (Sartor et al. 1999). Little comparative energy information on cleanroom environmental systems was previously available. Benchmarking energy use allows direct comparisons leading to identification of best practices, efficiency innovations, and highlighting previously masked design or operational problems.

  19. Industrial Energy Conservation, Forced Internal Recirculation Burner

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2003-06-19

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop and evaluate an industrial low NOx burner for existing and new gas-fired combustion systems for intermediate temperature (1400 degree to 2000 degree F) industrial heating devices such as watertube boilers and process fluid heaters. A multi-phase effort is being pursued with decision points to determine advisability of continuance. The current contract over Phases II and III of this work. The objectives of each phase are as follows. Phase II - to design, fabricate, and evaluate prototype burners based on the Forced Internal Recirculation (FIR) concept. Phase III - to evaluate the performance of an FIR burner under actual operating conditions in a full-scale field test and establish the performance necessary for subsequent commercialization

  20. The composition of a quad of buildings sector energy: Physical, economic, and environmental quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, T.J.; Nicholls, A.K.

    1990-07-01

    In an analysis conducted for the US Department of Energy Office of Building Technologies (OBT), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory examined the fuel type composition of energy consumed in the US buildings sector. Numerical estimates were developed for the physical quantities of fuel consumed, as well as of the fossil fuel emissions (carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) and nuclear spent fuel byproducts associated with that consumption. Electric generating requirements and the economic values associated with energy consumption also were quantified. These variables were quantified for a generic quad (1 quadrillion Btu) of primary energy for the years 1987 and 2010, to illustrate the impacts of a fuel-neutral reduction in buildings sector energy use, and for specific fuel types, to enable meaningful comparisons of benefits achievable through various OBT research projects or technology developments. Two examples are provided to illustrate how these conversion factors may be used to quantify the impacts of energy savings potentially achievable through OBT building energy conservation efforts. 18 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Tracing the History of the Energy Sector Related Applications Using Specially Adapted NASA Long-Term Climate Data Sets and Measures of Their Socio-Economic Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Hoell, J. M.; Chandler, W.; Westberg, D. J.; Zhang, T.

    2012-12-01

    In the mid-1990's the National Renewable Energy Laboratory approached NASA Langley Research Center to gain information about the solar resource in Africa as estimated via early satellite based methods. From this began an effort that eventually involved collaboration with DOE NREL, Natural Resources Canada RETScreen International, and numerous other partners in industry and universities to make progressively improved data products available for the renewable energy and other energy related applications. In 2002, NASA Applied Science projects were initiated providing a more focused effort to accomplish the goal of empowering energy related decision support tools using NASA meteorological and climate related data sets. At this time, NASA Langley Research Center reorganized a project aimed to make long-term solar energy and meteorological data sets available to Energy sector related industries, including sustainable buildings and agroclimatology. This task involved the design and adaption of NASA derived data sets that these industries use, key partnerships, a commitment to validation, a commitment to expansion of parameters and data products over time, and a web based interface that allows energy industry specialists to obtained the needed data parameters in easy to use formats. This presentation shows the history of the NASA Langley Research Center effort to provide data sets for energy sector applications. This includes the development and usage of the Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE, http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/) web interface that has been improved under the Prediction of Worldwide renewable Energy Resource Project (POWER, http://power.larc.nasa.gov). Through the years the data sets provided now span more than 30 years and since 2009 include global parameters released within about 4-6 days of real time. The history of usage of this web site is discussed in terms of key partnerships and new data releases. We will present ways of categorizing the

  2. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Rapidly Developing Resource Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. M.; Kirste, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Technological advances and access to global markets have changed the rate at which resource exploitation takes place. The environmental impact of the rapid development and distribution of resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons has led to a greater potential for significant stress on water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. How and where those impacts manifest is crucial to determining appropriate risk management strategies. North East British Columbia has an abundance of shale gas reserves that are anticipated to be exploited at a large scale in coming years, primarily for export as liquefied natural gas (LNG). However, there is growing concern that fracking and other activities related to shale gas development pose risks to water quality and quantity in the region. Water lies at the center of the water-energy-food nexus, with an accelerating water demand for fracking and industrial operations as well as for domestic, environmental and agricultural uses. Climate change is also anticipated to alter the hydrologic regime, posing added stress to the water resource. This case study examines the water-energy-food nexus in the context of a region that is impacted by a rapidly developing resource sector, encompassing water demand/supply, climate change, interaction between deep aquifers and shallow aquifers/surface waters, water quality concerns related to fracking, land use disturbance, and community impacts. Due to the rapid rate of development, there are significant knowledge gaps in our understanding of the water resource. Currently agencies are undertaking water resource assessments and establishing monitoring sites. This research aims to assess water security in North East British Columbia in a coordinated fashion through various partnerships. In addition to collecting baseline knowledge and data, the study will evaluate risk and resilience indicators in relation to water security. A risk assessment framework specific to the shale gas development

  3. First-order focusing parallel electron energy magnetic sector analyzer designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khursheed, Anjam; Nelliyan, Karuppiah; Chao, Fang

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents magnetic field distributions suitable for the design of first-order focusing parallel energy magnetic sector analyzers. Direct ray tracing simulation results predict that electrons can be deflected and focused onto a straight detector plane for an energy range that spans up to five orders of magnitude. These distributions are generated both by analytical functions and programs based on the finite element method. Using this approach, the paper presents a magnetic field sector electron analyzer design that is compact enough to form an array in the azimuthal angular direction (out-of-plane direction) so that it can be used as a high transmission attachment. Experimental field strength measurements from a prototype box analyzer using permanent magnets were made, and they correlate well with simulated predictions.

  4. Peru mitigation assessment of greenhouse gases: Sector -- Energy. Peru climate change country study; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the Inventory and propose Greenhouse Gases Mitigation alternatives in order to face the future development of the country in a clean environmental setting without delaying the development process required to improve Peruvian standard of living. The main idea of this executive abstract is to show concisely the results of the Greenhouse Gases Mitigation for Peru in the period 1990--2015. The studies about mitigation for the Energy Sector are shown in this summary.

  5. Waste Material Management: Energy and materials for industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This booklet describes DOE`s Waste Material Management (WMM) programs, which are designed to help tap the potential of waste materials. Four programs are described in general terms: Industrial Waste Reduction, Waste Utilization and Conversion, Energy from Municipal Waste, and Solar Industrial Applications.

  6. Education for the Energy Industry: An Idea from the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Ann D.; Griffin, Richard A.

    1997-01-01

    Education for the Energy Industry is an innovative, collaborative program for grades 4-12 planned for the Aldine (Texas) Independent School District's magnet schools in math, science, and the arts. Assisted by Rice University and major oil companies, the program allows students to use their knowledge to solve industry-related problems and apply…

  7. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Industrial Model

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) World Industrial Model (WIM). It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  8. Status and prospect of NDT technology for nuclear energy industry in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joon Hyun

    2016-02-01

    Innovative energy technology is considered to be one of the key solutions for meeting the challenges of climate change and energy security, which is why global leaders are focusing on enhancing energy technology R&D. In accordance with the global movements to accelerate energy R&D, the Korean government has made significant investments in a broad spectrum of energy R&D programs, including energy efficiency, resources, CCS, new and renewable energy, power generation and electricity delivery, nuclear power and nuclear waste management. In order to manage government sponsored energy R&D programs in an efficient and effective way, the government established the Korea Institute of Energy technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) in 2009. Main activities of KETEP include developing energy technology roadmaps, planning, evaluating, and managing R&D programs, fostering experts in the field of energy, promoting international cooperation programs, gathering and analyzing energy statistics, and supporting infrastructure and commercialization. KETEP assists the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy in developing national R&D strategies while also working with researchers, universities, national institutes and the private sector for their successful energy technology and deployment. This presentation consists of three parts. First, I will introduce the characteristics of energy trends and mix in Korea. Then, I'll speak about the related national R&D strategies of energy technology. Finally, I'll finish up with the status and prospect of NDT technology for nuclear energy industry in Korea. The development of the on-line structural integrity monitoring systems and the related techniques in Korean nuclear power plant for the purpose of condition based maintenance is introduced. The needs of NDT techniques for inspection and condition monitoring for GEN IV including SFR, small module reactor etc., are also discussed.

  9. Technology transfer of energy efficient technologies in industry: A review of trends and policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; van Berkel, Rene; Fengqi, Zhou; Menke, Christoph; Schaeffer, Roberto; Williams, Robert O.

    2000-03-01

    In 1995, industry accounted for 41 percent of global energy use. Although the efficiency of industrial processes has increased greatly during the past decades, energy efficiency improvements remain the major opportunity to reduce CO2 emissions. Industrialization may affect the environment adversely, stressing the need for transfer of cleaner technologies to developing countries. A review of trends, barriers and opportunities for technology transfer is presented. Technology transfer is a process involving assessment, agreement, implementation, evaluation and adaptation, and repetition. Institutional barriers and policies influence the transaction process. Investments in industrial technology are dominated by the private sector. In industry, energy efficiency is often the result of investments in modern equipment, stressing the importance and need for environmentally sound and long-term investment policies. The interactive and dynamic character of technology transfer stresses the need for innovative and flexible approaches, through partnerships between various stakeholders. Adaptation of technology to local conditions is essential, but practices vary widely. Countries that spend on average more on adaptation, seem to be more successful in technology transfer, hence successful technology transfer depends on transfer of technological capabilities.

  10. Assessing isocyanate exposures in polyurethane industry sectors using biological and air monitoring methods.

    PubMed

    Creely, K S; Hughson, G W; Cocker, J; Jones, K

    2006-08-01

    Isocyanates, as a chemical group, are considered to be the biggest cause of occupational asthma in the UK. Monitoring of airborne exposures to total isocyanate is costly, requiring considerable expertise, both in terms of sample collection and chemical analysis and cannot be used to assess the effectiveness of protection from wearing respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Biological monitoring by analysis of metabolites in urine can be a relatively simple and inexpensive way to assess exposure to isocyanates. It may also be a useful way to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures in place. In this study biological and inhalation monitoring were undertaken to assess exposure in a variety of workplaces in the non-motor vehicle repair sector. Companies selected to participate in the survey included only those judged to be using good working practices when using isocyanate formulations. This included companies that used isocyanates to produce moulded polyurethane products, insulation material and those involved in industrial painting. Air samples were collected by personal monitoring and were analysed for total isocyanate content. Urine samples were collected soon after exposure and analysed for the metabolites of different isocyanate species, allowing calculation of the total metabolite concentration. Details of the control measures used and observed contamination of exposed skin were also recorded. A total of 21 companies agreed to participate in the study, with exposure measurements being collected from 22 sites. The airborne isocyanate concentrations were generally very low (range 0.0005-0.066 mg m(-3)). A total of 50 of the 70 samples were <0.001 mg m(-3), the limit of quantification (LOQ), therefore samples below the LOQ were assigned a value of 1/2 LOQ (0.0005 mg m(-3)). Of the 70 samples, 67 were below the current workplace exposure limit of 0.02 mg m(-3). The highest inhalation exposures occurred during spray painting activities in a truck manufacturing

  11. Environmental profile of latent energy storage materials applied to industrial systems.

    PubMed

    López-Sabirón, Ana M; Aranda-Usón, Alfonso; Mainar-Toledo, M D; Ferreira, Victor J; Ferreira, Germán

    2014-03-01

    Industry sector is an intensive-energy consumer and approximately 20-50% of industrial energy consumption is lost as waste heat. Therefore, there is a great potential for reducing energy consumption and, subsequently, decreasing the fossil fuels used if this lost energy can be recovered. Thermal Energy Storage (TES) based on Latent Heat Storage systems (LHS) using Phase Change Materials (PCMs) has become one of the most feasible solutions in achieving energy savings through waste heat recovery, especially when there is a mismatch between the supply and consumption of energy processes. In this paper, a shell and tube heat exchanger incorporating PCMs has been considered to store the excess energy available in an industrial process. Several attempts have been made to design the most appropriate system considering many cost-benefit and technical criteria to maximise the heat recovery. However, the environmental criterion also is an important factor when determining whether this technology is not only energy and cost-efficient but also environmentally friendly, considering the whole life of the system from its manufacture to its disposal. To this end, this research includes a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to determine whether the energy savings of conventional fuels during the operation stage are large enough to balance the environmental impact originated in an industrial TES system including the manufacture, use and disposal phases. Inputs and outputs of each management stage have been defined, and the inventory emissions calculated by SIMAPRO v7.3.2. A midpoint and endpoint approaches have been carried out using two methods, CML 2001 and Eco-indicator 99, respectively. As a preliminary result, a promising reduction in the overall impacts was obtained by the use of this technology. From the environmental impact results, a matrix of possible technical solutions is displayed, to improve the environmental performance.

  12. 78 FR 73589 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ...The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including commercial and industrial electric motors. EPCA also requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine whether more-stringent, amended standards would be technologically feasible and......

  13. Recruitment and Selection in Business and Industry: Learning from the Private Sector Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Maria D.; Munoz, Marco A.

    Recruitment and selection practices in the private sector were examined through a literature review to identify strategies that human resource (HR) departments can use in designing new employee recruitment and selection processes or improving existing processes. The following were among the findings: (1) new employees recruited by using informal…

  14. Certifying Industrial Energy Efficiency Performance: AligningManagement, Measurement, and Practice to Create Market Value

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Williams, Robert

    2007-07-01

    , andhas no assurance of persistence, since champions may leave the company orbe reassigned after project completion.This paper presents an alternatescenario that builds on the body of expert knowledge concerning energymanagement best practices and the experience of industrial champions toengage industry in continuous energy efficiency improvement at thefacility rather than the individual level. Under this scenario,standardized methodologies for applying and validating energy managementbest practices in industrial facilities will be developed through aconsensus process involving both plant personnel and specializedconsultants and suppliers. The resulting protocols will describe aprocess or framework for conducting an energy savings assessment andverifying the results that will be transparent to policymakers, managers,and the financial community, and validated by a third-party organization.Additionally, a global dialogue is being initiated by the United NationsIndustrial Development Organization (UNIDO) concerning the development ofan international industrial energy management standard that would be ISOcompatible. The proposed scenario will combine the resulting standardwith the best practice protocols for specific energy systems (i.e.,steam, process heating, compressed air, pumping systems, etc.) to formthe foundation of a third party, performance-based certification programfor the overall industrial facility that is compatible with existingmanagement systems, including ISO 9001:2000, 14001:2004 and 6 Sigma. Thelong term goal of this voluntary, industry designed certification programis to develop a transparent, globally accepted system for validatingenergy efficiency projects and management practices. This system wouldcreate a verified record of energy savings with potential market valuethat could be recognized among sectors and countries.

  15. Interacting dark energy: The role of microscopic feedback in the dark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avelino, P. P.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the impact on the classical dynamics of dark matter particles and dark energy of a nonminimal coupling in the dark sector, assuming that the mass of the dark matter particles is coupled to a dark energy scalar field. We show that standard results can be recovered only if the space-time variation of the dark energy scalar field is sufficiently smooth on the characteristic length scale of the dark matter particles, and we determine the associated constraint dependent on both the mass and radius of the dark matter particles and the coupling to the dark energy scalar field. We further show, using field theory numerical simulations, that a violation of such constraint results in a microscopic feedback effect strongly affecting the dynamics of dark matter particles, with a potential impact on structure formation and on the space-time evolution of the dark energy equation of state.

  16. Energy Conservation in the Food Industry : Follow-up Report.

    SciTech Connect

    United Industries Corporation.

    1986-06-01

    United Industries Corporation (UIC) conducted an energy analysis at five food processing plants (SIC 20) in the winter of 1984-1985. Tour of plants (Alpac, Carnation, Terminal flour mill, Tree Top) were revisited eighteen months later to determine what energy conservation measures (ECM's) had been or would be implemented. Additionally, the follow-up investigation evaluated the actual energy savings that accrued for the implemented ECM's and recorded the plants' views on the usefulness of the energy analysis.

  17. Light dark sector searches at low-energy high-luminosity e + e - colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Shou-Hua

    2016-10-01

    Although the standard model (SM) is extremely successful, there are various motivations for considering the physics beyond the SM. For example, the SM includes neither dark energy nor dark matter, which has been confirmed through astrophysical observations. Examination of the dark sector, which contains new, light, weakly-coupled particles at the GeV scale or lower, is well motivated by both theory and dark-matter detection experiments. In this mini-review, we focus on one particular case in which these new particles can interact with SM particles through a kinematic mixing term between U(1) gauge bosons. The magnitude of the mixing can be parameterized by a parameter є. Following a brief overview of the relevant motivations and the constraints determined from numerous experiments, we focus on the light dark sector phenomenology at low-energy high-luminosity e + e - colliders. These colliders are ideal for probing the new light particles, because of their large production rates and capacity for precise resonance reconstruction. Depending on the details of a given model, the typical observed signatures may also contain multi lepton pairs, displaced vertices, and/or missing energy. Through the use of extremely large data samples from existing experiments, such as KLOE, CLEO, BABAR, Belle, and BESIII, the magnitude of the mixing can be parameterized by a parameter є < 10-4-10-3 constraint can be obtained. Obviously, future experiments with larger datasets will provide opportunities for the discovery of new particles in the dark sector, or for stricter upper limits on є. Once the light dark sector is confirmed, the particle physics landscape will be changed significantly.

  18. U.S. Energy Service Company Industry: Market Size and Project Performance from 1990-2008

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Satchwell, Andrew

    2012-08-21

    The U.S. energy service company (ESCO) industry is an example of a private sector business model where energy savings are delivered to customers primarily through the use of performance-based contracts. This study was conceived as a snapshot of the ESCO industry prior to the economic slowdown and the introduction of federal stimulus funding mandated by enactment of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). This study utilizes two parallel analytic approaches to characterize ESCO industry and market trends in the U.S.: (1) a ?top-down? approach involving a survey of individual ESCOs to estimate aggregate industry activity and (2) a ?bottom-up? analysis of a database of ~;;3,250 projects (representing over $8B in project investment) that reports market trends including installed EE retrofit strategies, project installation costs and savings, project payback times, and benefit-cost ratios over time. Despite the onset of a severe economic recession, the U.S. ESCO industry managed to grow at about 7percent per year between 2006 and 2008. ESCO industry revenues were about $4.1 billion in 2008 and ESCOs anticipate accelerated growth through 2011 (25percent per year). We found that 2,484 ESCO projects in our database generated ~;;$4.0 billion ($2009) in net, direct economic benefits to their customers. We estimate that the ESCO project database includes about 20percent of all U.S. ESCO market activity from 1990-2008. Assuming the net benefits per project are comparable for ESCO projects that are not included in the LBNL database, this would suggest that the ESCO industry has generated ~;;$23 billion in net direct economic benefits for customers at projects installed between 1990 and 2008. There is empirical evidence confirming that the industry is evolving by installing more comprehensive and complex measures?including onsite generation and measures to address deferred maintenance?but this evolution has significant implications for customer project

  19. Energy and materials flows in the iron and steel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Sparrow, F.T.

    1983-06-01

    Past energy-consumption trends and future energy-conservation opportunities are investigated for the nation's iron and steel industry. It is estimated that, in 1980, the industry directly consumed approximately 2.46 x 10/sup 15/ Btu of energy (roughly 3% of total US energy consumption) to produce 111 million tons of raw steel and to ship 84 million tons of steel products. Direct plus indirect consumption is estimated to be about 3.1 x 10/sup 15/ Btu. Of the set of conservation technologies identified, most are judged to be ready for commercialization if and when the industry's capital formation and profitability problems are solved and the gradual predicted increase in energy prices reduces the payback periods to acceptable levels.

  20. Proceedings of the 1985 Mississippi industrial energy conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The following presentations are included: (1) Electric Load Management; (2) Heat Recovery; (3) Motor and Drive Systems; (4) How to Conduct an Energy Audit (outline only); (5) Energy-Efficient Lighting; (6) Industrial Chillers (outline only); (7) Plant Maintenance - Does it Pay; (8) Energy Accounting; (9) Air Compressors (outline only); (10) Thermal Storage (outline only); (11) HVAC Air Side; (12) Life-Cycle Cost; (13) Process Heating; (14) Industrial Ventilation (outline only); (15) Financing Energy-Conservation Projects; and (16) Solar Heating. The following titles are listed, but no material is included: (a) Rooftop HVAC, by Normal Asbjornson and Robert Hall, Mammoth, Minneapolis, MN; (b) Computer Energy Management, by Bob Batterman, Johnson Controls, Jackson, MS; and (c) Industrial Heat Pumps, by Bob Batterman, Johnson Controls, Jackson, MS.

  1. The Department of Energy`s Solar Industrial Program: 1994 review

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This is a report on DOE`s Solar Industrial Program. The topics of the report include an overview of the program, it`s participants and it`s objectives; solar detoxification--using solar energy to destroy environmental contaminants in air, water, and soil; solar process heat--generating industrial quantities of hot water, steam, and hot air from solar energy; and advanced processes--using concentrated solar energy to manufacture high-technology materials and develop new industrial processes.

  2. Profile of the rubber and plastics industry. EPA Office of Compliance sector notebook project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The rubber and miscellaneous plastics products industry, as defined by the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code 30, includes establishments that manufacture products from plastic resins, natural and synthetic rubber, reclaimed rubber, futta percha, balata, and gutta siak. The second section provides background information on the size, geographic distribution, employment, production, sales, and economic condition of the Rubber and Plastics Products industry. The type of facilities described within the document are also described in terms of their Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes. Additionally, this section contains a list of the largest companies in terms of sales.

  3. Profile of the lumber and wood products industry. EPA Office of Compliance sector notebook project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The lumber and wood products industry includes establishments engaged in cutting timber and pulpwood; sawmills, lath mills, shingle mills, cooperage stock mills (wooden casks or tubs), planing mills, plywood mills; and establishments engaged in manufacturing finished articles made entirely or mainly of wood or related materials such as reconstituted wood panel products manufacturers. The categorization corresponds to the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code 24 established by Department of Commerce`s Bureau of the Census to track the flow of goods and services within the economy. In this profile, the industry`s processes are divided into four general groups: logging timber; producing lumber; panel products and wood preserving.

  4. Promoting emerging energy-efficiency technologies and practices by utilities in a restructured energy industry: A report from California

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, Edward L.

    2000-07-01

    The potential energy savings from emerging technologies (i.e., those technologies emerging from research and development) represent a significant resource to California and the US This paper describes how California's investor-owned utilities (IOUs) have been promoting emerging technologies over the last three years to increase energy efficiency in the buildings sector. During these years, the IOUs have experienced significant changes in their regulatory environment as part of the restructuring of the energy industry in California. These regulatory changes have impacted the way emerging technologies are treated by the regulatory community and the IOUs. After reviewing these changes, the paper concludes by discussing potential opportunities to improve the market penetration of emerging technologies.

  5. The Rise and Decline of U.S. Private Sector Investments in Energy R&D since the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents two distinct datasets that describe investments in energy research and development (R&D) by the US private sector since the mid1970s, which is when the US government began to systematically collect these data. The first dataset is based upon a broad survey of more than 20,000 firms’ industrial R&D activities. This broad survey of US industry is coordinated by the US National Science Foundation. The second dataset discussed here is a much narrower accounting of the energy R&D activities of the approximately two dozen largest US oil and gas companies conducted by the US Department of Energy’s Energy Information Agency. Even given the large disparity in the breadth and scope of these two surveys of the private sector’s support for energy R&D, both datasets tell the same story in terms of the broad outlines of the private sector’s investments in energy R&D since the mid 1970s. The broad outlines of the US private sector’s support for energy R&D since the mid 1970s is: (1) In the immediate aftermath of the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973, there is a large surge in US private sector investments in energy R&D that peaked in the period between 1980 and 1982 at approximately $3.7 billion to $6.7 billion per year (in inflation adjusted 2010 US dollars) depending upon which survey is used (2) Private sector investments in energy R&D declined from this peak until bottoming out at approximately $1.8 billion to $1 billion per year in 1999; (3) US private sector support for energy R&D has recovered somewhat over the past decade and stands at $2.2 billion to $3.4 billion. Both data sets indicate that the US private sector’s support for energy R&D has been and remains dominated by fossil energy R&D and in particular R&D related to the needs of the oil and gas industry.

  6. Scientific and technological capabilities in health-related areas: opportunities, challenges, and interactions with the industrial sector.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Marco Antonio; Britto, Jorge

    2016-11-03

    Characterization of the scientific and technological infrastructure in health and its interactions with the industrial sector provides key elements for understanding the dynamics of innovation in health. This study conducts an exploratory analysis of the potentialities and limitations associated with scientific and technological capabilities in the health area in Brazil and the different links between the scientific and industrial sectors in health. The analysis points to important growth in internationally indexed research output, especially in certain areas such as pharmaceutics, public health, genetics, morphology, physiology, and microbiology. There has also been important growth in research groups that interact with the industrial sector in selected areas of health. The study highlights the importance of building more solid and permanent bridges between companies, research institutions, and the health system, linking the knowledge developed in research institutions to the dynamics of the industrial sector in health. Resumo: A caracterização da infraestrutura científica e tecnológica na área da saúde e das suas formas de articulação com a base produtiva representam elementos centrais na compreensão da dinâmica de inovação em saúde. Este estudo faz uma análise exploratória sobre as potencialidades e limitações associadas às capacitações científicas e tecnológicas na área da saúde no Brasil e as formas de articulação entre a base científica e a base produtiva em saúde. A análise aponta para o crescimento expressivo da produção bibliográfica com circulação internacional no campo da saúde, particularmente em determinadas áreas como farmácia, saúde coletiva, genética, morfologia, fisiologia e microbiologia. Além disso, observa-se um crescimento expressivo dos grupos de pesquisa com relacionamentos com o setor produtivo em áreas selecionadas da saúde. Destaca-se a importância da construção de pontes mais sólidas e

  7. Technology Roadmap. Energy Loss Reduction and Recovery in Industrial Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-11-01

    To help guide R&D decision-making and gain industry insights on the top opportunities for improved energy systems, ITP sponsored the Energy Loss Reduction and Recoveryin Energy Systems Roadmapping Workshopin April 2004 in Baltimore, Maryland. This Technology Roadmapis based largely on the results of the workshop and additional industrial energy studies supported by ITP and EERE. It summarizes industry feedback on the top opportunities for R&D investments in energy systems, and the potential for national impacts on energy use and the environment.

  8. Voluntary Agreements for Energy Efficiency or GHG EmissionsReduction in Industry: An Assessment of Programs Around the World

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn

    2005-06-01

    Voluntary agreements for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a popular policy instrument for the industrial sector in industrialized countries since the 1990s. A number of these national-level voluntary agreement programs are now being modified and strengthened, while additional countries--including some recently industrialized and developing countries--are adopting these type of agreements in an effort to increase the energy efficiency of their industrial sectors.Voluntary agreement programs can be roughly divided into three broad categories: (1) programs that are completely voluntary, (2) programs that use the threat of future regulations or energy/GHG emissions taxes as a motivation for participation, and (3) programs that are implemented in conjunction with an existing energy/GHG emissions tax policy or with strict regulations. A variety of government-provided incentives as well as penalties are associated with these programs. This paper reviews 23 energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programs in 18 countries, including countries in Europe, the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, and Chinese Taipei (Taiwan) and discusses preliminary lessons learned regarding program design and effectiveness. The paper notes that such agreement programs, in which companies inventory and manage their energy use and GHG emissions to meet specific reduction targets, are an essential first step towards GHG emissions trading programs.

  9. Potential environmental effects of energy conservation measures in northwest industries

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, M C; Gygi, K F; Hendrickson, P L

    1992-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has identified 101 plants in the Pacific Northwest that account for 80% of the region's industrial electricity consumption. These plants offer a precise target for a conservation program. PNL determined that most of these 101 plants were represented by 11 major industries. We then reviewed 36 major conservation technologies used in these 11 industrial settings to determine their potential environmental impacts. Energy efficiency technologies designed for industrial use may result in direct or indirect environmental impacts. Effects may result from the production of the conservation measure technology, changes in the working environment due to different energy and material requirements, or changes to waste streams. Industry type, work-place conditions, worker training, and environmental conditions inside and outside the plant are all key variables that may affect environmental outcomes. To address these issues this report has three objectives: Describe potential conservation measures that Bonneville may employ in industrial programs and discuss potential primary impacts. Characterize industrial systems and processes where the measure may be employed and describe general environmental issues associated with each industry type. Review environmental permitting, licensing, and other regulatory actions required for industries and summarize the type of information available from these sources for further analysis.

  10. Relationship of dusk sector radial electric field to energy dispersion at the inner edge of the electron plasma sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that, by assuming that the magnetospheric particle boundaries are the result of steady state convection, the electron boundaries in the dusk sector are essentially sensitive to the local, not the global, electric field configuration. A simple, direct relationship is obtained between the dusk sector radial electric field and the inner edge of electron boundaries at various energies.

  11. Vocational-Technical Education Interface with Ohio's High Technology Business and Industrial Sector. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Robert W.

    This study explored the relationship of vocational-technical educational institutions in Ohio with business and industry using high-technology applications. The study attempted to determine what high-technology applications will be adopted by Ohio's business and industry in the next 5 years, what experience the schools have had in working with…

  12. An input-output approach to analyze the ways to increase total output of energy sectors: The case of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the ways to increase total output of Japanese energy sectors in future time. In this study, Input-Output (IO) analysis is employed as a tool of analysis. This study focuses on petroleum refinery products and non-ferrous metals as analyzed sectors. The results show that positive impact observed in export and outside households consumption modifications while opposite impact is given by modification of import. The recommendations suggested based on these results are Japanese government should make breakthroughs so analyzed sector's export activities can increase and they have to careful in conducting import activities related to these sectors.

  13. Model documentation report: Residential sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description for energy analysts, other users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports according to Public Law 93-275, section 57(b)(1). Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements.

  14. Model documentation report: Residential sector demand module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code. This document serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document that provides a detailed description for energy analysts, other users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports according to Public Law 93-275, section 57(b)(1). Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements.

  15. Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Therkelesen, Peter; McKane, Aimee

    2013-05-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

  16. Energy Matters: An invitation to Chat About Industrial Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Do you have questions or ideas about how the U.S. Department of Energy can contribute to global competitiveness through industrial efficiency? Dr. Kathleen Hogan would like to hear them. Submit your questions via: Email ( newmedia@hq.doe.gov ) Twitter ( @Energy ) Facebook ( Facebook.com/Energygov ) **LIVE CHAT IS EXPIRED**

  17. Energy Matters: An invitation to Chat About Industrial Efficiency

    ScienceCinema

    Hogan, Kathleen

    2016-07-12

    Do you have questions or ideas about how the U.S. Department of Energy can contribute to global competitiveness through industrial efficiency? Dr. Kathleen Hogan would like to hear them. Submit your questions via: Email ( newmedia@hq.doe.gov ) Twitter ( @Energy ) Facebook ( Facebook.com/Energygov ) **LIVE CHAT IS EXPIRED**

  18. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment: Business and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents an indication of existing workforce levels and career potentials for environmental/energy occupations within private industry. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, wastewater, and energy. The format includes an introduction to…

  19. Alternative Energy Curriculum for Trade and Industry Exploratory. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Central Arkansas, Conway.

    This study was a descriptive curriculum research project covering the development of learning packets on alternative energy. The purpose of the project was to improve instruction in trades and industry exploratory programs by providing alternative energy materials. It was anticipated that the use of a prepared learning package would facilitate the…

  20. Energy Conservation in the Food Industry : Terminal Flour Mill.

    SciTech Connect

    United Industries Corporation.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the results of an energy study that was conducted at Terminal Flour Mill in Portland, Oregon. Terminal Flour Mill is one of five food industry (SIC 20) plants that are being studied. Energy conservation measures (ECM's) are divided into two groups; operation and maintenance (O and M) measures, and equipment modification measures.

  1. Assessment of industrial activity in the utilization of biomass for energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this report is to help focus the federal programs in biomass energy, by identifying the status and objectives of private sector activity in the biomass field as of mid-1979. In addition, the industry's perceptions of government activities are characterized. Findings and conclusions are based principally on confidential interviews with executives in 95 companies. These included forest products companies, agricultural products companies, equipment manufacturers, electric and gas utilities petroleum refiners and distributors, research and engineering firms, and trade organizations, as listed in Exhibit 1. Interview findings have been supplemented by research of recent literature. The study focused on four key questions: (1) what is the composition of the biomass industry; (2) what are the companies doing; (3) what are their objectives and strategies; and (4) what are the implications for government policy. This executive summary provides highlights of the key findings and conclusions. The summary discussion is presented in seven parts: (1) overview of the biomass field; (2) structure of the biomass industry today; (3) corporate activities in biomass-related areas; (4) motivations for these activities; (5) industry's outlook on the future for energy-from-biomass; (6) industry's view of government activities; and (7) implications for Federal policy.

  2. Industrial utilization of waste derived energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    A technical and economic feasibility study of a partial oxidation unit was conducted. Major objectives of the program were: (1) disposal of both urban (municipal refuse and sewage sludge) and agricultural (dairy) wastes; and (2) the production of a medium-Btu fuel gas. The investigated wasteshed includes those portions of Western San Bernardino County, Eastern Los Angeles County, and Northwestern Riverside County. The available waste supply, transportation of these waste materials, product quantities and energy products of fuel gas steam, and electricity, markets, ferrous metals, aluminum, nonferrous metals, and slag are studied.

  3. Economic analysis of waste-to-energy industry in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Jiang, Gui-Wu; Li, Ang; Wang, Ling

    2016-02-01

    The generation of municipal solid waste is further increasing in China with urbanization and improvement of living standards. The "12th five-year plan" period (2011-2015) promotes waste-to-energy technologies for the harmless disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste. Waste-to-energy plant plays an important role for reaching China's energy conservation and emission reduction targets. Industrial policies and market prospect of waste-to-energy industry are described. Technology, cost and benefit of waste-to-energy plant are also discussed. Based on an economic analysis of a waste-to-energy project in China (Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Sensitivity Analysis) the paper makes the conclusions.

  4. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

  5. Energy conservation in the textile industry: 10 case histories

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Presented are ten case studies of energy conserving technologies that have been implemented by the textile industry. For each case is given: the name and location of the plant and an employee contact, description of products, energy consumption and costs in years before and after the energy conserving technology was implemented, energy savings since the energy conserving technology was implemented, description of investment decision-making process, and description of any institutional and environmental considerations. Measures included are: tandem preparation line, dyebath reuse, bump-and-run (dyebath temperature drifts for the last 85% of the hold time), foam finishing, wastewater heat recovery, wastewater chlorination and reuse, oven exhaust air counterflow, boiler economizer, wood-fired boiler, and solar industrial process heat. Several other energy conserving technologies that were not studied are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  6. Energy Conservation Projects to Benefit the Railroad Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford Mirman; Promod Vohra

    2009-12-31

    The Energy Conservation Projects to benefit the railroad industry using the Norfolk Southern Company as a model for the railroad industry has five unique tasks which are in areas of importance within the rail industry, and specifically in the area of energy conservation. The NIU Engineering and Technology research team looked at five significant areas in which research and development work can provide unique solutions to the railroad industry in energy the conservation. (1) Alternate Fuels - An examination of various blends of bio-based diesel fuels for the railroad industry, using Norfolk Southern as a model for the industry. The team determined that bio-diesel fuel is a suitable alternative to using straight diesel fuel, however, the cost and availability across the country varies to a great extent. (2) Utilization of fuel cells for locomotive power systems - While the application of the fuel cell has been successfully demonstrated in the passenger car, this is a very advanced topic for the railroad industry. There are many safety and power issues that the research team examined. (3) Thermal and emission reduction for current large scale diesel engines - The current locomotive system generates large amount of heat through engine cooling and heat dissipation when the traction motors are used to decelerate the train. The research team evaluated thermal management systems to efficiently deal with large thermal loads developed by the operating engines. (4) Use of Composite and Exotic Replacement Materials - Research team redesigned various components using new materials, coatings, and processes to provide the needed protection. Through design, analysis, and testing, new parts that can withstand the hostile environments were developed. (5) Tribology Applications - Identification of tribology issues in the Railroad industry which play a significant role in the improvement of energy usage. Research team analyzed and developed solutions which resulted in friction

  7. GHGRP Natural Gas and Natural Gas Liquids Suppliers Sector Industrial Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Natural Gas and Natural Gas Suppliers indust

  8. Improving the Usability of Integrated Assessment for Adaptation Practice: Insights from the U.S. Southeast Energy Sector

    SciTech Connect

    de Bremond, Ariane; Preston, Benjamin; Rice, Jennie S.

    2014-10-01

    Energy systems comprise a key sector of the U.S. economy, and one that has been identified as potentially vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change. However, understanding of adaptation processes in energy companies and private entities more broadly is limited. It is unclear, for example, the extent to which energy companies are well-served by existing knowledge and tools emerging from the impacts, adaptation and vulnerability (IAV) and integrated assessment modeling (IAM) communities and/or what experiments, analyses, and model results have practical utility for informing adaptation in the energy sector. As part of a regional IAM development project, we investigated available evidence of adaptation processes in the energy sector, with a particular emphasis on the U.S. Southeast and Gulf Coast region. A mixed methods approach of literature review and semi-structured interviews with key informants from energy utilities was used to compare existing knowledge from the IAV community with that of regional stakeholders. That comparison revealed that much of the IAV literature on the energy sector is climate-centric and therefore disconnected from the more integrated decision-making processes and institutional perspectives of energy utilities. Increasing the relevance of research and assessment for the energy sector will necessitate a greater investment in integrated assessment and modeling efforts that respond to practical decision-making needs as well as greater collaboration between energy utilities and researchers in the design, execution, and communication of those efforts.

  9. Industrial wastes from the boat-building sector in the Marche Region (Italy): a parametric and chemical-physical characterization.

    PubMed

    Carchesio, M; Tatàno, F; Tosi, G; Trivellone, C H

    2013-01-01

    Using the renowned leisure boat-building sector in the Marche Region (Italy) as a case-study, this paper addresses the characterization of (1) the industrial waste generation from the building of composite material-based boats and (2) some chemical-physical properties of representative types of boat-building residues (plastic foam, hardened resin, fibre-reinforced composite residues, and sanding dust). A parametric evaluation based on the number of employees gave a representative unit generation rate per employee (UGRpE) of 1.47 tons(waste) employee(-1) year(-1) for the entire Marche regional boatbuilding district, whereas evaluations carried out separately for three case-study companies provided values of 1.56, 3.07, and 1.12 tons(waste) employee(-1) year(-1) as representative for a mass-produced motor boat builder (case-study company '1'), a customized sailing boat builder (case-study company '2'), and a mould and structural component builder (case-study company '3'), respectively. The original proposal and evaluation of two additional generation rates based on physical characteristics intrinsic to the manufactured product, i.e. the unit generation rate per boat area (UGRpA) and per boat weight (UGRpW), confirmed the higher waste generation for the sailing boat builder(representative UGRpA and UGRpW values of 0.35 tons(waste) m(-2)(boat) year(-1) and 2. 71 tons(waste) tons(-1)(boat) year(-1), respectively) compared with the motor boat builder (representative UGRpA and UGRpW values of 0.06 tons(waste) m(-2)(boat) year(-1) and 0.49 tons(waste) tons(-1)(boat) year(-1), respectively). The chemical-physical property characterization of the selected residues revealed the following aspects: a general condition of low moisture contents; significant ash contents in the glass- and carbon-fibre composite residues and the correlated sanding dust; and relatively high energy content values in the overall range 14,144-32,479 kJ kg(-1), expressed as the lower heating value.

  10. The Boom of Electricity Demand in the Residential Sector in the Developing World and the Potential for Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.

    2008-05-13

    With the emergence of China as the world's largest energy consumer, the awareness of developing country energy consumption has risen. According to common economic scenarios, the rest of the developing world will probably see an economic expansion as well. With this growth will surely come continued rapid growth in energy demand. This paper explores the dynamics of that demand growth for electricity in the residential sector and the realistic potential for coping with it through efficiency. In 2000, only 66% of developing world households had access to electricity. Appliance ownership rates remain low, but with better access to electricity and a higher income one can expect that households will see their electricity consumption rise significantly. This paper forecasts developing country appliance growth using econometric modeling. Products considered explicitly - refrigerators, air conditioners, lighting, washing machines, fans, televisions, stand-by power, water heating and space heating - represent the bulk of household electricity consumption in developing countries. The resulting diffusion model determines the trend and dynamics of demand growth at a level of detail not accessible by models of a more aggregate nature. In addition, the paper presents scenarios for reducing residential consumption through cost-effective and/or best practice efficiency measures defined at the product level. The research takes advantage of an analytical framework developed by LBNL (BUENAS) which integrates end use technology parameters into demand forecasting and stock accounting to produce detailed efficiency scenarios, which allows for a realistic assessment of efficiency opportunities at the national or regional level. The past decades have seen some of the developing world moving towards a standard of living previously reserved for industrialized countries. Rapid economic development, combined with large populations has led to first China and now India to emerging as 'energy

  11. Energy and materials flows in the copper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.

    1980-12-01

    The copper industry comprises both the primary copper industry, which produces 99.9%-pure copper from copper ore, and the secondary copper industry, which salvages and recycles copper-containing scrap metal to extract pure copper or copper alloys. The United States uses about 2 million tons of copper annually, 60% of it for electrical applications. Demand is expected to increase less than 4% annually for the next 20 years. The primary copper industry is concentrated in the Southwest; Arizona produced 66% of the 1979 total ore output. Primary production uses about 170 x 10/sup 12/ Btu total energy annually (about 100 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton pure copper produced from ore). Mining and milling use about 60% of the total consumption, because low-grade ore (0.6% copper) is now being mined. Most copper is extracted by smelting sulfide ores, with concomitant production of sulfur dioxide. Clean air regulations will require smelters to reduce sulfur emissions, necessitating smelting process modifications that could also save 20 x 10/sup 12/ Btu (10 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper) in smelting energy. Energy use in secondary copper production averages 20 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper. If all copper products were recycled, instead of the 30% now salvaged, the energy conservation potential would be about one-half the total energy consumption of the primary copper industry.

  12. Energy efficiency opportunities in China. Industrial equipment and small cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    A quick glance at comparative statistics on energy consumption per unit of industrial output reveals that China is one of the least energy efficient countries in the world. Energy waste not only impedes economic growth, but also creates pollution that threatens human health, regional ecosystems, and the global climate. China`s decision to pursue economic reform and encourage technology transfer from developed countries has created a window of opportunity for significant advances in energy efficiency. Policy changes, technical training, public education, and financing can help China realize its energy conservation potential.

  13. Climate Change and its Impact on the Energy Sector in the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    It is anticipated that the Eastern Mediterranean and Cyprus will be disproportionally and adversely affected by future climate change. Impacts of these changes include rising summer temperatures and decreasing annual precipitation thereby causing strains on the energy sector in the region. Increases in the frequency of heat waves and tropical nights will lead to rising demands for air-conditioning of private and public housing on the one hand and to growing water scarcity, which will have to be satisfied by additional seawater desalination, on the other, to name just two of the repercussions of climate change on energy demand. Coping with these impacts will require additional electricity generation and will lead to enhanced energy demands. In the case of Cyprus, this will add to an already strained sector of the economy. The current electricity production is entirely based on fossil-fuel fired power plants. However, the use of conventional energy sources is clearly an undesirable option. It enhances the economic burden on energy consumers and at the same time increases Cyprus' dependency on external providers of hydrocarbon products. Moreover, it leads to growing emissions of carbon dioxide and thereby worsens Cyprus' already challenged greenhouse gas emission budget. While current emissions amount to app. 9.9 Mill. t of CO2, the total allowance according to EU regulations lies at 5.5 Mill. t. Possible remedies, which will be relevant for other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean, as well include energy saving measures in the building sector and the use of renewable energy sources. With regard to sustainable building technologies, new and innovative building materials will have to be introduced. This includes advanced thermochromic materials based on nanotechnology techniques combined with phase change microcapsules, photochromic coatings able to present very high or low solar reflectance, chameleon coatings presenting very low emissivity and time varying

  14. The problems and prospects of the public–private partnership in the Russian fuel and energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitenko, SM; Goosen, EV

    2017-02-01

    This article highlights some opportunities for shifting the paradigm for the development of natural resources in the Russian fuel and energy sector using public-private partnership instruments. It shows three main directions for developing public-private partnerships in the area of subsoil use and emphasizes the role of innovations in implementing the most promising projects in the fuel and energy sector of Russia.

  15. What China can learn from international policy experiences to improve industrial energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions?

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xu; Shen, Bo; Price, Lynn; Lu, Hongyou; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2016-11-01

    China’s industrial sector dominates the country’s total energy consumption and energy efficiency in the industry sector is crucial to help China reach its energy and CO2 emissions reduction goals. There are many energy efficiency policies in China, but the motivation and willingness of enterprises to improve energy efficiency has weakened. This report first identifies barriers that enterprises face to be self-motivated to implement energy efficiency measures. Then, this report reviews international policies and programs to improve energy efficiency and evaluates how these policies helped to address the identified barriers. Lastly, this report draws conclusions and provides recommendations to China in developing policies and programs to motivate enterprises to improve energy efficiency.

  16. Methods for assessing the energy-saving efficiency of industrial symbiosis in industrial parks.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenfeng; Cui, Zhaojie; Han, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The available energy resources are being depleted worldwide. Industrial symbiosis (IS) provides a promising approach for increasing the efficiency of energy utilization, with numerous studies reporting the superiority of this technology. However, studies quantifying the energy-saving efficiency of IS remain insufficient. This paper proposes an index system for the quantitative evaluation of the energy-saving efficiency of IS. Both energy-saving and financial indexes were selected, the former include the IS energy-saving index, the contribution rate of energy saved through IS, fractional energy savings, and cut rate of energy consumption per total output value; and the latter include the IS investment payback period, IS input-output ratio, net present value (NPV), and internal rate of return (IRR) of IS. The proposed methods were applied to a case study on the XF Industrial Park (XF IP), in the city of Liaocheng in Shandong Province of China. Three energy-saving channels using IS were found in the XF IP: (a) utilizing the energy of high-temperature materials among industrial processes, (b) recovering waste heat and steam between different processes, and (c) saving energy by sharing infrastructures. The results showed that the energy efficiency index of IS was 0.326, accounting for 34.6% of the comprehensive energy-saving index in 2011, and the fractional energy-savings were 12.42%. The index of energy consumption per total industrial output value varied from 90.9 tce/MRMB to 51.6 tce/MRMB. Thus, the cut rate of energy consumption per total industrial output value was 43.42%. The average values of the IS input-output ratio was 406.2 RMB/tce, 57.2% lower than the price of standard coal. Static investment payback period in the XF IP was 8.5 months, indicating that the XF IP began to earn profit 8.5 months after the construction of all IS modes. The NVP and IRR of each IS mode in the XF IP were greater than zero, with average values equal to 1,789.96 MRMB and 140

  17. Kyiv institutional buildings sector energy efficiency program: Lending and implementation assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, T.J.; Freeman, S.L.; Popelka, A.; Shestopal, P.A.; Gagurin, E.V.

    1997-08-01

    The government of Ukraine, through the State Committee of Energy Conservation (State Committee), is considering the implementation of energy efficiency measures in state and municipal institutional buildings in the city of Kyiv. The State Committee entered into a Memorandum of Cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct an assessment of the institutional buildings sector efficiency potential. This assessment will be used to support a potential loan by the World Bank for implementing a buildings efficiency improvement program in Kyiv. This report provides an assessment of the options for structuring the lending scenarios and the implementation of the program. Components to the lending structure are options for the disbursement of funds, options for the loan service, and other financial options and considerations. Program implementation includes management structures, reporting, installation activities, and post-installation activities such as training and verification.

  18. Model documentation report: Commercial Sector Demand Module of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components. This report serves three purposes. First, it is a reference document providing a detailed description for model analysts, users, and the public. Second, this report meets the legal requirement of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, section 57(b)(1)). Third, it facilitates continuity in model development by providing documentation from which energy analysts can undertake model enhancements, data updates, and parameter refinements as future projects.

  19. Study of domestic social and economic impacts of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) commercial development. Volume II. Industry profiles

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-22

    Econoimc profiles of the industries most affected by the construction, deployment, and operation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) powerplants are presented. Six industries which will contribute materials and/or components to the construction of OTEC plants have been identified and are profiled here. These industries are: steel industry, concrete industry, titanium metal industry, fabricated structural metals industry, fiber glass-reinforced plastics industry, and electrical transmission cable industry. The economic profiles for these industries detail the industry's history, its financial and economic characteristics, its technological and production traits, resource constraints that might impede its operation, and its relation to OTEC. Some of the historical data collected and described in the profile include output, value of shipments, number of firms, prices, employment, imports and exports, and supply-demand forecasts. For most of the profiled industries, data from 1958 through 1980 were examined. In addition, profiles are included on the sectors of the economy which will actualy construct, deploy, and supply the OTEC platforms.

  20. Voluntary Agreements for Increasing Energy-Efficiency in Industry: Case Study of a Pilot Project with the Steel Industry in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan; Yun, Jiang

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes international experience with the use of Voluntary Agreements for increasing industrial sector energy-efficiency, drawing lessons learned regarding the essential elements of the more successful programs. The paper focuses on a pilot project for implementation of a Voluntary Agreement with two steel mills in Shandong Province that was developed through international collaboration with experts in China, the Netherlands, and the U.S. Designing the pilot project involved development of approaches for energy-efficiency potential assessments for the steel mills, target-setting to establish the Voluntary Agreement energy-efficiency goals, preparing energy-efficiency plans for implementation of energy-saving technologies and measures, and monitoring and evaluating the project's energy savings.

  1. Application of solar thermal energy to buildings and industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C. F.

    1981-05-01

    Flat plate collectors and evacuated tube collectors are described, as are parabolic troughs, Fresnel lenses, and compound parabolic concentrators. Use of solar energy for domestic hot water and for space heating and cooling are discussed. Some useful references and methods of system design and sizing are given. This includes mention of the importance of economic analysis. The suitability of solar energy for industrial use is discussed, and solar ponds, point-focus receivers and central receivers are briefly described. The use of solar energy for process hot water, drying and dehydration, and process steam are examined, industrial process heat field tests by the Department of Energy are discussed, and a solar total energy system in Shenandoah, GA is briefly described. (LEW)

  2. Nuclear energy position in industrial and economics global

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aji, Indarta Kuncoro; Permana, Sidik

    2012-06-01

    3E (Energy, Economics and Education) are three concepts of community development, and 3E concepts are interlinked between each other. 3E concept is divided into three levels of regions, remote area or villages, small towns and metropolitan cities, and there are different problems of each region. This paper analyzes the relations between energy, economics and education in the metropolitan and industrial city. Especially the influence of nuclear energy concerning at cost production of the industrial and the contribution of education and research for nuclear energy innovation. This relation can be explained using "S-curve". The results of this study is the comparison between the product involves the use of nuclear energy or not in the production process are explained using "S-curve" and its effect on the global economics.

  3. Application of solar thermal energy to buildings and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutscher, C. F.

    1981-05-01

    Flat plate collectors and evacuated tube collectors are described, as are parabolic troughs, Fesnel lenses, and compound parabolic concentrators. Use of solar energy for domestic hot water and for space heating and cooling are discussed. Some useful references and methods of system design and sizing are given. This includes mention of the importance of economic analysis. The suitability of solar energy for industrial use is discussed, and solar ponds, point-focus receivers and central receivers are briefly described. The use of solar energy for process hot water, drying and dehydration, and process steam was examined, industrial process heat field tests by the Department of Energy are discussed, and a solar total energy system in Shenandoah, GA is briefly described.

  4. What works for energy efficiency in large industry

    SciTech Connect

    Peach, H.G.; Bonnyman, C.E.; Ghislain, J.C.

    1997-07-01

    In recent years it has become clear that various groups interested in energy efficiency, including state energy agencies, utilities, and advocacy groups do not know how energy efficiency efforts are conceived and carried out within global industrial corporations. There are vast energy efficiency efforts underway of which almost no one knows, except those directly involved. Nevertheless, the criteria employed, the viewpoint on efficiency, the constraints, and the methods of evaluation are all either somewhat or even quite different in an industrial setting. This paper reports on work underway at Ford Motor Company. Ford Motor Company has demonstrated a major commitment to energy efficiency. This paper illustrates the ways energy efficiency is approached, explains something of how the internal process works. and provides examples of the types of projects recently completed and underway. This paper first reviews certain organizational features of large industrial Demand Side Management (DSM). Second, it explores the model provided by ISO 14001. Third, specific experience of Ford Motor Company, General Motors, and Chrysler in working cooperatively with the Detroit Edison electric utility is reported. Finally, the broader scope of energy efficiency at Ford is indicated, and the ethical nature of energy efficiency is asserted.

  5. Potential for energy conservation in the glass industry

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, A.G.; Bruno, G.A.

    1986-06-01

    While the glass industry (flat glass, container glass, pressed and blown glass, and insulation fiber glass) has reduced its specific energy use (Btu/ton) by almost 30% since 1972, significant potential for further reduction still remains. State-of-the-art technologies are available which could lead to incremental improvements in glass industry energy productivity; however, these technologies must compete for capital with projects undertaken for other reasons (e.g., capacity expansion, equipment rebuild, labor cost reduction, product quality improvement, or compliance with environmental, health or safety regulations). Narrowing profit margins in the large tonnage segments of the glass industry in recent years and the fact that energy costs represent less than 25% of the value added in glass manufacture have combined to impede the widespread adoption of many state-of-the-art conservation technologies. Savings in energy costs alone have not provided the incentive to justify the capital expenditures required to realize the energy savings. Beyond implementation of state-of-the-art technologies, significant potential energy savings could accrue from advanced technologies which represent a radical departure from current glass making technology. Long-term research and development (R and D) programs, which address the technical and economic barriers associated with advanced, energy-conserving technologies, offer the opportunity to realize this energy-saving potential.

  6. 77 FR 2355 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... January 17, 2012 Part II Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air..., January 17, 2012 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC47...

  7. The energy investment decision in the nonresidential building sector: Research into the areas of influence

    SciTech Connect

    Harkreader, S.A.; Ivey, D.L.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe and to characterize the decision process in the nonresidential building sector as well as the variables influencing energy investment decisions, both of which impact the development of R and D agendas for the Office of Building and Community Systems (BCS). The report reviews the available information on the factors that influence energy investment decisions and identifies information gaps where additional research is needed. This report focuses on variables and combinations of these variables (descriptive states) that influence the non residential energy investment decision maker. Economic and demographic descriptors, energy investment decision maker characteristics, and variables affecting energy investments are identified. This response examines the physical characteristics of buildings, characteristics of the legal environment surrounding buildings, demographic factors, economic factors, and decision processes, all of which impact the nonresidential energy investment market. The emphasis of the report is on providing possible methodologies for projecting the future of the nonresidential energy investment market, as well as, collecting the data necessary for such projections. The use of alternate scenarios is suggested as a projection tool and suggestions for collecting the appropriate data are made in the recommendations.

  8. Analysis of Fuel Flexibility Opportunities and Constraints in the U.S. Industrial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-03-07

    The purpose of this assessment was to determine if flexible, alternative fuel use in industry, beyond switching from natural gas to petroleum derivatives, presents a sizeable opportunity for the reduction in use of natural gas. Furthermore, the assessment was to determine what programmatic activities the DOE could undertake to accelerate a fuel flexibility program for industry. To this end, a six-part framework (see Figure ES-1) was used to identify the most promising fuel flexibility options, and what level of accomplishment could be achieved, based on DOE leadership.

  9. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement in the United States Petroleum Refining Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, William R.; Marano, John; Sathaye, Jayant; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Xu, Tengfang

    2013-02-01

    Adoption of efficient process technologies is an important approach to reducing CO2 emissions, in particular those associated with combustion. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among the most cost-effective approaches that any refiner can take, improving productivity while reducing emissions. Therefore, careful analysis of the options and costs associated with efficiency measures is required to establish sound carbon policies addressing global climate change, and is the primary focus of LBNL’s current petroleum refining sector analysis for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The analysis is aimed at identifying energy efficiency-related measures and developing energy abatement supply curves and CO2 emissions reduction potential for the U.S. refining industry. A refinery model has been developed for this purpose that is a notional aggregation of the U.S. petroleum refining sector. It consists of twelve processing units and account s for the additional energy requirements from steam generation, hydrogen production and water utilities required by each of the twelve processing units. The model is carbon and energy balanced such that crud e oil inputs and major refinery sector outputs (fuels) are benchmarked to 2010 data. Estimates of the current penetration for the identified energy efficiency measures benchmark the energy requirements to those reported in U.S. DOE 2010 data. The remaining energy efficiency potential for each of the measures is estimated and compared to U.S. DOE fuel prices resulting in estimates of cost- effective energy efficiency opportunities for each of the twelve major processes. A combined cost of conserved energy supply curve is also presented along with the CO2 emissions abatement opportunities that exist in the U.S. petroleum refinery sector. Roughly 1,200 PJ per year of primary fuels savings and close to 500 GWh per y ear of electricity savings are potentially cost

  10. Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The potential is examined for waste heat recovery and reuse through thermal energy storage in five specific industrial categories: (1) primary aluminum, (2) cement, (3) food processing, (4) paper and pulp, and (5) iron and steel. Preliminary results from Phase 1 feasibility studies suggest energy savings through fossil fuel displacement approaching 0.1 quad/yr in the 1985 period. Early implementation of recovery technologies with minimal development appears likely in the food processing and paper and pulp industries; development of the other three categories, though equally desirable, will probably require a greater investment in time and dollars.

  11. Regional characteristics relevant to advanced technology cogeneration development. [industrial energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.

    1981-01-01

    To assist DOE in establishing research and development funding priorities in the area of advanced energy conversion technoloy, researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory studied those specific factors within various regions of the country that may influence cogeneration with advanced energy conversion systems. Regional characteristics of advanced technology cogeneration possibilities are discussed, with primary emphasis given to coal derived fuels. Factors considered for the study were regional industry concentration, purchased fuel and electricity prices, environmental constraints, and other data of interest to industrial cogeneration.

  12. High Voltage-Cylinder Sector Analyzer 300/15: A cylindrical sector analyzer for electron kinetic energies up to 15 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Escher, M.; Merkel, M.; Castro, G. R.

    2010-04-01

    We have developed an energy analyzer, High Voltage-Cylinder Sector Analyzer 300/15, for electron kinetic energies up to 15 keV. It is especially suited for hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, but also for ultraviolet and soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy), Auger electron spectroscopy, and reflection high energy electron spectroscopy. The analyzer is based on a cylinder sector with 90° deflection, 300 mm slit-to-slit distance, and a four-element pre-retarding lens system with 50 mm sample-to-lens distance. The result is a very compact design of the analyzer that is easily integrated into a multipurpose experiment with different techniques. A low noise/low drift electronics is capable of continuous energy scans from 0 to 15 keV using nonlinear lens curves. The first analyzer is allocated at the Spanish CRG SpLine beamline at the ESRF at an end station where simultaneous surface x-ray diffraction is possible. The analyzer is operated routinely since 2006 up to 15 keV electron kinetic energy, expanding the achievable electron kinetic energy range compared to other commercial analyzers. In this work we present a detailed description of the developed electron analyzer. The analyzer capabilities, in terms of energy resolution and transmission, are shown by using an electron gun, an ultraviolet-discharge lamp, and hard x-ray synchrotron radiation as excitation sources.

  13. Scholarisation, Apprenticeship and Social Differentiation. Analysis of the Non-Industrial Craft Sector in Morocco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerard, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    The article approaches the question of the schooling processes in the particular environment of the Moroccan craftsmen of Fez. It shows that the weak schooling of the children is bound to the representations and to the ways of transmission of craft industry knowledge. Schooling is, indeed, the object of tensions between a school system of western…

  14. Challenges at the Intersection of Energy, Economy, Environment, & Security and the Role of the Defense Sector in Addressing Them

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-29

    defense sector is positioned to lead in developing and deploying energy-efficiency & clean - energy solutions. 8 DoD Energy Costs, FY2010 Operational...Early procurement of energy efficient  technologies • Innovation & responsible operation at  facilities and ranges – Clean ‐ energy  and energy‐efficiency

  15. Sustainable design of complex industrial and energy systems under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng

    Depletion of natural resources, environmental pressure, economic globalization, etc., demand seriously industrial organizations to ensure that their manufacturing be sustainable. On the other hand, the efforts of pursing sustainability also give raise to potential opportunities for improvements and collaborations among various types of industries. Owing to inherent complexity and uncertainty, however, sustainability problems of industrial and energy systems are always very difficult to deal with, which has made industrial practice mostly experience based. For existing research efforts on the study of industrial sustainability, although systems approaches have been applied in dealing with the challenge of system complexity, most of them are still lack in the ability of handling inherent uncertainty. To overcome this limit, there is a research need to develop a new generation of systems approaches by integrating techniques and methods for handling various types of uncertainties. To achieve this objective, this research introduced series of holistic methodologies for sustainable design and decision-making of industrial and energy systems. The introduced methodologies are developed in a systems point of view with the functional components involved in, namely, modeling, assessment, analysis, and decision-making. For different methodologies, the interval-parameter-based, fuzzy-logic-based, and Monte Carlo based methods are selected and applied respectively for handling various types of uncertainties involved, and the optimality of solutions is guaranteed by thorough search or system optimization. The proposed methods are generally applicable for any types of industrial systems, and their efficacy had been successfully demonstrated by the given case studies. Beyond that, a computational tool was designed, which provides functions on the industrial sustainability assessment and decision-making through several convenient and interactive steps of computer operation. This

  16. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    1999-08-01

    This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of the U.S. cement industry, identifying cost-effective energy efficiency measures and potentials. The authors assess this industry at the aggregate level (Standard Industrial Classification 324), which includes establishments engaged in manufacturing hydraulic cements, including Portland, natural, masonry, and pozzolana when reviewing industry trends and when making international comparisons. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Between 1970 and 1997, primary physical energy intensity for cement production (SIC 324) dropped 30%,from 7.9 GJ/t to 5.6 GJ/t, while carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption (carbon dioxide emissions expressed in tons of carbon per ton cement) dropped 25%, from 0.16 tC/ton to 0.12 tC/ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and clinker calcination dropped 17%, from 0.29 tC/ton to 0.24 tC/ton. They examined 30 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. They constructed an energy conservation supply curve for U.S. cement industry which found a total cost-effective reduction of 0.6 GJ/ton of cement consisting of measures having a simple payback period of 3 years or less. This is equivalent to potential energy savings of 11% of 1994 energy use for cement making and a savings of 5% of total 1994 carbon dioxide emissions by the U.S. cement industry. Assuming the increased production of blended cement in the U.S., as is common in many parts of the world, the technical potential for energy efficiency improvement would not change considerably. However, the cost-effective potential, would increase to 1.1 GJ/ton cement or 18% of total energy use, and carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced by 16%.

  17. Old ways, new means: tobacco industry funding of academic and private sector scientists since the Master Settlement Agreement

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Suzaynn F; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-01-01

    When, as a condition of the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) in 1998, US tobacco companies disbanded the Council for Tobacco Research and the Center for Indoor Air Research, they lost a vital connection to scientists in academia and the private sector. The aim of this paper was to investigate two new research projects funded by US tobacco companies by analysis of internal tobacco industry documents now available at the University of California San Francisco (San Francisco, California, USA) Legacy tobacco documents library, other websites and the open scientific literature. Since the MSA, individual US tobacco companies have replaced their industry‐wide collaborative granting organisations with new, individual research programmes. Philip Morris has funded a directed research project through the non‐profit Life Sciences Research Office, and British American Tobacco and its US subsidiary Brown and Williamson have funded the non‐profit Institute for Science and Health. Both of these organisations have downplayed or concealed their true level of involvement with the tobacco industry. Both organisations have key members with significant and long‐standing financial relationships with the tobacco industry. Regulatory officials and policy makers need to be aware that the studies these groups publish may not be as independent as they seem. PMID:17565125

  18. Design for energy efficiency: Energy efficient industrialized housing research program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kellett, R.; Berg, R.; Paz, A.; Brown, G.Z.

    1991-03-01

    Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing research program (EEIH) to improve the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers share responsibility for this program: The Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. Additional funding is provided through the participation of private industry, state governments and utilities. The program is guided by a steering committee comprised of industry and government representatives. This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 activities and progress, and proposed activities for FY 1991 in Task 2.1 Design for Energy Efficiency. This task establishes a vision of energy conservation opportunities in critical regions, market segments, climate zones and manufacturing strategies significant to industrialized housing in the 21st Century. In early FY 1990, four problem statements were developed to define future housing demand scenarios inclusive of issues of energy efficiency, housing design and manufacturing. Literature surveys were completed to assess seven areas of influence for industrialized housing and energy conservation in the future. Fifty-five future trends were identified in computing and design process; manufacturing process; construction materials, components and systems; energy and environment; demographic context; economic context; and planning policy and regulatory context.

  19. Potential for energy conservation in the cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett-Price, B.A.

    1985-02-01

    This report assesses the potential for energy conservation in the cement industry. Energy consumption per ton of cement decreased 20% between 1972 and 1982. During this same period, the cement industry became heavily dependent on coal and coke as its primary fuel source. Although the energy consumed per ton of cement has declined markedly in the past ten years, the industry still uses more than three and a half times the fuel that is theoretically required to produce a ton of clinker. Improving kiln thermal efficiency offers the greatest opportunity for saving fuel. Improving the efficiency of finish grinding offers the greatest potential for reducing electricity use. Technologies are currently available to the cement industry to reduce its average fuel consumption per ton by product by as much as 40% and its electricity consumption per ton by about 10%. The major impediment to adopting these technologies is the cement industry's lack of capital as a result of low or no profits in recent years.

  20. Resonance saturation in the odd-intrinsic parity sector of low-energy QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, Karol; Novotný, Jiří

    2011-07-01

    Using the large NC approximation we have constructed the most general chiral resonance Lagrangian in the odd-intrinsic parity sector that can generate low-energy chiral constants up to O(p6). Integrating out the resonance fields these O(p6) constants are expressed in terms of resonance couplings and masses. The role of η' is discussed and its contribution is explicitly factorized. Using the resonance basis we have also calculated two QCD Green functions of currents, ⟨VVP⟩ and ⟨VAS⟩, and found, imposing high-energy constraints, additional relations for resonance couplings. We have studied several phenomenological implications based on these correlators which provided, for example, a prediction for the π0-pole contribution to the muon g-2 factor: aμπ0=65.8(1.2)×10-11.

  1. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-02-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Potential for Energy Efficiency Improvement Beyond the Light-Duty-Vehicle Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A. D.; Patel, D. M.; Bertram, K. M.

    2013-03-01

    Considerable research has focused on energy efficiency and fuel substitution options for light-duty vehicles, while much less attention has been given to medium- and heavy-duty trucks, buses, aircraft, marine vessels, trains, pipeline, and off-road equipment. This report brings together the salient findings from an extensive review of literature on future energy efficiency options for these non-light-duty modes. Projected activity increases to 2050 are combined with forecasts of overall fuel efficiency improvement potential to estimate the future total petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to current levels. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  3. Examples of coupled human and environmental systems from the extractive industry and hydropower sector interfaces.

    PubMed

    Castro, Marcia C; Krieger, Gary R; Balge, Marci Z; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; Whittaker, Maxine; Singer, Burton H

    2016-12-20

    Large-scale corporate projects, particularly those in extractive industries or hydropower development, have a history from early in the twentieth century of creating negative environmental, social, and health impacts on communities proximal to their operations. In many instances, especially for hydropower projects, the forced resettlement of entire communities was a feature in which local cultures and core human rights were severely impacted. These projects triggered an activist opposition that progressively expanded and became influential at both the host community level and with multilateral financial institutions. In parallel to, and spurred by, this activism, a shift occurred in 1969 with the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in the United States, which required Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for certain types of industrial and infrastructure projects. Over the last four decades, there has been a global movement to develop a formal legal/regulatory EIA process for large industrial and infrastructure projects. In addition, social, health, and human rights impact assessments, with associated mitigation plans, were sequentially initiated and have increasingly influenced project design and relations among companies, host governments, and locally impacted communities. Often, beneficial community-level social, economic, and health programs have voluntarily been put in place by companies. These flagship programs can serve as benchmarks for community-corporate-government partnerships in the future. Here, we present examples of such positive phenomena and also focus attention on a myriad of challenges that still lie ahead.

  4. Examples of coupled human and environmental systems from the extractive industry and hydropower sector interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Marcia C.; Krieger, Gary R.; Balge, Marci Z.; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; Whittaker, Maxine; Singer, Burton H.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale corporate projects, particularly those in extractive industries or hydropower development, have a history from early in the twentieth century of creating negative environmental, social, and health impacts on communities proximal to their operations. In many instances, especially for hydropower projects, the forced resettlement of entire communities was a feature in which local cultures and core human rights were severely impacted. These projects triggered an activist opposition that progressively expanded and became influential at both the host community level and with multilateral financial institutions. In parallel to, and spurred by, this activism, a shift occurred in 1969 with the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in the United States, which required Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for certain types of industrial and infrastructure projects. Over the last four decades, there has been a global movement to develop a formal legal/regulatory EIA process for large industrial and infrastructure projects. In addition, social, health, and human rights impact assessments, with associated mitigation plans, were sequentially initiated and have increasingly influenced project design and relations among companies, host governments, and locally impacted communities. Often, beneficial community-level social, economic, and health programs have voluntarily been put in place by companies. These flagship programs can serve as benchmarks for community–corporate–government partnerships in the future. Here, we present examples of such positive phenomena and also focus attention on a myriad of challenges that still lie ahead. PMID:27791077

  5. Water flows, energy demand, and market analysis of the informal water sector in Kisumu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Laura C.; Kelner-Levine, Evan; Eckelman, Matthew J.; McCarty, Kathleen M.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-01-01

    In rapidly growing urban areas of developing countries, infrastructure has not been able to cope with population growth. Informal water businesses fulfill unmet water supply needs, yet little is understood about this sector. This paper presents data gathered from quantitative interviews with informal water business operators (n=260) in Kisumu, Kenya, collected during the dry season. Sales volume, location, resource use, and cost were analyzed by using material flow accounting and spatial analysis tools. Estimates show that over 76% of the city's water is consumed by less than 10% of the population who have water piped into their dwellings. The remainder of the population relies on a combination of water sources, including water purchased directly from kiosks (1.5 million m3 per day) and delivered by hand-drawn water-carts (0.75 million m3 per day). Energy audits were performed to compare energy use among various water sources in the city. Water delivery by truck is the highest per cubic meter energy demand (35 MJ/m3), while the city's tap water has the highest energy use overall (21,000 MJ/day). We group kiosks by neighborhood and compare sales volume and cost with neighborhood-level population data. Contrary to popular belief, we do not find evidence of price gouging; the lowest prices are charged in the highest-demand low-income area. We also see that the informal sector is sensitive to demand, as the number of private boreholes that serve as community water collection points are much larger where demand is greatest. PMID:23543887

  6. Occupational Contact Dermatitis in the Wind Energy Industry.

    PubMed

    Lárraga-Piñones, G; Heras-Mendaza, F; Conde-Salazar, L

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In 2010, wind energy coverage in Spain increased by 16%, making the country the world's fourth largest producer in a fast-developing industry that is also a source of employment. Occupational skin diseases in this field have received little attention. The present study aims to describe the main characteristics of skin diseases affecting workers in the wind energy industry and the allergens involved. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a descriptive, observational study of workers from the wind energy industry with suspected contact dermatitis who were referred to the occupational dermatology clinic of the National School of Occupational Medicine (Escuela Nacional de Medicina del Trabajo) between 2009 and 2011. We took both a clinical history and an occupational history, and patients underwent a physical examination and patch testing with the materials used in their work. RESULTS: We studied 10 workers (8 men, 2 women), with a mean age of 33.7 years. The main finding was dermatitis, which affected the face, eyelids, forearms, and hands. Sensitization to epoxy resins was detected in 4 workers, 1 of whom was also sensitized to epoxy curing agents. One worker was sensitized to bisphenol F resin but had a negative result with epoxy resin from the standard series. In the 5 remaining cases, the final diagnosis was irritant contact dermatitis due to fiberglass. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational skin diseases are increasingly common in the wind energy industry. The main allergens are epoxy resins. Fiberglass tends to produce irritation.

  7. Process Innovation and Changes in Industrial Energy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Charles A.

    1978-01-01

    American industry in the 19th century switched from wood to coal as its primary energy resource. The history of this switch is reviewed, along with the history of preceding similar trends in Europe and later trends in the switch from coal to oil and gas. (Author/MA)

  8. Estimating the Impact (Energy, Emissions and Economics) of the US Fluid Power Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this report is to estimate the impact (energy, emissions and economics) of United Fluid power (hydraulic and pneumatic actuation) is the generation, control, and application of pumped or compressed fluids when this power is used to provide force and motion to mechanisms. This form of mechanical power is an integral part of United States (U.S.) manufacturing and transportation. In 2008, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, sales of fluid power components exceeded $17.7B, sales of systems using fluid power exceeded $226B. As large as the industry is, it has had little fundamental research that could lead to improved efficiency since the late 1960s (prior to the 1970 energy crisis). While there have been some attempts to replace fluid powered components with electric systems, its performance and rugged operating condition limit the impact of simple part replacement. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Fluid Power Association (NFPA) collaborated with 31 industrial partners to collect and consolidate energy specific measurements (consumption, emissions, efficiency) of deployed fluid power systems. The objective of this study was to establish a rudimentary order of magnitude estimate of the energy consumed by fluid powered systems. The analysis conducted in this study shows that fluid powered systems consumed between 2.0 and 2.9 Quadrillion (1015) Btus (Quads) of energy per year; producing between 310 and 380 million metric tons (MMT) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). In terms of efficiency, the study indicates that, across all industries, fluid power system efficiencies range from less than 9% to as high as 60% (depending upon the application), with an average efficiency of 22%. A review of case studies shows that there are many opportunities to impact energy savings in both the manufacturing and transportation sectors by the development and deployment of energy efficient fluid power components and systems.

  9. Decomposition Analysis of Wastewater Pollutant Discharges in Industrial Sectors of China (2001-2009) Using the LMDI I Metho

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hongjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Changjia; Xi, Beidou

    2012-01-01

    China’s industry accounts for 46.8% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and plays an important strategic role in its economic growth. On the other hand, industrial wastewater is also the major source of water pollution. In order to examine the relationship between the underlying driving forces and various environmental indicators, values of two critical industrial wastewater pollutant discharge parameters (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N)), between 2001 and 2009, were decomposed into three factors: i.e., production effects (caused by change in the scale of economic activity), structure effects (caused by change in economic structure) and intensity effects (caused by change in technological level of each sector), using additive version of the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI I) decomposition method. Results showed that: (1) the average annual effect of COD discharges in China was −2.99%, whereas the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 14.64%, −1.39%, and −16.24%, respectively. Similarly, the average effect of NH4-N discharges was −4.03%, while the production effect, the structure effect, and the intensity effect were 16.18%, −2.88%, and −17.33%, respectively; (2) the production effect was the major factor responsible for the increase in COD and NH4-N discharges, accounting for 45% and 44% of the total contribution, respectively; (3) the intensity effect, which accounted for 50% and 48% of the total contribution, respectively, exerted a dominant decremental effect on COD and NH4-N discharges; intensity effect was further decomposed into cleaner production effect and pollution abatement effect with the cleaner production effect accounting for 60% and 55% of the reduction of COD and NH4-N, respectively; (4) the major contributors to incremental COD and NH4-N discharges were divided among industrial sub-sectors and the top contributors were identified. Potential restructuring and

  10. Economic and environmental impacts of the corn grain ethanol industry on the United States agricultural sector

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J.A.; English, B.C.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; Menard, R.J.; Hellwinckel, C.M.; West, Tristram O.

    2010-09-10

    This study evaluated the impacts of increased ethanol production from corn starch on agricultural land use and the environment in the United States. The Policy Analysis System simulation model was used to simulate alternative ethanol production scenarios for 2007 through 2016. Results indicate that increased corn ethanol production had a positive effect on net farm income and economic wellbeing of the US agricultural sector. In addition, government payments to farmers were reduced because of higher commodity prices and enhanced net farm income. Results also indicate that if Conservation Reserve Program land was converted to crop production in response to higher demand for ethanol in the simulation, individual farmers planted more land in crops, including corn. With a larger total US land area in crops due to individual farmer cropping choices, total US crop output rose, which decreased crop prices and aggregate net farm income relative to the scenario where increased ethanol production happened without Conservation Reserve Program land. Substantial shifts in land use occurred with corn area expanding throughout the United States, especially in the traditional corn-growing area of the midcontinent region.

  11. Estimation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions considering Aging and Climate Change in Residential Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Park, C.; Park, J. H.; Jung, T. Y.; Lee, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of climate change, particularly that of rising temperatures, are being observed across the globe and are expected to further increase. To counter this phenomenon, numerous nations are focusing on the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Because energy demand management is considered as a key factor in emissions reduction, it is necessary to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions in relation to climate change. Further, because South Korea is the world's fastest nation to become aged, demographics have also become instrumental in the accurate estimation of energy demands and emissions. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to estimate energy consumption and GHG emissions in the residential sectors of South Korea with regard to climate change and aging to build more accurate strategies for energy demand management and emissions reduction goals. This study, which was stablished with 2010 and 2050 as the base and target years, respectively, was divided into a two-step process. The first step evaluated the effects of aging and climate change on energy demand, and the second estimated future energy use and GHG emissions through projected scenarios. First, aging characteristics and climate change factors were analyzed by using the logarithmic mean divisia index (LMDI) decomposition analysis and the application of historical data. In the analysis of changes in energy use, the effects of activity, structure, and intensity were considered; the degrees of contribution were derived from each effect in addition to their relations to energy demand. Second, two types of scenarios were stablished based on this analysis. The aging scenarios are business as usual and future characteristics scenarios, and were used in combination with Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 and 8.5. Finally, energy consumption and GHG emissions were estimated by using a combination of scenarios. The results of these scenarios show an increase in energy consumption

  12. Advances in energy conservation of China steel industry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenqiang; Cai, Jiuju; Ye, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980-2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011-2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years' research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

  13. Advances in Energy Conservation of China Steel Industry

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenqiang; Cai, Jiuju; Ye, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980–2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011–2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years' research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics. PMID:23533344

  14. Industrial Assessment Centers - Small Manufacturers Reduce Energy & Increase Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-06

    Since 1976, the Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), administered by the US Department of Energy, have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce energy use and increase their productivity and competitiveness. The 24 IACs, located at premier engineering universities around the country (see below), send faculty and engineering students to local small and medium-sized manufacturers to provide no-cost assessments of energy use, process performance and waste and water flows. Under the direction of experienced professors, IAC engineering students analyze the manufacturer’s facilities, energy bills and energy, waste and water systems, including compressed air, motors/pumps, lighting, process heat and steam. The IACs then follow up with written energy-saving and productivity improvement recommendations, with estimates of related costs and payback periods.

  15. US energy industry financial developments, 1993 second quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-29

    US Energy Industry Financial Developments, 1993 Second Quarter provides information on the financial performance of energy companies during the most recent reporting period. The data are taken from public sources such as the Wall Street Journal, Energy Information Administration publications, corporate press releases, and other public sources. Based on information provided in 1993 second quarter financial disclosures, net income for 114 petroleum companies--including 19 majors--rose 33 percent between the second quarter of 1992 and the second quarter of 1993. Both upstream (oil and gas exploration, development and production) operations and downstream (petroleum refining, marketing, and transport) contributed to the improved financial Performance of petroleum companies consolidated operations. Rate-regulated industries also showed positive income growth between the second quarter of 1992 and the second quarter of 1993 due to higher natural gas prices and increased electricity consumption.

  16. US energy industry financial developments, 1994 first quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-23

    This report traces key financial trends in the US energy industry for the first quarter of 1994. Financial data (only available for publicly-traded US companies) are included in two broad groups -- fossil fuel production and rate-regulated electric utilities. All financial data are taken from public sources such as energy industry corporate reports and press releases, energy trade publications, and The Wall Street Journal`s, Earnings Digest. Return on equity is calculated from data available from Standard and Poor`s Compustat data service. Since several major petroleum companies disclose their income by lines of business and geographic area. These data are also presented in this report. Although the disaggregated income concept varies by company and is not strictly comparable to corporate income, relative movements in income by lines of business and geographic area are summarized as useful indicators of short-term changes in the underlying profitability of these operations.

  17. US energy industry financial developments, 1993 first quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-25

    Net income for 259 energy companies-- including, 20 major US petroleum companies-- rose 38 percent between the first quarter of 1992 and the first quarter of 1993. An increased level of economic activity, along with colder weather, helped lift the demand for natural gas. crude oil, coal, and electricity. The sharp rise in the domestic price of natural gas at the wellhead relative to the year-ago quarter was the most significant development in US energy during the first quarter. As a consequence of higher natural gas prices, the upstream segment of the petroleum industry reported large gains in income, while downstream income rose due to higher refined product demand. Increased economic activity and higher weather-related natural gas demand also led to improvements in income for the rate-regulated energy segment. However, declining domestic oil production continued to restrain upstream petroleum industry earnings growth, despite a moderate rise in crude oil prices.

  18. Estimating energy-augmenting technological change in developingcountry industries

    SciTech Connect

    Sanstad, Alan H.; Roy, Joyashree; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2006-07-07

    Assumptions regarding the magnitude and direction ofenergy-related technological change have long beenrecognized as criticaldeterminants of the outputs and policy conclusions derived fromintegrated assessment models. Particularly in the case of developingcountries, however, empirical analysis of technological change has laggedbehind simulation modeling. This paper presents estimates of sectoralproductivity trends and energy-augmenting technological change forseveral energy-intensive industries in India and South Korea, and, forcomparison, the United States. The key findings are substantialheterogeneity among both industries and countries, and a number of casesof declining energy efficiency. The results are subject to certaintechnical qualifications both in regards to the methodology and to thedirect comparison to integrated assessment parameterizations.Nevertheless, they highlight the importance of closer attention to theempirical basis for common modeling assumptions.

  19. Understanding Potential Climate Variability Impacts on the Offshore Energy Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stear, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability may have important implications for the offshore energy industry. Scenarios of increased storm activity and changes in sea level could require the retrofit of existing offshore platforms and coastal infrastructure, the decommissioning of facilities for which upgrade or relocation is not economically viable, and the development of new methods and equipment which are removed from or less sensitive to environmental loads. Over the past years the energy industry has been actively involved in collaborative research efforts with government and academia to identify the potential changes in the offshore operating environment, and corresponding risk implications. This presentation will review several of these efforts, and for several of the hypothetical climate variation scenarios, review the potential impacts on and possible mitigations for offshore and coastal energy infrastructure and operations.

  20. Energy use and energy intensity of the U.S. chemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, E.; Phylipsen, D.; Einstein, D.; Martin, N.

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. chemical industry is the largest in the world, and responsible for about 11% of the U.S. industrial production measured as value added. It consumes approximately 20% of total industrial energy consumption in the U.S. (1994), and contributes in similar proportions to U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Surprisingly, there is not much information on energy use and energy intensity in the chemical industry available in the public domain. This report provides detailed information on energy use and energy intensity for the major groups of energy-intensive chemical products. Ethylene production is the major product in terms of production volume of the petrochemical industry. The petrochemical industry (SIC 2869) produces a wide variety of products. However, most energy is used for a small number of intermediate compounds, of which ethylene is the most important one. Based on a detailed assessment we estimate fuel use for ethylene manufacture at 520 PJ (LHV), excluding feedstock use. Energy intensity is estimated at 26 GJ/tonne ethylene (LHV), excluding feedstocks.The nitrogenous fertilizer production is a very energy intensive industry, producing a variety of fertilizers and other nitrogen-compounds. Ammonia is the most important intermediate chemical compound, used as basis for almost all products. Fuel use is estimated at 268 PJ (excluding feedstocks) while 368 PJ natural gas is used as feedstock. Electricity consumption is estimated at 14 PJ. We estimate the energy intensity of ammonia manufacture at 39.3 GJ/tonne (including feedstocks, HHV) and 140 kWh/tonne, resulting in a specific primary energy consumption of 40.9 GJ/tonne (HHV), equivalent to 37.1 GJ/tonne (LHV). Excluding natural gas use for feedstocks the primary energy consumption is estimated at 16.7 GJ/tonne (LHV). The third most important product from an energy perspective is the production of chlorine and caustic soda. Chlorine is produced through electrolysis of a salt-solution. Chlorine production is

  1. Technology choice and development in Brazil: An assessment of Brazil's alternative fuel program and the agriculture, manufacturing, energy, and service sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Lucy A.

    Technology choice profoundly affects a country's development process because capital-intensive and labor-intensive technologies have different socioeconomic linkages within the economy. This research examines the impacts of technology choice through the use of a social accounting matrix (SAM) framework. SAM-based modeling determines the direct and indirect effects of technology choice on development, particularly poverty alleviation in Brazil. Brazil's alternative fuel program was analyzed as a special example of technology choice. Two ethanol production technologies and the gasoline sector were compared; to make the study more robust, labor and capital intensive technologies were evaluated in the production of agriculture, manufacturing, energy, and services. Growth in these economic sectors was examined to assess the effects on employment, factor and household income, energy intensity, and carbon dioxide costs. Poverty alleviation was a focus, so income to unskilled agriculture labor, unskilled non-agriculture labor, and income to rural and urban households in poverty was also analyzed. The major research finding is that overall, labor-intensive technologies generate more employment, factor and household income, environmental and energy benefits to Brazil's economy than capital-intensive technologies. In addition, labor-intensive technologies make a particular contribution to poverty alleviation. The results suggest that policies to encourage the adoption of these technologies, especially in the agriculture and renewable energy sectors, are important because of their intersectoral linkages within the economy. Many studies have shown that Brazil's fuel ethanol program has helped to realize multiple macroeconomic objectives. However, this is the first empirical study to quantify its household income effects. The ethanol industry generated the most household income of the energy sectors. The research confirms a key finding of the appropriate technology literature

  2. Sector-based VOCs emission factors and source profiles for the surface coating industry in the Pearl River Delta region of China.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhuangmin; Sha, Qing'e; Zheng, Junyu; Yuan, Zibing; Gao, Zongjiang; Ou, Jiamin; Zheng, Zhuoyun; Li, Cheng; Huang, Zhijiong

    2017-04-01

    Accurate depiction of VOCs emission characteristics is essential for the formulation of VOCs control strategies. As one of the continuous efforts in improving VOCs emission characterization in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, this study targeted on surface coating industry, the most important VOCs emission sources in the PRD. Sectors in analysis included shipbuilding coating, wood furniture coating, metal surface coating, plastic surface coating, automobile coating and fabric surface coating. Sector-based field measurement was conducted to characterize VOCs emission factors and source profiles in the PRD. It was found that the raw material-based VOCs emission factors for these six sectors ranged from 0.34 to 0.58kg VOCs per kg of raw materials (kg·kg(-1)) while the emission factors based on the production yield varied from 0.59kg to 13.72t VOCs for each production manufactured. VOCs emission factors of surface coating industry were therefore preferably calculated based on raw materials with low uncertainties. Source profiles differed greatly among different sectors. Aromatic was the largest group for shipbuilding coating, wood furniture coating, metal surface coating and automobile coating while the oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) were the most abundant in the plastic and fabric surface coating sectors. The major species of aromatic VOCs in each of these six sectors were similar, mainly toluene and m/p-xylene, while the OVOCs varied among the different sectors. VOCs profiles in the three processes of auto industry, i.e., auto coating, auto drying and auto repairing, also showed large variations. The major species in these sectors in the PRD were similar with other places but the proportions of individual compounds were different. Some special components were also detected in the PRD region. This study highlighted the importance of updating local source profiles in a comprehensive and timely manner.

  3. The energy-savings potential of electrochromic windows in the UScommercial buildings sector

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eleanor; Yazdanian, Mehry; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2004-04-30

    Switchable electrochromic (EC) windows have been projected to significantly reduce the energy use of buildings nationwide. This study quantifies the potential impact of electrochromic windows on US primary energy use in the commercial building sector and also provides a broader database of energy use and peak demand savings for perimeter zones than that given in previous LBNL simulation studies. The DOE-2.1E building simulation program was used to predict the annual energy use of a three-story prototypical commercial office building located in five US climates and 16 California climate zones. The energy performance of an electrochromic window controlled to maintain daylight illuminance at a prescribed setpoint level is compared to conventional and the best available commercial windows as well as windows defined by the ASHRAE 90.1-1999 and California Title 24-2005 Prescriptive Standards. Perimeter zone energy use and peak demand savings data by orientation, window size, and climate are given for windows with interior shading, attached shading, and horizon obstructions (to simulate an urban environment). Perimeter zone primary energy use is reduced by 10-20% in east, south, and west zones in most climates if the commercial building has a large window-to-wall area ratio of 0.60 compared to a spectrally selective low-e window with daylighting controls and no interior or exterior shading. Peak demand for the same condition is reduced by 20-30%. The emerging electrochromic window with daylighting controls is projected to save approximately 91.5-97.3 10{sup 12} Btu in the year 2030 compared to a spectrally selective low-E window with manually-controlled interior shades and no daylighting controls if it reaches a 40% market penetration level in that year.

  4. Estimation and characterization of gaseous pollutant emissions from agricultural crop residue combustion in industrial and household sectors of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Saleem, Farhan; -Rahman, Naveed-ur; van den Berg, Leon; Abbas, Farhat

    2014-02-01

    A long-term energy crisis has resulted in increased combustion of biomass fuel in industrial and household sectors in Pakistan. We report results of a study on the emission characteristics of rice husk, rice straw, corncobs and bagasse since they are frequently used as biomass fuel and differed remarkably in physico-chemical and combustion characteristics. Emission concentrations and emission factors were determined experimentally by burning the biomass fuel using a burning tower. Modified combustion efficiency (MCE) of rice husk, rice straw, corncobs and bagasse was >0.97 indicating that combustion was dominated by flaming mode. Emission factors of gaseous pollutants CO, CO2, NO2, NO, NOx and SO2 for rice straw were calculated to be 17.19 ± 0.28, 1090.07 ± 24.0, 0.89 ± 0.03, 1.48 ± 0.04, 3.16 ± 0.08 and 0.38 ± 0.03 g kg-1 respectively which were significantly (p < 0.05) higher compared to those from rice husk (14.05 ± 0.18, 880.48 ± 8.99, 0.19 ± 0.01, 1.38 ± 0.02, 2.31 ± 0.04 and 0.11 ± 0.03 g kg-1), corncobs (8.63 ± 0.12, 595.44 ± 10.38, 0.16 ± 0.01, 0.70 ± 0.01, 1.23 ± 0.02 and 0.02 ± 0.00 g kg-1) and bagasse (12.39 ± 0.08, 937.03 ± 9.07, 0.36 ± 0.03, 1.44 ± 0.02, 2.57 ± 0.04 and 0.18 ± 0.02 g kg-1). Total emissions of CO, CO2, NO2, NO, NOx and SO2 were estimated to be 3.68, 230.51, 0.05, 0.36, 0.60 and 0.03 Gg for rice husk, 33.75, 2140.35, 1.75, 2.91, 6.20 and 0.75 Gg for rice straw, 1.11, 76.28, 0.02, 0.02 and 0.03 Gg for corncobs and 42.12, 3185.53, 1.22, 4.90, 8.74 and 0.61 Gg for bagasse respectively. Rice straw, however, had significantly (p < 0.05) higher potential of gaseous pollutant emission factors. Bagasse had the highest values of total emissions followed by rice straw, rice husk and corncobs. Rice straw and bagasse, on cumulative basis, contributed more than 90% of total emissions of gaseous pollutants. Results reported in this study are important in formulating provincial and regional emission budgets of gaseous pollutants

  5. Maximizing industry benefit through cooperation between federal, state and private-sector floricultural research efforts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    he USDA-ARS Greenhouse Production Research Group was established to provide a federally funded research emphasis on greenhouse crop production. It has focused on broad production issues (nutrition, water management, and energy conservation) by coordinating research between in-house researchers, Uni...

  6. Industrial sustainability of competing wood energy options in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ackom, Emmanuel K; Mabee, Warren E; Saddler, John N

    2010-12-01

    The amount of sawmill residue available in Canada to support the emerging cellulosic ethanol industry was examined. A material flow analysis technique was employed to determine the amount of sawmill residue that could possibly be available to the ethanol industry per annum. A combination of two key trends--improved efficiency of lumber recovery and increased uptake of sawmill residues for self-generation and for wood pellet production--have contributed to a declining trend of sawmill residue availability. Approximately 2.3 x 10⁶ bone-dry tons per year of sawmill residue was estimated to be potentially available to the cellulosic ethanol industry in Canada, yielding 350 million liters per year of cellulosic ethanol using best practices. An additional 2.7 billion liters of cellulosic ethanol might be generated from sawmill residue that is currently used for competing wood energy purposes, including wood pellet generation. Continued competition between bioenergy options will reduce the industrial sustainability of the forest industry. Recommendations for policy reforms towards improved industrial sustainability practices are provided.

  7. Issues in Energy Economics Led by Emerging Linkages between the Natural Gas and Power Sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Platt, Jeremy B.

    2007-09-15

    Fuel prices in 2006 continued at record levels, with uranium continuing upward unabated and coal, SO{sub 2} emission allowances, and natural gas all softening. This softening did not continue for natural gas, however, whose prices rose, fell and rose again, first following weather influences and, by the second quarter of 2007, continuing at high levels without any support from fundamentals. This article reviews these trends and describes the remarkable increases in fuel expenses for power generation. By the end of 2005, natural gas claimed 55% of annual power sector fuel expenses, even though it was used for only 19% of electric generation. Although natural gas is enormously important to the power sector, the sector also is an important driver of the natural gas market-growing to over 28% of the market even as total use has declined. The article proceeds to discuss globalization, natural gas price risk, and technology developments. Forces of globalization are poised to affect the energy markets in new ways-new in not being only about oil. Of particular interest in the growth of intermodal traffic and its a little-understood impacts on rail traffic patterns and transportation costs, and expected rapidly expanding LNG imports toward the end of the decade. Two aspects of natural gas price risk are discussed: how understanding the use of gas in the power sector helps define price ceilings and floors for natural gas, and how the recent increase in the natural gas production after years of record drilling could alter the supply-demand balance for the better. The article cautions, however, that escalation in natural gas finding and development costs is countering the more positive developments that emerged during 2006. Regarding technology, the exploitation of unconventional natural gas was one highlight. So too was the queuing up of coal-fired power plants for the post-2010 period, a phenomenon that has come under great pressure with many consequences including increased

  8. Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program. Annual report, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    Six area reported progress in the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing Research Program during FY 1991. As part of Industry Guidance, meetings were held with steering and technical committees in computers, housing design and manufacturing. This task area enables the program to benefit from the expertise of industry representatives and communicate research results directly to them. As part of the Design Process performance specifications were being developed for the future housing system designed last year. These house designs coordinate and optimize predicted and desirable advances in computerized design processes, materials, components, and manufacturing automation to achieve energy efficiency at reduced first cost. Energy design software were being developed for CAD systems, stressed skin insulating core panel manufacturers; and a prototype energy sales tool. A prototype design was to be developed to integrate one or more subsystems with the building skin. As part of the Manufacturing Process we are developing a manufacturing process simulation and data base to help current and new entrants to the industrialized housing industry in assessing the impact of implementing new manufacturing techniques. For Evaluation we are developing testing plans for six units of housing on the UO campus and the stressed skin insulating core house to be constructed in Oregon. The DOW Chemical test structure will be retrofitted with a tile roof and retested to compare to the dome and conventional construction structures. Calibration of the wind tunnel will be completed so that laboratory tests can be conducted to simulate the ventilation cooling efficiency of houses in design. Research utilization and program management were either aspects of this program.

  9. Source reduction for prevention of methylene chloride hazards: cases from four industrial sectors

    PubMed Central

    Roelofs, Cora R; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    Background Source reduction, defined as chemical, equipment and process changes that intervene in an industrial process to eliminate or reduce hazards, has not figured as a front-line strategy for the protection of workers' health. Such initiatives are popular for environmental protection, but their feasibility and effectiveness as an industrial hygiene approach have not been well described. Methods We investigated four cases of source reduction as a hazard prevention strategy in Massachusetts companies that had used methylene chloride, an occupational carcinogen, for cleaning and adhesive thinning. Three cases were retrospective and one was prospective, where the researchers assisted with the source reduction process change. Data were collected using qualitative research methods, including in-depth interviews and site visits. Results Motivated by environmental restrictions, a new worker health standard, and opportunity for productivity improvements, three companies eliminated their use of methylene chloride by utilizing available technologies and drop-in substitutes. Aided by technical assistance from the investigators, a fourth case dramatically reduced its use of methylene chloride via process and chemistry changes. While the companies' evaluations of potential work environment impacts of substitutes were not extensive, and in two cases new potential hazards were introduced, the overall impact of the source reduction strategy was deemed beneficial, both from a worker health and a production standpoint. Conclusion The findings from these four cases suggest that source reduction should be considered potentially feasible and effective for reducing or eliminating the potential hazards of methylene chloride exposure. Especially when faced with a hazard that is both an environmental and worker health concern, companies may chose to change their processes rather than rely on local exhaust ventilation equipment or personal protective equipment that might not be as

  10. Is there an industrial future for phytopharmaceutical drugs? An outline of UNIDO programmes in the sector.

    PubMed

    Wijesekera, R O

    1991-04-01

    Although a substantial proportion of the health-care expenditure of developing countries is spent on the acquisition of drugs, this is only sufficient to serve about a quarter of their population. Therefore it is inconceivable that WHO's goal of HEALTH FOR ALL by the year 2000 could even be approached without consideration being given to the role in health care systems of herbal medicines. In this endeavour, traditional herbal medicines must perforce be granted the benefits of modern science and technology to serve future global needs. Here we are addressing both a contigency situation as well as a long term one. In developing nations there is a dire need for an improved supply of therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases that are characteristic of deprivation and poverty. In addition herbal medicines promise to provide both concepts of therapy, as well as therapeutic agents in areas where modern medicine has few answers. UNIDO's programmes for technical assistance to developing nations aim at the fullest utilisation of traditional herbal-based pharmacopoeias in addressing both these situations. They have employed a multi-disciplinary approach to the industrial production of herbal medicines. The projects endeavour to utilise the natural flora, judiciously, for selection, domestication and crop-wise cultivation of medicinal plant species for industrial processing. National R & D efforts have been strengthened to include the development of expertise in several areas such as instrumental analyses, biological assessment of raw materials as well as products. Process technology development has received special attention. A versatile poly-functional pilot plant has been developed to enable the production of herbal preparations as well as extracts and phytochemicals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Glass Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Masanet, Eric; Graus, Wina

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. glass industry is comprised of four primary industry segments--flat glass, container glass, specialty glass, and fiberglass--which together consume $1.6 billion in energy annually. On average, energy costs in the U.S. glass industry account for around 14 percent of total glass production costs. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There is a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. glass industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. glass industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in glass manufacturing. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in glass production facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. glass industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures--as well on as their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  12. The insurance and risk management industries: new players in thedelivery of energy-efficient and renewable energy products andservices

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2001-11-26

    The insurance industry is typically considered to have little concern about energy issues. However, the historical involvement by insurers and allied industries in the development and deployment of familiar loss-prevention technologies such as automobile air bags, fire prevention/suppression systems, and anti-theft devices, shows that this industry has a tradition of utilizing technology to improve safety and otherwise reduce the likelihood of losses for which they would otherwise have to pay. Through an examination of the connection between risk management and energy efficiency, we have identified nearly 80 examples of energy-efficient and renewable energy technologies that offer''loss-prevention'' benefits, and have mapped these opportunities onto the appropriate segments of the very diverse insurance sector (life, health,property, liability, business interruption, etc.). Some insurers and risk managers are beginning to recognize these previously un-noticed benefits.This paper presents the business case for insurer involvement in energy efficiency and documents case studies of insurer efforts along these lines. We review steps taken by 52 forward-looking insurers and reinsurers, 5 brokers, and 7 insurance organizations, and 13non-insurance organizations in the energy-efficiency arena. The approaches can be grouped into the categories of: information, education,and demonstration; financial incentives; specialized policies and products; direct investment to promote energy efficiency and renewables; value-added customer services and inspections; efficient codes,standards, and policies; research and development; and in-house energy management in insurer-owned properties. Specific examples include reduced premiums for architects and engineers who practice building commissioning(reduces risk of property loss and liability-related claims), insurer promotion of improved indoor air quality practices (mitigating life,health, and liability risks), and insurer promotion of

  13. Energy efficient engine pin fin and ceramic composite segmented liner combustor sector rig test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubiel, D. J.; Lohmann, R. P.; Tanrikut, S.; Morris, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored Energy Efficient Engine program, Pratt and Whitney has successfully completed a comprehensive test program using a 90-degree sector combustor rig that featured an advanced two-stage combustor with a succession of advanced segmented liners. Building on the successful characteristics of the first generation counter-parallel Finwall cooled segmented liner, design features of an improved performance metallic segmented liner were substantiated through representative high pressure and temperature testing in a combustor atmosphere. This second generation liner was substantially lighter and lower in cost than the predecessor configuration. The final test in this series provided an evaluation of ceramic composite liner segments in a representative combustor environment. It was demonstrated that the unique properties of ceramic composites, low density, high fracture toughness, and thermal fatigue resistance can be advantageously exploited in high temperature components. Overall, this Combustor Section Rig Test program has provided a firm basis for the design of advanced combustor liners.

  14. Instability in interacting dark sector: an appropriate holographic Ricci dark energy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Ramón; Hipólito-Ricaldi, W. S.; Videla, Nelson

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we investigate the consequences of phantom crossing considering the perturbative dynamics in models with interaction in their dark sector. By mean of a general study of gauge-invariant variables in comoving gauge, we relate the sources of instabilities in the structure formation process with the phantom crossing. In order to illustrate these relations and its consequences in more detail, we consider a specific case of an holographic dark energy interacting with dark matter. We find that in spite of the model is in excellent agreement with observational data at background level, however it is plagued of instabilities in its perturbative dynamics. We reconstruct the model in order to avoid these undesirable instabilities, and we show that this implies a modification of the concordance model at background. Also we find drastic changes on the parameters space in our model when instabilities are avoided.

  15. Mesoscale generation of available potential energy in the warm sector of an extratropical cyclone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.; Ruminski, M. G.; Starr, D. OC.

    1985-01-01

    The generation of available potential energy (APE) was evaluated in the warm sector of an extratropical cyclone containing intense convective activity. Mesoscale rawinsonde data from AVE-SESAME '79 was employed. Parametrization techniques were used for latent and sensible heating components, and variations for the Kuo scheme provided convective latent heat release. Radiative transfer models were used to obtain estimates of infrared and solar processes. The results indicated that solar heating was greater than IR cooling near midday. An extensive low-level cloud deck was the most radiatively active area. Negative generation of APE occurred during most of the period for the SESAME domain as a whole. The leading contributor was convective latent heating located primarily in regions of negative efficiency. Infrared cooling was the only component to consistently produce positive generation. Sensible heating provided an important sink of APE in the low levels during the afternoon.

  16. Development of an occupational illness and injury surveillance database for the electric energy sector.

    PubMed

    Yager, J W; Kelsh, M A; Zhao, K; Mrad, R

    2001-02-01

    Currently available occupational injury and illness data for electric energy companies provide only overall summary rates. Specific information about types of injury or illnesses, rates by occupational or work environments, and injury costs and severity are generally not readily available. Relevant data such as personnel and claims information are frequently not integrated into a comprehensive health and safety surveillance system suitable for epidemiologic and health and safety research purposes. Epidemiological methods are valuable for identifying key risk factors for work-related injuries and illnesses and assessing their magnitude, as well establishing priorities for health and safety research. Application of such methods can result in long-term reductions in injury and illness rates and their attendant costs. Aggregation of relevant health and safety data across companies improves statistical power for the assessment of rare (yet costly) injuries or illness or specific at-risk subgroups within the electric energy sector. A pilot occupational injury and illness database has been developed that can incorporate and standardize data across a spectrum of companies of differing sizes and configurations. In illustrative data analyses, injury trends were summarized by company size, occupation, and demographic factors, among others. Trends observed in these illustrative analyses were consistent with results previously reported in the epidemiological literature, however, results are considered preliminary pending development of the full database. This study shows that development of a standardized surveillance occupational injury and illness database across companies with different database configurations is feasible. This database will ultimately provide a stable and accurate occupational health and safety assessment tool not currently available for this sector.

  17. Thinking Globally: How ISO 50001 - Energy Management can make industrial energy efficiency standard practice

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Desai, Deann; Matteini, Marco; Meffert, William; Williams, Robert; Risser, Roland

    2009-08-01

    Industry utilizes very complex systems, consisting of equipment and their human interface, which are organized to meet the production needs of the business. Effective and sustainable energy efficiency programs in an industrial setting require a systems approach to optimize the integrated whole while meeting primary business requirements. Companies that treat energy as a manageable resource and integrate their energy program into their management practices have an organizational context to continually seek opportunities for optimizing their energy use. The purpose of an energy management system standard is to provide guidance for industrial and commercial facilities to integrate energy efficiency into their management practices, including fine-tuning production processes and improving the energy efficiency of industrial systems. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has identified energy management as one of its top five priorities for standards development. The new ISO 50001 will establish an international framework for industrial, commercial, or institutional facilities, or entire companies, to manage their energy, including procurement and use. This standard is expected to achieve major, long-term increases in energy efficiency (20percent or more) in industrial, commercial, and institutional facilities and to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide.This paper describes the impetus for the international standard, its purpose, scope and significance, and development progress to date. A comparative overview of existing energy management standards is provided, as well as a discussion of capacity-building needs for skilled individuals to assist organizations in adopting the standard. Finally, opportunities and challenges are presented for implementing ISO 50001 in emerging economies and developing countries.

  18. Electric Power Interruption Cost Estimates for Individual Industries, Sectors, and U.S. Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; DeSteese, John G.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2002-02-27

    During the last 20 years, utilities and researchers have begun to understand the value in the collection and analysis of interruption cost data. The continued investigation of the monetary impact of power outages will facilitate the advancement of the analytical methods used to measure the costs and benefits from the perspective of the energy consumer. More in-depth analysis may be warranted because of the privatization and deregulation of power utilities, price instability in certain regions of the U.S. and the continued evolution of alternative auxiliary power systems.

  19. System Assessment Standards: Defining the Market for Industrial Energy Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, Paul; McKane, Aimee; Tutterow, Vestal; Crane, Ryan

    2009-08-01

    Improved efficiency of industrial systems (e.g., compressed air or steam) contributes to a manufacturing facility?s bottom line, improves reliability, and better utilizes assets. Despite these advantages, many industrial facilities continue to have unrealized system optimization potential. A barrier to realizing this potential is the lack of market definition for system energy efficiency assessment services, creating problems for both service providers in establishing market value for their services and for consumers in determining the relative quality of these system assessment services. On August 19, 2008, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) issued four new draft Standards for trial use that are designed to raise the bar and define the market for these services. These draft Standards set the requirements for conducting an energy assessment at an industrial facility for four different system types: compressed air, process heating, pumping, and steam. The Standards address topics such as organizing and conducting assessments; analyzing the data collected; and reporting and documentation. This paper addresses both the issues and challenges in developing the Standards and the accompanying Guidance Documents, as well as the result of field testing by industrial facilities, consultants, and utilities during the trial use period that ended in January, 2009. These Standards will be revised and released by ASME for public review, and subsequently submitted for approval as American National Standards for publication in late 2009. Plans for a related activity to establish a professional-level program to certify practitioners in the area of system assessments, opportunities to integrate the ASME Standards with related work on industrial energy efficiency, as well as plans to expand the system assessment Standard portfolio are also discussed.

  20. Policy Options for Encouraging Energy Efficiency Best Practices in Shandong Province's Cement Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Lu, Hongyou; Sambeek, Emiel van; Yowargana, Ping; Shuang, Liu; Kejun, Jiang

    2012-07-12

    This research intends to explore possible design options for a sectoral approach in the cement sector in Shandong Province and to consider its respective advantages and disadvantages for future application. An effort has been made in this research to gather and analyze data that will provide a transparent and robust basis for development of a Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario, maximum technology potential scenario, and ultimately a sector crediting baseline. Surveys among cement companies and discussions with stakeholders were also conducted in order to better understand the industry and local needs related to the sectoral approach.